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Sample records for bearing ehrlich ascites

  1. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy of PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA nanoparticles in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Maryam N.; Ramadan, Heba S.; Mohamed, Moustafa M.; El khatib, Ahmed M.; Roston, Gamal D.

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated from the biodegradable copolymer poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were investigated as a drug delivery system to enhance the photodynamic efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs were prepared using binary organic solvent diffusion method and characterized in terms of shape and particle size. The in vivo photodynamic efficiency in Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice was studied. The obtained particles were uniform in size with spherical shape of mean size of 249.5 nm as obtained by particle size analyzer and the in vitro release studies demonstrated a controlled release profile of 5-ALA. Tumor-bearing mice injected with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs exhibited significantly smaller mean tumor volume, increased tumor growth delay compared with the control group and the group injected with free 5-ALA during the time course of the experiment. Histopathological examination of tumor from mice treated with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs showed regression of tumor cells, in contrast to those obtained from mice treated with free 5-ALA. The results indicate that PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs are a successful delivery system for improving photodynamic activity in the target tissue.

  2. Antitumor Activity of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) Tumor Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, Raju; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Perumal, Perumal; Dhanasekaran, Thangavel; Alvin Jose, Manonmani; Jothimanivannan, Chennakesavalu

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor activity of ethanol extract of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. (EPG) was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor model in Swiss albino mice on dose dependent manner. The activity was assessed using survival time, average increase in body weight, hematological parameters and solid tumor volume. Oral administration of EPG at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg, significantly (p < 0.001) increased the survival time and decreased the average body weight of the tumor bearing mice. After 14 days of inoculation, EPG was able to reverse the changes in the hematological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumor inoculation. Oral administration of EPG was effective in reducing solid tumor mass development induced by EAC cells. The results indicate that EPG possess significant antitumor activity on dose dependent manner. PMID:24250382

  3. Biochemical and pathological studies on the effects of levamisole and chlorambucil on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Salem, Fakhry S; Badr, Mohamed O T; Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N F

    2011-01-01

    Clinicopathological studies on the effects of combining immunostimulant drugs (levamisole) with anti-cancer drugs (chlorambucil) revealed the enhancement of the latter against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice and resulted in a reduction in the size of tumour. An evaluation of liver and kidney functions showed a significant increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatinine in all groups. Histopathological studies of one group that received an intraperitoneal injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (2.5 × 10⁶) showed that hepatic parenchyma revealed degenerative changes. The portal area was oedematous and showed rounded cell aggregations. Cell death within hypertrophied Kupper cells was observed in some hepatic cells. The neoplastic emboli could be seen either inside blood vessels or hepatic sinusoids, while another group which had been treated orally with a combination of Leukeran(™) (0.2 mg/kg body weight) and levamisole (5 mg/kg body weight) revealed that hepatic parenchyma revealed massive necrosis with proliferative bile duct epithelium. No neoplastic cells were observed without the hepatic parenchyma, while the renal cortex presented a large number of lymphocytes and plasma cells forming bands or aggregates, mainly around the blood vessels. It was concluded that the addition of levamisole to chlorambucil improved the anti-cancer effect of chlorambucil against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. However, it had adverse effects on the liver and kidneys as shown by liver and kidney function tests and confirmed by histopathology.

  4. The antitumor effects of tetrodotoxin and/or doxorubicin on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing female mice.

    PubMed

    El-Dayem, Samiha M Abd; Fouda, Fatma M; Ali, Elham H A; Motelp, Bosy A Abd El

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or doxorubicin (DOX) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice through the investigated biochemical parameters. TTX and/or DOX with or without N-acetylcystiene were administrated after 10 days into EAC-female mice for a period of 2 weeks in six equal doses. Treatment with TTX or DOX caused a significant decrease in the mean tumor weight and an increase in the cumulative mean survival time when compared with EAC group. All the treatments reduced the elevated liver tumor markers and increased liver antioxidant enzymes under investigation in comparison with EAC. Hepatic cells, suffered severely from degeneration and karriolysis in EAC group, revealed some improvement as appearance of healthy hepatocytes by TTX treatment. The present results suggested that TTX had a more powerful inhibitor effect on EAC growth than DOX and TTX plus DOX treatments reflected by antitumor biochemical and histological studies.

  5. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor.

  6. Trichosanthes dioica root extract induces tumor proliferation and attenuation of antioxidant system in albino mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2011-01-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English, is a dioecious climber grown widely in the Indian subcontinent. The present study assessed the influence of treatment of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice with effects on antioxidant systems. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 25 and 50 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. On the 9th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for estimation of tumor proliferation, hematological, and hepatic antioxidative parameters. The rest were kept for assessment of survival parameters. TDA exhibited dose dependent and significant increase in tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cells and reduced non-viable cells and life span of EAC bearing animals. Hematological parameters were significantly worsened in TDA-treated mice. TDA treatment significantly aggravated the hepatic antioxidative parameters. The present study demonstrated that T. dioica root possessed tumor promoting activity in EAC bearing albino mice, plausibly mediated by attenuation of endogenous antioxidant systems. PMID:22319252

  7. Boswellic acid disables signal transduction of IL-6-STAT-3 in Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Enas Mahmoud; Thabet, Noura Magdy; Azab, Khaled Shaaban

    2016-08-01

    Boswellic acid (BA) is known for its ability to trigger apoptosis as well as to inhibit angiogenesis in tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the effect of BA on the IL-6-STAT-3 signalling pathway in irradiated mice bearing solid tumors of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). For this, we administered BA (25 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), by intraperitoneal injection) to mice with EAC, and then exposed them to 4 Gy of gamma radiation. Data analyses of the results revealed a specific impact from BA on IL-6R mRNA and survivin mRNA in EACs and irradiated EAC-bearing mice. Also, significant improvements were observed in the protein expression of JAK-1, P-JAK-1, STAT-3, P-STAT-3, and caspase-3, as well as VEGF and IL-6 levels. We propose that BA interfered with IL-6-STAT-3 signal transduction, thereby preventing the activation of caspase-3 and subsequently triggering the process of apoptosis. However, the alternative angiogenesis pathway, which includes the over-expression of VEGF and which depends on IL-6-STAT-3 signalling, was inhibited by the action of BA. Thus, we recommend that therapeutic strategies for cancer should include treatment with BA.

  8. Effect of Alstonia scholaris in enhancing the anticancer activity of berberine in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2004-01-01

    The chemomodulatory activity of Alstonia scholaris extract (ASE) was studied in combination with berberine hydrochloride (BCL), a topoisomerase inhibitor, in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor-bearing animals were injected with various doses of ASE, and 8 mg/kg of BCL (one-fifth of the 50% lethal dose) was combined with different doses of ASE (60-240 mg/kg). The combination of 180 mg/kg of ASE with 8 mg/kg of BCL showed the greatest antitumor effect; the number of tumor-free survivors was more, and the median survival time and the average survival time increased up to 47 and 40.5 days, respectively, when compared with either treatment alone. Similarly, when 180 mg/kg of ASE was combined with different doses of BCL (2-12 mg/kg), a dose-dependent increase in the anticancer activity was observed up to 8 mg/kg of BCL. However, a further increase in the BCL dose to 10 and 12 mg/kg resulted in toxic side effects. The best effect was observed when 180 mg/kg of ASE was combined with 6 or 8 mg/kg of BCL, where an increase in the antineoplastic activity was reported. The efficacy of the combination of 180 mg/kg of ASE was also tested with 6 mg/kg body weight of BCL in various stages of tumorigenesis, and it was effective when given in the early stages, although the efficiency decreased with an increase in the tumor developmental stages.

  9. Modulation of antineoplastic activity of cyclophosphamide by Alstonia scholaris in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2003-01-01

    Alterations in the neoplastic activity of cyclophosphamide (CPA) by the extract of Alstonia scholaris(ASE) were studied in mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). The tumor-bearing animals were injected with various doses of ASE and 25 mg/kg of CPA (1/10th of the LD50 dose). The combination of 120 mg/kg of ASE with 25 mg/kg of CPA was most effective, as it caused the highest tumor regression and enhanced the mean survival time (MST) and the average survival time (AST) up to 42 and 40.7, as against the 29 and 27.5 of CPA alone, respectively. Similarly, when 120 mg/kg of ASE was combined with different doses of CPA (3.125 to 50 mg/kg), a dose-dependent increase in the anticancer activity was observed up to 25 mg/kg of CPA. However, a further increase in the CPA dose up to 37.5 or 50 mg/kg resulted in toxic side effects and death. The best effect was observed when 120 mg/kg of ASE was combined with 25 mg/kg followed by 12.5 mg/kg of CPA, as evident by the greater tumor remission, when compared with the concurrent doses of either drug alone. The administration of 120 mg/kg of ASE 6 h before the administration of 25 mg/kg of CPA resulted in a drastic decline in the glutathione levels and increased the lipid peroxidation considerably when compared with either drug alone.

  10. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90.

  11. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Bodipati, Naganjaneyulu; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-15

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC{sub 50}=25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC{sub 50}=65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene.

  12. Olmesartan Potentiates the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Sorafenib in Mice Bearing Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma: Role of Angiotensin (1–7)

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alhaseeb, Mohammad M.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Moustafa, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Local renin-angiotensin systems exist in various malignant tumor tissues; this suggests that the main effector peptide, angiotensin II, could act as a key factor in tumor growth. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-angiogenic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers need to be further evaluated. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of olmesartan alone or in combination with sorafenib, an angiotensin (1–7) agonist or an angiotensin (1–7) antagonist in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor was induced by intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into mice. Tumor discs were used to evaluate the microvessel density; the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I); and their intratumoral receptors, VEGF receptor-2 and IGF-I receptor, respectively. All parameters were determined following the treatment course, which lasted for 21 days post-inoculation. Monotherapy with olmesartan and its combination with sorafenib resulted in a significant reduction in microvessel density and serum levels of VEGF and IGF-I, as well as their intratumoral receptors. In addition, the combination of olmesartan (30 mg/kg) with an angiotensin (1–7) agonist reduced the microvessel density, IGF-I serum levels and the levels of its intratumoral receptor. In conclusion, olmesartan reduced the levels of the angiogenesis markers IGF-I and VEGF and down-regulated the intratumoral expression of their receptors in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were dependent on the angiotensin (1–7) receptor. These results suggest that olmesartan is a promising adjuvant to sorafenib in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24465768

  13. Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Özkol, Halil; Musa, Davut; Tuluce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic agent against cancer, and high doses of CP have been known to cause nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Some reports claim that antioxidants can reduce CP-induced toxicity. This study investigated the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L methanolic extract (UDME) against CP toxicity in Erhlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice. Levels of serum hepatic enzymes, renal function markers, and oxidant/antioxidant parameters of liver tissue were measured. Mice were inoculated with EAT on day 0 and treated with nothing else for 24 hours. After a single dose of CP administration on day 1, the extract was given at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight daily during 6 days. Almost all doses of UDME performed a significant (P < 0.05) preventive role against CP toxicity by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels, and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as increasing reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. This suggests that UDME has a protective capacity and antioxidant activity against CP toxicity in EAT-bearing mice, probably by promoting antioxidative defense systems.

  14. Synchronization of replicons in Ehrlich ascites cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gekeler, V.; Probst, H. )

    1988-03-01

    Ehrlich ascites cells, in which replication units at the beginning of the S phase started and grew synchronously, were obtained by the following protocol: (1) selection of G{sub 1} cells by zonal centrifugation, (2) hypoxia for 12 h, (3) reaeration, (4) addition of cycloheximide (30 {mu}M) within the first minute after reoxygenation. Studies on the effectiveness of the different steps revealed: (i) G{sub 1} cells reoxygenated after 12 h of hypoxia traverse two succeeding cell cycles high synchronously. This was shown by monitoring the thymidine incorporation rate, the thymidine pulse-labeling index, and the mitotic index. (ii) Cycloheximide, like hypoxia, suppresses replicon initiation in Ehrlich ascites cells without interfering with DNA chain growth and DNA maturation. The reversibility of the suppression is less complete than in the case of hypoxia. This was shown by DNA fiber autoradiography and by analyzing the length distribution of pulse- or pulse/pulse-chase-labeled daughter DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The alkaline sedimentation patterns of daughter-strand DNA, pulse labeled immediately after the cycloheximide addition at the end of the elaborated protocol and 1 and 2 h later, indicated synchronous initiation and growth of a homogeneous population of DNA molecules to replicon-sized lengths.

  15. Comparison of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, KIN-804, KIN-844, KIN-806 and TX-1877, on brain and liver metabolizing capacities in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abou-Bedair, Farid Ahmed; Hori, Hitoshi; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Abu-Zeid, Medhat; Inayama, Seiichi

    2002-05-01

    The biochemical effects of the 2-nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers KIN-804, KIN-806, and their analogues KIN-844 and TX-1877 on brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and hepatic free radical scavenging systems, such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) levels, and hepatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were evaluated in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The assay of brain AChE revealed nonsignificant changes with all drugs examined. To evaluate the hepatic metabolic capacity, groups of mice were divided into control, EAC-inoculated, 10-Gy local gamma-irradiated, and KIN-804, KIN-844, KIN-806, or TX-1877 (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) groups, and gamma-irradiation was combined with each drug. EAC inoculation markedly suppressed GSH, G-6-PDH, SOD, and catalase levels. On the other hand, treatment with gamma-irradiation significantly enhanced them. The treatment of EAC-bearing mice with each drug alone in the absence of gamma-irradiation revealed that KIN-806 and its derivative TX-1877 showed antitumor activity through their significant recovery of GSH and SOD levels, respectively, in the EAC-bearing mice group. Similarly, the combined treatment of EAC-bearing mice with gamma-irradiation with each of the drugs tested showed that KIN-806 and TX-1877 significantly increased GSH and SOD, and to a lesser extent G-6-PDH and catalase levels. On the other hand, KIN-804 and KIN-844 had only a nonsignificant effect on all parameters examined. In conclusion, these data reveal that the administration of KIN-806 and TX-1877 with or without subsequent gamma-irradiation, resulted in significant recovery of GSH and SOD activities that were inhibited by EAC inoculation.

  16. Use of raw Euphorbia tirucalli extract for inhibition of ascitic Ehrlich tumor.

    PubMed

    Santos, Orlando José Dos; Sauaia Filho, Euler Nicolau; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes do; Júnior, Francisco Cardoso Silva; Fialho, Eder Magalhães Silva; Santos, Rayan Haquim Pinheiro; Santos, Rennan Abud Pinheiro; Serra, Izabel Cristina Portela Bogéa

    2016-02-01

    to evaluate the effect of the Euphorbia tirucalli hydroalcoholic extract (ETHE) on the development of Ehrlich Tumor, in its ascitic form. we intraperitoneally inoculated 15 Swiss mice with 10.44 x 107 cells of Ehrlich Tumor and divided them in two groups one day after: ETHE Group (eight mice), treated with a dosage of 125 mg/kg/day of EHTE for five days; and Control Group (seven mice), treated only with 0.9% isotonic saline solution over the same period. The treatment was done by gavage. Ten days after inoculation, four mice from each group were sacrificed for quantification of tumor cell number, ascitic fluid volume and bone marrow cell number. The remaining animals were maintained to evaluate survival. The ascitic fluid volume and the tumor cell number were decreased in the ETHE group when compared with the control group, but with no statistical significance. On the other hand, survival was higher in the ETHE group, as well as the number of bone marrow cells. Treatment with ETHE after inoculation of Ehrlich Tumor decreases its development and increases survival and the bone marrow cellularity, thus reducing the myelosuppression present in the Ehrlich Tumor bearing mice.

  17. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; Latorre, Andreia Oliveira; Zaidan-Dagli, Maria Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the antiproliferative effect of P. cupana treatment in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)-bearing animals. Female mice were treated with three doses of powdered P. cupana (100, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 7 days, injected with 10(5) EAC cells and treated up to day 21. In addition, a survival experiment was carried out with the same protocol. P. cupana decreased the ascites volume (p = 0.0120), cell number (p = 0.0004) and hemorrhage (p = 0.0054). This occurred through a G1-phase arrest (p < 0.01) induced by a decreased gene expression of Cyclin D1 in EAC cells. Furthermore, P. cupana significantly increased the survival of EAC-bearing animals (p = 0.0012). In conclusion, the P. cupana growth control effect in this model was correlated with a decreased expression of cyclin D1 and a G1 phase arrest. These results reinforce the cancer therapeutic potential of this Brazilian plant. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Flávia R F; Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2006-04-25

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides.

  19. Studies of methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) 1: effect on free radical scavenging system in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zeid, M; Hori, H; Nagasawa, H; Uto, Y; Inayama, S

    2000-02-01

    Methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative containing a hydroxamate side chain designed to enhance the radiosensitization response of hypoxic cells. The possible sensitization of tumor tissue by KIN-804 can be evaluated through investigation of the levels of the free radical scavengers; namely, glutathione (GSH) and its complex enzyme system including glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). Female albino mice were inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma in the thigh. Administration of KIN-804 (i.p. 80 mg/kg body weight) was carried out 20 min before localized irradiation of 10 Gy. The data revealed that KIN-804 administration, followed or not by gamma irradiation, resulted in a significant decrease in GSH content in tumor tissues associated with inhibition in GR and G-6-PD activities. Blood GSH-Px was enhanced in tumor inoculated mice and the administration of KIN-804 returned it to the normal value. These changes were more noticeable in tumor bearing mice exposed to both KIN-804 and irradiation.

  20. Transport of calcium ions by Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Y; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells accumulate Ca2+ when incubated aerobically with succinate, phosphate and rotenone, as revealed by isotopic and atomic-absorption measurements. Ca2+ does not stimulate oxygen consumption by carefully prepared Ehrlich cells, but des so when the cells are placed in a hypo-osmotic medium. Neither glutamate nor malate support Ca2+ uptake in 'intact' Ehrlich cells, nor does the endogenous NAD-linked respiration. Ca2+ uptake is completely dependent on mitochondrial energy-coupling mechansims. It was an unexpected finding that maximal Ca2+ uptake supported by succinate requires rotenone, which blocks oxidation of enogenous NAD-linked substrates. Phosphate functions as co-anion for entry of Ca2+. Ca2+ uptake is also supported by extra-cellular ATP; no other nucleoside 5'-di- or tri-phosphate was active. The accumulation of Ca2+ apparently takes place in the mitochondria, since oligomycin and atractyloside inhibit ATP-supported Ca2+ uptake. Glycolysis does not support Ca2+ uptake. Neither free mitochondria released from disrupted cells nor permeability-damaged cells capable of absorbing Trypan Blue were responsible for any large fraction of the total observed energy-coupled Ca2+ uptake. The observations reported also indicate that electron flow through energy-conserving site 1 promotes Ca2+ release from Ehrlich cells and that extra-cellular ATP increase permeability of the cell membrane, allowing both ATP and Ca2+ to enter the cells more readily. PMID:988829

  1. Transport of calcium ions by Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Landry, Y; Lehninger, A L

    1976-08-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells accumulate Ca2+ when incubated aerobically with succinate, phosphate and rotenone, as revealed by isotopic and atomic-absorption measurements. Ca2+ does not stimulate oxygen consumption by carefully prepared Ehrlich cells, but des so when the cells are placed in a hypo-osmotic medium. Neither glutamate nor malate support Ca2+ uptake in 'intact' Ehrlich cells, nor does the endogenous NAD-linked respiration. Ca2+ uptake is completely dependent on mitochondrial energy-coupling mechansims. It was an unexpected finding that maximal Ca2+ uptake supported by succinate requires rotenone, which blocks oxidation of enogenous NAD-linked substrates. Phosphate functions as co-anion for entry of Ca2+. Ca2+ uptake is also supported by extra-cellular ATP; no other nucleoside 5'-di- or tri-phosphate was active. The accumulation of Ca2+ apparently takes place in the mitochondria, since oligomycin and atractyloside inhibit ATP-supported Ca2+ uptake. Glycolysis does not support Ca2+ uptake. Neither free mitochondria released from disrupted cells nor permeability-damaged cells capable of absorbing Trypan Blue were responsible for any large fraction of the total observed energy-coupled Ca2+ uptake. The observations reported also indicate that electron flow through energy-conserving site 1 promotes Ca2+ release from Ehrlich cells and that extra-cellular ATP increase permeability of the cell membrane, allowing both ATP and Ca2+ to enter the cells more readily.

  2. Apoptogenic effects of black tea on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Pal, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; K Datta, Goutam; Sa, Gaurisankar; Das, Tanya

    2003-01-01

    Next to water, tea is the most ancient and widely consumed beverage in the world. Epidemiological studies have suggested a cancer protective effect, but the results obtained so far are not conclusive. In the current study, mechanisms of the apoptogenic effect of black tea extract were delineated. Black tea administration to Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice caused a significant decrease in the tumor cell count in a dose-dependent manner. Flowcytometric analysis showed an increase in the number of cells in the sub-G(0)/G(1) population signifying tumor cell apoptosis by black tea. These results were further confirmed by nuclear staining that demonstrated distinct morphological features of apoptosis. Our data also revealed an increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic protein p53 in EAC. It is known that upon p53 induction, multiple downstream factors contribute to the decision making between growth arrest and apoptosis. Among those, pro-apoptotic gene Bax is up regulated during p53-mediated apoptosis. On the other hand, p53-mediated growth arrest involves p21 as a major effecter. In our system, increase in p53 expression was followed by moderate expression of p21/Waf-1 and high expression of Bax at protein levels. Interestingly, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down regulated resulting in decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. All these observations together signify that black tea-induced apoptogenic signals overrode the growth-arresting message of p21, thereby leading the tumor cells towards death.

  3. An experimental study on the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of purified toad venom extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of purified toad venom extract and its mechanism. Mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma was established with cisplatin as the control to observe the inhibitory effect of purified toad venom extract on malignant peritoneal effusion in mice. The results showed that compared with the control group, ascites volume, number of tumour cells and tumour cell viability decreased and ascites inhibition rate reached over 50% in each treatment group, and with the increase of the dose, incidence of ascites showed a downward trend. The number of tumour cells in ascites and tumour cell viability in the purified toad venom high-dose group were lower than those of the cisplatin group. Compared with the model group, survival time was prolonged in varying degrees in the purified toad venom groups and cisplatin group. The study concluded that purified extract of toad venom has an anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect.

  4. PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhulika; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Mishra, Sanjay; Kumar, Pradeep; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-01-01

    The clinical success of the applicability of tea polyphenols awaits efficient systemic delivery and bioavailability. Herein, following the concept of nanochemoprevention, which uses nanotechnology for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, we employed tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in a biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with approximately 26% and 18% encapsulation efficiency, respectively. It was observed that TF/EGCG encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) offered an up to ~7-fold dose advantage when compared with bulk TF/EGCG in terms of exerting its antiproliferative effects and also enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin (CDDP) in A549 (lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TF/EGCG-NPs were more efficient than bulk TF/EGCG in sensitizing A549 cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis, with a dose advantage of up to 20-fold. Further, TF/EGCG-NPs, alone or in combination with CDDP, were more effective in inhibiting NF-κB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor, involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, respectively. EGCG and TF-NPs were also found to be more effective than bulk TF/EGCG in inducing the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Further, in vivo evaluation of these NPs in combination with CDDP showed an increase in life span (P<0.05) in mice bearing Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma cells, with apparent regression of tumor volume in comparison with mice treated with bulk doses with CDDP. These results indicate that EGCG and TF-NPs have superior cancer chemosensitization activity when compared with bulk TF/EGCG. PMID:26586942

  5. Characterization of the inflammatory response during Ehrlich ascitic tumor development.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Patrícia Dias; Guerra, Fabiana S; Sales, Natália M; Sardella, Thais B; Jancar, Sonia; Neves, Josiane S

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlich tumor is a mammary adenocarcinoma with aggressive behavior. Inoculated in mice peritoneal cavity, the Ehrlich tumor grows in ascitic form (EAT). Since inflammation modulates tumor progression we further investigated the inflammatory response during EAT growth. Balb/C mice were intraperitoneal inoculated with 5×10(5) Ehrlich cells and after every 2days, blood samples were collected for hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets and leukocytes counts. The ascitic fluid was collected for protein concentration and cell count. Phenotype analysis of the peritoneal cells was made by FACS, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines by ELISA, nitric oxide (NO) by nitrate conversion protocol, and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1), COX2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by immunoblotting. Following EAT inoculation into the peritoneal cavity there was a rapid increase in ascitis volume and protein concentration. The cell number in ascitis remained stable until day 8 (lag phase) followed by a sharp increase. As tumor progressed, blood leukocytes increased and erythrocyte decreased. Phenotypic analysis showed that during the lag phase the percentage of F4/80(+) cells remained similar to control levels and around 7% of this population was also positive for the GR1 marker. These double-positive cells (probably inflammatory monocytes) markedly increased at day 6. The percentage of F4/80-GR1(+)cells (probably neutrophils) was low and did not significantly vary during tumor progression. CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were not detected in the time points analyzed. iNOS and COX1 expression increased after day 2 reaching peak levels on day 10. COX2 enzyme expression did not change significantly over time. Sustained increase in PGE2 and NO levels was observed. IL-10 and MCP-1 peaked at day 14 and IL-1β increased progressively till day 10. IFN-γ levels were low till day 10, increasing progressively after that. These data extended the characterization of the inflammatory response during Ehrlich

  6. Mutagenicity of alpha particles in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.

    1984-07-01

    Cell killing and the induction of mutation to thioguanine resistance were measured after exposure of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to 150-kV X rays and /sup 241/Am ..cap alpha.. particles. The curve describing the induction of mutations was almost linear after exposure to ..cap alpha.. particles but upward bending after exposure to X rays, apparently reaching a final slope similar to that obtained after exposure to ..cap alpha.. particles. The number of mutants induced per viable cell by ..cap alpha.. particles at a given level of cell killing was similar to that induced by X rays. The RBE values obtained for cell killing and the induction of mutations are compared with each other, and the possible involvement of repair processes in determining the RBE is discussed.

  7. Chronobiological organization of reproduction of Ehrlich's ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Qu, A.; Stepanenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The rhythms of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis were studied in a hypotetraploid strain of Ehrlich's ascites tumor (EAT) and compared with data obtained previously on the hyperdiploid strain of EAT. Eighty-five noninbred male albino mice were used. An injection of tritium-thymidine, with specific radioactivity of 4.1 Ci/mmole, was given to the mice one hour before sacrifice. The results obtained are presented; it is shown that the number of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypotetraploid strain during the 5th and 6th days of growth of EAT was 503 and 479 /sup 0//00, respectively. Fluctuations of the radioactive index during these days were not significant. Only a significant fall in the radioactive index toward noon on the seventh day of development of the hypotetraploid strain of EAT was observed.

  8. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  9. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids.

  10. Factors Influencing the Inhibitory Effect of Selenium on Mice Inoculated with Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeder, Glenn A.; Milner, J. A.

    1980-08-01

    Selenium, administered to mice with Ehrlich ascites tumors, effectively limited tumor growth. The response was dependent on the chemical form and dose of selenium administered. At the doses administered, there were no detectable adverse effects to the host.

  11. Antitumor Properties of Modified Detonation Nanodiamonds and Sorbed Doxorubicin on the Model of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N N; Zhukov, E L; Inzhevatkin, E V; Bezzabotnov, V E

    2016-01-01

    We studied antitumor properties of modified detonation nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin on in vivo model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The type of tumor development and morphological characteristics of the liver, kidneys, and spleen were evaluated in experimental animals. Modified nanodiamonds injected intraperitoneally produced no antitumor effect on Ehrlich carcinoma. However, doxorubicin did not lose antitumor activity after sorption on modified nanodiamonds.

  12. The effects of silibin administration for different time periods on mouse liver with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Beydogan, Alisa Bahar; Bolkent, Sema

    2016-06-01

    Ehrlich ascites carcinoma is the one of the animal cancer models having high malignancy and rapid growth resistance. Silibin has reported to be an antioxidant in previous studies. We aimed to investigate the effects of silibin on mouse liver with Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in different time periods. Balb/c mice were divided into five groups. Group I (Control): The saline buffer (sb) was injected intraperitoneally (ip) to the mice for 15 days. Group II (Silibin): 150mg/kg silibin was injected ip for 15 days. Group III (Ehrlich): 2×10(5) cells were transferred from the donor mouse to healthy mice on first day. Group IV (Ehrlich+Silibin): Silibin was given between 5th and 15th days to mice inoculated with EAT. Group V (Silibin+Ehrlich): Silibin was injected for 15 days after EAT cells. The liver sections were stained with matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), caspase 3, caspase 8, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies by the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. Biochemical analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method were performed in the liver. Superoxide dismutase levels of liver increased in Ehrlich+Silibin group compared with Ehrlich group. Malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased in Silibin+Ehrlich group compared with Ehrlich+Silibin. MMP-2 and MMP-9 immunopositive cells increased in Silibin+Ehrlich compared with Ehrlich group. Caspase 3 and TUNEL signals significantly increased in Silibin+Ehrlich group compared with Ehrlich group. PCNA positive signals significantly increased in Ehrlich+Silibin group compared with Ehrlich group. According to our findings, we suggest that silibin treatment after EAT cells inoculation has more effective than concurrently EAT and silibin treatment. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Jerome J.; Engle, James L.; Rudkin, George T.; Schultz, Jack

    1959-01-01

    A flying spot ultraviolet microscope, employing a fast scan and pulsed operation of the raster, has been used to induce radiation damage in ascites tumor slide cultures, and to study by time-lapse cinematography the progressive stages of cell damage. The cells observed came from a strain (EF7) of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Irradiated cells were found to show a characteristic syndrome of damage, involving blebbing at the cell surface, while control cells in the adjacent areas of the preparation remained unchanged. The end of the blebbing period is marked by swelling of the cells, and the time taken for this phenomenon to occur was used as a measure of the severity of the damage. It was found that the time required for swelling is dependent on the size of the dose employed, as well as on the sensitivity of the cells. This latter sensitivity was found to decline as the physiological age of the tumor increased. If ultraviolet illumination below 255 mµ is excluded, no symptoms of damage occur, even when very large doses are used. These observations are discussed in relation to the nature of the system in the cell which is affected. PMID:13654439

  14. A new boron compound (guanidine biboric acid adduct) as an antitumour agent against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P; Sur, B; Bag, S P; Sur, P

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of a new boron compound of guanidine biboric acid adduct (GB) and guanidium chloride (L1) on the growth of ascites tumour in female Swiss mice were studied by monitoring the survival, tumour weight, tumour cell count, transplantability of Ehrlich ascites cells, precursor incorporation and the haematological parameters of the treated mice. 5-Fluorouracil, a known anticancer drug, was used as a positive control. The most important parameter was the survival time, which increased significantly when tumour-bearing mice were treated with the boron compound. Haematological parameters of the treated animals showed minimum toxic effects when boron was coupled with guanidine.

  15. Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Patra, Satyajit; Muthuraman, Meenakshi Sundaram

    2013-11-25

    Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract.

