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Sample records for bearing ehrlich ascites

  1. The antitumor effects of tetrodotoxin and/or doxorubicin on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing female mice.

    PubMed

    El-Dayem, Samiha M Abd; Fouda, Fatma M; Ali, Elham H A; Motelp, Bosy A Abd El

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or doxorubicin (DOX) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice through the investigated biochemical parameters. TTX and/or DOX with or without N-acetylcystiene were administrated after 10 days into EAC-female mice for a period of 2 weeks in six equal doses. Treatment with TTX or DOX caused a significant decrease in the mean tumor weight and an increase in the cumulative mean survival time when compared with EAC group. All the treatments reduced the elevated liver tumor markers and increased liver antioxidant enzymes under investigation in comparison with EAC. Hepatic cells, suffered severely from degeneration and karriolysis in EAC group, revealed some improvement as appearance of healthy hepatocytes by TTX treatment. The present results suggested that TTX had a more powerful inhibitor effect on EAC growth than DOX and TTX plus DOX treatments reflected by antitumor biochemical and histological studies.

  2. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor. PMID:9893164

  3. The glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose enhances the efficacy of etoposide in ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Seema; Mathur, Rohit; Dwarakanath, B S

    2005-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analogue and inhibitor of glycolytic ATP production significantly enhances the cytotoxic effects of anticancer agents like topoisomerase inhibitors (etoposide and camptothecin) and a radiomimetic drug (bleomycin) in established human tumor cell lines. Therefore, combination of 2-DG and DNA damage causing cytotoxic agents could be very useful in enhancing local tumor control. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the therapeutic effects of etoposide and 2-DG in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing mice, grown as solid tumor as well as in the ascites form. Cell growth, cell cycle perturbations (flow cytometry), cytogenetic damage (micronuclei assay) and apoptosis (DNA content, morphological changes) were studied as parameters of cellular response, while delay in tumor growth and cure rate (tumor free survival) were evaluated as parameters of systemic response. Body weight and general condition as well as the damage to bone marrow and spleen was monitored to evaluate normal tissue toxicity. Intraperitoneal administration of etoposide (30 mg/Kg b. wt.) resulted in significant tumor growth delay and cure (approximately 11%) only in subcutaneous tumors leading to local tumor control. When etoposide was combined with 2-DG (2 g/Kg b. wt.; i.v./i.p.; 4 h after etoposide injection), these effects were further enhanced resulting in a cure rate of approximately 22% in case of subcutaneous tumors and 20% in ascites bearing mice. Analysis of cells obtained from ascitic fluid as well as solid tumors during follow up clearly showed that etoposide induced cell death was mainly due to apoptosis, which was enhanced further by 2-DG. Although, there was a significant level of toxicity revealed by reduced animal survival, decrease in body weight and damage to sensitive organ status like spleen and bone marrow at 60 mg/Kg b. wt. of etoposide, it was not significant at 30 mg/Kg b.wt. 2-DG, however, did not

  4. Boswellic acid disables signal transduction of IL-6-STAT-3 in Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Enas Mahmoud; Thabet, Noura Magdy; Azab, Khaled Shaaban

    2016-08-01

    Boswellic acid (BA) is known for its ability to trigger apoptosis as well as to inhibit angiogenesis in tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the effect of BA on the IL-6-STAT-3 signalling pathway in irradiated mice bearing solid tumors of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). For this, we administered BA (25 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), by intraperitoneal injection) to mice with EAC, and then exposed them to 4 Gy of gamma radiation. Data analyses of the results revealed a specific impact from BA on IL-6R mRNA and survivin mRNA in EACs and irradiated EAC-bearing mice. Also, significant improvements were observed in the protein expression of JAK-1, P-JAK-1, STAT-3, P-STAT-3, and caspase-3, as well as VEGF and IL-6 levels. We propose that BA interfered with IL-6-STAT-3 signal transduction, thereby preventing the activation of caspase-3 and subsequently triggering the process of apoptosis. However, the alternative angiogenesis pathway, which includes the over-expression of VEGF and which depends on IL-6-STAT-3 signalling, was inhibited by the action of BA. Thus, we recommend that therapeutic strategies for cancer should include treatment with BA.

  5. Effect of Alstonia scholaris in enhancing the anticancer activity of berberine in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2004-01-01

    The chemomodulatory activity of Alstonia scholaris extract (ASE) was studied in combination with berberine hydrochloride (BCL), a topoisomerase inhibitor, in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor-bearing animals were injected with various doses of ASE, and 8 mg/kg of BCL (one-fifth of the 50% lethal dose) was combined with different doses of ASE (60-240 mg/kg). The combination of 180 mg/kg of ASE with 8 mg/kg of BCL showed the greatest antitumor effect; the number of tumor-free survivors was more, and the median survival time and the average survival time increased up to 47 and 40.5 days, respectively, when compared with either treatment alone. Similarly, when 180 mg/kg of ASE was combined with different doses of BCL (2-12 mg/kg), a dose-dependent increase in the anticancer activity was observed up to 8 mg/kg of BCL. However, a further increase in the BCL dose to 10 and 12 mg/kg resulted in toxic side effects. The best effect was observed when 180 mg/kg of ASE was combined with 6 or 8 mg/kg of BCL, where an increase in the antineoplastic activity was reported. The efficacy of the combination of 180 mg/kg of ASE was also tested with 6 mg/kg body weight of BCL in various stages of tumorigenesis, and it was effective when given in the early stages, although the efficiency decreased with an increase in the tumor developmental stages.

  6. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90

  7. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Bodipati, Naganjaneyulu; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-15

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC{sub 50}=25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC{sub 50}=65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene.

  8. Olmesartan Potentiates the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Sorafenib in Mice Bearing Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma: Role of Angiotensin (1–7)

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alhaseeb, Mohammad M.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Moustafa, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Local renin-angiotensin systems exist in various malignant tumor tissues; this suggests that the main effector peptide, angiotensin II, could act as a key factor in tumor growth. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-angiogenic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers need to be further evaluated. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of olmesartan alone or in combination with sorafenib, an angiotensin (1–7) agonist or an angiotensin (1–7) antagonist in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor was induced by intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into mice. Tumor discs were used to evaluate the microvessel density; the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I); and their intratumoral receptors, VEGF receptor-2 and IGF-I receptor, respectively. All parameters were determined following the treatment course, which lasted for 21 days post-inoculation. Monotherapy with olmesartan and its combination with sorafenib resulted in a significant reduction in microvessel density and serum levels of VEGF and IGF-I, as well as their intratumoral receptors. In addition, the combination of olmesartan (30 mg/kg) with an angiotensin (1–7) agonist reduced the microvessel density, IGF-I serum levels and the levels of its intratumoral receptor. In conclusion, olmesartan reduced the levels of the angiogenesis markers IGF-I and VEGF and down-regulated the intratumoral expression of their receptors in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were dependent on the angiotensin (1–7) receptor. These results suggest that olmesartan is a promising adjuvant to sorafenib in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24465768

  9. PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhulika; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Mishra, Sanjay; Kumar, Pradeep; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-01-01

    The clinical success of the applicability of tea polyphenols awaits efficient systemic delivery and bioavailability. Herein, following the concept of nanochemoprevention, which uses nanotechnology for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, we employed tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in a biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with approximately 26% and 18% encapsulation efficiency, respectively. It was observed that TF/EGCG encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) offered an up to ~7-fold dose advantage when compared with bulk TF/EGCG in terms of exerting its antiproliferative effects and also enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin (CDDP) in A549 (lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TF/EGCG-NPs were more efficient than bulk TF/EGCG in sensitizing A549 cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis, with a dose advantage of up to 20-fold. Further, TF/EGCG-NPs, alone or in combination with CDDP, were more effective in inhibiting NF-κB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor, involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, respectively. EGCG and TF-NPs were also found to be more effective than bulk TF/EGCG in inducing the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Further, in vivo evaluation of these NPs in combination with CDDP showed an increase in life span (P<0.05) in mice bearing Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells, with apparent regression of tumor volume in comparison with mice treated with bulk doses with CDDP. These results indicate that EGCG and TF-NPs have superior cancer chemosensitization activity when compared with bulk TF/EGCG.

  10. PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhulika; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Mishra, Sanjay; Kumar, Pradeep; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-01-01

    The clinical success of the applicability of tea polyphenols awaits efficient systemic delivery and bioavailability. Herein, following the concept of nanochemoprevention, which uses nanotechnology for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, we employed tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in a biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with approximately 26% and 18% encapsulation efficiency, respectively. It was observed that TF/EGCG encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) offered an up to ~7-fold dose advantage when compared with bulk TF/EGCG in terms of exerting its antiproliferative effects and also enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin (CDDP) in A549 (lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TF/EGCG-NPs were more efficient than bulk TF/EGCG in sensitizing A549 cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis, with a dose advantage of up to 20-fold. Further, TF/EGCG-NPs, alone or in combination with CDDP, were more effective in inhibiting NF-κB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor, involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, respectively. EGCG and TF-NPs were also found to be more effective than bulk TF/EGCG in inducing the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Further, in vivo evaluation of these NPs in combination with CDDP showed an increase in life span (P<0.05) in mice bearing Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells, with apparent regression of tumor volume in comparison with mice treated with bulk doses with CDDP. These results indicate that EGCG and TF-NPs have superior cancer chemosensitization activity when compared with bulk TF/EGCG. PMID:26586942

  11. Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Flávia R F; Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2006-04-25

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides.

  12. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; Latorre, Andreia Oliveira; Zaidan-Dagli, Maria Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the antiproliferative effect of P. cupana treatment in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)-bearing animals. Female mice were treated with three doses of powdered P. cupana (100, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 7 days, injected with 10(5) EAC cells and treated up to day 21. In addition, a survival experiment was carried out with the same protocol. P. cupana decreased the ascites volume (p = 0.0120), cell number (p = 0.0004) and hemorrhage (p = 0.0054). This occurred through a G1-phase arrest (p < 0.01) induced by a decreased gene expression of Cyclin D1 in EAC cells. Furthermore, P. cupana significantly increased the survival of EAC-bearing animals (p = 0.0012). In conclusion, the P. cupana growth control effect in this model was correlated with a decreased expression of cyclin D1 and a G1 phase arrest. These results reinforce the cancer therapeutic potential of this Brazilian plant.

  13. [Energy metabolism of Ehrlich ascites cancer cells].

    PubMed

    del Pozo, A M; Valladares, Y; Alvarez Rodríguez, Y

    1983-01-01

    Cell respiration (CR) and glycolysis (GL) are the main sources cell energy, since along their metabolic pathways ATP is produced. Expressed as microM/100 mg/h, normal cells produce 63 by CR, 0.2 by aerobic GL, and 9.37 by anaerobic GL, while cancer cells produce 35 by CR, 18 by aerobic GL, and 29 by anaerobic GL. The ascites fluid from EAC increases the anaerobic GL to 38, while it does not change the aerobic GL to 7 and diminishes the CR to 26. Insulin produces a lowering of CR to 26, aerobic GL to 26 and anaerobic GL to 22. Glucose inhibits CR and stimulates GL. Ribose does not modify CR and inhibits GL. Mannose inhibits both CR and GL. Ribonuclease increases GL in the presence of glucose but not of ribose. Glucose-phosphate and ribose-phosphate have no action because they do not enter into the cell. Expressed as QLN2/100 mg, the main localization of GL is the cytosol (480), but it is significant in the nucleus (170), and diminishes in microsomes (100) and mitochondria (52). Mitochondria inhibit the cytosol glycolytic activity when they are either in the usual proportion they have in the cell or in a higher proportion. It is curious the observation that a diminution of the relative concentration of mitochondria with regard to cytosol (1/100 to 1/1000) produces a marked increase of GL. The addition of nuclear fraction stabilizes the cytosol-mitochondria complex and modifies the metabolic pathway of the CO2 that is produced during the GL.

  14. PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhulika; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Mishra, Sanjay; Kumar, Pradeep; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-01-01

    The clinical success of the applicability of tea polyphenols awaits efficient systemic delivery and bioavailability. Herein, following the concept of nanochemoprevention, which uses nanotechnology for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, we employed tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in a biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with approximately 26% and 18% encapsulation efficiency, respectively. It was observed that TF/EGCG encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) offered an up to ~7-fold dose advantage when compared with bulk TF/EGCG in terms of exerting its antiproliferative effects and also enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin (CDDP) in A549 (lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TF/EGCG-NPs were more efficient than bulk TF/EGCG in sensitizing A549 cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis, with a dose advantage of up to 20-fold. Further, TF/EGCG-NPs, alone or in combination with CDDP, were more effective in inhibiting NF-κB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor, involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, respectively. EGCG and TF-NPs were also found to be more effective than bulk TF/EGCG in inducing the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Further, in vivo evaluation of these NPs in combination with CDDP showed an increase in life span (P<0.05) in mice bearing Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma cells, with apparent regression of tumor volume in comparison with mice treated with bulk doses with CDDP. These results indicate that EGCG and TF-NPs have superior cancer chemosensitization activity when compared with bulk TF/EGCG. PMID:26586942

  15. Chronobiological organization of reproduction of Ehrlich's ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Qu, A.; Stepanenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The rhythms of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis were studied in a hypotetraploid strain of Ehrlich's ascites tumor (EAT) and compared with data obtained previously on the hyperdiploid strain of EAT. Eighty-five noninbred male albino mice were used. An injection of tritium-thymidine, with specific radioactivity of 4.1 Ci/mmole, was given to the mice one hour before sacrifice. The results obtained are presented; it is shown that the number of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypotetraploid strain during the 5th and 6th days of growth of EAT was 503 and 479 /sup 0//00, respectively. Fluctuations of the radioactive index during these days were not significant. Only a significant fall in the radioactive index toward noon on the seventh day of development of the hypotetraploid strain of EAT was observed.

  16. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids.

  17. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  18. Antitumor Properties of Modified Detonation Nanodiamonds and Sorbed Doxorubicin on the Model of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N N; Zhukov, E L; Inzhevatkin, E V; Bezzabotnov, V E

    2016-01-01

    We studied antitumor properties of modified detonation nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin on in vivo model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The type of tumor development and morphological characteristics of the liver, kidneys, and spleen were evaluated in experimental animals. Modified nanodiamonds injected intraperitoneally produced no antitumor effect on Ehrlich carcinoma. However, doxorubicin did not lose antitumor activity after sorption on modified nanodiamonds. PMID:26742746

  19. Enhancement of doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by hyperthermia in Ehrlich ascites cells.

    PubMed

    al-Shabanah, O A; Osman, A M; al-Harbi, M M; al-Gharably, N M; al-Bekairi, A M

    1994-01-01

    Hyperthermia (HPT) at 43 degrees C for 30 min increased the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin against the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. There was more delay in tumor growth with 89% inhibition in the tumor volume and 90% increase in the survival of the tumor-bearing animals compared to control group. Combination of HPT with doxorubicin showed a more pronounced inhibitory effect on tumor content of DNA, RNA, protein, cholesterol, total lipid and acid phosphatase activity. HPT did not significantly affect the doxorubicin uptake into tumor cells, but it has some inhibitory effect on some vital components. Along with other results, our data suggest the benefit of using HPT to enhance the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin with a consequent reduction of doxorubicin dose and hence a decrease of its serious side effects. PMID:8205937

  20. Antiproliferative and hepatoprotective activity of metabolites from Corynebacterium xerosis against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Ghosh, Soby; Khanam, Jahan Ara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the effective anticancer drugs from bacterial products, petroleum ether extract of Corynebacterium xerosis. Methods Antiproliferative activity of the metabolite has been measured by monitoring the parameters like tumor weight measurement, tumor cell growth inhibition in mice and survival time of tumor bearing mice, etc. Hepatoprotective effect of the metabolites was determined by observing biochemical, hematological parameters. Results It has been found that the petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite significantly decrease cell growth (78.58%; P<0.01), tumor weight (36.04 %; P<0.01) and increase the life span of tumor bearing mice (69.23%; P<0.01) at dose 100 mg/kg (i.p.) in comparison to those of untreated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The metabolite also alters the depleted hematological parameters like red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin (Hb%), etc. towards normal in tumor bearing mice. Metabolite show no adverse effect on liver functions regarding blood glucose, serum alkaline phosphatases, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity and serum billirubin, etc. in normal mice. Histopathological observation of these mice organ does not show any toxic effect on cellular structure. But in the case of EAC bearing untreated mice these hematological and biochemical parameters deteriorate extremely with time whereas petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite receiving EAC bearing mice nullified the toxicity induced by EAC cells. Conclusion Study results reveal that metabolite possesses significant antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effect against EAC cells. PMID:25183099

  1. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  2. Antineoplasic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus Amboinicus in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandao, Eduardo M.; Brandão, Paulo H. D. M.; Souza, Ivone A.; Paiva, Gerson S.; de C. Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  3. Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. Methods We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Results Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Conclusion Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract. PMID:24274337

  4. Metabolic changes in the liver of mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Inzhevatkin, E V; Savchenko, A A

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of NADP-dependent dehydrogenase activity and malonic dialdehyde content in the liver were studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Tumor growth was accompanied by the development of conditions for an increase in the intensity of energy metabolism and amphibolic role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in LPO activation in liver cells. PMID:25342485

  5. Metabolic changes in the liver of mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Inzhevatkin, E V; Savchenko, A A

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of NADP-dependent dehydrogenase activity and malonic dialdehyde content in the liver were studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Tumor growth was accompanied by the development of conditions for an increase in the intensity of energy metabolism and amphibolic role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in LPO activation in liver cells.

  6. Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Naitik B.; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 106 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm2) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity. PMID:24130380

  7. Synergism between propolis and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin on ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Oršolić, Nada; Car, Nikola; Lisičić, Duje; Benković, Vesna; Knežević, Anica Horvat; Dikić, Domagoj; Petrik, József

    2013-12-01

    We investigated antitumor, genotoxic, chemopreventive, and immunostimulative effects of local chemoimmunotherapy and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in a mouse-bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). Mice were treated with water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) , 7 and 3 days before implantation of EAT cells, whereas cisplatin (5 or 10 mg kg(-1) ) was injected 3 days after implantation of EAT cells at 37°C and 43°C. The following variables were analyzed: the total number of cells, differential count of the cells present in the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages, comet assay, and micronucleus assay. The combination of WSDP + CIS 5 mg kg(-1) at 37°C resulted in tumor growth inhibition and increased the survival of mice by additional 115.25%. WSDP with HIPEC increased the survival of mice by additional 160.3% as compared with HIPEC. WSDP reduced cisplatin toxic and genotoxic effect to normal cells without affecting cisplatin cytotoxicity on EAT cells. In addition, WSDP with HIPEC increased the cytotoxic actions of macrophages to tumor cells. Water-soluble derivative of propolis increases macrophage activity and sensitivity of tumor cells to HIPEC and reduces cisplatin toxicity to normal cells.

  8. Antitumour activity of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stellaa; Narayanan, N; Raj Kapoor, B

    2011-04-01

    The antitumour activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf (PCL) and stem bark (PCB) of Prosopis cineraria (L.) in Swiss albino mice was evaluated against an Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumour model. The activity was assessed using survival time, peritoneal cells, haematological studies, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, solid tumour mass and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCL and PCB were found to be potent and possessed significant cytotoxicity towards EAC tumour cells.

  9. The proton stoichiometry of electron transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1979-06-10

    Initial rate measurements of the stoichiometric relationships between H+ ejection, K+ and Ca2+ uptake, and electron transport were carried out on mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells grown in mice. With succinate as substrate and N-ethylmaleimide to prevent interfering H+ reuptake via the phosphate carrier, close to 8 H+ were ejected per oxygen atom reduced (H+/O ejection ratio = 8.0); with the NAD-linked substrates pyruvate or pyruvate + malate, the H+/O ejection ratio was close to 12. The average H+/site ratio (H+ ejected/2e-/energy-conserving site) was thus close to 4. The simultaneous uptake of charge-compensating cations, either K+ (in the presence of valinomycin) or Ca2+, was also measured, yielding average K+/site uptake ratios of very close to 4 and Ca2+/site ratios close to 2. It was also demonstrated that each calcium ion enters the respiring tumor mitochondria carrying two positive electric charges. These stoichiometric data observed in mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells thus are in complete agreement with similar data on normal rat liver and rat heart mitochondria and suggest that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport may be 4 generally. It was also observed that the rate of deltaH+ back-decay in anaerobic tumor mitochondria following oxygen pulses is some 6- to 8-fold greater than in rat liver mitochondria tested at equal amounts of mitochondrial protein.

  10. Production of oxygen free radicals by Ehrlich ascites tumour cells: effect of lipids

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Cletus J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187 and platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated the generation of oxygen free radicals (nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction) in Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells. PAF was effective at an optimal concentration of 4 μM, but was inhibited by BN 52021, a specific PAF antagonist. Lyso-PAF was ineffective. Inclusion of different lipids during incubation prior to the addition of PAF, resulted in the activation/inhibition of free radical generation. Among the phospholipids at a concentration of 50 μg/ml, the order of activation was phosphatidylserine > phosphatidylglycerol > phosphoinositides > phosphatidylinositol > phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylcholine was not effective, while sphingolipids were inhibitory. In addition, Ehrlich ascites tumour cells grown in mice under marginal vitamin A deficiency, showed an augmented production of free radicals compared to control cells. This was suppressed by exogenous addition of vitamin A or superoxide dismutase. These results suggest that membrane lipids and dietary factors like vitamin A probably function as physiological modulators in regulating the free radical generation. PMID:18475503

  11. In vivo antitumoral effect of Plantago major L. extract on Balb/C mouse with Ehrlich ascites tumor.

    PubMed

    Ozaslan, Mehmet; Didem Karagöz, I; Kalender, M Emin; Kilic, I Halil; Sari, Ibrahim; Karagöz, Alper

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of Plantago major L. extract in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing Balb/C mice in vivo. Thirty male Balb/C mice were divided into 5 groups: 3 treatment groups and 2 control groups (6 per group). Treatment groups and the negative control group were injected with EAT (1 x 10(6) cells) intraperitoneally to develop ascites tumor. P. major L. extract (1%, 2% and 3% concentration extracts, 0.1 ml/day/mouse) were given p.o. for 10 alternate days. The control group was treated with 0.9% NaCl solution (0.1 ml/day/mouse). The changes of body weight in animals were recorded. On the 11th day, all of the mice were sacrified and their tissues were stained with haematoxylen and eosin for pathological studies. Body weights of in 3 treatment groups and the negative control group were elevated because of tumor burden. The maximal weight gain was recorded in the negative control group and the minimal weight gain was recorded in Group I. Pathological studies showed that P. major L. extract (especially 1% concentration) has inhibitive effect on EAT. P. major has an inhibitory effect on EAT in a dose dependent manner.

  12. Mechanism of potentiation of endosulfan cytotoxicity by thiram in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Shivanandappa, T

    2010-02-01

    Cytotoxicity of the two pesticides, thiram and endosulfan, have been studied in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Thiram cytotoxicity was much lower than that of endosulfan with LC(50) (1h exposure) of 4.02 and 1.12mM, respectively. The cytotoxic action of the pesticides on the cells were characterised by glutathione depletion, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cell death induced by the pesticides was of necrotic type as confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. At non-cytotoxic concentration, thiram potentiated the cytotoxicity of endosulfan when cells were exposed to a mixture of both chemicals. The mechanisms involved in the potentiation of cytotoxicity include excessive glutathione depletion and induction ROS which were higher than the additive effects of individual chemicals. The study demonstrates the importance of pesticide interactions in toxicity risk assessment.

  13. Effects of intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, S.S.; Ford, E.H.; Alfieri, A.A.; Bravo, S. )

    1989-11-01

    Intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), saline solution, and oil suspension was investigated using Ehrlich ascites tumors in the thighs of mice. The oil suspension was more effective in tumor growth delay than was the saline solution. Single injection of the oil suspension at the dose of 12.5 microCi resulted in 21.5 days growth delay, whereas 50 microCi of the saline solution resulted in 11.5 days growth delay relative to control growth delay. At 40 days after treatment, higher radioactivities were observed in the tumor and the skin of the mice treated with the oil suspension, which represented the prolongation of I-125 IUdR oil suspension within the tumor. No normal tissue toxicities were observed.

  14. Chronobiological characteristics of the action of thyroxine of reproduction of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, V.A.; Romanov, Y.A.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the action of thyroxine on cell proliferation in a hyperdiploid strain of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor (EAT) depending on clock time. Five albino mice were given an injection of tritium-thymidine in a dose of 0.5 u Ci/g body weight (specific radioactivity 4.1 Ci/mmole) one hour before sacrifice. On autoradiographs from each animal, during examination of 3000-5000 cells, the number of dividing and DNA-synthesizing cells was counted and mitotic index and radioactive index were calculated and expressed in promille. Parameters method and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by the Fisher-Student method. Differences were considered significant at the P less than 0.05 level.

  15. Modulation of Cytokines Production by Indomethacin Acute Dose during the Evolution of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Luciana Boffoni; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Massoco, Cristina de Oliveira; Fecchio, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a nonselective COX1/COX2 inhibitor (indomethacin) on tumor growth of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) in mice, using as parameters the tumor growth and cytokine profile. Mice were inoculated with EAT cells and treated with indomethacin. After 1, 3, 6, 10, and 13 days the animals were evaluated for the secretion of TNFα, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13 and PGE2 level in peritoneal cavity. The results have shown that EAT induces PGE2 production and increases tumor cells number from the 10th day. The cytokine profile showed EAT induces production of IL-6 from 10th day and of IL-2 on 13th day; the other studied cytokines were not affected in a significant way. The indomethacin treatment of EAT-bearing mice inhibited the tumor growth and PGE2 synthesis from the 10th day. In addition, the treatment of EAT-bearing mice with indomethacin has stimulated the IL-13 production and has significantly inhibited IL-6 in the 13th day of tumor growth. Taken together, the results have demonstrated that EAT growth is modulated by PGE2 and the inhibition of the tumor growth could be partly related to suppression of IL-6 and induction of IL-13. PMID:26347589

  16. The membrane potential of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells microelectrode measurements and their critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lassen, U V; Nielsen, A M; Pape, L; Simonsen, L O

    1971-12-01

    Intracellular potentials were measured, using a piezoelectric electromechanical transducer to impale Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with capillary microelectrodes. In sodium Ringer's, the potential immediately after the penetration was -24±7 mV, and decayed to a stable value of about -8 mV within a few msec. The peak potentials disappeared in potassium Ringer's and reappeared immediately after resuspension in sodium. Ringer's, whereas the stable potentials were only slightly influenced by the change of medium. The peak potential is in good agreement with the Nernst potential for chloride. This is also the case when cell sodium and potassium have been changed by addition of ouabain. It is concluded that the peak potentials represent the membrane potential of the unperturbed cell, and that chloride is in electrochemical equilibrium across the cell membrane.The membrane potential of about -11 mV previously reported corresponds to the stable potential in this study, and is considered as a junction potential between damaged cells and their environment. Similar potential differences were recorded between a homogenate of cells and Ringer's.The apparent membrane resistance of Ehrlich cells was about 70 Ωcm(2). This is two orders of magnitude less than the value calculated from(36)Cl fluxes, and may, in part, represent a leak in the cell membrane.For comparison, the influence of an eventual leak on measurements in red cells and mitochondria is discussed.

  17. The effect of calcium ions on the glycolytic activity of Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Bygrave, F. L.

    1966-01-01

    1. Added Ca2+ inhibited lactate formation from sugar phosphates by intact Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. Lactate formation from glucose by these cells was unaffected by added Ca2+. 2. The Ca2+ inhibition of lactate formation by intact cells occurred in the extracellular medium. 3. Intact ascites-tumour cells did not take up Ca2+ in vitro. 4. Glycolysis of sugar phosphates by cell extracts as well as pyruvate formation from 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate was inhibited by Ca2+. 5. It was concluded that Ca2+ inhibited the pyruvate-kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) reaction. Further, Ca2+ inhibition of pyruvate kinase could be correlated with the overall inhibition of glycolysis. 6. Concentrations of Ca2+ usually present in Krebs–Ringer buffers, inhibited glycolysis and pyruvate-kinase activity by approx. 50%. 7. The inhibition of glycolysis by added Ca2+ could be partially reversed by K+ and completely reversed by Mg2+ or by stoicheiometric amounts of EDTA. 8. The hypothesis is advanced that the inability of tumour cells to take up Ca2+ is a factor contributing towards their high rate of glycolysis. PMID:6007855

  18. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the Egyptian scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi venom in an Ehrlich ascites tumor model.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed L; Shoukry, Nahla M; Teleb, Wafaa K; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a highly complex mixture of about 100-700 different components, where peptides are the major constituents with various biological and pharmacological properties including anticancer activities. In this study, anticancer efficacy of the venom of the Egyptian scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi has been evaluated. In vitro, the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line was treated with the venom and the IC50 was estimated. In vivo studies, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells were inoculated into CD-1 mice intraperitoneally to form liquid tumor or subcutaneously to form solid tumor and then treated with intraperitoneal injection with venom (0.22 mg/kg) every other day. The total tumor cells in the ascitic fluid and the size of the solid tumor were assessed after 14 and 30 days, respectively. In addition, the mean survival time (MST), body weight, tumor volume, PCV, viability of tumor cells, CBC, AST, ALP, creatinine, oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, MDA, PCC), tumor marker Ki67, growth factor VEGF and caspase-3 were measured in normal control, EAC control and venom-treated groups (n = 6). Treatment with venom induced anti-tumor effects against liquid and in solid tumors as indicated by a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in tumor volume/size, count of viable EAC cells, expression of Ki67 and VEGF as well as by remarkable increases in MST and caspase-3 expression as compared to non-treated group. Interestingly, the venom restored the altered hematological and biochemical parameters of tumor-bearing animals and significantly increased their life span. These data indicate to (1) the cytotoxic potential effects of A. amoreuxi on tumor cells via anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic activities; (2) opening a new avenue for further studies on the anti-cancer effects of this agent. PMID:27247867

  19. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  20. THE ISOLATION OF LYSOSOMES FROM EHRLICH ASCITES TUMOR CELLS FOLLOWING PRETREATMENT OF MICE WITH TRITON WR-1339

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Agnes; Baxandall, Jane; Touster, Oscar

    1969-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining highly purified lysosomes from Ehrlich ascites tumo cells grown in mice injected with Triton WR-1339. The isolated particles show a high specific activity for aryl sulfatase, representing an 80–90-fold purification over the homogenate, and a 15–18% yield of the total enzyme activity. Mitochondrial and microsomal marker enzymes are present in negligible amounts (0.2% of the activity of the homogenate). The biochemical evidence for a rather high degree of homogeneity of the fraction is supported by the electron microscopic examination of the purified lysosomes. The intracellular localizations of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase in Ehrlich ascites cells are also reported, the first two being present in highest concentration in the combined mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction and the third in the microsomal fraction. PMID:5792335

  1. Immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera freyn and sint seeds on ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Shiwenhui, Chengyufeng; Abudureyimu, Meiliwan; Maimaitiyiming, Dilinuer

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera Freyn and Sint seeds (NGS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Kunming mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAC) were treated with NGS by oral administration. On the 11th day after the EAC implant, mouse thymus, liver, spleen and kidney tumors were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses. Results: The results indicate that NGS treatment leads to an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-2 blood serum levels. Absence of viable EAC and presence of necrotic cells were observed in the tumor tissue of the NGS-treated animals. Conclusions: The study results indicated that a water extract of NGS had the highest anti-tumor effect. Moreover, NGS treatment also showed an increase in the immune system activity. PMID:23929999

  2. Mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Choudhuri, T; Chattopadhyay, S; Bhattacharya, A; Datta, G K; Das, T; Sa, G

    2001-11-01

    Curcumin, the active ingredient from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. It has been recently demonstrated to possess discrete chemopreventive activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such anticancer properties of curcumin still remain unrealized, although it has been postulated that induction of apoptosis in cancer cells might be a probable explanation. In the current study, curcumin was found to decrease the Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell number by the induction of apoptosis in the tumor cells as evident from flow-cytometric analysis of cell cycle phase distribution of nuclear DNA and oligonucleosomal fragmentation. Probing further into the molecular signals leading to apoptosis of EAC cells, we observed that curcumin is causing tumor cell death by the up-regulation of the proto-oncoprotein Bax, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and activation of caspase-3. The status of Bcl-2 remains unchanged in EAC, which would signify that curcumin is bypassing the Bcl-2 checkpoint and overriding its protective effect on apoptosis. PMID:11676493

  3. Some Characteristics of DNA Synthesis and the Mitotic Cycle in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Joshua L.; Koch, Arthur L.; Youcis, Pauline; Freese, Herbert L.; Laite, Melville B.; Donalson, J. Thomas

    1960-01-01

    In vivo studies of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells during the first 5 days of growth in peritoneal cavities of mice consisted of the following: 1. Determination of growth curves by direct enumeration of cells. 2. Estimation of the duration of each phase of the mitotic cycle based on incidence of cells in different phases. 3. Radioautographic studies to determine the proportion of cells in different phases of the mitotic cycle that incorporate tritiated thymidine during a single brief exposure to this precursor of DNA. 4. Estimation of the rate of incorporation of tritiated thymidine at different times during the period of DNA synthesis by comparison of mean grain counts over nuclei in radioautographs at different times following exposure to tritiated thymidine. The assumptions underlying these experiments and our observations concerning the duration of the period of DNA synthesis and its relation to the mitotic cycle are discussed. It is concluded that DNA synthesis is continuous, occupying a period of 8.5 hours during the interphase and that the average rate of synthesis is approximately constant. PMID:13819420

  4. Mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of cape aloe extract in ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Saeda; Oikawa, Tomoko; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kennedy, David Opare; Norikura, Toshio; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2007-12-01

    Cape aloe (Aloe ferox Miller) has been a herb well known for its cathartic properties and has also been used popularly as a health drink (juice, tea and tonic) in the United States and in Europe. Cape aloe extract also has been reported to possess several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and protective effect against liver injury. However, the investigations on an anti-tumor activity in cape aloe extract are very few and subsequent mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of the selective growth inhibitory activity of cape aloe extract and found that the cape aloe extract, especially the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract, caused a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC), but not in mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells, which was used as a normal cell model. Furthermore, the CH(2)Cl(2) extract caused an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and inhibited DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, other results suggest that cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation in EATC by the CH(2)Cl(2 )extract are associated with decreased retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation.

  5. Cellular uptake of {sup 212}BiOCl by Ehrlich ascites cells: A dosimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, J.C.; Whitlock, J.L.; Harper, P.V.; Rotmensch, J.; Stinchcomb, T.G.; Schwartz, J.L.; Hines, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Bi-212 is an alpha-emitting radionuclide being investigated as a therapeutic agent in the intraperitoneal treatment of micrometastatic ovarian carcinoma. In evaluating a new therapeutic modality, cell-survival studies are often used as a means of quantifying the biological effects of radiation. In this analysis, Ehrlich ascites cells were irradiated under conditions similar to therapy in various concentrations of Bi-212. Immediately following irradiation, a cell survival assay was performed in which cells were plated and colonies were counted after 10--14 days. Both a macrodosimetric and a microdosimetric approach were used in analyzing these data. These models used as input the fraction of activity within the cell and in solution, the distribution of cell sizes, and the variation of LET along individual alpha-particle tracks. The results indicate that the energy deposited within the nucleus varies significantly among individual cells. There is a small fraction of cell nuclei which receive no hits, while the remaining cells receive energy depositions which can differ significantly from the mean value. These dosimetric parameters are correlated with measured cell survival and will be a useful predictor of outcome for therapeutic doses.

  6. Action of the antitumor and antispermatogenic agent lonidamine on electron transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Floridi, A; Lehninger, A L

    1983-10-01

    The effect of lonidamine, an antispermatogenic and antitumor drug, on the oxygen consumption, ATPase activity, and redox state of the electron carriers of Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria has been studied. Lonidamine inhibits ADP- and uncoupler-stimulated respiration on various NAD- and FAD-linked substrates, but does not affect state 4 respiration. Experiments to determine its site of action showed that lonidamine does not significantly inhibit electron flow through cytochrome oxidase. Electron flow through site 2, the ubiquinone-cytochrome b-cytochrome c1 complex, also was unaffected by lonidamine, which failed to inhibit the oxidation of duroquinol. Moreover, inhibition of electron flow through site 2 was also excluded because of the inability of the N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine bypass to relieve the lonidamine inhibition of the oxidation of pyruvate + malate. The F0F1ATPase activity and vectorial H+ ejection are also unaffected by lonidamine. The inhibition of succinate oxidation by lonidamine was found to take place at a point between succinate and iron-sulfur center S3. Spectroscopic experiments demonstrated that lonidamine inhibits the reduction of mitochondrial NAD+ by pyruvate + malate and other NAD-linked substrates in the transition from state 1 to state 4. However, lonidamine does not inhibit reduction of added NAD+ by submitochondrial vesicles or by soluble purified NAD-linked dehydrogenases. These observations, together with other evidence, suggest that electron transport in tumor mitochondria is inhibited by lonidamine at the dehydrogenase-coenzyme level, particularly when the electron carriers are in a relatively oxidized state and/or when the inner membrane-matrix compartment is in the condensed state. The action of lonidamine in several respects resembles the selective inhibition of electron transport in tumor cells produced by cytotoxic macrophages (D. L. Granger and A. L. Lehninger (1982) J. Cell Biol. 95, 527).

  7. Na+,Cl- cotransport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells activated during volume regulation (regulatory volume increase).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E K; Sjøholm, C; Simonsen, L O

    1983-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites cells were preincubated in hypotonic medium with subsequent restoration of tonicity. After the initial osmotic shrinkage the cells recovered their volume within 5 min with an associated KCl uptake. The volume recovery was inhibited when NO-3 was substituted for Cl-, and when Na+ was replaced by K+, or by choline (at 5 mM external K+). The volume recovery was strongly inhibited by furosemide and bumetanide, but essentially unaffected by DIDS. The net uptake of Cl- was much larger than the value predicted from the conductive Cl- permeability. The undirectional 36Cl flux, which was insensitive to bumetanide under steady-state conditions, was substantially increased during regulatory volume increase, and showed a large bumetanide-sensitive component. During volume recovery the Cl- flux ratio (influx/efflux) for the bumetanide-sensitive component was estimated at 1.85, compatible with a coupled uptake of Na+ and Cl-, or with an uptake via a K+,Na+,2Cl- cotransport system. The latter possibility is unlikely, however, because a net uptake of KCl was found even at low external K+, and because no K+ uptake was found in ouabain-poisoned cells. In the presence of ouabain a bumetanide-sensitive uptake during volume recovery of Na+ and Cl- in nearly equimolar amounts was demonstrated. It is proposed that the primary process during the regulatory volume increase is an activation of an otherwise quiescent, bumetanide-sensitive Na+,Cl- cotransport system with subsequent replacement of Na+ by K+ via the Na+/K+ pump, stimulated by the Na+ influx through the Na+,Cl- cotransport system. PMID:6100866

  8. Methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba induces apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Dolai, Narayan; Islam, Aminul; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Family: Rubiaceae), a folk medicine commonly known as “Kadam” in Bengali, has been used for the treatment of tumor. The methanolic extract of A. cadamba (MEAC) showing antitumor activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells treated mice was already reported. This study was designed to study the apoptosis-inducing property of MEAC and its mechanism in EAC cells in mice. Materials and Methods: Apoptogenic morphology was determined by fluorescent DNA-binding double staining method using dyes acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB). Comet assay was estimated to check the DNA damage. Flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS]) was used to detect the apoptotic rate quantitatively by double labeling techniques using annexin V FITC/propidium iodide staining. Apoptotic protein expression was done using Western blotting assay method. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test of GraphPad Prism software. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 were considered statistically significant. Results: Apoptosis-inducing effect of MEAC on EAC cells was confirmed from AO/EB staining and FACS analysis. MEAC treatment showed dose-dependent induction of DNA damage. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the expression of multiple downstream factors such as pro-apoptotic protein p53 and p21 in EAC. Bax was up-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated resulting in decrease of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio by MEAC treatment. Conclusion: Experimental results revealed that MEAC induces apoptosis by modulating the expression of some pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins in EAC and thus exerts its anti-tumor activity. PMID:27756959

  9. Inhibition of 5′-nucleotidase from Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells by nucleoside triphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Murray, A. W.; Friedrichs, Beverly

    1969-01-01

    1. 5′-Nucleotidase activity was obtained in a soluble form after treatment of a particulate fraction from Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells with deoxycholate. The relative rates of hydrolysis of 6-thioinosine 5′-phosphate, UMP, AMP, CMP, GMP, IMP, xanthosine monophosphate, thymidine monophosphate and 2′,3′-AMP were 180, 129, 100, 93, 83, 79, 46, 41 and 3 respectively. 2. Values found for the Michaelis constant were: AMP, 67±12μm; IMP, 111±8μm; GMP, 93μm. 3. ATP and thymidine triphosphate were competitive inhibitors of AMP hydrolysis (inhibitor constants 0·4 and 4·8μm respectively); UTP, GTP and CTP were mixed competitive and non-competitive inhibitors. Thymidine triphosphate was a competitive inhibitor of IMP hydrolysis (inhibitor constant 14·4μm) and ATP, UTP and GTP showed mixed competitive and non-competitive inhibition. 4. ATP, thymidine triphosphate, UTP, GTP and CTP did not completely inhibit hydrolysis of AMP, IMP and UMP; the concentrations of ATP required to inhibit AMP and IMP hydrolysis by 50% were 12 and 230μm respectively. 5. Non-hyperbolic curves relating activity to UMP concentration were obtained in the presence and absence of triphosphates. 6. After fractionation on Sephadex G-200 columns a single peak of 5′-nucleotidase activity (particle weight 120000–125000) was obtained with AMP, IMP and GMP as substrates. UMP hydrolysis was catalysed by enzyme in this peak and in two slower peaks corresponding to apparent particle weights of 32000 and 16000; a single component (particle weight 120000), reacting with UMP and insensitive to UTP inhibition, was obtained when the column was eluted with buffer containing 1mm-UMP. 7. The possible significance of the results in the regulation of tumour-cell 5′-nucleotidase is discussed. PMID:5775689

  10. Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, Isha; Kumar, Nitesh; Manjula, S N; Parihar, Vipan; Setty, M Manjunath; Pai, K S R

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the root nodules of Premna herbacea Roxb. (PH) was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Two extracts, aqueous and alcoholic; two fractions of alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were found to be the most effective in BSL assay, trypan blue exclusion assay. In vivo antitumor activity was screened in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model and the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model. The extracts and the fractions were tested at two dosages (250 and 500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneally (i.p.) route on every alternate day upto 13th day. Cisplatin was used as positive control in both studies in single dose (day 1) 3.5 mg/kg by i.p. route. In EAC model, ascites tumor was induced by inoculating 2.5 million of EAC cells i.p. alcoholic extract at 500 mg/kg was the most effective in elevating MST, reduction in body weight in EAC induced tumor. Only the effective extract i.e., alcoholic extract were studied for hematological and antioxidant parameter. It showed a restoring effect on altered hematological parameters and a significant improvement in biochemical parameters at 250 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract. These results explain the toxicity of 500 mg/kg might be high. In the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model, solid tumor was developed by i.m. injection of 1 million DLA cells. Both the extracts and the fractions possessed potent antitumor activity against solid tumor models by significantly reducing the solid tumor weight and volume. PMID:21920724

  11. Inhibition of Na-K-Cl cotransport in Ehrlich ascites cells by antiserum against purified proteins of the cotransporter

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, P.B. ); Jessen, F.; Hoffmann, E.K. )

    1990-09-01

    Two proteins were purified earlier from solubilized membranes of Ehrlich ascites cells by using a bumetanide-Sepharose affinity column. These proteins were proposed to be constituents of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter. However, the specificity of binding of bumetanide to the cotransporter was insufficient evidence for this proposal. The authors now have direct evidence that the purified protein contains components of the cotransporter. Antiserum raised against the bumetanide-binding proteins strongly inhibits Na-K-Cl cotransport measured by two independent methods. Cotransport was induced by hypertonic challenge and was measured as the bumetanide-sensitive portion of unidirectional Cl influx and as regulatory cell volume increase. In both assays, contransport was strongly inhibited by antiserum. Fab fragments of the antibodies inhibited cotransport to a similar extent.

  12. Cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Salau, Amadu Kayode; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Folkloric claims on the use of a mixture of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks in tumor management exist without scientific evidence. This study aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antiproliferative activity of these plants and their mixture. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extracts after which various concentrations (0 to 1 000 μg/ml) were incubated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines for 3 and 24 hours. Results: The extracts contained alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, phlobatannins, and terpenes. The separate extracts and their 1:1 mixture significantly (P<0.05) decreased the computed percentage viability of the cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conclusions: The antiproliferative activity may be due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the extracts and has a potential in the management of tumor. PMID:24014915

  13. Characterisation of a cell swelling-activated K+-selective conductance of Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else K; Jørgensen, Finn; Stutzin, Andrés; Sepúlveda, Francisco V

    2000-01-01

    The K+ and Cl− currents activated by hypotonic cell swelling were studied in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells using the whole-cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique. Currents were measured in the absence of added intracellular Ca2+ and with strong buffering of Ca2+. K+ current activated by cell swelling was measured as outward current at the Cl− equilibrium potential (ECl) under quasi-physiological gradients. It could be abolished by replacing extracellular Na+ with K+, thereby cancelling the driving force. Replacement with other cations suggested a selectivity sequence of K+ > Rb+ > NH4≈ Na+≈ Li+; Cs+ appeared to be inhibitory. The current-voltage relationship of the volume-sensitive K+ current was well fitted with the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz current equation between -130 and +20 mV with a permeability coefficient of around 10−6 cm s−1 with both physiological and high-K+ extracellular solutions. The class III antiarrhythmic drug clofilium blocked the volume-sensitive K+ current in a voltage-independent manner with an IC50 of 32 μM. Clofilium was also found to be a strong inhibitor of the regulatory volume decrease response of Ehrlich cells. Cell swelling-activated K+ currents of Ehrlich cells are voltage and calcium insensitive and are resistant to a range of K+ channel inhibitors. These characteristics are similar to those of the so-called background K+ channels. Noise analysis of whole-cell current was consistent with a unitary conductance of 5.5 pS for the single channels underlying the K+ current evoked by cell swelling, measured at 0 mV under a quasi-physiological K+ gradient. PMID:10790156

  14. Characteristics of the accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate derivatives in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.W.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    The intracellular synthesis and retention of polygammaglutamyl derivatives of methotrexate and their interactions with H/sub 2/ folate reductase was evaluated. Methotrexate polyglutamates were detected within 15 minutes in hepatocytes exposed to 1 microM methotrexate, and continued to accumulate for at least 60 minutes producing a large transmembrane gradient. These derivatives appeared to be preferentially retained within the cell. In studies with the Ehrlich ascites tumor accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates was increased over 5-fold by the addition of 5 mM L-glutamine or L-glutamate and exhibited a positive correlation with the extracellular concentration of methotrexate. When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were exposed to 10 microM methotrexate and 5 mM L-glutamine intracellular polyglutamates were detected within 10 minutes and their levels increased linearly over 4 hours. As these derivatives accumulated, there was a decline in intracellular methotrexate due at least in part to a replacement of methotrexate on H/sub 2/ folate reductase by polyglutamates and subsequent efflux of the previously bound methotrexate from the cell. When polyglutamate derivatives were in excess of the H/sub 2/ folate reductase binding capacity and extracellular methotrexate removed, methotrexate rapidly exited the cell whereas the majority of its metabolites were retained and eventually saturated the major portion of the enzyme. These studies indicate that (1) intracellular methotrexate is rapidly converted to polygammaglutamyl derivatives, (2) these metabolites effectively compete with methotrexate for binding sites on H/sub 2/ folate reductase, (3) these derivatives are retained within the cell more effectively than methotrexate, and (4) vincristine and probenecid may be potentially useful for selectively increasing methotrexate polyglutamates in tumor cells.

  15. Prooxidative effect of copper--metallothionein in the acute cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Suntres, Zacharias E; Lui, Edmund M K

    2006-01-16

    This study was concerned with the role of copper (Cu) and Cu-metallothionein (Cu-MT) in oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative injury was examined in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells isolated from host mice pretreated with 0, 1 or 2mg of CuSO(4) (ip) 24h earlier. Control Ehrlich cells contained low levels of Cu and Cu treatment produced dose-related increases in cellular Cu and Cu-MT levels and corresponding increases in sensitivity to oxidative toxicity of H(2)O(2) (LC(50), cell blebbing, lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)](i)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment also resulted in the oxidation of MT thiolates, reduction in the binding of Cu to MT resulting in translocation of Cu to other subcellular sites. d-penicillamine, a Cu-chelating agent, obliterated the sensitization effect of Cu-pretreatment and reduced the redistribution of MT-bound Cu, suggesting the participation of Cu ions derived from MT in promoting oxidant stress. Additional experiments with desferoxamine and mannitol have revealed the involvement of a Cu-dependent Fenton reaction in the mediation of the prooxidative effect of Cu-MT. These data suggest that cells with high levels of Cu-MT may be particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. PMID:16221516

  16. Ascites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver failure - ascites; Alcohol use - ascites; End-stage liver disease - ascites; ESLD - ascites ... can do to help take care of your liver disease are: Get vaccinated for diseases such as influenza, ...

  17. Effect of various doses of chalone-containing alcohol precipitate from Ehrlich's ascites tumor on mitotic activity and DNA synthesis in that tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsak, N.Ya.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Antokhin, A.I.

    1987-06-01

    Experiments were carried out on noninbred male albino mice to assess the effects of varying doses of chalone-containing alcohol precipitates on mitotic activity and DNA synthesis in Ehrlich ascites tumor. Histological preparations of the tumor and small intestine were made by standard methods. Hydrolysis of the tumor in HCl was carried out before application of the nuclear photographic emulsion in order to prepare autoradiographs of the tumor. Tritium-labelled thymidine was injected as the radioactive marker.