  16. Effect of Balanites aegyptiaca on Ehrlich Ascitic carcinoma growth and metastasis in Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Issa, N M; Mansour, F K; El-Safti, F A; Nooh, H Z; El-Sayed, I H

    2015-09-01

    The role of Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) on development and growth of Ehrlich Ascitic carcinoma (EAC) and metastasis (liver and spleen) was evaluated. Balanite (400mg/kg; 10mg in 0.1ml/mouse) was given daily over a period of two weeks started 24h before intraperitoneal injection of EAC (2×10(6)/once). The present study deals with the effect of B. aegyptiaca on the growth of transplantable ascetic tumor, life span of EAC-bearing mice, hepatocellular and splenic histology. Antioxidant and biochemical changes as well as p53 genes expression were recorded. B. aegyptiaca extracts inhibited tumor growth and proliferation in ascetic fluid through a significant decrease in tumor volume, total cell volume, and viable cell count and prolonged the life span of mice. Also, it significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased SOD, CAT levels and P53 expression. Also, balanite inhibited either tumor invaded/or affected hepatic and splenic tissue. This result gives a new insight on beneficial effect of B. aegyptiaca in primary and secondary loci of Ehrlich Ascitic tumor through its antioxidant effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Internucleotide protein linkers in Ehrlich ascites cell DNA.

    PubMed

    Werner, D; Krauth, W; Hershey, H V

    1980-07-29

    DNA from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is nicked or gapped by a reaction which is induced by proteases such as autodigested pronase, proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin and subtilisin. The cleavage of the protease-sensitive sites is inhibited by protease inhibitors. The nicks or gaps induced by proteases can be demonstrated by nuclease S1 sensitivity of native DNA and by a change of the sedimentation rate of alkali-denatured DNA. The limit size of denatured DNA released after optimal protease treatment is 8.5 x 10(6) daltons (27 kilo bases). The molecular weight of the native DNA pieces released after nuclease S1 degradation of DNA containing the protease-induced nicks or gaps is in the same order indicating that the protease-sensitive sites are alternatively arranged on the opposite DNA strands at an average distance of 13.5 kilo base pairs. Since the protease-induced nicks or gaps in phosphatase-treated DNA are not attacked by Escherichia coli polymerase I, one or both ends liberated by the protease treatment must be blocked by a material other than phosphate groups. The results are most compatible with peptide/protein linkers joining adjacent single-strand DNA subunits. Alternative explanations such as alkali-stable RNA linkers, protein-protected RNA linkers, site-specific nuclease contaminations in the protease preparations or cellular nucleases activated by the protease treatment are eliminated by the results presented in this paper.

  18. Sulfobetaine (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) and glycine betaine show incompatible involvement in crucial Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kenji; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Tsujiwaki, Satomi

    2015-03-01

    The role of methylation reactions in cancer was examined using the methylating agents, sulfobetaine [dimethylsulfonioproponate (DMSP)], and glycine betaine (GB), in murine crucial Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) for up to 10 days. DMSP administration in EAC-bearing mice mitigated EAC, while GB administration clearly promoted EAC. However, the immune cell profiles did not differ largely between animals receiving DMSP and those receiving GB. Moreover, DMSP and GB had merely any effects on proliferation of EAC cells in vitro. Injection of DMSP into normal mice interestingly led to macrophage accumulation in the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner at early rearing. These results indicate that GB promoted EAC by the methylation of cancer promotor gene, whereas DMSP ameliorated EAC by the accumulation of activated macrophages with a rapid response and long life span during cancer progression. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on the interaction between the Ehrlich ascites tumor cell and its fluid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, B.

    1984-01-01

    In this dissertation, the glycolytic nature of the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cell is disclosed both in vivo and in vitro by experiments challenging it with glucose. It is demonstrated that EAT cells can cause the extracellular pH to drop to values sufficiently acidic so as to inhibit EAT glycolysis. However, the extracellular fluid or the Ascites Supernatant Fluid (ASF) reduced the extent to which the pH dropped during EAT cell glycolysis. A comparison of the activities of the sera from tumor-bearing mice and normal mice revealed that the serumfrom the tumor-bearing mice reduced the pH fall generated by the EAT cell in the same way as did ASF; normal mouse serum had no such effect. The metabolic pathways utilized during glucose catabolism were examined by radio-respirometry and the results demonstrated that the high percentage of the glucose conversion to lactate occurred because of partial blockade of the TCA cycle. The databolism of glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine, aspartic acid, and alanine was enhanced by ASF as determined by measuring /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from /sup 14/C-labelled amino acids, with glutamine catabolism enhanced about three-fold. Fractionation experiments revealed that ASF contained a factor(s) responsible for this enhancement that had a molecular weight greater than 300,000 daltons and was heat-labile.

  20. Inactivation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, U.; Iliakis, G.; Kraft, G.

    1983-07-01

    Exponentially growing and plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were irradiated with heavy ions (Z greater than or equal to 20) and assayed for loss of reproductive capacity either immediately or at delayed times after irradiation. The results indicated no modification of the exponential dose response due to conditions which usually favor the repair of potentially lethal damage at low ionization density. Postirradiation treatment of the cells with beta-arabinofuranosyladenine, a DNA synthesis inhibitor known to act on PLD repair, resulted in effects similar to those observed without this drug and confirmed the hypothesis that at such high values of ionization density only lethal, unmodifiable damage can be expressed. The inactivation cross-section values calculated from the slope of the measured survival curves showed no significant correlations with commonly used parameters of radiation quality such as LET or z/sup 2//beta 2. Instead, a functional dependence on the primary ion energy was indicated, being smaller by a factor of two at low energies (less than or equal to 2 MeV/amu) compared with values at energies above 4 MeV/amu, where agreement with the morphological nuclear cross section of the culture was found. This suggests that at higher specific ion energies energetic secondary electrons contribute to the induction of lethal damage, and that interaction of damaged sites between the primary track and the track ends of delta electrons may occur. The data are therefore also discussed in terms of the ''penumbra model'' which emphasizes the role of delta electrons in cell killing when radiations with very high ionization density are applied.

  1. Inactivation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, U.; Iliakis, G.; Kraft, G.

    1983-07-01

    Exponentially growing and plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were irradiated with heavy ions (Z greater than or equal to 20) and assayed for loss of reproductive capacity either immediately or at delayed times after irradiation. The results indicated no modification of the exponential dose response due to conditions which usually favor the repair of potentially lethal damage at low ionization density. Postirradiation treatment of the cells with a DNA synthesis inhibitor known to act on PLD repair resulted in effects similar to those observed without this drug and confirmed the hypothesis that at such high values of ionization density only lethal, unmodifiable damage can be expressed. The inactivation cross-section values calculated from the slope of the measured survival curves showed no significant correlations with commonly used parameters of radiation quality. Instead, a functional dependence on the primary ion energy was indicated, being smaller by a factor of two at low energies (less than or equal to 2 MeV/amu) compared with values at energies above 4 MeV/amu, where agreement with the morphological nuclear cross section of the culture was found. This suggests that at higher specific ion energies energetic secondary electrons contribute to the induction of lethal damage, and that interaction of damaged sites between the primary track and the track ends of delta electrons may occur. The data are therefore also discussed in terms of the penumbra model which emphasizes the role of delta electrons in cell killing when radiations with very high ionization density are applied.

  2. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma.

  3. Antineoplasic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus Amboinicus in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandao, Eduardo M.; Brandão, Paulo H. D. M.; Souza, Ivone A.; Paiva, Gerson S.; de C. Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  4. Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. Methods We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Results Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Conclusion Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract. PMID:24274337

  5. Experimental study of simultaneous photodynamic and hyperthermic treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and A22 hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile

    1997-12-01

    Combined treatment of PDT and hyperthermia was examined on Ehrlich ascites tumor cell viability and A22 hepatoma tumor growth inhibition. Histological evaluations of tumors after different treatments have shown tumor necrosis, congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage. The most drastic damages were observed after simultaneous PDT and hyperthermia action. At these experimental conditions tumor growth for 5 days was absolutely inhibited.

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced carcinogenesis in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Ali, Shaikh Mohummad Mohsin; Khanam, Jahan Ara

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone (ASC) in vivo in normal and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing male Swiss albino mice. Methods Drug-induced changes in biochemical and behavioral parameters at dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 14 d and nullifying the toxicity induced by EAC cells were studied. The histopathology studies of the protective effects of ASC on vital organs were also assessed. Results The administration of ASC made insignificant changes in body weight and behavioral (salivation, diarrhea, muscular numbness) changes during treatment period due to minor toxicity were minimized after the treatment in normal mice. The biochemical parameters, including serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloactate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and billirubin changed modestly in normal mice receiving ASC. Though the treatment continued, these values gradually decreased to normal level after the treatment. In EAC bearing mice, the toxic effects due to EAC cells in all cases were nullified by treatment with the ASC. Significant abnormalities were not detected in histology of the various organs of the normal mice treated with ASC. Conclusions ASC can, therefore, be considered safe in formulating novel anticancer drug, as it exhibits strong protective effect against EAC cell bearing mice. PMID:23593588

  7. Antitumor Activity of the Methanol Extract of Hypericum hookerianum Stem Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Santoshkumar H; Badami, Shrishailappa; Natesan, Senthilkumar; H, Raghu Chandrashekhar

    2007-04-01

    A large number of plants belonging to the Hypericum family are known to possess strong antitumor properties. The methanol extract of H. hookerianum Wight and Arnott stem (MEHH) exhibited potent in vitro cytotoxic activity against various cancerous cell lines. In the present study, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standardized MEHH was tested for in vivo antitumor properties against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing mice at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight doses given orally once daily for 14 days. The results indicate that administration of the extract not only increased the survival of animals with ascites tumor, decreased the body weight induced by the tumor burden, and reduced packed cell volume and viable tissue cell count, but also altered many hematological parameters changed during tumor progression, indicating the potent antitumor nature of the extract. Among the three doses tested, the 200 mg/kg body weight dose was found to be the most potent.

  8. Utilization of ascites plasma very low density lipoprotein triglycerides by Ehrlich cells.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, D E; Spector, A A

    1974-07-01

    Much of the lipid present in the ascites plasma in which Ehrlich cells grow is contained in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Chemical measurements indicated that triglycerides were taken up by the cells during in vitro incubation with ascites VLDL. When tracer amounts of radioactive triolein were incorporated into the ascites VLDL, the percentage uptakes of glyceryl tri[1-(14)C]oleate and triglycerides measured chemically were similar. The cells also took up [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate that was added to VLDL, but the percentage of available (3)H recovered in the cell lipids was 30-40% less than that of (1 4)C from glyceryl tri[1-(1 4)C]oleate. This difference was accounted for by water-soluble (3)H that accumulated in the incubation medium, suggesting that extensive hydrolysis accompanied the uptake of VLDL triglycerides. Radioactive fatty acids derived from the VLDL triglycerides were incorporated into cell phospholipids, glycerides, and free fatty acids, and they also were oxidized to CO(2). Triglyceride utilization increased as the VLDL concentration was raised. These results suggest that one function of the ascites plasma VLDL may be to supply fatty acid to the Ehrlich cells and that the availability of fatty acid to this tumor is determined in part by the ascites plasma VLDL concentration. Although Ehrlich cells incorporate almost no free glycerol into triglycerides, considerable amounts of [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate radioactivity were recovered in cell triglycerides. This indicates that at least some VLDL triglycerides were taken up intact. The net uptake of VLDL protein and cholesterol was very small relative to the triglyceride uptake, suggesting that intact triglycerides are transferred from the ascites VLDL to the Ehrlich cells and that hydrolysis occurs after the triglyceride is associated with the cells.

  9. Anticancer effects of synthetic phosphoethanolamine on Ehrlich ascites tumor: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Meneguelo, Renato; Pereira, Alexandre; Mendonça Filho, Otaviano R; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Antineoplastic phospholipids (ALPs) represent a promising class of drugs with a novel mode of action undergoes rapid turnover in the cell membrane of tumors, interfering with lipid signal transduction, inducing cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the synthetic phosphoethanolamine (Pho-s) as a new anticancer agent. Cell viability and morphology were assessed by (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Hoechst and rhodamine staining. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining, caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔmΨ) and cell cycle analysis, combined with evaluation of tumor growth in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) bearing mice. We found that Pho-s 2.30 mg/ml induced cytotoxicity in all tumor cell lines studied without affecting normal cells. In vitro studies with EAT cells indicated that Pho-s induced apoptosis, demonstrated by an increase in Annexin-V positive cells, loss of mitochondrial potential (ΔmΨ) and increased caspase-3 activity. It was also shown to increase the sub-G(1) apoptotic fraction and inhibit progression to the S phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, antitumor effects on the EAT-bearing mice showed that Pho-s, at a concentration of 35 and 70 mg/kg, inhibited tumor growth and increased the lifespan of animals without causing liver toxicity. These findings suggest that Pho-s is a potential anticancer candidate drug.

  10. PGE from Octopus aegina Induces Apoptosis in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma of Mice.

    PubMed

    Karthigayan, S; Balasubashini, M Sri; Balasubramanian, T; Somasundaram, S T

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to assess the antitumor effect of venomous peptide from the cephalopod Octopus aegina on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC). Male albino Swiss mice were used in the present study. Four groups of animals were treated with three doses of the sublethal dose of venom, 15, 75, and 150 mug/kg body weight (intraperitoneal injection), along with the standard drug 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg b.w.). After 10 days of treatment, six animals from each group were sacrificed for the biochemical analysis and the rest were left to calculate the mean survival time. In EAC-bearing mice, mean lifespan, tumor volume, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and lymphocytes were significantly decreased when compared to the normal animals. While body weight, neutrophils, and viable tumor cell count were increased in the EAC-bearing mice, these changes were brought back to near normal levels in different treatment groups. The macromolecule concentration of peritoneal cells, such as DNA, RNA, and protein, were altered in the EAC-bearing mice and observed to be near normal in the treatment groups. The caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in the peritoneal cells of the treatment groups when compared to the EAC-bearing mice. The role of apoptotic cascade in EAC cell death was confirmed by the DNA fragmentation on agarose gel. Apart from the antitumor effect, octopus venom reduced the tumor burden on the liver and altered the changes in the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Therefore, the venom from O. aegina has a potential antitumor effect on the EAC-bearing mice.

  11. Evaluation of antitumor activity of Mimusops elengi leaves on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Kar, Biswakanth; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Dolai, Narayan; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-09-01

    Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) Linn. (Sapotaceae) has been used as a folk medicine in wound healing, and the treatment of pain, and inflammation in many parts of India. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the antitumor activity of methanol extract of M. elengi (MEME) in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell line. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice (n = 12), MEME was administered at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight daily for 9 consecutive days. On day 10, half of the mice were dissected and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life span. The antitumor effect of MEME was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological parameter, and biochemical estimations. In vivo antioxidant parameters were assayed by estimating liver tissue enzyme. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of MEME was measured by using trypan blue exclusion method. MEME showed significant (p < .001) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count, and increased the life span of EAC bearing mice. Hematological, biochemical profile, and in vivo antioxidant parameters were significantly restored toward normal levels in MEME-treated mice as compared to EAC control. MEME also showed direct cytotoxicity on EAC cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that M. elengi leaves exhibited antitumor activity in Swiss mice, which may be due to its cytotoxic effect and antioxidant properties.

  12. Enhancement of radiation effect by Aphanamixis polystachya in mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Venkatesha, Venkatasubbaiah Ashoka Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The effect of radiation on tumor tissue can be optimized by adding radiosensitizing agents, in order to achieve a greater degree of tumor damage than expected from the use of either treatment alone. The ethanolic extract of Aphanamixis polystachya (APE) was tested in Swiss albino mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and exposed to various doses of gamma-radiation. EAC mice received 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg body wt APE before exposure to 6 Gy gamma-radiation followed by once daily administration for another 8 consecutive days post-irradiation. The optimum radiosensitizing dose was found to be 50 mg/kg APE that was further tested in EAC mice exposed to 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 Gy hemi body gamma-radiation. The best effect of APE and radiation was observed for 6 Gy gamma-radiation. The splitting of 50 mg into two equal fractions of 25 mg and administering the split dose with a gap of 8 h on 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9 d of tumor inoculation resulted in an increased survival even when the drug was administered at late stages (day 5) of tumor development. The APE treatment before irradiation elevated lipid peroxidation followed by a reduction in the glutathione contents. Treatment of tumor bearing mice with APE before irradiation further reduced the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase at different post last drug administration (PLDA) times.

  13. Synergism between propolis and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin on ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Oršolić, Nada; Car, Nikola; Lisičić, Duje; Benković, Vesna; Knežević, Anica Horvat; Dikić, Domagoj; Petrik, József

    2013-12-01

    We investigated antitumor, genotoxic, chemopreventive, and immunostimulative effects of local chemoimmunotherapy and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in a mouse-bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). Mice were treated with water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) , 7 and 3 days before implantation of EAT cells, whereas cisplatin (5 or 10 mg kg(-1) ) was injected 3 days after implantation of EAT cells at 37°C and 43°C. The following variables were analyzed: the total number of cells, differential count of the cells present in the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages, comet assay, and micronucleus assay. The combination of WSDP + CIS 5 mg kg(-1) at 37°C resulted in tumor growth inhibition and increased the survival of mice by additional 115.25%. WSDP with HIPEC increased the survival of mice by additional 160.3% as compared with HIPEC. WSDP reduced cisplatin toxic and genotoxic effect to normal cells without affecting cisplatin cytotoxicity on EAT cells. In addition, WSDP with HIPEC increased the cytotoxic actions of macrophages to tumor cells. Water-soluble derivative of propolis increases macrophage activity and sensitivity of tumor cells to HIPEC and reduces cisplatin toxicity to normal cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. [Chronobiological analysis of thyroxine action on cell proliferation in the hypotetraploid strain of Ehrlich's ascitic tumor].

    PubMed

    Romanov, Iu A; Stepanenko, V A

    1989-11-01

    Experiments on white random-bred male mice were made to study the effect of L-thyroxine on cell proliferation of the hypotetraploid strain of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma. It was shown that prolonged thyroxine administration (during 6 days of carcinoma growth) lead to synchronization of cell proliferation and the maximum values of the mitotic index was found 3 hours earlier then in the control experiments. At the same time thyroxine did not exert any noticeable effect on the average daily magnitudes of the number of DNA-synthesizing cells and did not change the pattern of modulations in the radioactive index. The changes in the mitotic index and radioactive index were asynchronous in control and experimental animals. Analogous results were found for hyperdiploid strain of Ehrlich's ascites tumor. Ploidy of cells did not influence the tipe rhythms of the cell proliferation and its reaction on the action of thyroxine.

  15. Enhancement of photosensitization efficiency by various combinations with radiosensitization in an experimental Ehrlich ascites tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Kaspariunaite, G.; Aleknavicius, E.; Valuckas, Konstantinas P.

    1996-12-01

    According to our previous results porphyrin can interact not only with visible light but with ionizing radiation also. This phenomenon gives us new possibility to combine photosensitization with radiosensitization. Data obtained on BALB/c mice with 7-day Ehrlich ascites tumors pretreated with 30 mg/kg HP dimethylether (not toxic and not mutagenic concentration) and irradiated with 60Co source (2 Gy) and visible light source (5 J/cm2) showed remarkable inhibition of tumor growth. Two Gy alone inhibited Ehrlich ascites tumor growth by 17%, whereas combination of 30 mg/kg HPde and 2 Gy (radiosensitization) -- by 38%. Photosensitization (30 mg/kg HPde plus 5 J/cm2) showed 37% tumor growth inhibition. Combination of photosensitization with radiosensitization inhibited tumor growth by 87%. It is important to note, that sequence of treatments (radiosensitization - 1 h - photosensitization or photosensitization - 1 h - radiosensitization) had no influence on tumor growth inhibition.

  16. Effect of electromagnetic microwave radiation on the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kryukova, O V; Pyankov, V F; Kopylov, A F; Khlebopros, R G

    2016-09-01

    Daily exposure of mouse recipients of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma to electromagnetic radiation of the microwave range leads to a change in the dynamics of tumor growth by decreasing the total number of cells. The number of tumor cells with blebbing morphological signs after microwave radiation increases gradually with tumor growth. The maximum content of tumor cells in the state of blebbing is observed during active proliferation in tumor-recipient mice of the control group (without irradiation).

  17. Transport and metabolism of thiamine in Ehrlich ascites-carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Menon, I. A.; Quastel, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    1. Aerobic or anaerobic incubation at 37° of Ehrlich ascites-carcinoma cells in Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate medium containing glucose and labelled thiamine results in accumulation in the cell of labelled thiamine, so that the concentration of total labelled thiamine in the cells greatly exceeds (by a factor 7) that in the medium. This concentration ratio is approximately constant for small initial external concentrations of labelled thiamine but diminishes when the latter exceed 0·4μm. 2. All the labelled thiamine in the tumour cells is present as thiamine phosphates. 3. The uptake of labelled thiamine is markedly diminished by decrease of temperature. At 9° concentration ratio (cells/medium) 0·5 is observed whereas at 37° the concentration ratio is 8·6. 4. The extent of phosphorylation of labelled thiamine depends on the period of incubation. 5. The influx of labelled thiamine is diminished by the presence of its analogues, pyrithiamine and Amprol, and also by the presence of thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate, which are potent inhibitors of thiamine phosphorylation in Ehrlich ascites cells. 6. Labelled thiamine phosphates leak from the cell into the medium, so that eventually all the labelled thiamine, both in the cell and medium, is converted into thiamine phosphates. However, in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol (0·1mm) and iodoacetate (1mm) thiamine phosphorylation is diminished, the concentration ratio for labelled thiamine (cells/medium) falls to half its normal value and little or no labelled thiamine phosphates leaks into the medium. 7. In the presence of thiamine phosphates, free labelled thiamine accumulates in Ehrlich ascites cells against a concentration gradient, concentration ratios (cells/medium) greater than unity being evident. 8. The evidence supports the conclusion that thiamine is transferred into the Ehrlich ascites cell by a carrier-mediated energy-assisted process. PMID:5964972

  18. Boric acid enhances in vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell proliferation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S; Al-Shabanah, O A; Al-Harbi, M M; Al-Bekairi, A M; Raza, M

    2001-08-13

    The influence of boric acid, a boron carrier, on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell-bearing mice was investigated in view of its importance in the boron neutron capture therapy and the influence of boron on proliferation and progression of cancer cells mediated by proteoglycans and collagen. The present study included the evaluation of boric acid for the effects on total count and viability of EAC cells in addition to their non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as parameters for conjugative detoxication potency and possible oxidative damage. The EAC cell-bearing animals were also observed for the effect on survival, body weight changes, and histopathological evaluation of the tumors grown at the site of inoculation. The treatment with boric acid significantly increased the total number of peritoneal EAC cells and their viability. A significant increase in the body weight was observed that dose-dependently reached plateau levels by 20 days of treatment. Conversely, a reduction in the duration of survival of these animals was evident with the same protocol. Boric acid treatment resulted in a decrease in NP-SH contents with a concomitant increase in MDA levels in EAC cells as revealed by the results of the biochemical analysis. These data are supported by our results on histopathological investigations, which apparently showed fast growth, in addition to several mitotic figures and mixed inflammatory reaction, after treatment with boric acid. It seems likely that a particular combination of properties of boric acid, rather than a single characteristic alone, will provide useful information on the use of this boron carrier in neutron capture therapy.

  19. Computer simulation study of hexokinase II from Ehrlich ascites cells.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, L

    1975-02-21

    A study of the mechanism of hexokinase II from ascites cells the effects of its binding to mitochondrial membranes has been carried out by computer simulation. This is based on experimental data of Kosow and Rose and of Gumaa and McLean, and the theoretical methods of cleveland. For the soluble enzyme the mechanism is random with ternary produce-inhibition complexes; when bound to mitochondria, the mechanism becomes ordered-on, random-off, as the binding of ATP to the free enzymes becomes negligibly slow. The requirements of experimental data for mechanistic studies are discussed.

  20. Growth inhibition and pro-apoptotic activity of violacein in Ehrlich ascites tumor.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Natália; Dreyfuss, Juliana L; Regatieri, Caio V; Palladino, Marcelly V; Durán, Nelson; Nader, Helena B; Haun, Marcela; Justo, Giselle Z

    2010-06-07

    The continuing threat to biodiversity lends urgency to the need of identification of sustainable source of natural products. This is not so much trouble if there is a microbial source of the compound. Herein, violacein, a natural indolic pigment extracted from Chromobacterium violaceum, was evaluated for its antitumoral potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Evaluation of violacein cytotoxicity using different endpoints indicated that EAT cells were twofold (IC(50)=5.0 microM) more sensitive to the compound than normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro studies indicated that violacein cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated by a rapid (8-12h) production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in intracellular GSH levels, probably due to oxidative stress. Additionally, apoptosis was primarily induced, as demonstrated by an increase in Annexin-V positive cells, concurrently with increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities up to 4.5-, 6.0- and 5.5-fold, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Moreover, doses of 0.1 and 1.0 microg kg(-1) violacein, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to EAT-bearing mice throughout the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. In view of these results, a 35-day toxicity study was conducted in vivo. Complete hematology, biochemistry (ALT, AST and creatinine levels) and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of violacein up to 1000 microg kg(-1) for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity when administered i.p. to mice. Altogether, these results indicate that violacein causes oxidative stress and an imbalance in the antioxidant defense machinery of cells culminating in apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, this is the first report of its antitumor activity in vivo, which occurs in the absence of toxicity to

  1. Anti-tumour effects of Egyptian propolis on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Badr, Mohamed O T; Edrees, Nariman M M; Abdallah, Amany A M; El-Deen, Nasr A M N; Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N F; Ismail, Hager T H

    2011-01-01

    A total of 150 female Swiss mice were used to study the ability of water soluble propolis derivatives (WSPD) of Egyptian propolis to inhibit the proliferation and growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in mice. The mice were divided equally into three groups: the first was kept as a negative control group, the second received an intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 × 10(6) EAC and was kept as a positive control group and the third an intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 × 10(6) EAC and treated with propolis (50 mg/kg body weight) administered by gastric intubations 2 h prior to the intraperitoneal injection of EAC. The propolis was administered daily for 11 successive days. An examination of EAC cells revealed a reduction in the volume, total cell count, viable percentage and increase in the percentage of dead cells in the treated group with an increasing mean survival time (MST), increasing life span (ILS) percentage and treated vs positive control (T/C) percentage. Immunological studies revealed a significant increase in the lymphocyte transformation rate (LTR), phagocytic activity and killing power in the group treated with propolis. A haematological study of the parameters revealed leucocytosis in cancer-bearing mice and propolis-treated groups with granulocytosis and monocytosis. The erythrogram revealed a significant reduction in red blood cell (RBC) count in group 2. The result showed that the implantation of EAC in Swiss mice without treatment resulted in a significant decrease in total protein and albumin levels without a change in globulin level and a significant increase in creatinine level, while the third group that received propolis showed an improvement in these biochemical parameters compared to the normal control group.

  2. Antitumour activity of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stellaa; Narayanan, N; Raj Kapoor, B

    2011-04-01

    The antitumour activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf (PCL) and stem bark (PCB) of Prosopis cineraria (L.) in Swiss albino mice was evaluated against an Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumour model. The activity was assessed using survival time, peritoneal cells, haematological studies, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, solid tumour mass and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCL and PCB were found to be potent and possessed significant cytotoxicity towards EAC tumour cells.

  3. Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    KunduSen, Sriparna; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Haldar, Pallab K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Context. The plant Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as shaddock or pomelo is indigenous to tropical parts of Asia. The objective of present study is to evaluate the methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves for its antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Experimental design. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves (MECM) was evaluated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line in Swiss albino mice. 2 × 106 cells were inoculated in different groups of animals. MECM (200 and 400 mg/kg BW i.p.) was administered for nine consecutive days. On day 10th half the animals of different groups were sacrificed for determination of tumor and haematological parameters and the rest half were kept with sufficient food and water ad libitum for determination of increase in life span. Result and Discussions. Oral administration of the extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased tumor parameters such as tumor volume, viable tumor cell count and increased body weight, hematological parameters and life span in respect of the EAC control mice. Conclusion. Experimental design exhibits significant antitumor activity of the extract (MECM) in a dose dependant manner. PMID:22084708

  4. Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Kundusen, Sriparna; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K; Haldar, Pallab K; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Context. The plant Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as shaddock or pomelo is indigenous to tropical parts of Asia. The objective of present study is to evaluate the methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves for its antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Experimental design. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves (MECM) was evaluated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line in Swiss albino mice. 2 × 10(6) cells were inoculated in different groups of animals. MECM (200 and 400 mg/kg BW i.p.) was administered for nine consecutive days. On day 10th half the animals of different groups were sacrificed for determination of tumor and haematological parameters and the rest half were kept with sufficient food and water ad libitum for determination of increase in life span. Result and Discussions. Oral administration of the extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased tumor parameters such as tumor volume, viable tumor cell count and increased body weight, hematological parameters and life span in respect of the EAC control mice. Conclusion. Experimental design exhibits significant antitumor activity of the extract (MECM) in a dose dependant manner.

  5. The proton stoichiometry of electron transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1979-06-10

    Initial rate measurements of the stoichiometric relationships between H+ ejection, K+ and Ca2+ uptake, and electron transport were carried out on mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells grown in mice. With succinate as substrate and N-ethylmaleimide to prevent interfering H+ reuptake via the phosphate carrier, close to 8 H+ were ejected per oxygen atom reduced (H+/O ejection ratio = 8.0); with the NAD-linked substrates pyruvate or pyruvate + malate, the H+/O ejection ratio was close to 12. The average H+/site ratio (H+ ejected/2e-/energy-conserving site) was thus close to 4. The simultaneous uptake of charge-compensating cations, either K+ (in the presence of valinomycin) or Ca2+, was also measured, yielding average K+/site uptake ratios of very close to 4 and Ca2+/site ratios close to 2. It was also demonstrated that each calcium ion enters the respiring tumor mitochondria carrying two positive electric charges. These stoichiometric data observed in mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells thus are in complete agreement with similar data on normal rat liver and rat heart mitochondria and suggest that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport may be 4 generally. It was also observed that the rate of deltaH+ back-decay in anaerobic tumor mitochondria following oxygen pulses is some 6- to 8-fold greater than in rat liver mitochondria tested at equal amounts of mitochondrial protein.

  6. K+/H+-antiporter nigericin arrests DNA synthesis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, L B; Novikova I, Y u; Rozovskaya, I A; Skulachev, V P

    1989-01-01

    Acidification of the cytoplasm of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells to pH 6.3 arrests DNA synthesis in these cells. Such an effect can be achieved by incubating the cells at pH 6.2 or by adding low concentrations of the K+/H+ antiporter, the antibiotic nigericin, at neutral pH. Glucose and anaerobiosis potentiate the nigericin effect. The inhibition of DNA synthesis by nigericin occurs without any significant decrease in the ATP concentration and in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The DNA synthesis inhibition is caused neither by a decrease in the intracellular [K+] nor by an increase in the intracellular [Na+] accompanying the nigericin effect (at least at low concentrations of the antibiotic). Nigericin should thus be regarded as a type of a cytostatic primarily affecting intracellular pH. PMID:2771947

  7. K+/H+-antiporter Nigericin Arrests DNA Synthesis in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Leonid B.; Novikova, Irina Yu.; Rozovskaya, Irina A.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    1989-09-01

    Acidification of the cytoplasm of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells to pH 6.3 arrests DNA synthesis in these cells. Such an effect can be achieved by incubating the cells at pH 6.2 or by adding low concentrations of the K+/H+ antiporter, the antibiotic nigericin, at neutral pH. Glucose and anaerobiosis potentiate the nigericin effect. The inhibition of DNA synthesis by nigericin occurs without any significant decrease in the ATP concentration and in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The DNA synthesis inhibition is caused neither by a decrease in the intracellular [K+] nor by an increase in the intracellular [Na+] accompanying the nigericin effect (at least at low concentrations of the antibiotic). Nigericin should thus be regarded as a type of a cytostatic primarily affecting intracellular pH.