  18. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  19. Ultrastructural changes produced in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanins

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.J.; Pawlowski, A.; Persad, S.D.; Menon, I.A.; Haberman, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in the presence of pheomelanin, i.e., red hair melanin (RHM), has been reported to produce extensive cell lysis. Irradiation in the presence of eumelanin, i.e., black hair melanin (BHM), or irradiation in the absence of either type of melanin did not produce this effect. We observed that RHM particles penetrated the cell membrane without apparent structural damage to the cell or the cell membrane. Irradiation of the cells in the absence of melanin did not produce any changes in the ultrastructure of the cells. Incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM produced only minor structural, mainly cytoplasmic changes. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of RHM produced extensive ultrastructural changes prior to complete cell lysis; these changes were more severe than the effects of incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM. When the cells incubated in the dark or irradiated in the presence of latex particles or either one of the eumelanins particles, viz. BHM or synthetic dopa melanin, these particles did not penetrate into the cells or produce any ultrastructural changes. These particles were in fact not even ingested by the cells.

  20. Glucose uptake-stimulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem extracts in Ehrlich ascites tumor cell model system.

    PubMed

    Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans Veerayya

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifunctional disorder with several causes and multiple consequences. Nutraceuticals play a vital role in ameliorating diabetic condition. The stems of the plant, Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) are often used in Ayurvedic medicine for the management of diabetes. Earlier studies have shown that T. cordifolia to be a potent antidiabetic plant material by virtue of being rich in nutraceuticals. In the present study we were interested to know if, T. cordifolia stem extracts are able to promote glucose uptake through glucose transporters, 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3), which are responsible for basal glucose uptake. Hence, Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells were chosen as a model which harbours both GLUT1 and GLUT3 and glucose uptake was measured using a fluorescent analog 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG). Serially, solvent extracted T. cordifolia stems, especially water, ethanol and methanol extracts showed glucose uptake activity. Uptake was stimulated in a dose dependent manner at dosages of 1-100 μg. Glucose-stimulating activity does not seem to be solely due to polyphenol content since methanol extract, with high amount of polyphenol content (9.5 ± 0.1 g kg(-1)), did not stimulate higher glucose uptake activity when compared to water extract. PMID:24426067

  1. Transdermal Delivery of Adriamycin to Transplanted Ehrlich Ascites Tumor in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the skin as a site of anti-cancer drug application. Nevertheless, the skin poses a formidable barrier to drug penetration, thereby limiting topical and transdermal bioavailability. However, we previously showed that a thioglycolate-based depilatory agent increases the drug permeability of mouse skin. In the present report, we investigated the skin permeability and efficacy of the anti-cancer drug adriamycin increased when administered transdermally to mice in combination with a thioglycolate-based depilatory agent. Adriamycin in combination with depilatory treatment reduced Ehrlich tumor growth in hairless mice about the weight and size of harvested tumors. In addition, our delivery method for adriamycin increased the therapeutic effectiveness of this agent by decreasing toxicity. Moreover, measurement of adriamycin autofluorescence revealed that topically applied adriamycin penetrate the dermis after depilatory agent treatment. These results indicate that the transdermal delivery of anti-cancer drugs is feasible by handy pretreatment of the skin with a thioglycolate-based depilatory agent. PMID:24300512

  2. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Hougaard, Charlotte; Christophersen, Palle; Pedersen, Stine F; Hoffmann, Else K

    2007-03-01

    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored during cell cycle progression, under three conditions: (i) after osmotic swelling (i.e., VRAC), (ii) after an increase in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration (i.e., the Ca2+-activated Cl- current, CaCC), and (iii) under steady-state isotonic conditions. The maximal swelling-activated VRAC current decreased in G1 and increased in early S phase, compared to that in G0. The isotonic steady-state current, which seems to be predominantly VRAC, also decreased in G1, and increased again in early S phase, to a level similar to that in G0. In contrast, the maximal CaCC current (500 nM free Ca2+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle-dependent changes in the capacity for conductive Cl- transport. It is suggested that in ELA cells, entrance into the S phase requires an increase in VRAC activity and/or an increased potential for regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and at the same time a decrease in CaCC magnitude. PMID:17111356

  3. Solanum tuberosum lectin inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells growth by inducing apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Rahman, Md Musfikur; Amin, Ruhul; Karim, Md Rezaul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Hossain, M Tofazzal

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a lectin was purified from the potato cultivated in Bangladesh locally known as Sheel. In the present study cytotoxicity of the lectin against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was studied by MTT assay in vitro in RPMI-1640 medium and 8.0-36.0 % cell growth inhibition was observed at the range of 2.5-160 μg/ml protein concentration when incubated for 24 h. The lectin-induced apoptosis in EAC cells was confirmed by fluorescence and optical microscope. The apoptotic cell death was also confirmed by using caspase inhibitors. Cells growth inhibition caused by the lectin (36 %) was remarkably decreased to 7.6 and 22.3 % respectively in the presence of caspase-3 and -8 inhibitors. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-X, p53, and Bax. An intensive expression of Bcl-X gene was observed in untreated control EAC cells with the disappeared of the gene in Sheel-treated EAC cells. At the same time, Bax gene expression appeared only in Sheel-treated EAC cells and the expression level of the p53 gene was increased remarkable after the treatment of EAC cells with the lectin. The lectin showed strong agglutination activity against EAC cells. Flow cytometry was used to study the cell cycle phases of EAC cells and it was observed that the lectin arrested the G2/M phase. In conclusion, Sheel lectin inhibited EAC cells growth by inducing apoptosis. PMID:26733170

  4. Solanum tuberosum lectin inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells growth by inducing apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Rahman, Md Musfikur; Amin, Ruhul; Karim, Md Rezaul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Hossain, M Tofazzal

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a lectin was purified from the potato cultivated in Bangladesh locally known as Sheel. In the present study cytotoxicity of the lectin against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was studied by MTT assay in vitro in RPMI-1640 medium and 8.0-36.0 % cell growth inhibition was observed at the range of 2.5-160 μg/ml protein concentration when incubated for 24 h. The lectin-induced apoptosis in EAC cells was confirmed by fluorescence and optical microscope. The apoptotic cell death was also confirmed by using caspase inhibitors. Cells growth inhibition caused by the lectin (36 %) was remarkably decreased to 7.6 and 22.3 % respectively in the presence of caspase-3 and -8 inhibitors. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-X, p53, and Bax. An intensive expression of Bcl-X gene was observed in untreated control EAC cells with the disappeared of the gene in Sheel-treated EAC cells. At the same time, Bax gene expression appeared only in Sheel-treated EAC cells and the expression level of the p53 gene was increased remarkable after the treatment of EAC cells with the lectin. The lectin showed strong agglutination activity against EAC cells. Flow cytometry was used to study the cell cycle phases of EAC cells and it was observed that the lectin arrested the G2/M phase. In conclusion, Sheel lectin inhibited EAC cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

  5. Hyaluronic acid grafted PLGA copolymer nanoparticles enhance the targeted delivery of Bromelain in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-08-01

    Rapidly increasing malignant neoplastic disease demands immediate attention. Several dietary compounds have recently emerged as strong anti-cancerous agents. Among, Bromelain (BL), a protease from pineapple plant, was used to enhance its anti-cancerous efficacy using nanotechnology. In lieu of this, hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted PLGA copolymer, having tumor targeting ability, was developed. BL was encapsulated in copolymer to obtain BL-copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) that ranged between 140 to 281nm in size. NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in cells with high CD44 expression as compared with non-targeted NPs. In vivo results on tumor bearing mice showed that NPs were efficient in suppressing the tumor growth. Hence, the formulation could be used as a self-targeting drug delivery cargo for the remission of cancer. PMID:27287553

  6. Hyaluronic acid grafted PLGA copolymer nanoparticles enhance the targeted delivery of Bromelain in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-08-01

    Rapidly increasing malignant neoplastic disease demands immediate attention. Several dietary compounds have recently emerged as strong anti-cancerous agents. Among, Bromelain (BL), a protease from pineapple plant, was used to enhance its anti-cancerous efficacy using nanotechnology. In lieu of this, hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted PLGA copolymer, having tumor targeting ability, was developed. BL was encapsulated in copolymer to obtain BL-copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) that ranged between 140 to 281nm in size. NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in cells with high CD44 expression as compared with non-targeted NPs. In vivo results on tumor bearing mice showed that NPs were efficient in suppressing the tumor growth. Hence, the formulation could be used as a self-targeting drug delivery cargo for the remission of cancer.

  7. The neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cage mate rely on olfactory information.

    PubMed

    Alves, Glaucie J; Ribeiro, Alison; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation for 14 days with Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice was shown to increase locomotor activity, to decrease hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA) levels, to increase NA turnover and to decrease innate immune responses and decrease the animals' resistance to tumor growth. Cage mates of a B16F10 melanoma-bearer mice were also reported to show neuroimmune changes. Chemosignals released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice have been reported to be relevant for the neutrophil activity changes induced by cohabitation. The present experiment was designed to further analyze the effects of odor cues on neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with a sick cage mate. Specifically, the relevance of chemosignals released by an Ehrlich tumor-bearing mouse was assessed on the following: behavior (open-field and plus maze); hypothalamic NA levels and turnover; adrenaline (A) and NA plasmatic levels; and host resistance induced by tumor growth. To comply with such objectives, devices specifically constructed to analyze the influence of chemosignals released from tumor-bearing mice were employed. The results show that deprivation of odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice reversed the behavioral, neurochemical and immune changes induced by cohabitation. Mice use scents for intraspecies communication in many social contexts. Tumors produce volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere through breath, sweat, and urine. Our results strongly suggest that volatile compounds released by Ehrlich tumor-injected mice are perceived by their conspecifics, inducing the neuroimmune changes reported for cohabitation with a sick companion.

  8. [Suspension cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells as a test system for the study of cytotoxic effects of anaesthetics (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hack, G; Karzel, K

    1981-02-01

    Cultures of a permanently in suspension growing line of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) were studied regarding their use as a test system for the determination of cytotoxic effects of anaesthetics. These cells, having a comparatively high reduplication rate, are cultured at 37 degrees C in vitro in a chemically defined liquid medium supplemented by 15% horse serum without agitation in a closed system. In order to detect drug effects on the cultures various cellular parameters can be determined due to the suspension character of the cultures without complicated preparatory measures, e.g. cell number or multiplication rate, cell volume, cell volume distribution. Moreover biochemical parameters, such as protein or nucleic acid content, may be estimated after centrifugation of the cultures separately in the cell sediment and the medium supernatant. Applying drugs of various pharmacological groups (cytostatic and anti-inflammatory drugs, local and general anaesthetics) the usefulness of some of these parameters for the detection of cytotoxic effects was studied.

  9. [The role of protein binding with single-stranded DNA (SSB-protein) in DNA replication in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Koterov, A N; Novoradovskaia, N A; Filippovich, I V

    1990-05-01

    Possible involvement of the single-strand DNA-binding protein (SSB-protein) in DNA replication in Ehrlich ascite tumour (EAT) cells was studied. There was a direct correlation between the content of SSB-protein in chromatin and the intensity of replicative synthesis of DNA in various preparations of EAT in vitro and in vivo (the computed value of the correlation coefficient was equal to 0.9). It was shown that the addition of exogenous SSB-protein to permeable EAT cells increased the replicative synthesis. It was concluded that although eukaryotic SSB-proteins are not complete analogs of prokaryotic ones, they may participate in DNA replication in eukaryotic cells and, possibly, are intracellular regulators of proliferation.

  10. Anti-tumor activity of arjunolic acid against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro through blocking TGF-β type 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate therapeutic potential of arjunolic acid (AA), in Terminalia Arjuna bark, on Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma (EAC) in-vivo and in-vitro. EAC was induced in fifty female Swiss albino mice. Two doses of AA was used 100 and 250mg/kg. Arjunulic acid reduced tumor volume and cells count. AA decreased EAC cells viability and increased cell toxicity. Moreover, AA reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β, TGF-β type I receptor and latency-associated peptide levels associated with elevated IL-10 in-vivo and in-vitro. In conclusion, AA produced antitumor activity against EAC by increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis and partially blocking the TGF-βR1 and affecting inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:27470335

  11. The impact of the Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq on antitumor and antioxidant activity in a S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mouse tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Yusup, Abdiryim; Umar, Anwar; Berké, Bénédicte; Moore, Nicholas; Upur, Halmurat

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to study the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq (ASMq) in the S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mice tumor model. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), and glutathione-catalase (GSH-PX) were analyzed, and the mice were also subjected to a hypoxia tolerance test. Their climbing ability was also analyzed. Results: The findings of the study revealed that ASMq-treatment leads to an increase in blood serum SOD and GSH-PX levels but a decrease in blood serum MDA levels. Moreover, ASMq-treatment enhanced the survival time of mice maintained under hypoxic conditions and improved their mice climbing ability. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that ASMq has obvious antitumor and antioxidative effects. PMID:22701288

  12. Comparison of glutathione reductase activity and the intracellular glutathione reducing effects of 13 derivatives of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shenghui; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Azuma, Hideki; Kennedy, David Opare; Konishi, Yotaro; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2010-05-14

    In a previous study, we showed that (1'S)-acetoxychavicol acetate ((S)-ACA) caused a rapid decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels less than 15 min after exposure. (S)-ACA-induced cell death was reversed by the addition of N-acetylcysteine. In the current study, we investigated the inhibitory activities of 13 derivatives of (S)-ACA on tumor cell viability, intracellular GSH level and GR activity. Correlations were found among a decrease in cell viability, intracellular GSH levels and the activity of GR in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells treated with the various ACA analogues. A test of the 13 derivatives revealed that the structural factors regulating activity were as follows: (1) the para or 1'-position of acetoxyl group (or other acyl group) was essential, (2) the presence of a C2'-C3' double or triple bond was essential, and (3) the S configuration of the 1'-acetoxyl group was preferable.

  13. (Accumulation of methyl-deficient rat liver messenger ribonucleic acid on ethionine administration). Progress report. [Methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and effects of phorbol ester on methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, E.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme fractions were isolated from Ehrlich ascites cells which introduced methyl groups into methyl deficient rat liver mRNA and unmethylated vaccinia mRNA. The methyl groups were incorporated at the 5' end into cap 1 structures by the viral enzyme, whereas both cap 0 and cap 1 structures were formed by the Ehrlich ascites cell enzymes. Preliminary results indicate the presence of adenine N/sup 6/-methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites cells. These results indicate that mRNA deficient in 5'-cap methylation and in internal methylation of adenine accumulated in rats on exposure to ethionine. The methyl-deficient mRNA isolated from the liver of ethionine-fed rats differed in its translational properties from mRNA isolated from control animals. Preliminary experiments indicate that single topical application of 17n moles of TPA to mouse skin altered tRNA methyltransferases. The extent of methylation was increased over 2-fold in mouse skin treated with TPA for 48 hours. These changes have been observed as early as 12 hours following TPA treatment. In contrast, the application of initiating dose of DMBA had no effect on these enzymes. It should be emphasized that the changes in tRNA methyltransferases produced by TPA are not merely an increase of the concentration of the enzyme, rather that they represent alterations of specificity of a battery of enzymes. In turn the change in enzyme specificity can produce alterations in the structure of tRNA. (ERB)

  14. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-07-01

    Osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) elicited translocation of myosin II from the cytosol to the cortical region, and swelling elicits concentration of myosin II in the Golgi region. Rho kinase and p38 both appeared to be involved in shrinkage-induced myosin II reorganization. In contrast, the previously reported shrinkage-induced actin polymerization [Pedersen et al. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 252, 63-74] was independent of Rho kinase, p38, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and protein kinase C (PKC), which thus do not exert their effects on the shrinkage-activated transporters via effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both by osmotic shrinkage and by the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor Calyculin A (CL-A). Both stimuli caused Rho kinase-dependent myosin II relocation to the cortical cytoplasm, but in contrast to the shrinkage-induced F-actin polymerization, CL-A treatment elicited a slight F-actin depolymerization. Moreover, Rho kinase inhibition did not significantly affect NHE1 activation, neither by shrinkage nor by CL-A. Implications for the possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation are discussed. PMID:12061817

  15. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Mahadimane, Periyapatna Vishwaprakash; Vasudev, Venkateshaiah

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC), there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  16. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  17. Turnover of (/sup 14/C)thiamin and activities of thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes in tissues of mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Trebukhina, R.V.; Ostrovsky, Y.M.; Shapot, V.S.; Mikhaltsevich, G.N.; Tumanov, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    Turnover of (/sup 14/C)thiamin was studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma fed a thiamin-deficient diet and injected with 5 or 2 micrograms/mouse of the labeled vitamin. The process of conversion of (/sup 14/C)thiamin to thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) was monitored by measuring the activities of transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. The amount of coenzyme-unsaturated apotransketolase was assessed by measuring the TPP effect--determining transketolase activity with and without the addition of TPP in vitro. Tumor growth was accompanied by thiamin deficiency, manifested in an increase in (/sup 14/C)thiamin incorporation into the host tissues and the absence of saturation of the tissues with the labeled vitamin over 13 days. Increased values for the turnover coefficients, reduction of thiamin-dependent enzyme activities, elevation of the TPP effect, and a decrease in urinary excretion of the radioactive products also provided evidence for a disturbance in thiamin metabolism. The severity of the disturbance in thiamin metabolism during malignant tumor growth was directly related to the dose of the exogenous vitamin.

  18. Apoptosis induced by 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is associated with modulation of polyamine metabolism and caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, J; Hashimoto, M; Kojima, A; Kennedy, D O; Murakami, A; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H; Matsui-Yuasa, I

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of the antitumor activity of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), reported to be a suppressor of chemically induced carcinogenesis, was evaluated in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. ACA treatment resulted in changes in morphology and a dose-dependent suppression of cell viability. Apoptosis, characterized by nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage and a significant induction of caspase-3-like protease activity at 8 h in a time-course study were observed. Formation of apoptotic bodies was preceded by lowering of intracellular polyamines, particularly putrescine, and both dose- and time-dependent inhibitory and activation effect by ACA on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), respectively. Administration of exogenous polyamines prevented ACA-induced apoptosis represented by a reduction in the number of apoptotic bodies and also caused reduction in the induced caspase-3-like protease activity at 8 h. These findings suggest that the anticarcinogenic effects of ACA might be partly due to perturbation of the polyamine metabolic pathway and triggering of caspase-3-like activity, which result in apoptosis.

  19. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and reduction of cellular sulfhydryl groups in cell death induced by 1' -acetoxychavicol acetate in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Jerry; Kennedy, David Opare; Kojima, Akiko; Hasuma, Tadayoshi; Yano, Yoshihisa; Otani, Shuzo; Murakami, Akira; Koshimizu, Koichi; Ohigashi, Hajime; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2002-02-20

    Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying potential anticancer drugs continues and unraveling these mechanisms would not only provide a conceptual framework for drug design but also promote use of natural products for chemotherapy. To further evaluate the efficacy of the anticancer activity of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), this study investigates the underlying mechanisms by which ACA induces death of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. ACA treatment induced loss of cell viability, and Western blotting analysis revealed that the compound stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins with 27 and 70 kDa proteins being regulated in both dose- and time-dependent manner prior to loss of viability. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A moderately protected cells from ACA-induced toxicity. In addition, cellular glutathione and protein sulfydryl groups were also significantly reduced both dose- and time-dependently during evidence of cell death. Replenishing thiol levels by antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an excellent supplier of glutathione and precursor of glutathione, substantially recovered the viability loss, but the recovery being time-dependent, as late addition of NAC (at least 30 min after ACA addition to cultures) was, however, ineffective. Addition of NAC to ACA treated cultures also abolished tyrosine phosphorylation of the 27 kDa protein. These results, at least partly, identify cellular sulfhydryl groups and protein tyrosine phosphorylation as targets of ACA cytotoxicity in tumor cells.

  20. The protective effects of nutritional antioxidant therapy on Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice depend on the type of antioxidant therapy chosen: histology, genotoxicity and hematology evaluations.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Portilho, Flávia A; de Araujo, Vitor G B; Estevanato, Luciana L C; Mezzomo, Bélin P; Santos, Maria de Fátima M de Almeida; Lacava, Zulmira G M

    2011-11-01

    Strong evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the initiation as well as the promotion phase of carcinogenesis. Studies support the role of ROS in cancer, in part, by showing that dietary antioxidants act as cancer-preventive agents. Although results are promising, the research on this topic is still controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamins C, E and pequi oil can, individually, provide prevention and/or be used afterward as an adjuvant in cancer therapy. Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice received antioxidant as follows: before tumor inoculation, before and after tumor inoculation (continuous administration), and after tumor inoculation; morphometric analyses of tumor, genotoxicity and hematology were then carried out. Antioxidant administrations before tumor inoculation effectively inhibited its growth in the three experimental protocols, but administrations after the tumor's appearance accelerated tumor growth and favored metastases. Continuous administration of pequi oil inhibited the tumor's growth, while the same protocol with vitamins E and C accelerated it, favoring metastasis and increasing oxidative stress on erythrocytes. Except for continuous administration with vitamin E, the development of ascites tumor metastases was linked with increased inflammation. Results suggest that the efficiency and applicability of antioxidants in the medical clinic can depend not only on the nature of the antioxidant, the type and stage of cancer being treated and the prevailing oxygen partial pressure in the tissues, but also on the type of antioxidant therapy chosen.

  1. Effects of ultraviolet-visible irradiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, I.A.; Persad, S.; Ranadive, N.S.; Haberman, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the possibility that ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of pheomelanin may be more harmful to cells than the irradiation in the presence of eumelanin. The effects of UV-visible irradiation upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of the melanin isolated from human black hair (eumelanin) or from red hair (pheomelanin) were investigated. Irradiation of these cells was found to produce cell lysis, as observed by leakage of 51Cr from labeled cells and intracellular lactic dehydrogenase from the cells and decrease in cell viability demonstrated by the trypan blue exclusion test. The three parameters were quantitatively parallel to one another under various experimental conditions, namely different periods of irradiation and irradiation in the presence of different concentrations of melanin. The above effects were more pronounced when the irradiation was carried out in the presence of melanin from red hair than in the presence of black-hair melanin. In the absence of either melanin, the irradiation did not produce any significant effect in cell viability or cell lysis. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of red-hair melanin also decreased the transplantability of these cells. These observations clearly show that irradiation of cells in the presence of pheomelanin could produce cytotoxic effects. The present experimental design may have application in the development of in vitro models for the study of UV radiation-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. The reactions of pheomelanin may be related to the susceptibility of ''Celtic'' skin to UV radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

  2. Identity-based High-performance thin Layer Chromatography Fingerprinting Profile and Tumor Inhibitory Potential of Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nilesh; Lobo, Richard; Kumar, Nimmy; Bhagat, Jay Kumar; Mathew, Jessy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall belonging to the family Lamiaceae is a plant that is widely used in folk medicine for treating eczema, cold, cough, and fever. Objective: In the present study, we explored the anticancer potential of A. carnosus leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and estimated the quantity of luteolin present in various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. Materials and Methods: Various factors such as tumor volume, tumor cell viability, tumor weight, prolongation of lifespan, and hematological parameters were assessed. Result: We observed a significant lowering in tumor volume, tumor weight, and cell viability in EAC-induced mice following intervention with A. carnosus extracts. Also, there was a considerable prolongation of host lifespan and restoration of hematological parameters to almost normal levels with A. carnosus treatment. HPTLC fingerprinting of various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus along with luteolin as the reference standard revealed the occurrence of luteolin in all tested extracts and fractions of A. carnosus with the highest concentration being reported in the ethanol fraction. Conclusion: A. carnosus exhibits potent anti-tumor potential which can most likely be attributed to the occurrence of different phytochemicals such as phytosterols, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the plant. Further studies to isolate compounds from A. carnosus and understand the mechanism of anti-tumor activity would be worthwhile. SUMMARY EAC induced mice that received A. carnosus treatment exhibited significant reduction in tumor volume, tumor weight and tumor cell viability. Their life span was considerably prolonged. We detected luteolin in A. carnosus aqueous and ethanol extract using HPTLC. Hence, anticancer activity of A. carnosus can be partly attributed to the presence of luteolin. PMID:26929584

  3. Evidence that repair and expression of potentially lethal damage cause the variations in cell survival after x irradiation observed through the cell cycle in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-07-01

    The survival of synchronously growing Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) was measured after x irradiation in various stages of the cell cycle. Cells at the beginning of S or in G2 + M phase showed a high level of killing, whereas cells irradiated in G1 or in the middle of S phase were more resistant. These changes resulted from a change in the survival curve shoulder width (D/sub q/) as cells passed through the cell cycle, and the mean lethal dose (D/sub 0/) remained practically unchanged (0.8 +- 0.05 Gy). When synchronization of the cell population was further sharpened using nocodazole, exponential survival curves were obtained at the beginning of S phase and at mitosis with a D/sub 0/ = 0.8 Gy. When cells (in all stages) were incubated in balanced salt solution for 6 h after irradiation, repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was observed, resulting in an increase in D/sub q/, while D/sub 0/ remained constant. Treatment of the cells after irradiation with either caffeine or ..beta..-arabinofuranosyladenine (..beta..-araA) or hypertonic medium resulted in an expression of PLD and reduced the D/sub q/ of the survival curve. We measured the rate of the loss of sensitivity of these treatments that we assume reflects the rate of repair of PLD. Results indicate that the shoulder width D/sub q/ of the survival curve in cells irradiated at various stages of the cell cycle results from repair of PLD. It is suggested that the variations observed in cell survival through the cell cycle might reflect variations in the final amount of PLD either repaired or expressed as the cells progress through stages of the cell cycle.

  4. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation

  5. The synergistic effect between vanillin and doxorubicin in ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Younis, Nahla N; Shaheen, Mohamed A; Elseweidy, Mohamed M

    2016-09-01

    Despite the remarkable anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX), its clinical application is limited due to multiple organ toxicities. Products with less side effects are therefore highly requested. The current study investigated the anti-cancer activities of vanillin against breast cancer and possible synergistic potentiation of DOX chemotherapeutic effects by vanillin. Vanillin (100mg/kg), DOX (2mg/kg) and their combination were administered i.p. to solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice for 21days. MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was treated with vanillin (1 and 2mM), DOX (100μM) or their combination. Protection against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity was studied in rats that received vanillin (100mg/kg, ip) for 10days with a single dose of DOX (15mg/kg) on day 6. Vanillin exerted anticancer effects comparable to DOX and synergesticlly potentiated DOX anticancer effects both in-vivo and in-vitro. The anticancer potency of vanillin in-vivo was mediated via apoptosis and antioxidant capacity. It also offered an in-vitro growth inhibitory effect and cytotoxicity mediated by apoptosis (increased caspase-9 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio) along with anti-metasasis effect. Vanillin protected against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In conclusion, vanillin can be a potential lead molecule for the development of non-toxic agents for the treatment of breast cancer either alone or combined with DOX. PMID:27493101

  6. The synergistic effect between vanillin and doxorubicin in ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Younis, Nahla N; Shaheen, Mohamed A; Elseweidy, Mohamed M

    2016-09-01

    Despite the remarkable anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX), its clinical application is limited due to multiple organ toxicities. Products with less side effects are therefore highly requested. The current study investigated the anti-cancer activities of vanillin against breast cancer and possible synergistic potentiation of DOX chemotherapeutic effects by vanillin. Vanillin (100mg/kg), DOX (2mg/kg) and their combination were administered i.p. to solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice for 21days. MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was treated with vanillin (1 and 2mM), DOX (100μM) or their combination. Protection against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity was studied in rats that received vanillin (100mg/kg, ip) for 10days with a single dose of DOX (15mg/kg) on day 6. Vanillin exerted anticancer effects comparable to DOX and synergesticlly potentiated DOX anticancer effects both in-vivo and in-vitro. The anticancer potency of vanillin in-vivo was mediated via apoptosis and antioxidant capacity. It also offered an in-vitro growth inhibitory effect and cytotoxicity mediated by apoptosis (increased caspase-9 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio) along with anti-metasasis effect. Vanillin protected against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In conclusion, vanillin can be a potential lead molecule for the development of non-toxic agents for the treatment of breast cancer either alone or combined with DOX.

  7. INFLUENCE OF GLUTARALDEHYDE AND/OR OSMIUM TETROXIDE ON CELL VOLUME, ION CONTENT, MECHANICAL STABILITY, AND MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY OF EHRLICH ASCITES TUMOR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Penttila, Antti; Kalimo, Hannu; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of fixation with glutaraldehyde (GA), glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide (GA-OsO4), and osmium tetroxide (OsO4) on ion and ATP content, cell volume, vital dye staining, and stability to mechanical and thermal stress were studied in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC). Among variables investigated were fixation time, fixative concentration, temperature, osmolality of the fixative agent and buffer, total osmolality of the fixative solution, osmolality of the postfixation buffer, and time of postfixation treatment in buffer (Sutherland, R. M., et al. 1967. J. Cell Physiol. 69:185.). Rapid loss of potassium, exchangeable magnesium, and ATP, and increase of vital dye uptake and electrical conductivity occurred with all fixatives studied. These changes were virtually immediate with GA-OsO4 or OsO4 but slower with GA (in the latter case they were dependent on fixative temperature and concentration) (Foot, N. C. 1950. In McClung's Handbook of Microscopical Technique. 3rd edition. 564.). Total fixative osmolality had a marked effect on cell volume with OsO4 but little or no effect with GA or GA-OsO4. Osmolality of the buffer had a marked effect on cell volume with OsO4, whereas with GA or GA-OsO4 it was only significant at very hypotonic buffer osmolalities. Concentration of GA had no effect on cell volume. Osmolality of the postfixation buffer had little effect on cell volume, and duration of fixation or postfixation treatment had no effect with all fixatives. Freezing and thawing or centrifugal stress (up to 100,000 g) had little or no effect on cell volume after all fixatives studied. Mechanical stress obtained by sonication showed that OsO4 alone produced poor stabilization and that GA fixation alone produced the greatest stabilization. The results indicate that rapid membrane permeability changes of EATC follow fixative action. The results are consistent with known greater stabilizing effects of GA on model protein systems since cells were also rendered relatively

  8. Biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomal cisplatin administered in Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, José Geraldo Coimbra; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Leite, Elaine Amaral; Maroni, Laís de Carvalho; Wainstein, Alberto Julius Alves; Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Savassi-Rocha, Paulo Roberto; Pereira, Márcio Tadeu; de Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; De Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2011-07-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents and has been widely used in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. However, CDDP, a low-molecular-weight compound, is rapidly absorbed by the capillaries in the i.p. serosa and transferred to the bloodstream, inducing the appearance of systemic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the i.p. CDDP chemotherapy is limited to patients whose residual tumor nodules are less than 0.5 cm in diameter after surgical debulking. The failure of i.p. therapy is attributed to the poor penetration of CDDP into larger tumors. One strategy to improve drug delivery in the peritoneal region and reduce toxicity is the use of drug delivery systems. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP), as compared with free CDDP, after their i.p. administration in Ehrlich ascitic tumor-bearing mice. After administering a 6 mg/kg single i.p. bolus injection of either free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP, ascitic fluid (AF), blood and organs (kidneys, liver, spleen and lungs) were collected and analyzed for CDDP content. The area under the CDDP concentration-time curve (AUC) obtained for AF and blood after SpHL-CDDP administration was 3.3-fold larger and 1.3-fold lower, respectively, when compared with free CDDP treatment, thus indicating its high retention within the peritoneal cavity. The determination of the ratio between AUC in each tissue and that in blood (Kp) showed a lower accumulation of CDDP in kidneys after SpHL-CDDP treatment. The SpHL-CDDP treatment demonstrated a significant uptake by the liver and spleen. SpHL-CDDP treatment led to a higher survival rate of mice with initial or disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis than CDDP treatment. These results indicate that SpHL-CDDP may be useful for i.p. chemotherapy due to their greater concentration in the peritoneal

  9. Dual effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors on the therapeutic effects of cyclophosphamide and cycloplatam on Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, L A; Morozkova, T S; Amitina, S A; Mazhukin, D G; Nikolin, V P; Popova, N A; Kaledin, V I

    2014-08-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, slightly suppressed the growth of transplantable Ehrlich tumor in mice and significantly potentiated the therapeutic effect of cyclophosphamide. Another inhibitor amidoxime produced a similar effect. However, both ethyl pyruvate and amidoxime significantly reduced the effect of cycloplatam therapy. The observed changes can be stipulated by different effects of cyclophosphamide and cycloplatam on the subpopulations of lymphoid cells taking part in the formation of antitumor immunity and resistance to tumors.

  10. Formation and utilization of acetoin, an unusual product of pyruvate metabolism by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-07-15

    [14C]Pyruvate was rapidly non-oxidatively decarboxylated by Ehrlich tumor mitochondria at a rate of 40 nmol/min/mg of protein in the presence or absence of ADP. A search for decarboxylation products led to significant amounts of acetoin formed when Ehrlich tumor mitochondria were incubated with 1 mM [14C] pyruvate in the presence of ATP. Added acetoin to aerobic tumor mitochondria was rapidly utilized in the presence of ATP at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg of protein. Citrate has been found as a product of acetoin utilization and was exported from the tumor mitochondria. Acetoin has been found in the ascitic liquid of Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor-bearing animals. These unusual reactions were not observed in control rat liver mitochondria.

  11. Pharmacology of liposomal vincristine in mice bearing L1210 ascitic and B16/BL6 solid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, L. D.; Masin, D.; Nayar, R.; Boman, N. L.; Bally, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Vincristine pharmacokinetic, tumour uptake and therapeutic characteristics were investigated here in order to elucidate the processes underlying the enhanced efficacy observed for vincristine entrapped in small (120 nm) distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes. Plasma vincristine levels after intravenous (i.v.) injection are elevated more than 100-fold in the liposomal formulation compared with free drug in tumour-bearing as well as non-tumour-bearing mice over 24 h. Biodistribution studies demonstrate that the extent and duration of tumour exposure to vincristine is dramatically improved when the drug is administered i.v. in liposomal form. Specifically, 72 h trapezoidal area under the curve values for liposomal vincristine in the murine L1210 ascitic and B16/BL6 solid tumours are 12.9- to 4.1-fold larger, respectively, than observed for free drug. Similar to previous results with the L1210 model, increased drug delivery to the B16 tumour results in significant inhibition of tumour growth, whereas no anti-tumour activity is observed with free vincristine. Comparisons of drug and liposomal lipid accumulation in tumour and muscle tissue indicate that the enhanced efficacy of liposomal vincristine is related predominantly to drug delivered by liposomes to the tumour site rather than drug released from liposomes in the circulation. Consequently, improvements in liposomal vincristine formulations must focus on factors that increase uptake of liposomes into tumour sites as well as enhance liposomal drug retention in the circulation. PMID:7880728

  12. Enhanced Ehrlich tumor inhibition using DOX-NP™ and gold nanoparticles loaded liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mady, M. M.; Al-Shaikh, F. H.; Al-Farhan, F. F.; Aly, A. A.; Al-Mohanna, M. A.; Ghannam, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) is a common regime in treating various types of cancer. DOX-NP™ is one of a well established marketed liposomal formulation for DOX. It offers distinct advantages over conventional DOX in reducing the cardiac toxicity and increasing the tolerability and efficacy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), a typical biocompatible nanomaterial, have been widely used in biomedical engineering and bioanalytical applications such as biomedical imaging and biosensors. Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, free doxorubicin (DOX) in solution, gold nanoparticles loaded liposomes and commercial liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX-NP™). The results showed that GNPs loaded liposomes could enhance the antitumor activity of commercial liposomal formulation (DOX-NP™) and displayed significantly decreased systemic toxicity compared with free DOX and commercial liposomal formulation (DOX-NP™) at the equivalent dose. So the combination of GNPs and liposomes is expected to significantly increase the likelihood of cell killing and make it a promising new approach to cancer therapy.

  13. Antiangiogenic and proapoptotic activities of allyl isothiocyanate inhibit ascites tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akhilesh; D'Souza, Saritha S; Tickoo, Sanjay; Salimath, Bharathi P; Singh, H B

    2009-03-01

    The authors investigate the antiangiogenic and proapoptotic effects of mustard essential oil containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and explore its mechanism of action on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells. Swiss albino mice transplanted with EAT cells were used to study the effect of AITC. AITC was effective at a concentration of 10 mum as demonstrated by the inhibition of proliferation of EAT cells when compared with the normal HEK293 cells. It significantly reduced ascites secretion and tumor cell proliferation by about 80% and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor expression in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. It also reduced vessel sprouting and exhibited potent antiangiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane and cornea of the rat. AITC arrested the growth of EAT cells by inducing apoptosis and effectively arrested cell cycle progression at the G1 phase. The results clearly suggest that AITC inhibits tumor growth by both antiangiogenic and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  14. Paul Ehrlich: magister mundi.

    PubMed

    Drews, Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Paul Ehrlich, a founding father in fields across a wide range of medical sciences, was born 150 years ago. To mark this anniversary, this article gives an overview of his life, highlighting his major scientific contributions and paying tribute to Paul Ehrlich the man.

  15. ESR studies of the interaction of copper(II)GHK, histidine, and Ehrlich cells.

    PubMed

    Antholine, W E; Petering, D H; Pickart, L

    1989-03-01

    The tridentate complex CuGHK does not form ESR detectable adducts upon addition to either glutathione or Ehrlich ascites cells under our conditions. The absence of adducts is consistent with the poor uptake of CuGHK by cells. ESR spectra are used to characterize adduct formation between CuGHK and histidine. The CuGHK-histidine adduct is not stable in the presence of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. It is argued that a Cu(His)2 complex is formed as a consequence of the interaction of GHK with cells. PMID:2542448

  16. Treatment of mice bearing a Krebs ascitic tumor by means of a protocol based on radioactive copper (64Cu). IV. Consequences of the nature of cancer: tumor-resistant mice.

    PubMed

    Guillé, E; Apelgot, S

    1990-01-01

    In the efficient treatment described (Anticancer Research 9: 941-946, 1989) some compounds (64Cu and thioproline) act against the malignant genomes, and other components (metal ions, amino acids, vitamin D2, thyroxine and chelating substances) act against the functioning of the host cells having the cancer functioning (cancer cells). The experiments described show that this treatment developed with mice injected on day zero with 5 x 10(5) Krebs ascitic cells, is also efficient for mice bearing a spontaneous malignant tumor even if it is not an ascitic tumor. After the decrease in weight due to the loss of the tumor, a typical weight evolution was observed characterized by a second weight increase followed by a decrease leading to normal weight. This last weight remained stable. This typical weight evolution in tumor-free mice (after spontaneous tumor or experimental Krebs ascitic tumor) was related to the age of the tumor at the beginning of the treatment, that is, according to our hypothesis (Anticancer Res 9:955-960, 1989) to the cancer evolution emphasizing the great importance of all physiological phenomena related to this cancer course. To test the consequence of this treatment, some of these tumor-free mice were injected with 5 x 10(5) ascitic cells. No tumor developed in these tumor-free mice meaning that they also were tumor-resistant. This last result is in agreement with the forecast of the systemic analysis on which the efficient treatment was based.

  17. Oil rich in carotenoids instead of vitamins C and E as a better option to reduce doxorubicin-induced damage to normal cells of Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice: hematological, toxicological and histopathological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar K; Longo, João Paulo F; Peixoto, Raphael C A; de Almeida, Marcos Célio; Barbosa, Lilian Carla P; Roll, Mariana M; Portilho, Flávia A; Estevanato, Luciana L C; Bocca, Anamélia L; Báo, Sônia N; Lacava, Zulmira G M

    2014-11-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies to attenuate chemotherapy toxicity represents an area of great interest in cancer research, and among them is nutritional therapy based on antioxidants. As research on this topic is still controversial and scarce, we aim to investigate the effects of antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E or pequi oil, a carotenoid-rich oil extracted from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), on doxorubicin (DX)-induced oxidative damage to normal cells in Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice. Tumor weight and volume, histopathology, morphometry and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the treatments' efficacy in containing tumor aggressiveness and regression, while possible toxicity of treatments was assessed by animals' weight, morphological analysis of the heart, liver and kidneys, hemogram, and serum levels of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Although all the chemotherapeutic treatments increased internal necrosis area and reduced the positive Ki-67 cells compared to non-treated tumors, the treatments with pequi oil provided before tumor inoculation (PTDX) or in continuous and concurrent administration with doxorubicin (PTPDX) were more effective in containing tumor growth, besides increasing lymphocyte-dependent immunity and reducing the adverse side effects associated with DX-induced oxidative damage to normal cells, mainly the PTDX treatment. Vitamins C and E given before tumor inoculation and chemotherapy were not successful against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, besides increasing doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity, indicating that, at least for doxorubicin, pequi oil instead of vitamins C and E would be the best option to reduce its adverse effects.

  18. Management of cirrhotic ascites.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Julie Steen; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-05-01

    The most common complication to chronic liver failure is ascites. The formation of ascites in the cirrhotic patient is caused by a complex chain of pathophysiological events involving portal hypertension and progressive vascular dysfunction. Since ascites formation represents a hallmark in the natural history of chronic liver failure it predicts a poor outcome with a 50% mortality rate within 3 years. Patients with ascites are at high risk of developing complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hyponatremia and progressive renal impairment. Adequate management of cirrhotic ascites and its complications betters quality of life and increases survival. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology behind cirrhotic ascites and the diagnostic approaches, as well as outlining the current treatment options. Despite improved medical treatment of ascites, liver transplantation remains the ultimate treatment and early referral of the patient to a highly specialized hepatology unit should always be considered. PMID:25954497

  19. [Treatment of refractory ascites].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Albillos, Agustín

    2014-07-01

    Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation.

  20. [Possibility of achieving the Pasteur effect by ascites carcinoma cells in vivo].

    PubMed

    Tagi-zade, S B; Shapot, V S

    1971-01-01

    Possibility of Pasteur effect in cancer cells in vivo was studied on mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and rats with carcinoma of ovaries++. The experiments were run in two series. In the first series, all animals were saturated with oxygen through inhalation. In this series, part of the animals were given glucose subcutaneously. In the second series, all animals were given oxygen intraperitoneally and some of the animals with carcinoma of ovaries++ were given glucose subcutaneously. Values of inhibition of glycolytic activity in cancer cells under various experimental conditions were estimated through a calculated coefficient. Results of the experiment evidenced that inhalational saturation of animals with oxygen did not inhibit glycolysis of ascites cells in vivo while after intraperitoneal administration of oxygen, coefficient of inhibition of glycolytic activity in mice with Ehrlich ascites++ carcinoma after 45-65 min was 50-615, respectively. Experiments on rats showed that inhibition of glycolytic activity in rats can be revealed during simultaneous administration of oxygen intraperitoneally and of glucose subcutaneously. The authors reached the conclusion that under adequate supply of cancer cells with oxygen respiration can suppress glycolysis at the level of organism as well.

  1. [Tlaloc and ascites].

    PubMed

    Viesca-Treviño, Carlos; Macuil-García, Carmen; Monzón-Barranco, Abraham; Rosas-Peña, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Ascites has been a common pathological sign among prehispanic Mexican people, as a result from hepatic and cardiac ailments. In this sense it represents a significant epidemiological problem. But it also is important because is related to Tlaloc and the rain gods and goddesses. The hidropic body is a symbolic water container and have a special function: serve as a Tlaloc and related gods vehicle to transport the precious liquid. In this paper we analyze the Tlaloc role as water and alimentary substances provider and his capital importance for people survival. We also describe five different plastic ways to represent water in the body, all of them with clear relationships to Tlaloc.

  2. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years. PMID:27571467

  3. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years.

  4. The Ehrlich Tumor Induces Pain-Like Behavior in Mice: A Novel Model of Cancer Pain for Pathophysiological Studies and Pharmacological Screening

    PubMed Central

    Calixto-Campos, Cassia; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Corrêa, Mab; Cardoso, Renato D. R.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Cecchini, Rubens; Moreira, Estefania G.; Bernardy, Catia C. F.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ehrlich tumor is a mammary adenocarcinoma of mice that can be developed in solid and ascitic forms depending on its administration in tissues or cavities, respectively. The present study investigates whether the subcutaneous plantar administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells induces pain-like behavior and initial pharmacological susceptibility characteristics. The Ehrlich tumor cells (1 × 104–107 cells) induced dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic version of the von Frey filaments), paw edema/tumor growth (caliper), and flinches compared with the saline group between days 2 and 12. There was no difference between doses of cells regarding thermal hyperalgesia in the hot-plate test. Indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and amitriptyline hydrochloride (a tricyclic antidepressant) treatments did not affect flinches or thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. On the other hand, morphine (an opioid) inhibited the flinch behavior and the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. These effects of morphine on pain-like behavior were prevented by naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) treatment. None of the treatments affected paw edema/tumor growth. The results showed that, in addition to tumor growth, administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells may represent a novel model for the study of cancer pain, specially the pain that is susceptible to treatment with opioids, but not to cyclooxygenase inhibitor or to tricyclic antidepressant. PMID:24073414

  5. Sonographically documented disappearance of fetal ascites.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Heubach, E; Mazer, J

    1983-02-01

    Two patients with sonographically documented fetal ascites are described. Workup for immunologic or nonimmunologic causes was negative. Subsequent sonar examinations demonstrated disappearance of fetal ascites. At delivery, previous abdominal distention was apparent. Fetal ascites of unknown etiology in the late second trimester does not necessarily have a poor prognosis. Serial sonographic examinations are indicated for follow-up of fetal ascites.

  6. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-11-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition) may indicate that the chloride exchange and conductance pathways are not completely separate and distinct modes of transport, but may involve common elements. The reduced chloride permeability in the presence of phloretin is estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the ground permeability of the cell membrane.

  7. Eosinophilic ascites: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hesham; Joseph, Moby

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic ascites is a rare feature of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We would like to highlight this increasingly recognised diagnosis in a case of unexplained ascites. We present a challenging case of a woman aged 25 years who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, generalised abdominal pain and swelling 8-week following delivery of her first baby. Her symptoms were primarily aggravated by eating, and she had also noticed postprandial itching and self-limiting generalised rash. She had a strong history of atopy. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and distension with shifting dullness. Urticarial skin rash was noted on the face, neck, chest and abdomen. Routine biochemistry was normal apart from peripheral eosinophilia. Imaging confirmed moderate ascites. Diagnostic paracentesis showed exudative ascites with numerous eosinophils. Histology of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract showed infiltration of the oesophageogastroduodenal and rectosigmoid mucosa with eosinophils. The patient significantly improved following a course of steroids and six-food elimination diet. PMID:27600059

  8. Ayurvedic management of cirrhotic ascites.

    PubMed

    Aswathy, G; Dharmarajan, Prasanth; Sharma, Ananth Ram; Sasikumar, V K; Vasudevan Nampoothiri, M R

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final stage of most of the chronic liver diseases and is most invariably complicated by portal hypertension resulting in ascites. A case of chronic liver disease with portal hypertension (cryptogenic cirrhosis), managed at Amrita School of Ayurveda is discussed in this paper. The clinical picture was that of an uncomplicated cirrhotic ascites. Snehapāna (therapeutic oral administration of lipids) followed by virecana (purgation) was done after an initial course of nityavirecana (daily purgation). Later Vardhamāna pippalī rasāyana [administration of single drug - pippalī (piper longum) in a structured dose pattern] was administered with an intention of rejuvenating liver cells. Ascites and lower limb oedema were completely resolved after the therapy. No recurrence of ascites has been reported after a follow up period of one year. PMID:27621523

  9. Ayurvedic management of cirrhotic ascites

    PubMed Central

    Aswathy, G.; Dharmarajan, Prasanth; Sharma, Ananth Ram; Sasikumar, V. K.; Vasudevan Nampoothiri, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final stage of most of the chronic liver diseases and is most invariably complicated by portal hypertension resulting in ascites. A case of chronic liver disease with portal hypertension (cryptogenic cirrhosis), managed at Amrita School of Ayurveda is discussed in this paper. The clinical picture was that of an uncomplicated cirrhotic ascites. Snehapāna (therapeutic oral administration of lipids) followed by virecana (purgation) was done after an initial course of nityavirecana (daily purgation). Later Vardhamāna pippalī rasāyana [administration of single drug - pippalī (piper longum) in a structured dose pattern] was administered with an intention of rejuvenating liver cells. Ascites and lower limb oedema were completely resolved after the therapy. No recurrence of ascites has been reported after a follow up period of one year. PMID:27621523

  10. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in ascites tumor mitochondria and cells by intramitochondrial Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1980-03-25

    Accumulation of Ca2+ (+ phosphate) by respiring mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites or AS30-D hepatoma tumor cells inhibits subsequent phosphorylating respiration in response to ADP. The respiratory chain is still functional since a proton-conducting uncoupler produces a normal stimulation of electron transport. The inhibition of phosphorylating respiration is caused by intramitochondrial Ca2+ (+ phosphate). ATP + Mg2+ together, but not singly, prevents the inhibitory action of Ca2+. Neither AMP, GTP, GDP, nor any other nucleoside 5'-triphosphate or 5'-diphosphate could replace ATP in this effect. Phosphorylating respiration on NAD(NADP)-linked substrates was much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of intramitochondrial Ca2+ than succinate-linked respiration. Significant inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is given by the endogenous Ca2+ present in freshly isolated tumor mitochondria. The phosphorylating respiration of permeabilized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is also inhibited by Ca2+ accumulated by the mitochondria in situ. Possible causes of the Ca2+-induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation are considered.