  8. Effects of intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, S.S.; Ford, E.H.; Alfieri, A.A.; Bravo, S. )

    1989-11-01

    Intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), saline solution, and oil suspension was investigated using Ehrlich ascites tumors in the thighs of mice. The oil suspension was more effective in tumor growth delay than was the saline solution. Single injection of the oil suspension at the dose of 12.5 microCi resulted in 21.5 days growth delay, whereas 50 microCi of the saline solution resulted in 11.5 days growth delay relative to control growth delay. At 40 days after treatment, higher radioactivities were observed in the tumor and the skin of the mice treated with the oil suspension, which represented the prolongation of I-125 IUdR oil suspension within the tumor. No normal tissue toxicities were observed.

  9. Chronobiological characteristics of the action of thyroxine of reproduction of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, V.A.; Romanov, Y.A.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the action of thyroxine on cell proliferation in a hyperdiploid strain of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor (EAT) depending on clock time. Five albino mice were given an injection of tritium-thymidine in a dose of 0.5 u Ci/g body weight (specific radioactivity 4.1 Ci/mmole) one hour before sacrifice. On autoradiographs from each animal, during examination of 3000-5000 cells, the number of dividing and DNA-synthesizing cells was counted and mitotic index and radioactive index were calculated and expressed in promille. Parameters method and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by the Fisher-Student method. Differences were considered significant at the P less than 0.05 level.

  10. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  11. THE ISOLATION OF LYSOSOMES FROM EHRLICH ASCITES TUMOR CELLS FOLLOWING PRETREATMENT OF MICE WITH TRITON WR-1339

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Agnes; Baxandall, Jane; Touster, Oscar

    1969-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining highly purified lysosomes from Ehrlich ascites tumo cells grown in mice injected with Triton WR-1339. The isolated particles show a high specific activity for aryl sulfatase, representing an 80–90-fold purification over the homogenate, and a 15–18% yield of the total enzyme activity. Mitochondrial and microsomal marker enzymes are present in negligible amounts (0.2% of the activity of the homogenate). The biochemical evidence for a rather high degree of homogeneity of the fraction is supported by the electron microscopic examination of the purified lysosomes. The intracellular localizations of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase in Ehrlich ascites cells are also reported, the first two being present in highest concentration in the combined mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction and the third in the microsomal fraction. PMID:5792335

  12. The isolation of lysosomes from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells following pretreatment of mice with Triton WR-1339.

    PubMed

    Horvat, A; Baxandall, J; Touster, O

    1969-08-01

    A method is described for obtaining highly purified lysosomes from Ehrlich ascites tumo cells grown in mice injected with Triton WR-1339. The isolated particles show a high specific activity for aryl sulfatase, representing an 80-90-fold purification over the homogenate, and a 15-18% yield of the total enzyme activity. Mitochondrial and microsomal marker enzymes are present in negligible amounts (0.2% of the activity of the homogenate). The biochemical evidence for a rather high degree of homogeneity of the fraction is supported by the electron microscopic examination of the purified lysosomes. The intracellular localizations of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase in Ehrlich ascites cells are also reported, the first two being present in highest concentration in the combined mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction and the third in the microsomal fraction.

  13. Immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera freyn and sint seeds on ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Shiwenhui, Chengyufeng; Abudureyimu, Meiliwan; Maimaitiyiming, Dilinuer

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera Freyn and Sint seeds (NGS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Kunming mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAC) were treated with NGS by oral administration. On the 11th day after the EAC implant, mouse thymus, liver, spleen and kidney tumors were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses. Results: The results indicate that NGS treatment leads to an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-2 blood serum levels. Absence of viable EAC and presence of necrotic cells were observed in the tumor tissue of the NGS-treated animals. Conclusions: The study results indicated that a water extract of NGS had the highest anti-tumor effect. Moreover, NGS treatment also showed an increase in the immune system activity. PMID:23929999

  14. Role of metallothionein in the zinc metabolism of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kraker, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The reactions of zinc and zinc, cadmium metallothioneins with apocarbonic anhydrase have been studied. Apo-carbonic anhydrase abstracts zinc from zinc metallothionein and zinc, cadmium metallothionein in second-order processes which are two to three orders of magnitude more rapid than those of EDTA abstraction of zinc and are similar to the rate of reconstitution of the apo-enzyme by unligated Zn. In comparison with other proteins, zinc metallothionein contains unusually reactive metal binding sites suggesting this protein may be a physiological donor of Zn to zinc requiring sites in cells. When limiting amounts of dietary zinc stimulate the deficient cells to divide, zinc is not observed in metallothionein. A non-limiting amount of dietary zinc supports both proliferation and the steady state presence of zinc in this protein. Zinc metallothionein is shown to be the principal donor of zinc to added apo-carbonic anhydrase in Ehrlich cell cytosol. Treatment of cells with a copper ligand known to possess anti-tumor activity, with the toxic metal Cd, or with cis-dichlorodiamine Pt(II) which is another anti-tumor agent, all cause cells to cease proliferation at levels of each agent which result in the displacement of zinc from metallothionein. These results are used to construct a model of zinc metabolism in which Zn metallothionein is a central, biochemically active form of zinc. The finding in a number of tumors other than Ehrlich ascites carcinoma of the existence of metal binding protein with characteristics similar to metallothionein suggests that the significantly elevated levels of metallothionein-like protein may be a general feature of many tumors and that it may play a vital role in rapidly proliferating tissue in general.

  15. Antitumor efficacy and amelioration of oxidative stress by Trichosanthes dioica root against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Prasanna, Angelene; Majumdar, Piyali; Kumar, R B Suresh; Haldar, Pallab K

    2011-09-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae) is a dioecious climber, traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes. The present study assessed the hydroalcoholic extract of T. dioica root (TDA) for antitumor effect and antioxidant influence against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Twenty four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight daily for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for estimation of tumor proliferation, hematological, and liver antioxidant parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life span. The antitumor effect of TDA was assessed by evaluating tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable and non-viable tumor cell counts, median survival time and percentage increase in life span of EAC bearing mice. TDA exhibited dose dependent and significant (p < 0.001) decrease in tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and extended the life span of EAC bearing hosts. Hematological profiles were significantly (p < 0.001) restored near to normal in TDA treated mice as compared to EAC control. TDA treatment significantly (p < 0.001) modulated the aforesaid liver antioxidant parameters as compared to EAC control. The present study demonstrated that TDA possessed promising antitumor efficacy in mice, plausibly mediated by amelioration of oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.

  16. Cellular uptake of {sup 212}BiOCl by Ehrlich ascites cells: A dosimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, J.C.; Whitlock, J.L.; Harper, P.V.; Rotmensch, J.; Stinchcomb, T.G.; Schwartz, J.L.; Hines, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Bi-212 is an alpha-emitting radionuclide being investigated as a therapeutic agent in the intraperitoneal treatment of micrometastatic ovarian carcinoma. In evaluating a new therapeutic modality, cell-survival studies are often used as a means of quantifying the biological effects of radiation. In this analysis, Ehrlich ascites cells were irradiated under conditions similar to therapy in various concentrations of Bi-212. Immediately following irradiation, a cell survival assay was performed in which cells were plated and colonies were counted after 10--14 days. Both a macrodosimetric and a microdosimetric approach were used in analyzing these data. These models used as input the fraction of activity within the cell and in solution, the distribution of cell sizes, and the variation of LET along individual alpha-particle tracks. The results indicate that the energy deposited within the nucleus varies significantly among individual cells. There is a small fraction of cell nuclei which receive no hits, while the remaining cells receive energy depositions which can differ significantly from the mean value. These dosimetric parameters are correlated with measured cell survival and will be a useful predictor of outcome for therapeutic doses.

  17. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  18. Interactions of lectins with plasma membrane glycoproteins of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Nachbar, M S; Oppenheim, J D; Aull, F

    1976-02-06

    Several aspects of the interaction of various lectins with the surface of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells are described. The order of agglutinating activity for various lectins is Ricinus communis greater than wheat germ greater than or equal to concanavalin A greater than or equal to soybean greater than Limulus polyphemus. No agglutination was noted for Ulex europaeus. Using 125I-labeled lectins it was determined that there are 1.6 and 7 times as many Ricinus communis lectin binding sites for concanavalin A and soybean lectins. Sodium deoxycholate-solubilized plasma membrane material was subjected to lectin affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The lectin receptors of the plasma membrane appeared to be heterogeneous and some qualitative differences could be discerned among the electrophoretically analyzed material, which bound to and was specifically eluted from the various lectin affinity columns. The characteristics of elution of bound material from individual lectin columns indicated secondary hydrophobic interactions between concanavalin A or wheat germ agglutinin and their respective lectin receptor molecules.

  19. Dinucleosidetetraphosphatase from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells: inhibition by adenosine, guanosine and uridine 5'-tetraphosphates.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Lobatón, C D; Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1982-01-01

    1. An enzyme has been partially purified from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells which specifically hydrolyses dinucleosidetetraphosphates, with Km values of around 2 microM. The products of the hydrolysis are the corresponding nucleoside tri- and monophosphates. Dinucleoside Tri- and diphosphates were not substrates of the reaction. 2. The enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+, is maximally active at a pH value of approx. 7.5 and has a mol, wt of 19,800 as estimated by filtration on Sephadex G-75. Nucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates were competitive inhibitors of the reaction with Ki values in the 0.1 mM range. 3. Particularly relevant is the inhibition of this enzyme by adenosine and guanosine 5'tetraphosphates. In the course of this investigation, the presence of uridine 5'-tetraphosphate was detected in a commercial preparation of UTP. Adenosine, guanosine and uridine 5'-tetraphosphates were very strong inhibitors of the reaction with Ki values in the nM range.

  20. Evidence for activation of an active electrogenic proton pump in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells during glycolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, A.; Sachs, G.; Schafer, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of glucose to a suspension of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells results in rapid acidification of the extracellular medium due to lactic acid production. The nature of the H+ efflux mechanism has been studied by measuring the time course of the acidification, the rate of proton efflux, the direction and relative magnitude of the H+ concentration gradient, and the voltage across the membrane. Using the pH-sensitive dye acridine orange, we have established that after addition of 10 mM glucose an outward-directed H+ concentration gradient develops. As the rate of glycolysis slows, the continued extrusion of H+ reverses the direction of the H+ concentration gradient. Changes in absorbance of the voltage-sensitive dye diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DOCC), and changes in the distribution of the lipid permeant cation tetraphenyl phosphonium, showed a dramatic and persistent hyperpolarization of the membrane voltage after glucose addition. The hyperpolarization was prevented by the protonophore tetrachlorosalicylanalide (TCS) and by valinomycin, but not by the neutral-exchange ionophore nigericin. Inhibitors of lactate efflux were found to reduce the rate of acidification after glucose addition but they had no effect on the magnitude of the resulting hyperpolarization. On the basis of these and other data we suggest that an active electrogenic pump mechanism for H+ efflux may be activated by glucose and that this mechanism operates independently of the lactate carrier system.

  1. An investigation of the shedding of macromolecules from the Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cell

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    The spontaneous release, or shedding, of cell surface components into the extracellular medium may be important in the determination of several features of the cancer cell phenotype. The release of macromolecules from the Erhlich mouse ascites tumor cell was studied under a variety of experimental conditions to elucidate the origin and the underlying mechanisms of release. The extrinsic macromolecules are a diverse group with apparent molecular weights ranging from 13,500 to 400,000 daltons. External labeling of the cell surface with tritiated 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2-disulfonic acid (({sup 3}H)H{sub 2}DIDS) reveals a slow loss of labeled components at 4{degrees}C, while at 21{degrees}C and 37{degrees}C an initial rapid loss is followed by a slower release. In vitro metabolic labeling with (1-{sup 14}C)-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, D-(2-{sup 3}H)-mannose and various ({sup 3}H)-L-amino acids results in the appearance of labeled macromolecules in the medium suggesting tumor, not mouse, origin. These data suggest that the extrinsic macromolecules originate from the cell surface. Macromolecules are shed by a temperature and pH sensitive process. These results suggest that a limited proteolytic digestion, or sublethal autolysis, of the cell surface may occur in this system. The macromolecules shed by the Ehrlich cell originate from the surface and are probably released by sublethal autolysis, direct secretion and a passive process.

  2. Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Masuzawa, Y.; Okano, S.; Waku, K.; Sprecher, H.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-11-01

    Three /sup 14/C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-(/sup 14/C)docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-(/sup 14/C)docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-(/sup 14/C)docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6) and (14C)linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Baker's Yeast, suppresses the growth of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2008-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in immunocompetent mice. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. At day 8, mice bearing Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma tumor (SEC) were intratumorally (IT) injected with killed S. cerevisiae (10 x 10(6) and 20 x 10(6) cells) for 35 days. Histopathology of yeast-treated mice showed extensive tumor degeneration, apoptosis, and ischemic (coagulative) and liquefactive necrosis. These changes are associated with a tumor growth curve that demonstrates a significant antitumor response that peaked at 35 days. Yeast treatment (20 x 10(6) cells) three times a week resulted in a significant decrease in tumor volume (TV) (67.1%, P < 0.01) as compared to PBS-treated mice. The effect was determined to be dependent on dose and frequency. Yeast administered three and two times per week induced significant decrease in TV as early as 9 and 25 days post-treatment, respectively. Administration of yeast significantly enhanced the recruitment of leukocytes, including macrophages, into the tumors and triggered apoptosis in SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry (78.6%, P < 0.01) at 20 x 10(6) cells, as compared to PBS-treated mice (42.6%). In addition, yeast treatment elevated TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma plasma levels and lowered the elevated IL-10 levels. No adverse side effects from the yeast treatment were observed, including feeding/drinking cycle and life activity patterns. Indeed, yeast-treated mice showed significant final body weight gain (+21.5%, P < 0.01) at day 35. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancer with yeast, which is known to be safe for human consumption.

  4. Na+,Cl- cotransport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells activated during volume regulation (regulatory volume increase).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E K; Sjøholm, C; Simonsen, L O

    1983-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites cells were preincubated in hypotonic medium with subsequent restoration of tonicity. After the initial osmotic shrinkage the cells recovered their volume within 5 min with an associated KCl uptake. The volume recovery was inhibited when NO-3 was substituted for Cl-, and when Na+ was replaced by K+, or by choline (at 5 mM external K+). The volume recovery was strongly inhibited by furosemide and bumetanide, but essentially unaffected by DIDS. The net uptake of Cl- was much larger than the value predicted from the conductive Cl- permeability. The undirectional 36Cl flux, which was insensitive to bumetanide under steady-state conditions, was substantially increased during regulatory volume increase, and showed a large bumetanide-sensitive component. During volume recovery the Cl- flux ratio (influx/efflux) for the bumetanide-sensitive component was estimated at 1.85, compatible with a coupled uptake of Na+ and Cl-, or with an uptake via a K+,Na+,2Cl- cotransport system. The latter possibility is unlikely, however, because a net uptake of KCl was found even at low external K+, and because no K+ uptake was found in ouabain-poisoned cells. In the presence of ouabain a bumetanide-sensitive uptake during volume recovery of Na+ and Cl- in nearly equimolar amounts was demonstrated. It is proposed that the primary process during the regulatory volume increase is an activation of an otherwise quiescent, bumetanide-sensitive Na+,Cl- cotransport system with subsequent replacement of Na+ by K+ via the Na+/K+ pump, stimulated by the Na+ influx through the Na+,Cl- cotransport system.

  5. Action of the antitumor and antispermatogenic agent lonidamine on electron transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Floridi, A; Lehninger, A L

    1983-10-01

    The effect of lonidamine, an antispermatogenic and antitumor drug, on the oxygen consumption, ATPase activity, and redox state of the electron carriers of Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria has been studied. Lonidamine inhibits ADP- and uncoupler-stimulated respiration on various NAD- and FAD-linked substrates, but does not affect state 4 respiration. Experiments to determine its site of action showed that lonidamine does not significantly inhibit electron flow through cytochrome oxidase. Electron flow through site 2, the ubiquinone-cytochrome b-cytochrome c1 complex, also was unaffected by lonidamine, which failed to inhibit the oxidation of duroquinol. Moreover, inhibition of electron flow through site 2 was also excluded because of the inability of the N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine bypass to relieve the lonidamine inhibition of the oxidation of pyruvate + malate. The F0F1ATPase activity and vectorial H+ ejection are also unaffected by lonidamine. The inhibition of succinate oxidation by lonidamine was found to take place at a point between succinate and iron-sulfur center S3. Spectroscopic experiments demonstrated that lonidamine inhibits the reduction of mitochondrial NAD+ by pyruvate + malate and other NAD-linked substrates in the transition from state 1 to state 4. However, lonidamine does not inhibit reduction of added NAD+ by submitochondrial vesicles or by soluble purified NAD-linked dehydrogenases. These observations, together with other evidence, suggest that electron transport in tumor mitochondria is inhibited by lonidamine at the dehydrogenase-coenzyme level, particularly when the electron carriers are in a relatively oxidized state and/or when the inner membrane-matrix compartment is in the condensed state. The action of lonidamine in several respects resembles the selective inhibition of electron transport in tumor cells produced by cytotoxic macrophages (D. L. Granger and A. L. Lehninger (1982) J. Cell Biol. 95, 527).

  6. Regulatory volume decrease in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is not mediated by a rise in intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; Smith, T C; Levinson, C

    1993-02-23

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells suspended in hyposmotic solution initially swell and then shrink back towards normal volume, a process known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). RVD is characterized by a specific loss of KCl, although the mechanism for this is currently unknown. The hypothesis that a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) activates calcium-sensitive ion conductances to initiate RVD was investigated. The results indicate that in the Ehrlich cell no rise in [Ca2+]i occurs when the extracellular osmolality is reduced from 300 mosM to 180 mosM. These findings were substantiated by the lack of sensitivity of RVD to the Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channel blockers charybdotoxin (CTX) and nifedipine. In contrast, the ionophore ionomycin induced a cell shrinkage that was sensitive to CTX and nifedipine indicating that a rise in [Ca2+]i could play a role in cell volume reduction but that this occurred by a mechanism different from that observed in RVD. The conclusion from these experiments is that Ca2+ does not act as a second messenger for RVD in the Ehrlich cell.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Kaempferia rotunda rhizome lectin and its induction of apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Reza, Md Abu

    2014-03-01

    The tuberous rhizome Kaempferia rotunda Linn. has been used as food and traditional medicinal plant, and the purified K. rotunda lectin (KRL) showed antiproliferative activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells [1]. In the present study, KRL showed agglutination activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with partial inhibition of their growth. MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of KRL on EAC cells in vitro in RPMI-1640 medium, and it was found that lectin inhibited 6.2-50.5% cell growth at the range of 7.5-120 μg/ml protein concentration. The cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells was also determined by flow cytometry after treatment with lectin. The apoptotic cell morphological changes of the treated EAC cells were confirmed by fluorescence and optical microscope. In the presence of caspase-3 inhibitor, the cell growth inhibition of the lectin was reduced significantly. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes, bcl-2, bcl-X, and bax. Bax gene expression was intensively increased with the despaired of bcl-X gene expression and significant decrease of bcl-2 gene expression in the cells treated with KRL. Thus, lectin induced apoptotic cell death in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.

  8. Virus - tumor cell relationships. In vivo cocultivation of para-influenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and of Rous sarcoma virus (Schmidt-Ruppin strain) in mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Chira, M; Suru, M; Repanovici, R; Anghelescu, S

    1985-01-01

    Co-infection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice with Sendai virus and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) did not result in the formation of complete RSV. Sendai virus could be, however, propagated in this system over 8 serial passages. As demonstrated by immunofluorescence and complement fixation reactions, antigens specific to each virus were synthesized in EAC cells following either single or mixed virus infection. The virus progens also contained antigenic fractions incorporated from the host cell. The incomplete progens synthesized when RSV inoculation preceded that of Sendai virus possessed three polypeptide fractions characteristic of Sendai virus and one RSV-specific fraction.

  9. In vivo tumor inhibitory effects of nutritional rice bran supplement MGN-3/Biobran on Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Ghoneum, Mamdooh

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anti-tumor activity of MGN-3/Biobran, a modified arabinoxylan rice bran. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. On Day 8, mice bearing a solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) tumor were treated with MGN-3 via intraperitoneal injection. Tumor growth, cytokine production, and apoptotic effect of MGN-3 were examined. MGN-3 caused a highly significant delay in both tumor volume (63.27%) and tumor weight (45.2%) as compared to controls (P < 0.01). The mechanisms by which MGN-3 exerts its antitumor effect seem to involve its ability to induce apoptosis and immune modulation. MGN-3 induced a 1.8-fold increase in the percentage of apoptotic SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry and the histopathological examination. In addition, MGN-3 influenced plasma cytokine production by increasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, while downregulating levels of the immune suppressing cytokine interleukin-10. Data also showed that non-tumor-bearing mice intramuscularly injected with MGN-3 resulted in a twofold increase in natural killer activity. No adverse side effects due to MGN-3 treatment were observed; all animals displayed normal feeding/drinking and life activity patterns. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancers.

  10. Surface markers of small lymphocytes appearing in the mouse Ehrlich ascites tumour, host spleen and blood

    PubMed Central

    Garnis, Sylvia; Lala, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Small lymphocytes sampled from intraperitoneally growing Ehrlich ascites tumour in CBA/H-T6 mice as well as host spleen and blood at different days of tumour development were characterized radioautographically on the basis of two surface markers, IgM for B cells and θ antigen for T cells. A direct binding of 125I-labelled anti-IgM detected natural surface IgM, while an indirect binding following a prior exposure to anti-θ antibody detected θ antigen. Cells remaining unlabelled with the latter procedure were considered to lack both markers (double negative). While the incidence of IgM+ve small lymphocytes within the tumour declined, their absolute numbers increased with tumour growth. Low levels of antiglobulin binding shown by these cells were considered to reflect low levels of maturation, because (1) our previous studies indicated that they were newly formed, and (2) the extent of antiglobulin binding by B lymphocytes in the marrow is known to increase with increasing post-mitotic age. The proportions and the absolute numbers of θ+ve as well as the double negative small lymphocytes increased within the growing tumours. Within the host spleen, the incidence of IgM+ve small lymphocytes remained unchanged but their absolute numbers increased because of splenomegaly. The degree of antiglobulin binding by these cells was comparable to that of the normal splenic population. The incidence of θ+ve cells dropped but their absolute numbers remained unchanged in the spleen during tumour growth. In contrast, the incidence as well as the absolute numbers of double negative cells increased markedly. This cell category increased also in the blood, possibly in transit to the tumour site and other lymphoid organs from the bone marrow, where they were most prevalent. Their bone marrow origin was further suggested by a preponderance of marrow derived small lymphocytes at the tumour site as well as in the host spleens found in our earlier studies. Double negative population in

  11. Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, Isha; Kumar, Nitesh; Manjula, S N; Parihar, Vipan; Setty, M Manjunath; Pai, K S R

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the root nodules of Premna herbacea Roxb. (PH) was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Two extracts, aqueous and alcoholic; two fractions of alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were found to be the most effective in BSL assay, trypan blue exclusion assay. In vivo antitumor activity was screened in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model and the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model. The extracts and the fractions were tested at two dosages (250 and 500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneally (i.p.) route on every alternate day upto 13th day. Cisplatin was used as positive control in both studies in single dose (day 1) 3.5 mg/kg by i.p. route. In EAC model, ascites tumor was induced by inoculating 2.5 million of EAC cells i.p. alcoholic extract at 500 mg/kg was the most effective in elevating MST, reduction in body weight in EAC induced tumor. Only the effective extract i.e., alcoholic extract were studied for hematological and antioxidant parameter. It showed a restoring effect on altered hematological parameters and a significant improvement in biochemical parameters at 250 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract. These results explain the toxicity of 500 mg/kg might be high. In the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model, solid tumor was developed by i.m. injection of 1 million DLA cells. Both the extracts and the fractions possessed potent antitumor activity against solid tumor models by significantly reducing the solid tumor weight and volume. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A p-menth-1-ene-4,7-diol (EC-1) from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dhnh. triggers apoptosis and cell cycle changes in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farhadul; Khanam, Jahan Ara; Khatun, Mahbuba; Zuberi, Natasha; Khatun, Laboni; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Reza, Md Abu; Ali, M M; Rabbi, M A; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2015-04-01

    Anticancer activities of p-menth-1-ene-4,7-diol (EC-1) isolated from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dhnh. were studied on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Anticancer activities also analyzed in EAC-bearing mice by assessment of cancer growth inhibition, changes in cancer volume, changes in life span, and hematological parameters. Apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence microscope, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, PARP-1, p53, and Bax, were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). EC-1 significantly inhibited proliferation of EAC cells in vivo and restored the altered hematological parameters of EAC-bearing mice. Cytological observation by fluorescence microscope showed apoptosis of EAC cells upon treatment with EC-1. Also, DNA fragmentation assay revealed EAC cells' apoptosis following EC-1 treatment. Increased mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax genes and negative expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X were observed in cells treated with EC-1. These findings confirmed the induction of apoptosis by EC-1. In addition, MTT assay showed dose-dependent anticancer activity of EC-1 against EAC cell. Cell cycle analysis revealed that EC-1 treatment caused suppression of EAC cells at S phase. To conclude, EC-1 is a novel anticancer compound and showed antiproliferative and apoptotic activities in cellular and mice models.

  13. Inhibition of Na-K-Cl cotransport in Ehrlich ascites cells by antiserum against purified proteins of the cotransporter

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, P.B. ); Jessen, F.; Hoffmann, E.K. )

    1990-09-01

    Two proteins were purified earlier from solubilized membranes of Ehrlich ascites cells by using a bumetanide-Sepharose affinity column. These proteins were proposed to be constituents of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter. However, the specificity of binding of bumetanide to the cotransporter was insufficient evidence for this proposal. The authors now have direct evidence that the purified protein contains components of the cotransporter. Antiserum raised against the bumetanide-binding proteins strongly inhibits Na-K-Cl cotransport measured by two independent methods. Cotransport was induced by hypertonic challenge and was measured as the bumetanide-sensitive portion of unidirectional Cl influx and as regulatory cell volume increase. In both assays, contransport was strongly inhibited by antiserum. Fab fragments of the antibodies inhibited cotransport to a similar extent.

  14. Morphogenesis of Influenza A Virus in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells as Revealed by Thin-Sectioning and Freeze-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Bächi, T.; Gerhard, W.; Lindenmann, J.; Mühlethaler, K.

    1969-01-01

    The budding of a tumor-adapted strain of influenza A0 virus at the surface of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by electron microscopy. Thin sections of budding sites showed the formation of a fuzzy coat on the outside of the cell membrane and simultaneously the apposition of a dark layer on the inner side. The continuity of cellular and viral membrane seemed to be preserved up to the point where the virion remained attached by only a thin stalk. Freeze-etching of virus budding sites yielded pictures in which a clear differentiation between the viral membrane and the host cell membrane was visible. The breaks across the fuzzy coat revealed striations corresponding to the “spikes” seen in negative contrast, whereas tangentially broken virus particles were best interpreted by assuming that splitting occurred midway between the two outer layers of the envelope. Images PMID:5391162

  15. Characteristics of the accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate derivatives in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.W.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    The intracellular synthesis and retention of polygammaglutamyl derivatives of methotrexate and their interactions with H/sub 2/ folate reductase was evaluated. Methotrexate polyglutamates were detected within 15 minutes in hepatocytes exposed to 1 microM methotrexate, and continued to accumulate for at least 60 minutes producing a large transmembrane gradient. These derivatives appeared to be preferentially retained within the cell. In studies with the Ehrlich ascites tumor accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates was increased over 5-fold by the addition of 5 mM L-glutamine or L-glutamate and exhibited a positive correlation with the extracellular concentration of methotrexate. When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were exposed to 10 microM methotrexate and 5 mM L-glutamine intracellular polyglutamates were detected within 10 minutes and their levels increased linearly over 4 hours. As these derivatives accumulated, there was a decline in intracellular methotrexate due at least in part to a replacement of methotrexate on H/sub 2/ folate reductase by polyglutamates and subsequent efflux of the previously bound methotrexate from the cell. When polyglutamate derivatives were in excess of the H/sub 2/ folate reductase binding capacity and extracellular methotrexate removed, methotrexate rapidly exited the cell whereas the majority of its metabolites were retained and eventually saturated the major portion of the enzyme. These studies indicate that (1) intracellular methotrexate is rapidly converted to polygammaglutamyl derivatives, (2) these metabolites effectively compete with methotrexate for binding sites on H/sub 2/ folate reductase, (3) these derivatives are retained within the cell more effectively than methotrexate, and (4) vincristine and probenecid may be potentially useful for selectively increasing methotrexate polyglutamates in tumor cells.

  16. Inhibition by 2,5-anhydromannitol of glycolysis in isolated rat hepatocytes and in Ehrlich ascites cells.

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, P T; Kneer, N M; Wernette-Hammond, M E; Lardy, H A

    1985-01-01

    2,5-Anhydromannitol decreases lactate formation and 3H2O formation from [5-3H]glucose in isolated rat hepatocytes metabolizing high concentrations of glucose. The inhibition of glycolysis is accompanied by a slight decrease in the cellular content of fructose-6-P and a more substantial decrease in the cellular content of fructose-1,6-P2, with no change in the content of glucose-6-P. The 3H2O release data and changes in hexosephosphate distribution indicate possible inhibitions at phosphofructokinase-1 and phosphoglucose isomerase. 2,5-Anhydromannitol also inhibits glycolysis in Ehrlich ascites cells, but the tumor cells, unlike hepatocytes, must be treated with 2,5-anhydromannitol prior to exposure to glucose to obtain the inhibition. The decrease in 3H2O formation from [5-3H]glucose and the metabolite pattern that results from the addition of low concentrations (less than or equal to 0.25 mM) of 2,5-anhydromannitol indicate an inhibition at phosphofructokinase-1 that cannot be attributed to a decrease in the cellular content of fructose-2,6-P2. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 0.5 mM) of 2,5-anhydromannitol cause a substantial decrease in the cellular content of ATP that is accompanied by decreases in the content of glucose-6-P and fructose-6-P and transient increases in fructose-1,6-P2. In Ehrlich ascites cells, 2,5-anhydromannitol is metabolized to 2,5-anhydromannitol mono- and bisphosphate. The inhibition of glycolysis caused by 2,5-anhydromanitol decreases with time, because the phosphorylated metabolites formed during the preliminary incubation in the absence of glucose are rapidly dephosphorylated during the incubation in the presence of glucose. PMID:3155858

  17. Prooxidative effect of copper--metallothionein in the acute cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Suntres, Zacharias E; Lui, Edmund M K

    2006-01-16

    This study was concerned with the role of copper (Cu) and Cu-metallothionein (Cu-MT) in oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative injury was examined in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells isolated from host mice pretreated with 0, 1 or 2mg of CuSO(4) (ip) 24h earlier. Control Ehrlich cells contained low levels of Cu and Cu treatment produced dose-related increases in cellular Cu and Cu-MT levels and corresponding increases in sensitivity to oxidative toxicity of H(2)O(2) (LC(50), cell blebbing, lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)](i)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment also resulted in the oxidation of MT thiolates, reduction in the binding of Cu to MT resulting in translocation of Cu to other subcellular sites. d-penicillamine, a Cu-chelating agent, obliterated the sensitization effect of Cu-pretreatment and reduced the redistribution of MT-bound Cu, suggesting the participation of Cu ions derived from MT in promoting oxidant stress. Additional experiments with desferoxamine and mannitol have revealed the involvement of a Cu-dependent Fenton reaction in the mediation of the prooxidative effect of Cu-MT. These data suggest that cells with high levels of Cu-MT may be particularly susceptible to oxidative stress.