  11. Characterization of aconitate hydratase from mitochondria and cytoplasm of ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hernanz, A; de la Fuente, M

    1988-07-01

    This paper describes the characterization of aconitate hydratase (EC 4.2.1.3) in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial extracts from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells carried by BALB/C mice. The results show a similar distribution of aconitate hydratase in both extracts, with specific activities much lower than those found in pig and mouse tissues. Mitochondrial aconitate hydratase shows a substrate inhibition by citrate with a Km similar to that found in cytoplasm (Km = 1.0 mM and 0.9 mM, respectively). Oxalacetate produces a mixed type of inhibition in both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aconitate hydratases with different inhibition constants (Ki = 0.3 mM and 1.0 mM, respectively). Moreover, the specific activities of aconitate hydratase in both cytoplasm and mitochondria decrease when the tumor progresses in the peritoneum of BALB/C mice, as well as the percentage of aconitate hydratase activity in the presence of oxalacetate as the inhibitor. These results indicate that the activity and kinetics of aconitate hydratase are markedly altered by neoplastic transformation as occurs in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Since aconitate hydratase is not a key enzyme, these unexpected data are of interest in the study of cancer biochemistry. PMID:3179020

  12. Ascitic Fluid Analysis in the Differential Diagnosis of Ascites: Focus on Cirrhotic Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin-Lin; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Because many diseases can cause ascites, in particular cirrhosis, samples of ascitic fluid are commonly analyzed in order to develop a differential diagnosis. The concept of transudate versus exudate, as determined by total protein measurements, is outdated and the use of serum-ascites albumin gradient as an indicator of portal hypertension is more accurate. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other tumor markers can be helpful in distinguishing between malignant and benign conditions. Glucose and adenosine deaminase levels may support a diagnosis of tuberculous disease, and amylase level may indicate a diagnosis of pancreatitis. Given the specificity and sensitivity of laboratory results, accurate diagnosis should be based on both laboratory data and clinical judgment. PMID:26357618

  13. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-01-01

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities. PMID:27188870

  14. Paul Ehrlich: the founding of pediatric immunology.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, A M

    1996-11-25

    In 1892-93, Paul Ehrlich published a series of experiments on the passive transfer of maternal antibody to fetus and newborn that deserve to be better known. He pointed out the importance of mother's milk to neonatal well-being. He was the first to define the difference between active and passive immunity. He was the first to demonstrate immune elimination of antigen and to explain the significance of each phase of the kinetics of the anamnestic antibody response. We point out how elegant were these early experiments and how far in advance of their times.

  15. Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N

    2003-11-01

    The antitumour activity of the ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) has been evaluated against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of EBV-treated tumour bearing mice was found with respect to control group. EBV treatment was found to enhance peritoneal cell counts. After 14 days of inoculation, EBV is able to reverse the changes in the haemotological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumour inoculation.

  16. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, HC; Quevedo, MS; Cabrales, LB; Bruzón, RP; Salas, MF; Pena, OG; González, TR; López, DS; Flores, JM

    2004-01-01

    Background In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. Methods BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 106 and 1 × 105 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups) consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm3, four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm3) and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm3, two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Results Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm3, respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil infiltration, an acute

  17. Paul Ehrlich: the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1908.

    PubMed

    Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Antonio; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    We wish to commemorate Paul Ehrlich on the centennial of his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. His studies are now considered as milestones in immunology: the morphology of leukocytes; his side-chain theory where he defined the cellular receptor for first time; and his clarification of the difference between serum therapy and chemotherapy. Ehrlich also invented the first chemotherapeutic drug: compound 606, or Salvarsan. We have used some original documents from the Royal Society of London, where Ehrlich was a fellow, and from Leipzig University, where he took a degree in medicine.

  18. Oxidation-reduction reactions in Ehrlich cells treated with copper-neocuproine.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, R W; Antholine, W E; Petering, D H

    1992-11-01

    The interaction of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine or NC) and its copper complex with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied. NC is frequently used as a negative control in studies of in vitro DNA degradation by copper phenanthroline and has also found use as a potential inhibitor of damage from oxidative stress in biological systems. NC inhibited Ehrlich cell growth in monolayer culture over 48 h treatment by 50% at 0.05 nmol/10(5) cells. Addition of 5- to 100-fold ratios of CuCl2 to NC (at 0.035 nmol NC/10(5) cells) produced progressively more growth inhibition. Addition of 1:0.5 ratios of NC to CuCl2 over the range of NC concentrations 0.08-0.2 nmol/10(5) cells/mL resulted in DNA single-strand breakage during 1-h treatments as measured by DNA alkaline elution. Concomitant addition of catalase or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) inhibited DNA strand scission, while superoxide dismutase enhanced breakage. Catalase and DMSO also inhibited induction of membrane permeability by the copper complex of NC. These cellular effects apparently result from the intracellular generation of hydroxyl radical from H2O2. NC facilitated the uptake of copper into cells, though it was initially bound as a copper-histidine-like complex. The internalized copper was reduced to Cu(I), bound mostly as (NC)2Cu(I). To explain the (NC)2Cu-dependent generation of hydroxyl radical, it is hypothesized that glutathione successfully competes for Cu(I), converting it to a redox-active form that can catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to .OH. Model studies support this view. Radical scavengers did not reverse growth inhibition produced by NC or NC + CuCl2.

  19. Antitumor activity of galactoxyloglucan-gold nanoparticles against murine ascites and solid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Manu M; Aravind, S R; George, Suraj K; Pillai, K Raveendran; Mini, S; Sreelekha, T T

    2014-04-01

    Galactoxyloglucan polysaccharide (PST001), isolated from the seed kernels of Tamarindus indica (Ti), was used both as reducing and capping agent for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (PST-Gold) of 20 nm size. The present study evaluated the anticancer effects of the PST-Gold nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity was evaluated in the murine cancer cell lines, Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC). Galactoxyloglucan-gold nanoparticles (PST-Gold) not only retained the anticancer effects of PST001, but also showed enhanced cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis even at lower doses and lesser incubation times. In vivo antitumor activity was tested in DLA and EAC murine ascites and EAC solid-tumor syngeneic mouse models. PST-Gold nanoparticles reduced tumor burden and increased median survival and life span significantly in both tumor models compared to the controls. The PST-Gold nanoparticles were very effective as a chemopreventive agent, showing the best overall response when administered prior to tumor induction. In the case of solid tumors, intratumoral administration of the PST-Gold nanoparticles yielded significant results with regard to survival and increment in lifespan as compared to intraperitoneal mode of drug administration. Further studies in higher animal models and in patients at high-risk for recurrence are warranted to fully explore and develop the potential of PST-Gold nanoconjugates as a chemopreventive and therapeutic anti-cancer agent. PMID:24486833

  20. Paul Ehrlich--in search of the magic bullet.

    PubMed

    Winau, Florian; Westphal, Otto; Winau, Rolf

    2004-07-01

    In 2004, we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the birth of Paul Ehrlich, considered the founder of immunology. His life and work can be divided into three creative periods: first, he developed histological staining, then he accomplished his ground-breaking work on immunology, and eventually invented chemotherapy. Paul Ehrlich can be perceived as a man whose success was not the consequence of a will to power, but of his substantial interest in science.

  1. Initiation of picornavirus protein synthesis in ascites cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Oberg, B F; Shatkin, A J

    1972-12-01

    The current model of picornavirus protein formation implies that initiation of protein synthesis occurs at a single site on the viral RNA, and that the large polypeptide formed is later cleaved. A direct test of this model was made in vitro by studying the incorporation of [(35)S]methionine from rabbit liver Met-tRNA(M) (Met) and fMet-tRNA(F) (Met) into encephalomyocarditis virus RNA-coded proteins in extracts of Ehrlich ascites cells. The incorporation of N-formylmethionine was complete within 5 min, while utilization of Met-tRNA(M) (Met) continued for 20 min. Tryptic digests of [(35)S]methionine-labeled products from Met-tRNA(M) (Met) analyzed by anion-exchange chromatography yielded more than 30 peptides, as compared to about 15 [(35)S]methionine-labeled peptides from purified encephalomyocarditis virus. In contrast, products labeled with fMet-tRNA(F) (Met) yielded one major (26)S-labeled tryptic peptide. The N-terminal location of methionine in this peptide was verified by Edman degradation. One predominant N-terminal tryptic peptide was also obtained with fMet-tRNA(F) (Met) when mouse Elberfeld and mengo-virus RNAs were used as messengers. On the basis of N-terminal compared with internal labeling of the products, no evidence for in vitro post-translational cleavage was found. The results are consistent with a single initiation site for synthesis of picornavirus proteins.

  2. Cirrhotic ascites review: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christopher M; Van Thiel, David H

    2013-01-01

    Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of peritoneal fluidcommonly observed in decompensated cirrhotic states.Its causes are multi-factorial, but principally involve significant volume and hormonal dysregulation in the setting of portal hypertension. The diagnosis of ascites is considered in cirrhotic patients given a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, and ultimately confirmed, with insight into etiology, by imaging and paracentesis procedures. Treatment for ascites is multi-modal including dietary sodium restriction, pharmacologic therapies, diagnostic and therapeutic paracentesis, and in certain cases transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Ascites is associated with numerous complications including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Given the complex nature of ascites and associatedcomplications, it is not surprising that it heralds increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients and increased cost-utilization upon the health-care system. This review will detail the pathophysiology of cirrhotic ascites, common complications derived from it, and pertinent treatment modalities. PMID:23717736

  3. Hospicells (ascites-derived stromal cells) promote tumorigenicity and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Marlene; Golzio, Muriel; Mery, Eliane; Rafii, Arash; Benabbou, Nadia; Mirshahi, Pezhman; Hennebelle, Isabelle; Bourin, Philippe; Allal, Ben; Teissie, Justin; Mirshahi, Massoud; Couderc, Bettina

    2010-05-01

    The microenvironment is known to play a dominant role in cancer progression. Cells closely associated with tumoral cells, named hospicells, have been recently isolated from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients. Whilst these cells present no specific markers from known cell lineages, they do share some homology with bone marrow-derived or adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (CD9, CD10, CD29, CD146, CD166, HLA-1). We studied the role of hospicells in ovarian carcinoma progression. In vitro, these cells had no effect on the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3, SKOV-1 and IGROV-1. In vivo, their co-injection with adenocarcinoma cells enhanced tumor growth whatever the tumor model used (subcutaneous and intraperitoneally established xenografts in athymic mice). In addition, their injection increased the development of ascites in tumor-bearing mice. Fluorescent macroscopy revealed an association between hospicells and ovarian adenocarcinoma cells within the tumor mass. Tumors obtained by coinjection of hospicells and human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells presented an increased microvascularization indicating that the hospicells could promote tumorigenicity of ovarian tumor cells in vivovia their action on angiogenesis. This effect on angiogenesis could be attributed to the increased HIF1alpha and VEGF expression associated with the presence of the hospicells. Collectively, these data indicate a role for these ascite-derived stromal cells in promoting tumor growth by increasing angiogenesis.

  4. Chylous Ascites: Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busafi, Said A.; Ghali, Peter; Deschênes, Marc; Wong, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Chylous ascites refers to the accumulation of lipid-rich lymph in the peritoneal cavity due to disruption of the lymphatic system secondary to traumatic injury or obstruction. Worldwide, abdominal malignancy, cirrhosis, and tuberculosis are the commonest causes of CA in adults, the latter being most prevalent in developing countries, whereas congenital abnormalities of the lymphatic system and trauma are commonest in children. The presence of a milky, creamy appearing ascitic fluid with triglyceride content above 200 mg/dL is diagnostic, and, in the majority of cases, unless there is a strong suspicion of malignancy, further investigations are not required in patients with cirrhosis. If an underlying cause is identified, targeted therapy is possible, but most cases will be treated conservatively, with dietary support including high-protein and low-fat diets supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides, therapeutic paracentesis, total parenteral nutrition, and somatostatins. Rarely, resistant cases have been treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, surgical exploration, or peritoneovenous shunt. PMID:27335837

  5. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN MITOCHONDRIA IN THE INTACT ASCITES TUMOR CELL

    PubMed Central

    Hackenbrock, Charles R.; Rehn, Terry G.; Weinbach, Eugene C.; Lemasters, John J.

    1971-01-01

    We have examined the ultrastructure of mitochondria as it relates to energy metabolism in the intact cell. Oxidative phosphorylation was induced in ultrastructurally intact Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by rapidly generating intracellular adenosine diphosphate from endogenous adenosine triphosphate by the addition of 2-deoxyglucose. The occurrence of oxidative phosphorylation was ascertained indirectly by continuous and synchronous monitoring of respiratory rate, fluorescence of pyridine nucleotide, and 90° light-scattering. Oxidative phosphorylation was confirmed by direct enzymatic analysis of intracellular adenine nucleotides and by determination of intracellular inorganic orthophosphate. Microsamples of cells rapidly fixed for electron microscopy revealed that, in addition to oxidative phosphorylation, an orthodox → condensed ultrastructural transformation occurred in the mitochondria of all cells in less than 6 sec after the generation of adenosine diphosphate by 2-deoxyglucose. A 90° light-scattering increase, which also occurs at this time, showed a t ½ of only 25 sec which agreed temporally with a slower orthodox → maximally condensed mitochondrial transformation. Neither oxidative phosphorylation nor ultrastructural transformation could be initiated in mitochondria in intact cells by the intracellular generation of adenosine diphosphate in the presence of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Partial and complete inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin resulted in a positive relationship to partial and complete inhibition of 2-deoxyglucose-induced ultrastructural transformation in the mitochondria in these cells. The data presented reveal that an orthodox → condensed ultrastructural transformation is linked to induced oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria in the intact ascites tumor cell. PMID:5111873

  6. Quercetin Reduces Ehrlich Tumor-Induced Cancer Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calixto-Campos, Cassia; Corrêa, Mab P.; Carvalho, Thacyana T.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Rossaneis, Ana C.; Coelho-Silva, Leticia; Pavanelli, Wander R.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bernardy, Catia C. F.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pain directly affects the patient's quality of life. We have previously demonstrated that the subcutaneous administration of the mammary adenocarcinoma known as Ehrlich tumor induces pain in mice. Several studies have shown that the flavonoid quercetin presents important biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and antitumor activity. Therefore, the analgesic effect and mechanisms of quercetin were evaluated in Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatments with quercetin reduced Ehrlich tumor-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, but not paw thickness or histological alterations, indicating an analgesic effect without affecting tumor growth. Regarding the analgesic mechanisms of quercetin, it inhibited the production of hyperalgesic cytokines IL-1β and TNFα and decreased neutrophil recruitment (myeloperoxidase activity) and oxidative stress. Naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) inhibited quercetin analgesia without interfering with neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production, and oxidative stress. Importantly, cotreatment with morphine and quercetin at doses that were ineffective as single treatment reduced the nociceptive responses. Concluding, quercetin reduces the Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain by reducing the production of hyperalgesic cytokines, neutrophil recruitment, and oxidative stress as well as by activating an opioid-dependent analgesic pathway and potentiation of morphine analgesia. Thus, quercetin treatment seems a suitable therapeutic approach for cancer pain that merits further investigation. PMID:26351625

  7. New proposal for the serum ascites albumin gradient cut-off value in Chinese ascitic patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) has been recognized as a reliable marker in the differential diagnosis of ascites. The etiological background of cirrhosis is rather different between western countries and eastern countries. The threshold of SAAG in Chinese ascitic patients has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to define a new reasonable threshold of SAAG in Chinese ascitic patients. Methods Adult patients with ascites admitted to the Shanghai Changzheng Hospital from Jan 2004 to Jun 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnostic criteria for cirrhotic ascites are clinical manifestations, radiological features and esophageal-gastric varicosis, or histopathology. Serum was detected by chemical method using a commercial kit. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to achieve maximal sensitivity and specificity of SAAG. Results The mean value of SAAG in portal-hypertension-related ascites was significantly higher than that in the non-portal-hypertension-related ascites (21.15 ± 4.38 g/L vs 7.48 ± 3.64 g/L, P = 0.002). The SAAG cut-off value under 12.50 g/L predicted portal hypertension ascites with the sensitivity of 99.20%, specificity of 95.10% and accuracy of 97.65%. Conclusions SAAG is useful to distinguish portal-hypertension-related ascites and non-portal-hypertension-related ascites, and 12.50 g/L might present as a more reasonable threshold in Chinese ascitic patients. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1602582638991860. PMID:23971938

  8. Efficiency of calcium phosphate composite nanoparticles in targeting Ehrlich carcinoma cells transplanted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Gawad, Eman I.; Hassan, Amal I.; Awwad, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the mode of action of nano-CaPs in vivo as a therapy for solid tumor in mice. To achieve this goal, Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) was transplanted into 85 Swiss male albino mice. After nine days, the mice were divided into 9 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were allocated as the EAC control. Groups 3 and 4 were injected once intratumorally (IT) by nano-calcium phosphate (nano-CaP). Groups 5 and 6 received once intraperitoneal injection (IP) of nano-CaP. Groups 7, 8, and 9 received nano-CaP (IP) weekly. Blood samples and thigh skeletal muscle were collected after three weeks from groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 and after four weeks from groups 2, 4, 6, and 8. On the other hand, group 9 received nano-CaP (IP) for four weeks and lasted for three months to follow up the recurrence of tumor and to ensure the safety of muscle by histopathological analysis. Tumor growth was monitored twice a week throughout the experiment. DNA fragmentation of tumor cells was evaluated. In thigh tissue, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin (5HT), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured. In serum, 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed. Histopathological and biochemical results showed a significant therapeutic effect of nano-CaP on implanted solid tumor and this effect was more pronounced in the animals treated IP for four weeks. This improvement was evident from the repair of fragmented DNA, the significant decrease of caspase-3, 8-OHDG, myosin, and VEGF, and the significant increase of neurotransmitters (NA, DA, 5HT, and GABA). Additionally, histopathological examination showed complete recovery of cancer cells in the thigh muscle after three months. PMID:26843980

  9. [Treatment with somatostatin of pancreatic ascites].

    PubMed

    Gómez, J; Gallego, P; Cobo, J; Medraño, J C; Molina, F

    1992-04-01

    Pancreatic ascites is an entity defined as amylase levels up to 1.000 U/l in ascitic liquid. Frequently, it is secondary to a rupture of pancreatic ductus or pseudocyst and foreward communication to peritoneal space. We present a male diagnosed of calcified alcoholic chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic ascites secondary to a pseudocyst. Combination of parenteral nutrition and sintetic cyclic somatostatin was efficient. It would act by reducing pancreatic secretion in a long-term manner, which is the final purpose of the treatment. This association would be considered as a former tool in ascitic pancreatic patients, evacuatory punction or delayed surgery been relegated to a conservatory treatment failure or when primary pathology indicate it.

  10. Urinary Ascites - A Consequence of Intraoperative Injury.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sinjon; Chatterjee, Nandini; Mukhopadhyay, Mainak; Brahmachari, Ramkrishna; Maity, Pranab; Das, A K

    2015-09-01

    Patients with complications after surgery often pose enormous challenges to physicians. We report the case of a young lady developing fever, oliguria and intractable ascites refererred to us after undergoing abdominal surgery. She was diagnosed subsequently to have a urinoma with urinary ascites masquerading as a case of sepsis. Percutaneous nephrostomy followed by definitive repair and reimplantation of ureter later led to subsidence of the symptoms. PMID:27608874

  11. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea Alberto; Lippi, Donatella

    2007-03-01

    Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) is nowadays considered a pioneer in a number of medical fields, and in the course of time his role in the establishment and development of disciplines such as histology, immunology, oncology and haematology has been acknowledged. Aim of this historical note is to illustrate, in the area of chemotherapy, the special importance of this brilliant scientist whose 150th anniversary of birth occurred in 2004. Already as a medical student, Ehrlich was obsessed by structural organic chemistry and dyes, and, continually studying these issues, he elaborated his theory regarding the discovery of a "magic bullet", able to specifically destroy tumour cells and micro-organisms. In practice he applied methylene blue to the treatment of malaria patients, following his intuition that such a dye could destroy parasites. However, his culminating achievements in the chemotherapic field, reached even at the expense of his health, were the concept of the one-dose treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, and the creation of arsphenamine (compound 606, or Salvarsan), the first really effective compound in controlling human syphilis. Within the many and various contributions of Ehrlich to the development of experimental and clinical medicine, a special mention of his experimental studies and clinical applications in the area of chemotherapy is essential, since his achievements in this biomedical area remain a paramount legacy in the history of the therapy of infections.

  12. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:26717969

  13. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway.

  14. Regulation of the Nucleolar DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Amino Acids in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Franze-Fernández, M. T.; Pogo, A. O.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were performed to ascertain the degree to which the amount of amino acids might be one of the regulatory factors that control the activity of the nucleolar RNA polymerase. Assays of the enzymatic activity were done with isolated nuclei from cells incubated with low and high concentrations of amino acids. Soon after the cells were exposed to a medium enriched in amino acids, a rapid increase of nucleolar RNA polymerase activity occurred. A similar result was obtained in cells incubated with lower concentrations of amino acids. However, the rate of ribosomal RNA synthesized was regularly much higher in cells incubated in a medium enriched with amino acids than in a medium low in amino acids. Apparently, the amino acids only controlled ribosomal RNA synthesis. Thus, neither maturation, processing, and transport of nuclear precursors into cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA, nor the synthesis of rapidly labeled RNA was affected. PMID:4108870

  15. Four Cases of Chylous Ascites following Robotic Gynecologic Oncological Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Göçmen, Ahmet; Avcı, Muhittin Eftal; Şanlıkan, Fatih; Uçar, Mustafa Gazi

    2014-01-01

    Chylous ascites is an uncommon form of ascites characterized by milky-appearing fluid caused by blocked or disrupted lymph flow through chyle-transporting vessels. The most common causes of chylous ascites are therapeutic interventions and trauma. In this report, we present four cases of chylous ascites following robot-assisted surgery for endometrial staging and the treatment strategies that we used. After retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, leaving a drain is very useful in diagnosing chylous ascites and observing its resolution; furthermore, the use of octreotide in conjunction with TPN appears to be an efficient treatment modality for chylous ascites and should be considered before any invasive intervention. PMID:24716036

  16. Paul Ehrlich: pioneer of chemotherapy and cure by arsenic (1854-1915).

    PubMed

    Thorburn, A L

    1983-12-01

    Paul Ehrlich's experiments in staining techniques at the end of the nineteenth century resulted in many discoveries which help to form the basis of present research work. Ehrlich's chemotherapy research led to his formulating the arsenic compound, Salvarsan, which was used in the treatment of syphilis during the first half of this century until it was superseded by penicillin.

  17. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macer, Matthew; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures. PMID:27747116

  18. Eosinophilic ascites: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shefali; Vohra, Sandeep; Rawat, Sangeeta; Kashyap, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge. The mainstay of diagnosis is peripheral hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-rich ascitic fluid on diagnostic paracentesis. Oral steroid therapy is usually the first line of treatment with dramatic response. Due to a propensity for relapse, steroid-sparing therapy should be considered for relapses of EGE. We report a case of subserosal EGE with diagnostic clinical features and treatment response and review the current strategy in the management of eosinophilic ascites. PMID:27721930

  19. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  20. Aetiology and treatment of chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Browse, N L; Wilson, N M; Russo, F; al-Hassan, H; Allen, D R

    1992-11-01

    A series of 45 patients with chylous ascites has been reviewed. The age at presentation ranged from 1 to 80 (median 12) years; 23 patients were aged < or = 15 years. Thirty-five patients had an abnormality of the lymphatics (primary chylous ascites); in the remaining ten, the ascites was secondary to other conditions, principally non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (six patients). Two principal mechanisms of ascites formation were identified using lymphangiography and inspection at laparotomy: leakage from retroperitoneal megalymphatics, usually through a visible lymphoperitoneal fistula (14 patients); and leakage from dilated subserosal lymphatics of the small intestine, invariably associated with leaking lacteals causing protein-losing enteropathy (24 patients). Both sites of leakage were present in a further five patients. In the remaining two patients, chyle was leaking from normal mesenteric lymphatics, in one via a ruptured mesenteric lymph cyst and in the other from the site of a previous lymph node biopsy. Other associated lymphatic abnormalities were present in 36 patients, lymphoedema of the leg being the commonest (26 patients). All patients were initially treated conservatively with dietary manipulation; this was the most satisfactory treatment for those with leaking small bowel lymphatics. Surgery (fistula closure, bowel resection or insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt) was performed in 30 patients. Closure of a retroperitoneal fistula, when present, was the most successful operation, curing seven of the 12 patients so treated.

  1. Characteristics of Patients and Their Ascites Who Underwent Repeated Cell-Free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sayako; Yabuuchi, Junko; Nobuta, Hiroshi; Makiishi, Tetsuya; Hirose, Kunihiko

    2015-08-01

    Novel cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (KM-CART) is easy to use, safe and applicable for refractory ascites. We can get the full amount of ascites, filtrate, and concentrate in a short time. KM-CART can be applied as palliative care for dying patients including patients with massive malignant ascites. Some patients who underwent repeated KM-CART survived longer than those who did not repeat the therapy. The aim of this study was to identify the type of patients with ascites for whom KM-CART would be effective and candidates for repeated KM-CART. In this retrospective cohort observational study, we examined 123 CART processes performed on 58 patients with refractory ascites. Data were collected before and after processing of the ascites. We compared two groups; patients who underwent KM-CART ≥ 5 times and those who underwent this process ≤ 4 times. Age, disease, benign or malignant status of the disease, the amount of ascites, concentrations of total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) and their amounts in the original ascites and the filtered and concentrated ascitic fluid and the recovery ratio of TP and Alb were determined. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in age, disease, amount of ascites, and the recovery ratio of TP and Alb. Significant differences were observed in the amounts of TP and Alb in the original ascites and the filtered and concentrated ascitic fluid. Patients who underwent KM-CART ≥ 5 times had higher Alb levels in the original ascites than those who underwent this therapy ≤ 4 times. Patients with higher Alb concentrations in the original ascites could be candidates for repeated KM-CART. PMID:26386222

  2. Cancer 'chemotherapia specifica' ninety years after Paul Ehrlich.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shyama K; Petrucci, Francesco; Caimi, Stefano; Alimonti, Alessandro; Cusumano, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    From his student days throughout his whole life, Paul Ehrlich tried hard to obtain 'chemotherapia specifica' for the harmless systemic therapy of infectious diseases. Given the poor therapeutic benefit obtained with cytotoxic therapeutic agents and empirical radiopharmaceuticals, so far used only for neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments of cancer, we have tried to develop Paul Ehrlich's 'chemotherapia specifica' for safe and effective therapy of cancers in cigarette smokers. With the help of sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we have tried to find the metabolic action of cigarette smoke constituents in the cancerous organ. On the basis of these results we are synthesizing pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals to purge the tobacco-constituent metabolic products that cause cancer. The purity, stability and chemical nature of the pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals required for therapy have been studied by chromatography and electrophoresis. The cancer specificity of the therapeutic agent has been examined by the total body distribution of its gamma- and beta-labelled species in solution. At present, a bladder cancer-specific therapeutic agent is being developed.

  3. Kinetic analysis of ligand binding to the Ehrlich cell nucleoside transporter: Pharmacological characterization of allosteric interactions with the sup 3 Hnitrobenzylthioinosine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Kinetic analysis of the binding of {sup 3}Hnitrobenzylthioinosine ({sup 3}H NBMPR) to Ehrlich ascites tumor cell plasma membranes was conducted in the presence and absence of a variety of nucleoside transport inhibitors and substrates. The association of {sup 3}H NBMPR with Ehrlich cell membranes occurred in two distinct phases, possibly reflecting functional conformation changes in the {sup 3}HNBMPR binding site/nucleoside transporter complex. Inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR, tested at submaximal inhibitory concentrations, generally decreased the rate of association of {sup 3}HNBMPR, but the magnitude of this effect varied significantly with the agent tested. Adenosine and diazepam had relatively minor effects on the association rate, whereas dipyridamole and mioflazine slowed the rate dramatically. Inhibitors of nucleoside transport also decreased the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR, with an order of potency significantly different from their relative potencies as inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR. Dilazep, dipyridamole, and mioflazine were effective inhibitors of both {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation and equilibrium binding. The lidoflazine analogue R75231, on the other hand, had no effect on the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR at concentrations below 300 microM, even though it was one of the most potent inhibitors of {sup 3}HNBMPR binding tested (Ki less than 100 nM). In contrast, a series of natural substrates for the nucleoside transport system enhanced the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR with an order of effectiveness that paralleled their relative affinities for the permeant site of the transporter. The most effective enhancers of {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation, however, were the benzodiazepines diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and triazolam.

  4. Chylous ascites secondary to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Stephen F; Daily, Patrick P; Baliga, Prabhakar; Rogers, Jeffrey; Baillie, G Mark; Rajagopolan, P R; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2002-08-01

    Live donor renal transplantation offers many significant advantages over cadaveric donor transplantation. Yet living donation continues to be underused, accounting for less than 30% of all donor renal transplants. In an attempt to remove the disincentives to live donation, Ratner et al. developed laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). LDN is gaining acceptance in the transplant community. The overriding concern must always be the safety and welfare of the donor. To this end, potential complications of LDN must be identified and discussed. We present a patient who developed the complication of chylous ascites from LDN. To improve the laparoscopic technique further, a discussion of its successes and complications needs to be encouraged. To this end, we present chylous ascites as a potential complication after LDN. We also offer suggestions to minimize the likelihood of this complication. PMID:12137847

  5. Hepatic hydrothorax in the absence of ascites

    PubMed Central

    Sukcharoen, Kittiya; Dixon, Steven; Mangat, Kamarjit; Stanton, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A previously well 66-year-old woman presented with a recurrent transudative right-sided pleural effusion. A nodular liver with coarse echotexture was demonstrated on ultrasound and subsequent MRI found hepatocellular carcinoma. In the absence of cardiopulmonary disease and significant protein uria, the recurrent pleural effusion was presumed to be hepatic hydrothorax despite the absence of ascites or other clinical features of chronic liver disease. The patient is currently awaiting liver transplantation. PMID:24027255

  6. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Eun

    2011-01-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease. PMID:22319743

  7. Glycogen metabolism in novikoff ascites-hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, V. N.

    1967-01-01

    A study of the enzymes of the glycogen pathway in Novikoff ascites hepatoma shows that glycogen synthetase has the lowest activity and that the tumour contains no high-Km soluble glucokinase. However, incubation of tumour cells with metabolizable sugars in vitro, or intraperitoneal administration of glucose into the tumour-bearing rat, results in glycogen accumulation by the tumour cells. Glycogen synthesis in the tumour is supported by aerobically produced ATP but is decreased anaerobically and by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Absence of Pi from the incubation medium increases glycogen synthesis and decreases glycolysis. The optimum temperature for glycogen synthesis is 37°. The capacity of the intact tumour cell to degrade deposited glycogen is low, but is accelerated by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Tumour homogenates prepared after osmotic shock do not incorporate [14C]glucose into glycogen. The glucose moiety of glucose 1-phosphate and of UDP-glucose is incorporated into glycogen by the homogenates and the incorporation of glucose 1-phosphate is greatly enhanced by AMP. Glucose 6-phosphate is a poor precursor of glycogen in the homogenate system, probably because it inhibits activation of phosphorylase b by AMP. PMID:4291492

  8. Tissue Distribution and Efficacy of Gold Nanorods Coupled with Laser Induced Photoplasmonic Therapy in Ehrlich Carcinoma Solid Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Shabaka, Ali A.; El-Shabrawy, Osama A.; Yassin, Nemat A.; Mahmoud, Sawsan S.; El-Shenawy, Siham M.; Al-Ashqar, Emad; Eisa, Wael H.; Farag, Niveen M.; El-Shaer, Marwa A.; Salah, Nabila; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNR) within tumor microregions are characterized by their ability to absorb near IR light and emit heat in what is called photoplasmonic effect. Yet, the efficacy of nanoparticles is limited due to intratumoral tissue distribution reasons. In addition, distribution of GNRs to normal tissue might result in non specific toxicity. In the current study, we are assessing the intratumoral and tissue distribution of PEGylated GNRs on the top of its antitumor characteristics when given intravenously or intratumoral to solid tumor bearing mice and coupled with laser photoplasmonic sessions. PEGylated GNRs with a longitudinal size of less than 100 nm were prepared with aspect ratio of 4.6 showing strong surface plasmon absorption at wavelength 800 nm. Pharmacokinetics of GNR after single I.V. administration (0.1 mg/kg) showed very short systemic circulating time (less than 3 h). On the other hand, tissue distribution of I.V. GNR (0.1 mg/kg) to normal animals showed preferential deposition in spleen tissue. Repeated administration of I.V. GNR resulted in preferential accumulation in both liver and spleen tissues. In addition, I.V. administration of GNR to Ehrlich carcinoma tumor bearing mice resulted in similar tissue distribution; tumor accumulation and anti-tumor effect compared to intratumoral administration. In conclusion, the concentration of GNR achieved within tumors microregions after I.V. administration was comparable to I.T. administration and sufficient to elicit tumoral growth arrest when coupled with laser-aided photoplasmonic treatment. PMID:24098446

  9. Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

    1983-09-01

    The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

  10. Endodermal Sinus Tumor Presented With Ascites: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Begenik, Huseyin; Esen, Ramazan; Rafet, Mete

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of primary endodermal sinus tumor of the omentum which may be the fourth reported case in the English literature. A 19-year-old boy presented with ascites. Analysis of ascites revealed high levels of AFP and CA 125. Laparoscopic biopsy showed endodermal sinus tumour. He was treated with four courses of the BEP regimen (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin). The patient was died 2 months after the first appearance of the ascites. Endodermal sinus tumor (EST) is a rare neoplasm which usually arises in the testis or ovary. But extragonadal EST especially located in the abdomen is very rare condition. Clinicians should remain vigilant particularly, when there is a low gradient ascites and are high levels of tumor markers in ascites in young patients.

  11. The contribution of Paul Ehrlich to histochemistry: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his death.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, Igor; Boecker, Werner; Tiemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Paul Ehrlich is the founder of a number of areas in biomedical research: in the first line, immunology and chemotherapy. Aim of this historical note to the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's death is to commemorate his tribute to the establishment and development of histochemistry.

  12. Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) and His Contributions to the Foundation and Birth of Translational Medicine.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Groner, Bernd; Schumacher, Udo; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Busslinger, Meinrad; Kralovics, Robert; Zielinski, Christoph; Penninger, Josef M; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Stingl, Georg; Smolen, Josef S; Valenta, Rudolf; Lassmann, Hans; Kovar, Heinrich; Jäger, Ulrich; Kornek, Gabriela; Müller, Markus; Sörgel, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Translational research and precision medicine are based on a profound knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to various physiologic processes and pathologic reactions in diverse organs. Whereas specific molecular interactions and mechanisms have been identified during the past 5 decades, the underlying principles were defined much earlier and originate from to the seminal observations made by outstanding researchers between 1850 and 1915. One of the most outstanding exponents of these scientists is Paul Ehrlich. His work resulted not only in the foundation and birth of modern hematology and immunology, but also led to the development of chemotherapy and specific targeted treatment concepts. In 2015, the Medical University of Vienna organized a memorial meeting, with the aim of honoring Paul Ehrlich's contributions to science, and to commemorate the 100th anniversary of his death. The authors of the current review served as faculty members and dedicate this paper to Paul Ehrlich and his remarkable contributions to medicine.

  13. [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity].

    PubMed

    Lokaj, J; John, C

    2008-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 was awarded to Ilya I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich for recognition of their work on immunity. Mechnikov have discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis as the basis of natural cellular immunity. His ,,phagocytic theory" is the principle of immunological concept "self and not self" as the prerequisition of physiological inflammation, and selfmaintaining of organism. Ehrlich developed the methods for standardization of antibody activity in immune sera, described neutralizing and complement-depending effect of antibodies and enunciated the ,"ide-chain" theory of the formation of antibodies. Their concept of the key-stone of immunity was different, but they expressed the basic paradigma of immunology: immunity imply the protection of identity and guarantee the integrity of organism. Both are the founders of immunology as the scientific discipline. Discoveries and conceptions of I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich exceedingly influenced development of immunology and are also applicable, instructive and suggestive in contemporary immunology and microbiology. PMID:19069024

  14. [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity].

    PubMed

    Lokaj, J; John, C

    2008-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 was awarded to Ilya I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich for recognition of their work on immunity. Mechnikov have discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis as the basis of natural cellular immunity. His ,,phagocytic theory" is the principle of immunological concept "self and not self" as the prerequisition of physiological inflammation, and selfmaintaining of organism. Ehrlich developed the methods for standardization of antibody activity in immune sera, described neutralizing and complement-depending effect of antibodies and enunciated the ,"ide-chain" theory of the formation of antibodies. Their concept of the key-stone of immunity was different, but they expressed the basic paradigma of immunology: immunity imply the protection of identity and guarantee the integrity of organism. Both are the founders of immunology as the scientific discipline. Discoveries and conceptions of I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich exceedingly influenced development of immunology and are also applicable, instructive and suggestive in contemporary immunology and microbiology.

  15. Ascites in broilers. 1. Experimental factors evoking symptoms related to ascites.

    PubMed

    Scheele, C W; De Wit, W; Frankenhuis, M T; Vereijken, P F

    1991-05-01

    Male broilers of two genetically related stocks with divergent growth rates and feed conversion ratios were used to study metabolic backgrounds on the occurrence of pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, hypoxemia, and ascites in poultry. An experiment with a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial split-plot arrangement of treatments with 96 groups of 12 broilers was performed. Effects of stock and environmental factors such as ambient temperature, dietary fat, and dietary energy on performance, energy metabolism, oxygen consumption, hematocrit values, and mortality were investigated in broilers from 1 to 5 wk of age. Dissimilar responses of the two stocks to environmental factors reflected genotype by environment interactions and revealed metabolic disorders related to heart failure and ascites. The results indicated that in the stock with the lower feed conversion ratio, a fast protein accretion was achieved together with a reduced ability to convert chemical energy to metabolic heat and to deposit body fat directly from ingested fat. Birds with a low feed conversion ratio show less flexibility in metabolic adaptation to a changing environment, which can account for the development of ascites. PMID:1852684

  16. The collected papers of Paul Ehrlich : why was volume 4 never published?

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Arthur M

    2002-01-01

    In the 1950s, Sir Henry Hallett Dale undertook to compile and publish all the scientific papers of Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich. He was assisted in this venture by Dr. Fred Himmelweit and by Ehrlich's former secretary, Martha Marquardt. A four-volume series was announced, but only three volumes saw the light of day, between 1957 and 1960. This report presents the result of a five-year effort to determine the reason for the failure to complete the undertaking, in which all potential sources were pursued and queried. In the end, the mystery remains unsolved.

  17. Immunology's foundation: the 100-year anniversary of the Nobel Prize to Paul Ehrlich and Elie Metchnikoff.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2008-07-01

    One hundred years ago the birth of immunology was made official by the Nobel Prize award to Elie Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich. Metchnikoff discovered phagocytosis by macrophages and microphages as a critical host-defense mechanism and thus is considered the father of cellular innate immunity. Ehrlich described the side-chain theory of antibody formation and the mechanisms of how antibodies neutralize toxins and induce bacterial lysis with the help of complement and thus is considered one of the fathers of humoral adaptive immunity. Despite many discordant discussions in the initial phase after these discoveries, innate and adaptive responses are now known to be complementary partners in producing robust immunity.

  18. Care and management of the patient with ascites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lisa; Grap, Mary Jo

    2008-12-01

    Cirrhosis combined with chronic liver failure ranks 12th as a leading cause of death in the United States. Ascites, the most common complication of cirrhosis-induced liver failure, is reviewed, including its pathogenesis, evaluation, diagnosis, and management.

  19. Ascites and other incidental findings revealing undiagnosed systemic rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Matthew Chak Hin; Disney, Benjamin; Perkins, Philip; Wood, Gordon

    2015-06-08

    We describe a case of a 43-year-old man presenting to the gastroenterology outpatient department with exudative ascites. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pericardial effusion and pleural effusion were detected on further imaging. Further clinical examination revealed subcutaneous nodules on the left arm, which were confirmed to be rheumatoid nodules on histology. Inflammatory markers were elevated with positive serology for rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody. Our investigations excluded tuberculosis, pancreatitis and malignancy in the patient. Following review by a rheumatologist, a diagnosis of systemic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was made. Pleuritis and pericarditis are well recognised as extra-articular manifestation of RA. Ascites, however, is rarely recognised as a manifestation of RA. Our literature search revealed two other cases of ascites due to RA disease activity, and both patients had long-standing known RA. This case adds to the discussion on whether ascites and peritonitis should be classified as extra-articular manifestations of RA.

  20. A case of mantle cell lymphoma presenting with ascites.

    PubMed

    Al-Nabulsi, Majdi; Basnet, Alina; Salerno, Vincent; Cholankeril, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    Ascites with the finding of peritoneal carcinomatosis is considered an unusual presentation for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and has been rarely described in literature. This case reflects the importance of cytological analysis of peritoneal fluid in a patient with intractable ascites not contributing from other comorbidities. In the event a bone marrow (BM) analysis cannot be made, this may serve as an alternative method for diagnosing MCL taking into consideration the good concordance between peritoneal fluid and BM cytological markers.

  1. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years.

  2. [Septic ascites: a rare post-operative complication].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Taglienti, D; de Anna, L; Masoni, L; Gasparrini, M; Viola, M; Nicolai, A P; Lucidi, V; Montori, A

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with chronic hepatitis represents a very controversial matter in terms of frequency, pathology and treatment. This unusual complication mainly due to decreased immunological defences and ascitic fluid opsonic activity is not accepted by all the Authors as a rare event. However, there is agreement as far as management is concerned: cultural examination of the ascitic fluid and the relative antibiogram are the best tools in guiding the approach to an adequate antibiotic therapy.

  3. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  4. Chylous ascites: Treated with total parenteral nutrition and somatostatin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, Jun; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of total parenteral nutrition and somatostatin on patients with chylous ascites. METHODS: Five patients were diagnosed with chylous ascites on the basis of laboratory findings of ascites sample from Nov 1999 to May 2003. Total parenteral nutrition and somatostatin or its analogue was administered to 4 patients, while the other one only received total parenteral nutrition. All the patients had persistent peritoneal drainage, with the quantity and quality of drainage fluid observed daily. Necessary supportive treatments were given to the patients individually during the therapy. RESULTS: Two of 4 patients who received somatostatin therapy obtained complete recovery within 10 d without any recurrence while on a normal diet. In these 2 patients, the peritoneal drainage reduced to zero in one and the other's decreased from 2000 mL to 80 mL with a clear appearance and negative qualitative analysis of chyle. Recurrent chylous ascites, though relieved effectively by the same method every time, developed in one patient with advanced pancreatic cancer. The other patient's lymphatic fistula was blocked with the fibrin glue after conservative treatment. The patient who only received total parenteral nutrition was cured 24 d after therapy. CONCLUSION: Total parenteral nutrition along with somatostatin can relieve the symptoms and close the fistula in patients with chylous ascites rapidly. It appears to be an effective therapy available for the treatment of chylous ascites caused by various disorders. PMID:15300913

  5. Treatment and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Buder, Robert; Kapun, Lisbeth; Voglmayr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ascites and renal dysfunction are frequent complications experienced by patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and is one of the cardinal signs of portal hypertension. The diagnostic evaluation of ascites involves assessment of its granulocyte count and protein concentration to exclude complications such as infection or malignoma and to allow risk stratification for the development of spontaneous peritonitis. Although sodium restriction and diuretics remain the cornerstone of the management of ascites, many patients require additional therapy when they become refractory to this treatment. In this situation, the treatment of choice is repeated large-volume paracentesis. Alteration in splanchnic hemodynamics is one of the most important changes underlying the development of ascites. Further splanchnic dilation leads to changes in systemic hemodynamics, activating vasopressor agents and leading to decreased renal perfusion. Small alterations in renal function influence the prognosis, which depends on the cause of renal failure. Prerenal failure is evident in about 70% of patients, whereas in about 30% of patients the cause is hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), which is associated with a worse prognosis. Therefore, effective therapy is of great clinical importance. Recent data indicate that use of the new definition of acute kidney injury facilitates the identification and treatment of patients with renal insufficiency more rapidly than use of the current criteria for HRS. In this review article, we evaluate approaches to the management of patients with ascites and HRS. PMID:25729433

  6. Treatment and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Kurt; Buder, Robert; Kapun, Lisbeth; Voglmayr, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ascites and renal dysfunction are frequent complications experienced by patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and is one of the cardinal signs of portal hypertension. The diagnostic evaluation of ascites involves assessment of its granulocyte count and protein concentration to exclude complications such as infection or malignoma and to allow risk stratification for the development of spontaneous peritonitis. Although sodium restriction and diuretics remain the cornerstone of the management of ascites, many patients require additional therapy when they become refractory to this treatment. In this situation, the treatment of choice is repeated large-volume paracentesis. Alteration in splanchnic hemodynamics is one of the most important changes underlying the development of ascites. Further splanchnic dilation leads to changes in systemic hemodynamics, activating vasopressor agents and leading to decreased renal perfusion. Small alterations in renal function influence the prognosis, which depends on the cause of renal failure. Prerenal failure is evident in about 70% of patients, whereas in about 30% of patients the cause is hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), which is associated with a worse prognosis. Therefore, effective therapy is of great clinical importance. Recent data indicate that use of the new definition of acute kidney injury facilitates the identification and treatment of patients with renal insufficiency more rapidly than use of the current criteria for HRS. In this review article, we evaluate approaches to the management of patients with ascites and HRS.

  7. A Rare Case of Ascites due to Peritoneal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Stofer, Fernanda; Barretto, Maria Fernanda; Gouvea, Ana Luisa; Ribeiro, Mario; Neves, Marcio; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg; Mocarzel, Luís Otavio

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 65 Final Diagnosis: Peritoneal amyloidosis Symptoms: Anasarca • Dyspnea • Orthopnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Paracentesis and peritoneal biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The clinical manifestations of amyloidosis depend on the type of insoluble protein as well as the location of amyloid deposits in tissues or organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine is the most common site of amyloid deposits, whereas peritoneal involvement and ascites are rare. Case Report: We report on a case of ascites due to peritoneal amyloidosis. A 65-year-old patient was admitted to our institution due to anasarca and pulmonary congestion, mimicking heart failure. We started the patient on diuretics and vasodilators. Despite improvement in pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema, his ascites was not reduced. Echocardiogram revealed restrictive cardiomyopathy and a speckle-tracking pattern suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis. Subcutaneous and peritoneal biopsies revealed amyloidosis. Conclusions: Amyloidosis is rare in the peritoneum and is usually asymptomatic. Ascites occurs in only 20% of patients with peritoneal amyloidosis. We searched PubMed using “ascites” and “amyloidosis” and identified only eight case reports of amyloidosis with ascites. Physicians should be particularly careful in heart failure and anasarca cases when ascites is disproportional or not responsive to diuretic treatment. To date, there is no specific treatment for peritoneal amyloidosis. PMID:27353538

  8. 76 FR 44015 - Thirteenth International Paul-Ehrlich-Seminar: Allergen Products for Diagnosis and Therapy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Products for Diagnosis and Therapy: Regulation and Science; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug...- Ehrlich-Seminar: Allergen Products for Diagnosis and Therapy: Regulation and Science.'' The purpose of the... vaccines for humans and animals, medicinal products containing antibodies, allergens for therapy...

  9. Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Intergenerational Reflections--An Interview with Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    In a September 2013 interview, Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu--whose passion for public service is manifested in differing ways and from two dramatically different generational standpoints--discussed insights from their co-authored book, "Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service (2013)." Septuagenarian Tom…

  10. Fluorescence-lifetime molecular imaging can detect invisible peritoneal ovarian tumors in bloody ascites

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Takahito; Sano, Kohei; Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Rira; Harada, Toshiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Blood contamination, such as bloody ascites or hemorrhages during surgery, is a potential hazard for clinical application of fluorescence imaging. In order to overcome this problem, we investigate if fluorescence-lifetime imaging helps to overcome this problem. Samples were prepared at concentrations ranging 0.3–2.4 μm and mixed with 0–10% of blood. Fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of samples were measured using a time-domain fluorescence imager. Ovarian cancer SHIN3 cells overexpressing the D-galactose receptor were injected into the peritoneal cavity 2.5 weeks before the experiments. Galactosyl serum albumin-rhodamine green (GSA-RhodG), which bound to the D-galactose receptor and was internalized thereafter, was administered intraperitoneally to peritoneal ovarian cancer-bearing mice with various degrees of bloody ascites. In vitro study showed a linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and probe concentration (r2 > 0.99), whereas the fluorescence lifetime was consistent (range, 3.33 ± 0.15–3.75 ± 0.04 ns). By adding 10% of blood to samples, fluorescence intensities decreased to <1%, while fluorescence lifetimes were consistent. In vivo fluorescence lifetime of GSA-RhodG stained tumors was longer than the autofluorescence lifetime (threshold, 2.87 ns). Tumor lesions under hemorrhagic peritonitis were not depicted using fluorescence intensity imaging; however, fluorescence-lifetime imaging clearly detected tumor lesions by prolonged lifetimes. In conclusion, fluorescence-lifetime imaging with GSA-RhodG depicted ovarian cancer lesions, which were invisible in intensity images, in hemorrhagic ascites. PMID:24479901

  11. [Letters from the Nobellaureter Paul Ehrlich to the Director for the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, Thorvald Madsen].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Jette E; Hendricks, Oliver; Permin, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 some letters, written from 1905-1915 by the father to the chemotherapy, the Nobellaurter Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) and his family written to Dr. Thorvald Madsen (1870-1957), Director of the State Serum Institute from 1909 to 1940 was found. In these letters the personal and scientific relations between the two scientists is described on the background of the letters found. The article is written with the intention to celebrate the 150-birthday of Paul Ehrlich and to document the close relations between Paul Ehrlich and the founders of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen: Carl Julius Salomonsen (1847-1924) and Thorvald Madsen.

  12. Synergistic efficacy of γ-radiation together with gallium trichloride and/or doxorubicin against Ehrlich carcinoma in female mice.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Eman; Aziz, Nahed Abdel

    2016-02-01

    Combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy represents a key oncology strategy for a more comprehensive attack toward cancers and improves treatment outcome for various solid tumor malignancies. The present study aims to evaluate the synergistic antitumor effect of γ-radiation together with gallium trichloride (GaCl3) and/or doxorubicin (DOX) against solid Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) in female mice. GaCl3 (300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) was administered by gavages daily on the seventh day after tumor inoculation, while the cytotoxic drug DOX (4 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally once a week. Whole-body γ-radiation was carried out at a dose 2 Gy once a week. Biochemical analysis showed that solid EC induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content with a significant decrease in the antioxidant state (glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities) and depleted serum iron concentration compared to normal control. Moreover, a significant increase was observed in calcium level and caspase-3 concentrations in both serum and tumor homogenate respectively associated with a significant alteration in heart, liver, and kidney functions, as compared to control. Treatment of EC-bearing mice with GaCl3and/or DOX combined with γ-radiation exposure significantly reduced tumor volume and displayed a significant improvement in most studied markers which may indicate a synergistic effect of this combination against organ dysfunction and cellular injury. The histopathologically investigation showed that treatment of animals bearing EC with GaCl3and/or DOX with γ-radiation exposure showed shrinkage in tumor lesions and wide zones of apoptotic cells with signs of regenerations. It was concluded that the combination of GaCl3and/or DOX with γ-radiation exposure resulted in super-additive cytotoxic effects on treatment of cancer cells. PMID:26318299

  13. A Case of Successful Conservative Treatment for Chylous Ascites After Living-Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Hiroaki; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Gocho, Takeshi; Ishida, Yuichi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    A 46-year-old man underwent living-donor liver transplantation and splenectomy for primary biliary cirrhosis. On postoperative day 22, cloudiness of ascites increased, and triglyceride concentration in ascites was as high as 1046 mg/dL. With a diagnosis of chylous ascites, total parenteral nutrition was started. Nine days after starting total parenteral nutrition, cloudiness of ascites decreased, and triglycerides in ascites decreased to 93 mg/dL. Oral intake was restarted, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 46. Chylous ascites is a rare complication after living-donor liver transplantation for which total parenteral nutrition may be useful. PMID:23294080

  14. A case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with massive ascites

    PubMed Central

    Yonal, Ipek; Nazlıgul, Esra; Tas, Gulsum; Agan, Mehmet Ramazan; Yenerel, Mustafa Nuri; Nalcaci, Meliha

    2012-01-01

    An 81-year old woman with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was admitted with night sweats and abdominal distension. A complete blood count showed hemoglobin 5 g/dL, white blood cell (WBC) count 28.5×109/L and platelets 38.4×109/L. Peripheral blood smear examination showed a large number of smudge cells and lymphocytosis composed of mature-looking lymphocytes with clumped nuclear chromatin. Computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged cervical, axillary, paraaortic, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes with concomitant omental thickening and ascites. Also, the liver and the spleen were enlarged in the presence of multiple ill-defined hypoechoic areas in the latter. Histopathological analysis of the cervical lymph node biopsy was consistent with CLL. Bone marrow examination showed diffuse infiltration of the marrow with small lymphocytes. Analysis of the ascitic fluid revealed an exudate with WBC 1220 cells/mL. Cytocentrifuge preparation of the ascitic fluid showed small mature lymphoid cells containing hyperchromatic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin. On flow cytometric analysis of the ascitic fluid, expression of CD5, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD45 and HLA-DR was compatible with a diagnosis of CLL, in accordance with the results of the peripheral blood analysis. The patient was treated with chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone but died within one month after development of non-chylous ascites. PMID:23372915

  15. [Conditions for forming ascitic tumors in hybridoma cultivation in vivo].

    PubMed

    Novokhatskiĭ, A S; Malakhova, I V; Gaĭdamovich, S Ia; Mel'nikova, E E; Sveshnikova, N A

    1986-07-01

    The conditions of the formation of ascitic cells in BALB/c mice injected with hybridoma cells were studied. All the hybridomas under study, producing monoclonal antibodies to viral antigens, induced the formation of ascitic tumors when introduced into the abdominal cavity of BALB/c mice pretreated with sensitizing agents. In the mice pretreated with pristane hybridoma cells took at a rate of 43-80% and in the mice pretreated with Freund's complete adjuvant, 31-70%. Angara oil and perfume oil, as well as Bayol F, were less effective. The time of the formation of ascites was inversely proportional to the dose of the injected cells, while the volume of ascitic fluid depended rather on the type of hybridoma and not on the dose of the injected cells. The study showed that the use of physiological saline or culture medium without serum for washing the abdominal cavity of mice after withdrawing ascites permitted the additional collection of 2.6-13.7 million hybrid cells, as well as a considerable amount of immunoglobulins.

  16. Ascites-induced LeVeen shunt coagulopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ragni, M V; Lewis, J H; Spero, J A

    1983-01-01

    Ten of 11 patients undergoing peritoneovenous (LeVeen) shunt placement for intractable ascites had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) following the shunt procedure. Intraoperative ascitic fluid specimens revealed fibrin split products (FSP) in high titer (1:100-1:1600) in all patients. Endotoxin was found in 6 of 11 ascitic fluid samples but in no plasma samples. Activated clotting factors, clot inhibitors, excess protein, and fibrinolytic activity were not found in ascitic fluid. Clotting factor levels were much lower than in plasma. Bleeding occurred after operation in two patients; this appeared to be related to the severity of liver dysfunction as demonstrated by elevations of bilirubin, serum glutamic oxalocetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and preoperative DIC. It is concluded that the LeVeen shunt coagulopathy is DIC, and may be related to exposure of the systemic circulation to FSP-rich ascitic fluid that may activate the coagulation mechanism. Bleeding complications do not appear to be related to the severity of the post shunt coagulopathy, but rather to the severity of liver dysfunction and presence of preoperative DIC (probably caused by the liver disease). PMID:6859998

  17. Analysis of morphological markers of chromosomal instability in ascitic fluid.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab; Uppal, Radha; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal instability (CI) plays a major role in the carcinogenesis. Micronuclei, nuclear budding, chromatin bridges,and multipolar mitoses are the morphological markers of CI and have never been studied in routine cytological specimens. Aims of the study is to analyze the significance of morphological markers of CI in malignant and benign ascitic fluid smears. A total of sixty benign and 40 malignant ascitic fluid samples were selected for this study. All the cases with malignant ascitic fluid showed histopathological evidence of malignancy in ovary and omentum. Chromatin bridges, multipolar mitosis (MPM), micronuclei and nuclear budding were counted in 1000 cells in representative May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) stained smears. The CI markers were correlated with the cytological diagnosis of effusion. The mean number of micronuclei, nuclear budding, chromatin bridge and multipolar mitoses found in malignant effusions were 13.2611.79, 10.1067.07, 2.5362.67, 1.964.5, respectively. The mean number of micronuclei, nuclear budding, anaphase bridges, and MPM found in benign effusion cases were 0.566761.07934, 0.516761.33, 0.66760.25, and 0, respectively. The student t test showed significant differences between malignant and benign ascitic fluid samples for each marker of CI. This is the first comprehensive study of morphological markers of CI in ascitic fluid smears. This study has shown strong correlation between markers of CI and cytological diagnosis of malignancy. In future, the knowledge of these markers can be applied to diagnose malignancy in suspected cases of effusion in difficult situations.

  18. Observations on the mechanism and location of ascites reabsorption in man

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, W.G. Jr.; Ibarra, F.

    1987-04-01

    Animal data indicate that ascites is reabsorbed by a lymphatic mechanism and that these vessels are subdiaphragmatic in location. We evaluated the relative role of lymphatics in ascites reabsorption in man by comparing the ascites clearance and plasma appearance rates of intraperitoneally injected radiolabeled albumin to those of intraperitoneally injected labeled autologous red blood cells, which require, owing to their large size, lymphatic removal, in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. To evaluate the location of reabsorption, we repeated these measurements after replacing ascites in the subdiaphragmatic region with 500-1000 ml of intraperitoneally injected air, reasoning that this maneuver should slow or eliminate ascites reabsorption occurring at this site. We found that the transfer rates of albumin and red cells out of ascites were similar and that creation of pneumoperitoneum did not influence these rates. These data confirm that ascites protein reabsorption occurs via a lymphatic mechanism in man. They suggest, however, that these vessels may not be subdiaphragmatic in location.

  19. Chylothorax and chylous ascites in a patient with uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Tani, K; Ogushi, F; Sone, S; Kagawa, N; Ogura, T

    1988-06-01

    A 63-year-old woman, who had undergone radical hysterectomy and radiation therapy for cervical cancer of the uterus three years previously, was found to have pleural effusion and ascites. A diagnosis of chylothorax and chylous ascites was made on the basis of these fluids' characteristics. She received medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) in her diet and intra-venous hyperalimentation to decrease the leakages of chyle into the pleural and peritoneal cavities, but she died of respiratory and renal failures after six months. At autopsy, metastases from the cervical cancer of the uterus to the lymph nodes in the mediastinum and around the abdominal aorta were proved histologically. Lymph node swelling due to metastasis had caused a rupture of the thoracic duct, leading to chylothorax and chylous ascites. The diagnosis, evaluation and therapeutic modalities of the condition are outlined and the literature reviewed.

  20. Successful management of chylous ascites: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shaan E; Kar, Sunny M; Kar, Pran M

    2016-03-01

    Chylous ascites consists of the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneal cavity. Diagnosis is established by cytochemical analysis of the fluid revealing fat globules and high triglyceride content. The majority of cases are caused by pathology that interferes with abdominal retroperitoneal lymphatic drainage. We present two cases of postoperative chylous ascites, one following a bilateral nephrectomy, the other following orthotopic heart transplantation. Treatment is typically conservative with the aim to alleviate abdominal distension and reduce the flow of lymph into the mesenteric lymph nodes. Postsurgical chylous ascites has high cure rate with conservative therapy alone. Therapeutic paracentesis, diuretics, salt restriction, a high-protein, low-fat, mediumchain triglyceride diet, and parenteral nutrition are considered in chronic cases. The effects of longterm paracentesis on patients remains to be seen. In patients requiring renal replacement therapy, removal of chyle during peritoneal dialysis is often attempted.

  1. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  2. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  3. Metabolic rate and its relationship with ascites in chicken genotypes.

    PubMed

    Malan, D D; Scheele, C W; Buyse, J; Kwakernaak, C; Siebrits, F K; van der Klis, J D; Decuypere, E

    2003-05-01

    1. Male chickens of 7 genetic lines, consisting of two pure sire and two pure dam populations, a commercial broiler cross and two slow-growing chicken lines (Label Rouge, LR and Mechelse Koekoek, MK) were reared from 1 to 37 d of age. The chickens received a two-phase dietary regime and were subjected to low ambient temperature. 2. The experimental aim was to investigate relationships between susceptibility to ascites and heat production. 3. Body weight gain (BWG), food intake and food conversion ratio (FCR) were determined. Ascites mortality, arterial pressure index (API=right ventricular/total ventricular weight ratio), haematocrit values, proportional lung weight (lung weight/body weight x 100), plasma thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3) and arterial blood gas pressures (pCO2 and pO2) were determined. The heat production per kg metabolic body weight (H/W0.75) and total heat production (H) were calculated for the period 16 to 33 d using an energy balance study according to the comparative slaughter method. 4. The two breeder sire lines had high BWG and low FCR and high but different incidences of ascites compared with the slow-growing ascites resistant LR and MK lines with notable high FCR. The broiler cross and slower-growing breeder dam lines had a similar and relatively lower incidence of ascites mortality. 5. The fast-growing chickens had low H/W0.75 values compared with slow-growing lines. 6. These fast-growing breeder sires had lower plasma thyroid hormone, reduced proportional lung weights, low arterial pO2 and high arterial pCO2 pressures compared with the slower-growing lines. 7. In conclusion, ascites incidence was associated with lower heat production per metabolic body weight and therefore a lower oxygen requirement per metabolic weight. PMID:12828217

  4. A rational approach to the treatment of ascites

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, V.; Rodés, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational approach to the diuretic therapy of ascites is proposed. Fifty-five patients were classified according to their ability to excrete sodium and free water. Patients with a high urinary sodium excretion can be treated by low sodium intake alone. In most patients with a low sodium excretion but high free water clearance, distal diuretics (spironolactone or triamterene) with a low sodium diet will relieve ascites. Patients with low values for sodium excretion and free water clearance also have poor glomerular filtration rate and only a few of these will respond to diuretic therapy. PMID:1234341

  5. Models for biological research: the theory and practice of Paul Ehrlich.

    PubMed

    Travis, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the study of the living world placed considerable reliance on applied chemistry and chemical concepts. Paul Ehrlich, the subject of this paper, adopted from the mid-1870s principles of organic chemistry to devise procedures for use in histology, to suggest features of cellular structure, and to draw up cartoons that explained the nature of immunity. From a distinctly molecular basis, he devised meaningful experimental strategies and was inspired to develop speculative but effective theoretical models along the same lines that chemists had used to resolve problems of molecular structure and behavior. Thus, Ehrlich suggested that combining power and toxicity were independent properties of the antigen toxin. He succeeded to classify synthetic dyestuffs as stains, to use them for investigating molecular combustion, to adapt theories of dyeing to develop models for both combustion and immunity, and to exploit the properties of dyes in the development of chemotherapy. Ehrlich not only speculated on the behavior of synthetic chemicals toward his model of the protoplasm but also invoked biological specificity, a concept that would have a tremendous impact on immunology, drug development, and molecular biology.

  6. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  7. Paul Ehrlich: pathfinder in cell biology. 1. Chronicle of his life and accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kasten, F H

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the life of Paul Ehrlich and his biomedical accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy. Ehrlich achieved renown as an organic chemist, histologist, hematologist, immunologist, and pharmacologist. He disliked the formality of school but managed to excel in Latin and mathematics. His role model was an older cousin, Carl Weigert, who became a lifelong friend. Ehrlich studied medicine at Breslau, Strasbourg, Freiburg, and Leipzig, coming under the influence of Wilhelm Waldeyer, Julius Cohnheim, Rudolf Heidenhein, and Ferdinand Cohn. As a medical student, Ehrlich was captivated by structural organic chemistry and dyes. When he was 23, his first paper was published on selective staining. His doctoral thesis, "Contribution to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining" contained most of the germinal ideas that would guide his future career. Most of his early work was centered in Berlin at Charite Hospital, where he did pioneering studies on blood and intravital staining, and at Robert Koch's Institute for Infectious Diseases, where he undertook important investigations in immunology. Ehrlich became an authority on antitoxin standardization and developed the "side-chain theory" of antibody formation for which he was later awarded the Nobel Prize. He became director of an Institute for Experimental Therapy in Frankfurt where he continued research in immunology and carried out routine serum testing. He developed new lines of investigation in cancer research and originated the field of chemotherapy. Using principles developed in his early work with dyes, he successfully treated certain experimental trypanosomal infections with azo dyes. His crowning accomplishment was discovering that the compound Salvarsan could control human syphilis. Ehrlich's legacy in immunology and chemotherapy is discussed and an intimate portrait is drawn of Ehrlich the person.

  8. Diagnosis and management of congenital neonatal chylous ascites

    PubMed Central

    Mouravas, V; Dede, O; Hatziioannidis, H; Spyridakis, I; Filippopoulos, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Congenital chylous ascites is a rare condition that constitutes a challenge for the physician. It is defined as the accumulation of chyle into the peritoneal cavity in infants younger than 3 months. This condition is often refractory to therapy and it is responsible for serious malnutrition and immunological deficiency because of the loss of proteins and lymphocytes. Material and methods: Four cases of congenital neonatal chylous ascites, were treated by our staff during the last two years. One case was treated conservatively and three with laparotomy. Two of them had intraabdominal cysts that were excised and one was treated with ligation of the left lumbar lymphatic trunk and cisterna chyli and the use of fibrin glue. Results: All four cases were treated successfully. On follow up tests no one showed recurrence of the ascites. All children, except the one that treated conservatively and also had other problems due to prematurity, are growing up normally. Conclusions: Congenital chylous ascites is a complex condition. Its diagnostic evaluation is difficult and its therapy of long duration. Conservative treatment is in most cases the initial choice, but when it fails, exploratory laparotomy could provide a successful alternative. PMID:23935276

  9. Hemodynamic Consequences of Malignant Ascites in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Surgery∗

    PubMed Central

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pietzner, Klaus; Koch, Mandy; Krannich, Alexander; Sehouli, Jalid; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malignant ascites (MA) is most commonly observed in patients scheduled for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery and is supposed as a major risk factor promoting perioperative hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic consequences of MA on systemic circulation in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. This study is a predefined post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a goal-directed algorithm to optimize hemodynamic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. Ascites was used to stratify the EOC patients prior to randomization in the main study. We analyzed 2 groups according to the amount of ascites (NLAS: none or low ascites [<500 mL] vs HAS: high ascites group [>500 mL]). Differences in hemodynamic variables with respect to time were analyzed using nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data and multivariate generalized estimating equation adjusting the analysis for the randomized study groups of the main study. A total of 31 patients in the NLAS and 16 patients in the HAS group were analyzed. Although cardiac output was not different between groups suggesting a similar circulatory blood flow, the HAS group revealed higher heart rates and lower stroke volumes during surgery. There were no differences in pressure-based hemodynamic variables. In the HAS group, fluid demands, reflected by the time to reindication of a fluid challenge after preload optimization, increased steadily, whereas stroke volume could not be maintained at baseline resulting in hemodynamic instability after 1.5 h of surgery. In contrast, in the NLAS group fluid demands were stable and stroke volume could be maintained during surgery. Clinically relevant associations of the type of fluid replacement with hemodynamic consequences were particularly observed in the HAS group, in which transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was associated to an improved circulatory flow and reduced

  10. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yijun; Lu, Hongjuan; Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ► Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ► The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ► Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ► Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ► Buthionine sulfoximine does not

  11. A corny cause of cerebrospinal fluid ascites: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Hira; Abrams, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare cause of cerebrospinal fluid ascites. Methods: A 37-year-old female with history of intracranial hypertension and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was referred to liver clinic for evaluation of newly developed ascites. Results: Initially, the cause of ascites was thought to be secondary to a liver etiology. However, this was excluded after a comprehensive evaluation including portal pressure measurements. We determined the ascites to be infected cerebrospinal fluid secondary to a rare commensal organism, Corynebacterium non-Jeikeium, which resolved after removing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, appropriate antibiotics and conversion to a ventriculo-atrial shunt. Conclusion: Cerebrospinal fluid ascites is a rare complication of VP shunts and since 1976 only 8 cases of Corynebacterium non jk VP shunt infections have been reported in the literature but none associated with ascites. Also this report highlights the beneficial role of transjugular portal pressure measurements in the evaluation of ascites. PMID:27489721

  12. Journal bearing

    DOEpatents

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  13. Antitumor and apoptosis promoting properties of atorvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Ajith, Thekkoottuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Anu, Vijayan; Riji, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that high body fat or high dietary fat can be ascribed to the induction of human cancers. Increased level of products of lipid peroxidation and cholesterol-enriched lipid domains in the plasma membrane can favorthe malignant transformation of cells. An effective chemopreventive agent with hypolipaedemic effect will be worthwhile to intervene early in the process of carcinogenesis to eliminate the pre-malignant cells. Apoptotic promoting and antitumor activities of a HMG-Co A reductase inhibitor, atorvatstain were investigated. The antitumor activity was evaluated using Daltons' Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cell line transplanted ascites tumor model in mice. Proapoptotic activity was evaluated in DLA cell line induced ascites animals after the treatment of atorvastatin (4 and 16 mg/kg, i.p). Apoptosis was analyzed morphologically by staining with giemsa and biochemically by observing the laddering of DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis. In vitro short term cytotoxic activity of atorvatstain was studied by trypan blue dye exclusion method. Doxorubicin was used as the reference standard. Atorvastatin significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited the ascites tumor growth at 16 mg/kg body wt (i.p). The percent increase in life span (%ILS) in the 16 mg/kg treated group was 41.1%. Single dose of atorvastatin (16 mg/kg body wt) was also effective to promote the apoptosis of DLA cells in the ascites tumor bearing mice that was evident from the multiple fragmentation of DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis. Further the morphological analysis of DLA cells aspirated from the atorvastatin treated ascites tumor bearing animals showed 36.34 +/- 6.78% apoptotic cells compared to the control animals (10.50 +/- 3.53%). Concentration of atorvastatin required for the 50% of the cytotoxicity was 30 +/- 2 microg/ml. Results of the study concluded that the antitumor activity of atorvastatin may be due to its proapoptotic and cytotoxic activities. These

  14. Grizzly bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  15. Nucleation on a stepped surface with an Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromcova, Z.; Tringides, M. C.; Chvoj, Z.

    2013-07-01

    During deposition on a stepped surface the growth mode depends on the conditions such as temperature T, deposition rate F and width of the terraces w. In this work we studied the influence of all the above mentioned characteristics using the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) technique. We concentrated on the conditions on the terrace at the moment of the first nucleation. The critical density of monomers for nucleation ηm decreases with the width of the terrace and the nucleation starts at surprisingly low densities of monomers. We tested several definitions of the critical width for nucleation wc used in various articles in the past and we compared our results with results of the analytical steady-state mean-field model (Ranguelov and Altman 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245419). To check how the simplified assumption about the steady-state regime during deposition influences the resulting dependence of wc ≃ (D/F)κ, we set and also solved a time-dependent analytical model. This analytical model as well as kMC predict that wc ≃ (D/F)1/5. kMC simulation also shows that the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier has only limited influence on the nucleation on the stepped surface at conditions close to the nucleation regime. For all widths of terraces there is a critical value of the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier \\Delta {E}_{{ES}}^{{c}}/{k}_{{B}}T\\sim 7.3 (\\Delta {E}_{{ES}}^{{c}}\\sim 0.1 1 eV at T = 175 K), and only below this critical value does the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier affect the final value of the density of nuclei. The results of the kMC are summarized in a semi-empirical analytical formula which describes the dependence of the step-flow growth and nucleation on the terrace width w, diffusion coefficient D and deposition rate F. In our simulations we tested two models of the stepped surface with different thicknesses of the step, both with an Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier on the edge of the terrace.

  16. [Paul Ehrlich and commercial serum production: on the control of diphtheria antitoxin in the laboratory and in industry].

    PubMed

    Hardy, Anne I

    2006-01-01

    The state control of the anti-diphtheria serum is a prime example for the efficient cooperation between state authorities, industrials and scientists. The article describes firstly the dynamics of this development and places it in the context of already existing approaches to drugs control. Of special interest are the motives which led the different actors to support the state control of sera. Secondly the reciprocal influences between Ehrlich and the serum producers are analyzed. It is shown that practical problems inspired Ehrlich's theoretical work, which in return led to an improvement of measurement techniques.

  17. Immunopathological analysis of Erdheim-Chester disease with massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Ota, Muneo; Sakamoto, Mayuko; Sato, Kojiro; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Funakubo Asanuma, Yu; Akiyama, Yuji; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Mimura, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    We treated a 77-year-old woman with pleural and pericardial effusion and ascites. Initially, collagen vascular disease was suspected due to the presence of anti-centromere antibodies and suspected complication of pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, soft-tissue abnormalities surrounding the bilateral kidneys detected on computed tomography (CT) and symmetrical lesions of the long bones detected on bone scintigraphy made us consider a diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), which is a rare form of histiocytosis. We immunochemically analyzed the cells derived from the ascites in detail and confirmed the diagnosis. Immunocytochemical analyses may therefore help to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this rare disease. PMID:23037484

  18. New Biochemical Parameters in the Differential Diagnosis of Ascitic Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Angeleri, Anabela; Rocher, Adriana; Caracciolo, Beatriz; Pandolfo, Marcela; Palaoro, Luis; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the cases of ascitis, it is essential to determine their origin using the parameters obtained by the cytological and biochemical examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different biochemical markers and the number of cells in the differential diagnosis of ascitic fluid (AF). Methods One hundred ninety-one cases of AF were studied, who were admitted to the hospital from January 01, 2009 to December 31, 2014. One hundred fifty-two of them were included in the analysis, and the remaining 39 were excluded because they had more than one associated pathology, clotted or hemolyzed. Results The more frequent etiologies of AF were the cirrhosis (29%), the infections (22%) and the neoplasies (19%). Other pathologies reached 16%. Cutoff > 300 cells/mm3 detected the 78% of exudates. The AF/serum (S) of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (> 0.5), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (> 0.6), proteins (PT) (> 0.5), cholesterol (COL) (> 0.4), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (> 0.5) correctly detected 80%, 78%, 72%, 70% and 70% of the exudates, respectively. Conclusion We proposed the utilization of a new cutoff of cellular counting, major of 300/mm3, since it would allow improving the detection of exudate ascites, without including the transudate ascites. AST AF/serum ratio (AF/S) showed the major usefulness in the differentiation and characterization of AF; LDH, proteins, cholesterol and ALT might be also acceptable in the above mentioned differentiation. The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) turned out to be a good marker of portal hypertension associated with cirrhotic processes. Creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase (AMI), total bilirubin (TB), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (GLU) did not allow differentiating exudates from transudates.

  19. Peritoneal Mesothelioma: An Unusual Cause of High-Protein Ascites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a case illustrating the workup and diagnosis of peritoneal sarcomatous mesothelioma as an unusual etiology of intestinal obstruction and high-protein ascites in an otherwise healthy man. This rare disorder is diagnosed based on immunohistochemistry, which is necessary to differentiate it from other rare sarcomatous carcinomas. In many cases, localized disease can be treated to cure with surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Advanced disease is often treated for palliation of symptoms. PMID:26504886

  20. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  1. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  2. Permanent catheter drainage system for palliation of diuretic‐resistant cardiac ascites

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Lee‐Anne; Mitchell, Andrew R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report the case of a 69‐year‐old man with dilated cardiomyopathy treated with a permanent catheter drainage system for diuretic resistant cardiac ascites. At 1 year follow‐up, the patient had no heart failure related hospitalisations, displayed improved quality of life measures and had incurred no complications related to the catheter. Permanent tunnelled catheters are widely used to treat malignant ascites but may also be considered for palliation of cardiac ascites.

  3. Our perception of the mast cell from Paul Ehrlich to now.

    PubMed

    Beaven, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Just over a century ago Paul Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize for his studies of immunity. This review describes one of his legacies, the histochemical description of the mast cell, and the research that has ensued since then. After a long period of largely descriptive studies, which revealed little about the biological role of the mast cell, the field was galvanized in the 1950s by the recognition that the mast cell was the main repository of histamine and a key participant in anaphylactic reactions. Although the mast cell was long-viewed in these terms, recent research has now shown that the mast cell also plays a key role in innate and adaptive immune responses, autoimmune disease, and possibly tissue homeostasis by virtue of its expression of a diverse array of receptors and biologically active products. In addition, the responsiveness of mast cells to immunological and pathological stimulants is highly modulated by the tissue cytokine environment and by synergistic, or inhibitory, interactions among the various mast cell receptor systems. This once enigmatic cell of Paul Ehrlich has proved to be both adaptable and multifunctional.

  4. Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  5. Dyes, antipsychotic drugs, and antimicrobial activity. Fragments of a development, with special reference to the influence of Paul Ehrlich.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, J E

    1989-04-01

    The history of phenothiazines, from methylene blue via chlorpromazine to recently synthesized isomeric derivatives of various neuroleptics, is reviewed in the light of their antimicrobial activity and Paul Ehrlich's receptor concept. The latter is clearly in line with most modern theories concerning drug action of stereo-isomeric compounds.

  6. [Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) and his contacts with East European physicians at the time of testing the first chemioterapeutics].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    1996-01-01

    Among numerous scientific contacts which Paul Ehrlich had with foreign scientists information about his contacts with East European scientists is very limited. The communiqué will deal with some of the particulars concerning Ehrlich's co-operation with physicians from East Europe directly before the practical application of the chemioterapeutics among others he was in touch with the Russians: Georgi N. Gabryczewski, Alexander A. Władimirow and a Finn Julius Iversen. The contacts originated during Robert Koch bacteriological courses at the Institute of Hygiene in Berlin. Only between 1885-1988 at least 11% of participants came from the countries of Eastern Europe. Ehrlich and Gabryczewski correspondence indicates that such a co-operation had already existed in the 90-ties, at the time of the research of a therapeutic influence of aniline dyes like diacetylparaaminophenol and triasid at spirillioza (recurrens). Iversen, a chief physician of Obuchow Hospital in St. Petersburg, was one of the first who after initial tests (Atoxyl, Arsazetin), at Ehrlich's request successfully used 606 preparation in case of spirochaeta infections.

  7. Foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  8. Foil bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  9. Analysis of Twenty-three plasma proteins in ascites. The depletion of fibrinogen and plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J M; Stein, S F; Kutner, M; Wiles, M B; Ansley, J D; Rudman, D

    1980-12-01

    The concentrations of 23 plasma proteins were measured by radial immunodiffusion in the plasma and ascites of 17 patients with cirrhosis and four patients with intraperitoneal malignancies, to learn whether there is a selectivity in the movement of proteins from plasma into ascites, analogous to that of proteinuria. Additionally, since some of the proteins are involved in coagulation, we hoped to clarify the coagulopathy frequently seen following peritoneovenous shunting of ascites. Analysis was by groups: group 1 consisted of nine patients with cirrhosis with an ascites-total protein content less than 2.5 g/dl; group 2 consisted of eight patients with cirrhosis with ascites-total protein content greater than or equal to 2.5 g/dl; and group 3 consisted of four patients with malignant ascites. The ratio of the plasma concentration/ascites concentration ([P]/[A]) for each protein was calculated for each patient. In each group the median [P]/[A] for each protein was plotted against the natural logarithm of its molecular weight (In MW). For 21 of the 23 proteins, [P]/[A] showed a close linear relationship to In MW. Fibrogen and plasminogen showed significant (p < 0.0002) elevation above the regression line relating [P]/[A] to In MW. This indicates depletion of fibrinogen and plasminogen in ascites. The ascites in group 1 showed moderate selectivity, defined as the slope of the regression line (1.59), while groups 2 and 3 were essentialy nonselective (0.35 and 0.50). Fibrin-split products were elevated in all ascites but not in plasma, indicating either fibrinolysis or fibrinogenolysis within the ascites. A normal ratio for prothrombin suggests fibrinogenolysis may be the dominant mechanism. Thus the coagulopathy induced by LeVeen valve insertion may be in part secondary to the infusion of plasmin or a plasminogen activator into the circulation.

  10. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  11. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Streblus asper bark against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.B. Suresh; Kar, Biswakanth; Dolai, Narayan; Karmakar, Indrajit; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2015-01-01

    Streblus asper Lour (Moraceae), commonly known as Siamee Rough Brush in English is widely distributed in subtropical Asia and traditionally used for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract from Streblus asper bark (EASA) was evaluated for antitumor effect against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of DAL cells in mice, EASA was administered intraperitoneally at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed to determine the tumor growth parameters, and the rest were kept alive for survival assessment. Hematological, serum biochemical and tissue (liver, kidney) antioxidant profiles were also determined. EASA exhibited significant and dose dependent decrease in tumor growth parameters and increased survival of DAL bearing animals. EASA significantly and dose-dependently normalized the altered hematological, serum biochemical and tissue antioxidant parameters as compared with the DAL control mice. From the present study it may be concluded that S. asper bark possesses remarkable antitumor efficacy mediated by amelioration of oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms. PMID:27486371

  12. Chylous ascites as a complication of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Caumartin, Yves; Pouliot, Frédéric; Sabbagh, Robert; Dujardin, Thierry

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN) is a minimally invasive technique for kidney procurement and was developed with the hope of reducing the disincentives associated with live renal donation. Compared with open donor nephrectomy (ODN), this alternative has many advantages including less postoperative pain and earlier return to work. Unfortunately, these benefits are sometimes negated by postoperative complications. Among these, chylous ascites (CA) is a rare but serious problem that is usually managed conservatively. We report the case of a living donor who developed CA refractory to initial conservative management and surgical treatment. We also discuss the role of surgery in the treatment of CA following LLDN. PMID:16297058

  13. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nicotina, P A; Ruggeri, P; Ferlazzo, G; Fimiani, V

    1991-01-01

    Some cytochemical and immunocytochemical investigations were carried out on actively growing Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells. These cells displayed an intense granular alpha-naphthylacetate esterase (ANAE) staining while the alpha-naphthylbutyrate esterase (ANBE) reaction was in part fluoride-sensitive and marked particularly in the large-size malignant cells. Acid phosphatase as well as peroxidase activities were not detected. The lack of immunoreactive lysozyme and alpha 1-antitrypsin suggested a poor differentiation of the above-mentioned tumor cells, but fibronectin and S-100 protein where highly expressed, as in tumors arising from the mononuclear phagocyte system.

  14. Astatine-211-tellurium radiocolloid cures experimental malignant ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Neirinckx, R.D.; Adelstein, S.J.; Gordon, P.R.; Ruth, T.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-04-17

    An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211-tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this ..cap alpha..-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison, negatron-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated with ..cap alpha..-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of ..cap alpha..-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.

  15. Astatine-211--tellurium radiocolloid cures experimental malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, W D; McLaughlin, W H; Neirinckx, R D; Adelstein, S J; Gordon, P R; Ruth, T J; Wolf, A P

    1981-04-17

    An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211--tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this alpha-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison, negatron-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated with alpha-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of alpha-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.

  16. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor and chylous ascites, a rare association with a poor prognosis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Portale, Teresa Rosanna; Mosca, Francesco; Minona, Elisa; Trovato, Maria Antonietta; Gangemi, Pietro; Bordonaro, Roberto; Puleo, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal carcinoid is a rare tumor. The association of this tumor with chylous ascites is uncommon. A review of the English-language literature carried out in 2002 identified only 15 cases. We report a case of chylous ascites, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor and elevated blood levels of CA-125 in a patient who did not respond to chemotherapy.

  17. Chylous Ascites: A Rare Complication of Thoracic Duct Embolization for Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, Ron C. Owens, Charles A.; Bui, James T.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Knuttinen, M. Grace

    2011-02-15

    Thoracic duct embolization represents a safe and effective method to treat postsurgical chylothorax. Complications of this procedure are rare despite transabdominal puncture of lymphatic channels for thoracic duct access, and chylous ascites is unreported. Herein, we describe a case of chylous ascites formation after lymphatic puncture and attempted cannulation. Our management approach is also discussed.

  18. Immediate diagnostic criteria for bacterial infection of ascitic fluid. Evaluation of ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, pH, and lactate concentration, alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Stassen, W N; McCullough, A J; Bacon, B R; Gutnik, S H; Wadiwala, I M; McLaren, C; Kalhan, S C; Tavill, A S

    1986-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated the ascitic fluid (AF) polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) count, pH, and lactate concentration in single ascitic fluids from 60 patients to determine their relative predictive values for the immediate diagnosis of ascitic fluid infection. Nine of the 60 ascitic fluids were malignant. Of the remaining 51 samples, nine from cirrhotic patients were infected. The mean AF pH, lactate concentration, and PMN count in the infected group were 7.20 +/- 0.19, 80 +/- 51 mg/dl, and 18,199 +/- 19,650 cells/mm3, respectively, and all were significantly different from the corresponding values in noninfected ascites. Mean arterial blood-ascitic fluid (B-AF) pH and lactate gradients in the infected group were 0.23 +/- 0.17 and -46 +/- 31 mg/dl, respectively, and were significantly different from the corresponding values in noninfected ascites (p less than 0.05). Significant differences were not found between infected and malignant ascites, except for the AF PMN count (p less than 0.001). In cirrhosis with ascites, an AF pH less than or equal to 7.34 was the most specific single test (100%) and had the highest diagnostic accuracy (98%). In the larger group of patients with ascites of diverse etiology, a B-AF pH gradient greater than or equal to 0.10 or an AF PMN count greater than or equal to 500 cells/mm3 were the single tests with the highest diagnostic accuracy (92%). Combining an AF PMN count greater than 500 cells/mm3 with any of the other diagnostic criteria increased the specificity and diagnostic accuracy (up to 98%) compared to the best single criterion. Although our data support the use of a number of different combinations of AF measurements for the immediate diagnosis of infection, the simplest and most readily obtainable measurements are the pH and PMN count. Therefore, in the clinical setting we recommend the use of either an AF pH less than or equal to 7.34 or a B-AF pH gradient greater than or equal to 0.10 in combination with an AF PMN count

  19. Paul Ehrlich's mastzellen: a historical perspective of relevant developments in mast cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ghably, Jack; Saleh, Hana; Vyas, Harsha; Peiris, Emma; Misra, Niva; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of mast cells (or mastzellen) by the prolific physician researcher, Paul Ehrlich, many advances have improved our understanding of these cells and their fascinating biology. The discovery of immunoglobulin E and receptors for IgE and IgG on mast cells heralded further in vivo and in vitro studies, using molecular technologies and gene knockout models. Mast cells express an array of inflammatory mediators including tryptase, histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They play a role in many varying disease states, from atopic diseases, parasitic infections, hematological malignancies, and arthritis to osteoporosis. This review will attempt to summarize salient evolving areas in mast cell research over the last few centuries that have led to our current understanding of this pivotal multifunctional cell.

  20. Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff (1845-1915) and Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915): the centennial of the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schmalstieg, Frank C; Goldman, Armond S

    2008-05-01

    Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich shared the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Metchnikoff for discovering the major types and functions of phagocytes and Ehrlich for discovering the types of blood leukocytes, helping to uncover how to generate and use antibodies to protect against bacterial toxins, and formulating the receptor concept of antibodies binding to antigens. In 1908 phagocytic and humoral defences were thought to be unrelated but it was realized much later that they influence one other. Thus, it is fitting that the 1908 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine remain closely connected in the minds of modern immunologists. Metchnikoff and Ehrlich shared qualities of natural curiosity and tenacity coupled with remarkable inductive-mechanistic thinking and a zest for experimentation. However, their approaches to and methods of research were decidedly different - Metchnikoff's by evolutionary biology and an approach to experimentation via microscopy and Ehrlich's by an imaginative side-chain theory and organic chemistry.

  1. Employment of synchronized cells and flow microfluorometry in investigations on the JB-1 ascites tumour chalones.

    PubMed

    Bichel, P; Barfod, N M; Jakobsen, A

    1975-11-01

    In most experimental ascites tumours the growth rate decreases with increasing age and cell number. This decrease is caused by a prolongation of the cell cycle and an increasing accumulation of non-cycling cells in resting (or quiescent) G1 and G2 compartments. In cell-free ascitic fluid from the JB-1 ascites tumour in the plateau phase of growth lowmolecular-weight substances have been found which reversibly and specifically arrest JB-1 cells in G1 and G2. The present paper describes an in-vitro model for testing the effect of the humoral growth inhibitors contained in the ascitic fluid. The test system is based on synchronized JB-1 cells analysed by flow-through cytofluorometry. Addition to the synchronous cells of a ultrafiltrate (less than 50000 Daltons) of the JB-1 ascitic fluid was found to induce a complete, but temporary arrest of the cells at the G1-S border.

  2. Management of refractory ascites in cirrhosis: Are we out of date?

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Wisdom, Lauren; Herada, Megan; Nourredin, Mazen; Ayoub, Walid; Sundaram, Vinay; Klein, Andrew; Nissen, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with liver transplantations as it only possible cure. In the face of a significant organ shortage many patients die waiting. A major complication of cirrhosis is the development of portal hypertension and ascites. The management of ascites has barely evolved over the last hundred years and includes only a few milestones in our treatment approach, but has overall significantly improved patient morbidity and survival. Our mainstay to ascites management includes changes in diet, diuretics, shunt procedures, and large volume paracentesis. The understanding of the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and portal hypertension has significantly improved in the last couple of decades but the changes in ascites management have not seemed to mirror this newer knowledge. We herein review the history of ascites management and discuss some its current limitations. PMID:27729954

  3. Etiology of Ascites and Pleural Effusion Associated with Ovarian Tumors: Literature Review and Case Reports of Three Ovarian Tumors Presenting with Massive Ascites, but without Peritoneal Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Hara, Takeya; Tanaka, Asuka; Komura, Naoko; Komiya, Shinnosuke; Kanao, Serika; Takeda, Masumi; Mimura, Mayuko; Nagamatsu, Masaaki; Yokoi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors are benign but relatively large tumors that are often initially mistaken as ovarian cancers. We report three cases of stage I borderline ovarian tumors having massive ascites that we (preoperatively) suspected of being advanced ovarian cancer. The three patients (35, 47, and 73 years old) reported feeling fullness of the abdomen before consulting their gynecologist. By CT scan, they were diagnosed with a pelvic tumor accompanied by massive ascites, the diameters of which were 11, 20, and 11 cm, respectively. Postsurgical pathology showed all were stage I borderline ovarian tumors without dissemination; two were mucinous and one was serous. The amount of ascites was 6,300, 2,600, and 3,600 mL, respectively, and was serous in all. Cytodiagnosis of the ascites found that one was positive for tumor cells and two were negative. After resection of the mass, the ascites disappeared in all three cases. No pleural effusion was present at any time. The literature is reviewed concerning ascites and pleural effusions linked to ovarian tumors, and a supposition is forwarded of why pleural effusion presents sporadically in these cases.

  4. Malignant ascites in ovarian cancer and the role of targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smolle, Elisabeth; Taucher, Valentin; Haybaeck, Johannes

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most lethal gynecological malignancy and the main cause of gynecological cancer death in industrialized countries. Malignant ascites is often found in OC, with about 10% of patients suffering from recurrent OC. Tumor cells in OC-associated malignant ascites promote disease recurrence and patient mortality is mainly associated with widespread metastasis to serosal surfaces and accompanying peritoneal effusions. Targeted therapies have recently been developed as novel therapeutic options for malignant ascites. The tri-functional anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule and anti-cluster of differentiation 3 monoclonal antibody catumaxumab has been assessed in the therapy of malignant ascites, and proven to significantly reduce the ascitic flow rate when applied into the peritoneal cavity. The anti-angiogenic targeted agent bevacizumab has also shown good effects in the symptomatic treatment of malignant ascites, significantly prolonging the time until the next paracentesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap, or aflibercept, is a fusion protein that inhibits VEGF-receptor binding. Aflibercept has proven to be effective in reduction of ascites, diminishing clinical symptoms of ascites and prolonging the time to next paracentesis. All three agents we review in the present article are effective in symptomatic control of ascites, leading to a rapid reduction of effusion and prolonging the time interval between paracenteses. However, no improvement in overall survival was observed in any of the clinical trials reported. We, thus, conclude that further investigations on larger patient series are needed to clarify whether the reduction of ascites by these targeted agents leads to a prolongation in tumor-related survival or not.

  5. Ascites Drainage Leading to Intestinal Adhesions at the Mesentery of the Small Intestine with Fatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kettler, B.; Schrem, H.; Klempnauer, J.; Grannas, G.

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in patients with chronic liver diseases and liver cirrhosis is the development of ascites. First line therapy for ascites is the restriction of sodium intake and a diuretic treatment. Paracentesis is indicated in patients with large compromising volumes of ascites. In selected cases, permanent drainage of ascites over prolonged periods of time may be indicated. In the case presented here, a 66-year-old male patient, who was hospitalized with liver cirrhosis caused by alcoholic abuse, required permanent drainage of ascites. After three weeks of continuous ascites drainage, he developed bacterial peritonitis. Conventional attempts to remove the catheter by transcutaneous pulling failed and we thus decided to perform a median laparotomy to remove the catheter surgically. Intraoperatively an adhesion of the ascites drain (a so called ‘basket catheter’) to the mesentery very close to the small intestine was found, approximately 50 mm distal of the ligament suspensorium duodeni (ligament of Treitz). The basket catheter used for this patient was especially designed to drain infections, not fluids. We solved the adhesion, removed the basket catheter, placed a new surgical drain and finished the operation. The patient developed a rupture of his abdominal fascia suture 12 days later, which was caused by massive ascites and complicated by hepatorenal syndrome type I. The patient was taken to the operating theater again. After the second operation, the chronic liver failure decompensated and the patient died. Ascites caused by liver cirrhosis is still a medical challenge. The indication for the use of the correct percutaneous catheter for permanent paracentesis should be carefully considered. Some catheters are obviously not suited to drain ascites and may lead to fatal outcomes. PMID:24453504

  6. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    PubMed

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide.

  7. Chylous ascites and lymphocyst management by peritoneovenous shunt.

    PubMed

    Silk, Y N; Goumas, W M; Douglass, H O; Huben, R P

    1991-09-01

    Although lymphocyst (retroperitoneal lymphocele) is not an uncommon complication after retroperitoneal surgery, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.6% to 48%, the occurrence of chylous ascites is a rare phenomenon. Most reports are anecdotal, and hospital records list the incidence of diagnosis as 0.001% of admissions. Diagnosis of chylous ascites is usually not difficult, inasmuch as aspiration and chemical analysis of the fluid yield the answer. Visualization of retroperitoneal fluid collection by computerized tomography or ultrasonography, however, does always raise the possibility of recurrence of tumor in cases where the primary operation was for cancer. Treatment of smaller lesions can be expectant. Respiratory exercises causing an increase in negative intrathoracic pressure may aid in the movement of fluid through the lymphatics. For larger collections, elemental diets and total parenteral nutrition are also often enough, but surgery is sometimes required. Simple insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt, as in this patient, can be as effective as major operations such as identification and ligation of the offending lymphatic or marsupialization of the cyst.

  8. Glycoproteomic Analysis of Malignant Ovarian Cancer Ascites Fluid Identifies Unusual Glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Suzanne; Ruhaak, L Renee; Stroble, Carol; Salemi, Michelle R; Phinney, Brett; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Leiserowitz, Gary S

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality among women, largely due to late diagnosis of advanced metastatic disease. More extensive molecular analysis of metastatic ovarian cancer is needed to identify post-translational modifications of proteins, especially glycosylation that is particularly associated with metastatic disease to better understand the metastatic process and identify potential therapeutic targets. Glycoproteins in ascites fluid were enriched by affinity binding to lectins (ConA or WGA) and other affinity matrices. Separate glycomic, proteomic, and glycopeptide analyses were performed. Relative abundances of different N-glycan groups and proteins were identified from ascites fluids and a serum control. Levels of biomarkers CA125, MUC1, and fibronectin were also monitored in OC ascites samples by Western blot analysis. N-Glycan analysis of ascites fluids showed the presence of large, highly fucosylated and sialylated complex and hybrid glycans, some of which were not observed in normal serum. OC ascites glycoproteins, haptoglobin, fibronectin, lumican, fibulin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin were more abundant in OC ascites or not present in serum control samples. Further glycopeptide analysis of OC ascites identified N- and O-glycans in clusterin, hemopexin, and fibulin glycopeptides, some of which are unusual and may be important in OC metastasis. PMID:27500424

  9. Pancreatobiliary reflux resulting in pancreatic ascites and choleperitoneum after gallbladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Rapetti, Rachele; Scaglia, Elena; Fangazio, Stefano; Burlone, Michela Emma; Leutner, Monica; Pirisi, Mario

    2008-09-01

    A 65-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C and no history of alcohol abuse was admitted to our liver unit for the recent development of massive ascites and presumed hepatorenal syndrome. In the preceding two weeks, he had received medical treatment for acute pancreatitis and cholecystitis. Abdominal paracentesis demonstrated a cloudy, orange peritoneal fluid, with total protein concentration 3.6 g/dl, serum-ascites albumin gradient 1.0 g/dl, and ratios of ascites-serum bilirubin and amylase approximately 8:1. Diagnostic imaging demonstrated no pancreatic pseudocysts. Ten days later, at laparotomy, acalculous perforation of the gallbladder was identified. After cholecystectomy, amylase concentration in the ascitic fluid dropped within a few days to 40% of serum values; ascites disappeared within a few weeks. We conclude that in the presence of a perforated gallbladder, pancreatobiliary reflux was responsible for this unusual combination of choleperitoneum and pancreatic ascites, which we propose to call pancreatobiliary ascites. PMID:21897795

  10. [Supportive care for malignant ascites in palliative phase: Place of paracentesis and diuretics].

    PubMed

    Gamblin, Vincent; Da Silva, Arlette; Villet, Stéphanie; El Hajbi, Farid

    2015-11-01

    Malignant ascites, occurring in advanced stages of cancer, is linked with poor prognosis and can cause invalidating symptoms. Physiopathological mechanisms of ascites formation are complex and have yet to be fully elucidated. In most cases, ascites is due to peritoneal carcinomatosis in which vascular permeability is enhanced by VEGF production while lymphatic drainage decreases. Ascites can also be secondary to portal hypertension, for example in case of multiple liver metastases, or due to lymphatic obstruction. While paracentesis and diuretics are commonly used, their efficiency has never been compared in a randomized controlled study. Paracentesis brings immediate but temporary relief in over 90% of cases, and implies multiple hospitalizations. Literature reports ascites control by aldosterone alone or in association with furosemide. But, available data is controversial, and there is no predictive factor to identify patients that respond to diuretic treatment. The indication of diuretic treatment is left to the appreciation of physicians. Existing recommendations are old, and practices influenced by results obtained in non-neoplastic ascites. Additional evidences are required before guidelines can be established for the palliative management of malignant ascites.

  11. CUSHIONED BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A vibration damping device effective to dampen vibrations occurring at the several critical speeds encountered in the operation of a high-speed centrifuge is described. A self-centering bearing mechanism is used to protect both the centrifuge shaft and the damping mechanism. The damping mechanism comprises spaced-apant, movable, and stationary sleeve members arranged concentrically of a rotating shaft with a fluid maintained between the members. The movable sleeve member is connected to the shaft for radial movement therewith.