  18. Molecular size of a Na sup + -dependent amino acid transporter in Ehrlich ascites cell plasma membranes estimated by radiation inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.I.; Johnstone, R.M. ); Jette, M.; Beliveau, R. ); Potier, M. )

    1991-04-16

    Radiation inactivation was used to estimate the molecular size of a Na{sup +}-dependent amino acid transport system in Ehrlich ascites cell plasma membrane vesicles. Na{sup +}-dependent {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid uptake was measured after membranes were irradiated at {minus}78.5C in a cryoprotective medium. Twenty-five percent of the transport activity was lost at low radiation doses (<0.5 Mrad), suggesting the presence of a high molecular weight transport complex. The remaining activity ({approximately}75% of total) decreased exponentially with increasing radiation dose, and a molecular size of 347 kDa was calculated for the latter carrier system. Radiation doses 2-3 fold higher than those required to inactivate amino acid transport were needed to cause significant volume changes. The relationship between the fragmentation of a 120-130-kDapeptide, a putative component of the Na{sup +}-dependent amino acid carrier and loss of transport activity in irradiated membranes was also examined. Peptide loss was quantitated by Western blot analysis. The data support the conclusion that fragmentation of the 120-130-kDa peptide is related to loss of amino acid transport in irradiation Ehrlich cell plasma membranes.

  19. Cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cagemate induces immune but not behavioral changes in male mice.

    PubMed

    Machado, Thalita R M; Alves, Glaucie J; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Palermo-Neto, João

    2017-02-01

    Cohabitation with Ehrlich ascitic tumor-injected conspecifics induces behavioral, neurochemical, endocrine and immune changes indicative of stress and immune impairment in female mice. The present work analyzed the effects of similar cohabitation in Swiss and Balb/C male mice. At least 12 pairs of male mice were divided into a control group and an experimental group. On experimental day 1 (ED1), one animal within each experimental pair was inoculated with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells intraperitoneally (i.p.); the other animal was kept undisturbed and was referred to as the CSP (companion of a sick partner). One male mouse of each control pair was treated i.p. with 0.9% NaCl (1mL/kg); the other animal (the CHP, companion of a healthy partner) was kept undisturbed. Cohabitation with a sick partner for 11days did not induce any behavioral, hypothalamic noradrenergic, corticosterone or adrenal weight changes in the Swiss CSP male mice compared to those of the Swiss CHP group. However, impairments in neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst as well as increased levels of catecholamines were observed in Swiss and Balb/C CSP mice relative to CHP male animals of the same strains on ED11 and ED14, respectively. Moreover, after a challenge with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells on ED11 of cohabitation, the number and concentration of tumor cells found in the ascitic fluid were higher in the Swiss CSP male mice than in the CHP mice. These data suggest that the immune changes observed in Swiss and Balb/C male CSP mice after cohabitation with a sick cagemate might, ultimately, depend on the changes induced by catecholamines, as previously reported for CSP female mice. However, contrary to that reported in Swiss CSP female mice, changes in behavioral and hypothalamic noradrenaline activity were not found in the Swiss CSP male mice analyzed in this work. This fact suggests that male and female CSP mice might use similar immune but different CNS strategies against the threats posed

  20. Effect of various doses of chalone-containing alcohol precipitate from Ehrlich's ascites tumor on mitotic activity and DNA synthesis in that tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsak, N.Ya.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Antokhin, A.I.

    1987-06-01

    Experiments were carried out on noninbred male albino mice to assess the effects of varying doses of chalone-containing alcohol precipitates on mitotic activity and DNA synthesis in Ehrlich ascites tumor. Histological preparations of the tumor and small intestine were made by standard methods. Hydrolysis of the tumor in HCl was carried out before application of the nuclear photographic emulsion in order to prepare autoradiographs of the tumor. Tritium-labelled thymidine was injected as the radioactive marker.

  1. Disposition of 1,4,6,8-tetramethyl-furoquinolinone in normal and ascitic tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Rita; Baccichetti, Francarosa; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Guiotto, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    1,4,6,8-Tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3h]quinolin-2-one (FQ) belongs to a series of furocoumarin isosters, designed to obtain new drugs for photochemotherapy. The objective of this study was to characterize the disposition of orally administered 3H-FQ in normal and ascitic tumor bearing mice and to evaluate the influence of UVA irradiation in control mice. This compound was rapidly absorbed and its decay in serum was biphasic. Binding to serum proteins, which was maximum at 30 min (74 %), time-dependently declined. FQ was distributed to all the studied tissues, primarily to the liver and kidneys. The administered radioactivity was excreted mostly in the urine (43 %) and was associated with polar metabolites. The unchanged compound was not present to any detectable extent in the urine. Elimination in the faeces, that may include FQ not absorbed, was low (14 % of administered radioactivity), emphasizing the quantitatively efficient gastrointestinal absorption of the drug. UVA irradiation of FQ-treated mice for 2 h caused a significant increase in radioactivity measured in serum as well as in the liver. In mice bearing Ehrlich ascitic tumor, serum and tissue concentrations were lower than in control animals, possibly due to the larger volume of body fluids (10+/-4 ml of ascitic fluid) available for drug distribution.

  2. Modulation of the volume-sensitive K+ current in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells by pH.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, C; Jørgensen, F; Hoffmann, E K

    2001-07-01

    The effects of extracellular and intracellular pH (pHo and pHi respectively) on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response and on the volume-sensitive K+ and Cl- currents (IK,vol and ICl,vol respectively) were studied in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Alkaline pHo accelerated and acidic pHo decelerated the RVD response significantly. Intra- and extracellular alkalinisation increased the amplitude of IK,vol whereas acidification had an inhibitory effect. The magnitude of ICl,vol was not affected by changes in pHi or pHo. A significant reduction in the activation time for IK,vol after hypotonic cell swelling was observed upon moderate intracellular alkalinisation (to pHi 7.9). A further increase in pHi to 8.4 resulted in the spontaneous activation of an IK under isotonic conditions which resembled IK,vol with respect to its pharmacological profile and current/voltage (I/V) relation. Noise analysis demonstrated that the increased amplitude of IK,vol at alkaline pH resulted mainly from an increase in the number of channels (N) contributing to the current. The channel open probability, Po, was largely unaffected by pH. The pH dependence and the biophysical and pharmacological properties of IK,vol are similar to those of the cloned tandem pore-domain acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels, and in the current study the presence of TASK-1 was confirmed in Ehrlich cells.

  3. Ursolic acid inhibits tumor angiogenesis and induces apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor.

    PubMed

    Saraswati, Sarita; Agrawal, S S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2013-11-25

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene naturally occurring in many plant foods. In the present study, we investigated anti-cancer activity of UA in vivo in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor. 15 × 10(6) EAC cells were implanted intraperitoneally (i.p., ascitic tumor) and subcutaneous (s.c., solid tumor) in Swiss albino mice. Mice with established tumors received UA i.p. at 25, 50 and 100mg/kg bw for 14 d in ascitic and 100mg/kg bw in solid tumor for 30 d. On day 15, blood samples were collected for hematological assessment of hemoglobin (Hb%), RBCs, WBCs and PCV. Tumor volume, cell viability, angiogenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory factors and antioxidant parameters were determined. Immunohistochemistry analysis for VEGF, iNOS, CD31, caspase-3 and Bax were also performed. UA significantly inhibited tumor growth, cell viability, in both ascites and solid tumor model in vivo (p<0.001). The anti-angiogenic effects were accompanied with decreased VEGF, iNOS, TNF-α and increased IL-12 levels. UA at 100mg/kg bw dose significantly increased SOD and CAT activity (p<0.01). GSH and TBARS were increased as compared to control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, UA increased total RBCs, WBCs as well as Hb% significantly (p<0.05) compared to cyclophosphamide (CP). Histopathological examination of tumor cells in the treated group demonstrated signs of apoptosis with chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. Decreased peritoneal angiogenesis showed the anti-angiogenic potential. UA downregulated VEGF & iNOS expression whereas bax and caspase-3 expressions were upregulated suggesting drug induced tumor cell apoptosis through activating the pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family and caspase-3 and downregulation of VEGF. The present study sheds light on the potent antitumor property of the UA and can be extended further to develop therapeutic protocols for treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-Term Treatment with Aqueous Garlic and/or Tomato Suspensions Decreases Ehrlich Ascites Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bom, Jenifer; Gunutzmann, Patrícia; Hurtado, Elizabeth C Pérez; Maragno-Correa, Jussara M R; Kleeb, Silvia Regina; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive and therapeutic effects of aqueous suspensions of garlic, tomato, and garlic + tomato in the development of experimental Ehrlich tumors in mice. The aqueous suspensions (2%) were administered over a short term for 30 days before tumor inoculation and 12 days afterward, and suspensions at 6% were administered for 180 days before inoculation and for 12 days afterward. The volume, number, and characteristics of the tumor cells and AgNOR counts were determined to compare the different treatments. Aqueous 6% suspensions of garlic, tomato, and garlic + tomato given over the long term significantly reduced tumor growth but when given over the short term, they did not alter tumor growth.

  5. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  6. Antitumoral effect of a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Isler, Derya; Ozaslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Isik Didem; Kilic, Ibrahim Halil; Karakok, Metin; Taysi, Seyithan; Guler, Izzettin; Cakmak, Ahmet; Demiryurek, Abdullah Tuncay

    2014-02-01

    The Rho proteins and Rho-kinase (ROCK) enzymes are responsible for signal transduction, and cause cell permeability, contractility, differentiation, migration, proliferation or apoptosis depending on cell types. All of these functions are vital for cancer initiation and progression. In this study, the preventive and protective effects of a selective ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice were investigated. Adult male albino mice were divided into five equal groups, and Y-27632 (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) was given to groups as two steps; before (pre-carcinoma) and after inoculation of carcinoma cell suspensions (post-carcinoma). At the end of the experiments (at day 15), cardiac blood samples, the ascitic fluid, and intestinal specimens were collected for histopathology and biochemical investigation. Significant decreases in the body weight and immunostaining scores in small and large intestine for ROCK2, preservation of serum glutathione (GSH) levels, and an increase in tumor level of nitric oxide were recorded in groups pretreated with Y-27632. However, treatment with Y-27632 after tumor inoculation did not affect body weight and ROCK2 immunostaining scores, increased serum MDA levels, and decreased GSH levels. This is the first study on the effectiveness of Y-27632 in this experimental tumor model. Our findings provided direct evidence for ROCK involvement in tumor development. These data suggest that pretreatment with Y-27632 has a protective effect against tumor formation. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Antineoplastic activity of N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)2'-hydroxyphenylimine aqua nickel(II) complex [NI(H₂O)HHP] on ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Khanam, Jahan Ara; Jesmin, Mele; Ali, Mohammud Mohshin

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the antineoplastic activity of N[(2-hydroxybenzylidene)2'-hydroxyphenylimine] aqua nickel(II) complex abbreviated as [Ni(H2O)HHP] complex against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in Swiss albino mice. The effectiveness of the drug at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight was assessed for five consecutive days in previously inoculated tumor (137×10(4) EAC) cells containing mice. After administration of the last dose followed by 16 h fasting, the effect of the [Ni(H2O)HHP] complex on tumor was assessed by EAC cell growth inhibition, solid tumor mass, survival time, peritoneal cell count, hematological profiles like red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb)% and differential counts (i.e., lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes) and biochemical parameters like serum glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, serum urea and liver enzymes, respectively. The results have been compared with the data obtained by using a standard and highly effective clinically used anticancer drug bleomycin. [Ni(H2O)HHP] complex at dose 2.0 mg/kg i.p. (intra peritoneal) showed a significant (P=0.001) decrease in tumor volume of each mice and increased the life span as well as mean survival time of EAC bearing mice. Hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing mice get back normal values after 15 days of the initial treatment. From the above outcomes indicate the possible potential use of the compound as antitumor agent in advanced researches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The bioflavonoid galangin suppresses the growth of ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss Albino mice: a molecular insight.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Jai V; Wadegaonkar, Prasad A; Hajare, Sunil W

    2012-07-01

    Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancer caused by various stress conditions. Galangin (4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-), a flavonoid, is a polyphenolic compound found primarily in medicinal herb, Alpinia galanga. This study aims to demonstrate the galangin as a pharmacological lead compound using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico model targeting specific cancer condition and proteins. The proliferation of MCF-7 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was significantly inhibited with an IC₅₀ of 34.11 and 22.29 μg/ml, respectively. In an animal model system, galangin has inhibited the tumor growth by 73.51% ± 4.742 in EAC-induced Swiss Albino mice with no evidences of mortality as compared to standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. The effectiveness of galangin is proven in an animal system suggesting its pharmacokinetics behavior in an animal model which is also complemented by outcome of in silico analysis with more than 88 % of human intestinal absorption and significant Caco-2 cell, MDCK cell, and skin permeability as predicted by in silico methods. Galangin was docked against 19 different proteins involved in tumorogenesis and apoptosis; the energetic analysis indicates that it exhibits higher predicted binding free energy of -12.7 kcal/mol with Bcl-xL protein.

  9. Genetic constraints in the induction of the immune response to Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    Marusic, M.; Perkins, E.H.

    1981-07-15

    A single injection of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells induces immunity in normal mice but fails to do so in T-cell-deficient-thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (TIR) mice. TIR mice injected with normal syngeneic T cells develop an immune response to EAT when injected with irradiated EAT cells and reject a subsequent tumor cell challenge. In the present studies allogeneic T cells were unable to protect against EAT in TIR recipients even if harvested from donors tolerant to the recipient's transplantation antigens and injected into the TIR mice tolerant to the transplantation antigens of the injected T cells. Tolerance was produced by establishing long-term radiation chimeras of the P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ type. Semiallogeneic T cells also failed to afford protection against EAT in TIR recipients. Whereas tolerance to other parental-strain transplantation antigens did not reverse the inability of parental T cells (cells from P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ chimeric donors) to protect against EAT in F/sub 1/ TIR mice, it did enable F/sub 1/ T cells to afford protection in P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ TIR mice.

  10. M3 Macrophages Stop Division of Tumor Cells In Vitro and Extend Survival of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Yuri; Raetskaya, Anastasiya; Malyshev, Igor

    2017-01-26

    BACKGROUND M1 macrophages target tumor cells. However, many tumors produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, which reprogram the anti-tumor M1 macrophages into the pro-tumor M2 macrophages. We have hypothesized that the problem of pro-tumor macrophage reprogramming could be solved by using a special M3 switch phenotype. The M3 macrophages, in contrast to the M1 macrophages, should respond to anti-inflammatory cytokines by increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to retain its anti-tumor properties. Objectives of the study were to form an M3 switch phenotype in vitro and to evaluate the effect of M3 macrophages on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tumor growth was initiated by an intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells into C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS 1) The M3 switch phenotype can be programed by activation of M1-reprogramming pathways with simultaneous inhibition of the M2 phenotype transcription factors, STAT3, STAT6, and/or SMAD3. 2) M3 macrophages exerted an anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo, which was superior to anti-tumor effects of cisplatin or M1 macrophages. 3) The anti-tumor effect of M3 macrophages was due to their anti-proliferative effect. CONCLUSIONS Development of new biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth using in vitro reprogrammed M3 macrophages is very promising.

  11. M3 Macrophages Stop Division of Tumor Cells In Vitro and Extend Survival of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Yuri; Raetskaya, Anastasiya; Malyshev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Background M1 macrophages target tumor cells. However, many tumors produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, which reprogram the anti-tumor M1 macrophages into the pro-tumor M2 macrophages. We have hypothesized that the problem of pro-tumor macrophage reprogramming could be solved by using a special M3 switch phenotype. The M3 macrophages, in contrast to the M1 macrophages, should respond to anti-inflammatory cytokines by increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to retain its anti-tumor properties. Objectives of the study were to form an M3 switch phenotype in vitro and to evaluate the effect of M3 macrophages on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. Material/Methods Tumor growth was initiated by an intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells into C57BL/6J mice. Results 1) The M3 switch phenotype can be programed by activation of M1-reprogramming pathways with simultaneous inhibition of the M2 phenotype transcription factors, STAT3, STAT6, and/or SMAD3. 2) M3 macrophages exerted an anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo, which was superior to anti-tumor effects of cisplatin or M1 macrophages. 3) The anti-tumor effect of M3 macrophages was due to their anti-proliferative effect. Conclusions Development of new biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth using in vitro reprogrammed M3 macrophages is very promising. PMID:28123171

  12. Ultrastructural changes produced in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanins

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.J.; Pawlowski, A.; Persad, S.D.; Menon, I.A.; Haberman, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in the presence of pheomelanin, i.e., red hair melanin (RHM), has been reported to produce extensive cell lysis. Irradiation in the presence of eumelanin, i.e., black hair melanin (BHM), or irradiation in the absence of either type of melanin did not produce this effect. We observed that RHM particles penetrated the cell membrane without apparent structural damage to the cell or the cell membrane. Irradiation of the cells in the absence of melanin did not produce any changes in the ultrastructure of the cells. Incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM produced only minor structural, mainly cytoplasmic changes. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of RHM produced extensive ultrastructural changes prior to complete cell lysis; these changes were more severe than the effects of incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM. When the cells incubated in the dark or irradiated in the presence of latex particles or either one of the eumelanins particles, viz. BHM or synthetic dopa melanin, these particles did not penetrate into the cells or produce any ultrastructural changes. These particles were in fact not even ingested by the cells.

  13. Inhibition of electron flow through complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Dutta, S; Halder, J; Ray, M

    1994-10-01

    The effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption of Ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma (EAC)-cell mitochondria was tested by using different respiratory substrates, electron donors at different segments of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and site-specific inhibitors to identify the specific respiratory complex which might be involved in the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption by these cells. The results indicate that methylglyoxal strongly inhibits ADP-stimulated alpha-oxo-glutarate and malate plus pyruvate-dependent respiration, whereas, at a much higher concentration, methylglyoxal fails to inhibit succinate-dependent respiration. Methylglyoxal also fails to inhibit respiration which is initiated by duroquinol, an artificial electron donor. Moreover, methylglyoxal cannot inhibit oxygen consumption when the NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine by-pass is used. The inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is identical on both ADP-stimulated and uncoupler-stimulated respiration. Lactaldehyde, a catabolite of methylglyoxal, can exert a protective effect on the inhibition of EAC-cell mitochondrial respiration by methylglyoxal. We suggest that methylglyoxal possibly inhibits the electron flow through complex I of the EAC-cell mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  14. Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen mustard (HN/sub 2/) by vincristine, Ca and liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, C.; Kutman, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    Though vincristine (0.5mg/kg) has no significant carcinostatic effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, it does modify the carcinostatic effect of HN/sub 2/. Cells treated with 25 ..mu..m HN/sub 2/ in vitro, cold washed, then injected into recipient mice (1 x 10/sup 5/ cells/mouse) yielded 62% 60d mouse survival while cells treated with HN/sub 2/ and vincristine yielded approx. 30% survival. Parallel in vitro experiments using /sup 13/N HN/sub 2/ showed that vincristine did not decrease HN/sub 2/ uptake. Pretreating cells with 0.25 mM Ca before addition of drugs reversed the vincristine inhibition of HN/sub 2/ action. The action of extracellular Ca increased microtubule polymerization, decreasing vincristine action as has been reported for other systems. Cells treated with liposomes made of L(..cap alpha..) dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline, then with HN/sub 2/ then injected into mice yielded 92% mouse survival. Liposome treatment increased HN/sub 2/ uptake only about 18% while increasing cytostatis approx. 30%. The liposome effect was removed, and cytostatis reduced to approx. 30% mouse survival by vincristine. Cells pretreated with Ca + liposomes restored HN/sub 2/ effectiveness to near that seen with liposomes alone. HN/sub 2/ distribution and tumor cell death are modified by (1) the state of microtubule polymerization and (2) by membrane phospholipid composition.

  15. Damage effects of protoporphyrin IX - sonodynamic therapy on the cytoskeletal F-actin of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Liu, Quanhong; Tang, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Gong, Liyan; Wang, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report evidence of the damage effects of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on a novel intracellular target, cytoskeletal F-actin, that has great importance for cancer treatment. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells suspended in PBS were exposed to ultrasound at 1.34 MHz for up to 60s in the presence and absence of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). To evaluate the polymeric state and distribution of actin filaments (AF) we employed FITC-Phalloidin staining. The percentage of cells with intact AF was decreased with 10-80 microM PPIX after ultrasonic exposure, while only few cells with disturbed F-actin were observed with 80 microM PPIX alone. The fluorescence intensity of FITC-Phalloidin labeled cells was detected by flow cytometry. The morphological changes of EAC cells were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33258 to determine apoptosis. Cytoskeletal F-actin and cell morphological changes were dependent on the time after SDT. Some cells suffered deformations of plasma membrane as blebs that reacted positively to FITC-Phalloidin at 2h after SDT treatment. Many of the cells showed the typically apoptotic chromatin fragmentation. The alterations were more significant 4h later. Our results showed that cytoskeletal F-actin might represent an important target for the SDT treatment and the observed effect on F-actin and the subsequent bleb formation mainly due to apoptosis formation due to the treatment.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial activity and DNA content in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by dual parameter flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, T; Löffler, M

    1989-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were permeabilized using low concentrations of digitonin, 8 micrograms/10(6) cells. Permeabilization was monitored by the assay of lactate dehydrogenase released into the incubation medium and of hexokinase partially bound to mitochondria. Integrity of the cellular organelles was unaffected as determined by assay of the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. Cells were stained with rhodamine 123 as a mitochondrial specific dye and propidium iodide/mithramycin as DNA specific dyes. The green fluorescence of bound rhodamine 123 versus red fluorescence of DNA in individual cells was analysed by dual parameter flow cytometry. Incubation of cells with inhibitors of mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as, potassium cyanide and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished binding of rhodamine 123. Flow cytometric data allowed a correlation between cell position in the mitotic cycle with total mitochondrial activity. In addition, comparison of the characteristics of propidium iodide and ethidium bromide staining further elucidated the molecular basis of the staining with the positively-charged fluorescent dye rhodamine 123.

  17. Fluorescent redox dyes. 1. Production of fluorescent formazan by unstimulated and phorbol ester- or digitonin-stimulated Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Stellmach, J

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of a new series of tetrazolium salts to red fluorescent formazans by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is described. The qualitative effect on this reaction of two cell surface-active compounds and of six exogenous electron carriers was investigated by varying the incubation conditions. After incubation of Ehrlich ascites cells with the new colourless, water soluble 5-cyan-2.3-ditolyltetrazolium salts, bright red water-insoluble formazan crystals on the cell surface can be observed under fluorescence microscopy. The production of formazan is enhanced by 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or digitonin (DIG), two potent stimulators of oxygen consumption or by the electron carriers phenazine methosulphate (PMS), 1-methoxy-phenazine methosulphate (MPMS), meldola blue (MB), methylene blue (MTB), and 2.6-dichlorindophenol (DCIP). These results provide further evidence for the existence of redox enzymes bound to the plasma membrane of intact ascites cells and for a free radical mechanism of tetrazolium salt reduction. The fluorescence property of the new redox dyes offers the advantage of high sensitivity. Moreover, their greater homogeneity relative to the commonly used di-tetrazolium salts lowers the chances of misinterpretations due to impurities. The possible application of these new mono-tetrazolium salts to cytochemical investigations of oxidative metabolic reactions is discussed.

  18. Boswellic acids synergize antitumor activity and protect against the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in mice bearing Ehrlich's carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa A; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether boswellic acids add to the antitumor effects of doxorubicin against solid tumors of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) grown in mice, and to investigate the protective effects of boswellic acids against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Sixty-four female Swiss albino mice bearing EAC solid tumors were distributed among 8 groups as follows: group 1, EAC control group; group 2, doxorubicin treatment group [mice were injected with doxorubicin (6 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·week(-1)) for 3 weeks]; groups 3-5, these mice were treated with boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively; groups 6-8, these mice were treated with a combination of doxorubicin and boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively, for 3 weeks. The results indicated that boswellic acids synergized the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-treated mice showed elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB as well as cardiac malondialdehyde. Further, decreases in cardiac levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed. These effects were accompanied by an increase in cardiac expression of caspase 3. Thus, treatment with boswellic acids attenuated doxorubicin-evoked disturbances in the above-mentioned parameters, highlighting antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Therefore, boswellic acids could be potential candidates for ameliorating the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin.

  19. Solanum tuberosum lectin inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells growth by inducing apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Rahman, Md Musfikur; Amin, Ruhul; Karim, Md Rezaul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Hossain, M Tofazzal

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a lectin was purified from the potato cultivated in Bangladesh locally known as Sheel. In the present study cytotoxicity of the lectin against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was studied by MTT assay in vitro in RPMI-1640 medium and 8.0-36.0 % cell growth inhibition was observed at the range of 2.5-160 μg/ml protein concentration when incubated for 24 h. The lectin-induced apoptosis in EAC cells was confirmed by fluorescence and optical microscope. The apoptotic cell death was also confirmed by using caspase inhibitors. Cells growth inhibition caused by the lectin (36 %) was remarkably decreased to 7.6 and 22.3 % respectively in the presence of caspase-3 and -8 inhibitors. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-X, p53, and Bax. An intensive expression of Bcl-X gene was observed in untreated control EAC cells with the disappeared of the gene in Sheel-treated EAC cells. At the same time, Bax gene expression appeared only in Sheel-treated EAC cells and the expression level of the p53 gene was increased remarkable after the treatment of EAC cells with the lectin. The lectin showed strong agglutination activity against EAC cells. Flow cytometry was used to study the cell cycle phases of EAC cells and it was observed that the lectin arrested the G2/M phase. In conclusion, Sheel lectin inhibited EAC cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

  20. Interactions between 7-hydroxymethotrexate and methotrexate at the cellular level in the Ehrlich ascites tumor in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabre, G; Matherly, L H; Fabre, I; Cano, J P; Goldman, I D

    1984-03-01

    Studies were undertaken to characterize the cellular pharmacology of 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OH-MTX) in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, compare it to that of methotrexate (MTX), and define the interactions between the parent compound and its catabolite. Transport of 7-OH-MTX is mediated by the MTX-tetrahydrofolate cofactor carrier, with a Km of 9 microM in comparison to the MTX Km of 5 microM. Both compounds mutually inhibit their influx and steady-state levels of free drug accumulated. While influx of 7-OH-MTX is slower than influx of MTX, 7-OH-MTX efflux is likewise slower, so that the steady-state level of 7-OH-MTX achieved is comparable to that of MTX. Influx of 7-OH-MTX is inhibited by extracellular 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and trans-stimulated in cells preloaded with this tetrahydrofolate cofactor. The energetics of 7-OH-MTX transport is similar to that of MTX in the influx and net transport are stimulated by sodium azide, while net transport is reduced by glucose. As observed for MTX, 7-OH-MTX transport is sensitive to the anionic composition of the extracellular compartment and was shown to be inhibited by organic and inorganic phosphates. 7-OH-MTX does not, alone, inhibit [3H]deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA at concentrations of up to 50 microM. However, the catabolite reduces MTX inhibition of deoxyuridine metabolism, presumably due to the reduction in the free level of intracellular MTX achieved. These findings support the possibility that when 7-OH-MTX accumulates to high levels relative to MTX in clinical regimens, it may modulate the pharmacological effects of MTX.

  1. Observations on Cell Volume, Ultrastruture, Mitochondrial Conformation and Vital-Dye Uptake in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, Kauno U.; Shelburne, John D.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructure, volume, vital-dye uptake, ATP levels and amounts of intracelular water have been studied in Ehrlich ascites cells treated with two classes of inhibitors. Cell membrane injury with 10-3 M parachloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS) resulted in a rapid increase in mean cell volume to 3 times the mean zero time value. Inhibition of respiration plus glycolysis with 10-4 M iodoacetate (IAA) plus 10-4 M antimycin resulted first in a slight decrease in volume and then later a slow increase. When glucose was present in the medium, this slow increase was very slight. Intracellular water determination followed closely the volume changes. Cell populations with decreased mean volumes showed dilatations of the ER and swelling of mitochondria, indicating that expansion of some intracellular compartments can occur at the expense of others. Vital-dye uptake in metabolic injury correlated to some extent with the presence of substrate, indicating that an effect of glucose on membrane permeability might be independent of its effects on ATP levels. Mitochondrial contractions appeared with PCMBS as early as 5 minutes, with or without glucose present. With glucose present, treatment with IAA and antimycin also resulted in similar contractions as well as ring-form contractions even at 5 minutes. Without glucose, IAA plus antimycin mainly produced the usual mitochondrial contractions and these developed much later in the course of the incubation, shortly before high-amplitude swelling. The relationship of these mitochondrial conformational changes to ADP/ATP ratios and ADP levels is discussed. ImagesFig 4Fig 5Fig 1Fig 6Fig 2Fig 3Fig 11Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:5096366

  2. Effects of. beta. -arabinofuranosyladenine on the growth and repair of potentially lethal damage in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.

    1980-09-01

    ..beta..-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine (..beta..-araA) inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by selective inhibition of DNA polymerases. RNA and protein synthesis are not significantly affected. Addition of ..beta..-araA to the cells after irradiation resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in survival, presumably due to the inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage. Since ..beta..-araA selectively inhibits DNA polymerases it is suggested that repair of potentially lethal damage involves steps at the DNA level which require some polymerization. These repair steps take place in the DNA with a velocity comparable to that of the repair of potentially lethal damage. The inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage by ..beta..-araA was modified by the addition of deoxyadenosine; this supports the finding that ..beta..-araA acts competitively against dATP at the molecular level. The inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage by ..beta..-araA, which is partly reversible, resulted in a concentration-dependent modification of the survival curve. At low concentrations of ..beta..-araA a dose-modifying decrease in survival was observed. At higher concentrations (more than 12 ..mu..M) the decrease in survival resulted in a decrease of the shoulder width of the survival curve. Eventually an exponential curve was obtained. We suggest therefore that the shoulder of the survival curve results from some repair or potentially lethal damage. Preliminary information has been obtained on the time course of this repair.

  3. Anticancer effect and immunologic response to xenogeneic embryonic proteins in mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Symchych, T V; Fedosova, N I; Karaman, О М; Yevstratieva, L M; Potebnia, H P

    2017-03-01

    To investigate anticancer and immunologic effects of chicken embryonic proteins (CEP) in mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma. The study was carried out on male Balb/c mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma. The immunizations were performed after the tumor transplantation. The immune status was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the tumor challenge. Cytotoxic activity (CAT) of macrophages (Mph), natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and blood serum, as well as the influence of the blood serum on immune cells activity was checked in MTT-assay; Mph's cytochemical activity was tested in NBT-assay; Ehrlich antigen-specific or CEP-specific antibodies were detected in ELISA-assay; medium size circulating immune complexes (CIC) were detected in reaction of 4.5% polyethylene glycol precipitation. The immunization resulted in tumor growth suppression and significant 25.64% prolongation of the survival time. In both control and immunized mice with transplanted tumors antibodies specific to Ehrlich carcinoma antigens and to CEP were detected, but antibody response was more balanced in the treatment group. In the treatment group both cytochemical and CAT of Mph was moderately activated and well preserved until late stages of tumor development; CAT of NK and CTL remained in the range of the intact mice until day 28 after the tumor transplantation. The immunized mice were well protected from accumulation of CIC and suppressive activity of autologous blood serum. Collectively, our data indicate that CEP can elicit immunomodulating and immunoprotecting effects sufficient to provide tumor growth inhibition. The further elaboration of a xenogeneic anticancer vaccine based on CEP is warranted.

  4. Odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice are aversive and induce psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to verify if odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice are aversive and stressful. Female mice were divided into a control group and an experimental group. One animal of each experimental pair of mice was inoculated with 5 × 10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells intraperitoneally; the other animal was kept undisturbed and was referred to as a CSP (companion of sick partner). One mouse of each control pair was treated intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl (1 mg/kg); the other animal (CHP, companion of healthy partner) was kept undisturbed. It was shown that, in relation to CHP, CSP mice (1) spent less time within the companion zone in a T-maze place preference test, (2) had increased levels of social interaction, (3) had increased levels of plasmatic adrenaline and noradrenaline and (4) displayed no changes in serum corticosterone levels before and after an immobilization stress challenge. It was also shown that (5) cohabitation with 2 tumor-bearing mice was more effective in decreasing neutrophil oxidative burst than cohabitation with 1 sick partner and (6) the presence of a healthy conspecific within the cage of the tumor-injected/CSP pair abrogated the effects of cohabitation on neutrophil activity. These results show that odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-injected mice are aversive and induce psychological stress. We postulate that the aversive response induced by the chemosignals released by Ehrlich tumor-injected animals activates the sympathetic nervous system and causes the neuroimmunal changes that occur in the mice cohabiting with the sick mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Virus--tumor host cell relationships. In vivo cocultivation of adenovirus type 5 and of SV40 in mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Chira, M; Hozoc, M; Athanasiu, P; Teleguţă, L; Suru, M; Stoian, M; Pirvu, C

    1982-01-01

    Mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells proved to be a semipermissive substrate for in vivo cultivation of adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and SV40. The multiplication of SV40 in EAC cells was facilitated by the coinfection with Ad5. As demonstrated by ID and EID reactions, the virus progens isolated at the first passage after the mixed infection of EAC cells with Ad5 and SV40 possess an antigenic mosaic with fractions characteristic of the parental viruses and of the cell substrate in which they had cultivated in vitro and in vivo. The progens gave positive seroneutralization and complement fixation reactions only with antiserum to SV40.

  6. Glycosidases of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and ascitic fluid--purification and substrate specificity of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and alpha-galactosidase: comparison with coffee bean alpha-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Yagi, F; Eckhardt, A E; Goldstein, I J

    1990-07-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and ascitic fluid were assayed for glycosidase activity. alpha-Galactosidase and beta-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-mannosidase, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities were detected using p-nitrophenyl glycosides as substrates. alpha-Galactosidase and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase were isolated from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells on epsilon-aminocaproylgalactosylamine-Sepharose. alpha-Galactosidase was purified 160,000-fold and was free of other glycosidase activities. alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase was also purified 160,000-fold but exhibited a weak alpha-galactosidase activity which appears to be inherent in this enzyme. Substrate specificity of the alpha-galactosidase was investigated with 12 substrates and compared with that of the corresponding coffee bean enzyme. The pH optimum of the Ehrlich cell alpha-galactosidase centered near 4.5, irrespective of substrate, whereas the pH optimum of the coffee bean enzyme for PNP-alpha-Gal was 6.0, which is 1.5 pH units higher than that for other substrates of the coffee bean enzyme. The reverse was found for alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase: the pH optimum for the hydrolysis of PNP-alpha-GalNAc was 3.6, lower than the pH 4.5 required for the hydrolysis of GalNAc alpha 1,3Gal. Coffee bean alpha-galactosidase showed a relatively broad substrate specificity, suggesting that it is suited for cleaving many kinds of terminal alpha-galactosyl linkages. On the other hand, the substrate specificity of Ehrlich alpha-galactosidase appears to be quite narrow. This enzyme was highly active toward the terminal alpha-galactosyl linkages of Ehrlich glycoproteins and laminin, both of which possess Gal alpha 1, 3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta-trisaccharide sequences. The alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was found to be active toward the blood group type A disaccharide, and trisaccharide, and glycoproteins with type A-active carbohydrate chains.

  7. Antineoplastic and cytogenetic effects of chlorpromazine on human lymphocytes in vitro and on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lialiaris, Theodore S; Papachristou, Fotini; Mourelatos, Constantine; Simopoulou, Maria

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of phenothiazines in tumor growth and cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo has been established. These reports motivated us to investigate the genotoxic, cytotoxic, and cytostatic potential of chlorpromazine, alone or in combination with mitomycin C, in vitro and in vivo. Sister chromatid exchange levels were assessed providing a quantitative index of genotoxicity. In-vitro studies were performed on human lymphocyte cultures and in-vivo studies involved Ehrilch ascites tumor (EAT) cells. An antitumour study was also conducted on the survival time and the ascitic volume in EAT-bearing Balb/C mice. The combination of chlorpromazine plus caffeine and mitomycin C exerted cytostatic and cytotoxic actions in human lymphocytes. The combination of chlorpromazine plus mitomycin C exerted cytostatic and cytotoxic actions in EAT cells, significantly increased the survival span of the mice inoculated with EAT cells, and suppressed the expected tumor growth increase. The findings of this basic study illustrate that high chlorpromazine concentrations increase chemotherapeutic effectiveness of mitomycin C. Chlorpromazine concentrations within the observed human plasma concentration range need to be tested along with antineoplastic agents in vitro for its synergistic action so as to evaluate a potential clinical application. Further investigation including other phenothiazines, biological systems, and cancer models is required.

  8. Effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol and other metabolic inhibitors on the thermograms of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells registered with a microcalorimeter.

    PubMed

    Ito, E; Sakihama, H; Toyama, K; Matsui, K

    1984-05-01

    The heat produced by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was measured microcalorimetrically to investigate the characteristics of the energetics of these cells. 2,4-Dinitrophenol and other inhibitors were used to obtain the standard thermograms. The heat level of starved Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (endogenous) was almost constant and linear and depended on the cell number used in the experiments (about 1 cal/1 X 10(8) cells/hr). The endogenous heat generation was suppressed strongly by potassium cyanide but not by iodoacetic acid or 2,4-dinitrophenol. On the other hand, heat evolution was directly related to the amount of glucose added to the medium but not to the number of cells (19 cal/mmol of glucose). The addition of iodoacetic acid markedly suppressed heat generation, but potassium cyanide did not. In contrast, glucose with dinitrophenol increased heat production markedly to about 10% higher than that of the control, possibly due to the uncoupled energy from oxidative phosphorylation. Malonic acid (1 mM) suppressed slightly the endogenous heat but caused a 15% reduction in exogenous heat. The amount of heat produced by the addition of glucose (19 cal/mmol) was equivalent to 40% of the theoretical value of energy released through glycolysis (47 cal/mmol). Thus, the heat produced by exogenous glucose appears to be mainly dependent on glycolysis.

  9. Hyaluronic acid grafted PLGA copolymer nanoparticles enhance the targeted delivery of Bromelain in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-08-01

    Rapidly increasing malignant neoplastic disease demands immediate attention. Several dietary compounds have recently emerged as strong anti-cancerous agents. Among, Bromelain (BL), a protease from pineapple plant, was used to enhance its anti-cancerous efficacy using nanotechnology. In lieu of this, hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted PLGA copolymer, having tumor targeting ability, was developed. BL was encapsulated in copolymer to obtain BL-copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) that ranged between 140 to 281nm in size. NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in cells with high CD44 expression as compared with non-targeted NPs. In vivo results on tumor bearing mice showed that NPs were efficient in suppressing the tumor growth. Hence, the formulation could be used as a self-targeting drug delivery cargo for the remission of cancer.

  10. Effects of alkylation and immunopotentiation against Ehrlich ascites murine carcinoma in vivo using novel tetra-O-acetate haloacetamido carbohydrate analogs.

    PubMed

    Trendowski, Matthew; Christen, Timothy D; Zoino, Joseph N; Fondy, Thomas P

    2015-06-15

    Tetra-O-acetate haloacetamido carbohydrate analogs (Tet-OAHCs) are novel alkylating agents that appear to have alkylating activity at the plasma membrane, specificity against neoplastic cells, and may potentiate host leukocyte influx. This study sought to characterize the chemical attributes and in vivo activity of Tet-OAHCs. Four Tet-OAHCs were assessed for their partition coefficient and alkylating activity to determine cellular environments where adduct formation would be favorable. In vitro, IC50 values of all four Tet-OAHCs were determined against Ehrlich ascites murine carcinoma, as well as two leukemias (U937 human monocytic leukemia and L1210 murine lymphoid leukemia) to assess their cytotoxicity in multiple neoplastic cell lines. In vivo, B6D2F1 and CD2F1 mice were challenged i.p. with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma prior to, or after being treated with a single dose of one of the analogs. Finally, a quantitative comparison of host leukocyte influx between Tet-OAHCs and other alkylating agents was performed to confirm previous in vivo observations that the tetra-O-acetate carbohydrate moiety is important for inducing a host leukocyte response in murine models. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Tet-OAHCs appear to demonstrate high alkylating activity in amphiphilic environments. 2) All four congeners have comparable in vitro cytotoxicities against the neoplastic cell lines examined. 3) The analogs demonstrate marked in vivo activity in both B6D2F1 and CD2F1 mice challenged with a lethal dose of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, and frequently produce long term survival at 60 days, which is not observed in simple halo derivatives or two currently approved antineoplastic agents (daunorubicin and mechlorethamine). These effects are observed when the agents are administered either before or after the tumor challenge. 4) The carbohydrate moiety appears to be important for potentiating host leukocyte influx, as Tet-OAHCs, but not other alkylating agents

  11. Cell content of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells in response to cell volume perturbations in anisotonic and in isosmotic media.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Doris K; Jensen, Annelie Kolbjørn; Harbak, Henrik; Christensen, Søren C; Simonsen, Lars Ole

    2007-08-01

    The labelling pattern of cellular phosphoinositides (PtdInsP(n)) was studied in Ehrlich ascites cells labelled in vivo for 24 h with myo-[2-(3)H]- or l-myo-[1-(3)H]inositol and exposed to anisotonic or isosmotic volume perturbations. In parallel experiments the cell volume ([(14)C]3-OMG space) was monitored. In hypotonic media the cells initially swelled osmotically and subsequently as expected showed a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. Concurrently, the cell content of PtdInsP(2) showed a marked, transient decrease and the content of PtdInsP a small, transient increase. The changes in PtdInsP(2) and PtdInsP content increased progressively with the extent of hypotonicity (in the range 1.00-0.50 relative osmolarity). No evidence was found for either hydrolysis of PtdInsP(2) or formation of PtdInsP(3). In hypertonic medium (relative osmolarity 1.50), cells initially shrank osmotically and subsequently as expected showed a small regulatory volume increase (RVI) response. Concurrently, the cell content of PtdInsP(2) showed a marked increase and the content of PtdInsP a small decrease, i.e. changes in the opposite direction of those seen in hypotonic media. In isosmotic media with high (100 mm) or low (0.8 mm) K(+) concentration, cells slowly swelled or shrank due to uptake or loss of isosmotic KCl. Under these conditions, with largely unchanged intracellular ionic strength, the cell content of PtdInsP(2) and PtdInsP remained constant. Our results show that PtdInsP(2) is not volume sensitive per se, and moreover that the regulatory volume adjustments in Ehrlich ascites cells are not mediated by PtdInsP(2) hydrolysis and its subsequent production of second messengers. The simplest interpretation of the observed effects would be that PtdInsP(2) is controlled by ionic strength, probably via activation/inhibition of phosphoinositide-specific phosphatases/kinases. In Ehrlich ascites cells, as shown previously, the opposing ion channels and transporters activated

  12. Distribution of copper-64 in control mice and in mice bearing ascitic Krebs tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Apelgot, S.; Coppey, J.; Grisvard, J.; Guille, E.; Sissoeeff, I.

    1981-04-01

    Three to 20 hr after an i.p. injection of /sup 64/Cu (half-life, 12.8 hr) into mice bearing Krebs ascites cells, a high amount of the radioisotope was recovered in the ascites cells themselves. In the control group, the radioisotope was mainly present in the liver. Similar amounts of /sup 64/Cu were recovered in regenerating as well as in normal liver, whereas in the liver of mice bearing ascites cells, this amount was lower by 40 to 50% regardless of the ascitic volume. Thus, the copper metabolism seems to be disturbed at the hepatic level in mice bearing ascites cells. The distribution of /sup 64/Cu was 'analyzed in DNA, RNA, and proteins from cellular lysates fractionated by CsCl gradient. There was a uniform pattern of distribution in the macromolecules from ascites cells, while /sup 64/Cu' was preferentially associated with the protein fraction from liver. Further experiments indicated that, in vivo, /sup 64/Cu was bound to the DNA of ascites cells.

  13. In vitro conversion of MVM parvovirus single-stranded DNA to the replicative form by DNA polymerase alpha from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, E A; Rankin, C D

    1982-01-01

    A partially purified preparation of DNA polymerase alpha, obtained from the cytosol of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, has been found to catalyze the conversion of MVM parvovirus, SS DNA (5 kilobases) to RF in vitro. The reaction initiates at a natural 55 base pair hairpin which exists at the 3' terminus of MVM SS DNA. The SS leads to RF conversion is sensitive to aphidicolin, resistant to ddTTP and is promoted by purine ribonucleoside 5' triphosphates, a phenomenon which could not be explained simply by stabilization effects on the in vitro deoxynucleotide precursor pool. In the absence of rNTPs, nascent complementary strands frequently terminate prematurely at a preferred location, between 1300 and 1700 nucleotides from the initiating 3' hairpin terminus. This in vitro system, involving self-primed parvovirus DNA synthesis, provides a convenient assay for those components of the mammalian replicative DNA polymerase complex which are required for the elongation of nascent DNA chains. Images PMID:6812024

  14. The neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cage mate rely on olfactory information.

    PubMed

    Alves, Glaucie J; Ribeiro, Alison; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation for 14 days with Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice was shown to increase locomotor activity, to decrease hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA) levels, to increase NA turnover and to decrease innate immune responses and decrease the animals' resistance to tumor growth. Cage mates of a B16F10 melanoma-bearer mice were also reported to show neuroimmune changes. Chemosignals released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice have been reported to be relevant for the neutrophil activity changes induced by cohabitation. The present experiment was designed to further analyze the effects of odor cues on neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with a sick cage mate. Specifically, the relevance of chemosignals released by an Ehrlich tumor-bearing mouse was assessed on the following: behavior (open-field and plus maze); hypothalamic NA levels and turnover; adrenaline (A) and NA plasmatic levels; and host resistance induced by tumor growth. To comply with such objectives, devices specifically constructed to analyze the influence of chemosignals released from tumor-bearing mice were employed. The results show that deprivation of odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice reversed the behavioral, neurochemical and immune changes induced by cohabitation. Mice use scents for intraspecies communication in many social contexts. Tumors produce volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere through breath, sweat, and urine. Our results strongly suggest that volatile compounds released by Ehrlich tumor-injected mice are perceived by their conspecifics, inducing the neuroimmune changes reported for cohabitation with a sick companion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Na+/H+ exchange in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells: activation by cytoplasmic acidification and by treatment with cupric sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kramhøft, B; Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K

    1988-04-01

    Exposure of Ehrlich cells to isotonic Na+-propionate medium induces a rapid cell swelling. This treatment is likely to impose an acid load on the cells. Cell swelling is absent in K+-propionate medium but may be induced by the ionophore nigericin, which mediates K+/H+ exchange. Cell swelling in Na+-propionate medium is blocked by amiloride, but an alternative pathway is introduced by addition of the ionophore monensin, which mediates Na+/H+ exchange. Consequently, swelling of Ehrlich cells in Na+-propionate medium is due to the operation of an amiloride-sensitive, Na+-specific mechanism. It is concluded that this mechanism is a Na+/H+ exchange system, activated by cytoplasmic acidification. We have previously demonstrated that the heavy metal salt CuSO4 in micromolar concentrations inhibits regulatory volume decrease (RVD) of Ehrlich cells following hypotonic swelling. The present work shows that CuSO4 inhibits RVD as a result of a net uptake of sodium, of which the major part is sensitive to amiloride. Measurements of intracellular pH show that CuSO4 causes significant cytoplasmic alkalinization, which is abolished by amiloride. Concomitantly, CuSO4 causes an amiloride-sensitive net proton efflux from the cells. The combined results confirm that a Na+/H+ exchange system exists in Ehrlich cells and demonstrate that the heavy metal salt CuSO4 activates this Na+/H+ exchange system.

  16. (Accumulation of methyl-deficient rat liver messenger ribonucleic acid on ethionine administration). Progress report. [Methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and effects of phorbol ester on methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, E.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme fractions were isolated from Ehrlich ascites cells which introduced methyl groups into methyl deficient rat liver mRNA and unmethylated vaccinia mRNA. The methyl groups were incorporated at the 5' end into cap 1 structures by the viral enzyme, whereas both cap 0 and cap 1 structures were formed by the Ehrlich ascites cell enzymes. Preliminary results indicate the presence of adenine N/sup 6/-methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites cells. These results indicate that mRNA deficient in 5'-cap methylation and in internal methylation of adenine accumulated in rats on exposure to ethionine. The methyl-deficient mRNA isolated from the liver of ethionine-fed rats differed in its translational properties from mRNA isolated from control animals. Preliminary experiments indicate that single topical application of 17n moles of TPA to mouse skin altered tRNA methyltransferases. The extent of methylation was increased over 2-fold in mouse skin treated with TPA for 48 hours. These changes have been observed as early as 12 hours following TPA treatment. In contrast, the application of initiating dose of DMBA had no effect on these enzymes. It should be emphasized that the changes in tRNA methyltransferases produced by TPA are not merely an increase of the concentration of the enzyme, rather that they represent alterations of specificity of a battery of enzymes. In turn the change in enzyme specificity can produce alterations in the structure of tRNA. (ERB)

  17. Magnetite Nanoparticles Inhibit Tumor Growth and Upregulate the Expression of P53/P16 in Ehrlich Solid Carcinoma Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bassiony, Heba; Sabet, Salwa; Salah El-Din, Taher A.; Mohamed, Mona M.; El-Ghor, Akmal A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used as contrast agents and have promising approaches in cancer treatment. In the present study we used Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC) bearing mice as a model to investigate MNPs antitumor activity, their effect on expression of p53 and p16 genes as an indicator for apoptotic induction in tumor tissues. Method MNPs coated with ascorbic acid (size: 25.0±5.0 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized. Ehrlich mice model were treated with MNPs using 60 mg/Kg day by day for 14 injections; intratumorally (IT) or intraperitoneally (IP). Tumor size, pathological changes and iron content in tumor and normal muscle tissues were assessed. We also assessed changes in expression levels of p53 and p16 genes in addition to p53 protein level by immunohistochemistry. Results Our results revealed that tumor growth was significantly reduced by IT and IP MNPs injection compared to untreated tumor. A significant increase in p53 and p16 mRNA expression was detected in Ehrlich solid tumors of IT and IP treated groups compared to untreated Ehrlich solid tumor. This increase was accompanied with increase in p53 protein expression. It is worth mentioning that no significant difference in expression of p53 and p16 could be detected between IT ESC and control group. Conclusion MNPs might be more effective in breast cancer treatment if injected intratumorally to be directed to the tumor tissues. PMID:25375144

  18. Magnetite nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and upregulate the expression of p53/p16 in Ehrlich solid carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bassiony, Heba; Sabet, Salwa; Salah El-Din, Taher A; Mohamed, Mona M; El-Ghor, Akmal A

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used as contrast agents and have promising approaches in cancer treatment. In the present study we used Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC) bearing mice as a model to investigate MNPs antitumor activity, their effect on expression of p53 and p16 genes as an indicator for apoptotic induction in tumor tissues. MNPs coated with ascorbic acid (size: 25.0±5.0 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized. Ehrlich mice model were treated with MNPs using 60 mg/Kg day by day for 14 injections; intratumorally (IT) or intraperitoneally (IP). Tumor size, pathological changes and iron content in tumor and normal muscle tissues were assessed. We also assessed changes in expression levels of p53 and p16 genes in addition to p53 protein level by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed that tumor growth was significantly reduced by IT and IP MNPs injection compared to untreated tumor. A significant increase in p53 and p16 mRNA expression was detected in Ehrlich solid tumors of IT and IP treated groups compared to untreated Ehrlich solid tumor. This increase was accompanied with increase in p53 protein expression. It is worth mentioning that no significant difference in expression of p53 and p16 could be detected between IT ESC and control group. MNPs might be more effective in breast cancer treatment if injected intratumorally to be directed to the tumor tissues.

  19. Sialoadhesin expression by bone marrow macrophages derived from Ehrlich-tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, S; Ruiz de Morales, J M; Rullas, J; Danilets, M G; Subiza, J L

    1999-12-01

    Sialoadhesin (sheep erythrocyte receptor, SER) is a macrophage-restricted adhesion molecule that binds certain sialylated ligands. It is borne by bone marrow stromal macrophages, promoting the interaction with developing myeloid cells, and by a subset of tissue macrophages involved in antigen presentation and activation of tumor-reactive T cells. The expression of sialoadhesin on SER+ macrophages is not constitutive but requires the continuous supply of a sialoadhesin-inducing serum factor. Tumor growth is often associated with marked alterations of myelopoiesis and impairment of T cell activation; yet the expression of sialoadhesin in macrophages derived from tumor bearers has not been addressed. The aim of this study was to assess whether Ehrlich tumor (ET) - a murine mammary carcinoma - growth may modify the sialoadhesin expression by bone marrow macrophages and/or sialoadhesin-inducing activity in ET-bearing sera. Moreover, putative functional sialoadhesin inhibitors produced by ET cells were tested. The results indicate that bone marrow cells from ET bearers show a seven- to eight-fold decrease in SER+ cells as detected by flow cytometry. This is accompanied by an overall decrease in sheep erythrocyte binding to tumor-bearer-derived bone marrow cells, but also by lower numbers of plastic-adherent cells. Functional sialoadhesin expression is preserved at the single-cell level and no inhibitors are found in ET-bearing sera or ET cell culture supernatants. Tumor progression does not impair the sialoadhesin-inducing activity of ET-bearing sera, or the ability of SER- macrophages (e.g. peritoneal macrophages) to respond to such an induction. In conclusion, while SER+ macrophages are greatly decreased in bone marrow from ET bearers, this is not due to a down-regulation of sialoadhesin expression, nor to an impairment of sialoadhesin-inducing factor or to the presence of sialoadhesin-binding moieties of tumor origin, but, more likely, to a decrease of fully mature

  20. Probing of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell using in situ aggregates of Au-NPs as SERS label created by plasmon exciting hybrid- TEM*11 laser mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Mehta, D. S.; Saraswati, S.; Shakher, C.

    2012-02-01

    Apart from commonly employed target-specific labeling/adsorption of antibodies over Au-NPs surface for the creation of localized aggregates, an alternative approach using optical tweezers (OT) driven by hybrid-TEM*11 mode has been devised and exploited for in vitro detection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC) relying on enhanced scattering. Intra-cavity generated spatially featured asymmetric (SFA) laser beam (λ = 532 nm) has effected simultaneous trapping of mice-EAC cells and in-situ crowd/assembly of incubated Au-NPs/small gold nano-aggregates (created from two or more individual Au-NPs). Relatively larger focus spot created by tightly focused SFA beam than frequently employed Gaussian-mode in OT has offered an extended working area and hence dilute heating has taken care of EAC cells. GNA improves significantly the sensitivity of diagnostics relying on scattered light and the safety and efficacy of therapeutic nanotechnologies for the diseases of cancer and vascular system in medicine.

  1. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and reduction of cellular sulfhydryl groups in cell death induced by 1' -acetoxychavicol acetate in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Jerry; Kennedy, David Opare; Kojima, Akiko; Hasuma, Tadayoshi; Yano, Yoshihisa; Otani, Shuzo; Murakami, Akira; Koshimizu, Koichi; Ohigashi, Hajime; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2002-02-20

    Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying potential anticancer drugs continues and unraveling these mechanisms would not only provide a conceptual framework for drug design but also promote use of natural products for chemotherapy. To further evaluate the efficacy of the anticancer activity of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), this study investigates the underlying mechanisms by which ACA induces death of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. ACA treatment induced loss of cell viability, and Western blotting analysis revealed that the compound stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins with 27 and 70 kDa proteins being regulated in both dose- and time-dependent manner prior to loss of viability. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A moderately protected cells from ACA-induced toxicity. In addition, cellular glutathione and protein sulfydryl groups were also significantly reduced both dose- and time-dependently during evidence of cell death. Replenishing thiol levels by antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an excellent supplier of glutathione and precursor of glutathione, substantially recovered the viability loss, but the recovery being time-dependent, as late addition of NAC (at least 30 min after ACA addition to cultures) was, however, ineffective. Addition of NAC to ACA treated cultures also abolished tyrosine phosphorylation of the 27 kDa protein. These results, at least partly, identify cellular sulfhydryl groups and protein tyrosine phosphorylation as targets of ACA cytotoxicity in tumor cells.

  2. Turnover of (/sup 14/C)thiamin and activities of thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes in tissues of mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Trebukhina, R.V.; Ostrovsky, Y.M.; Shapot, V.S.; Mikhaltsevich, G.N.; Tumanov, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    Turnover of (/sup 14/C)thiamin was studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma fed a thiamin-deficient diet and injected with 5 or 2 micrograms/mouse of the labeled vitamin. The process of conversion of (/sup 14/C)thiamin to thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) was monitored by measuring the activities of transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. The amount of coenzyme-unsaturated apotransketolase was assessed by measuring the TPP effect--determining transketolase activity with and without the addition of TPP in vitro. Tumor growth was accompanied by thiamin deficiency, manifested in an increase in (/sup 14/C)thiamin incorporation into the host tissues and the absence of saturation of the tissues with the labeled vitamin over 13 days. Increased values for the turnover coefficients, reduction of thiamin-dependent enzyme activities, elevation of the TPP effect, and a decrease in urinary excretion of the radioactive products also provided evidence for a disturbance in thiamin metabolism. The severity of the disturbance in thiamin metabolism during malignant tumor growth was directly related to the dose of the exogenous vitamin.

  3. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  4. A fluorescent redox dye. Influence of several substrates and electron carriers on the tetrazolium salt-formazan reaction of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Stellmach, J; Severin, E

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed to elaborate the best conditions for measuring the redox activity of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells by using a new tetrazolium salt, cyantolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). This tetrazolium salt forms a fluorescent water-insoluble formazan on reduction on the surface of intact vital cells. The influences of fixation and of various substrates and electron carriers on the cellular reduction of CTC were investigated quantitatively using an elution technique. The amount of formazan obtained after incubating vital cells with Meldola Blue as electron carrier was greater than that obtained with Methylene Blue, menadione, 2,6-dichloroindophenol, 1-methoxyphenazine methosulphate or phenazine methosulphate. Using flow cytometry, the formazan production per cell and, after staining the nuclear DNA, the distribution of the redox activity in the cell population can be visualized with satisfactory resolution. We conclude from our findings that dehydrogenases are only partially involved in the reduction of tetrazolium salts by intact cells and that a redox activity, probably related to a cell membrane-bound NAD(P)H-oxidase system, is mainly measured.

  5. Induction of apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells via p53 activation by a novel small-molecule MDM2 inhibitor - LQFM030.

    PubMed

    da Mota, Mariana F; Cortez, Alane P; Benfica, Polyana L; Rodrigues, Bruna Dos S; Castro, Thalyta F; Macedo, Larissa M; Castro, Carlos H; Lião, Luciano M; de Carvalho, Flávio S; Romeiro, Luiz A S; Menegatti, Ricardo; Verli, Hugo; Villavicencio, Bianca; Valadares, Marize C

    2016-09-01

    The activation of the p53 pathway through the inhibition of MDM2 has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy against tumours. A series of cis-imidazoline analogues, termed nutlins, were reported to displace the recombinant p53 protein from its complex with MDM2 by binding to MDM2 in the p53 pocket, and exhibited an antitumour activity both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumour properties of LQFM030 (2), a nutlin analogue created by employing the strategy of molecular simplification. LQFM030 (2) cytotoxicity was evaluated in Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells, p53 wild type, by the trypan blue exclusion test, and the mechanisms involved in EAT cell death were investigated by light and fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Our results demonstrate that LQFM030 has dose-dependent antiproliferative activity and cytotoxic activity on EAT cells, induces the accumulation of p53 protein and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. p53 gene transcription was unaffected by LQFM030 (2); however, MDM2 mRNA increased and MDM2 protein decreased. These results suggest that the small-molecule p53 activator LQFM030 (2) has the potential for further development as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Ehrlich tumor inhibition using doxorubicin containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Elbialy, Nihal Saad; Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, DOX in solution or DOX encapsulated within liposomes prepared from DMPC/CHOL/DPPG/PEG-PE (100:100:60:4) in molar ratio. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC50 of liposomes containing DOX was greater than that DOX only. Tumor growth inhibition curves in terms of mean tumor size (cm(3)) were presented. All the DOX formulations were effective in preventing tumor growth compared to saline. Treatment with DOX loaded liposomes displayed a pronounced inhibition in tumor growth than treatment with DOX only. Histopathological examination of the entire tumor sections for the various groups revealed marked differences in cellular features accompanied by varying degrees in necrosis percentage ranging from 12% for saline treated mice to 70% for DOX loaded liposome treated mice. The proposed liposomal formulation can efficiently deliver the drug into the tumor cells by endocytosis (or passive diffusion) and lead to a high concentration of DOX in the tumor cells. The study showed that the formulation of liposomal doxorubicin improved the therapeutic index of DOX and had increased anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich tumor models.