  12. Ascites Specific Inhibition of CD1d-Mediated Activation of NKT cells

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Tonya J.; Giuntoli, Robert L.; Rogers, Ophelia; Schneck, Jonathan; Oelke, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigen presented by CD1 molecules. NKT cells can both directly, through cytotoxicity, and indirectly, through activation of other effector cells, mediate anti-tumor immunity. However, it has been shown that tumor associated lipids are frequently shed into the tumor microenvironment, which can mediate immunosuppressive activity. Given that ovarian cancer associated ascites has been reported to have increased levels of gangliosides, we examined the effect of tumor associated and other ascites on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells. Experimental Design To investigate the effects of ascites on NKT cell activation, we pretreated CD1d-expressing cells with the ascites and measured their ability to stimulate cytokine production in NKT cells. To determine whether antigen processing or editing was necessary, CD1d-Ig-based artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) were also incubated with ascites. In addition, to examine specificity, we analyzed whether ascites fluid could influence the activation of classical CD8+ T cells. Results Pretreatment of CD1d-expressing cells with ascites from the majority of patients inhibited the cells’ ability to stimulate/activate NKT cells in a dose-dependent manner. Ascites treatment also partially blocked the ability of α-GalCer loaded CD1d-Ig-based artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) to activate NKT cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that treatment with ascites does not inhibit HLA-A2 mediated activation of classical CD8+ T cells. Conclusions Together, these data suggest that ovarian and other cancers may have developed immune evasion mechanisms specifically targeting the CD1/NKT cell system. PMID:19047090

  13. Prognostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels in ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The acellular fraction of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) ascites promotes de novo resistance of tumor cells and thus supports the idea that tumor cells may survive in the surrounding protective microenvironment contributing to disease recurrence. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 are elevated in EOC ascites suggesting that they could play a role in tumor progression. Methods We measured IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the ascites of 39 patients with newly diagnosed EOC. Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels. Ascites cytokine levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and progression-free survival. Results Mean ascites levels for IL-6 and IL-8 were 6419 pg/ml (SEM: 1409 pg/ml) and 1408 pg/ml (SEM: 437 pg/ml) respectively. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in ascites were significantly lower in patients that have received prior chemotherapy before the surgery (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.037 for IL-6 and P = 0.008 for IL-8). Univariate analysis revealed that high IL-6 ascites levels (P = 0.021), serum CA125 levels (P = 0.04) and stage IV (P = 0.009) were significantly correlated with shorter progression-free survival. Including these variables in a multivariate analysis revealed that elevated IL-6 levels (P = 0.033) was an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. Conclusion Elevated IL-6, but not IL-8, ascites level is an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. PMID:21619709

  14. Regulating ehrlich and demethiolation pathways for alcohols production by the expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Jia, Kai-Zhi; Xia, Shi-Tao; Xu, Yang-Hua; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlich and demethiolation pathways as two competing branches converted amino acid into alcohols. Controlling both pathways offers considerable potential for industrial applications including alcohols overproduction, flavor-quality control and developing new flavors. While how to regulate ehrlich and demethiolation pathways is still not applicable. Taking the conversion of methionine into methionol and methanethiol for example, we constructed two suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of Clonostachys rosea by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology for screening regulators controlling the conversion. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1 screened from forward SSH library was validated to be related with the biosynthesis of end products. Overexpressing HUWE1 in C. rosea and S. cerevisiae significantly increased the biosynthesis of methanethiol and its derivatives in demethiolation pathway, while suppressed the biosynthesis of methional and methionol in ehrlich pathway. These results attained the directional regulation of both pathways by overexpressing HUWE1. Thus, HUWE1 has potential to be a key target for controlling and enhancing alcohols production by metabolic engineering. PMID:26860895

  15. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  16. Postoperative Ascites of Unknown Origin following Laparoscopic Appendicectomy: An Unusual Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Feretis, M.; Boyd-Carson, H.; Karim, A.

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative ascites is a very rare complication of laparoscopic surgery. Significant iatrogenic injuries to the bowel, the urinary tract, and the lymphatic system should be excluded promptly to avoid devastating results for the patient. In some cases, in spite of investigating patients extensively, no definitive causative factor for the accumulation of fluid can be identified. In such cases, idiopathic allergic or inflammatory reaction of the peritoneum may be responsible for the development of ascites. We present a case of ascites of an unknown origin in a young female patient following a laparoscopic appendicectomy. PMID:24822146

  17. Ascites and abdominal pseudocyst: two uncommon ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications in two cases.

    PubMed

    Comba, Atakan; Gülenç, Nazlı; Çaltepe, Gönül; Dağçınar, Adnan; Yüce, Özlem; Kalaycı, Ayhan Gazi; Ulus, Aykan

    2013-01-01

    Ascites and abdominal pseudocysts (APC) are two rare complications that can occur following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Both complications are characterized by abnormal intraperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections. Although various factors have been implicated, the exact pathogenesis of the two conditions remains elusive. This paper presents two cases of VP shunt placement resulting from hydrocephaly. The first patient presented with generalized ascites and the other with APC, both of whom were six years old. APC and ascites after VP shunt placement are rare and distinct conditions; therefore, they may require different management strategies.

  18. Role of malignant ascites on human mesothelial cells and their gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant ascites is often present at diagnostic in women with advanced ovarian cancer (OC) and its presence is associated with a worse outcome. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) are key components of malignant ascites. Although the interplay between HPMCs and OC cells is believed to be critical for tumor progression, it has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ascites on HPMCs and clarify the role of HPMCs in OC progression. Methods Human OC ascites and benign peritoneal fluids were assessed for their ability to stimulate HPMC proliferation. Conditioned medium from ascites- and benign fluid-stimulated HPMCs were compared for their ability to attenuate apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We conducted a comparative analysis of global expression changes in ascites-stimulated HPMCs using Agilent oligonucleotide microarrays. Results As compared to benign peritoneal fluids, malignant ascites stimulated the proliferation of HPMCs. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was attenuated in OC cells exposed to conditioned medium from ascites-stimulated HPMCs as compared to OC cells exposed to conditioned medium from benign fluid-stimulated HPMCs. A total of 649 genes were differentially expressed in ascites-stimulated HPMCs. Based on a ratio of more than 1.5-fold and a P < 0.05, 484 genes were up-regulated and 165 genes were down-regulated in ascites-exposed HPMCs. Stimulation of HPMCs with OC ascites resulted in differential expression of genes mainly associated with the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, cell death, cell cycle and cell assembly and organization, compared to benign peritoneal fluids. Top networks up-regulated by OC ascites included Akt and NF-κB survival pathways whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway was down-regulated. Conclusions The results of this study not only provide evidence supporting the importance of the interplay between cancer

  19. Cirrhosis of liver with ascites treatment based on principles of ayurved.

    PubMed

    Patel, J C

    2001-09-01

    A case of ascites with cirrhosis of liver due to chronic malaria and nutritional deficiency was treated with 20 ml of imferron with improvement and is alive for a period of six years after first treatment with iron. PMID:11887296

  20. Ascites Due to Anastomotic Stenosis After Liver Transplantation Using the Piggyback Technique: Treatment with Endovascular Prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Quiroga, Jorge; Pueyo, Jesus Ciro; Vivas, Isabel; Delgado, Carlos; Pardo, Fernando

    2000-03-15

    Liver transplantation preserving the retrohepatic inferior vena cava, the so-called piggyback technique, is becoming more frequently used because it avoids caval cross-clamping during the anhepatic phase of surgery. However, hepatic venous outflow blockade causing ascites seems to be less infrequent after piggyback than with cavo-caval anastomosis. We report a 62-year-old patient who underwent liver transplantation using the piggyback technique and developed a stenosis in the anastomosis between the hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava leading to severe postoperative ascites. Ascites was unresponsive to diuretic therapy and was associated with renal function impairment. Since the etiology of the stenosis was mechanical (torsion), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was unsuccessful. Finally, an autoexpandable prosthesis was placed across the anastomosis resulting in rapid and permanent (3 years of follow-up) resolution of ascites.

  1. Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Recommendations from two United States Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vinay; Manne, Vignan; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah MS

    2014-01-01

    Cirrhosis affects millions of people throughout the world. Two of the most serious complications of liver cirrhosis are ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The development of ascites is related to the severity of portal hypertension and is an indicator of increased mortality. Although sodium restriction and diuretic therapy have proven effective, some patients may not respond appropriately or develop adverse reactions to diuretic therapy. In such cases, interventions such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement are warranted. SBP is a complication of ascites that confers a very high mortality rate. Recognition and prompt treatment of this condition is essential to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Initiation of prophylaxis in SBP remains controversial. Given the burden of liver cirrhosis on the health care system, ascites and SBP will continue to provide challenges for the primary care provider, hospitalist, internist, and gastroenterologist alike. PMID:25253362

  2. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with ascites due to thrombosis of the caudal vena cava.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Schefer, U; Gerber, D; Föhn, J

    1992-01-01

    This case report describes a three-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with ascites due to thrombosis of the caudal vena cava. Ultrasonography verified the ascites and revealed dilatation of the abdominal portion of the caudal vena cava (4.8 cm). It was presumed that the caudal vena cava was occluded by a thrombus or by perivenous compression cranial to the dilatation. Post mortem findings included: a massive accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity; a 15 cm long thrombus in the subphrenic region of the caudal vena cava; multiple pulmonary abscesses; severe thrombosis of the pulmonary vasculature; hepatic congestion; oedematous abomasal folds; and severe thrombophlebitis of the left jugular vein and both udder veins, due to poor intravenous injection technique. Ascites caused by thrombosis of the caudal vena cava is rare because collateral routes of venous return, including the udder veins, are usually established. It was therefore concluded that the ascites was attributable to bilateral thrombosis of the udder veins.

  3. A quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Smith, Candace D.; Al-Rubaye, Adnan A.; Erf, Gisela F.; Wideman, Robert F.; Anthony, Nicholas B.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide SNP survey was used to identify chromosomal regions that showed linkage disequilibrium with respect to ascites susceptibility and ventricular hypertrophy in an F2 cross between previously described ascites-resistant and -susceptible lines. Variable number tandem repeats were used to obtain genotype data to further characterize these regions. A region on chromosome 9 (12 to 13 Mbp in 2011 assembly) shows association with ascites in the ascites lines and in several commercial broiler breeder lines with a significant sex effect. There are 2 candidate genes, AGTR1 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and UTS2D (urotensin 2 domain containing), in this region that have been associated with hypertension and hypoxic response in mammals. PMID:24570451

  4. Hepatitis, gallbladder hydrops, splenomegaly, and ascites in a child with scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Yueh; Young, Ton-Ho

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of scarlet fever associated with hepatitis, gallbladder hydrops, splenomegaly, and ascites in a 15-year-old girl. The girl presented with fever and skin rash. Leukocyte, liver enzyme, and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated. Ultrasonography revealed marked gallbladder wall thickening, diffuse liver parenchymal disease with moderate splenomegaly, and moderate ascites throughout the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Blood cultures for group A β-hemolytic streptococci were negative. Complete recovery was facilitated with antibiotic treatment.

  5. Relationship between endotoxaemia and protein concentration of ascites in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Tarao, K; Moroi, T; Nagakura, Y; Ikeuchi, T; Suyama, T; Endo, O; Fukushima, K

    1979-01-01

    Endotoxaemia was investigated by the Limulus assay in 42 cirrhotic patients with ascites and in 33 without ascites. The incidence of endotoxaemia in the former group (59.5%) was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than in the latter (36.4%). Correlation between endotoxaemia and specific gravity and concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin in ascitic fluid was studied in the group with ascites. The specific gravity of ascites in 25 patients with endotoxaemia was significantly greater than that in 17 patients without endotoxaemia (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total protein in patients with endotoxaemia (13.95 +/- 7.18 milligram, mean +/- SD) was nearly twice as high (P less than 0.01) as in patients without endotoxaemia (7.49 +/- 3.60 milligram). The protein content of those who showed reactions greater or equal to 2(+) in the Limulus assay (16.78 +/- 7.14 milligram) was a significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than in those with 1(+) reaction (11.26 +/- 6.33 milligram). Moreover, the concentration of albumin in patients with endotoxaemia (7.68 +/- 4.60 milligram) was more than twice that of the patients without endotoxaemia (3.39 +/- 1.58 milligram, P less than 0.01). On the other hand, globulin concentration in patients with endotoxaemia was 1.6 times that of patients without endotoxaemia (P less than 0.01). Similar differences were noted between endotoxaemic and non-endotoxaemic patients in the ascites-to-serum ratio in protein, albumin, and globulin. These results suggest that in liver cirrhosis endotoxaemia may cause an increase in protein concentrations in ascitic fluid, and that it may be a precipitating factor in the formation of ascites. PMID:437553

  6. PAPP-A proteolytic activity enhances IGF bioactivity in ascites from women with ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jacob; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Espelund, Ulrick; Ørtoft, Gitte; Vestergaard, Poul; Magnusson, Nils E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; Tramm, Trine; Hager, Henrik; Høgdall, Claus; Høgdall, Estrid; Oxvig, Claus; Frystyk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action through proteolysis of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-4. In experimental animals, PAPP-A accelerates ovarian tumor growth by this mechanism. To investigate the effect of PAPP-A in humans, we compared serum and ascites from 22 women with ovarian carcinoma. We found that ascites contained 46-fold higher PAPP-A levels as compared to serum (P < 0.001). The majority (80%) of PAPP-A was enzymatically active. This is supported by the finding that ascites contained more cleaved than intact IGFBP-4 (P < 0.03). Ascites was more potent than serum in activating the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro (+31%, P < 0.05); in 8 of 22 patients by more than two-fold. In contrast, ascites contained similar levels of immunoreactive IGF-I, and lower levels of IGF-II (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of IGF-IR in all but one tumor, whereas all tumors expressed PAPP-A, IGFBP-4, IGF-I and IGF-II. Addition of recombinant PAPP-A to ascites increased the cleavage of IGFBP-4 and enhanced IGF-IR activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, human ovarian tumors express PAPP-A, IGFBP-4 and IGFs and these proteins are also present in ascites. We suggest that both soluble PAPP-A in ascites and tissue-associated PAPP-A serve to increase IGF bioactivity and, thereby, to stimulate IGF-IR-mediated tumor growth. PMID:26336825

  7. Incidence and predictive factors of first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis with ascites: relevance of ascitic fluid protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Llach, J; Rimola, A; Navasa, M; Ginès, P; Salmerón, J M; Ginès, A; Arroyo, V; Rodés, J

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the long-term probability of the appearance of the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis with ascites and to identify predictors of this complication, we closely followed throughout their illness 127 patients consecutively admitted to our unit for the treatment of an episode of ascites without prior spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (follow-up period: 21 +/- 22 mo). Thirteen patients (10%) had the first spontaneous bacterial peritonitis episode during follow-up. The appearance probability of this complication is 11% at 1 yr and 15% at 3 yr. Thirty-three variables obtained at admission (including clinical data, standard liver and kidney function test results, ascitic fluid protein concentrations and hemodynamic parameters) were analyzed in relation to their value in predicting spontaneous bacterial peritonitis development. In univariate analysis (Kaplan-Meier curves) five variables reached statistical significance (p less than 0.05) as predictive factors for the development of the first spontaneous bacterial peritonitis episode. These five variables were poor nutritional status, increased serum bilirubin levels, increased serum AST levels, decreased prothrombin activity and reduced total protein concentration in ascitic fluid. When these five variables were introduced in a multivariate analysis, only the ascitic fluid protein concentration was found to correlate independently with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis development (p = 0.002). The probability of first spontaneous bacterial peritonitis after 3 yr of follow-up was 24% and 4% in patients with ascitic fluid protein content lower than 1 gm/dl and greater than or equal to 1 gm/dl, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1505916

  8. A strategy to eradicate well-developed Krebs-2 ascites in mice.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ekaterina A; Dolgova, Evgenia V; Proskurina, Anastasia S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Taranov, Oleg S; Omigov, Vladimir V; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Ostanin, Alexander A; Chernykh, Elena R; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    We describe the strategy, which allows curing experimental mice engrafted with Krebs-2 ascites. The strategy is based on the facts that i) Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells (TISCs) are naturally capable of internalizing fragments of extracellular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); ii) upon delivery into TISCs, these dsDNA fragments interfere with the on-going DNA repair process so that TISCs either die or lose their tumorigenic potential. The following 3-step regimen of therapeutic procedures leading to eradication of Krebs-2 ascites is considered. Firstly, three timed injections of cyclophosphamide (CP) exactly matching the interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair phases that lead to synchronization of ascites cells in late S/G2/M. Secondly, additional treatment of ascites 18 hours post each CP injection (at NER/HR transition timepoint) with a composite dsDNA-based preparation interfering with the NER and HR repair pathways, so that tumorigenic properties of ascites cells are compromised. Thirdly, final treatment of mice with a combination of CP and dsDNA injections as ascites cells undergo apoptotic destruction, and the surviving TAMRA+ TISCs arrested in late S/G2/M phases massively enter into G1/S, when they regain sensitivity to CP+dsDNA treatment. Thus, this regimen assures that no viable cells, particularly Krebs-2 TISCs, remain. PMID:26872383

  9. Effect of Glycyrrhiza on the Diuretic Function of Euphorbia kansui: An Ascites Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ya; Zhang, Yanqiong; Shang, Erxin; Lai, Wenfang; Zhu, Hongwei; Fang, Yuhua; Qin, Qingxia; Zhao, Haiyu; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic role of the herbal combination Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) in ascites during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The AVPR2 and AQP2 expression in kidney tissues of ascites mice in different groups was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR analyses. When the dose of GS was less than 0.70 g/kg at a ratio of GC : GS not exceeding 0.4 : 1, the combination of GS and GC exhibited synergistic effects on HCC ascites and significantly elevated the expression levels of AVPR2 and AQP2 (all P < 0.05). On the contrary, when GS ≥ 0.93 g/kg and GC ≥ 1.03 g/kg with the GC-to-GS ratio exceeding 1.11 : 1, the combination of GS and GC displayed antagonistic effects on HCC ascites and dramatically reduced the expression levels of AVPR2 and AQP2 (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the administration of herbal pair GS and GC at different ratios did not exacerbate the pathological changes in liver and kidney tissues of HCC ascites mice. The different combinations of GS and GC exerted synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites, partially by regulating the expression of AVPR2 and AQP2. PMID:27247609

  10. A strategy to eradicate well-developed Krebs-2 ascites in mice.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ekaterina A; Dolgova, Evgenia V; Proskurina, Anastasia S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Taranov, Oleg S; Omigov, Vladimir V; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Ostanin, Alexander A; Chernykh, Elena R; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    We describe the strategy, which allows curing experimental mice engrafted with Krebs-2 ascites. The strategy is based on the facts that i) Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells (TISCs) are naturally capable of internalizing fragments of extracellular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); ii) upon delivery into TISCs, these dsDNA fragments interfere with the on-going DNA repair process so that TISCs either die or lose their tumorigenic potential. The following 3-step regimen of therapeutic procedures leading to eradication of Krebs-2 ascites is considered. Firstly, three timed injections of cyclophosphamide (CP) exactly matching the interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair phases that lead to synchronization of ascites cells in late S/G2/M. Secondly, additional treatment of ascites 18 hours post each CP injection (at NER/HR transition timepoint) with a composite dsDNA-based preparation interfering with the NER and HR repair pathways, so that tumorigenic properties of ascites cells are compromised. Thirdly, final treatment of mice with a combination of CP and dsDNA injections as ascites cells undergo apoptotic destruction, and the surviving TAMRA+ TISCs arrested in late S/G2/M phases massively enter into G1/S, when they regain sensitivity to CP+dsDNA treatment. Thus, this regimen assures that no viable cells, particularly Krebs-2 TISCs, remain.

  11. Effects of hyperthermia and calcium channel blocker co-therapy on mice injected with Meth A solid of Meth A ascites tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effectiveness of treating tumor-injected mice with verapamil, a calcium antagonist, and hyperthermia. The co-treatment reduced the incidence of tumors in animals injected with Meth A solid cells. It was shown that the decrease in tumors corresponded to increases in natural killer (NK) cell activity measured in a /sup 51/Cr release assay, in the amount of anti-Meth A antibody measured in an immunofluorescence assay, and a decrease in the amount of intra-tumor cyclic AMP measured by radioimmunoassay in co-treated compared to untreated sarcoma-injected animals. A role of the immune system for mediating the prevention of sarcoma growth was indicated by Winn assays. Splenocytes sensitized in vivo against Meth A solid cells for 14 days exhibited an enhanced cytotoxic activity against syngeneic target cells compared to untreated tumor-sensitized splenocytes following heat-drug co-treatment. It was established that the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells against a histocompatibility antigen (H-2/sup d/) present on Meth A sarcoma cells resulted in tumor cell lysis. Animals bearing established Meth A solid sarcomas did not manifest tumor regressions following the administration of co-treatment alone or the adoptive transfer of co-treated tumor-sensitized splenocytes. The growth of Meth A ascites and Meth A ascites-derived solid sarcomas, unlike Meth A solid cell tumors, were not prevented in Winn assays. Additionally, the lifespan of animals injected with Meth A ascites cells was reduced by 50% compared to animals injected with Meth A solid sarcoma cells.

  12. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  13. Parenteral nutrition combined with rice soup can be a safe and effective intervention for congenital chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Yan, Weihui; Lu, Lina; Tao, Yijing; Lu, Wei; Chen, Yingwei; Tang, Qingya; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Congenital chylous ascites in the neonatal period is a rare entity. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), medium chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet, octreotide and repeated paracentesis are regarded as appropriate medical treatment for congenital chylous ascites, and surgery is recommended when conservative therapy has failed. We present two cases in which ascites were confirmed via an abdominal sonogram and diagnostic paracentesis. In our clinical experience, rice soup combined with PN can be a safe and effective intervention. PMID:27440699

  14. Incidence and risk factors of chylous ascites after pancreatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wu; Yang, Chen; Cai, Shen-Yang; Chen, Zhi-Meng; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu; Xiong, Xian-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Chylous ascites (CA) is a rare postoperative complication. It also occurs in pancreatic surgery and can influence the patient’s prognosis after pancreatic resection. There are few studies focusing on CA following pancreatic resection. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of CA following pancreatic resection. Patients who underwent pancreatic resection from the year 2007 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of CA was based on the presence of a non-infectious milky or creamy peritoneal fluid greater than 100 ml/day with a triglyceride concentration ≥110 mg/dl. The incidence and possible risk factors following pancreatic resection were evaluated. In this study, 1921 patients who underwent pancreatic resection were included. 49 patients developed CA. The overall incidence was 2.6 percent (49 out of 1921). The incidence following pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy was much higher (35 out of 1241, 12 out of 332, respectively). A multivariable analysis demonstrated that manipulating para-aortic area and superior mesenteric artery root area; retroperitoneal invasion; focal chronic pancreatitis and early enteral feeding were the independent risk factors for CA after pancreatic surgery. In conclusion, CA is a rare complication after pancreatic resection. Some clinicopathological factors were associated with the development of CA following pancreatic resection. PMID:26064374

  15. Changes in the template activity of chromatin isolated from sarcoma-180 ascites cells treated with mitomycin C and gamma irradiation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Karuri, A; Mukherji, S

    1989-01-01

    The murine ascites sarcoma 180 cells were used to test the in vivo effectiveness of mitomycin C (MMC) and gamma-radiation applied in combination. The action of intraperitoneal administration of MMC and/or whole-body gamma irradiation on sarcoma 180 tumor bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated by studying the template activity of isolated tumor chromatin. The Km value for transcription of 10 Gy-irradiated chromatin was found to decrease with time implying an increase in the template efficiency with respect to that of the unirradiated control. Maximum decrease in Km was observed after 24 h of irradiation. MMC treatment (7 mg/kg body weight of mouse) for 18 h resulted in an inhibition of the transcription rate. Severe inhibition in the template activity was found when cells were subjected to MMC treatment 18 h prior to irradiation with 10 Gy. Susceptibility of tumor chromatin to DNase II followed the same pattern as observed in the case of transcription indicating structural alteration of the treated chromatin. The data showed that DNA damage and its consequences produced in the ascites cells by prior treatment of MMC were not repaired during the 18 h period after which the application of radiation enhanced cytotoxicity.

  16. [Apparently opposite postulates of Ehrlich (Horror autotoxicus) and Metchnikoff (physiological autoimmunization) are not irreconcilable].

    PubMed

    Dighiero, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1900, the group from Metchnikoff suggested the concept of autoimmunization by demonstrating the presence of autoantibodies in normal conditions; which was opposed to the concept of horror autotoxicus raised by Ehrlich. Landsteiner's description of the transfusion compatibility rules and 50 year-later work from Burnett's and Medawar's groups lead to the clonal deletion theory as a general explanation of tolerance and autoimmunity. However, more recent work succeeded demonstrating that autoreactive B cells constitute a substantial part of the B-cell repertoire and that this autoreactive repertoire secretes the so-called natural autoantibodies (NAA) characterized by their broad reactivity mainly directed against very well conserved public epitopes. They fulfill the definition of an autoantibody since they are self-reactive, but they are not self-specific. As yet, NAA directed against determinants of polymorphism have not been reported. The presence of this repertoire in normal conditions challenges the clonal deletion theory as a unique explanation for self-tolerance. However, if we take into account that this autoreactive B-cell repertoire is not self-specific, this contradiction may not be a real one opposition. Indeed, the Lansteiner's rule that a subject belonging to group A will never produce anti-A antibodies and will always produce natural antibodies against the B-cell group, could never be challenged. Clonal deletion is probably accounting for this phenomenon. However, the serum of healthy adult individuals frequently exhibits low titers of anti-I antibodies, which is a precursor molecule of AB0 antigen system. The mechanism accounting for deletion of B cells directed against critical determinants like antigens A and B in the red blood cell system and allowing the production of autoantibodies against I remains elusive.

  17. Energization of amino acid transport in energy-depleted Ehrlich cells and plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, M; Kilberg, M S; Kimmel, G; Christensen, H N

    1980-06-20

    We redirect attention to contributions to the energization, of the active transport of amino acids in the Ehrlich cell, beyond the known energization, by down-gradient comigration of Na+, beyond possible direct energization by coupling to ATP breakdown, and beyond known energization by exchange with prior accumulations of amino acids. We re-emphasize the uphill operation of System L, and by prior depletion of cellular amino acids show that this system must receive energy beyond that made available by their coupled exodus. After this depletion the Na+-indepdendent accumulation of the norbornane amino acid, 2-aminobicycloheptane-2-carboxylic acid becomes strongly subject to stimulation by incubation with glucose. Energy transfer between Systems A and L through the mutual substrate action of ordinary amino acids was minimized although not entirely avoided by the use of amino acid analogs specific to each system. When 2,4-dinitrophenol was included in the depleting treatment, and pyruvate, phenazine methosulfate, or glucose used for restoration, recovery of uptake of the norbornane amino acid was independent of external Na+ or K+ levels. Restoration or the uptake of 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid was, however, decreased by omission of external K+. Contrary to an earlier finding, restoration of uptake of each of these amino acids was associated with distinct and usually correlated rises in cellular ATP levels. ATP addition failed to stimulate exodus of the norbornane amino acid from plasma membrane vesicles, although either NADH or phenazine methosulfate did stimulate exodus. ATP production and use is thus associated with transport energization although evidence for a direct role failed to appear.

  18. The application of nutrition support in conservative treatment of chylous ascites after abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wu; Cai, Shen-Yang; Luo, Hai-Long; Ouyang, Shu-Rui; Zhang, Wen-Duo; Wei, Zai-Rong; Wang, Da-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Chylous ascites is the pathologic leakage of triglycerides-rich lymphatic fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Chylous ascites is a rare complication in abdominal surgery. This study aimed to find a relatively better method for nutrition support in the treatment of chylous ascites after abdominal surgery. Methods This study was a retrospective study. This study retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent abdominal surgery and developed chylous ascites, from the year 2010 to 2014, at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University and the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College. Fifty-eight patients who developed chylous ascites after abdominal surgery were included in the study. The clinical effect of somatostatin was evaluated. The differences in the curative efficacy among a daily diet, a low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were also analyzed in this study. Results Complete clinical success was reached earlier in patients treated with somatostatin (P<0.001). The tube removal time, the time to resumption of an oral diet, and the length of hospital stay after chylous leakage were significantly different between patients treated with and without somatostatin. The curative efficacies of the enteral nutrition (EN) + MCT plan and the TPN plan were quite similar, with no significant difference, however, were significantly different from the MCT regime, which was the worst. However, using the EN + MCT plan was more cost-effective (P=0.038). Conclusion In treating chylous ascites, EN + MCT instead of TPN was the best nutrition support. Moreover, somatostatin or its analog octreotide should be used immediately. The treatment with somatostatin in combination with EN + MCT is recommended in the conservative treatment of postoperative chylous ascites. PMID:27143902

  19. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  20. Impaired innate immune response of leukocytes from ascitic fluid of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Juan Camilo; Sánchez, Elisabet; Romero, Cristina; Román, Eva; Poca, Maria; Guarner, Carlos; Juárez, Cándido; Soriano, Germán; Vidal, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    An ascitic microenvironment can condition the immune response of cells from cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. To characterize this response, we determined the cytokine concentrations in ascitic fluid and analyzed the phenotype and function of ascitic leukocytes at diagnosis and after antibiotic-induced resolution in sterile ascites and ascitic fluid of 2 spontaneous bacterial peritonitis variants: positive and negative bacteriological culture. At diagnosis, a high concentration was found of IL-6 and IL-10 in the ascitic fluid from negative and positive bacteriological culture. The IL-6 concentration correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (R = 0.686, P < 0.001). In this context, positive and negative culture neutrophils had an impaired oxidative burst, and, after the antibiotic, the negative culture spontaneous bacterial peritonitis burst was fully recovered. Higher concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 correlated with the presence of low granular CD 14(low) macrophages (R = -0.436, P = 0.005 and R = 0.414, P = 0.007, respectively). Positive culture spontaneous bacterial peritonitis macrophages expressed the lowest levels of CD16, CD86, CD11b and CD206, and HLA-DR, suggesting an impaired global function. Treatment increased all markers on the positive culture macrophages and CD11b and CD86 on negative culture macrophages. In negative culture spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, this increase was accompanied by phagocytic function recovery. The antibiotics then reverted the marker levels on positive and negative culture macrophages to the levels on sterile ascitis macrophages and restored ascitic negative culture cell function.

  1. Cell-Free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy for Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Koichi; IInuma, Masahiro; Takagi, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Takanori; Sanpei, Takaya; Terunuma, Yusuke; Yatabe, Yoshiharu; Akano, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) is expected to improve symptoms associated with refractory ascites of the decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the CART system performed on the decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated 24 CART processes performed on 11 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. We evaluated the effectiveness and adverse events during CART procedures. The amounts of collected and concentrated ascites were 4491.7 ± 2222.8 mL (mean ± SD), respectively, and the concentration ratio was 22.4 ± 15.3 times, respectively. The amount of collected protein in ascites was 2.3 ± 0.5 g/dL, and concentration ratio of protein was 8.2 ± 9.4 times. Serum protein level was not significantly different between before and after CART sessions. Thus, CART allowed for the reduction of doses of albumin preparations (Alb) to be administered. CART has been reported to cause two adverse reactions: elevation of body temperature and decrease in blood pressure. In our study, decreased blood pressure was not observed even in patients with > 5 L of ascites drained. Although a transient elevation in body temperature was seen in only one patient, this febrile patient immediately returned to normal body temperature with the use of NSAIDs. In patients with refractory ascites of decompensated liver cirrhosis in whom complete cure cannot be expected, CART improves their QOL and, in terms of medical economy, allows for the reduction of doses of Alb. CART can be effectively applied as a palliative procedure for refractory ascites of decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:27523078

  2. Effect of cold stress on broilers selected for resistance or susceptibility to ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Kidd, B D; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B

    2003-09-01

    Genetic selection for an ascites-resistant line of broilers is seen as a permanent solution to the ascites problem. Ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible lines have been developed using sire family selection based on mortality data taken from siblings reared in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level). The relaxed line is representative of the original commercial pureline stock randomly mated with no artificial selection pressure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differences between the lines when reared in floor pens and subjected to an ascites-inducing cold stress. Seven hundred eighty three straight run broilers were reared in floor pens at local elevation (390 m above sea level). Feed and water were available ad libitum. Birds were brooded at 32 C during the first week. The second week birds were maintained at 30 degrees C. Cold stress was applied for the remaining 4 wk at 14 degrees C. Mortalities were necropsied daily to determine cause of death. Birds and feed were weighed weekly. At 6 wk, five birds per pen were bled, and half the survivors in each pen (8 to 15 birds) were killed, necropsied, and scored for ascites. Blood gases, clinical chemistries, and blood cell counts were taken. Liver, spleen, split heart, and lung weights were recorded. Body weights were not different among the resistant, susceptible, and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was better in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Ascites incidence, as measured by mortality and lesion score at necropsy, was higher in the susceptible and relaxed lines when compared to the resistant line; 18.8, 12.7, and 1.6% respectively (P < 0.001). Susceptible and relaxed lines showed more right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with the resistant line (P < 0.05). The results show that under severe cold stress at local altitude (390 m above sea level), the ascites-resistant line was growing as rapidly as the other

  3. Specific chalone inhibition of the regeneration of the JB-1 ascites tumour studied by flow microfluorometry.

    PubMed

    Bichel, P; Barfod, N M

    1977-03-01

    The variation in the DNA distribution in the JB-1 and the Lla2 ascites tumour was investigated by means of flow microfluorometry (FMF) in the plateau stage and during the initiation of the regenerative growth induced by percutaneous aspiration. The study showed that a considerable influx of cells with G1DNA content into the S phase occurred in both tumours about 10 hr after aspiration. In the JB-1 tumour, these initial regenerative changes could be reversibly blocked by injections of cell-free plateau JB-1 ascitic fluid or an ultrafiltrate of this ascites. In contrast to these observations no delay in the regenerative changes was observed in the L1a2 tumour after treatment with JB-1 ascites or the ultrafiltrate. The study supports the assumption of a specific growth regulation of the JB-1 ascites tumour and emphasizes the suitability of FMF analyses in cell-kinetic studies in which short-term fluctuations take place in the distribution of cells with different DNA content.

  4. Differential diagnosis of human ascites: inhibitors of the contact system and total proteins.

    PubMed

    Buø, L; Karlsrud, T S; Dyrhaug, G; Jacobsen, M B; Bell, H; Johansen, H T; Aasen, A O

    1993-09-01

    To assess their accuracies as markers for malignancy, we assayed alpha 2-macroglobulin, C1-inhibitor, alpha 1-protease inhibitor, and total proteins in ascites and plasma from patients with gastrointestinal cancer (n = 15) and non-malignant liver disease (n = 13), using functional and immunologic assays. For all inhibitors and total proteins determined in ascites, the values in the cancer group were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the group with non-malignant liver disease. The diagnostic accuracy for differentiating malignancy-related from non-malignant ascites was 93% for a alpha 1-protease inhibitor value > or = 50% of the pool plasma value and 90% for alpha 2-macroglobulin > or = 16%, C1-inhibitor > or = 40% (all functional assays), and total proteins > or = 20 g/l (biuret). In conclusion, functional assays for alpha 2-macroglobulin, C1-inhibitor, and alpha 1-protease inhibitor and determination of total proteins in ascites appeared to be very informative tests for the differential diagnosis of ascites. The test for alpha 1-protease inhibitor gave higher specificity (92% versus 77%) and likelihood ratio for a positive test (12 versus 4) compared with the other tests.

  5. Case report of chylous ascites with strangulated ileus and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Harino, Yukari; Kamo, Hitomi; Yoshioka, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Sumise, Yuko; Okitsu, Natsu; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Tashiro, Seiki

    2015-08-01

    We describe a case of chylous ascites with strangulated ileus, and review all 22 cases (including our case) of chylous ascites with strangulated ileus reported in the English and Japanese literature. The patient we describe was a 51-year-old woman with medical history of radiotherapy for cervical cancer of the uterus 15 months prior to being admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain after consuming a meal. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed ascites, expansion of the small intestine, and whirl sign. Laparotomy revealed chylous ascites with an incarcerated internal hernia of the small intestine, which was released without intestinal resection. In our case the postoperative phase was uneventful, and as in the other 21 literature cases reviewed, treatment by either detorsion, release of the incarcerated internal hernia, or incision of the adhesion band without intestinal resection resulted in rapid improvement in the color of the intestine. It is considered that minimally invasive laparoscopic laparotomy should be selected as the treatment of first choice, because the degree of strangulation is slight in cases where chylous ascites is associated with strangulated ileus. PMID:26026475

  6. Ascites Bacterial Burden and Immune Cell Profile Are Associated with Poor Clinical Outcomes in the Absence of Overt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Kevin J.; Rogers, Geraint B.; Melino, Michelle; Arthur, Dionne M.; Costello, Mary-Ellen; Morrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections, most commonly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites, occur in one third of admitted patients with cirrhosis, and account for a 4-fold increase in mortality. Bacteria are isolated from less than 40% of ascites infections by culture, necessitating empirical antibiotic treatment, but culture-independent studies suggest bacteria are commonly present, even in the absence of overt infection. Widespread detection of low levels of bacteria in ascites, in the absence of peritonitis, suggests immune impairment may contribute to higher susceptibility to infection in cirrhotic patients. However, little is known about the role of ascites leukocyte composition and function in this context. We determined ascites bacterial composition by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 25 patients with culture-negative, non-neutrocytic ascites, and compared microbiological data with ascites and peripheral blood leukocyte composition and phenotype. Bacterial DNA was detected in ascitic fluid from 23 of 25 patients, with significant positive correlations between bacterial DNA levels and poor 6-month clinical outcomes (death, readmission). Ascites leukocyte composition was variable, but dominated by macrophages or T lymphocytes, with lower numbers of B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Consistent with the hypothesis that impaired innate immunity contributes to susceptibility to infection, high bacterial DNA burden was associated with reduced major histocompatibility complex class II expression on ascites (but not peripheral blood) monocytes/macrophages. These data indicate an association between the presence of ascites bacterial DNA and early death and readmission in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. They further suggest that impairment of innate immunity contributes to increased bacterial translocation, risk of peritonitis, or both. PMID:25781164

  7. Ascites bacterial burden and immune cell profile are associated with poor clinical outcomes in the absence of overt infection.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Kevin J; Rogers, Geraint B; Melino, Michelle; Arthur, Dionne M; Costello, Mary-Ellen; Morrison, Mark; Powell, Elizabeth E; Irvine, Katharine M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections, most commonly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites, occur in one third of admitted patients with cirrhosis, and account for a 4-fold increase in mortality. Bacteria are isolated from less than 40% of ascites infections by culture, necessitating empirical antibiotic treatment, but culture-independent studies suggest bacteria are commonly present, even in the absence of overt infection. Widespread detection of low levels of bacteria in ascites, in the absence of peritonitis, suggests immune impairment may contribute to higher susceptibility to infection in cirrhotic patients. However, little is known about the role of ascites leukocyte composition and function in this context. We determined ascites bacterial composition by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 25 patients with culture-negative, non-neutrocytic ascites, and compared microbiological data with ascites and peripheral blood leukocyte composition and phenotype. Bacterial DNA was detected in ascitic fluid from 23 of 25 patients, with significant positive correlations between bacterial DNA levels and poor 6-month clinical outcomes (death, readmission). Ascites leukocyte composition was variable, but dominated by macrophages or T lymphocytes, with lower numbers of B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Consistent with the hypothesis that impaired innate immunity contributes to susceptibility to infection, high bacterial DNA burden was associated with reduced major histocompatibility complex class II expression on ascites (but not peripheral blood) monocytes/macrophages. These data indicate an association between the presence of ascites bacterial DNA and early death and readmission in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. They further suggest that impairment of innate immunity contributes to increased bacterial translocation, risk of peritonitis, or both. PMID:25781164

  8. Caffeine causes pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kamely, M; Torshizi, M A Karimi; Rahimi, S; Wideman, R F

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), or ascites, is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Experimental models are required for triggering PHS to study the pathogenesis of this syndrome and to select resistant genetic lines. Caffeine increases vascular resistance and promotes systemic hypertension in mammals, but a similar effect of caffeine on the pulmonary circulation had not previously been demonstrated. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of caffeine alone (Exp. 1) or in combination with cold temperature (Exp. 2) on parameters associated with PHS in young broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 288 chicks were distributed among 24 pens and brooded at standard environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 2, 192 chicks were distributed among 16 pens and brooded at cool environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 1 caffeine administered at or above 12.5 mg/(kg BW·d) induced severe PHS and resulted in acute mortality and RVH ( < 0.05). Hematocrit also slightly increased by caffeine supplementation ( = 0.07). In Exp. 2 caffeine-treated broilers exposed to cold temperatures remarkably exhibited PHS incidences and developed RVH with right ventricular to total ventricular weight ratios of 30% or greater. Moreover, hematocrit significantly increased because of caffeine supplementation in cool ambient temperature ( = 0.002). Our data demonstrate that caffeine induces high incidences of PHS in broilers, which is exacerbated by exposure to low temperatures. PMID:27136008

  9. The Contributions of Paul Ehrlich to Pharmacology: A Tribute on the Occasion of the Centenary of His Nobel Prize

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia

    2008-01-01

    On the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's Nobel Prize, this German researcher deserves to be remembered as a pioneer in a large number of scientific disciplines. As a result of his enthusiasm and scientific abilities, dedication, and contacts with other scientists of his time, he was able to make countless contributions in fields as diverse as histology, haematology, immunology, oncology, microbiology and pharmacology, among others. Although the Swedish award was meant to recognize the standardization of the manufacture of antidiphtheria serum, it was the discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis which won him wider international acclaim. From a pharmacological perspective, Ehrlich's outstanding contributions include dissemination of the ‘magic bullet’ concept for the synthesis of antibacterials, introduction of concepts such as chemoreceptor and chemotherapy, and linking the chemical structure of compounds to their pharmacological activity. These achievements took place within the framework he established for the transition from experimental pharmacology to therapeutic pharmacology. He introduced a modern research system based on the synthesis of multiple chemical structures for pharmacological screening in animal models of disease states. These contributions were undoubtedly decisive in propitiating the wider development of antibiotics decades later. For these reasons, it is fitting to mark the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to this great scientist by commemorating the importance of his contributions to the advance of pharmacology. PMID:18679046

  10. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to pharmacology: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia

    2008-01-01

    On the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's Nobel Prize, this German researcher deserves to be remembered as a pioneer in a large number of scientific disciplines. As a result of his enthusiasm and scientific abilities, dedication, and contacts with other scientists of his time, he was able to make countless contributions in fields as diverse as histology, haematology, immunology, oncology, microbiology and pharmacology, among others. Although the Swedish award was meant to recognize the standardization of the manufacture of antidiphtheria serum, it was the discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis which won him wider international acclaim. From a pharmacological perspective, Ehrlich's outstanding contributions include dissemination of the 'magic bullet' concept for the synthesis of antibacterials, introduction of concepts such as chemoreceptor and chemotherapy, and linking the chemical structure of compounds to their pharmacological activity. These achievements took place within the framework he established for the transition from experimental pharmacology to therapeutic pharmacology. He introduced a modern research system based on the synthesis of multiple chemical structures for pharmacological screening in animal models of disease states. These contributions were undoubtedly decisive in propitiating the wider development of antibiotics decades later. For these reasons, it is fitting to mark the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to this great scientist by commemorating the importance of his contributions to the advance of pharmacology.

  11. Receptors and aging: dedicated to the memory of Paul Ehrlich for the 100th anniversary of his Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Labat-Robert, J; Robert, A M

    2010-01-01

    The initiation and evolution of the receptor concept and its application in pharmacology can be traced back to Paul Ehrlich's original experiments. Since several decades the receptor concept is in the foreground of cell biology and pharmacology. We present here a short reminder of Ehrlich's concepts on receptor action, its evolution and modifications as a result of increasing life expectancy of human societies. Results obtained by several teams on the age-dependent modifications of receptor function are reviewed with special emphasis on the age-dependent loss of receptors and of uncoupling of receptors from their intracellular transmission pathway. As a special example we summarize our results on the elastin receptor and its age-dependent modifications. These modifications result in the loss of the physiologically helpful functions mediated by this receptor, such as vasodilation by coupling with the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-inhibition of cellular cholesterol synthesis and modulation of free radical production by inhibition of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gi protein)-mediated transmission pathway. Only the harmful effects such as free radical release and up-regulation of elastase production remain in "old" cells. The age-dependent modifications of receptor function play an important role in the increasing frequency and severity of age-related diseases such as athero-arteriosclerosis and emphysema as well as the loss of hormone- and drug actions. These processes and their inhibition or correction represent a new challenge for cellular pharmacology.

  12. Portal Hypertension and Ascites Due to an Arterioportal Fistula: Sequela of a Remote Traumatic Liver Laceration

    PubMed Central

    Hulkower, Benjamin M.; Butty, Sabah

    2016-01-01

    Arterioportal fistulas (APFs) are a group of vascular disorders, in which systemic arteries communicate with the portal circulation, presenting as a congenital syndrome or more commonly acquired from iatrogenic instrumentation or abdominal trauma. We report the case of a 58-year-old man who developed ascites without underlying risk factors for portal hypertension, which was attributed to an APF found on imaging, manifesting 43 years after sustaining a liver laceration. After angiographic embolization of the APF, the patient’s ascites resolved completely. The prolonged latent period between the patient’s abdominal trauma and eventual presentation with ascites highlights the need to consider vascular malformations in the differential diagnosis of unexplained noncirrhotic portal hypertension.

  13. A flow cytometric in vivo chalone assay using retransplanted old murine JB-1 ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Barfod, N M

    1981-07-01

    A flow cytometric in vivo chalone assay is described. Transplantation of old JB-1 ascites tumour cells to new hosts induced an influx of tumour cells, with G1 DNA content, to the S phase. This induction could be reversibly and specifically blocked by injections of an ultrafiltrate of old JB-1 ascites fluid. The method described is superior to a previously published in vivo chalone assay using regenerating ascites tumours. Owing to a reduced variability in time of onset of DNA synthesis, a smaller scatter of observations is achieved and thus the number of mice per group may be reduced using the new method. In contrast to the older technique, the present one does not necessitate killing of mice during the observation period.

  14. Chylous Ascites Requiring Surgical Intervention after Donor Nephrectomy — Case Series and Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Johan; Matas, Arthur; Sutherland, David; Kandaswamy, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Chylous ascites as a result of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a rare complication which carries significant morbidity, including severe protein-calorie malnutrition and an associated immunocompromised state. We report a patient who underwent hand-assisted left LDN and subsequently developed chylous ascites. He failed conservative therapy including low-fat diet with medium-chain triglycerides (LFD/MCT) and oral protein supplementation as well as strict NPO status with intravenous (IV) total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and subcutaneous (SQ) somatostatin analogue administration. Laparoscopic re-exploration and intracorporeal suture ligation and clipping of leaking lymph channels successfully sealed the chyle leak. We review the literature to date including diagnosis, incidence, management options, psychosocial aspects and clinical outcomes of chylous ascites after LDN. PMID:19958336

  15. Chylous ascites requiring surgical intervention after donor nephrectomy: case series and single center experience.

    PubMed

    Aerts, J; Matas, A; Sutherland, D; Kandaswamy, R

    2010-01-01

    Chylous ascites as a result of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a rare complication that carries significant morbidity, including severe protein-calorie malnutrition and an associated immunocompromised state. We report a patient who underwent hand-assisted left LDN and subsequently developed chylous ascites. He failed conservative therapy including low-fat diet with medium-chain triglycerides (LFD/MCT) and oral protein supplementation as well as strict NPO status with intravenous (IV) total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and subcutaneous (SQ) somatostatin analogue administration. Laparoscopic re-exploration and intracorporeal suture ligation and clipping of leaking lymph channels successfully sealed the chyle leak. We review the literature to date including diagnosis, incidence, management options, psychosocial aspects and clinical outcomes of chylous ascites after LDN.

  16. Radiological Insertion of Denver Peritoneovenous Shunts for Malignant Refractory Ascites: A Retrospective Multicenter Study (JIVROSG-0809)

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Shunsuke; Sone, Miyuki; Arai, Yasuaki; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Aramaki, Takeshi; Sato, Yozo; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Ueno, Teruko; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Tsushima, Takahiro

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Peritoneal venous shunts (PVSs) are widely used for palliating symptoms of refractory malignant ascites and are recognized as one of the practical methods. However, reliable clinical data are insufficient because most previous reports have been small studies from single centers. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiologically placed PVSs in patients with malignant refractory ascites. Methods: A total of 133 patients with malignant ascites refractory to medical therapies were evaluated for patient characteristics, technical success, efficacy, survival times, adverse events, and changes in laboratory data. Results: PVSs were successfully placed in all patients and were effective (i.e., improvement of ascites symptoms lasting 7 days or more) in 110 (82.7%). The median duration of symptom palliation was 26 days and median survival time was 41 days. The most frequent adverse event was PVS dysfunction, which occurred in 60 (45.1%) patients, among whom function was recovered with an additional minimally invasive procedure in 9. Abnormalities in coagulation (subclinical disseminated intravascular coagulation) occurred in 37 (27.8%) patients, although only 7 (5.3%) developed clinical disseminated intravascular coagulation. Other major adverse events were gastrointestinal bleeding (9.8%), sepsis (3.8%), and acute heart failure (3.0%). PVS was least effective in patients with elevated serum creatinine, bloody ascites, or gynecologic tumor. Conclusions: Radiological PVS is a technically feasible and effective method for palliating the symptoms from refractory malignant ascites, but preoperative evaluation and monitoring the postprocedural complications are mandatory to preclude severe adverse events after PVS.

  17. Differential remodeling of cadherins and intermediate cytoskeletal filaments influence microenvironment of solid and ascitic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chaklader, Malay; Pan, Ankita; Law, Aditya; Chattopadhayay, Sukalpa; Chatterjee, Ritam; Law, Sujata

    2013-10-01

    Different forms of sarcoma (solid or ascitic) often pose a critical medical situation for pediatric or adolescent group of patients. To date, predisposed genetic anomalies and related changes in protein expression are thought to be responsible for sarcoma development. However, in spite of genetic abnormality, role of tumor microenvironment is also indispensable for the evolving neoplasm. In our present study, we characterized the deferentially remodeled microenvironment in solid and ascitic tumors by sequential immunohistochemistry and flowcytometric analysis of E-cdaherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and cytokeratin along with angiogenesis and metastasis. In addition, we considered flowcytometric apoptosis and CD133 positive cancer stem cell analysis. Comparative hemogram was also considered as a part. Our investigation revealed that both types of tumor promoted neovascularization over time with sign of local inflammation. Invasion of neighboring skeletal muscle by solid sarcoma was more frequent than its ascitic counterpart. In contrary, rapid and earlier cadherin switching (E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in ascitic sarcoma made them more aggressive than that of solid sarcoma and helped to early metastasize distant tissue like liver through the hematogenous route. Differential cadherin switching and infidelity of cytokeratin expression in Vimentin positive sarcoma also influenced the behavior of ascitic CD133+ cancer initiating cell pool with respect to CD133+ cells housed in solid sarcoma. Therefore our study concludes that differential cadherin switching program and infidelity of intermediate filaments in part, sharply discriminate the severity and metastatic potentiality of either type of sarcoma accompanying with CD133+ cellular repertoire. Besides, tumor phenotype-based dichotomous cadherin switching program could be exploited as a future drug target to manage decompensated malignant ascitic and solid sarcoma.