  7. Apoptosis-inducing Effect of a Palladium(II) Complex-[PdCl(terpy)](sac).2H2O] on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ikitimur-Armutak, Elif I; Ulukaya, Engin; Gurel-Gurevin, Ebru; Yaylim, Ilhan; Isbilen-Basok, Banu; Sennazli, Gulbin; Yuzbasioglu-Ozturk, Gulay; Sonmez, Kivilcim; Celik, Faruk; Kucukhuseyin, Ozlem; Korkmaz, Gurbet; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Zeybek, Sakir Umit

    2016-01-01

    New compounds for cancer treatment are needed due to persistenly unsatisfactory management of cancer. [PdCl(terpy)](sac)·2H2O] (sac=saccharinate, and terpy=2,2':6',2"-terpyridine) is a compound synthesized for this purpose. We investigated its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) in vivo. 42 Balb-c female mice were subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with EAC cells (1st day) and then randomly divided into 5 groups: control (0.9% NaCl), complex (2 mg/kg), complex (3 mg/kg) cisplatin (4 mg/kg) and paclitaxel (12.5 mg/kg). On the 5th and 12th day animals were drug administrated. At 14th day, animals were sacrificed. Expression of cell death and/or cell cycle-related markers (Bcl-2, Bax, active caspase-3, p53, PCNA) and apoptosis were investigated immunohisto-chemically. Survival-related markers (Akt, GSK-3β, IGF-1R, IR, IRS-1, p70S6K, PRAS40) were evaluated by luminex analysis. Expression of p53, PCNA, Bcl-2 was found decreased (p<0.001) and that of active caspase-3, Bax, and apoptotic cells was found increased (p<0.001) in all groups. The survival-related markers did not show any statistical difference in complex groups. The Pd(II)-complex seems to have a strong anticancer activity on EAC by inducing apoptosis via both suppression of proliferation and activation of apoptosis in vivo, similar to the effects of cisplatin and paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. C57BL/6N Mice Are More Resistant to Ehrlich Ascites Tumors Than C57BL/6J Mice: The Role of Macrophage Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Chausova, Svetlana; Kochetova, Lada; Malyshev, Yuri; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-20

    BACKGROUND Effectiveness of the immune defense formed by the genotype often determines the predisposition to cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is an important element in this defense. MATERIAL AND METHODS We hypothesized that genetic characteristics of NO generation systems can predetermine the vulnerability to tumor development. The study was conducted on mice of 2 genetic substrains - C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N - with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). NO production in the tumor was changed using ITU, an iNOS inhibitor; c-PTIO, a NO scavenger; and SNP, a NO donor. Macrophage NO production was estimated by nitrite concentration in the culture medium. iNOS content was measured by Western blot analysis. Macrophage phenotype was determined by changes in NO production, iNOS level, and CD markers of the phenotype. RESULTS The lifespan of C57BL/6N mice (n=10) with EAC was 25% longer (p<0.01) than in C57BL/6J mice (n=10). Decreased NO production 23% reduced the survival duration of C57BL/6N mice (p<0.05), which were more resistant to tumors. Elevated NO production 26% increased the survival duration of C57BL/6J mice (p<0.05), which were more susceptible to EAC. Both the NO production and the iNOS level were 1.5 times higher in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J mice (p<0.01). CD markers confirmed that C57BL/6N macrophages had the M1 and C57BL/6J macrophages had the M2 phenotype. CONCLUSIONS The vulnerability to the tumor development can be predetermined by genetic characteristics of the NO generation system in macrophages. The important role of NO in anti-EAC immunity should be taken into account in elaboration of new antitumor therapies.

  9. The activity against Ehrlich's ascites tumors of doxorubicin contained in self assembled, cell receptor targeted nanoparticle with simultaneous oral delivery of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lipika; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2013-04-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known anticancer drug used for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. However, undesired toxicity of DOX limits its uses. To address the issue of minimizing toxicity of DOX by making it targeted towards cancer cells, DOX was entrapped in self-assembled 6-O-(3-hexadecyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-hyaluronic acid (HDHA) nanoparticles. We hypothesized that by encapsulating the drug in biodegradable nanoparticles, its therapeutic efficacy would improve, if targeted against cancer cells. We synthesized cell receptor targeted, DOX loaded HDHA nanoparticles (NPs) and non-targeted DOX loaded O-hexadecylated dextran (HDD) nanoparticles (NPs) and characterized them for their entrapment efficiency, percent yield, drug load, surface morphology, particle size and in vitro drug release. The anticancer efficacy of DOX loaded HDHA-NPs was evaluated by measuring the changes in tumor volumes, tumor weights, and mean survival rate of Swiss albino mice grafted with Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. For this, the animals were given HDHA-DOX-NPs (1.5 mg/kg b.wt.) intravenously and a green tea polyphenol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (20 mg/kg b.wt.), orally through gavage. The targeted NP dose with EGCG significantly increased mean survival time of the animals and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of the drug compared to the non-targeted NPs and free DOX. Further, we showed that these NPs (HDD and HDHA) were more active in the presence of EGCG than DOX alone in inducing apoptosis in EAC cells as evident by an increase in sub-G1 cells (percent), Annexin V positive cells and chromatin condensation along with the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The study demonstrates that DOX loaded HDHA-NPs along with EGCG significantly inhibit the growth of EAC cells with ∼38-fold dose advantage compared to DOX alone and thus opens a new dimension in cancer chemotherapy.

  10. The effect of atebrine and an acridine analog (BCMA) on the coenzyme fluorescence spectra of cultured melanoma and Ehrlich ascites (EL2) cells.

    PubMed

    Viallet, P; Kohen, E; Schachtschabel, D O; Marty, A; Salmon, J M; Kohen, C; Leising, H B; Thorell, B

    1978-09-15

    Coenzyme fluorescence spectra of single living cells are due to free pyridine nucleotides (folded configuration), bound pyridine nucleotides (unfolded configuration) and a third component, possibly a mixture or flavins. Such spectra can be used to recognize possible differences in coenzyme composition between cell lines or changes of metabolic pathways due to chemicals acting at levels below or above cytotoxicity, by high resolution spectrofluorometry. A study of spectra recorded from cultured Ehrlich ascites (EL2), and Harding Passey melanoma cells (HPM-67 and HPM-73 line) grown under comparable conditions, shows that free NAD(P)H predominates in HPM-67 and EL2, while this coenzyme is bound in HPM-73. The free/bound ratio may be profoundly modifed by chemicals, e.g. in the HPM-73 increase of free and decrease of bound NAD(P)H occurred upon treatment with 10(-6) oligomycin. When atebrine at levels (10(-6) M) below cytotoxicity was added, there was a decrease of the free NAD(P)H spectrum possibly through energy transfer from NAD(P)H to atebrine. Consideration of long range energy transfer i.e., excitation of atebrine by fluorescence of NAD(P)H vs. short range transfer of excitation energy from free NAD(P)H to atebrine, favors the latter mechanism. A transient (reversible) increase in atebrine fluorescence is seen following intracellular microinjection of substrate (e.g. glucose-6-P) leading to an increase in free NAD(P)H. At cytotoxic levels of atebrine (e.g 2 x 10(-5) M) an irreversible increase of atebrine fluorescence is seen. The microspectrofluorometric technique appears therefore well suited to study physiological processes at the level of intracellular coenzymes, as well as possible processes of intermolecular energy transfer in the microenvironment.

  11. Identity-based High-performance thin Layer Chromatography Fingerprinting Profile and Tumor Inhibitory Potential of Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nilesh; Lobo, Richard; Kumar, Nimmy; Bhagat, Jay Kumar; Mathew, Jessy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall belonging to the family Lamiaceae is a plant that is widely used in folk medicine for treating eczema, cold, cough, and fever. Objective: In the present study, we explored the anticancer potential of A. carnosus leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and estimated the quantity of luteolin present in various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. Materials and Methods: Various factors such as tumor volume, tumor cell viability, tumor weight, prolongation of lifespan, and hematological parameters were assessed. Result: We observed a significant lowering in tumor volume, tumor weight, and cell viability in EAC-induced mice following intervention with A. carnosus extracts. Also, there was a considerable prolongation of host lifespan and restoration of hematological parameters to almost normal levels with A. carnosus treatment. HPTLC fingerprinting of various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus along with luteolin as the reference standard revealed the occurrence of luteolin in all tested extracts and fractions of A. carnosus with the highest concentration being reported in the ethanol fraction. Conclusion: A. carnosus exhibits potent anti-tumor potential which can most likely be attributed to the occurrence of different phytochemicals such as phytosterols, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the plant. Further studies to isolate compounds from A. carnosus and understand the mechanism of anti-tumor activity would be worthwhile. SUMMARY EAC induced mice that received A. carnosus treatment exhibited significant reduction in tumor volume, tumor weight and tumor cell viability. Their life span was considerably prolonged. We detected luteolin in A. carnosus aqueous and ethanol extract using HPTLC. Hence, anticancer activity of A. carnosus can be partly attributed to the presence of luteolin. PMID:26929584

  12. Effects of ultraviolet-visible irradiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, I.A.; Persad, S.; Ranadive, N.S.; Haberman, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the possibility that ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of pheomelanin may be more harmful to cells than the irradiation in the presence of eumelanin. The effects of UV-visible irradiation upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of the melanin isolated from human black hair (eumelanin) or from red hair (pheomelanin) were investigated. Irradiation of these cells was found to produce cell lysis, as observed by leakage of 51Cr from labeled cells and intracellular lactic dehydrogenase from the cells and decrease in cell viability demonstrated by the trypan blue exclusion test. The three parameters were quantitatively parallel to one another under various experimental conditions, namely different periods of irradiation and irradiation in the presence of different concentrations of melanin. The above effects were more pronounced when the irradiation was carried out in the presence of melanin from red hair than in the presence of black-hair melanin. In the absence of either melanin, the irradiation did not produce any significant effect in cell viability or cell lysis. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of red-hair melanin also decreased the transplantability of these cells. These observations clearly show that irradiation of cells in the presence of pheomelanin could produce cytotoxic effects. The present experimental design may have application in the development of in vitro models for the study of UV radiation-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. The reactions of pheomelanin may be related to the susceptibility of ''Celtic'' skin to UV radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

  13. Cholesterol modulates the volume-regulated anion current in Ehrlich-Lettre ascites cells via effects on Rho and F-actin.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-10-01

    The mechanisms controlling the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the modulation of VRAC by cellular cholesterol and the potential involvement of F-actin, Rho, Rho kinase, and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] in this process. In Ehrlich-Lettre ascites (ELA) cells, a current with biophysical and pharmacological properties characteristic of VRAC was activated by hypotonic swelling. A 44% increase in cellular cholesterol content had no detectable effects on F-actin organization or VRAC activity. A 47% reduction in cellular cholesterol content increased cortical and stress fiber-associated F-actin content in swollen cells. Cholesterol depletion increased VRAC activation rate and maximal current after a modest (15%), but not after a severe (36%) reduction in extracellular osmolarity. The cholesterol depletion-induced increase in maximal VRAC current was prevented by F-actin disruption using latrunculin B (LB), while the current activation rate was unaffected by LB, but dependent on Rho kinase. Rho activity was decreased by approximately 20% in modestly, and approximately 50% in severely swollen cells. In modestly swollen cells, this reduction was prevented by cholesterol depletion, which also increased isotonic Rho activity. Thrombin, which stimulates Rho and causes actin polymerization, potentiated VRAC in modestly swollen cells. VRAC activity was unaffected by inclusion of a water-soluble PtdIns(4,5)P(2) analogue or a PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-blocking antibody in the pipette, or neomycin treatment to sequester PtdIns(4,5)P(2). It is suggested that in ELA cells, F-actin and Rho-Rho kinase modulate VRAC magnitude and activation rate, respectively, and that cholesterol depletion potentiates VRAC at least in part by preventing the hypotonicity-induced decrease in Rho activity and eliciting actin polymerization.

  14. Evidence that repair and expression of potentially lethal damage cause the variations in cell survival after x irradiation observed through the cell cycle in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-07-01

    The survival of synchronously growing Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) was measured after x irradiation in various stages of the cell cycle. Cells at the beginning of S or in G2 + M phase showed a high level of killing, whereas cells irradiated in G1 or in the middle of S phase were more resistant. These changes resulted from a change in the survival curve shoulder width (D/sub q/) as cells passed through the cell cycle, and the mean lethal dose (D/sub 0/) remained practically unchanged (0.8 +- 0.05 Gy). When synchronization of the cell population was further sharpened using nocodazole, exponential survival curves were obtained at the beginning of S phase and at mitosis with a D/sub 0/ = 0.8 Gy. When cells (in all stages) were incubated in balanced salt solution for 6 h after irradiation, repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was observed, resulting in an increase in D/sub q/, while D/sub 0/ remained constant. Treatment of the cells after irradiation with either caffeine or ..beta..-arabinofuranosyladenine (..beta..-araA) or hypertonic medium resulted in an expression of PLD and reduced the D/sub q/ of the survival curve. We measured the rate of the loss of sensitivity of these treatments that we assume reflects the rate of repair of PLD. Results indicate that the shoulder width D/sub q/ of the survival curve in cells irradiated at various stages of the cell cycle results from repair of PLD. It is suggested that the variations observed in cell survival through the cell cycle might reflect variations in the final amount of PLD either repaired or expressed as the cells progress through stages of the cell cycle.

  15. The in vivo effect of a Brassica oleracea var. capitata extract on Ehrlich ascites tumors of MUS musculus BALB/C mice.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, E; Yardimci, K T

    1999-01-01

    An extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata juice was prepared using petroleum ether, ether, ethanol and an Al2O3 column. The healing and tumor protecting effects of this extract were tested on Ehrlich ascites (EA) solid tumors of Mus musculus BALB/C mice. Complete disappearance of the tumors was observed in 54.5% of the animals in the experimental group (n = 22) which received 20 mg/day of the extract i.p. for 28 days. Regression of the tumors (27%), fixation of tumor size (4%) and an increase in tumor size (18%) were also recorded. Neither tumor size fixation nor regression was recorded in the control group which received physiological serum (0.5 ml/day). The healing effect was found to be related to the starting tumor size. The healed animals in the experimental group were followed for 6-7 months and no tumor recurrence was recorded. The protective effect of this extract on tumor formation was also tested. Experimental animals (n = 35) received 20 mg/day of the extract i.p. for 20 days. Physiological serum was administered to a control group (n = 30). Transplantation of solid tumors was performed on the 20th day and extract administration was discontinued. Transplantation success was recorded 20 days after transplantation. In the experimental group, only three out of 35 mice showed tumor development, whereas in the control group the number was 23 out of 35 mice. It was also observed that the extract prevented the development of liquid EA tumors. This extract was also found to be nontoxic. Brassica oleracea var. capitata had a healing effect as well as a protective effect on EA solid tumors of mice. These results are in agreement with our previous results obtained from a liquid Brassica oleracea var. acephala juice extract.

  16. The influence of 1-10 kD fraction from brains of the hibernating ground squirrel and the Yakut horse on proliferation and protein synthesizing system of Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Grischenko, V I; Tereschenko, O S; Shchenyavcky, I J

    2005-01-01

    The experimental data presented in the work testify to the cytostatic activity of 1-10 kD polypeptide fractions from brains of the hibernating ground squirrel and the Yakut horse towards Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma (EAC) cells. The experiments on the investigation of the inhibiting influence of 1-10 kD fractions from tissues of the hibernating and cold-adapted animals on protein-synthesizing system of EAC cells allow us to conclude that the cytostatic effect of the fractions is effected at the genetic level in the tumor cells.

  17. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation

  18. Biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomal cisplatin administered in Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, José Geraldo Coimbra; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Leite, Elaine Amaral; Maroni, Laís de Carvalho; Wainstein, Alberto Julius Alves; Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Savassi-Rocha, Paulo Roberto; Pereira, Márcio Tadeu; de Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; De Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2011-07-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents and has been widely used in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. However, CDDP, a low-molecular-weight compound, is rapidly absorbed by the capillaries in the i.p. serosa and transferred to the bloodstream, inducing the appearance of systemic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the i.p. CDDP chemotherapy is limited to patients whose residual tumor nodules are less than 0.5 cm in diameter after surgical debulking. The failure of i.p. therapy is attributed to the poor penetration of CDDP into larger tumors. One strategy to improve drug delivery in the peritoneal region and reduce toxicity is the use of drug delivery systems. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP), as compared with free CDDP, after their i.p. administration in Ehrlich ascitic tumor-bearing mice. After administering a 6 mg/kg single i.p. bolus injection of either free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP, ascitic fluid (AF), blood and organs (kidneys, liver, spleen and lungs) were collected and analyzed for CDDP content. The area under the CDDP concentration-time curve (AUC) obtained for AF and blood after SpHL-CDDP administration was 3.3-fold larger and 1.3-fold lower, respectively, when compared with free CDDP treatment, thus indicating its high retention within the peritoneal cavity. The determination of the ratio between AUC in each tissue and that in blood (Kp) showed a lower accumulation of CDDP in kidneys after SpHL-CDDP treatment. The SpHL-CDDP treatment demonstrated a significant uptake by the liver and spleen. SpHL-CDDP treatment led to a higher survival rate of mice with initial or disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis than CDDP treatment. These results indicate that SpHL-CDDP may be useful for i.p. chemotherapy due to their greater concentration in the peritoneal

  19. The synergistic effect between vanillin and doxorubicin in ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Younis, Nahla N; Shaheen, Mohamed A; Elseweidy, Mohamed M

    2016-09-01

    Despite the remarkable anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX), its clinical application is limited due to multiple organ toxicities. Products with less side effects are therefore highly requested. The current study investigated the anti-cancer activities of vanillin against breast cancer and possible synergistic potentiation of DOX chemotherapeutic effects by vanillin. Vanillin (100mg/kg), DOX (2mg/kg) and their combination were administered i.p. to solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice for 21days. MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was treated with vanillin (1 and 2mM), DOX (100μM) or their combination. Protection against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity was studied in rats that received vanillin (100mg/kg, ip) for 10days with a single dose of DOX (15mg/kg) on day 6. Vanillin exerted anticancer effects comparable to DOX and synergesticlly potentiated DOX anticancer effects both in-vivo and in-vitro. The anticancer potency of vanillin in-vivo was mediated via apoptosis and antioxidant capacity. It also offered an in-vitro growth inhibitory effect and cytotoxicity mediated by apoptosis (increased caspase-9 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio) along with anti-metasasis effect. Vanillin protected against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In conclusion, vanillin can be a potential lead molecule for the development of non-toxic agents for the treatment of breast cancer either alone or combined with DOX. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia for treatment of Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice: toxicological and histopathological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Yamamoto, Kelly Reis; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Matos, Breno Noronha; de Almeida, Marcos Célio; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; de Souza Filho, José; Fernandes, Juliana Menezes Soares; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2014-04-01

    Dextran-functionalized maghemite fluid (DexMF) has been tested to treat Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice, evidencing its potential use in mediating magnetohyperthermia in breast cancer treatment. However, although magnetic nanoparticles tend to accumulate in tumor tissues, part of the nanomaterial can reach the blood stream, and then the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute systemic effects of the intratumoral injection of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in the treatment of an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, assessed through histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, heart and spleen, comet assay, micronucleus test, hemogram, and serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and urea. The tumor's histopathology and morphometry were used to assess its aggressiveness and regression. DexMF mediating hyperthermia was effective in containing tumor aggressiveness and in inducing tumor regression, besides showing no toxic effects. Its physical characteristics also suggest that it is safe to use in other biomedical applications.

  1. Synthesis, Structure, Electrochemistry, and Spectral Characterization of Bis-Isatin Thiocarbohydrazone Metal Complexes and Their Antitumor Activity Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sathisha, M. P.; Revankar, V. K.; Pai, K. S. R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry, and biological studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of thiocarbohydrazone ligand are described. The ligand is synthesized starting from thiocarbohydrazide and isatin. It is evident from the IR data that in all the complexes, only one part of the ligand is coordinated to the metal ion resulting mononuclear complexes. The ligand coordinates essentially through the carbonyl oxygen of the isatin fragment, the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group, and sulfur atom after deprotonation to give five membered rings. H1 NMR spectrum of the ligand shows only one set of signals for the aromatic protons, while the NH of isatin and NH of hydrazone give rise to two different singlets in the 11–14 ppm range. The formulations, [Cu(L)Cl]·2H2O, [Cu(L)(CH3COO)]·2H2O, [Ni(L)Cl], [Ni(L)(CH3COO)], [Co(L2)], and [Zn(L2)]·2H2O are in accordance with elemental analyses, physical, and spectroscopic measurements. The complexes are soluble in organic solvents. Molar conductance values in DMF indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes. Copper complex displays quasireversible cyclic voltametric responses with Ep near −0.659 v and 0.504 v Vs Ag/AgCl at the scan rate of 0.1 V/s. Copper(II) complexes show a single line EPR signals. For the observed magnetic moment and electronic spectral data possible explanation has been discussed. From all the available data, the probable structures for the complexes have been proposed. The compounds synthesized in present study have shown promising cytotoxic activity when screened using the in vitro method and at the same time were shown to have good activity when tested using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model. The antimicrobial screening showed that the cobalt complex possesses enhanced antimicrobial activity towards fungi. PMID:18320020

  2. Inhibitory effect of yoghurt and soya yoghurt containing bifidobacteria on the proliferation of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in vitro and in vivo in a mouse tumour model.

    PubMed

    Abd el-Gawad, I A; el-Sayed, E M; Hafez, S A; el-Zeini, H M; Saleh, F A

    2004-07-01

    The effect of yoghurt and soya yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 or B. longum Bb-46 on Ehrlich ascites tumour cell proliferation was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Tumour cells were incubated with B. lactis Bb-12 or B. longum Bb-46 cultivated in de Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth medium, or with their centrifuged supernatant fractions or sediments, for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Treatment resulted in the inhibition of tumour cell proliferation by 85.42 (SD 0.78) and 85.10 (SD 1.28) % by intact micro-organisms, 77.61 (SD 0.29) and 71.43 (SD 1.75) % by their supernatant fractions, but only 4.00 (SD 0.19) and 9.09 (SD 1.24) % by the two sedimented bacteria, respectively. The incubation of tumour cells with yoghurt and soya yoghurt containing Bb-12 for 2 h resulted in 83.01 (SD 0.11) and 88.23 (SD 0.06) % inhibition, respectively, while it was 83.82 (SD 0.24) and 86.36 (SD 0.06) %, respectively for the same products containing Bb-46. Corresponding values for plain yoghurt and soya milk (without bifidobacteria) were 32.81 (SD 0.14) and 5.55 (SD 0.12) %, respectively. The differences between yoghurt or soya yoghurt containing Bb-12 or Bb-46 and plain yoghurt, soya milk or control treatments were statistically significant (n 3; P<0.05). Female Swiss albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with the same tumour cells. The lifespan of mice fed diets supplemented with yoghurt or soya yoghurt containing Bb-12 or Bb-46 was prolonged by 16, 23, 34 and 39 %, respectively compared with that of the positive control group (n 6; P<0.05). The lifespan of groups fed plain yoghurt or soya milk was prolonged by 15 and 8 %, respectively. Prolongation of lifespan was positively correlated with faeces bifidobacterial count in the groups fed yoghurt or soya yoghurt containing bifidobacteria (r 0.917; P<0.05).

  3. Origin of increased deoxycytidine excretion into urine of rats bearing Yoshida ascites sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, M.; Fujimura, S.

    1984-06-01

    The metabolism of deoxycytidine (dCyd) and dCyd nucleotides in Yoshida ascites sarcoma (YS) cells and the host rat liver was investigated with reference to the increased excretion of urinary dCyd. Incorporation of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid into the livers of rats at the fifth day after the transplantation of YS cells, was 2 times higher than that into the normal rat livers. After the injection of (/sup 14/C)orotic acid, the ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytidylate to uridylate moieties of the host liver RNA was measured and found to be higher than that of normal rat liver RNA and to be similar to that of YS cell RNA. When (/sup 14/C)orotic acid was injected into rats followed by the transplantation of YS cells, the radioactivities present in the livers disappeared more rapidly than those in the control rat livers. The activities of pyrimidine de novo synthesis enzymes, such as cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase, in YS were higher than those in both rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974 and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, the transplantations of which did not induce increased excretion of dCyd into urine of the hosts. The activities of dCyd kinase and dCyd deaminase in YS cells were lower than those in the other two tumors investigated. The activities of cytidine triphosphate synthetase and cytidine diphosphate reductase in the livers of YS-bearing rats were elevated compared with those in the livers of rat ascites hepatoma AH 7974- or Walker 256 carcinosarcoma-bearing rats and normal rats, while the activities of dCyd kinase, 5'-nucleotidase, and dCyd deaminase were similar between normal rat livers and tumor-bearing rat livers.

  4. Aqueous extract from Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] shell show activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and Ehrlich ascites tumor in Balb-C mice.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Josiane; Policarpi, Priscila de Britto; de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Santos Mota, Nádia Sandrine Ramos; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Block, Jane Mara

    2017-08-11

    In Brazil, use of teas are common for the treatment of many health disorders. Shell extracts of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) are popularly taken as tea to prevent diverse pathologies due to their phytochemical composition presenting significant amounts of phenolic substances. Phenolic compounds from pecan nut shell extract have been associated with diverse biological effects but the effect on tumor cells has not been reported yet. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the relationship between DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by pecan nut shell extract and its antitumor activity. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell death and cell cycle were evaluated in MCF-7 cells by MTT, colony, differential coloring and flow cytometry assays, respectively. DNA damage effects were evaluated through intercalation into CT-DNA and plasmid DNA cleavage.Tumor growth inhibition, survival time increase, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were assessed in Ehrlich ascites tumor in Balb/C mice. In this work citotoxic effect of pecan nut shell extracts, the induction of cell death by apoptosis and also the cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells have been showed. Also an increase in 67% on the survival time in mice with Ehrlich ascites tumor was observed. DNA damage was shown in the CT-DNA, plasmid DNA and comet assays. The mechanism involved in the antitumor effect of pecan nut shell extracts may involve the activation of key proteins involved in apoptosis cell death (Bcl-XL, Bax and p53) and on the cell cycle regulation (cyclin A, cyclin B and CDK2). These results were attributed to the phenolic profile of the extract, which presented compounds such as gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic and ellagic acid, and catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate. The results indicated that pecan nut shell extracts are effective against tumor cells development and may be an alternative to the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017

  5. Effect of hesperidin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid carcinoma maintained on doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Naglaa F; Khalil, Rania M

    2015-12-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in cancer therapy of many carcinomas types. Unfortunately, DOX is not sufficiently effective in many cases, and increasing the dosage of it is limited due to its systemic toxicity. A citrus flavonoid hesperidin (HES) is proved to be potent antioxidant and protective agent against many diseases including cancer. In this context, the objective of this study was to examine effect of HES along with DOX on solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) in mice. Forty male mice were divided into four equal groups (n = 10): control SEC, DOX, HES, and DOX + HES. HES (50 mg/kg body weight orally) was given day after day for 16 days along with DOX (4 mg/kg body weight i.p. injection) for 5 cycles every 4 days in ESC-inoculated mice. After 20 days, tumor volume, tumor weight, survival rate, tumor glutathione, nitric oxide content, and serum glutathione were determined. Tumor tissue was examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical study for p53 and VEGF. Tumor resistance for mdr1a gene was assessed in tumor tissue by RT-PCR. HES induced significant increase in tissue and serum glutathione with significant decrease in tumor volume and tumor weight. A possible role of HES to modulate gene expression of mdr1a in tumor tissue was established. In addition, HES alleviated the histopathological changes with significant decrease in p53 and VEGF expression. The use of HES as adjuvant therapy with DOX would enhance the therapeutic efficacy and alleviate the resistance to DOX in treatment of solid tumors.

  6. The Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of 3H-Chlorambucil in Rats Bearing the Yoshida Ascites Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bridget T.; Riches, Pamela G.

    1971-01-01

    The distribution of 3H-chlorambucil following its administration by subcutaneous injection to Yoshida ascites tumour-bearing rats has been examined, in an attempt to elucidate the metabolic fate and mode of action of this drug. Drug uptake into the body tissue was rapid, with a high level of radioactivity being associated with the plasma and ascitic fluid during the initial 6-hour period after treatment. Previous studies in vitro had shown that chlorambucil-resistant cells accumulated less drug than their sensitive counterparts: this discrepancy was also observed after in vivo drug treatment and was reflected in the two-fold difference in extent of binding of tritium to DNA, RNA and protein isolated from the 2 cell strains. These results might in part explain the observed difference in metabolism of chlorambucil by the resistant and sensitive strain of Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells. PMID:5144543

  7. Dual effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors on the therapeutic effects of cyclophosphamide and cycloplatam on Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, L A; Morozkova, T S; Amitina, S A; Mazhukin, D G; Nikolin, V P; Popova, N A; Kaledin, V I

    2014-08-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, slightly suppressed the growth of transplantable Ehrlich tumor in mice and significantly potentiated the therapeutic effect of cyclophosphamide. Another inhibitor amidoxime produced a similar effect. However, both ethyl pyruvate and amidoxime significantly reduced the effect of cycloplatam therapy. The observed changes can be stipulated by different effects of cyclophosphamide and cycloplatam on the subpopulations of lymphoid cells taking part in the formation of antitumor immunity and resistance to tumors.

  8. Formation and utilization of acetoin, an unusual product of pyruvate metabolism by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-07-15

    [14C]Pyruvate was rapidly non-oxidatively decarboxylated by Ehrlich tumor mitochondria at a rate of 40 nmol/min/mg of protein in the presence or absence of ADP. A search for decarboxylation products led to significant amounts of acetoin formed when Ehrlich tumor mitochondria were incubated with 1 mM [14C] pyruvate in the presence of ATP. Added acetoin to aerobic tumor mitochondria was rapidly utilized in the presence of ATP at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg of protein. Citrate has been found as a product of acetoin utilization and was exported from the tumor mitochondria. Acetoin has been found in the ascitic liquid of Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor-bearing animals. These unusual reactions were not observed in control rat liver mitochondria.

  9. In vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative evaluation of bis(4'-(4-tolyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine)copper(II) complex against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Kumar, Raju Senthil; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Rahiman, Aziz Kalilur

    2017-09-07

    The bis(4'-(4-tolyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine)copper(II) complex [Cu(ttpy)2]Cl2 was synthesized and authenticated by single crystal analysis, which shows distorted octahedral geometry around copper(II) ion. The crystal packing is stabilized by C-H···π inter and intramolecular interactions. The complex was found to be lipophilic as determined by shake-flask method. In vitro cytotoxicity of the complex was tested against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L6 myotube cell lines. The complex exhibit potent cytotoxicity with respect to the commercially available anticancer drug cisplatin. Hoechst 33258, AO/EB and PI (flow cytometry) staining methods suggest that the complex can induce apoptosis in EAC cells. Cell cycle analyses also support the induced apoptosis. Cellular uptake studies revealed that the complex can go into the cytoplasm and accumulate in the cell nuclei. The complex induces EAC cell apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway by activating caspase 3 and caspase 7 and regulates the Bcl-2 family proteins. In vivo study of the complex was validated against the animal tumor growth (EAC) cell in Swiss albino mice. The bis(4'-(4-tolyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine)copper(II) complex induces EAC cell apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and significantly reduced the body weight and solid tumor volume in Swiss albino mice.

  10. Anticancer potential of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids evaluated by screening with a panel of human cells, real-time cellular analysis and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Havelek, Radim; Muthna, Darina; Tomsik, Pavel; Kralovec, Karel; Seifrtova, Martina; Cahlikova, Lucie; Hostalkova, Anna; Safratova, Marcela; Perwein, Maria; Cermakova, Eva; Rezacova, Martina

    2017-09-25

    In this study, twenty-two Amaryllidaceae alkaloids were screened for their anticancer potential. All isolates were evaluated for antiproliferative activities on a panel of 17 human cell types of different tissue origin using WST-1 assay. In addition, we determined the antiproliferative effect with a real-time cell analysis xCELLigence system. Thereafter, to evaluate the barely known in vivo anticancer potential of the most potent molecule haemanthamine, a preliminary study was performed using an Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice model. The results showed that haemanthamine, lycorine and haemanthidine exerted the highest antiproliferative activity. The mean growth percent (GP) value after a single-dose 10 μM treatment was for haemanthamine 21%, for lycorine 21% and for haemanthidine 27% that of untreated control cells (100%). Furthermore, haemanthamine, lycorine and haemanthidine exhibited significant cytotoxicities against all the tested cell lines with individual IC50 values in the micromolar range. Dynamic real-time measures of impedance by xCELLigence indicated that these three compounds suppress cell proliferation after 10 h of treatment at a concentration of 10 μM or higher. Regrettably, in a follow-up in vivo antitumor activity study, haemanthamine showed no statistically significant reduction in the tumor size with no prolongation of survival time of Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results provide a new clue and guidance for exploiting Amaryllidaceae alkaloids as anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Presence of a receptor for the active component of Iscador in ascites fluid of tumour bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kuttan, G; Vasudevan, D M; Kuttan, R

    1989-12-01

    Tumour bearing mice exhibit a specific "receptor" in the ascites fluid which binds with the active component isolated from Iscador. This "receptor" was found to be a protein which inhibited the cytotoxicity of Iscador and its isolated active component at low concentration. The receptor protein was also found in the sonicates of tumour cells which are susceptible to the action of Iscador but not in lymphocytes which were not susceptible to Iscador or its isolated active component. The receptor was separated on a Sephadex G-50 column. Activity was lost upon heat denaturation and dialysis.

  12. Effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of usnic acid in ascitic tumor-bearing mice treated with bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Su, Zu-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Sun, Chao-Yue; Xie, Jian-Hui; Li, Yu-Cui; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Hai-Ming

    2017-03-08

    Usnic acid (UA) can be found in certain lichen species. Growing evidence suggests that UA possesses antitumoral, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Bleomycin (BLM) is widely used in the treatment of malignant ascites, however, it unexpectedly causes pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Researches show that excessive inflammatory response and oxidative stress in lung tissue is conspicuous causes of BLM-induced PF. Here we investigated mechanism underlying the effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of UA on H22-bearing mice treated with BLM. UA combined with BLM was significantly more effective than BLM alone in inhibiting the tumor growth, arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and promoting the cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-8 activities to induce cancer cellular apoptosis. The mechanism may be associated with the transcriptional regulation of p53/p21/Cyclin pathway. Furthermore, UA effectively moderated the histopathological changes, reduced the content of MDA, HYP, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1, and increased the level of SOD when combined with BLM in lung tissues of H22-bearing mice, which was believed to be related to the inhibition on the protein level of p-Smad2/3 and enhancement of Smad7 expression. These findings suggested that UA might be a potential effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing candidate for BLM in the treatment of malignant ascites.

  13. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Decreases the Neuroimmune Changes in Mice Induced by Cohabitation with an Ehrlich Tumor-Bearing Cage Mate.

    PubMed

    Margatho, Rafael O; Massoco, Cristina de O; Calefi, Atilio S; Cruz, Daniel S G; Sandini, Thaisa M; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Florio, Jorge C; Palermo-Neto, João

    2017-01-01

    Cohabitation with Ehrlich tumor-bearing (ETB) mice induced behavioral, neurochemical, hormonal, and immune effects in the conspecifics as a consequence of stress-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) with catecholamine release. In the current study, the nonspecific β-AR blocker d,l-propranolol and the specific β2-AR blocker ICI-118.551 were employed as pharmacological tools to assess the extent to which catecholamines participated in the effects induced by cohabitation with ETB mice. Two experiments were performed, 1 with d,l-propranolol treatment and the other with ICI-118.551. One mouse in the experimental group was called the "companion of the sick partner" (CSP) since it was forced to live in the same cage with 2 (experiment 1) or 1 (experiment 2) cage mate that had been i.p. injected with 5 × 106 Ehrlich tumor cells. The d,l-propranolol treatment, but not the ICI-118.551 treatment, attenuated the effects of cohabitation with 2 ETB mice on both open-field behavior and the hypothalamic levels and turnover rate of norepinephrine. The 2 β-AR blockers were unable to change the serum corticosterone levels and adrenal weights of the CSP mice; however, these drugs abrogated the effects of cohabitation on neutrophil oxidative burst and phagocytosis. Finally, an increase in the 5-HT turnover rate was observed in the olfactory bulb of CSP mice compared to their respective controls, an effect that was not modified by β-AR blockade. These results confirm and strengthen our hypothesis that the SNS is involved in the effects induced by cohabitation with ETB mice and point towards β2-AR participation in the immune effects analyzed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Enhanced Ehrlich tumor inhibition using DOX-NP™ and gold nanoparticles loaded liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mady, M. M.; Al-Shaikh, F. H.; Al-Farhan, F. F.; Aly, A. A.; Al-Mohanna, M. A.; Ghannam, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) is a common regime in treating various types of cancer. DOX-NP™ is one of a well established marketed liposomal formulation for DOX. It offers distinct advantages over conventional DOX in reducing the cardiac toxicity and increasing the tolerability and efficacy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), a typical biocompatible nanomaterial, have been widely used in biomedical engineering and bioanalytical applications such as biomedical imaging and biosensors. Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, free doxorubicin (DOX) in solution, gold nanoparticles loaded liposomes and commercial liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX-NP™). The results showed that GNPs loaded liposomes could enhance the antitumor activity of commercial liposomal formulation (DOX-NP™) and displayed significantly decreased systemic toxicity compared with free DOX and commercial liposomal formulation (DOX-NP™) at the equivalent dose. So the combination of GNPs and liposomes is expected to significantly increase the likelihood of cell killing and make it a promising new approach to cancer therapy.

  15. Anticancer activity of cissampelos pareira against dalton's lymphoma ascites bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Thavamani, B. Samuel; Mathew, Molly; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cissampelos pareira (Menispermaceae) is used in folk Indian system of alternative medicine, for its analgesic, antipyretic, diuretic, antilithic, and emmenagogue properties. Objective: To evaluate Cissampelos pareira (C. pareira) for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cells in Swiss mice. Materials and Methods: Cissampelos pareira was successively extracted using different solvents. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT assay. An in vivo study was carried out in methanol extract. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of the DLA cells in mice, the methanol extract of C. pariera (MECP) was administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, six mice were sacrificed and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life-span. The antitumor effect was assessed by evaluating the packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, increase in body weight, and increase in life-span. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters and anti-oxidant properties were assessed by estimating the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation. Results: Methanol Extract of Cissampelos pariera (MECP) showed a potent cytotoxic activity, with an IC50 value of 95.5 μg/ml and a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in packed cell volume, viable cell count, and an increased lifespan (54 and 72%). The hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in MECP-treated mice. The MECP-treated group significantly (P < 0.001) decreased SOD, lipid peroxidation, and CAT to normal. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that C. pariera exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities and that it was reasonably imputable to its increasing endogenous mechanism of antioxidant property. PMID:25210304

  16. DNA damage and inhibition of akt pathway in mcf-7 cells and ehrlich tumor in mice treated with 1,4-naphthoquinones in combination with ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Fabiana; Kviecinski, Maicon R; Felipe, Karina B; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Farias, Mirelle S; Castro, Luiza S E P W; Grinevicius, Valdelúcia M A S; Valderrama, Jaime; Rios, David; Benites, Julio; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the antitumor mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones and ascorbate. Juglone, phenylaminonaphthoquinone-7, and 9 (Q7/Q9) were evaluated for effects on CT-DNA and DNA of cancer cells. Evaluations in MCF-7 cells are DNA damage, ROS levels, viability, and proliferation. Proteins from MCF-7 lysates were immunoblotted for verifying PARP integrity, γH2AX, and pAkt. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The same markers of molecular toxicity were assessed in vivo. The naphthoquinones intercalate into CT-DNA and caused oxidative cleavage, which is increased in the presence of ascorbate. Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced viability and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Effects were potentiated by ascorbate. No PARP cleavage was observed. Naphthoquinones, combined with ascorbate, caused phosphorylation of H2AX and inhibited pAkt. ROS were enhanced in MCF-7 cells, particularly by the juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate. Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by juglone, Q7, or Q9, but the potentiating effect of ascorbate was reproduced in vivo only in the cases of juglone and Q7, which caused up to 60% inhibition of tumor and the largest extension of survival. Juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate caused enhanced ROS and DNA damage and inhibited pAkt also in Ehrlich carcinoma cells.

  17. DNA Damage and Inhibition of Akt Pathway in MCF-7 Cells and Ehrlich Tumor in Mice Treated with 1,4-Naphthoquinones in Combination with Ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Ourique, Fabiana; Kviecinski, Maicon R.; Felipe, Karina B.; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Farias, Mirelle S.; Castro, Luiza S. E. P. W.; Grinevicius, Valdelúcia M. A. S.; Valderrama, Jaime; Rios, David; Benites, Julio; Buc Calderon, Pedro; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the antitumor mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones and ascorbate. Juglone, phenylaminonaphthoquinone-7, and 9 (Q7/Q9) were evaluated for effects on CT-DNA and DNA of cancer cells. Evaluations in MCF-7 cells are DNA damage, ROS levels, viability, and proliferation. Proteins from MCF-7 lysates were immunoblotted for verifying PARP integrity, γH2AX, and pAkt. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The same markers of molecular toxicity were assessed in vivo. The naphthoquinones intercalate into CT-DNA and caused oxidative cleavage, which is increased in the presence of ascorbate. Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced viability and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Effects were potentiated by ascorbate. No PARP cleavage was observed. Naphthoquinones, combined with ascorbate, caused phosphorylation of H2AX and inhibited pAkt. ROS were enhanced in MCF-7 cells, particularly by the juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate. Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by juglone, Q7, or Q9, but the potentiating effect of ascorbate was reproduced in vivo only in the cases of juglone and Q7, which caused up to 60% inhibition of tumor and the largest extension of survival. Juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate caused enhanced ROS and DNA damage and inhibited pAkt also in Ehrlich carcinoma cells. PMID:25793019

  18. Exosomes Isolated from Ascites of T-Cell Lymphoma-Bearing Mice Expressing Surface CD24 and HSP-90 Induce a Tumor-Specific Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Menay, Florencia; Herschlik, Leticia; De Toro, Julieta; Cocozza, Federico; Tsacalian, Rodrigo; Gravisaco, María José; Di Sciullo, María Paula; Vendrell, Alejandrina; Waldner, Claudia I.; Mongini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including endosome-derived nanovesicles (exosomes), are involved in cell–cell communication. Through transfer of their molecular contents, extracellular nanovesicles can alter the function of recipient cells. Due to these characteristics, EVs have shown potential as a new alternative for cancer immunotherapy. Tumor exosomes isolated from malignant ascites can activate dendritic cells, thereby priming the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. However, a suppressive role on tumor immune response has also been reported, suggesting that the neoplastic stage of carcinogenesis and the microenvironment where tumor cells grow may influence the amount of EVs released by the cell. This neoplastic stage and microenvironment may also impact EVs’ components such as proteins and miRNA, determining their biological behavior. Most T-cell lymphomas have an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. Consequently, complementary alternative therapies are needed to improve the survival rates achieved with conventional treatments. In this work, we have characterized EVs isolated from ascites of mice bearing a very aggressive murine T-cell lymphoma and have studied their immunogenic properties. Small EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and ultracentrifugation at 100,000 × g on a sucrose cushion. The EVs were defined as exosomes by their morphology and size analyzed by electron microscopy, their floating density on a sucrose gradient, as well as their expression of endosome marker proteins ALIX, TSG-101; the tetraspanins CD63, CD9, and CD81. In addition, they contain tumor antigens, the marker for malignancy CD24, the heat shock protein HSP-70, and an unusual surface expression of HSP-90 was demonstrated. The administration of EVs isolated from ascites (EVs A) into naïve-syngeneic mice induced both humoral and cellular immune responses that allowed the rejection of subsequent tumor challenges. However

  19. Immunostimulatory activities of a low molecular weight antitumoral polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (LMPAB) in Sarcoma 180 ascitic tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Cai; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Su, Fu-Qin; Cui, Hong-Xia

    2009-07-01

    LMPAB is a linear beta-(1-3)-glucan we isolated from polysaccharide extract of Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM). Effects of LMPAB on splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity, splenocyte proliferation, index of spleen and thymus, IFN-gamma expression in spleen and the concentration of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in serum of S180 ascitic tumor-bearing mice were detected. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of LMPAB (100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) significantly increased the thymus index. LMPAB augmented splenic NK cell activity in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The concanavalin A (3 microg/ ml) stimulated splenocyte proliferation was significantly enhanced by LMPAB at dosages of 50, 100 or 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). Further studies showed that LMPAB (50, 100 or 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), 14d) significantly increased the production of IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-18 and the expression IFN-gamma as determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the anti-tumor effects of LMPAB are closely associated with up-regulation of activity of NK cells, expression of IFN-gamma in spleen and the systemic level of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in tumor-bearing mice.

  20. Chlorambucil and ascorbic acid-mediated anticancer activity and hematological toxicity in Dalton's ascites lymphoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Suravi; Verma, Akalesh Kumar; Prasad, Surya Bali

    2014-02-01

    Chlorambucil is an anticancer drug with alkylating and immunosuppressive activities. Considering various reports on the possible antioxidant/protective functions of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), it was aimed at to explore the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity induced by chlorambucil. Dalton's ascites lymphoma tumor serially maintained in Swiss albino mice were used for the present experiments. The result of antitumor activity showed that combination treatment with ascorbic acid and chlorambucil exhibited enhanced antitumor activity with 170% increase in life span (ILS), which is significantly higher as compared to chlorambucil alone (ILS 140%). Analysis of apoptosis in Dalton's lymphoma tumor cells revealed a significantly higher apoptotic index after combination treatment as compared to chlorambucil alone. Blood hemoglobin content, erythrocytes and leukocytes counts were decreased after chlorambucil treatment, however, overall recovery in these hematological values was noted after combination treatment. Chlorambucil treatment also caused morphological abnormalities in red blood cells, majority of which include acanthocytes, burr and microcystis. Combination treatment of mice with ascorbic acid plus chlorambucil showed less histopathological changes in kidney as compared to chlorambucil treatment alone, thus, ascorbic acid is effective in reducing chlorambucil-induced renal toxicity in the hosts. Based on the results, for further development, hopefully into the clinical usage, the administration of ascorbic acid in combination with chlorambucil may be recommended.

  1. Refractory Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Fabiolla; Kelly, Traci

    2009-01-01

    Refractory ascites is defined as ascites that does not recede or that recurs shortly after therapeutic paracentesis, despite sodium restriction and diuretic treatment. To date, there is no approved medical therapy specifically for refractory ascites. Management of these patients is based upon procedures such as large-volume paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS), which temporarily alleviate symptoms but are not curative. These patients have a poor prognosis and are at risk for a series of complications that are associated with the condition or are secondary to therapy. The most common complications include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic hydrothorax, spontaneous bacterial empyema, and umbilical hernia. The predicted survival rate is as low as 50% at 1 year, and prognosis worsens as patients present with comorbidities such as hepatorenal syndrome, renal failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The only curative treatment is liver transplantation, though current studies have shown that TIPS also increases survival.

  2. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  3. Antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects of palladium(II) complexes on Ehrlich tumour.

    PubMed

    Quilles, Marcela B; Carli, Camila B A; Ananias, Sandra R; Ferreira, Lucas S; Ribeiro, Livia C A; Maia, Danielle C G; Resende, Flávia A; Moro, Antônio C; Varanda, Eliana A; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Mauro, Antonio E; Carlos, Iracilda Z

    2013-01-01

    Palladium(II) complexes are an important class of cyclopalladated compounds that play a pivotal role in various pharmaceutical applications. Here, we investigated the antitumour, anti-inflammatory, and mutagenic effects of two complexes: [Pd(dmba)(Cl)tu] (1) and [Pd(dmba)(N3)tu] (2) (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine and tu = thiourea), on Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) from mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumour. The cytotoxic effects of the complexes on EAT cells and PECs were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of the complexes on the immune system were assessed based on the production of nitric oxide (NO) (Griess assay) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) (ELISA). Finally the mutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 98. Cisplatin was used as a standard. The IC50 ranges for the growth inhibition of EAT cells and PECs were found to be (72.8 +/- 3.23) microM and (137.65 +/- 0.22) microM for 1 and (39.7 +/- 0.30) microM and (146.51 +/- 2.67) microM for 2, respectively. The production of NO, IL-12, and TNF-alpha, but not IL-10, was induced by both complexes and cisplatin. The complexes showed no mutagenicity in vitro, unlike cisplatin, which was mutagenic in the strain. These results indicate that the complexes are not mutagenic and have potential immunological and antitumour activities. These properties make them promising alternatives to cisplatin.

  4. Antioxidant potential by arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3/biobran, represents a mechanism for its oncostatic effect against murine solid Ehrlich carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Eman; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Bibars, Mona A; Abou Mossallam, Ahlam A; Ghoneum, Mamdooh

    2008-09-18

    We have recently examined the oncolytic effect of arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3/biobran, against solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC)-bearing mice via immune-modulation and apoptosis [N.K. Badr El-din, E. Noaman, M. Ghoneum, In vivo tumor inhibitory effects of nutritional rice bran supplement MGN-3/biobran on Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice, Nutr. Cancer 60 (2) (2008) 235-244]. In the present study, we examined the antioxidant system as another possible mechanism through which MGN-3 exerts its oncostatic potential. Female albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. MGN-3 (25 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) six times a week for 25 days into mice at either day 4 or day 11 post-EAC cell inoculation. Tumor growth, lipid peroxidation (LPx), glutathione (GSH) contents, the activity of the antioxidant scavenger enzymes, and alterations in gene expression were examined. MGN-3 efficiently suppressed the growth of tumors, which was associated with normalization of the LPx levels and augmentation of GSH contents. MGN-3 enhanced the activity of the endogenous antioxidant scavenging enzymes -- superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) -- in blood, liver, and tumor tissue. Similarly it up-regulated the expression of GPx, SOD1 and CAT mRNA in the liver. The effect of MGN-3 was more pronounced when treated early, at day 4 of tumor cell inoculation, as compared to later treatment at 11 days. In conclusion, MGN-3-induced oncostatic activity by modulating lipid peroxidation, augmenting the antioxidant defense system and protecting against oxidative stress.

  5. Study of Antitumor Activity of Sodium Phenylbutyrate, Histon Deacetylase Inhibitor, on Ehrlich Carcinoma Model.

    PubMed

    Fadeev, N P; Kharisov, R I; Kovan'ko, E G; Pustovalov, Yu I

    2015-09-01

    Antitumor activity of sodium phenylbutyrate was studied on 120 outbred female mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The animals received the drug in doses of 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg with drinking water daily for 21 days. The antitumor effect was evaluated by tumor growth inhibition and lifespan prolongation. Phenylbutyrate in the dose of 800 mg/kg was most effective. The drug inhibited the tumor growth by 71%, prolonged the lifespan of animals by 28, and was low-toxic.

  6. B-1 cells and concomitant immunity in Ehrlich tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, M C; Palos, M C; Osugui, L; Laurindo, M F; Masutani, D; Nonogaki, S; Bachi, A L L; Melo, F H M; Mariano, M

    2014-05-01

    Concomitant immunity is a phenomenon in which a tumour-bearing host is resistant to the growth of an implanted secondary tumour. Metastases are considered to be secondary tumours that develop spontaneously during primary tumour growth, suggesting the involvement of concomitant immunity in controlling the rise of metastases. It has been demonstrated that B-1 cells, a subset of B-lymphocytes found predominantly in pleural and peritoneal cavities, not only increase the metastatic development of murine melanoma B16F10, but also are capable of differentiating into mononuclear phagocytes, modulating inflammatory responses in wound healing, in oral tolerance and in Paracoccidiose brasiliensis infections. Here, we studied B-1 cells' participation in concomitant immunity during Ehrlich tumour progression. Our results show that B-1 cells obtained from BALB/c mice previously injected with Ehrlich tumour in the footpad were able to protect BALB/c and BALB/Xid mice against Ehrlich tumour challenge. In addition, it was demonstrated that BALB/Xid show faster tumour growth and have lost concomitant immunity, and that this state can be partially restored by reconstituting these animals with B-1 cells. However, further researches are required to establish the mechanism involving B-1 cells in Ehrlich tumour growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction between three subpopulations of Ehrlich carcinoma in mixed solid tumours in nude mice: evidence of contact domination.

    PubMed Central

    Aabo, K.; Vindeløv, L. L.; Spang-Thomsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Clonal interaction between three subpopulations of Ehrlich carcinoma were studied during growth as mixed solid tumours and as ascites tumours in immune-incompetent nude NMRI mice. The tumour cell lines differed in DNA content as determined by DNA flow cytometry (FCM). Tumour growth was evaluated by tumour growth curves including calculation of tumour volume doubling times, tumour weight on day 14, cell cycle times (per cent labelled mitoses) and cell cycle distributions (FCM). Two subpopulations (E1.15 and E1.95) showed nearly identical growth characteristics during both solid and ascites tumour growth. The third subpopulation (E1.80) grew more slowly. FCM on fine-needle tumour aspirates was used to determine the relative proportions of the cell populations in mixed solid tumours in which E1.95 showed a growth-dominating effect on E1.15. No such effect was demonstrated during single-cell tumour growth in ascitic fluid in which the cells had no intimate contact. Ascitic fluid from E1.95-bearing animals or radiation-killed E1.95 cells had no effect on the growth of E1.15, and no remote effect was seen when the two cell lines were growing in opposite flanks. This indicates that only viable E1.95 cells in close in vivo contact were able to induce growth inhibition of the E1.15 subpopulation. Both the E1.95 and the E1.15 cells dominated the E1.80 cells, but in these cases cell kinetic differences may have played a role as the E1.95 and the E1.15 lines grew faster than the E1.80. The E1.80 cell line had no dominating effect on the E1.15 or E1.95. It is concluded that non-immunologically mediated cellular dominance in heterogeneous tumours may contribute to the evolution of these tumours and may be involved in fundamental tumour biological phenomena. PMID:8018547

  8. Management of cirrhotic ascites

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Julie Steen; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The most common complication to chronic liver failure is ascites. The formation of ascites in the cirrhotic patient is caused by a complex chain of pathophysiological events involving portal hypertension and progressive vascular dysfunction. Since ascites formation represents a hallmark in the natural history of chronic liver failure it predicts a poor outcome with a 50% mortality rate within 3 years. Patients with ascites are at high risk of developing complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hyponatremia and progressive renal impairment. Adequate management of cirrhotic ascites and its complications betters quality of life and increases survival. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology behind cirrhotic ascites and the diagnostic approaches, as well as outlining the current treatment options. Despite improved medical treatment of ascites, liver transplantation remains the ultimate treatment and early referral of the patient to a highly specialized hepatology unit should always be considered. PMID:25954497

  9. Perturbations of triglycerides but not of cholesterol metabolism are prevented by anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment in rats bearing an ascites hepatoma (Yoshida AH-130).

    PubMed Central

    Dessì, S.; Batetta, B.; Spano, O.; Bagby, G. J.; Tessitore, L.; Costelli, P.; Baccino, F. M.; Pani, P.; Argilès, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Rats transplanted with the ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 developed a severely progressive cachexia, characterised by marked alterations in protein and lipid metabolism. In particular, high levels of serum triglycerides and free fatty acids were associated with altered levels and distribution of plasma cholesterol, with increased total and very low-density lipoprotein-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL) cholesterol and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The tumour cells showed high rates of cholesterol synthesis and elevated content of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas total cholesterol synthesis was reduced in the host liver. To determine whether these perturbations could be related to the elevation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) previously shown in the AH-130 bearers (Tessitore L, Costelli P, Baccino FM 1993, Br J Cancer, 67, 15-23), either anti-TNF polyclonal antibodies or non-immune IgGs were injected daily after tumour transplantation. The anti-TNF treatment neither affected tumour growth nor prevented the serum cholesterol changes, while attenuating the hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevated serum free fatty acid levels. These data indicate that TNF does not appear to be directly involved in the altered cholesterol metabolism in AH-130 hosts, thus supporting the view that cholesterol metabolism and lipid metabolism are regulated differently during tumour growth. PMID:7577459

  10. Translocator protein (18 kDa) mediates the pro-growth effects of diazepam on Ehrlich tumor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakai, M; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Ribeiro, A; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Rone, M B; Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Dagli, M L Z; Papadopoulos, V; Palermo-Neto, J

    2010-01-25

    The Translocator Protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a ubiquitous drug- and cholesterol-binding protein that is up regulated in several types of cancer cells. TSPO drug ligands (e.g., diazepam) induce or inhibit tumor cell proliferation, depending on the dose and tissue origin. We have previously shown that TSPO is expressed in Ehrlich tumor cells and that diazepam increases proliferation of these cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the in vivo effects of diazepam on Ehrlich tumor growth and the role of TSPO in mediating this process. Oral administration of diazepam to mice (3.0mg/kg/day for 7 days) produced plasma and ascitic fluid drug concentrations of 83.83 and 54.12 nM, respectively. Diazepam increased Ehrlich tumor growth, likely due to its ability to increase tumor cell proliferation and Reactive Oxygen Species production. Radioligand binding assays and nucleotide sequencing revealed that Ehrlich tumor cell TSPO had the same pharmacological and biochemical properties as TSPO described in other tumor cells. The estimated K(d) for PK 11195 in Ehrlich tumor cells was 0.44 nM and 8.70 nM (low and high binding site, respectively). Structurally diverse TSPO drug ligands with exclusive affinity for TSPO (i.e., 4-chlordiazepam, Ro5-4864, and isoquinoline-carboxamide PK 11195) also increased Ehrlich tumor growth. However, clonazepam, a GABA(A)-specific ligand with no affinity for TSPO, failed to do so. Taken together, these data suggest that diazepam induces in vivo Ehrlich tumor growth in a TSPO-dependent manner.

  11. GROWTH FACTORS AND COX2 IN WOUND HEALING: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY WITH EHRLICH TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, Flávio L. L.; ARTIGIANI-NETO, Ricardo; LOPES-FILHO, Gaspar de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Healing is an innate biological phenomenon, and carcinogenesis acquired, but with common humoral and cellular elements. Carcinogenesis interferes negatively in healing. Aim: To evaluate the histological changes in laparotomy scars of healthy Balb/c mice and with an Ehrlich tumor in its various forms of presentation. Methods: Fifty-four mice were divided into three groups of 18 animals. First group was the control; the second had Ehrlich tumor with ascites; and the third had the subcutaneous form of this tumor. Seven days after tumor inoculation, all 54 mice were submitted to laparotomy. All of the animals in the experiment were operated on again on 7th day after surgery, with resection of the scar and subsequent euthanasia of the animal. The scars were sent for histological assessment using immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate Cox-2 (cyclooxygenase 2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and FGF (fibroblast growth factor). Semi-quantitatively analysis was done in the laparotomy scars and in the abdominal walls far away from the site of the operation. Results: Assessing the weight of the animals, the correct inoculation of the tumor and weight gain in the group with tumoral ascites was observed. The histological studies showed that groups with the tumor showed a statistically significant higher presence of Cox-2 compared to the control. In the Cox-2 analysis of the abdominal wall, the ascites group showed the most significant difference. VEGF did not present any significant differences between the three groups, regardless of the site. The FGF showed a significant increase in animals with the tumor. Conclusion: Histological findings in both laparotomy scar and the abdominal wall showed that with Ehrlich's neoplasia there was an exacerbated inflammatory response, translated by more intense expression of Cox-2 and greater fibroblast proliferation, translated by more intense expression of FGF, that is, it stimulated both the immediate

  12. Natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine profile in tumor-bearing mice treated with MAPA, a magnesium aggregated polymer from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Justo, G Z; Durán, N; Queiroz, M L S

    2003-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of MAPA, an antitumor aggregated polymer of protein magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride, isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced spleen cell proliferation, cytokine production and on natural killer (NK) cell activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. The Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growth led to diminished mitogen-induced expansion of spleen cell populations and total NK activity. This was accompanied by striking spleen enlargement, with a marked increase in total cell counts. Moreover, a substantial enhancement in IL-10 levels, paralleled by a significant decrease in IL-2 was observed, while production of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered. Treatment of mice with 5 mg/kg MAPA for 7 days promoted spleen cell proliferation, IL-2 production and NK cell activity regardless of tumor outgrowth. In addition, MAPA treatment markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels and reduced IL-10 production relative to EAT mice. A 35% reduction in splenomegaly with normal number of nucleated cells was also found. Altogether, our results suggest that MAPA directly and/or indirectly modulates immune cell activity, and probably disengages tumor-induced suppression of these responses. Clearly, MAPA has an impact and may delay tumor outgrowth through immunotherapeutic mechanisms.

  13. Lipid metabolism in tumour bearing mice treated withAeromonas L-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Benny, P J; Kurup, G M; Sreejith, K

    1997-07-01

    The anticancerous drug isolated in our laboratory from estuarineAeromonas was characterised and is found to be an enzyme, L-asparaginase. The antileukaemic effect of this drug was studied in mice by inducing leukaemia with Ehrlich ascites cell lines. It was compared with commercially available drug, Leunase, isolated fromE. coli. The lipid profiles in mice during leukaemia and under treatment was studied. The decreased levels of cholesterol and increased levels of triglycerides and phospholipids in serum, liver and kidney were observed in tumour bearing mice. Significant changes in the above values were observed with enzyme therapy. It could bring some of the values to near normal level. L-asparaginase fromAeromonas was found to be more effective.

  14. Targeting superoxide dismutase to renal proximal tubule cells inhibits nephrotoxicity of cisplatin and increases the survival of cancer-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, M; Nagatomi, H; Nishijima, M; Ohira, G; Chang, B J; Sato, E; Inoue, M

    2001-10-10

    Because cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) which generates reactive oxygen species induces renal dysfunction, administration of a large dose for killing cancer cells is highly limited. We recently synthesized a cationic superoxide dismutase (SOD) (hexamethylenediamine-conjugated SOD, AH-SOD) which rapidly accumulates in renal proximal tubule cells and inhibits oxidative injury of the kidney. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC)-bearing mice with cisplatin sufficient for killing tumor cells increased their motality. The motality of cisplatin-treated EATC-bearing mice was markedly decreased by AH-SOD. These results suggest that targeting SOD to renal proximal tubule cells might permit the administration of high doses of cisplatin and related anticancer agents without causing renal injury.