  18. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  19. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  20. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  1. Introduction to ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of a ball bearing is to provide a relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and a housing. For high rotational speeds (e.g., in gyroscope ball bearings) the purpose can be expanded to include rotational freedom with practically no wear in the bearing. This condition can be achieved by separating the bearing parts with a coherent film of fluid known as an elastohydrodynamic film. This film can be maintained not only when the bearing carries the load on a shaft, but also when the bearing is preloaded to position the shaft to within micro- or nano-inch accuracy and stability. Background information on ball bearings is provided, different types of ball bearings and their geometry and kinematics are defined, bearing materials, manufacturing processes, and separators are discussed. It is assumed, for the purposes of analysis, that the bearing carries no load.

  2. High efficiency magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Anand, Davinder K.; Kirk, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Research activities concerning high efficiency permanent magnet plus electromagnet (PM/EM) pancake magnetic bearings at the University of Maryland are reported. A description of the construction and working of the magnetic bearing is provided. Next, parameters needed to describe the bearing are explained. Then, methods developed for the design and testing of magnetic bearings are summarized. Finally, a new magnetic bearing which allows active torque control in the off axes directions is discussed.

  3. Neonatal chylous ascites--report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Lim, C T; Van der Heuvel, M

    1997-04-01

    Three cases of neonatal chylous ascites (CCA) were managed in the neonatal unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, over the past 9 years. Fetal ascites and polyhydramnios were the sole abnormalities detected in all three babies by antenatal ultrasonography. They were born at 36 weeks' gestation and their birth weights ranged from 3.0 kg to 3.8 kg. All three infants had abdominal distension at birth. Milky ascitic fluid was obtained after starting enteral feedings. Analysis of the ascitic fluid revealed a raised white blood cell count (predominantly lymphocytic) and triglycerides (1.4 - 3.8 mmol/l), cholesterol (1.6 - 2.8 mmol/l), and protein levels (25 - 41 g/l). Conservative management with skimmed milk and medium-chain triglycerides in one infant and Pregestimil in another was instituted. these two infants with CCA were clinically normal when reviewed at 19 months and 3.5 years of age. The third infant had a gut malrotation and associated pyloric septum; he died from complications of a laparotomy. The literature on this rare condition is reviewed.

  4. Postoperative chylous ascites in a neonate treated successfully with octreotide: bile sludge and cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Alexander; Papouli, Maria; Papavasiliou, Vaso; Badouraki, Maria

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of postoperative chylous ascites after surgical repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in a full-term neonate. Treatment with subcutaneously administered octreotide resulted in rapid resolution of chylous effusion. Octreotide treatment had transient side effects, with bile sludge and cholestasis.

  5. Effect of infrared and X-ray radiation on thymus cells and the rate of growth of Ehrlich carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dyukina, A R; Zaichkina, S I; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Romanchenko, S P; Sorokina, S S

    2012-09-01

    We studied the effect of infrared light with a wavelength of 850 nm and modulated frequency of 101 Hz and X-ray radiation on the induction of cross-adaptive and radiation responses in the thymus and on the rate of tumor growth in mice in vivo. Preliminary exposure to infrared and X-ray radiation was shown to result in recovery in thymus weight after irradiation in a dose of 1.5 Gy and also inhibited the growth rate of Ehrlich carcinoma. These data attest to common mechanisms of the adaptive response induced by infrared and X-ray radiation in mice. Infrared light can be used as an adaptogen to adapt the animals to adverse factors.

  6. [Antitumor effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on a model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Shved, D M; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Korystov, Iu N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Sadovnikov, V B; Alekhin, A I; Goncharov, N G; Chemeris, N K

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different exposure regimes of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the growth rate of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice has been studied. It was shown that, at an optimum repetition factor of exposure (20 min daily for five consecutive days after the tumor inoculation), there is a clearly pronounced frequency dependence of the antitumor effect. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the radiation may be related to the modification of the immune status of the organism. The results obtained show that extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation at a proper selection of exposure regimes can result in distinct and stable antitumor effects.

  7. Acute cholesterol depletion leads to net loss of the organic osmolyte taurine in Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Duelund, Lars; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2010-11-01

    In mammalian cells, the organic osmolyte taurine is accumulated by the Na-dependent taurine transporter TauT and released though the volume- and DIDS-sensitive organic anion channel. Incubating Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (5 mM, 1 h) reduces the total cholesterol pool to 60±5% of the control value. Electron spin resonance data indicate a concomitant disruption of cholesterol-rich micro-domains. Active taurine uptake, cellular taurine content, and cell volume are reduced by 50, 20 and 20% compared to control values, respectively, whereas the passive taurine release is increased 4.5-fold under isotonic conditions following cholesterol depletion. However, taurine release under isotonic conditions is insensitive to DIDS and inhibitors of the volume-regulated anion channel. Uptake and release of meAIB are similarly affected following cholesterol depletion. Kinetic analysis reveals that cholesterol depletion increases TauT's affinity toward taurine but reduces its maximal transport capacity. Cholesterol depletion has no impact on TauT regulation by protein kinases A and C. Phospholipase A2 activity, which is required for the activation of volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), is increased under isotonic and hypotonic conditions following cholesterol depletion, whereas taurine release under hypotonic conditions is reduced following cholesterol depletion. Hence, acute cholesterol depletion of Ehrlich Lettré cells leads to reduced TauT and VSOAC activities and at the same time increases the release of organic osmolytes via a leak pathway different from the volume-sensitive pathways for amino acids and anions. PMID:20499258

  8. In vivo suppression of solid Ehrlich cancer via chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT: an albino mouse tumour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Iman; Saraya, Hend; Zekri, Maha; Abdel-Kader, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    In this study, copper chlorophyllin was used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in Ehrlich tumour mouse model. Six groups of animals comprising 5 animals per group were subcutaneously transplanted with 1x106 Ehrlich tumour cells. A single dose of 200 μg/gm body weight chlorophylin derivative was administered by intravenous (IV) or intratumoral (IT) routes. Mice were exposed to monochromatic red laser of 630 nm for 1 h, and tumour regression was followed up for three consecutive months post treatment. Several Biochemical, histological and molecular tests were performed in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the applied treatment. An interest has been also directed towards investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT. PDT-treated animals via either the IV or IT routes showed significant decrease in tumour size 72 h post-treatment. Tumours at the IV-PDT group disappeared totally within a week with no recurrence over three months follow up. In the IT-PDT, the decrease in tumour size at the first week was interrupted by a slight increase; however never reached the original size. Histological examination of tumour tissues of the IV-PDT group at 24 h post treatment demonstrated restoring the normal muscle tissue architecture, and the biochemical assays indicated normal liver functions. The immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3, and the quantitative PCR results of caspases-8 and 9 proved the presence of extrinsic apoptotic pathway after cholorphyllin derivative-mediated PDT. In conclusion IV-PDT strategy proved better cure rate than the IT-PDT, with no recurrence over three months of follow up.

  9. Ascitic fluid from human ovarian cancer patients contains growth factors necessary for intraperitoneal growth of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, G B; May, C; Hill, M; Campbell, S; Shaw, P; Marks, A

    1990-01-01

    Human ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, tends to remain localized to the peritoneal cavity until late in the disease. In established disease, ascitic fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity. We have previously demonstrated that this ascitic fluid is a potent source of in vitro mitogenic activity including at least one unique growth factor. We now report that the human ovarian adenocarcinoma line, HEY, can be induced to grow intraperitoneally in immunodeficient nude mice in the presence (23/28 mice), but not absence (0/21 mice) of ascitic fluid from ovarian cancer patients. Ascitic fluid from patients with benign disease did not have similar effects on intraperitoneal growth of HEY cells (1/15 mice). Once tumors were established by injections of exogenous ascitic fluid, they could progress in the absence of additional injections of ascitic fluid. The mice eventually developed ascitic fluid which contained potent growth factor activity, suggesting that the tumors eventually produced autologous growth factors. This nude mouse model provides a system to study the action of ovarian cancer growth factors on tumor growth in vivo and to evaluate preclinically, therapeutic approaches designed to counteract the activity of these growth factors. PMID:2394835

  10. Ascites syndrome and related pathologies in feed restricted broilers raised in a hypobaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Cooper, M A; Kidd, B D; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2000-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that the incidence of ascites can be significantly reduced through feed restriction. This method is thought to have an effect by slowing the growth rate of the birds. Interestingly, when birds are grown in a hypobaric chamber, ascites incidence increases while the overall growth rate of the birds is decreased. Unfortunately, the restriction programs practiced also have a detrimental effect on growth characteristics. An experiment was conducted to determine if the timing and duration of feed restriction can be used to reduce the incidence of ascites for broilers reared under high altitude and local elevation without having a negative impact on growth. A total of 600 commercial broiler males were used. Birds were divided, placing 360 birds in the hypobaric chamber at a simulated 2900 m (9,500 ft) above sea level, and 240 birds were placed at local elevation [390 m (1,300 ft) above sea level]. At each altitude there were four treatments: 1) fully fed controls; 2) feed available for 8 h/d for 6 wk (the duration of the study); 3) feed available for 8 h/d during the first 3 wk, then full feed for the remaining 3 wk; and 4) full feed for the first wk, then 3 wk of 8 h of feed availability, then 2 wk of full feed. Birds and feed were weighed weekly, and mortalities were necropsied to determine the cause of death. At the end of 6 wk, blood samples were taken, and the birds were weighed, necropsied, and scored for ascites, and organ weights were recorded. All feed restriction treatments significantly reduced ascites incidence, when compared with the fully fed controls. Treatment 2 birds were significantly lighter than any other group at both altitudes. The fully fed controls at local elevation were heavier than the fully fed controls at simulated high altitude, as seen in past experiments.

  11. Alpha-2A Adrenoceptor Agonist Guanfacine Restores Diuretic Efficiency in Experimental Cirrhotic Ascites: Comparison with Clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Sansoè, Giovanni; Aragno, Manuela; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Mengozzi, Giulio; Parola, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background In human cirrhosis, adrenergic hyperfunction causes proximal tubular fluid retention and contributes to diuretic-resistant ascites, and clonidine, a sympatholytic drug, improves natriuresis in difficult-to-treat ascites. Aim To compare clonidine (aspecific α2-adrenoceptor agonist) to SSP-002021R (prodrug of guanfacine, specific α2A-receptor agonist), both associated with diuretics, in experimental cirrhotic ascites. Methods and Results Six groups of 12 rats were studied: controls (G1); controls receiving furosemide and potassium canrenoate (G2); rats with ascitic cirrhosis due to 14-week CCl4 treatment (G3); cirrhotic rats treated (over the 11th-14th CCl4 weeks) with furosemide and canrenoate (G4), furosemide, canrenoate and clonidine (G5), or diuretics and SSP002021R (G6). Three rats of each group had their hormonal status and renal function assessed at the end of 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th weeks of respective treatments.Cirrhotic rats in G3 and G4 gained weight over the 12th-14th CCl4 weeks. In G4, brief increase in sodium excretion over the 11th-12th weeks preceded worsening of inulin clearance and natriuresis (diuretic resistance). In comparison with G4, the addition of clonidine (G5) or guanfacine (G6) to diuretics improved, respectively, sodium excretion over the 11th-12th CCl4 weeks, or GFR and electrolytes excretion over the 13th-14th CCl4 weeks. Natriuretic responses in G5 and G6 were accompanied by reduced catecholamine serum levels. Conclusions α2A-receptor agonists restore glomerular filtration rate and natriuresis, and delay diuretic-resistant ascites in experimental advanced cirrhosis. Clonidine ameliorates diuretic-dependent natriuresis just for a short time. PMID:27384184

  12. Body Posture Angle Affects the Physiological Indices of Patients With Liver Cirrhosis Ascites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-chuan; Ho, Lun-hui; Lin, Mei-hsiang; Chiu, Hsiu-ling

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of different angles of lying positions on the physiological indices of patients with cirrhosis ascites. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were ranked 9th among the top 10 causes of death. Ascites is the most common cirrhosis comorbidity. Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure, making it an important clinical nursing intervention significantly affecting patient recovery. This was a quasi-experimental study design. From a medical center in Taiwan, 252 patients with cirrhosis ascites were recruited. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups by bed angle: 15°, 30°, and 45°. Physiological indices were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes to determine any changes in heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygenation saturation. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and the generalized estimating equation for statistical analysis with significance set at α= 0.05. After controlling for confounding variables, the three groups differed significantly in heart rate at 20, 25, and 30 minutes, oxygenation saturations at 15 and 20 minutes, and respiration rate at 5 and 10 minutes (α< 0.05). Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure and is thus an important clinical nursing intervention that significantly affects the recovery of patients. When caring for patients with cirrhosis ascites, nurses should help patients to choose the most comfortable angle for them with no particular restrictions. Our results can be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of care for patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis patients with ascites. PMID:27070794

  13. Proteomic evidence of bacterial peptide translocation in afebrile patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Caño, Rocío; Llanos, Lucía; Zapater, Pedro; Pascual, Sonia; Bellot, Pablo; Barquero, Claudia; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Such, José; Francés, Rubén

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial translocation in patients with cirrhosis induces a marked proinflammatory activity that may be different against viable bacteria or bacterial products. The aim of this study is to identify new markers of bacterial translocation by investigating bacterial-driven peptides and correlate their presence with the inflammatory response. Patients with cirrhosis and ascites were included. An analysis by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ascitic fluid total protein from patients (n = 47) and from frequently detected bacterial strains was performed. Two-dimensional maps were digitally compared. The identification of possible markers was performed by mass spectrometry. TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-12, nitric oxide, and proteins of the complement and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein levels were measured in ascitic fluid samples of patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were distributed according to the presence (group I, n = 16) and absence (group II, n = 31) of serum and ascitic fluid bacterial DNA. Among clinical and analytical differences between groups, only mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in patients from group II. Identified bacterial peptides were associated with bacterial protection against immune defenses and included glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A, Porin OmpC, and HSP60. Eight patients from group I also showed bacterial peptides, whereas none from group II did. All studied mediators of immune activation were significantly higher in patients with bacterial DNA than in patients without bacterial DNA. TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and proteins of the complement were significantly increased in patients with bacterial peptides versus those without bacterial peptides. Bacterial peptide translocation is present in the ascitic fluid of a subgroup of patients with advanced cirrhosis and is associated with an increased immune response.

  14. Chronic lupus peritonitis is characterized by the ascites with a large content of interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kamogawa, Yukiko; Nakamura, Kyohei; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Tomonori; Harigae, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease and can cause multi-organ damage. Peritoneal involvement, also called lupus peritonitis, is a rare but sometimes fatal manifestation. Deposition of immune complexes consisting of immunoglobulin G and complement is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of lupus peritonitis; however, it remains unknown whether inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathology of this manifestation. Here we present two patients with treatment-resistant lupus peritonitis: a 37-year-old woman with a 26-year history of SLE who had been treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine and a 65-year-old woman with a 33-year history of SLE who had been treated with prednisolone alone. Both patients were admitted to our department because of abdominal distention. Computed tomography scans showed massive ascites. Ascitic fluid examinations of both patients showed leukocytosis with no evidence of malignancy or infection. After eliminating other causes for ascites, they were diagnosed with lupus peritonitis. Despite the intensified immunosuppressive therapy, they died of uncontrolled peritonitis several months after admission. Examinations of the ascites at admission also revealed a large content of interleukin (IL)-6, compared with other inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. In fact, the ascitic IL-6 levels of these two patients were 12,389 pg/mL and 5,486 pg/mL, much higher than their serum IL-6 levels of 36 pg/mL and 140 pg/mL, respectively. We therefore suggest that IL-6 may contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus peritonitis and that the inhibition of IL-6 signaling may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for lupus peritonitis.

  15. Evaluation of minimally invasive indices for predicting ascites susceptibility in three successive hatches of broilers exposed to cool temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Wing, T; Kirby, Y K; Forman, M F; Marson, N; Tackett, C D; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    1998-10-01

    Broilers from three consecutive hatches were exposed to cool temperatures to amplify the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites). The largest apparently healthy individuals on Day 42 were evaluated using minimally invasive diagnostic indices [percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, hematocrit (HCT), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) Lead II, body weight), then they were subjected to the ongoing pressures of fast growth and cool temperatures to determine which of these indices are predictive of the subsequent onset of PHS. Approximately 20% of the males and females evaluated on Day 42 subsequently developed PHS by Day 51. When data for all hatches were pooled and broilers that subsequently developed ascites were compared with those that did not (nonascitic), body weights, heart rates, and percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen were lower on Day 42 for ascitic than for nonascitic males, and HCT was higher in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females, respectively. Comparisons of the ECG Lead II wave amplitudes for all hatches pooled indicated that RS-wave amplitude was larger in ascitic than in nonascitic males, and that S-wave amplitude was more negative in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females. Necropsies conducted on Day 51 revealed higher right:total ventricular weight ratios in ascitic than in nonascitic broilers, whereas normalizing the left ventricle plus septum weight for differences in body weight generated similar values for ascitic and nonascitic males and females, respectively. These results support a primary role for pulmonary hypertension but not cardiomyopathy in the pathogenesis of ascites triggered by cool temperatures. Values obtained for minimally invasive diagnostic indices on Day 42 also establish predictive thresholds that can be used to evaluate the PHS susceptibility of large and apparently healthy male and female broilers.

  16. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  17. Ovarian cancer ascites increase Mcl-1 expression in tumor cells through ERK1/2-Elk-1 signaling to attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ascites may affect the progression of ovarian cancer (OC). In particular, soluble factors present in OC ascites can create a protective environment for tumor cells that promote de novo resistance to drug- and death receptor-induced apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for ascites-induced drug resistance are not well characterized. Methods Using human OC cell lines and tissues microarrays of human OC biopsies, we assessed the mechanism by which OC ascites increase Mcl-1 expression using Western blots, chemical inhibitors of ERK and small-inhibitory RNA treatments. Results In the present study, we found that both Mcl-1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated within 2 h upon treatment of OC cells with ascites obtained from women with advanced OC. In contrast, the expression of other Bcl-2 family antiapoptotic members such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was not affected by ascites. An increase of Mcl-1 expression was consistently observed across different ascites from women with advanced serous OC. The knockdown of Mcl-1 significantly blocked ascites-induced Mcl-1 upregulation and ascites-mediated inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Ascites induced a rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that ERK1/2 inhibition or Elk-1 knockdown was sufficient to block ascites-induced Mcl-1 expression. In high grade serous OC, we found a positive correlation between phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Mcl-1 expression. Conclusions These results indicate that ascites-induced ERK1/2/Elk-1 signaling is critical for Mcl-1 expression and for the ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The ERK1/2/Elk-1/Mcl-1 pathway represents a novel mechanism by which ascites induce de novo TRAIL resistance in OC cells. PMID:23158473

  18. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  19. Bearing puller facilitates removal and replacement of bearing assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaus, R. B.

    1966-01-01

    Bearing puller removes ball bearing assemblies, which carry the rotor, from turbine type flowmeters. It matches the bearing configuration to facilitate removal of the bearing assemblies from the support members.

  20. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  1. The prosurvival activity of ascites against TRAIL is associated with a shorter disease-free interval in patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The production of ascites is a common complication of ovarian cancer. Ascites constitute a unique tumor microenvironment that may affect disease progression. In this context, we recently showed that ovarian cancer ascites may protect tumor cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In this study, we sought to determine whether the prosurvival effect of ascites affects disease-free intervals. Methods Peritoneal fluids were obtained from 54 women undergoing intra-abdominal surgery for suspected ovarian cancer (44 cancers and 10 benign diseases). The ability of peritoneal fluids to protect from TRAIL was assessed in the ovarian cancer cell line CaOV3, and IC50 were determined. The anti-apoptotic activity of 6 ascites against cisplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide and vinorelbine was also assessed in CaOV3 cells, and the prosurvival activity of two ascites was assessed in 9 primary ovarian cancer cultures. Results Among the 54 peritoneal fluids tested, inhibition of TRAIL cytotoxicity was variable. Fluids originating from ovarian cancer were generally more protective than fluids from non-malignant diseases. Most of the 44 ovarian cancer ascites increased TRAIL IC50 and this inhibitory effect did not correlate strongly with the protein concentration in these ascites or the levels of serum CA125, a tumor antigen which is used in the clinic as a marker of tumor burden. The effect of ascites on cisplatin- and paclitaxel-induced cell death was assessed with 4 ascites having inhibitory effect on TRAIL-induced cell death and 2 that do not. The four ascites with prosurvival activity against TRAIL had some inhibitory on cisplatin and/or paclitaxel. Two ovarian cancer ascites, OVC346 and OVC509, also inhibited TRAIL cytotoxicity in 9 primary cultures of ovarian tumor and induced Akt activation in three of these primary cultures. Among a cohort of 35 patients with ascites, a threshold of TRAIL IC50 with ascites/IC50 without ascites > 2 was associated with shorter

  2. Microheterogeneity of transthyretin in serum and ascitic fluid of ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gericke, Beate; Raila, Jens; Sehouli, Jalid; Haebel, Sophie; Könsgen, Dominique; Mustea, Alexander; Schweigert, Florian J

    2005-01-01

    Background Transthyretin (TTR), a traditional biomarker for nutritional and inflammatory status exists in different molecular variants of yet unknown importance. A truncated form of TTR has recently been described to be part of a set of biomarkers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The main aim of the study was therefore to characterize differences in microheterogeneity between ascitic fluid and plasma of women affected with ovarian cancer and to evaluate the tumor site as the possible source of TTR. Methods Subjects were 48 women with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer or recurrent ovarian carcinoma. The control group consisted of 20 postmenopausal women. TTR and retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels by a high-sensitivity latex particle turbidimetric assay. The molecular heterogeneity of TTR was analysed using immunoprecipitation and matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Presence of TTR in tumor tissue was determined with indirect peroxidase immunostaining. Results TTR and RBP (μg/ml) levels in serum were 148.5 ± 96.7 and 22.5 ± 14.8 in affected women compared to 363.3 ± 105.5 and 55.8 ± 9.3 in healthy postmenopausal women (p < 0.01). In ascitic fluid, levels were 1.02 ± 0.24 and 4.63 ± 1.57 μg/ml, respectively. The mean levels of TTR and RBP in serum showed a tendency to decrease with the severity of the disease and were lower in affected women whose CRP levels were > 40 mg/ml (p = 0.08 for TTR; p < 0.05 for RBP). No differences in TTR microheterogeneity were observed between TTR isolated from serum of affected and healthy women or from ascitic fluid. TTR occurred rather consistently in four variants. Mass signals were at 13758 ± 7, 13876 ± 13 (greatest intensity), 13924 ± 21 and 14062 ± 24 Da, representing native, S-cysteinylated, S-cysteinglycinylated and glutathionylated TTR, respectively. Serum of

  3. A case of liver cirrhosis with chylous ascites and multiple cystic dilatation of the abdominal lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Taketa, K; Yonei, J; Kubota, M; Nagashima, H; Akamutsu, K; Awai, M

    1980-10-01

    A 51-year-old male suffering from abdominal distension and diagnosed by laparoscopic and histological examination as a liver cirrhosis patient, had a chylous ascites with a negative Gordon test. The content of chylomicron in ascites decreased by restriction of dietary fat, although the ascites retention was resistant to salt restriction, diuretics and intravenous re-infusion of ascites. Lymphangiography revealed dysplasia of the retroperitoneal lymphatic system and dilatation of the thoracic duct. Main autopsy findings were liver cirrhosis (post-necrotic type) without malignancy and marked cystic dilatations of the lymphatic duct. The lymph congestion in the intestine was more remarkable in the subserosal space and the leakage of the chyle into the abdominal cavity was also proved by histological examination.

  4. Essential requirement of toll-like receptor 4 expression on CD11c+ cells for locoregional immunotherapy of malignant ascites using a streptococcal preparation OK-432.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, Katsuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Okita, Riki; Okawaki, Makoto; Nagamine, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important molecules that stimulate the innate immunity in order to eradicate microbial pathogens, after which the adaptive immunity emerges. The involvement of TLRs in the action mechanism of OK-432, a bacterial preparation, was investigated in the locoregional treatment of malignant ascites from gastric cancer. The expression of TLRs in ascites cells was analyzed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction specific for TLRs and by flow cytometry using anti-TLR2, -TLR4, -CD4, -CD8, and -CD11c antibodies. These measurements were compared with the locoregional response of OK-432 immunotherapy for malignant ascites, as well as TNF-alpha producing potential, which was measured by ELISA, of ascites cells stimulated in vitro with OK-432. It was observed that OK-432 immunotherapy for malignant ascites showed 8 positive (67%) and 4 negative responses with the tolerable adverse effects of fever elevation and abdominal pain. The TNF-alpha production of ascites cells by in vitro OK-432 stimulation was significantly higher in responder patients than in non-responders. The clinical responses were correlated with the expression of the TLR4 gene of ascites cells. The TNF-alpha-producing potential of ascites cells by in vitro OK-432 stimulation was dependent on the existence of a CD11c + TLR-4+ cell population in ascites cells. OK-432 was highly stimulatory for TNF-alpha production of ascites cells compared with other biological response modifiers of PSK and LEM. These results suggest that TLR-4 expression on ascites cells of a macrophage lineage is essential for ascites cells to produce TNF-alpha in relation to OK-432 stimulation and for subsequent positive clinical responses in locoregional immunotherapy using OK-432 for malignant ascites from gastric cancer.

  5. K1 and K3 capsular antigens of Klebsiella induce tumor necrosis factor activities.

    PubMed

    Choy, Y M; Tsang, S F; Kong, S K; Leung, K N; Parolis, H; Lee, C Y; Fung, K P

    1996-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharide antigens isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae sero-type 1 (K1) and sero-type 3 (K3) could induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ICR mice. K1 and K3 capsular antigens were found to be non-toxic by brine shrimp bioassay. When injected into Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, both K1 and K3 capsular antigens exhibited significant suppression in the growth of tumor cells. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  6. Malignant biliary obstruction complicated by ascites: Closure of the transhepatic tract with cyanoacrylate glue after placement of an endoprosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cekirge, Saruhan; Akhan, Okan; Ozmen, Mustafa; Saatci, Isil; Besim, Aytekin

    1997-05-15

    A new technique using cyanoacrylate glue is suggested for closing the transparenchymal tract following metallic endoprosthesis placement in a patient with malignant biliary obstruction complicated by ascites. With this technique, complications related to bile reflux through the transparenchymal tract would be avoided after transhepatic endoprosthesis placement in patients who have ascites. This technique would also be useful for avoiding bleeding following transhepatic portal venous puncture.

  7. The use of bevacizumab in refractory ovarian granulosa-cell carcinoma with symptomatic relief of ascites: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kesterson, Joshua P.; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Lele, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential role of bevacizumab in the treatment of ovarian granulosa-cell tumors has not been evaluated. Case An 82 year old woman with refractory ovarian granulosa-cell carcinoma was treated with bevacizumab with symptomatic relief of ascites. Conclusion Bevacizumab may have a role in the management of malignant ascites in the patient with refractory granulosa-cell carcinoma of the ovary which should be confirmed in a larger series of well selected patients. PMID:18710781

  8. [Chylous reflux and chylous ascites in lymphatic dysplasia, with the lymphographic demonstration of mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts].

    PubMed

    Hermanutz, K D; Boldt, I; Frotscher, U

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with congenital dysplasia of the lymphatic system and with chylous ascites are described. In one 24-year old woman with this rare condition, it was possible to demonstrate for the first time numerous mediastinal lymphatic cysts during lymphangiography. Both patients showed an abnormality of the retroperitoneal lymphatics, consisting of lymphatic dilatation and cysts. In the investigation of chylous ascites, direct lymphangiography must be regarded as a valuable and necessary investigation.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Tumor Cells from the Ascites of Ovarian Cancer Patients: Molecular Phenotype of Chemoresistant Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Ardian; Luwor, Rodney B.; Bilandzic, Maree; Nazaretian, Simon; Stenvers, Kaye; Pyman, Jan; Zhu, Hongjian; Thompson, Erik W.; Quinn, Michael A.; Findlay, Jock K.; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cells in ascites are a major source of disease recurrence in ovarian cancer patients. In an attempt to identify and profile the population of ascites cells obtained from ovarian cancer patients, a novel method was developed to separate adherent (AD) and non-adherent (NAD) cells in culture. Twenty-five patients were recruited to this study; 11 chemonaive (CN) and 14 chemoresistant (CR). AD cells from both CN and CR patients exhibited mesenchymal morphology with an antigen profile of mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts. Conversely, NAD cells had an epithelial morphology with enhanced expression of cancer antigen 125 (CA125), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cytokeratin 7. NAD cells developed infiltrating tumors and ascites within 12–14 weeks after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections into nude mice, whereas AD cells remained non-tumorigenic for up to 20 weeks. Subsequent comparison of selective epithelial, mesenchymal and cancer stem cell (CSC) markers between AD and NAD populations of CN and CR patients demonstrated an enhanced trend in mRNA expression of E-cadherin, EpCAM, STAT3 and Oct4 in the NAD population of CR patients. A similar trend of enhanced mRNA expression of CD44, MMP9 and Oct4 was observed in the AD population of CR patients. Hence, using a novel purification method we demonstrate for the first time a distinct separation of ascites cells into epithelial tumorigenic and mesenchymal non-tumorigenic populations. We also demonstrate that cells from the ascites of CR patients are predominantly epithelial and show a trend towards increased mRNA expression of genes associated with CSCs, compared to cells isolated from the ascites of CN patients. As the tumor cells in the ascites of ovarian cancer patients play a dominant role in disease recurrence, a thorough understanding of the biology of the ascites microenvironment from CR and CN patients is essential for effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:23056490

  10. A Case of Congenital Malignant Spinal Cord Glioma as a Cause of Congenital Ascites in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    Karber, Bianca; Omesi, Lenore; Chang, Sunny; Handel, Andrew; Hegedus, Monica; Maduekwe, Echezona

    2016-01-01

    Congenital ascites is rare, but when it occurs, urinary ascites secondary to posterior urethral valve obstruction is the most common, and tumors are the least. Among the tumors in the pediatric population, the central nervous system tumors are common, but spinal cord tumors are rare. We describe a very rare case of congenital malignant spinal cord glioma presenting as isolated congenital ascites secondary to neurogenic bladder. A female infant was diagnosed sonographically with isolated congenital ascites at 40 weeks' gestational age, with uneventful development prior to 40 weeks' gestational age. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine done within the first week of life identified a lobulated spinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the conus medullaris. Spinal fluid analysis showed evidence of small round blue cells and the pathology from the excision biopsy of the mass confirmed a WHO grade III or IV malignant glioma. The postoperative course was uneventful with resolution of the ascites and spontaneous micturition. The patient was discharged home without an indwelling urinary catheter. We report the first documented case of a newborn infant with isolated congenital ascites from neurogenic bladder secondary to a spinal cord glioma. PMID:27597917

  11. A Case of Congenital Malignant Spinal Cord Glioma as a Cause of Congenital Ascites in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Omesi, Lenore; Chang, Sunny; Handel, Andrew; Hegedus, Monica; Maduekwe, Echezona

    2016-01-01

    Congenital ascites is rare, but when it occurs, urinary ascites secondary to posterior urethral valve obstruction is the most common, and tumors are the least. Among the tumors in the pediatric population, the central nervous system tumors are common, but spinal cord tumors are rare. We describe a very rare case of congenital malignant spinal cord glioma presenting as isolated congenital ascites secondary to neurogenic bladder. A female infant was diagnosed sonographically with isolated congenital ascites at 40 weeks' gestational age, with uneventful development prior to 40 weeks' gestational age. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine done within the first week of life identified a lobulated spinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the conus medullaris. Spinal fluid analysis showed evidence of small round blue cells and the pathology from the excision biopsy of the mass confirmed a WHO grade III or IV malignant glioma. The postoperative course was uneventful with resolution of the ascites and spontaneous micturition. The patient was discharged home without an indwelling urinary catheter. We report the first documented case of a newborn infant with isolated congenital ascites from neurogenic bladder secondary to a spinal cord glioma. PMID:27597917

  12. Abdominal decompression plays a major role in early postparacentesis haemodynamic changes in cirrhotic patients with tense ascites

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, J; Falcon, L; Gorriz, E; Pardo, M; Granados, R; Quinones, A; Maynar, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Some cirrhotic patients with tense ascites who undergo paracentesis develop a circulatory dysfunction syndrome, manifested by an increase in plasma renin activity. Recently, a significant inverse correlation between postparacentesis changes in plasma renin activity and systemic vascular resistance has been demonstrated in these patients, suggesting that peripheral arterial vasodilatation could be responsible for this circulatory dysfunction, but the mechanisms by which tense ascites removal induces such changes are unknown
AIM—To investigate the role of a decrease in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in the development of early postparacentesis haemodynamic changes
METHODS—Eleven cirrhotic patients with tense ascites received a large volume paracentesis. A specially designed pneumatic girdle was used to compress the abdomen to avoid a decrease in IAP during ascites removal. Haemodynamic studies were performed before paracentesis, one hour after ascites flow stopped, and 30 minutes after pneumatic girdle deflation
RESULTS—When IAP was maintained at its original level, no haemodynamic changes were observed, despite large volume paracentesis. However, a significant decrease in systemic vascular resistance was seen immediately after pneumatic girdle deflation
CONCLUSIONS—Early haemodynamic changes after paracentesis are avoided if IAP is maintained at its original level. The abrupt decrease in IAP could be the trigger for the development of the initial haemodynamic changes that eventually produce postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction.


Keywords: cirrhosis; ascites; postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction; haemodynamic changes; intra-abdominal pressure PMID:11171830

  13. A Case of Congenital Malignant Spinal Cord Glioma as a Cause of Congenital Ascites in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Omesi, Lenore; Chang, Sunny; Handel, Andrew; Hegedus, Monica; Maduekwe, Echezona

    2016-01-01

    Congenital ascites is rare, but when it occurs, urinary ascites secondary to posterior urethral valve obstruction is the most common, and tumors are the least. Among the tumors in the pediatric population, the central nervous system tumors are common, but spinal cord tumors are rare. We describe a very rare case of congenital malignant spinal cord glioma presenting as isolated congenital ascites secondary to neurogenic bladder. A female infant was diagnosed sonographically with isolated congenital ascites at 40 weeks' gestational age, with uneventful development prior to 40 weeks' gestational age. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine done within the first week of life identified a lobulated spinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the conus medullaris. Spinal fluid analysis showed evidence of small round blue cells and the pathology from the excision biopsy of the mass confirmed a WHO grade III or IV malignant glioma. The postoperative course was uneventful with resolution of the ascites and spontaneous micturition. The patient was discharged home without an indwelling urinary catheter. We report the first documented case of a newborn infant with isolated congenital ascites from neurogenic bladder secondary to a spinal cord glioma.

  14. Peritoneovenous Shunt Insertion for Intractable Ascites-A District General Hospital Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Fuad F. Meer, Ziad F.; Lopez, Anthony J.

    2004-08-15

    Ascites often contributes to patient morbidity and discomfort. When refractory to medical management, it has been managed with repeated paracentesis, implantable ports for drainage, or diversion to the urinary bladder. Peritoneovenous shunt insertion has been a technique that was traditionally performed only by surgeons but is now within the realm of interventional radiologists. Its advantage is that protein-rich ascitic fluid is returned to the intravascular compartment. This retrospective study elaborates on the successes and problems encountered during shunt insertion in our first 13 patients. Two patients are well with a functioning shunt at 14 and 32 weeks. In 6 the shunt functioned until the patients' death from the underlying malignancy. Two required revision with variable success and in 2, shunt function could not be salvaged. There was one procedure-related mortality. Radiological insertion of these shunts is feasible and should be considered for selected patients. Options are available for assessment and salvaging of dysfunctional shunts.

  15. Two Unusual but Treatable Causes of Refractory Ascites After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Novelli, P M; Shields, J; Krishnamurthy, V; Cho, K

    2015-12-01

    Refractory ascites (RA) is thought to complicate the postoperative course of 5-7% (Nishida et al. in Am J Transplant. 6: 140-149, 2006; Gotthardt et al. in Ann Transplant. 18: 378-383, 2013) of liver transplant recipients. RA after liver transplantation is often a frustrating diagnostic dilemma with few good management options unless an obvious mechanical factor is identified. Supportive therapies often fail until a treatable precipitating cause is identified and removed. We describe two patients who developed RA following liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis, and hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease, respectively. The cause for RA was hyperkinetic portal hypertension secondary to splenomegaly in the first case and a pancreatic AVM in the 2nd case. After failure of other interventions, surgical splenectomy resulted in immediate and durable resolution of the previously intractable ascites. PMID:26017456

  16. Successful management of congenital chylous ascites with early octreotide and total parenteral nutrition in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Claudio; Nanni, Lorenzo; Masini, Lucia; Pintus, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Congenital chylous ascites (CCA) is a rare disease that results from maldevelopment of the intra-abdominal lymphatic system. Few cases have been described and no gold standard treatment has been defined so far. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been used for the treatment of CCA, but always after a failed conservative approach with fasting, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or medium chain triglyceride (MCT) feeds. We report the case of a newborn with CCA treated by fasting, TPN and octreotide for a period of 15 days until the abdominal distension was successfully reduced at which point treatment was switched to an MCT formula. On day 25 the patient was breastfed and was discharged on day 33. No recurrence of chylous ascites was noted. Our experience highlights the successful treatment with TPN and octreotide as the first step for the conservative approach of CCA in a newborn, reducing the length of treatment and hospitalisation. PMID:23010459

  17. The lymphatic vascular system in liver diseases: its role in ascites formation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chuhan; Iwakiri, Yasuko

    2013-06-01

    The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system and plays a key role in normal vascular function. Its failure plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of various diseases including liver diseases. Lymphangiogenesis (the growth of lymphatic vessels) and changes in the properties of lymphatic vessels are associated with pathogenesis of tumor metastases, ascites formation, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Despite its significant role in liver diseases and its importance as a potential therapeutic target for those diseases, the lymphatic vascular system of the liver is poorly understood. Therefore, how the lymphatic vascular system in general and lymphangiogenesis in particular are mechanistically related to the pathogenesis and maintenance of liver diseases are largely unknown. This article summarizes: 1) the lymphatic vascular system; 2) its role in liver tumors, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and portal hypertension; and 3) its role in ascites formation.

  18. Persistent ascites due to sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis mimicking ovarian carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Çağlar, Mete; Çetinkaya, Nilüfer; Özgü, Emre; Güngör, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, also known as ‘Cocoon Syndrome’, is a rare cause of bowel obstruction. The condition might be congenital or acquired and has non-specific symptomatology. Abdominal pain occurs due to the limitation of intestinal motility or segment obstruction by a thick homogenous fibrotic mantle covering the intra-peritoneal organs. Altered peritoneal fluid dynamics result in persistent ascites. Leading pathogenic theories are not well defined, but genetic factors, retrograde trans-tubal flow of causative agents, peritoneal infections, medications and peritoneal invasive procedures are all thought to play a role. There are no specific diagnostic criteria and exact diagnosis is only confirmed during surgery when the investing thick fibrous folds covering the bowel loops are visualised. We present here a case that had been suspected to have an ovarian malignancy due to a huge abdominal heterogeneous mass and ascites on preoperative diagnostic workup, but had a final diagnosis of abdominal Cocoon Syndrome made during surgery. PMID:25317050

  19. Pathogenesis of solute-free water retention in experimental ascitic cirrhosis: is vasopressin the only culprit?

    PubMed

    Sansoè, Giovanni; Aragno, Manuela; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Parola, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Catecholamines trigger proximal tubular fluid retention and reduce renal excretion of solute-free water. In advanced cirrhosis, non-osmotic hypersecretion of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone or ADH) is considered the cause of dilutional hyponatraemia, but ADH V2 receptor antagonists are not beneficial in long-term treatment of ascites. To test the hypothesis that water retention in experimental ascitic cirrhosis might depend primarily on adrenergic hyper-function, hormonal status, renal function and tubular free-water reabsorption (TFWR) were assessed in six groups of rats with ascitic cirrhosis: rats with cirrhosis due to 13-week CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) administration (group G1); cirrhotic rats receiving daily diuretics (0.5 mg/kg furosemide plus 2 mg/kg K(+)-canrenoate) from the 11th to the 13th week of CCl4 (G2), diuretics associated with guanfacine oral prodrug (α2A-adrenergic receptor agonist and sympatholytic agent) at 2 (G3), 7 (G4) or 10 (G5) mg/kg, or with SSP-004240F1 (V2 receptor antagonist) at 1 mg/kg (G6). Natriuresis was lower in G1 than in G2, G4 and G6 (all P<0.05). Guanfacine, added to diuretics (i.e. G3 compared with G2), reduced serum noradrenaline from 423±22 to 211±41 ng/l (P<0.05), plasma renin activity (PRA) from 35±8 to 9±2 ng/ml/h (P<0.05) and TFWR from 45±8 to 20±6 μl/min (P<0.01). TFWR correlated with plasma aldosterone (r=0.51, P<0.01) and urinary potassium excretion (r=0.90, P<0.001). In ascitic cirrhosis, reduced volaemia, use of diuretics (especially furosemide) and adrenergic hyper-function cause tubular retention of water. Suitable doses of sympatholytic agents are effective aquaretics. PMID:26519424

  20. Clinical Profile and Complications of Paracentesis in Refractory Ascites Patients With Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Bangalore Raja, Shiva Kumar; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Noroozpour, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background Large volume paracentesis is found to be safer and more effective for the treatment of tense ascites compared with larger-than-usual doses of diuretics according to studies. The objectives of the study was to evaluate patients with refractory ascites regarding clinical profile, technique of paracentesis, complications, amount of ascites drained, prognosis and co-morbid conditions associated with it. Methods Retrospective study was performed including patients between January 2011 and December 2013 with data pooled from total of five hospitals. A total of 4,389 paracenteses were performed on the 1,218 patients with a mean volume of 4,900 ± 2,795 mL ascitic fluid drained. Blind technique, ultrasound-guided technique of paracentesis and pig tail catheter drainage were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus data from available patients and data regarding co-morbidities were analyzed. Coagulation abnormalities in patients were studied. Results Study group age ranged from 34 to 79 years, and alcohol is the main cause of cirrhosis. Dyslipidemia was observed in 1,080 patients (88.66%). At the time of inclusion in the study, 40% of the patients had ≥ 2 other cirrhosis-related complications and 20% of the study population had ≥ 3 complications. Early complications occurred in 27.5% (337) of patients and late complications constituted 16.83% (205 patients). Conclusions Even with abnormal coagulation, paracentesis is a safe procedure. But significant co-morbidities should be addressed with care in cirrhosis patients. Ultrasound guidance during the procedure whenever required should be encouraged.

  1. Intestinal obstruction caused by extramedullary hematopoiesis and ascites in primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiu-Qing; Zheng, Zong-Heng; Jin, Yi; Tao, Jin; Abassa, Kodjo-Kunale; Wen, Zhuo-Fu; Shao, Chun-Kui; Wei, Hong-Bo; Wu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder. It is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis with hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in the peripheral blood. The main clinical manifestations of PMF are anemia, bleeding, hepatosplenomegaly, fatigue, and fever. Here we report a rare case of PMF with anemia, small bowel obstruction and ascites due to extramedullary hematopoiesis and portal hypertension. The diagnosis was difficult to establish before surgery and the differential diagnosis is discussed. PMID:25206301

  2. Splenic artery embolization for the treatment of refractory ascites after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Quintini, Cristiano; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Brown, Chase; Aucejo, Federico; Hashimoto, Koji; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Sands, Mark; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2011-06-01

    Refractory ascites (RA) is a challenging complication after orthotopic liver transplantation. Its treatment consists of the removal of the precipitating factors. When the etiology is unknown, supportive treatment can be attempted. In severe cases, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, portocaval shunts, and liver retransplantation have been used with marginal results. Recently, splenic artery embolization (SAE) has been described as an effective procedure for reducing portal hyperperfusion in patients undergoing partial or whole liver transplantation. Here we describe our experience with SAE for the treatment of RA. Between June 2004 and June 2010, 6 patients underwent proximal SAE for RA. Intraoperative flow measurements, graft characteristics, embolization portal vein (PV) velocities before and after SAE, and spleen/liver volume ratios were collected and analyzed. The response to treatment was assessed with imaging (ultrasound/computed tomography) and on the basis of clinical outcomes (weight changes, diuretic requirements, and the time to ascites resolution). The PV velocity decreased significantly for each patient after the embolization (median = 66.5 cm/second before SAE and median = 27.5 cm/second after SAE, P < 0.01). All patients experienced a significant postprocedural weight loss (mean = 88.1 ± 28.4 kg before SAE and mean = 75.8 ± 28.4 kg after SAE, P < 0.01) and a dramatic decrease in their diuretic requirements. All but 1 of the patients experienced a complete resolution of ascites after a median time of 49.5 days (range = 12-295 days). No patient presented with postembolization complications. In conclusion, SAE was effective in reducing the PV velocity immediately after the procedure. Clinically, this translated into a dramatic weight loss, a reduction of diuretic use, and a resolution of ascites. SAE appears to be a safe and effective treatment for RA.

  3. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with Massive Ascites: A Case of Pseudo-Pseudo Meigs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Song, J.; Abrudescu-Opran, A.

    2016-01-01

    The case presented is consistent with the phenomenon known as Pseudo-Pseudo Meigs Syndrome (PPMS). In it, we describe a young woman with newly diagnosed Systemic Lupus Erythematosus presenting with ascites, pleural effusions, and an elevated CA-125 level. Although rare, and of uncertain etiology, PPMS is becoming increasingly recognized in the literature. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis in such patients, along with the search for malignancy. PMID:27366341

  4. Bearings: Technology and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  5. Bilateral Ovarian Fibrothecoma Associated with Ascites, Bilateral Pleural Effusion, and Marked Elevated Serum CA-125

    PubMed Central

    Loué, Védi André Serges; Gbary, Eléonore; Koui, Sylvanus; Akpa, Bédi; Kouassi, Adélaide

    2013-01-01

    Background. The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in the association of ovarian tumor, ascites, and hydrothorax with the significant elevated tumor marker CA-125. However, this association can be observed in a rare clinical and benign pathological entity, that is Demons-Meigs' syndrome. Objective. To describe a rare case of Demons-Meigs' syndrome observed in our department. Methods. A black African woman of 35 years old, seventh gravida and fourth parous, underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy for large bilateral ovarian masses associated with significant ascites, bilateral pleural effusion, and particular highly elevated tumor marker CA-125 (1835 UI/mL) in a pronounced general alteration condition. Results. The postoperative course was uneventful characterized by a complete remission of hydrothorax and ascites with normal level of CA-125 three months after tumor excision. Histology of both masses revealed a bilateral ovarian fibrothecoma, a benign tumor of the ovary, thus confirming the diagnosis of Demons-Meigs' syndrome. Conclusion. The Demons-Meigs syndrome, although it strongly mimics the clinical picture of malignant metastatic ovarian cancer, remains a disease with benign prognosis after surgical tumor resection. This is a rare condition that must be known and recognized by practitioners to avoid unnecessary practices. PMID:23431489

  6. CRIg-expressing peritoneal macrophages are associated with disease severity in patients with cirrhosis and ascites

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M.; Banh, Xuan; Gadd, Victoria L.; Wojcik, Kyle K.; Ariffin, Juliana K.; Jose, Sara; Lukowski, Samuel; Baillie, Gregory J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Powell, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. Hypothesizing that innate immune dysfunction contributes to susceptibility to infection, we assessed ascitic fluid macrophage phenotype and function. The expression of complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) and CCR2 defined two phenotypically and functionally distinct peritoneal macrophage subpopulations. The proportion of CRIghi macrophages differed between patients and in the same patient over time, and a high proportion of CRIghi macrophages was associated with reduced disease severity (model for end-stage liver disease) score. As compared with CRIglo macrophages, CRIghi macrophages were highly phagocytic and displayed enhanced antimicrobial effector activity. Transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing and comparison with human macrophage and murine peritoneal macrophage expression signatures highlighted similarities among CRIghi cells, human macrophages, and mouse F4/80hi resident peritoneal macrophages and among CRIglo macrophages, human monocytes, and mouse F4/80lo monocyte-derived peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that CRIghi and CRIglo macrophages may represent a tissue-resident population and a monocyte-derived population, respectively. In conclusion, ascites fluid macrophage subset distribution and phagocytic capacity is highly variable among patients with chronic liver disease. Regulating the numbers and/or functions of these macrophage populations could provide therapeutic opportunities in cirrhotic patients. PMID:27699269

  7. CRIg-expressing peritoneal macrophages are associated with disease severity in patients with cirrhosis and ascites

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M.; Banh, Xuan; Gadd, Victoria L.; Wojcik, Kyle K.; Ariffin, Juliana K.; Jose, Sara; Lukowski, Samuel; Baillie, Gregory J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Powell, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. Hypothesizing that innate immune dysfunction contributes to susceptibility to infection, we assessed ascitic fluid macrophage phenotype and function. The expression of complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) and CCR2 defined two phenotypically and functionally distinct peritoneal macrophage subpopulations. The proportion of CRIghi macrophages differed between patients and in the same patient over time, and a high proportion of CRIghi macrophages was associated with reduced disease severity (model for end-stage liver disease) score. As compared with CRIglo macrophages, CRIghi macrophages were highly phagocytic and displayed enhanced antimicrobial effector activity. Transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing and comparison with human macrophage and murine peritoneal macrophage expression signatures highlighted similarities among CRIghi cells, human macrophages, and mouse F4/80hi resident peritoneal macrophages and among CRIglo macrophages, human monocytes, and mouse F4/80lo monocyte-derived peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that CRIghi and CRIglo macrophages may represent a tissue-resident population and a monocyte-derived population, respectively. In conclusion, ascites fluid macrophage subset distribution and phagocytic capacity is highly variable among patients with chronic liver disease. Regulating the numbers and/or functions of these macrophage populations could provide therapeutic opportunities in cirrhotic patients.

  8. [Anesthetic Management of Peritonectomy and Extended Operation for Peritoneal Pseudomyxoma Combined with Massive Ascites].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tomoki; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Matsunami, Sayuri; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    We report successful anesthetic management of extended operation for peritoneal pseudomyxoma combined with massive ascites (16.5 l). A 66-year-old man (weight 76 kg) who could not keep a supine position due to massive ascites associated with peritoneal pseudomyxoma was scheduled for elective peritonectomy and extended surgery. With the patient in the semisitting position, we administered 3% sevoflurane to induce loss of consciousness while preserving spontaneous ventilation. We then performed crush induction with propofol and rocuronium after topical anesthesia to the tongue base. Tracheal intubation with the Macintosh laryngoscope was successful. During the operation, we aspirated about 16.5 l of ascites over 20 l normal saline irrigation. To maintain the body temperature, we performed both active and passive extracorporeal warming. The operation included not only total peritonectomy but also distal gastrectomy, right colon resection, splenectomy, and cholecystectomy. To perform effective postoperative analgesia, we placed two epidural catheters from the upper and lower thoracic epidural spaces. The patient was extubated 3 days after operation, and discharged uneventfully on the 18th postoperative day. PMID:27483656

  9. [Changes in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in liver cirrhosis with resistant ascites].

    PubMed

    Marenco, G; Giudici Cipriani, A; Folco, U; Colombo, P; Menardo, G; Cattana, A; Barbetti, V; Rembado, R

    1989-09-01

    The pathogenetic role of ADH in determining hyponatremia in patients with liver cirrhosis is still much debated. Osmotic stimuli are not able to inhibit secretion of ADH in refractory ascites and under such conditions the reduction in effective plasma volume has been put forward as the main cause. Twenty patients with liver cirrhosis and refractory ascites were studied before and during extraction-concentration-reinfusion (ECR) of ascitic fluid by means of Rhodiascit. ADH, renin, aldosterone, blood and urine osmolarity, plasma and urinary concentration of sodium, potassium, chlorine, and the clearance of free water were evaluated. All patients presented high renin values (15.4 +/- 11.7 ng/ml), aldosterone (341 +/- 172 ng/ml), ADH (6.3 +/- 5.2 pg/ml). During ECR, a significant drop was observed in renin (p less than 0.001), aldosterone (p less than 0.001) urinary osmolarity (p less than 0.001) and an equality significant increase in diuresis (p less than 0.001), natriuria (p less than 0.005), kaliuria (p less than 0.001) while ADH presented an irregular course: in 11 cases it remained unchanged, in 3 it fell and in 6 it presented a constant increase. To conclude, data suggest that the diminished filtrate reaching the distal tubule constitutes the greatest cause of the inability to dilute urine in many patients with cirrhosis and that ADH is a permissive rather than a primary factor. PMID:2682381

  10. Artificial ascites is feasible and effective for difficult-to-ablate hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Curative treatments for early-stage HCC include local ablation, hepatic resection, and liver transplant. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive treatment and can be used in patients who have an increased risk of hepatic resection, including a liver reserve of Child-Pugh B status and suboptimal general condition. However, a difficult location of HCC can interfere with the performance of RFA because of a conspicuous lesion, poor electrode path, or increased risk of thermal injury to adjacent organs. Difficult locations include tumors abutting the diaphragm or near vital organs such as the gastrointestinal tract and gallbladder. Because artificial ascites can provide an improved sonic view and protects adjacent vital organs from thermal injury, it widens the indication of RFA in the treatment of HCC. The systemic review showed that the technique of artificial ascites has a high success rate (>90 %) without the clear appearance of severe adverse events such as intraperitoneal hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation. The risk of intraperitoneal seeding is not increased. In addition, the therapeutic effectiveness, such as the complete ablation rate or local tumor progression rate, remains satisfactory for difficult-to-ablate HCCs. In conclusion, RFA after infusion of artificial ascites is feasible and effective for difficult-to-ablate HCCs. However, because data on the local tumor progression rate, heat-sink effect, and intraperitoneal seeding are scarce, additional studies are required.

  11. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  12. Linear magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.

  13. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  14. Synthesis, cytostatic, and antitumor properties of new rh(i) thiazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Craciunescu, D G; Furlani, A; Scarcia, V; Doadrio, A

    1985-12-01

    Six new organometallic derivatives of Rh(I), belonging to the general structure [Rh(CO)2(L)(Cl)], were synthesized and characterized by chemical analysis and IR determinations. The following ligands (L) were employed: 2-aminothiazole, thiazole, 2-amino-6-bromobenzothiazole, 5-chloro-2-methylthiobenzothiazole, 2-bromo-thiazole, and 2-isopropylthiazole. These new complexes were assayed in vitro with KB cells and in vivo with mice bearing established P388 and L1210 leukemias. Assays against S180 and Ehrlich ascitic tumors were also performed. Two complexes displayed antitumor activity against ascitic tumors.

  15. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) protects ovarian cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis but does not contribute to malignant ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Resistance to apoptosis is a major problem in ovarian cancer and correlates with poor prognosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted factor in malignant ascites and acts as a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis raising the possibility that OPG contained in ascites may abrogate the anti-tumor activity of TRAIL. Methods Determination of OPG levels in ascites was measured by ELISA. Effect of OPG on TRAIL-induced cell death was determined by XTT and colony forming assays in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumor cells. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA. Results We found that recombinant OPG and malignant ascites attenuates TRAIL-induced cell death and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumor cells. OPG is present at high levels in the ascites of patients with ovarian cancer. We found a positive correlation between the levels of OPG in ascites and the ability of the ascites to attenuate TRAIL-induced cell death. The anti-apoptotic effect of ascites was not reversed by co-incubation with an OPG blocking antibody. Conclusions OPG and malignant ascites protect ovarian cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Although malignant ascites contain high levels of OPG, OPG is not a critical component that contributes to ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. PMID:23153223

  16. [The Innovation Office of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut. Regulatory support during the scientific development of ATMP].

    PubMed

    Ziegele, B; Dahl, L; Müller, A T

    2011-07-01

    In conformity with Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are now subject to the centralized marketing authorization procedure. This also applies to most medicinal products in regenerative medicine. ATMP that have been marketed in a member state by the end of 2008 must be centrally authorized by the end of 2012 at the latest. In exceptional cases, a national authorization is acceptable. Developers of these medicinal products are usually academic institutions or small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME). They focus on scientific aspects and usually have little experience with pharmaceutical law. The Innovation Office of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) is designed to support developers of medicinal products in the areas between research and development, on the one hand, and regulatory requirements, on the other. Its main role is supportive advice in the regulatory field with an emphasis on ATMP. For this purpose, the Innovation Office makes use of core competences from various experts at the PEI in order to provide a quality consulting service to those companies who are seeking advice as early as possible and hand in hand with the development process. The aim is to support the developer to identify the appropriate regulatory pathway and to provide advice for each individual medicinal product at its corresponding stage of development in order to develop a high-quality ATMP manufactured on the basis of positive nonclinical results and appropriate clinical studies that meet all the necessary requirements for the application of a marketing authorization.

  17. Inverted Wedding Cake Growth Operated by the Ehrlich-Schwoebel Barrier in Two-Dimensional Nanocrystal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    Wedding cake growth is a layer-by-layer growth model commonly observed in epitaxial growth of metal films, featured by repeated nucleation of new atomic layers on the topmost surface owing to the confinement of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Herein, we report an inverted wedding cake growth phenomenon observed in two-dimensional nanostructure evolution. Through a dynamically controlled vapor-solid deposition process of ZnO, a unique basin-shaped crown was formed on the tip of each nanowire, featured with concentric steps. The atomic steps were nucleated along the edge and propagated toward the center. This is an opposite growth behavior compared to the conventional wedding cake growth, and is thus denoted as inverted wedding cake growth. Through the relation between the crown expansion rate and the temperature, the ES barrier of ZnO was determined to be 0.88 eV. The discovery of inverted wedding cake growth provided insight into the developing nanostructure growth mechanisms.

  18. Island coalescence and diffusion along kinked steps on Cu(0 0 1): Evidence for a large kink Ehrlich Schwoebel barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonomov, Julian; Starbova, Kirilka; Giesen, Margret

    2007-03-01

    Using temperature-variable scanning tunneling microscopy, we studied the coalescence of vacancy islands on Cu(0 0 1) in ultra-high vacuum. From the temperature dependence of the relaxation of merged vacancy islands to the equilibrium shape we obtain an activation energy of the island coalescence process of 0.76 eV. From that value we deduce an activation energy for the atomic hopping coefficient of E=0.89 eV. Comparing our result with previous STM data on step fluctuations with dominant diffusion along straight step segments ( E=0.68 eV; [M. Giesen, S. Dieluweit, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 216 (2004) 263]) and step fluctuations with kink crossing ( E=0.9 eV; [M. Giesen-Seibert, F. Schmitz, R. Jentjens, H. Ibach, Surf. Sci. 329 (1995) 47]), we conclude that there is a large extra barrier for diffusion of atoms across kinks on Cu(0 0 1) of the order of 0.23 eV. This is the first direct experimental evidence for the existence of a large kink Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on Cu(0 0 1).

  19. Macrophage Blockade Using CSF1R Inhibitors Reverses the Vascular Leakage Underlying Malignant Ascites in Late-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moughon, Diana L; He, Huanhuan; Schokrpur, Shiruyeh; Jiang, Ziyue Karen; Yaqoob, Madeeha; David, John; Lin, Crystal; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Dorigo, Oliver; Wu, Lily

    2015-11-15

    Malignant ascites is a common complication in the late stages of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) that greatly diminishes the quality of life of patients. Malignant ascites is a known consequence of vascular dysfunction, but current approved treatments are not effective in preventing fluid accumulation. In this study, we investigated an alternative strategy of targeting macrophage functions to reverse the vascular pathology of malignant ascites using fluid from human patients and an immunocompetent murine model (ID8) of EOC that mirrors human disease by developing progressive vascular disorganization and leakiness culminating in massive ascites. We demonstrate that the macrophage content in ascites fluid from human patients and the ID8 model directly correlates with vascular permeability. To further substantiate macrophages' role in the pathogenesis of malignant ascites, we blocked macrophage function in ID8 mice using a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor kinase inhibitor (GW2580). Administration of GW2580 in the late stages of disease resulted in reduced infiltration of protumorigenic (M2) macrophages and dramatically decreased ascites volume. Moreover, the disorganized peritoneal vasculature became normalized and sera from GW2580-treated ascites protected against endothelial permeability. Therefore, our findings suggest that macrophage-targeted treatment may be a promising strategy toward a safe and effective means to control malignant ascites of EOC.

  20. To Study the Incidence, Predictive Factors and Clinical Outcome of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients of Cirrhosis with Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmine; Kazal, Harbans Lal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence and predictive factors of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients of cirrhosis with ascites and to study the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with SBP. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted on 122 cases admitted in Department of Medicine, through emergency, in Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India. Cases of cirrhosis (irrespective of aetiology) with ascites between the ages of 18-75 years were included in this study. Ascitic fluid of every patient was aspirated under all aseptic measures, before initiation of antibiotic therapy and was sent for biochemical analysis, culture and cytological analysis. Results Mean age of patients enrolled was 50.30± 10.98 years. 85% were male and 15% were female. Alcohol (73.8%) was the leading cause of cirrhosis followed by HCV (37.7%) and HBV (4.9%). Of the 122 patients studied, 27 (20.4%) patients were diagnosed as having SBP and its variants. Monomicrobial Bacterascites (BA) was present in 5 patients and Culture Negative Neutrocytic Ascites (CNNA) was present in 22 patients. Escherichia coli were the most common isolated organism followed by Klebsiella. The various factors that predispose to development of SBP include low ascitic fluid protein concentration, a high level of serum bilirubin, deranged serum creatinine, high Child-Pugh score and high MELD score. Conclusion Ascitic fluid analysis remains the single most important test for identifying and assessing a course of SBP. Bedside inoculation of 10-20ml of ascitic fluid into culture bottle at patient bedside will yield better results. Early diagnosis and treatment will reduce the mortality rate in these patients. PMID:26393155

  1. Bearing fatigue investigation 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

  2. Linear kinematic air bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayall, S. D.

    1974-01-01

    Bearing provides continuous, smooth movement of the cat's-eye mirror, eliminating wear and deterioration of bearing surface and resulting oscillation effects in servo system. Design features self-aligning configuration; single-point, pivotal pad mounting, having air passage through it; and design of pads that allows for precise control of discharge path of air from pads.

  3. Cytotoxic and Antitumour Studies of Acetoacetanilide N(4)-methyl(phenyl)thiosemicarbazone and its Transition Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Priya, N. P.; Firdous, A. P.; Jeevana, R.; Aravindakshan, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic activities of acetoacetanilide N(4)-methyl(phenyl)thiosemicarbazone (L2H) and its seven different metal complexes were studied. Of these, IC50 value of the copper complex was found to be 46 μg/ml. Antitumour studies of this copper complex was carried out using Daltons Lymphoma Ascites cell-induced solid tumour model and Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell-induced ascites tumour model. Administration of the copper complex at different concentrations (10, 5 and 1 mg/kg b. wt) inhibited the solid tumour development in mice and increased the mean survival rate and the life span of Ascites tumour bearing mice in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:26997691

  4. Arcturus and the Bears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    2009-08-01

    Arcturus is the brightest star in Bootes. The ancient Greek name Arktouros means Bear Guard. The star, however, is not close to Ursa Maior (Big She-Bear) and Ursa Minor (Little She-Bear), as the name would suggest. This curious discrepancy could be explained by the star proper motion, assuming the name Bear Guard is a remote cultural heritage. The proper motion analysis could allow us to get an insight also into an ancient myth regarding Ursa Maior. Though we cannot explain scientifically such a myth, some interesting suggestions can be obtained about its possible origin, in the context of the present knowledge of the importance of the cult of the bear both during the Palaeolithic times and for several primitive populations of modern times, as shown by the ethnological studies.

  5. Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kwon, Woo Sun; Lee, Won Seok; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Hyo Song; Park, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Tae Soo; Park, Jong-Lyul; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young; Kim, Seon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics. PMID:26811494

  6. Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byungho; Kim, Chan; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kwon, Woo Sun; Lee, Won Seok; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Hyo Song; Park, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Tae Soo; Park, Jong-Lyul; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young; Kim, Seon-Young

    2016-02-16

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics. PMID:26811494

  7. Good bearings reduce downtime

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.; Foster, J.

    1982-12-01

    Points out that a poorly maintained $100 bearing can hold up the operation of a $1-million conveyor. Of all the moving parts in a coal conveyor system, few cost less or last longer than anti-friction bearings. Most modern conveyor systems are equipped with 2 types of bearings: troughing idlers, spaced at regular intervals to support the conveyor belt as it travels throughout the system, and the adaptermounted spherical roller bearing pillow blocks that are used in the head, tail, bend and takeup pulleys that drive, alter the direction of, or regulate tension in the belt to allow for repairs or splicing. Explains how pillow blocks should handle radial or axial loads, how to mount bearings correctly, and how rings prevent infiltration. Concludes that by making certain that the proper bearing types are built into the system initially, or used as replacements in case of failures, paying close attention to installation procedures and devoting adequate time to maintenance, conveyor system bearings can provide decades of problem-free service.

  8. Ball Bearing Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Load-deflection relationships for different types of elliptical contacts such as those found in a ball bearing are developed. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented. Ball bearings subjected to radial, thrust and combined ball loads are analyzed. A design criterion for fatigue life of ball bearings is developed. The section of a satisfactory lubricant, as well as describing systems that provide a constant flow of lubricant to the contact, is considered.

  9. Magnetic bearing update

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.

    1995-05-25

    Stabilization of whirl instability by floppy, viscous bearing mounts is discussed and required material properties are estimated for the new tilt-whirl mode in eddy-current stabilized magnetic bearings. A relatively low Young`s modules Y {approximately} 10{sup 5} and high viscosity {zeta} {approximately} 10{sup 7} are required (both in MKS units), suggesting the need for careful mounting design. New information on periodic bearings shows that, thus far, Earshaw`s Theorem cannot be defeated by periodicity, despite the author`s earlier claims.

  10. Inhibitory efficacy of the quantified prunellae spica extract on H22 tumor bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2013-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistence of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. In this report, we assessed the antitumor activity of a prunellae spica aqueous extract (PSE) in vitro and in vivo. PSE was quantified by HPLC and UV. MTT assay showed that PSE did not effectively inhibit the growth of H22 cells. The in vivo anti-tumor activity was assessed by using the mice bearing H22 tumor. In vivo studies showed the higher antitumor efficacy of PSE without significant side effect assessed by the reduced tumor weight, and the extended survival time of the mice bearing H22 solid and ascites tumor. Collectively, PSE is a promising Chinese medicinal herb for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  11. Arkansas black bear hunter survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pharris, Larry D.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires were mailed to black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters in Arkansas following the 1980-84 bear seasons to determine participation, hunter success, and number of bears observed by hunters. Man-days of hunting to harvest a bear ranged from 148 to 671 and hunter success ranged from 0.4% to 2.2%. With the exception of 1980, number of permits issued, man-days of bear hunting, and bears harvested appear affected by hunting permit cost. 

  12. Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The liver is the first line of defence against continuously occurring influx of microbial-derived products and bacteria from the gut. Intestinal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Escape of intestinal bacteria into the ascites is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between faecal bacterial populations and alcoholic liver cirrhosis has not been resolved. Methods Relative ratios of major commensal bacterial communities (Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium leptum group, Enterobactericaea and Lactobacillus spp.) were determined in faecal samples from post mortem examinations performed on 42 males, including cirrhotic alcoholics (n = 13), non-cirrhotic alcoholics (n = 15), non-alcoholic controls (n = 14) and in 7 healthy male volunteers using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Translocation of bacteria into liver in the autopsy cases and into the ascites of 12 volunteers with liver cirrhosis was also studied with RT-qPCR. CD14 immunostaining was performed for the autopsy liver samples. Results Relative ratios of faecal bacteria in autopsy controls were comparable to those of healthy volunteers. Cirrhotics had in median 27 times more bacterial DNA of Enterobactericaea in faeces compared to the healthy volunteers (p = 0.011). Enterobactericaea were also the most common bacteria translocated into cirrhotic liver, although there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups. Of the ascites samples from the volunteers with liver cirrhosis, 50% contained bacterial DNA from Enterobactericaea, Clostridium leptum group or Lactobacillus spp.. The total bacterial DNA in autopsy liver was associated with the percentage of CD14 expression (p = 0.045). CD14 expression percentage in cirrhotics was significantly higher than in the autopsy controls (p = 0

  13. A sequential study of serum bacterial DNA in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Francés, Rubén; Benlloch, Susana; Zapater, Pedro; González, José M; Lozano, Beatriz; Muñoz, Carlos; Pascual, Sonia; Casellas, Juan A; Uceda, Francisco; Palazón, José M; Carnicer, Fernando; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Such, José

    2004-02-01

    Bacterial translocation is currently considered the main pathogenic mechanism leading to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites. However, to the authors' knowledge there is no information regarding the characteristics of this process in humans. The goals of the current study were to pursue partially identified bacterial DNA in blood (what the authors consider molecular evidence of bacterial translocation) through its relative quantification in a 72-hour study period by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A consecutive series of 17 patients with advanced cirrhosis and culture-negative, nonneutrocytic ascites were studied. Therapeutic paracentesis was performed at the time of admission, and blood samples were obtained at baseline and every 8 hours in a 3-day period. Bacterial DNA was detected by a PCR-based method, relatively quantified by real-time PCR, and identified by automated nucleotide sequencing. Seven of 17 patients demonstrated the simultaneous presence of bacterial DNA in blood and ascitic fluid at the time of admission. After therapeutic paracentesis was performed, bacterial DNA persisted in the blood for a minimum of 24 hours, and was reported to last as long as 72 hours in some patients. In addition, different patterns of bacterial DNA appearance and clearance from the blood were identified. The nucleotide sequencing process demonstrated that bacteria detected in the first sample were identical to those noted in subsequent detections over time. In conclusion, bacterial translocation is a single-species, dynamic process that appears to develop in a subgroup of patients with advanced cirrhosis.

  14. Analysis of right ventricular areas to assess the severity of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-01-01

    Ascites syndrome in broiler chickens is defined as a condition associated with pulmonary hypertension leading to right heart failure, increased central venous pressure, passive congestion of the liver, and accumulations of serous fluids in body cavities. The syndrome is currently seen in fast-growing broiler chickens associated with an increase in the weight, volume, and area of the right ventricle of the heart. The ratio of the right ventricle weight to the total heart mass has been used to assess the consequences of increased blood pressure. The right ventricle area (RVA) can be quantified using image analysis technology. Hearts were removed from 719 male broilers at slaughter (42 d). All birds were visually scored for the incidence of ascites. A score of 0 or 1 represented slight hydropericardium, slight right heart hypertrophy, and slight edema. A score of 4 was assigned to birds with marked accumulation of ascitic fluid in one or more ceolomic cavities, pronounced dilation of the right heart, and prominent liver lesions. A cross-sectional image of each heart slice (a 4-mm-thick slice of the ventricles) was digitally recorded. Using image analysis software, the RVA, left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. Because a slice of the heart was used in image analysis, the importance of maintaining the original shape was determined. Twenty hearts in five ranges of RVA size were scanned in four different positions, which have differing heart slice orientations and differing RVA shapes, for a comparison of positioning technique (placement) relating to the RVA. The shape of the heart slice for image analysis was observed not to be critical for the small RVA. For heart slices with large RVA values, it was found to be critical to analyze the heart slice in a standardized placement. PMID:10023748

  15. Congenital chylous ascites treated successfully with MCT-Based formula and octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Purkait, Radheshyam; Saha, Ashis; Tripathy, Isita; Roy, Birendranath

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and repeated paracentesis are considered as supportive management for congenital chylous ascites (CCA). TPN is considered where therapy with oral MCT is poorly tolerated by the patient especially young infant with unstable hemodynamic. Surgery is recommended when medical therapy fails. Herein, we report a 2½-month-old infant with CCA, treated successfully with octreotide intravenous infusion after the initial failure to response to conventional conservative therapy with MCT-enriched formula and paracentesis. PMID:25197199

  16. Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin; Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B.

    1996-03-15

    Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

  17. Chylous ascites in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with venoocclusive liver disease.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Scott P; Fontenot, Deidre K; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha A

    2003-12-01

    An 11-yr-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) was diagnosed clinically with hepatic and renal disease and euthanatized after an extended illness. Postmortem examination revealed 8-10 L of milky white fluid in the abdominal cavity and markedly dilated lymphatic vessels within the intestinal mesentery. The abdominal fluid was a chylous effusion based on the cytologic predominance of lymphocytes and macrophages and comparison of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the fluid and in serum. Gross and histopathologic lesions in the liver were consistent with a diagnosis of venoocclusive liver disease. Chylous ascites is uncommon with human chronic liver disease and is rarely identified in animals.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Intranodal Lymphangiography With Ethiodized Oil to Treat Chylous Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Wataru; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with abdominal distention and pain. A diagnosis of chylous ascites (CA) was made by abdominal paracentesis. Conservative treatment had failed to control CA; therefore, ultrasound-guided intranodal lymphangiography (UIL) with Lipiodol was performed. No obvious Lipiodol leakage was observed in the follow-up computed tomography; however, the persistent abdominal pain was significantly reduced within a day, and CA was resolved within 3 days. We present successful treatment of CA using UIL with Lipiodol. The combination of the technique of UIL and therapeutic lymphangiography with Lipiodol is a promising minimally invasive treatment option for CA.

  19. Chemotherapy with laparoscope-assisted continuous circulatory hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion for malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Ming-Chen; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Lin, Sheng-Qu; Tang, Yun-Qiang; Wu, Yin-Bing; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiang-Liang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the procedure, feasibility and effects of laparoscope-assisted continuous circulatory hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (CHIPC) in treatment of malignant ascites induced by peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancers. METHODS: From August 2006 to March 2008, the laparoscopic approach was used to perform CHIPC on 16 patients with malignant ascites induced by gastric cancer or postoperative intraperitoneal seeding. Each patient underwent CHIPC three times after laparoscope-assisted perfusion catheters placing. The first session was completed in operative room under general anesthesia, 5% glucose solution was selected as perfusion liquid, and 1500 mg 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 200 mg oxaliplatin were added in the perfusion solution. The second and third sessions were performed in intensive care unit, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was selected as perfusion liquid, and 1500 mg 5-FU was added in the perfusion solution alone. CHIPC was performed for 90 min at a velocity of 450-600 mL/min and an inflow temperature of 43 ± 0.2°C. RESULTS: The intraoperative course was uneventful in all cases, and the mean operative period for laparoscope-assisted perfusion catheters placing was 80 min for each case. No postoperative deaths or complications related to laparoscope-assisted CHIPC occurred in this study. Clinically complete remission of ascites and related symptoms were achieved in 14 patients, and partial remission was achieved in 2 patients. During the follow-up, 13 patients died 2-9 mo after CHIPC, with a median survival time of 5 mo. Two patients with partial remission suffered from port site seeding and tumor metastasis,and died 2 and 3 mo after treatment. Three patients who are still alive today survived 4, 6 and 7 mo, respectively. The Karnofsky marks of patients (50-90) increased significantly (P < 0.01) and the general status improved after CHIPC. Thus satisfactory clinical efficacy has been achieved in these patients treated

  20. Deformable bearing seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, O. S., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A deformable bearing seat is described for seating a bearing assembly in a housing. The seat includes a seating surface in the housing having a first predetermined spheroidal contour when the housing is in an undeformed mode. The seating surface is deformable to a second predetermined spherically contoured surface when the housing is in a deformed mode. The seat is particularly adaptable for application to a rotating blade and mounting ring assembly in a gas turbine engine.

  1. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  2. High speed hybrid bearing comprising a fluid bearing and a rolling bearing convected in series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of an antifriction bearing and a process by which its fatigue life may be extended. The method involves a rotating shaft supported by a fluid bearing and a rolling element bearing coupled in series. Each bearing turns at a fraction of the rotational speed of the shaft. The fluid bearing is preferably conical, thereby providing thrust and radial load support in a single bearing structure.

  3. TIPSS Procedure in the Treatment of a Single Patient After Recent Heart Transplantation Because of Refractory Ascites Due to Cardiac Cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fava, Mario; Meneses, Luis Loyola, Soledad; Castro, Pablo; Barahona, Fernando

    2008-07-15

    We present the case of a female patient with arrhythmogenic dysplasia of the right ventricle who evolved to refractory heart failure, ascites, and peripheral edema. As a result, heart transplantation was performed. Subsequently, refractory ascites impaired the patient's respiratory function, resulting in prolonged mechanical ventilation. She was successfully treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) placement, which allowed satisfactory weaning of ventilatory support.

  4. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  5. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

  6. Investigation of Pressurized Wave Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

    2003-01-01

    The wave bearing has been pioneered and developed by Dr. Dimofte over the past several years. This bearing will be the main focus of this research. It is believed that the wave bearing offers a number of advantages over the foil bearing, which is the bearing that NASA is currently pursuing for turbomachinery applications. The wave bearing is basically a journal bearing whose film thickness varies around the circumference approximately sinusoidally, with usually 3 or 4 waves. Being a rigid geometry bearing, it provides precise control of shaft centerlines. The wave profile also provides good load capacity and makes the bearing very stable. Manufacturing techniques have been devised that should allow the production of wave bearings almost as cheaply as conventional full-circular bearings.

  7. Ascites-induced shift along epithelial-mesenchymal spectrum in ovarian cancer cells: enhancement of their invasive behavior partly dependant on αv integrins.

    PubMed

    Carduner, L; Leroy-Dudal, J; Picot, C R; Gallet, O; Carreiras, F; Kellouche, S

    2014-08-01

    At least one-third of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) present ascites at diagnosis and almost all have ascites at recurrence. The presence of ascites, which acts as a dynamic reservoir of active molecules and cellular components, correlates with the OC peritoneal metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in different phases of OC progression, we have investigated the effect of the unique ascitic tumor microenvironment on the EMT status and the behavior of OC cells. The exposure of three OC cell lines to ascites leads to changes in cellular morphologies. Within ascites, OC cells harboring an initial intermediate epithelial phenotype are characterized by marked dislocation of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, ZO-1 staining) while OC cells initially harboring an intermediate mesenchymal phenotype strengthen their mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin). Ascites differentially triggers a dissemination phenotype related to the initial cell features by either allowing the proliferation and the formation of spheroids and the extension of colonies for cells that present an initial epithelial intermediate phenotype, or favoring the migration of cells with a mesenchymal intermediate phenotype. In an ascitic microenvironment, a redeployment of αv integrins into cells was observed and the ascites-induced accentuation of the two different invasive phenotypes (i.e. spheroids formation or migration) was shown to involve αv integrins. Thus, ascites induces a shift toward an unstable intermediate state of the epithelial-mesenchymal spectrum and confers a more aggressive cell behavior that takes on a different pathway based on the initial epithelial-mesenchymal cell features. PMID:24946950

  8. Broiler ascites syndrome: collateral damage from efficient feed to meat conversion.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle D; Vanrompay, Daisy; Janssens, Geert P J

    2013-08-01

    Chickens have been raised as food for human consumption for over 4000 years. Over this time they have been continuously selected for specific desirable characteristics by active selection of parents to produce birds which fit perceived needs. Despite this long history of selective breeding and improvements in rearing techniques, the efficiency with which broiler meat is produced has shown a remarkable leap in recent decades. Persistent selection for rapid growth, high feed utilisation efficiency and large cut yield has resulted in modern meat-type poultry lines with superior genetic potential with regard to productivity. However, mortality and the incidence of metabolic diseases has increased in parallel with growth rate. One such disease is broiler ascites syndrome, which has been shown to be closely associated with the fast growth and high meat yield resulting from intense selection and with modern rearing techniques. The review is focused on the historical background, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of broiler ascites syndrome in modern broiler production. PMID:23628419

  9. Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells.

    PubMed

    Harari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Torre, Olga; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Provasi, Elena; Moss, Joel

    2016-08-01

    A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected.

  10. Unique proteome signature of post-chemotherapy ovarian cancer ascites-derived tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Greening, David; Samardzija, Chantel; Escalona, Ruth M; Chen, Maoshan; Findlay, Jock K; Kannourakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Eighty % of ovarian cancer patients diagnosed at an advanced-stage have complete remission after initial surgery and chemotherapy. However, most patients die within <5 years due to episodes of recurrences resulting from the growth of residual chemoresistant cells. In an effort to identify mechanisms associated with chemoresistance and recurrence, we compared the expression of proteins in ascites-derived tumor cells isolated from advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients obtained at diagnosis (chemonaive, CN) and after chemotherapy treatments (chemoresistant/at recurrence, CR) by using in-depth, high-resolution label-free quantitative proteomic profiling. A total of 2,999 proteins were identified. Using a stringent selection criterion to define only significantly differentially expressed proteins, we report identification of 353 proteins. There were significant differences in proteins encoding for immune surveillance, DNA repair mechanisms, cytoskeleton rearrangement, cell-cell adhesion, cell cycle pathways, cellular transport, and proteins involved with glycine/proline/arginine synthesis in tumor cells isolated from CR relative to CN patients. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways, DNA repair mechanisms and energy metabolism pathways in CR tumor cells. In conclusion, this is the first proteomics study to comprehensively analyze ascites-derived tumor cells from CN and CR ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27470985

  11. Unique proteome signature of post-chemotherapy ovarian cancer ascites-derived tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Greening, David; Samardzija, Chantel; Escalona, Ruth M.; Chen, Maoshan; Findlay, Jock K.; Kannourakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Eighty % of ovarian cancer patients diagnosed at an advanced-stage have complete remission after initial surgery and chemotherapy. However, most patients die within <5 years due to episodes of recurrences resulting from the growth of residual chemoresistant cells. In an effort to identify mechanisms associated with chemoresistance and recurrence, we compared the expression of proteins in ascites-derived tumor cells isolated from advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients obtained at diagnosis (chemonaive, CN) and after chemotherapy treatments (chemoresistant/at recurrence, CR) by using in-depth, high-resolution label-free quantitative proteomic profiling. A total of 2,999 proteins were identified. Using a stringent selection criterion to define only significantly differentially expressed proteins, we report identification of 353 proteins. There were significant differences in proteins encoding for immune surveillance, DNA repair mechanisms, cytoskeleton rearrangement, cell-cell adhesion, cell cycle pathways, cellular transport, and proteins involved with glycine/proline/arginine synthesis in tumor cells isolated from CR relative to CN patients. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways, DNA repair mechanisms and energy metabolism pathways in CR tumor cells. In conclusion, this is the first proteomics study to comprehensively analyze ascites-derived tumor cells from CN and CR ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27470985

  12. Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells.

    PubMed

    Harari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Torre, Olga; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Provasi, Elena; Moss, Joel

    2016-08-01

    A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected. PMID:27502989

  13. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  14. Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Low-Dose Cisplatin in the Treatment of Ehrlich Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    El-Bialy, Nihal S.; Rageh, Monira M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the therapeutic efficacy of the administration of low-dose cisplatin (cis) followed by exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF), with an average intensity of 10 mT, on Ehrlich carcinoma in vivo. The cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of this combination were studied using comet assay, mitotic index (MI), and the induction of micronucleus (MN). Moreover, the inhibition of tumor growth was also measured. Treatment with cisplatin and ELF-MF (group A) increased the number of damaged cells by 54% compared with 41% for mice treated with cisplatin alone (group B), 20% for mice treated by exposure to ELF-MF (group C), and 9% for the control group (group D). Also the mitotic index decreased significantly for all treated groups (P < 0.001). The decrement percent for the treated groups (A, B, and C) were 70%, 65%, and 22%, respectively, compared with the control group (D). Additionally, the rate of tumor growth at day 12 was suppressed significantly (P < 0.001) for groups A, B, and C with respect to group (D). These results suggest that ELF-MF enhanced the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin and potentiate the benefit of using a combination of low-dose cisplatin and ELF-MF in the treatment of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23484088

  15. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  16. Magnetic bearings for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have been successfully applied to motorized rotor systems in the multi-kilogram range, at speeds up to 1200 radians per second. These engineering models also indicated the need for continued development in specific areas to make them feasible for spacecraft applications. Significant power reductions have recently been attained. A unique magnetic circuit, combining permanent magnets with electromagnetic control, has a bidirectional forcing capability with improved current sensitivity. The multi-dimensional nature of contact-free rotor support is discussed. Stable continuous radial suspension is provided by a rotationally symmetric permanent magnet circuit. Two bearings, on a common shaft, counteract the normal instability perpendicular to the rotational axis. The axial direction is servoed to prevent contact. A new bearing technology and a new field of application for magnetics is foreseen.

  17. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  18. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  19. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  20. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  1. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  2. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators. PMID:27020875

  3. A case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis in which gram staining of ascitic fluid was useful for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Fujita, Shouhei; Kawano, Fumihiro; Tsukamoto, Ryoichi; Honjo, Kunpei; Naito, Shigetoshi; Ishiyama, Shun; Miyano, Shozo; Machida, Michio; Kitabatake, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Minoru; Kojima, Kuniaki; Ogura, Kanako; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for steroid therapy for relapsing nephrotic syndrome. During hospitalization, she complained of sudden epigastric pain at night. Although there were signs of peritoneal irritation, CT showed a large amount of ascitic fluid, but no free intraperitoneal gas. Gram staining of ascitic fluid obtained by abdominal paracentesis showed Gram-negative rods, which raised a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation and peritonitis. Therefore, emergency surgery was performed. Exploration of the colon showed multiple sigmoid diverticula, one of which was perforated. The patient underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure. Imaging studies failed to reveal any evidence of gastrointestinal perforation, presenting a diagnostic challenge. However, a physician performed rapid Gram staining of ascitic fluid at night when laboratory technicians were absent, had a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation, and performed emergency surgery. Gram staining is superior in rapidity, and ascitic fluid Gram staining can aid in diagnosis, suggesting that it should be actively performed. We report this case, with a review of the literature on the significance of rapid diagnosis by Gram staining.

  4. Examinations of ascites from prophylactic drains can predict intra-abdominal infections after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Kawano, Youichi; Urahashi, Taizen; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Wakiya, Taiichi; Okada, Noriki; Yamada, Naoya; Hirata, Yuta; Tashiro, Masahisa; Mizuta, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Studies suggest that prophylactic intra-abdominal drains are unnecessary for cadaveric liver transplantation using whole liver grafts because there is no benefit from drainage. However, no studies have investigated on the necessity of prophylactic drains after LDLT using split-liver grafts or reduced-liver grafts, which may present a high risk of post-transplant intra-abdominal infections. This retrospective study investigated whether the ascitic data on POD 5 after LDLT can predict intra-abdominal infections and on the post-transplant management of prophylactic drains. Between March 2008 and March 2013, 90 LDLTs were performed. We assessed the number of ascitic cells, biochemical examinations, and cultivation tests at POD1 and POD5. The incidence rates of post-transplant intra-abdominal infections were 24.4%. The multivariate analysis showed that left lobe and S2 monosegment grafts were a significant risk factor for intra-abdominal infections (p = 0.006). The patients with intra-abdominal infections had significantly higher acsitic LDH levels and the positive rate of ascitic culture at POD5 in comparison with patients without infections (p < 0.001 and p = 0.014, respectively). LDLT using left lobe and S2 monosegment grafts yields a high risk for post-transplant intra-abdominal infections, and ascitic LDH and cultivation tests at POD5 via prophylactic drains can predict intra-abdominal infections. PMID:26152831

  5. Hemodynamic Consequences of Malignant Ascites in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Surgery*: A Prospective Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pietzner, Klaus; Koch, Mandy; Krannich, Alexander; Sehouli, Jalid; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2015-12-01

    Malignant ascites (MA) is most commonly observed in patients scheduled for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery and is supposed as a major risk factor promoting perioperative hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic consequences of MA on systemic circulation in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery.This study is a predefined post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a goal-directed algorithm to optimize hemodynamic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. Ascites was used to stratify the EOC patients prior to randomization in the main study. We analyzed 2 groups according to the amount of ascites (NLAS: none or low ascites [<500 mL] vs HAS: high ascites group [>500 mL]). Differences in hemodynamic variables with respect to time were analyzed using nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data and multivariate generalized estimating equation adjusting the analysis for the randomized study groups of the main study.A total of 31 patients in the NLAS and 16 patients in the HAS group were analyzed. Although cardiac output was not different between groups suggesting a similar circulatory blood flow, the HAS group revealed higher heart rates and lower stroke volumes during surgery. There were no differences in pressure-based hemodynamic variables. In the HAS group, fluid demands, reflected by the time to reindication of a fluid challenge after preload optimization, increased steadily, whereas stroke volume could not be maintained at baseline resulting in hemodynamic instability after 1.5 h of surgery. In contrast, in the NLAS group fluid demands were stable and stroke volume could be maintained during surgery. Clinically relevant associations of the type of fluid replacement with hemodynamic consequences were particularly observed in the HAS group, in which transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was associated to an improved circulatory flow and reduced

  6. Composite Bear Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Jara, Steve; Suffel, Susan

    2003-01-01

    To many national park campers and mountain climbers saving their foods in a safe and unbreakable storage container without worrying being attacked by a bear is a challenging task. In some parks, the park rangers have mandated that park visitors rent a bear canister for their food storage. Commercially available bear canisters are made of ABS plastic, weigh 2.8 pounds, and have a 180 cubic inch capacity for food storage. A new design with similar capacity was conducted in this study to reduce its weight and make it a stiffer and stronger canister. Two prototypes incorporating carbon prepreg with and without honeycomb constructions were manufactured using hand lay-up and vacuum bag forming techniques. A 6061-T6-aluminum ring was machined to dimensions in order to reinforce the opening area of the canister. Physical properties (weight and volume) along with mechanical properties (flexural strength and specific allowable moment) of the newly fabricated canisters are compared against the commercial ones. The composite canister weighs only 56% of the ABS one can withstand 9 times of the force greater. The advantages and limitations of using composite bear canisters will be discussed in the presentation.

  7. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB`s) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS`s) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS`s, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, the authors present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  8. Magnetic Bearings For Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Mendez, Antonio J.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents study of feasibility of magnetic bearings in turbopumps. Liquid-oxygen turbopump in space shuttle main engine selected for study. Other potential applications include manned and unmanned spacecraft, gas turbines for commercial and military aircraft, turbomachinery for petro-chemical and gas operations, suspension systems for precise machinery, and precise pointing and tracking systems.

  9. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  10. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  11. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  12. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  13. Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, N. A. M.; Seybold, H.; Baram, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.

    2013-02-01

    Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with asymmetrically weighted couplings. Accordingly, these networks can exhibit optimal synchronization properties through fine-tuning of the local interaction strength as a function of node degree [Motter, Zhou, and Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016116 (2005)PLEEE81539-3755]. We show that, in analogy, the synchronizability of bearings can be maximized by counterbalancing the number of contacts and the inertia of their constituting rotor disks through the mass-radius relation, m˜rα, with an optimal exponent α=α× which converges to unity for a large number of rotors. Under this condition, and regardless of the presence of a long-tailed distribution of disk radii composing the mechanical system, the average participation per disk is maximized and the energy dissipation rate is homogeneously distributed among elementary rotors.

  14. Magnetic-Bearing Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Poole, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Microcomputer-controlled magnetic-bearing test fixture used to develop approaches to design of controls for magnetic bearing actuators designed and constructed. Includes load cells connected to bar, in turn, connected through screw positioners to geared drive motors. Position of equivalent suspended element sensed by position sensors and controlled by drive motors. Provides control of gap in magnetic bearing and of current in electromagnet coil. Measurements made include magnetic-bearing gaps, magnetic flux in bearing gaps, and bearing forces. Approaches to linearization and control developed by use of fixture applicable to wide range of small-gap suspension systems.

  15. Lubricant effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1986-01-01

    Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

  16. Adult granulosa cell tumor presenting with massive ascites, elevated CA-125 level, and low 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Ji Young; Park, Ji Y.; Lee, Seung Jeong; Lee, Yoon Hee; Hong, Dae Gy

    2015-01-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) presenting with massive ascites and elevated serum CA-125 levels have rarely been described in the literature. An ovarian mass, massive ascites, and elevated serum CA-125 levels in postmenopausal women generally suggest a malignant ovarian tumor, particularly advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. AGCT has low 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography due to its low metabolic activity. In the present report, we describe a case of an AGCT with massive ascites, elevated serum CA-125 level, and low 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. PMID:26430671

  17. Stress and morphine affect survival of rats challenged with a mammary ascites tumor (MAT 13762B).

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Gale, R P; Liebeskind, J C

    We have previously shown that exposure to inescapable footshock stress decreases survival of rats injected with a mammary ascites tumor (MAT 13762B). This increased vulnerability to the tumor challenge was prevented by an opiate antagonist, naltrexone, suggesting mediation by opioid peptides. Supporting this hypothesis, we now report that a high dose of an opiate agonist, morphine, also reduces survival of rats given the same tumor. This effect shows tolerance after 14 daily injections. The adverse effect of stress, however, did not show other signs of opioid involvement: it manifested neither tolerance with repeated stress exposures nor cross-tolerance in morphine-tolerant rats. Our recent findings that stress and morphine reduce natural killer cell cytotoxicity in a similar fashion suggest an immune mechanism that may explain the present results.

  18. Ascites due to pre-sinusoidal portal hypertension in dogs: a retrospective analysis of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    James, F E; Knowles, G W; Mansfield, C S; Robertson, I D

    2008-05-01

    Accumulation of a pure transudate abdominal effusion in the absence of significant hypoalbuminaemia is uncommon in dogs and is due to pre-sinusoidal portal hypertension. Reported causes of pre-sinusoidal portal hypertension vary, but suggest a reasonable prognosis. A retrospective analysis of 17 dogs that presented to our institution with ascites due to pre-sinusoidal portal hypertension identified idiopathic hepatic fibrosis or canine chronic hepatitis as the underlying cause in the majority of cases. Twelve (70.5%) dogs were 4 years of age or younger at time of presentation. Total serum protein was higher in dogs with chronic hepatitis than it was in dogs without inflammatory disease. The prognosis was generally poor and no histological, imaging or biochemical parameters were useful as prognostic indicators. Dogs died or were euthanased due to severe clinical signs associated with the portal hypertension and/or perceived poor prognosis.

  19. Detection of ascitic feline coronavirus RNA from cats with clinically suspected feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Wada, Makoto; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    Ascitic feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA was examined in 854 cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by RT-PCR. The positivity was significantly higher in purebreds (62.2%) than in crossbreds (34.8%) (P<0.0001). Among purebreds, the positivities in the Norwegian forest cat (92.3%) and Scottish fold (77.6%) were significantly higher than the average of purebreds (P=0.0274 and 0.0251, respectively). The positivity was significantly higher in males (51.5%) than in females (35.7%) (P<0.0001), whereas no gender difference has generally been noted in FCoV antibody prevalence, indicating that FIP more frequently develops in males among FCoV-infected cats. Genotyping was performed for 377 gene-positive specimens. Type I (83.3%) was far more predominantly detected than type II (10.6%) (P<0.0001), similar to previous serological and genetic surveys. PMID:23719724

  20. Antigenic relatedness of selected flaviviruses: study with homologous and heterologous immune mouse ascitic fluids.

    PubMed

    Baba, S S; Fagbami, A H; Olaleye, O D

    1998-01-01

    The antigenic relationship of 9 flaviviruses, Yellow fever (YF), Wesselsbron (WSL), Uganda S (UGS), Potiskum (POT), West Nile (WN), Banzi (BAN), Zika (ZK), Dengue type 1 (DEN-1) and Dengue type 2 (DEN-2), was assessed by cross-haemagglutination-inhibition (Cross-HI) and cross-complement fixation (Cross-CF) reactions between each of the viruses and their homologous immune mouse ascitic fluids. Titre ratios were calculated using the heterologous and homologous titres. Cross-CF reactions revealed wider antigenic variations among viruses than Cross-HI reactions. There was no significant antigenic variation between WSL, POT and YF viruses using either of those methods. However, definite differences in antigenicity were observed between them and UGS, BAN and ZK viruses. There were no significant differences between UGS, BAN and ZK or between DEN-1 and DEN-2. The serological relationship among flaviviruses is important in establishing diagnosis and epidemiology of these infections in Africa.

  1. Ascitic fluid gamma interferon concentrations and adenosine deaminase activity in tuberculous peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, M A; Simjee, A E; Coovadia, Y M; Soni, P N; Moola, S A; Insam, B; Makumbi, F

    1995-01-01

    The gamma interferon (gamma-IFN) concentration and the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in 30 patients with tuberculous peritonitis, 21 patients with ascites due to a malignant disorder, and 41 patients with cirrhosis. The gamma-IFN concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in tuberculous peritonitis patients (mean: 6.70 U/ml) than in the malignant (mean: 3.10 U/ml) and cirrhotic (mean: 3.08 U/ml) groups. Use of a cut off value of > or = 3.2 U/ml gave the assay a sensitivity of 93% (25 of 27), a specificity of 98% (54 of 55), positive (P+) and negative (P-) predictive values of 96% and a test accuracy of 96%. The ADA activity was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in the tuberculous peritonitis group (mean: 101.84 U/l) than in the control groups (cirrhosis (mean: 13.49 U/l) and malignancy (mean: 19.35 U/l)). A cut off value of > 30 U/l gave the ADA test a sensitivity of 93% (26 of 28) a specificity of 96% (51 of 53), a (P+) value of 93%, a (P-) value of 96%, and a test accuracy of 95%. There was a significant (p < 0.0001) correlation (r = 0.72) between ADA activity and gamma-IFN values in patients with tuberculous peritonitis. These results show that a high concentration of gamma-IFN in ascitic fluid is as valuable as the ADA activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis. Both are rapid non-invasive diagnostic tests for tuberculous peritonitis. PMID:7698702

  2. Detection and identification of bacterial DNA in patients with cirrhosis and culture-negative, nonneutrocytic ascites.

    PubMed

    Such, José; Francés, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Zapater, Pedro; Casellas, Juan A; Cifuentes, Ana; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco; Pascual, Sonia; Sola-Vera, Javier; Carnicer, Fernando; Uceda, Francisco; Palazón, José M; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel

    2002-07-01

    The current pathogenic theory of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites suggests that repeated episodes of bacterial translocation (BT) from intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes followed by systemic seeding are the key steps for the final development of infectious events. However, most of the episodes of systemic bacterial circulation remain undetected. Therefore, we investigated the hypothetical presence of bacteria in blood and/or ascitic fluid (AF) from patients with cirrhosis and sterile (culture negative) AF by means of bacterial DNA (bactDNA) detection and identification. Twenty-eight consecutively admitted patients with cirrhosis and presence of AF were included in the study. BactDNA was detected using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. The corresponding bacteria were identified by nucleotide sequencing of purified PCR products. BactDNA was detected simultaneously in blood and AF in 9 patients (32.1%). DNA sequencing allowed the identification of Escherichia coli (n = 7) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2). In all cases, the similarity between the sequence found in AF and blood indicated that the bactDNA present in both locations originated from a single clone (single translocation event). Child-Pugh score and basic hemodynamic, clinical, endoscopic, and biochemical characteristics were similar among patients with or without the presence of bactDNA. In conclusion, we have detected bactDNA in serum and AF in 32% of all patients studied, and this likely represents single clone episodes of translocation and systemic seeding. E. coli is the most frequently identified bacteria.

  3. TGFβ signaling regulates epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in ovarian cancer ascites-derived spheroids.

    PubMed

    Rafehi, Samah; Ramos Valdes, Yudith; Bertrand, Monique; McGee, Jacob; Préfontaine, Michel; Sugimoto, Akira; DiMattia, Gabriel E; Shepherd, Trevor G

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) serves as a key mechanism driving tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in many carcinomas. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling is implicated in several steps during cancer pathogenesis and acts as a classical inducer of EMT. Since epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells have the potential to switch between epithelial and mesenchymal states during metastasis, we predicted that modulation of TGFβ signaling would significantly impact EMT and the malignant potential of EOC spheroid cells. Ovarian cancer patient ascites-derived cells naturally underwent an EMT response when aggregating into spheroids, and this was reversed upon spheroid re-attachment to a substratum. CDH1/E-cadherin expression was markedly reduced in spheroids compared with adherent cells, in concert with an up-regulation of several transcriptional repressors, i.e., SNAI1/Snail, TWIST1/2, and ZEB2. Treatment of EOC spheroids with the TGFβ type I receptor inhibitor, SB-431542, potently blocked the endogenous activation of EMT in spheroids. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with SB-431542 upon re-attachment enhanced the epithelial phenotype of dispersing cells and significantly decreased cell motility and Transwell migration. Spheroid formation was significantly compromised by exposure to SB-431542 that correlated with a reduction in cell viability particularly in combination with carboplatin treatment. Thus, our findings are the first to demonstrate that intact TGFβ signaling is required to control EMT in EOC ascites-derived cell spheroids, and it promotes the malignant characteristics of these structures. As such, we show the therapeutic potential for targeted inhibition of this pathway in ovarian cancer patients with late-stage disease. PMID:26647384

  4. Vygotsky and the Three Bears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczewski, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    Peggy Kulczewski, a kindergarten classroom teacher, remembers the day when students enjoyed a story she told them from the book "The Three Bears". The students' discussion about comparison of the bears was very helpful to the whole group.

  5. Magnetic bearings grow more attractive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    Advances in materials and electronics have enabled designers to devise simpler, smaller magnetic bearings. As a result, costs have dropped, widening the applications for these very-low-friction devices. Avcon (Advanced Controls Technology) has patented a permanent-magnet bias actively controlled bearing. Here high-energy rare earth permanent-magnet materials supply the basic bearing load levitation, while servo-driven electromagnets generate stabilization and centering forces for motion contol. Previous heavy-duty magnetic bearings used electromagnets entirely for suspension and control, which led to large bearings and control systems with higher power requirements. Avcon has developed several types of permanent-magnet bias bearings. The simplest is the radial repulsion bearing. Avcon's homopolar permanent-magnet bias active bearing is the most versatile of the company's designs.

  6. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  7. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  8. Passive magnetic bearing system

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  9. Frictionless Bearing Uses Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation was to develop a frictionless bearing for high speed, light load applications. The device involves the incorporation of permanent magnets in the bearing design. The repulsion of like magnetic poles provides concentric support of the inner member so that no metallic contact occurs between the bearing surfaces.

  10. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  11. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-06-15

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines.

  12. Magnetic translator bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  13. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  14. The bear that never was

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Herrero, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    From campfire stories to sensational books detailing gory attacks, Alaska's bears have long been maligned as deadly marauders capable of acquiring a taste for human flesh. Tall tales make for good storytelling but force bad reputations on the bears. When myth is compared to fact, the three North American's leading bear experts show that Alaska's three bear species are not the huge, unpredictable monsters they often are made out to be. Here, Smith, Amstrup, and Herrero examine the conventional wisdom people often hear regarding bears in the Great Land.

  15. Bearing, gearing, and lubrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of selected NASA research programs on rolling-element and fluid-film bearings, gears, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reported. Advances in rolling-element bearing material technology, which have resulted in a significant improvement in fatigue life, and which make possible new applications for rolling bearings, are discussed. Research on whirl-resistant, fluid-film bearings, suitable for very high-speed applications, is discussed. An improved method for predicting gear pitting life is reported. An improved formula for calculating the thickness of elastohydrodynamic films (the existence of which help to define the operating regime of concentrated contact mechanisms such as bearings, gears, and cams) is described.

  16. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  17. Anti-backlash gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  18. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  19. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOEpatents

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  20. Bearing construction for refrigeration compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.G.; Nelson, R.T.

    1988-01-12

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings. 4 figs.

  1. Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Pragenau, George L.

    1994-01-01

    Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

  2. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Tim; Thom, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based solvents, such as CFC-113 and 1,1,1, trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanism bearings. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change requiring the use of ODC-free cleaners for precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises; what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life? The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0 x 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90 C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing, the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition, the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  3. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  4. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach.

  5. Isolation and partial identification of eight endogenous G1 inhibitors of JB-1 ascites tumor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Barfod, N M

    1982-06-01

    Eight endogenous G1 inhibitors of the proliferation of JB-1 ascites tumor cells have been isolated and characterized. The activity of the inhibitors has been analyzed on synchronized JB-1 (murine plasmacytoma) and L1A2 (murine sarcoma) cells in vitro using flow cytometry. The purified inhibitors have been tested for in vivo activity on partially synchronized JB-1 and L1A2 ascites tumors in situ. Four of the inhibitors exhibited a high degree of cell specificity (chalone-like inhibitors) and were chemically related, whereas the other four showed no cell specificity. In most extractions, the amount of cell-specific activity is more than 50% of the total G1-inhibitory activity. Most of the inhibitors are low-molecular-weight peptides and glycopeptides.

  6. Identification of tumor-associated antigens on ultraviolet light-induced tumors using antitumor antibodies developed in ascites fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, G.W.; Takemoto, L.J.; Shehi, L.; Hansen, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    A method is described which leads to the production of large amounts of ascites containing antitumor antibody in small numbers of mice. The antibody was then used to identify and characterize tumor-associated antigens on an ultraviolet light-induced murine skin fibrosarcoma. The antibody showed specific complement-dependent cytotoxicity to the homologous tumor and to an allogeneic tumor line which displayed a glycoprotein viral determinant with a molecular weight of 70,000 on its surface. Absorption of the immune ascites with other tumor cell lines removed the cytotoxicity in relation to the presence of the glycoprotein. Isolation of the tumor cell surface components binding antibody revealed two components with molecular weights of approximately 70,000 and 60,000. The Mr 70,000 component was identified as viral gp70 by peptide mapping.

  7. [The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during the extraction, concentration and reinfusion of ascitic fluid in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Giorcelli, V; Fossale, P G

    1983-01-01

    The course of hepatic cirrhosis involves alterations to the sodium-water balance, the aetiopathogenetic causes of which are still not entirely known. At first major importance was assigned to the role of secondary hyperaldosteronism which develops during the ascitic phase. This was subsequently recognised to have only a permissive rather than determinant function. Changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system and variations in hydrosaline balance as the extracellular volume (ECV) expands during the reinfusion of concentrated ascitic fluid have been studied. The data reported show that ECV expansion causes increased diuresis, natriuresis and osmolar clearance. The RAA system is suppressed and at the same time kaliuresis increases. The latter factor points up the role played by increased solute flow to the distal tube in the diuretico-metabolic response, where aldosterone plays a purely permissive part. PMID:6675585

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Treatment of Cirrhosis-related Chylothorax and Chylous Ascites: Single-institution Retrospective Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kikolski, Steven G. Aryafar, Hamed Rose, Steven C.; Roberts, Anne C.; Kinney, Thomas B.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation to treat cirrhosis-related chylous collections (chylothorax and chylous ascites).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed data from four patients treated for refractory cirrhosis-related chylous collections with TIPS at our institution over an 8 year period.ResultsOne patient had chylothorax, and three patients had concomitant chylothorax and chylous ascites. There were no major complications, and the only procedure-related complications occurred in two patients who had mild, treatable hepatic encephalopathy. All patients had improvement as defined by decreased need for thoracentesis or paracentesis, with postprocedure follow-up ranging from 19 to 491 days.ConclusionTIPS is a safe procedure that is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis-related chylous collections.

  9. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkas, Nikolaos; Valasoulis, George; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos; Zerzi, Calliope; Mitselos, Ioannis; Koutoulakis, Ioannis; Tzampouras, Nikolaos; Stefos, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS). On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS); she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques-) IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental. PMID:26579320

  10. Chylous ascites after nephrectomy without lymphadenectomy for malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney: A rare occurrence and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Einama, Takahiro; Okada, Tadao; Sasaki, Fumiaki; Todo, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Chylous ascites (CA) is an extremely rare complication of abdominal surgery in children. This report describes a 4-month-old girl with malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), who developed CA after left nephrectomy without lymphadenectomy, and who was successfully treated conservatively with enteral therapy. The literature on CA after nephrectomy without lymphadenectomy for MRTK is reviewed herein, and the clinical problems of postoperative CA are discussed. PMID:20419024

  11. Disregarded Effect of Biological Fluids in siRNA Delivery: Human Ascites Fluid Severely Restricts Cellular Uptake of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dakwar, George R; Braeckmans, Kevin; Demeester, Joseph; Ceelen, Wim; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Remaut, Katrien

    2015-11-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a great potential for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Nevertheless, inefficient in vivo siRNA delivery hampers its translation into the clinic. While numerous successful in vitro siRNA delivery stories exist in reduced-protein conditions, most studies so far overlook the influence of the biological fluids present in the in vivo environment. In this study, we compared the transfection efficiency of liposomal formulations in Opti-MEM (low protein content, routinely used for in vitro screening) and human undiluted ascites fluid obtained from a peritoneal carcinomatosis patient (high protein content, representing the in vivo situation). In Opti-MEM, all formulations are biologically active. In ascites fluid, however, the biological activity of all lipoplexes is lost except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX. The drop in transfection efficiency was not correlated to the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles, such as premature siRNA release and aggregation of the nanoparticles in the human ascites fluid. Remarkably, however, all of the formulations except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX lost their ability to be taken up by cells following incubation in ascites fluid. To take into account the possible effects of a protein corona formed around the nanoparticles, we recommend always using undiluted biological fluids for the in vitro optimization of nanosized siRNA formulations next to conventional screening in low-protein content media. This should tighten the gap between in vitro and in vivo performance of nanoparticles and ensure the optimal selection of nanoparticles for further in vivo studies.

  12. Neonatal urinary ascites complicated by ileal perforation in a recipient of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik; Frost, Jodie; Ninan, G K

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of iatrogenic neonatal urinary ascites following antenatal amnioreduction in one of the monochorionic diamniotic recipient twin 2 of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). He had ileal perforation following postnatal abdominal paracentesis. The patient had an uneventful recovery following exploratory laparotomy, resection of perforated segment of ileum with end-to-end anastomosis and open vesicostomy with subsequent closure of the vesicostomy.

  13. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  14. Gold-bearing skarns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.; Orris, Greta J.; Hammerstrom, Jane M.; Bliss, James D.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, a significant proportion of the mining industry's interest has been centered on discovery of gold deposits; this includes discovery of additional deposits where gold occurs in skarn, such as at Fortitude, Nevada, and at Red Dome, Australia. Under the classification of Au-bearing skarns, we have modeled these and similar gold-rich deposits that have a gold grade of at least 1 g/t and exhibit distinctive skarn mineralogy. Two subtypes, Au-skarns and byproduct Au-skarns, can be recognized on the basis of gold, silver, and base-metal grades, although many other geological factors apparently are still undistinguishable largely because of a lack of detailed studies of the Au-skarns. Median grades and tonnage for 40 Au-skarn deposits are 8.6 g/t Au, 5.0 g/t Ag, and 213,000 t. Median grades and tonnage for 50 byproduct and Au-skarn deposits are 3.7 g/t Au, 37 g/t Ag, and 330,000 t. Gold-bearing skarns are generally calcic exoskarns associated with intense retrograde hydrosilicate alteration. These skarns may contain economic amounts of numerous other commodities (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, As, Bi, W, Sb, Co, Cd, and S) as well as gold and silver. Most Au-bearing skarns are found in Paleozoic and Cenozoic orogenic-belt and island-arc settings and are associated with felsic to intermediate intrusive rocks of Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Native gold, electru, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth minerals, and magnetite or hematite are the most common opaque minerals. Gangue minerals typically include garnet (andradite-grossular), pyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite), wollastonite, chlorite, epidote, quartz, actinolite-tremolite, and (or) calcite.

  15. Linear magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowskiy, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    A self regulating, nonfrictional, active magnetic bearing is disclosed which has an elongated cylindrical housing for containing a shaft type armature with quadrature positioned shaft position sensors and equidistantly positioned electromagnets located at one end of the housing. Each set of sensors is responsive to orthogonal displacement of the armature and is used to generate control signals to energize the electromagnets to center the armature. A bumper magnet assembly is located at one end of the housing for dampening any undesired axial movement of the armature or to axially move the armature either continuously or fixedly.

  16. Characterization of a G1 inhibitor from old JB-1 ascites tumor fluid. Interaction with polyions and ion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Barfod, N M; Bichel, P

    1976-09-17

    In most experimental ascites tumors the growth rate decreases with increasing age and cell number. This decrease is caused by a prolongation of the cell cycle and an increasing accumulation of noncycling cells in resting (or quiescent) G1 and G2 compartments. In cell-free ascitic fluid from the JB-1 ascites tumor in the plateau phase of growth, low molecular weight substances have been found which reversibly and specifically arrest JB-1 cells in G1 and G2. In order to characterize the JB-1 G1 inhibitor we have investigated the effect of ion exchangers and polyions on the activity of this inhibitor assayed in vitro by means of a partially synchronized JB-1 cell population analyzed by flow microfluorometry. The results indicate that polyanions and cation exchangers (immobilized polyanions) bind and abolish the G1-inhibitory activity. From this it is suggested that the G1 inhibitor is of a basic or polycationic nature. Since anion exchangers (immobilized polycations) are without effect on this activity it was surprising to find that polycations also neutralize the activity. The results indicate that this occurs by blocking an anionic G2-inhibitor receptor on the cell, thus preventing the polycationic G1 inhibitor from being bound to this receptor.

  17. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy as palliative treatment for malignant ascites A single-center experience and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Luigina; Marino, Elisabetta; De Angelis, Verena; Rebonato, Alberto; Donini, Annibale

    L’ascite maligna rappresenta il quadro avanzato di anormale accumulo di liquido intraperitoneale in pazienti con carcinosi peritoneale. Questa condizione clinica può rappresentare la condizione terminale di questa patologia a pessima prognosi inficiando inoltre la qualità di vita dei pazienti. Le opzioni terapeutiche includono differenti procedure che hanno tuttavia una limitata efficacia e alcune criticità; diuretici, paracentesi, shunt veno-peritoneali, inibitori delle metallo proteasi, immunomodulatori e agenti biologici rappresentano alcuni esempi di queste procedure. Nessuno di questi approcci terapeutici rappresenta a oggi lo standard of care per questa patologia data la scarsa efficienza e l’alto grado di effetti collaterali. L’introduzione della chirurgia citoriduttiva e della chemio terapia ipertermica intraperitoneale sembra essere un approccio terapeutico valido nel trattamento dell’ascite maligna refrattaria, introdotto nelle ultime due decadi e che tutt’ora necessita di validazione scientifica. In questo lavoro condividiamo la nostra esperienza di tre casi affetti da ascite maligna refrattaria trattati con HIPEC; facciamo inoltre una revisione della letteratura.

  18. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  19. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  20. Reduction in bearing size due to superconductors in magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Lewis, Paul; Dill, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept that reduces the size of magnetic bearings is assessed. The small size will enable magnetic bearings to fit into limited available bearing volume of cryogenic machinery. The design concept, called SUPERC, uses (high Tc) superconductors or high-purity aluminum conductors in windings instead of copper. The relatively high-current density of these conductors reduces the slot radial thickness for windings, which reduces the size of the bearings. MTI developed a sizing program called SUPERC that translates the high-current density of these conductors into smaller sized bearings. This program was used to size a superconducting bearing to carry a 500 lb. load. The sizes of magnetic bearings needed by various design concepts are as follows: SUPERC design concept = 3.75 in.; magnet-bias design concept = 5.25 in.; and all electromagnet design concept = 7.0 in. These results indicate that the SUPERC design concept can significantly reduce the size of the bearing. This reduction, in turn, reduces the weight and yields a lighter bearing. Since the superconductors have inherently near-zero resistance, they are also expected to save power needed for operation considerably.

  1. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Timothy Raymond; Thom, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC ) based solvents, such as Freon and 1,1,1, Trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanisms. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change to new ODC-free cleaners for the precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0* 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  2. Doxorubicin and vincristine with methionine depletion contributed to survival in the Yoshida sarcoma bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, T; Goseki, N; Endo, M

    1998-01-01

    Several anti-cancer agents show increased toxicity if administered with methionine-depleting total parenteral nutrition (Met-deplete TPN). Changes in the cell cycle due to Met-deplete TPN were investigated, and then the enhancement of the anti-tumor effects of serial combinations of doxorubicin (ADM), a drug acting on late S-G2 phase and vincristine (VCR), an antimitotic drug, under Met-deplete TPN was also examined in the tumor-bearing rats. According to the fraction of labeled mitosis, within 3 to 4 days after the introduction of Met-deplete TPN in the ascites type Yoshida sarcoma (YS) -bearing rats, the cell cycle of the tumor cells showed marked delay and the fraction of labeled mitosis decreased to less than 70%. However, this delay was recovered immediately after methionine infusion, with on increase in the labeled mitotic cell population. In the experiment using solid type YS-bearing rats, ADM was administered intraperitoneally under Met-deplete TPN for 8 days, followed by intraperitoneal VCR administration with methionine-containing TPN for 3 days, and then fed on solid food and water ad libitum until death. This serial combination of Met-deplete TPN with ADM and VCR resulted in marked suppression of the tumor and prolonged survival in comparison to the control groups with a significant difference (p < 0.001) (generalized Wilcoxon test).

  3. Renal function impairment induced by change in posture in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, M; Santini, C; Trevisani, F; Baraldini, M; Ligabue, A; Gasbarrini, G

    1985-01-01

    The assumption of upright posture by patients with liver cirrhosis leads to striking activation of adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems. The tilting-induced modifications in renal function of eight healthy controls and 14 untreated patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites were related to plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, renin activity and aldosterone. All patients had preserved renal blood perfusion. All parameters were evaluated during bed rest for two hours and in the sitting posture for one hour. Basal plasma renin activity (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05), aldosterone and noradrenaline concentrations (p less than or equal to 0.01) were raised in cirrhotics. The renal function tests (creatinine clearance, filtered sodium, tubular rejection fraction, urinary sodium excretion) were significantly reduced in cirrhosis. Under basal conditions, in cirrhotic patients tubular rejection fraction and urinary sodium excretion were inversely related to both noradrenaline and aldosterone concentrations. After tilting, the noradrenaline and aldosterone integrated outputs (sigma delta) were significantly greater in cirrhosis. All renal function tests significantly decreased in cirrhotics, whereas creatinine clearance only significantly decreased in controls. Patient's tubular rejection fraction of sodium and sodium excretion were related to sigma delta aldosteronaemia (r = -0.72; p less than 0.01), but no longer to sigma delta plasma noradrenaline. PMID:3891534

  4. Iron sufficient to cause hepatic fibrosis and ascites does not cause cardiac arrhythmias in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lana; Davis, John M; Patterson, Jon; Johnson, Abby L; Bohart, George; Olivier, N Bari; Schwartz, Kenneth A

    2009-10-01

    Chronic iron overload associated with hereditary hemochromatosis or repeated red cell transfusions is known to cause cardiac failure. Cardiac arrhythmias have been incidentally noted in patients with iron overload, but they are often dismissed as being related to comorbid conditions. Studies with anesthetized iron-loaded gerbils using short recordings suggest a role for iron in the development of arrhythmias. Our goal was to characterize iron-induced arrhythmias in the chronically instrumented, untethered, telemetered gerbil. Electrocardiograms were recorded for 10 s every 30 min for approximately 6 months in iron-loaded (n=23) and control (n=8) gerbils. All gerbils in both groups showed evidence of frequent sinus arrhythmia. There was no difference in heart rate, electrocardiographic parameters, or number of arrhythmias per minute between groups. Gerbils rarely showed significant arrhythmias. Body weight and heart weight were not significantly different between groups, whereas liver weight increased with increasing iron dose in the treated group. Cardiac and hepatic iron concentrations were significantly increased in iron-loaded gerbils. Eight of 14 gerbils loaded to 6.2 g/kg body weight developed ascites. We conclude that an iron load sufficient to cause clinical liver disease does not cause cardiac arrhythmias in the gerbil model of iron overload.

  5. The Palliative Management of Refractory Cirrhotic Ascites Using the PleurX (©) Catheter.

    PubMed

    Reinglas, Jason; Amjadi, Kayvan; Petrcich, Bill; Momoli, Franco; Shaw-Stiffel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment options are limited for patients with refractory cirrhotic ascites (RCA). As such, we assessed the safety and effectiveness of the PleurX catheter for RCA. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients with RCA who have undergone insertion of the PleurX catheter between 2007 and 2014 at our clinic. Results. Thirty-three patients with RCA were included in the study; 4 patients were lost to follow-up. All patients were still symptomatic despite bimonthly large volume paracentesis and were not candidates for TIPS or PV shunt. Technical success was achieved in 100% of patients. The median duration the catheter remained in situ was 117.5 days, with 95% CI of 48-182 days. Drain patency was maintained in 90% of patients. Microorganisms consistent with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a catheter source were isolated in 38% of patients. The median time to infection was 105 days, with 95% CI of 34-233 days. All patients were treated for SBP successfully with antibiotics. Conclusion. Use of the PleurX catheter for the management of RCA carries a high risk for infection when the catheter remains in situ for more than 3 months but has an excellent patency rate and did not result in significant renal injury. PMID:27446840

  6. Turnover of phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine in ether-phospholipids of Krebs II ascite cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamer, A.E.; Record, M.; Chap, H.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1985-10-01

    Krebs II ascite cells suspended in Eagle medium were incubated at 37 C for up to 6 hr in the presence of (TH) glycerol or (TSP) orthophosphate. After extraction, their lipids were treated with guinea pig phospholipase A1 under conditions where all diacyl-phospholipids (diacyl-PL) became hydrolyzed with 55% recovery of lyso-PL. Using a bidimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC) involving exposure to HCl fumes between the two runs, it then became possible to determine at once the specific radioactivity of the three subclasses present in choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and ethanolamineglycerophospholipids (EGP). Compared to diacyl-PL, a lower de novo synthesis of ether subclasses was evidenced in both CGP and EGP by (TH) glycerol incorporation. Although the same profile was obtained for CGP with (TSP) orthophosphate, the three EGP subclasses displayed in this case the same specific radioactivity. These data indicate a higher turnover rate of the polar head group of ether-EGP compared to either-CGP. The simple methodology used in the present study might thus prove helpful in developing enzymatic studies dealing with the mechanism of this accelerated renewal.

  7. [Benign retroperitoneal cystic teratoma with postoperative chylous ascites--a case report].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, O; Nakajima, K; Nakashima, T; Ohkawa, M; Hisazumi, H; Matsubara, F

    1988-09-01

    A case of benign retroperitoneal cystic teratoma in a 62-year-old female is reported. The patient was admitted to our hospital for the purpose of extensive examination of a left abdominal mass. Radiological examinations including CT scanning revealed a large retroperitoneal mass arising in the left upper quadrant superior to the left kidney, containing cystic areas. The mass was removed by the thoracoabdominal approach under the diagnosis of cystic teratoma or liposarcoma. The margin of the mass was well demarcated and completely separated from other adjacent structures. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of benign cystic teratoma. From the 6th postoperative day, the discharge from a drainage tube, placed in the left retroperitoneal space, increased gradually and the discharge fluid became lipemic. The amount of daily discharge had a peak of approximately 400 ml on the 15th postoperative day. Total parenteral hyperalimentation was started on the 17th postoperative day under a diagnosis of chylous ascites. The amount of the discharge decreased and the drainage tube was removed on the 21st postoperative day.

  8. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary as a cause of ascites in a goat.

    PubMed

    Memon, M A; Schelling, S H; Sherman, D M

    1995-02-01

    A 6-year-old Nubian doe was evaluated because of slowly progressive abdominal enlargement of 1 month's duration. Five days prior to examination at our hospital, the doe was examined by a local veterinarian. False pregnancy was suspected, and 10 mg of prostaglandin F2 alpha was injected IM. Abdominal distention did not decrease, and the doe did not develop a vaginal discharge. An additional 10 mg of prostaglandin and 24 mg of dexamethasone were injected IM, about 80 hours after the first injection, again without any apparent effect. On arrival at our hospital, the doe was in sternal recumbency and was too weak to stand unassisted. Its abdomen was distended. The body of the uterus and part of 1 uterine horn could be examined by means of transrectal ultrasonography, both appeared normal. The doe was admitted to the hospital, but its condition worsened, and it died during the night. Postmortem examination revealed approximately 30 L of clear, pale, straw-colored fluid in the peritoneal cavity. The caudal pole of the left ovary contained an indistinct, firm, slightly raised, gray-tan mass. The final diagnosis was mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary metastatic to the partietal peritoneum, pericardium, and lungs. In adult female goats with bilateral abdominal distention, hydrometra associated with false pregnancy should always be considered; however, if there is no response to prostaglandin administration, distention is more likely to be a result of ascites.

  9. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOEpatents

    Claassen, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  10. Risk factor analysis for massive lymphatic ascites after laparoscopic retroperitonal lymphadenectomy in gynecologic cancers and treatment using intranodal lymphangiography with glue embolization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for massive lymphatic ascites after laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in gynecologic cancer and the feasibility of treatments using intranodal lymphangiography (INLAG) with glue embolization. Methods A retrospective analysis of 234 patients with gynecologic cancer who received laparoscopic retroperitonal lymphadenectomy between April 2006 and November 2015 was done. In June 2014, INLAG with glue embolization was initiated to manage massive lymphatic ascites. All possible clinicopathologic factors related to massive lymphatic ascites were determined in the pre-INLAG group (n=163). Clinical courses between pre-INLAG group and post-INLAG group (n=71) were compared. Results In the pre-INLAG group (n=163), four patients (2.5%) developed massive lymphatic ascites postoperatively. Postoperative lymphatic ascites was associated with liver cirrhosis (three cirrhotic patients, p<0.001). In the post-INLAG group, one patient with massive lymphatic ascites had a congestive heart failure and first received INLAG with glue embolization. She had pelvic drain removed within 7 days after INLAG. The mean duration of pelvic drain and hospital stay decreased after the introduction of INLAG (13.2 days vs. 10.9 days, p=0.001; 15.2 days vs. 12.6 days, p=0.001). There was no evidence of recurrence after this procedure. Conclusion Underlying medical conditions related to the reduced effective circulating volume, such as liver cirrhosis and heart failure, may be associated with massive lymphatic ascites after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. INLAG with glue embolization can be an alternative treatment options to treat leaking lymphatic channels in patients with massive lymphatic leakage. PMID:27171674

  11. The polar bear phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Maw, P.K. ); Lane, M.T.

    1990-02-01

    Results from measuring the thermal profile of polar bear pelts, reflectiveness of the pelts, and total thermal conversion data lead to the conclusion that the pelts from an ultra-efficient thermal diode for solar-thermal conversion. The transfer of the thermal energy from the surface of the fur to the skin where it is absorbed cannot be thermal, and therefore must be radiative. This process must have an efficiency of better than 90:0090 percent to account for measured values. The radiative transfer process is not known at present. To understand it, a detailed knowledge of the microscopic parameters of the pelts must be obtained. This is the current thrust of the polar solar research. If the process can be understood and synthesized,it will provide a major breakthrough in the area of solar-thermal energy conversion.

  12. Superconducting levitating bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, Francis C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A superconducting bearing assembly includes a coil field source that may be superconducting and a superconducting structure. The coil field source assembly and superconducting structure are positioned so as to enable relative rotary movement therebetween. The structure and coil field source are brought to a supercooled temperature before a power supply induces a current in the coil field source. A Meissner-like effect is thereby obtained and little or no penetration of the field lines is seen in the superconducting structure. Also, the field that can be obtained from the superconducting coil is 2-8 times higher than that of permanent magnets. Since the magnetic pressure is proportioned to the square of the field, magnetic pressures from 4 to 64 times higher are achieved.

  13. Service Lives Of Restored Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1988-01-01

    Rebuilt units last almost as long as new ones. Report describes theoretical and experiemental studies of lifetimes of restored ball and cylindrical-roller bearings. Results of this and related studies have implications of economy and safety in modern high-speed machinery, especially in aircraft industry, where inspection and rejection or replacing of bearings are new standard practice.

  14. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  15. High-Performance Ball Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.

    1995-01-01

    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  16. Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

  17. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.

    1999-01-01

    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  18. Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

  19. Case Report: Detection and quantification of tumor cells in peripheral blood and ascitic fluid from a metastatic esophageal cancer patient using the CellSearch (®) technology.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qian; Bittencourt, Marcelo De Carvalho; Cai, Huili; Bastien, Claire; Lemarie-Delaunay, Camille; Bene, Marie C; Faure, Gilbert C

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of ascitic fluid should help to identify and characterize malignant cells in gastrointestinal cancer. However, despite a high specificity, the sensitivity of traditional ascitic fluid cytology remains insufficient, at around 60%. Since 2004 the CellSearch (®) technology has shown its advantages in the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood, which can perform an accurate diagnosis and molecular analysis at the same time. To our knowledge, no previous study has explored the potential utility of this technology for the detection and quantification of tumor cells in ascitic fluid samples. Herein we report a case of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 70-year-old man presenting with dysphagia and a large amount of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Analysis of a peripheral blood sample and ascites sample with the CellSearch (®) technology both revealed the presence of putative tumor cells that were positive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cytokeratin (CK) expression. This study confirmed the hematogenous dissemination of esophageal cancer by the detection of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood, and is the first to demonstrate that tumor cells can be identified in ascitic fluid by using CellSearch (®) technology. PMID:25075284

  20. Transcriptome Analysis and Gene Identification in the Pulmonary Artery of Broilers with Ascites Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingyang; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhuang, Yu; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Tiancheng; Lin, Huayuan; Song, Yalu; Hu, Guoliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension, also known as Ascites syndrome (AS), remains a clinically challenging disease with a large impact on both humans and broiler chickens. Pulmonary arterial remodeling presents a key step in the development of AS. The precise molecular mechanism of pulmonary artery remodeling regulating AS progression remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained pulmonary arteries from two positive AS and two normal broilers for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and pathological observation. RNA-seq analysis revealed a total of 895 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with 437 up-regulated and 458 down-regulated genes, which were significantly enriched to 12 GO (Gene Ontology) terms and 4 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways (Padj<0.05) regulating pulmonary artery remodeling and consequently occurrence of AS. These GO terms and pathways include ribosome, Jak-STAT and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways which regulate pulmonary artery remodeling through vascular smooth cell proliferation, inflammation and vascular smooth cell proliferation together. Some notable DEGs within these pathways included downregulation of genes like RPL 5, 7, 8, 9, 14; upregulation of genes such as IL-6, K60, STAT3, STAT5 Pim1 and SOCS3; IKKα, IkB, P38, five cytokines IL-6, IL8, IL-1β, IL-18, and MIP-1β. Six important regulators of pulmonary artery vascular remodeling and construction like CYP1B1, ALDH7A1, MYLK, CAMK4, BMP7 and INOS were upregulated in the pulmonary artery of AS broilers. The pathology results showed that the pulmonary artery had remodeled and become thicker in the disease group. Conclusions/Significance Our present data suggested some specific components of the complex molecular circuitry regulating pulmonary arterial remodeling underlying AS progression in broilers. We revealed some valuable candidate genes and pathways that involved in pulmonary artery remodeling further contributing to the AS

  1. Ca2+ transport by mitochondria from L1210 mouse ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1973-06-01

    Mitochondria isolated from the ascites form of L1210 mouse leukemia cells readily accumulate Ca(2+) from the suspending medium and eject H(+) during oxidation of succinate in the presence of phosphate and Mg(2+), with normal stoichiometry between Ca(2+) uptake and electron transport. Ca(2+) loads up to 1600 ng-atoms per mg of protein are attained. As is the case in mitochondria from normal tissues, Ca(2+) uptake takes precedence over oxidative phosphorylation. However, Ca(2+) transport by the L-1210 mitochondria is unusual in other respects, which may possibly have general significance in tumor cells. The apparent affinity of the L1210 mitochondria for Ca(2+) in stimulation of oxygen uptake is about 3-fold greater than in normal liver mitochondria; moreover, the maximal rate of Ca(2+) transport is also considerably higher. Furthermore, when Ca(2+) pulses are added to L1210 mitochondria in the absence of phosphate or other permeant anions, much larger amounts of Ca(2+) are bound and H(+) ejected per atom of oxygen consumed than in the presence of phosphate; up to 7 Ca(2+) ions are bound per pair of electrons passing each energy-conserving site of the electron-transport chain. Such "superstoichiometry" of Ca(2+) uptake can be accounted for by two distinct types of respiration-dependent interaction of Ca(2+) with the L1210 mitochondria. One is the stimulation of oxygen consumption, which is achieved by relatively low concentrations of Ca(2+) (K(m) congruent with 8 muM) and is accompanied by binding of Ca(2+) up to 40 ng-atoms per mg of protein. The second process, also dependent on electron transport, is the binding of further Ca(2+) from the medium in exchange with previously stored membrane-bound protons, in which the affinity for Ca(2+) is much lower (K(m) congruent with 120 muM).

  2. Pleural and pericardial effusions combined with ascites in a patient with severe sunitinib-induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kust, Davor; Kruljac, Ivan; Peternac, Ana Šverko; Ostojić, Jelena; Prpić, Marin; Čaržavec, Dubravka; Gaćina, Petar

    2016-06-01

    To best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pericardial and pleural effusions combined with ascites, precipitated with severe sunitinib-induced hypothyroidism. A 58-year-old man presented in our emergency department due to dyspnoea and dry cough. Sixteen months earlier, the patient underwent left nephrectomy due to metastatic renal cell adenocarcinoma (RCC), and therapy with sunitinib was initiated postoperatively. Thyroid function was not assessed during the therapy. On admission, all laboratory findings were within normal range. Computed tomography of the chest detected voluminous bilateral pleural effusions and mild pericardial effusion, and echocardiography revealed pericardial effusion. Thoracocentesis was carried out three times, and cytological examination showed no signs of malignant cells. After assessment of the thyroid function, neglected hypothyroidism was registered. Substitution therapy with levothyroxine was initiated, and thyroid function normalised 2 weeks later. Few days after the last thoracocentesis, his condition suddenly got worse. Thoracocentesis was repeated, and microbiological analysis of the exudate came positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite the implemented therapeutic measures, his clinical condition progressively deteriorated. The patient died 27 days after the admission, hospital-acquired pneumonia was identified as the cause of death. Our case emphasises the necessity of careful monitoring and management of side-effects in patients who receive sunitinib. Hypothyroidism is a known cause of pleural, pericardial and abdominal effusions, as reported in several case reports. Timely initiation of substitution levothyroxine therapy can decrease unnecessary pauses in the therapy with sunitinib, as well as prevent development of severe symptoms. PMID:26319226

  3. Effects of bearing cleaning and lube environment on bearing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Running torque data of SR6 ball bearings are presented for different temperatures and speeds. The data are discussed in contrast to generally used torque prediction models and point out the need to obtain empirical data in critical applications. Also, the effects of changing bearing washing techniques from old, universally used CFC-based systems to CFC-free aqueous/alkaline solutions are discussed. Data on wettability, torque and lubricant life using SR3 ball bearings are presented. In general, performance is improved using the new aqueous washing techniques.

  4. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

    PubMed

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction.

  5. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

    PubMed

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction. PMID:17059340

  6. The Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on an oxide surface: a combined Monte-Carlo and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Vasudevan, Rama K

    2015-11-13

    The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ∼0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides. PMID:26489518

  7. The Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on an oxide surface: a combined Monte-Carlo and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Vasudevan, Rama K

    2015-11-13

    The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ∼0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides.

  8. Proteomic identification of fucosylated haptoglobin alpha isoforms in ascitic fluids and its localization in ovarian carcinoma tissues from Mexican patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease due to delayed diagnosis, and ascites production is a characteristic of patients in advanced stages. The aim of this study was to perform the proteomic analysis of ascitic fluids of Mexican patients with ovarian carcinoma, in order to detect proteins with a differential expression pattern in the continuing search to identify biomarkers for this disease. Methods Samples were collected from 50 patients from the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of México under informed consent and with approval of the bioethics and scientific committees. After elimination of abundant proteins (Albumin/IgGs) samples were processed for 2D electrophoresis and further protein identification by Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Molecules of interest were followed by western blot and lectin binding assays, and their tissue location by histo-immunofluorescence and confocal analysis. Results and discussion An area with a differential expression pattern among samples was located in the 2D gels. Identified proteins were 6 alpha 1 isoforms and 1 alpha 2 isoform of Haptoglobin, and 2 isoforms of Transthyretin. While Transthyretin isoforms were constitutively expressed in all samples, clear differences in the expression pattern of Haptoglobin alpha isoforms were found. Moreover, increased levels of fucosylation of Haptoglobin alpha isoforms analyzed in 40 samples by Aleuria aurantia lectin binding by 1D overlay assay showed a positive correlation with advanced stages of the disease. Tissue detection of Haptoglobin and its fucosylated form, by histo-immunofluorescence in biopsies of ovarian cancer, also showed a correlation with ovarian cancer progression. Moreover, results show that fucosylated Haptoglobin is produced by tumor cells. Conclusions Increased numbers of highly fucosylated Haptoglobin alpha isoforms in ascitic fluids and the presence of fucosylated Haptoglobin in tumor tissues of ovarian cancer Mexican patients

  9. Magnetic Bearings at Draper Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondoleon, Anthony S.; Kelleher, William P.; Possel, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings, unlike traditional mechanical bearings, consist of a series of components mated together to form a stabilized system. The correct design of the actuator and sensor will provide a cost effective device with low power requirements. The proper choice of a control system utilizes the variables necessary to control the system in an efficient manner. The specific application will determine the optimum design of the magnetic bearing system including the touch down bearing. Draper for the past 30 years has been a leader in all these fields. This paper summarizes the results carried out at Draper in the field of magnetic bearing development. A 3-D radial magnetic bearing is detailed in this paper. Data obtained from recently completed projects using this design are included. One project was a high radial load (1000 pound) application. The second was a high speed (35,000 rpm), low loss flywheel application. The development of a low loss axial magnetic bearing is also included in this paper.

  10. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  11. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  12. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  13. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  14. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  15. Chylous Ascites: A Rare Adverse Effect of Methimazole Treatment for Grave's Disease—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Tawfik; Schneider, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman was admitted due to an urticarial rash that was attributed to recent onset of methimazole treatment for a diagnosis of Grave's disease. The patient had no prior significant medical history and used no medications, including over-the-counter or herbal medications. Her sister had Grave's disease. On admission, the patient received corticosteroids with improvement in her rash. On the second day of the hospitalization, the patient complained of abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large amount of new onset ascites. Peritoneal tap yielded a milky fluid with high triglyceride level (12.2 mmol/L or 1080 mg/dL), consistent with chylous ascites. After discontinuation of the methimazole, the ascites disappeared. The patient later underwent therapeutic thyroidectomy, after which all features of thyrotoxicosis had improved. PMID:26366308

  16. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  17. Random bearings and their stability.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi Baram, Reza; Herrmann, Hans J

    2005-11-25

    Self-similar space-filling bearings have been proposed some time ago as models for the motion of tectonic plates and appearance of seismic gaps. These models have two features which, however, seem unrealistic, namely, high symmetry in the arrangement of the particles, and lack of a lower cutoff in the size of the particles. In this work, an algorithm for generating random bearings in both two and three dimensions is presented. Introducing a lower cutoff for the sizes of the particles, the instabilities of the bearing under an external force such as gravity, are studied. PMID:16384225

  18. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  19. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  20. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  1. Flex bearing UUEC, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapper, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    This volume, Volume 2, of this Flex Bearing UUEC Final Report documents findings and data pertaining to Team B's tasks. Team B was organized as one of two sub-teams of the Unplanned/Unintended Event or Condition (UUEC) board established per InterOffice Memorandum (IOM) A100-FY93-072. Team A determined the cause of the unacceptable unbonds (referred to as 'heat-affect' unbonds), including the initial, light rust film, in the FSM #3 flex bearing was overheating of the Forward End Ring (FER) during cure, specifically in zone 8 of the mold. Team A's findings are documented in Volume 1 of this report. Team B developed flight rationale for existing bearings, based on absence or presence of an unpropitious unbond condition like that in FSM #3's flex bearing.

  2. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  3. ATM CMG bearing failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The cause or causes for the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2) were investigated. Skylab telemetry data were reviewed and presented in the form of parameter distributions. The theory that the problems were caused by marginal bearing lubrication was studied along with the effects of orbital conditions on lubricants. Bearing tests were performed to investigate the effect of lubricant or lack of lubricant in the ATM CMG bearings and the dispersion and migration of the lubricant. The vacuum and weightless conditions of space were simulated in the bearing tests. Analysis of the results of the tests conducted points to inadequate lubrication as the predominant factor causing the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2).

  4. Polyurethane retainers for ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of a new ball bearing retainer material is reported. A special composite polyurethane foam ball retainer has been developed that has virtually zero wear, is chemically inert to hydrocarbon lubricants, and stores up to 60 times as much lubricant per unit volume as the most commonly used retainer material, cotton phenolic. This new retainer concept shows promise of years of ball bearing operation without reoiling, based on life testing in high vacuum.

  5. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  6. Designing Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, James D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Bearing Analysis Tool (BAT) is a computer program for designing rolling-element bearings for cryogenic turbomachines. BAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that guides the entry of data to develop mathematical models of bearings. The GUI breaks model data into logical subsets that are entered through logic-driven input screens. The software generates a threedimensional graphical model of a bearing as the data are entered. Most dataentry errors become immediately obvious in the graphical model. BAT provides for storage of all the data on a shaft/bearing system, enabling the creation of a library of proven designs. Data from the library can be transferred to subsequent projects by use of simple cut-and-paste routines. BAT includes a library of temperature- dependent cryogenic bearing-material properties for use in the mathematical models. BAT implements algorithms that (1) enable the user to select combinations of design and/or operating-condition parameters, and then (2) automatically optimize the design by performing trade studies over all of the parameter combinations. This feature enables optimization over a large trade space in a fraction of the time taken when using prior bearingmodel software.

  7. SSME Long-life Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.; Murphy, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings for LH2 and LO2 service in turbopumps were studied as a means of improving speed and life capabilities. Four hybrid bearing configurations were designed with emphasis on achieving maximum stiffness and damping. Parallel load bearings were tested at steady-state and transient conditions with LH2 (externally fed) and LN2 (internally fed). The hydrostatic elements were tested with Freon 113 for empirical determination of dynamic characteristics. Tests using an eccentric journal for loading showed the externally and internally fed hydrostatic bearings to have significant separated coefficients of direct stiffness and damping. For the internally fed bearing, the strongly speed-dependent cross-coupling stiffness arising from fluid swirl, along with significant cross-coupling damping, resulted in low net effective stiffness and damping. The test method used can produce separated coefficients with a sufficiently elliptic journal orbit; otherwise, only net effective coefficients combining direct and cross-coupling terms can be determined. Testing with nonsynchronous excitation is recommended to avoid this restriction. Investigation of hard materials, including ceramics, is recommended as a means of eliminating the need for the rolling bearing for startup and shutdown support. The testing was performed in 1984 (LH2), 1985 (LN2) and 1985-86 (Freon).

  8. Gimbal bearing design considerations and friction control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The design considerations of bearing selection, bearing fits, bearing installation, and thermal control are discussed for a gimbal with a high stiffness, low friction torque requirement. Tradeoffs between a quad set of small diameter spread apart or a large diameter bearing pair resulted in a cleaner, lighter, stiffer unit with the latter selection. Bearing fits were designed to eliminate clearances with tolerances of .00127 mm 00005 in) on the bearing shafts and housings. The problems in metrology are discussed and a perferred technique for measurement of small cross-section bearings described. A technique for installation to assure proper seating of the bearing is offered. Where transient thermal conditions are involved, a method of controlling bearing friction by active control of bearing temperature gradients including the use of bearing unload test curves is described.

  9. Reflex Testing Rules for Cell Count and Differentiation of Nucleated Elements in Pleural and Ascitic Fluids on Sysmex XE-5000.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Sabrina; Appassiti Esposito, Sara; Vavassori, Mauro; Mecca, Tommaso; Ottomano, Cosimo; Dominoni, Paola; Seghezzi, Michela; Candiago, Elisabetta; Farina, Claudio; Gianatti, Andrea; Crippa, Alberto; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Flow cytometry is widely used in many laboratories for automated nucleated cell counts and their differentiation in body fluids. The implementation of new reflex testing rules on these automated instruments could open new frontiers in laboratory workflow, improving characterization of body fluids and clinical diagnosis and decreasing costs. Ascitic (150) and pleural (33) fluids were collected and assessed by XE-5000 and optical microscopy. Cell counts performed with the methods showed a Pearson's correlation of 0.98 (p < 0.0001), Passing-Bablok regression y = 0.99x + 2.44, and bias of 32.3. In ascitic fluids, the best diagnostic performance was found for polymorphonuclear and neutrophil counts on XE-5000, which exhibited areas under the curve (AUCs) 0.98 (p < 0.0001) and 0.99 (p < 0.0001), respectively. In pleural fluids the best diagnostic performance was found for polymorphonuclear percent parameter, which displayed 0.97 (p < 0.0001). Specific reflex test rules based on these parameters were characterized by 92% diagnostic concordance, 1.00 sensitivity, and 0.84 specificity with optical microscopy. The application of a set of reflex testing rules may improve the diagnostic performance of XE-5000, increasing its reliability for routine automated cell count in body fluids. We acknowledge that further studies should be planned to validate our findings according to clinical data.

  10. Cell surface sialomucin and resistance to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity of rat mammary tumor ascites cells.

    PubMed

    Sherblom, A P; Moody, C E

    1986-09-01

    MAT-B1 and MAT-C1 ascites sublines of the 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma both contain sialomucin as a major cell surface component and are resistant to cytolysis by normal rat spleen lymphocytes [3 +/- 2% (SD) and 0 +/- 1%, respectively]. Susceptibility to lysis did not increase following treatment of cells with neuraminidase, fucosidase, or alpha- or beta-galactosidase. Treatment with trypsin significantly increased the susceptibility of MAT-B1 (14 +/- 3%) but not MAT-C1 (5 +/- 2%). Following 1 month in culture, the sialomucin content of MAT-B1 cells dropped from 30% to 8% (determined by glucosamine labeling) and natural cell-mediated cytolysis increased to 16 +/- 4%, whereas the sialomucin content and susceptibility of MAT-C1 cells did not change. The results indicate that the relatively minor changes associated with removal of cell surface sialic acid or fucose residues do not result in increased susceptibility of the ascites cells to cytolysis. However, susceptibility of MAT-B1 cells to lysis by normal rat spleen lymphocytes was inversely correlated with the amount of major glycoprotein (r = -0.96).

  11. Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1998-03-04

    Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

  12. Bear reintroduction: Lessons and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Huber, Djuro; Servheen, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Reintroduction is defined as an attempt to establish a species in an area that was once part of its historical range, but from which it has been extirpated or become extinct. Historically, one of the most successful programs was the reintroduction of 254 American black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands of Arkansas in the 1960s; that population has grown to >2,500 today. More recent efforts have involved fewer but better monitored animals and have sometimes employed techniques to improve site fidelity and survival. In Pennsylvania, for example, pregnant female American black bears were successfully translocated from winter dens, the premise being that the adult females would be less likely to return because of the presence of young cubs. That winter-release technique was compared to summer trapping and release in Tennessee; winter releases resulted in greater survival and reduced post-release movements. Homing has not been a problem for small numbers of brown bears (Ursus arctos) reintroduced to the Cabinet-Yaak ecosystem in Montana and Idaho and to the mountains of Austria and France. Reintroduction success appears to be correlated with translocation distance and is greater for subadults and females. As with any small population, reintroduced bear populations are susceptible to environmental variation and stochastic demographic and genetic processes. Although managers have focused on these biological barriers, sociopolitical impediments to bear reintroduction are more difficult to overcome. Poor public acceptance and understanding of bears are the main reasons some reintroduction programs have been derailed. Consequently, the public should be involved in the reintroduction process from the outset; overcoming negative public perceptions about bear reintroduction will be our greatest challenge.

  13. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  14. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  15. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  16. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  17. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  18. Hydrostatic liquid-bearing for precision gyro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sgambati, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit with 2W power increase and slightly larger overall dimensions performs as well as or better than its gas-bearing counterpart. Liquid-bearings are built by reworking serviceable gas-bearing components /sleeves, endplates, and cylinders/. Hydrostatic bearing is self-centered, requiring no magnetic suspension or centering jewel.

  19. Liquid oxygen cooled bearing ignition potential assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Arthur T.; Goode, Brian K.; Owen, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump bearings have shown evidence of heavy oxidation on the surfaces of the balls and races. Extensive analyses were performed to assess the ignition potential in the bearing system during normal and off-nominal operation. Test programs and analyses were used to determine the bearing thermal condition and bearing material ignition characteristics.

  20. Diagnosis and therapy of Candida infections: joint recommendations of the German Speaking Mycological Society and the Paul-Ehrlich-Society for Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Rickerts, Volker; Cornely, Oliver A; Buchheidt, Dieter; Glöckner, Andreas; Heinz, Werner; Höhl, Rainer; Horré, Regine; Karthaus, Meinolf; Kujath, Peter; Willinger, Birgit; Presterl, Elisabeth; Rath, Peter; Ritter, Jörg; Glasmacher, Axel; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Groll, Andreas H; German Speaking Mycological Society; Paul-Ehrlich-Society for Chemotherapy

    2011-07-01

    Invasive Candida infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and hospitalised patients. This article provides the joint recommendations of the German-speaking Mycological Society (Deutschsprachige Mykologische Gesellschaft, DMyKG) and the Paul-Ehrlich-Society for Chemotherapy (PEG) for diagnosis and treatment of invasive and superficial Candida infections. The recommendations are based on published results of clinical trials, case-series and expert opinion using the evidence criteria set forth by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Key recommendations are summarised here: The cornerstone of diagnosis remains the detection of the organism by culture with identification of the isolate at the species level; in vitro susceptibility testing is mandatory for invasive isolates. Options for initial therapy of candidaemia and other invasive Candida infections in non-granulocytopenic patients include fluconazole or one of the three approved echinocandin compounds; liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole are secondary alternatives because of their less favourable pharmacological properties. In granulocytopenic patients, an echinocandin or liposomal amphotericin B is recommended as initial therapy based on the fungicidal mode of action. Indwelling central venous catheters serve as a main source of infection independent of the pathogenesis of candidaemia in the individual patients and should be removed whenever feasible. Pre-existing immunosuppressive treatment, particularly by glucocorticosteroids, ought to be discontinued, if feasible, or reduced. The duration of treatment for uncomplicated candidaemia is 14 days following the first negative blood culture and resolution of all associated symptoms and findings. Ophthalmoscopy is recommended prior to the discontinuation of antifungal chemotherapy to rule out endophthalmitis or chorioretinitis. Beyond these key recommendations, this article provides detailed recommendations