  15. Ascites, refractory ascites and hyponatremia in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ascites is the most common complication related to cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Ascites is a consequence of the loss of compensatory mechanisms to maintain the overall effective arterial blood volume due to worsening splanchnic arterial vasodilation as a result of clinically significant portal hypertension. In order to maintain effective arterial blood volume, vasoconstrictor and antinatriuretic pathways are activated, which increase overall sodium and fluid retention. As a result of progressive splanchnic arterial vasodilation, intestinal capillary pressure increases and results in the formation of protein-poor fluid within the abdominal cavity due to increased capillary permeability from the hepatic sinusoidal hypertension. In some patients, the fluid can translocate across diaphragmatic fenestrations into the pleural space, leading to hepatic hydrothorax. In addition, infectious complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can occur. Eventually, as the liver disease progresses related to higher portal pressures, loss of a compensatory cardiac output and further splanchnic vasodilation, kidney function becomes compromised from worsening renal vasoconstriction as well as the development of impaired solute-free water excretion and severe sodium retention. These mechanisms then translate into significant clinical complications, such as refractory ascites, hepatorenal syndrome and hyponatremia, and all are linked to increased short-term mortality. Currently, liver transplantation is the only curative option for this spectrum of clinical manifestations but ongoing research has led to further insight on alternative approaches. This review will further explore the current understanding on the pathophysiology and management of ascites as well as expand on two advanced clinical consequences of advanced liver disease, refractory ascites and hyponatremia. PMID:28533908

  16. Immunogenicity of ascites tumor cells following in vitro hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, J.A.; Jasiewicz, M.L.; Simpson, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    The concept that host immunization may be achieved by heat-induced antigenic modifications of cancer cells and/or the release of immunogenic products by dead or dying tumor cells following in vitro heating was examined. Ehrlich ascites cells were used, inasmuch as it was claimed that in vitro hyperthermia increased the immunogenicity of these cells. Tumor cell populations of different viability were obtained by heating Ehrlich cells at 42.5 degrees, 45 degrees, or 60 degrees C. Viable and nonviable cells were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation; viable nonreplicating cells were obtained by treatment with mitomycin C. Cell populations of different viability after heating were left to die slowly over 3 days at 37 degrees C. Swiss TO mice were then given injections of the treated cells and/or medium. No survival benefit occurred in mice inoculated with any of these different components and then challenged with viable tumor cells. Injection of irradiated cells, however, did produce host immunity. Similarly, D23 rat hepatoma ascites cells produced host immunity after 15,000 rad but not after heating. The claim that in vitro hyperthermia increases the immunogenicity of tumor cells was not confirmed.

  17. [Treatment of refractory ascites].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Albillos, Agustín

    2014-07-01

    Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation.

  18. Palliation of malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stefanie M

    2006-03-01

    The management of recurrent, symptomatic malignant ascites can be problematic for physicians and patients. The most common, low-risk method is large-volume paracentesis. Patient disease progression often leads to rapid reaccumulation of ascites, which requires frequent return visits to the hospital for symptom management. Other techniques have been developed to achieve palliation of symptoms, including tunneled external drainage catheters, peritoneal ports, and peritoneovenous

  19. Antitumor activity of Aponogeton undulatus against Ehrilich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Reyazul; Alam, Md Badrul; Tamima, Umme; Jenny, Shayla Islam

    2015-06-01

    To investigate in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antitumor activity of the crude methanolic extract of Aponogeton undulatus (A. undulatus) (MAU) along with its various organic fractions. A. undulatus leaves were successively extracted using methanol (MAU) and then fractionated by chloroform, ethyl acetate (EAU) and water. The total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous reducing power assessment were used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the crude extract and its organic fractions. The in vivo antitumor activity is evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell bearing in Swiss albino mice. EAU showed the highest antioxidant capacity as (175.80 ± 0.41) mg/g, IC50 value of DPPH scavenging activity was (38.84 ± 0.02) μg/mL and also exhibited maximum lipid peroxidation inhibition activity with the IC50 value of (42.52 ± 0.32) μg/mL than other fractions. The results demonstrate that reducing power of the extract was concentration dependent. In addition, EAU was administered at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively to EAC cell bearing mice and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and also increased the life span (17.52%, 42.53% and 62.05%). Hematological profiles were restored to normal levels in MAU treated mice as compared to EAC control mice. The results were found to be significant and confirmed that the A. undulatus has remarkable antitumor activity with antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of propranolol on IL-10, visfatin, Hsp70, iNOS, TLR2, and survivin in amelioration of tumor progression and survival in Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Abdin, Amany A; Soliman, Nema A; Saied, Eman M

    2014-12-01

    β-Adrenergic signaling could contribute to initiation and progression of breast cancer. This research investigated some potential mechanisms of propranolol in amelioration of progression and survival in breast cancer. Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma (SEC) xenograft model was induced in 30 mice divided into 3 groups; where group I served as untreated SEC group. In groups II and III, propranolol treatment i.p. in low (5mg/kg) and high dose (10mg/kg) caused significant increase in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and decrease in heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with non significant change in visfatin in tumor tissues compared to untreated SEC. In untreated SEC, tumor volume (V) exhibited significant negative correlation with IL-10 levels and toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression with significant positive correlation with Hsp70 levels and iNOS activity. While propranolol in either doses caused reduction of tumor volume (V), and improved percentage tumor growth inhibition (% TGI) only its high dose exhibited significant impact on survival rate. Propranolol dose-dependent effect was evident for IL-10 and Hsp70, and even only the high dose significantly increased and decreased TLR2 and survivin, respectively. This comes in favor of recommending high dose of propranolol in cancer therapy. Nonetheless, use of low dose cannot be ignored when benefit to risk balance have to be considered. Propranolol could provide palliative effects in progression and survival of breast cancer that are mainly mediated via direct immunomodulatory and apoptotic mechanisms and probably associated with indirect anti-angiogenic activity. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Solid Ehrlich carcinoma reproduces functional and biological characteristics of cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan; de Souza Padilha, Camila; Marinello, Poliana Camila; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; Cecchini, Rubens; Duarte, José Alberto R; Deminice, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    Well-characterized animal tumor models of cancer cachexia are warranted to elucidate underlying mechanisms and provide a better approach to the human scenario. We aimed to investigate whether solid Ehrlich carcinoma reproduces clinical, functional and biological conditions of tumor-induced cachexia in mice. Eight-week old female Swiss mice were subcutaneously inoculated with Ehrlich tumor cells (tumor-bearing, TB group) or vehicle (sham) into the right flank and monitored for 28days. Tumor histopathological features and tumor-host interaction, including tissue weight, muscle structure, strength and biochemical parameters were carried out. Tumor growth curve demonstrated a linear pattern with no difference in final carcass weight between groups. A well-defined capsule composed by connective tissue infiltrated by inflammatory and neoplastic cells surrounded the tumors. The TB group had reduced handgrip strength, aside from lower cross sectional area (CSA) and critically reduced parametrial fat pads. Plasma parameters of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were higher in the TB group, suggesting predominance of catabolic and pro-inflammatory activities. Conversely, food intake and tissue weight did not differ between groups. Our data elucidated that the solid Ehrlich tumor model is feasible and effective in reproducing some of the relevant issues experienced by cancer patients with cachexia. The solid Ehrlich carcinoma emerges as an alternative tool against more aggressive cancer cachexia models during preclinical research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of ascites in children.

    PubMed

    Lane, Erin R; Hsu, Evelyn K; Murray, Karen F

    2015-01-01

    Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. There are many causes of fetal, neonatal and pediatric ascites; however, chronic liver disease and subsequent cirrhosis remain the most common. The medical and surgical management of ascites in children is dependent on targeting the underlying etiology. Broad categories of management strategies include: sodium restriction, diuresis, paracentesis, intravenous albumin, prevention and treatment of infection, surgical and endovascular shunts and liver transplantation. This review updates and expands the discussion of the unique considerations regarding the management of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic ascites in the pediatric patient.

  3. [Tlaloc and ascites].

    PubMed

    Viesca-Treviño, Carlos; Macuil-García, Carmen; Monzón-Barranco, Abraham; Rosas-Peña, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Ascites has been a common pathological sign among prehispanic Mexican people, as a result from hepatic and cardiac ailments. In this sense it represents a significant epidemiological problem. But it also is important because is related to Tlaloc and the rain gods and goddesses. The hidropic body is a symbolic water container and have a special function: serve as a Tlaloc and related gods vehicle to transport the precious liquid. In this paper we analyze the Tlaloc role as water and alimentary substances provider and his capital importance for people survival. We also describe five different plastic ways to represent water in the body, all of them with clear relationships to Tlaloc.

  4. Integrin β1, Osmosensing, and Chemoresistance in Mouse Ehrlich Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Broberg, Bjørn Sindballe; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Sauter, Daniel Peter Rafael; Lambert, Ian Henry; Aspberg, Anders; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-01-01

    Altered expression of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors has been associated with initiation, progression, and metastasis of solid tumors as well as in the development of chemoresistance. Here, we investigated the role of integrins, in particular integrin β1, in cell volume regulation and drug-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent Ehrlich ascites cell lines. Adhesion phenotypes were verified by colorimetric cell-adhesion-assay. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to compare expression levels of integrin subunits. Small interfering RNA was used to silence integrin β1 expression. Regulatory volume decrease (RVD) after cell swelling was studied with calcein-fluorescence-self-quenching and Coulter counter analysis. Taurine efflux was estimated with tracer technique. Caspase assay was used to determine apoptosis. We show that adherent cells have stronger fibronectin binding and a significantly increased expression of integrin α5, αv, and β1 at mRNA and protein level, compared to non-adherent cells. Knockdown of integrin β1 reduced RVD of the adherent but not of the non-adherent cells. Efflux of taurine was unaffected. In contrast to non-adherent, adherent cells exhibited chemoresistance to chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin and gemcitabine). However, knockdown of integrin β1 promoted cisplatin-induced caspase activity in adherent cells. Our data identifies integrin β1 as a part of the osmosensing machinery and regulator of cisplatin resistance in adherent Ehrlich cells.

  5. Combination of bacteriolytic therapy with magnetic field for Ehrlich tumour treatment.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fadel M; El-Gebaly, Reem H; Hamad, Amany M

    2017-07-01

    Referable to the limited response of the current available cancer treatment modalities, new effective cancer fighting treatments are needed. This work investigates the efficiency of intratumoural injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria combined with a local tumour exposure to extremely low frequency square pulsed magnetic field (ELF SPMF) in the mouse Ehrlich tumour. 64 Ehrlich ascites tumour-implanted female albino BALB/C mice were equally split up into 4 groups. Group 1 (GP1) was the positive control group. Group 2 (GP2) received a single intratumoural injection of P. aeruginosa bacteria. Group 3 (GP3) was exposed to ELF SPMF for tumour local exposure. Group 4 (GP4) was treated with P. aeruginosa intratumoural injection followed by local exposure of the tumour to ELF SPMF. Treatment monitoring was evaluated using ultrastructural examination, flow cytometry analysis in addition to the measurement of tumour dielectric properties. Tumour cell apoptosis was obvious in GP2 and GP4, but, with higher severity and percentages in GP2. Tumour biophysical properties revealed a significant increase in static conductivity σS of GP2, and decreases in dielectric increment Δɛ´of both GP2 and GP4 compared to the GP1. Unfortunately, GP2 mice showed severe signs of toxicity. We advocate the utilization of the combination of P. aeruginosa and SPMF to yield the most effective antitumour agent with less bacteria-related toxicity.

  6. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years.

  7. The Ehrlich tumor induces pain-like behavior in mice: a novel model of cancer pain for pathophysiological studies and pharmacological screening.

    PubMed

    Calixto-Campos, Cassia; Zarpelon, Ana C; Corrêa, Mab; Cardoso, Renato D R; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Cecchini, Rubens; Moreira, Estefania G; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bernardy, Catia C F; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-01-01

    The Ehrlich tumor is a mammary adenocarcinoma of mice that can be developed in solid and ascitic forms depending on its administration in tissues or cavities, respectively. The present study investigates whether the subcutaneous plantar administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells induces pain-like behavior and initial pharmacological susceptibility characteristics. The Ehrlich tumor cells (1 × 10(4)-10(7) cells) induced dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic version of the von Frey filaments), paw edema/tumor growth (caliper), and flinches compared with the saline group between days 2 and 12. There was no difference between doses of cells regarding thermal hyperalgesia in the hot-plate test. Indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and amitriptyline hydrochloride (a tricyclic antidepressant) treatments did not affect flinches or thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. On the other hand, morphine (an opioid) inhibited the flinch behavior and the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. These effects of morphine on pain-like behavior were prevented by naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) treatment. None of the treatments affected paw edema/tumor growth. The results showed that, in addition to tumor growth, administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells may represent a novel model for the study of cancer pain, specially the pain that is susceptible to treatment with opioids, but not to cyclooxygenase inhibitor or to tricyclic antidepressant.

  8. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in ascites tumor mitochondria and cells by intramitochondrial Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1980-03-25

    Accumulation of Ca2+ (+ phosphate) by respiring mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites or AS30-D hepatoma tumor cells inhibits subsequent phosphorylating respiration in response to ADP. The respiratory chain is still functional since a proton-conducting uncoupler produces a normal stimulation of electron transport. The inhibition of phosphorylating respiration is caused by intramitochondrial Ca2+ (+ phosphate). ATP + Mg2+ together, but not singly, prevents the inhibitory action of Ca2+. Neither AMP, GTP, GDP, nor any other nucleoside 5'-triphosphate or 5'-diphosphate could replace ATP in this effect. Phosphorylating respiration on NAD(NADP)-linked substrates was much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of intramitochondrial Ca2+ than succinate-linked respiration. Significant inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is given by the endogenous Ca2+ present in freshly isolated tumor mitochondria. The phosphorylating respiration of permeabilized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is also inhibited by Ca2+ accumulated by the mitochondria in situ. Possible causes of the Ca2+-induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation are considered.

  9. Ayurvedic management of cirrhotic ascites

    PubMed Central

    Aswathy, G.; Dharmarajan, Prasanth; Sharma, Ananth Ram; Sasikumar, V. K.; Vasudevan Nampoothiri, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final stage of most of the chronic liver diseases and is most invariably complicated by portal hypertension resulting in ascites. A case of chronic liver disease with portal hypertension (cryptogenic cirrhosis), managed at Amrita School of Ayurveda is discussed in this paper. The clinical picture was that of an uncomplicated cirrhotic ascites. Snehapāna (therapeutic oral administration of lipids) followed by virecana (purgation) was done after an initial course of nityavirecana (daily purgation). Later Vardhamāna pippalī rasāyana [administration of single drug - pippalī (piper longum) in a structured dose pattern] was administered with an intention of rejuvenating liver cells. Ascites and lower limb oedema were completely resolved after the therapy. No recurrence of ascites has been reported after a follow up period of one year. PMID:27621523

  10. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-04-30

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities.

  11. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition) may indicate that the chloride exchange and conductance pathways are not completely separate and distinct modes of transport, but may involve common elements. The reduced chloride permeability in the presence of phloretin is estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the ground permeability of the cell membrane. PMID:529133

  12. Ascitic Fluid Analysis in the Differential Diagnosis of Ascites: Focus on Cirrhotic Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin-Lin; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Because many diseases can cause ascites, in particular cirrhosis, samples of ascitic fluid are commonly analyzed in order to develop a differential diagnosis. The concept of transudate versus exudate, as determined by total protein measurements, is outdated and the use of serum-ascites albumin gradient as an indicator of portal hypertension is more accurate. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other tumor markers can be helpful in distinguishing between malignant and benign conditions. Glucose and adenosine deaminase levels may support a diagnosis of tuberculous disease, and amylase level may indicate a diagnosis of pancreatitis. Given the specificity and sensitivity of laboratory results, accurate diagnosis should be based on both laboratory data and clinical judgment. PMID:26357618

  13. Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N

    2003-11-01

    The antitumour activity of the ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) has been evaluated against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of EBV-treated tumour bearing mice was found with respect to control group. EBV treatment was found to enhance peritoneal cell counts. After 14 days of inoculation, EBV is able to reverse the changes in the haemotological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumour inoculation.

  14. The selective effect of cystathionine on doxorubicin hepatotoxicity in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Inga; Michalska, Magdalena; Włodek, Lidia

    2006-11-21

    The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effect of cystathionine as a cysteine precursor on doxorubicin toxicity in the liver of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice and in the EAT cells. Both compounds were injected intraperitoneally alone or in combination at the following doses: cystathionine at 10 mg and doxorubicin at 5 mg per kg of body weight. In the liver of EAT-bearing mice, glutathione (GSH), cysteine and sulfane sulfur levels as well as the activities of: glutathione S-transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, rhodanese and gamma-cystathionase significantly dropped in comparison with healthy animals. Administration of cystathionine elevated GSH and cysteine levels in the livers of EAT-bearing mice and reduced lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, cystathionine increased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, thereby activating gamma-glutamyl cycle, responsible for proper glutathione metabolism in the cells. Cystationine did not influence sulfane sulfur level and rhodanese and gamma-cystathionase activity in the livers of EAT-bearing mice. It was next shown that cystathionine administered in combination with doxorubicin protected against the drug toxicity since it elevated thiol level, lowering reactive oxygen species content and suppressing lipid peroxidation. This means that, cystathionine in the liver of EAT-bearing mice can both correct harmful effects of carcinogenesis, and protect the liver from doxorubicin cytotoxicity. In contrast, in EAT cells, cystathionine lowered GSH and cysteine levels and did not alter reactive oxygen species level, lipid peroxidation, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. All these data indicate that cystathionine action is selectively beneficial for normal cells because it corrects harmful effects induced by EAT development and protects the organism against doxorubicin cytotoxicity without impairing cytotoxicity of this drug to tumor cells.

  15. Ascites Increases Expression/Function of Multidrug Resistance Proteins in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiqing; Murphy, Susan K.; Payne, Sturgis; Wang, Fang; Kennedy, Margaret; Cianciolo, George J.; Bryja, Vitezslav; Pizzo, Salvatore V.; Bachelder, Robin E.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy resistance is the major reason for the failure of ovarian cancer treatment. One mechanism behind chemo-resistance involves the upregulation of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes (ABC transporters) that effectively transport (efflux) drugs out of the tumor cells. As a common symptom in stage III/IV ovarian cancer patients, ascites is associated with cancer progression. However, whether ascites drives multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer cells awaits elucidation. Here, we demonstrate that when cultured with ascites derived from ovarian cancer-bearing mice, a murine ovarian cancer cell line became less sensitive to paclitaxel, a first line chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer patients. Moreover, incubation of murine ovarian cancer cells in vitro with ascites drives efflux function in these cells. Functional studies show ascites-driven efflux is suppressible by specific inhibitors of either of two ABC transporters [Multidrug Related Protein (MRP1); Breast Cancer Related Protein (BCRP)]. To demonstrate relevance of our findings to ovarian cancer patients, we studied relative efflux in human ovarian cancer cells obtained from either patient ascites or from primary tumor. Immortalized cell lines developed from human ascites show increased susceptibility to efflux inhibitors (MRP1, BCRP) compared to a cell line derived from a primary ovarian cancer, suggesting an association between ascites and efflux function in human ovarian cancer. Efflux in ascites-derived human ovarian cancer cells is associated with increased expression of ABC transporters compared to that in primary tumor-derived human ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, our findings identify a novel activity for ascites in promoting ovarian cancer multidrug resistance. PMID:26148191

  16. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, HC; Quevedo, MS; Cabrales, LB; Bruzón, RP; Salas, MF; Pena, OG; González, TR; López, DS; Flores, JM

    2004-01-01

    Background In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. Methods BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 106 and 1 × 105 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups) consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm3, four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm3) and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm3, two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Results Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm3, respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil infiltration, an acute

  17. Porphyrins as radiosensitizers in 60Co-irradiated E. ascites tumor cells: possibility to combine with PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Juodka, B.

    1993-06-01

    Efficiency of Ehrlich ascites cells radiosensitization by porphyrins is a function of irradiation dose. The maximal radiosensitization was reached at the dose--2Gy. Moreover, efficiency of cell radiosensitization depends on extracellular porphyrins concentration Hematoporphyrin (HP) and hemaporphyrin dimethylether (HPde) have different radiosensitizing effect on cells. One of the reasons of such phenomenon may be the different degree of hydrofobicity of those porphyrins. The studies of intracellular porphyrins concentration show that they differ in the case of HP and HPde in the same order as cell radiosensitization efficiencies.

  18. Antitumor effect of nuclear factor-κB decoy transfer by mannose-modified bubble lipoplex into macrophages in mouse malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yusuke; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Maruyama, Kazuo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Patients with malignant ascites (MAs) display several symptoms, such as dyspnea, nausea, pain, and abdominal tenderness, resulting in a significant reduction in their quality of life. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in MA progression. Because TAMs have a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype, conversion of the M2 phenotypic function of TAMs would be promising for MA treatment. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a master regulator of macrophage polarization. Here, we developed targeted transfer of a NF-κB decoy into TAMs by ultrasound (US)-responsive, mannose-modified liposome/NF-κB decoy complexes (Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes) in a mouse peritoneal dissemination model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In addition, we investigated the effects of NF-κB decoy transfection into TAMs on MA progression and mouse survival rates. Intraperitoneal injection of Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes and US exposure transferred the NF-κB decoy into TAMs effectively. When the NF-κB decoy was delivered into TAMs by this method in the mouse peritoneal dissemination model, mRNA expression of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in TAMs was decreased significantly. In contrast, mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6) were increased significantly. Moreover, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in ascites was suppressed significantly, and peritoneal angiogenesis showed a reduction. Furthermore, NF-κB decoy transfer into TAMs significantly decreased the ascitic volume and number of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in ascites, and prolonged mouse survival. In conclusion, we transferred a NF-κB decoy efficiently by Man-PEG bubble lipoplexes with US exposure into TAMs, which may be a novel approach for MA treatment. PMID:24850474

  19. Myxedema Ascites: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Chang-Wook; Lee, Chang-Don; Lee, Bo-In; Choi, Hwang; Lee, Kang-Moon; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Kyu-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Myxedema ascites caused by hypothyroidism is rare, so its diagnosis is often delayed and patients frequently receive unnecessary procedures such as liver biopsies and exploratory laparotomies. We report a 71-yr-old man with clinical ascites that was the first manifestation of hypothyroidism, and which resolved completely in response to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of myxedema ascites in Korea. A review of the literature revealed 51 well-documented cases of myxedema ascites. Analyses of ascites from patients in this condition usually show high protein (>2.5 g/dL) and low white blood cell counts, with a high proportion of lymphocytes. A consistent feature is the good response to thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which has always led to resolution of the ascites. Myxedema ascites is thus rare but easy to treat; it should be borne in mind, especially if the ascites fluid has a high protein content. PMID:16891828

  20. Adjuvant effect of Pluchea quitoc extract on the resistance of tumor-bearing mice by modulation of the host hematopoietic response.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M L; Justo, G Z; Valadares, M C; Pereira-da-Silva, F R; Müller, A H

    2001-05-01

    Progressive tumor growth is regularly accompanied by changes in the cellular constituents of the immune system. Evidence suggests that soluble factors generated during tumor growth can affect the amount of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. In vitro colony growth of progenitor cells may be an early indicator of the cellular changes associated with tumor growth. Pluchea quitoc has been previously found to modulate the hematopoietic response during bacterial infection. This study was designed to investigate the effects of P. quitoc on the growth and differentiation of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to the myelosuppression developed in the tumor-bearing animals, treatment with P. quitoc ethanolic extract (250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days after tumor challenge reversibly stimulated myelopoiesis, restoring the number of CFU-GM to normal. This same dose-schedule also increased colony formation in normal mice as compared to controls. In addi tion, P. quitoc significantly enhanced survival of tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest an immunoregulatory role for P. quitoc in counteracting the tumor-induced myelopoietic suppression as well as usefulness as adjuvant treatment of cancer.

  1. Paul Ehrlich: the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1908.

    PubMed

    Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Antonio; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    We wish to commemorate Paul Ehrlich on the centennial of his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. His studies are now considered as milestones in immunology: the morphology of leukocytes; his side-chain theory where he defined the cellular receptor for first time; and his clarification of the difference between serum therapy and chemotherapy. Ehrlich also invented the first chemotherapeutic drug: compound 606, or Salvarsan. We have used some original documents from the Royal Society of London, where Ehrlich was a fellow, and from Leipzig University, where he took a degree in medicine.

  2. GROWTH FACTORS AND COX2 IN WOUND HEALING: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY WITH EHRLICH TUMORS.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Flávio L L; Artigiani-Neto, Ricardo; Lopes-Filho, Gaspar de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Healing is an innate biological phenomenon, and carcinogenesis acquired, but with common humoral and cellular elements. Carcinogenesis interferes negatively in healing. To evaluate the histological changes in laparotomy scars of healthy Balb/c mice and with an Ehrlich tumor in its various forms of presentation. Fifty-four mice were divided into three groups of 18 animals. First group was the control; the second had Ehrlich tumor with ascites; and the third had the subcutaneous form of this tumor. Seven days after tumor inoculation, all 54 mice were submitted to laparotomy. All of the animals in the experiment were operated on again on 7th day after surgery, with resection of the scar and subsequent euthanasia of the animal. The scars were sent for histological assessment using immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate Cox-2 (cyclooxygenase 2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and FGF (fibroblast growth factor). Semi-quantitatively analysis was done in the laparotomy scars and in the abdominal walls far away from the site of the operation. Assessing the weight of the animals, the correct inoculation of the tumor and weight gain in the group with tumoral ascites was observed. The histological studies showed that groups with the tumor showed a statistically significant higher presence of Cox-2 compared to the control. In the Cox-2 analysis of the abdominal wall, the ascites group showed the most significant difference. VEGF did not present any significant differences between the three groups, regardless of the site. The FGF showed a significant increase in animals with the tumor. Histological findings in both laparotomy scar and the abdominal wall showed that with Ehrlich's neoplasia there was an exacerbated inflammatory response, translated by more intense expression of Cox-2 and greater fibroblast proliferation, translated by more intense expression of FGF, that is, it stimulated both the immediate inflammatory reactions, observed with Cox-2 reactions, and

  3. The return of Ehrlich's 'Therapia magna sterilisans' and other Ehrlich concepts?. Series of papers honoring Paul Ehrlich on the occasion of his 150th birthday.

    PubMed

    Sörgel, F

    2004-04-01

    On March 14th of this year, the birthday of Paul Ehrlich, the great German researcher and 'founder of chemotherapy', returned for the 150th time. Interestingly, his later colleague Emil von Behring was born one day later in 1854. Both were coworkers in Robert Koch's laboratory and became Nobel Prize laureates (for their work in immunology), making great contributions to antiinfectious treatments. Emil von Behring's approach was through the use of immunological agents, while Ehrlich favored an approach of antiinfectious treatment by chemical agents. Through an ingenious concept that was a clear continuation of his early days in research with dyes, he found the first chemotherapeutic agents. From his dye work, he had concluded the following: if there are dyes that one can use to stain cells, why not develop pharmacological agents that, like stains, also attach to a structure in the living pathogen and kill them. He gave these agents the emotionally charged name 'magic bullets'. This introductory review will initiate a series of papers on the occasion of Ehrlich's 150th birthday and the 'World Conference on Dosing of Antiinfectives: Dosing the Magic Bullets', which is going to be held in Nürnberg, Germany, from September 9 to 11, 2004 (see www.ehrlich2004.org). Apart from the conference topic, this conference will also commemorate a real science giant of the last century and yet a modest human being whom, as Robert Koch put it, 'one had to like'. This article recalls Ehrlich's ingenious concepts, including modern syphilis treatment, one-dose treatment ('therapia magna sterilisans') of Helicobacter pylori infections and introduction of an arsenic compound, arsenic trioxide, as well as experiments and new exciting data on Congo red, a well-known 'non-Ehrlich dye'.

  4. Peritoneovenous shunting in intractable ascites

    PubMed Central

    Deans, G T; Spence, R A J; Johnston, G W

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen patients in whom peritoneovenous shunts were inserted for intractable ascites or malignancy were reviewed. Reduction in ascites was obtained in all patients by the time of discharge with significant diuresis and weight loss. Significant decrease in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelet count and prothrombin time also occurred. Coagulation studies were abnormal in 60 per cent of patients in whom they were performed with bruising or detectable bleeding occurring in 28.5 per cent of all patients. Late blockage of the shunt occurred in five patients and was less frequent in Denver than in Le Veen type shunts. Cumulative mortality one month after shunt insertion was 28.5 per cent and at one year was 78.5 per cent reflecting the severity of the underlying disease. Peritoneovenous shunting should be reserved for palliation in patients resistant to full conventional medical therapy. PMID:4095803

  5. Management of ascites with hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeen, H.H.; Piccone, V.A.; Hutto, R.B.

    1984-08-01

    Hydrothorax occurs in 5.3 percent of ascitic patients. Experience with 22 cases forms the basis of this report. Of the 22 cases, 21 were spontaneous and 1 was due to transdiaphragmatic incision. Usually fluid enters the chest through tiny defects in the diaphragm. These defects are often covered by pleuroperitoneum, but the high abdominal pressure raises a bleb on the superior surface of the diaphragm. Rupture produces hydrothorax. The ascites is often relieved with the onset of the hydrothorax. Blockage of the thoracic duct has produced chylous ascites. The thoracoabdominal communication is immediately confirmed by a scan of the chest and abdomen after intraperitoneal injection of technetium-99 colloid. The rate at which the technetium-99 enters the chest is related to the size of the defect in the diaphragm. A significant transfer should occur within 12 hours. Immediate transfer occurs with large defects. The ruptured blister on the diaphragm forms a one-way valve. Intrathoracic injection does not migrate into the peritoneal cavity. The valvular characteristics of the leak force ascitic fluid into the thorax because the differential pressure between the abdominal and pleural cavities is intensified by inspiration. If tension hydrothorax has occurred, urgent thoracocentesis and paracentesis may be required. A chest tube should not be introduced. The main principle of surgery is to supply a low resistance pathway for the return of fluid to the venous system and to eliminate the diaphragmatic defect by obliteration of the pleural space. A LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt is performed after emptying the abdomen of its fluid load. After completion of the shunt operation, the chest is emptied of fluid, and a sclerosing agent (tetracycline or nitrogen mustard) is injected into the pleural cavity. With this regime, the defect closed or was rendered insignificant in 18 of 22 patients.

  6. Nerve growth factor from cobra venom inhibits the growth of Ehrlich tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Osipov, Alexey V; Terpinskaya, Tatiana I; Kryukova, Elena V; Ulaschik, Vladimir S; Paulovets, Lubov V; Petrova, Elena A; Blagun, Ekaterina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Utkin, Yuri N

    2014-02-26

    The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) from cobra venom (cvNGF) on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells inoculated subcutaneously in mice have been studied. The carcinoma growth slows down, but does not stop, during a course of cvNGF injections and restores after the course has been discontinued. The maximal anti-tumor effect has been observed at a dose of 8 nmoles cvNGF/kg body weight. cvNGF does not impact on lifespan of mice with grafted EAC cells. K252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuates the anti-tumor effect of cvNGF indicating the involvement of TrkA receptors in the process. cvNGF has induced also increase in body weight of the experimental animals. In overall, cvNGF shows the anti-tumor and weight-increasing effects which are opposite to those described for mammalian NGF (mNGF). However in experiments on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cvNGF showed the same proliferative effects as mNGF and had no cytotoxic action on tumor cells in vitro. These data suggest that cvNGF slows down EAC growth via an indirect mechanism in which TrkA receptors are involved.

  7. Nerve Growth Factor from Cobra Venom Inhibits the Growth of Ehrlich Tumor in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Osipov, Alexey V.; Terpinskaya, Tatiana I.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Ulaschik, Vladimir S.; Paulovets, Lubov V.; Petrova, Elena A.; Blagun, Ekaterina V.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Utkin, Yuri N.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) from cobra venom (cvNGF) on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells inoculated subcutaneously in mice have been studied. The carcinoma growth slows down, but does not stop, during a course of cvNGF injections and restores after the course has been discontinued. The maximal anti-tumor effect has been observed at a dose of 8 nmoles cvNGF/kg body weight. cvNGF does not impact on lifespan of mice with grafted EAC cells. K252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuates the anti-tumor effect of cvNGF indicating the involvement of TrkA receptors in the process. cvNGF has induced also increase in body weight of the experimental animals. In overall, cvNGF shows the anti-tumor and weight-increasing effects which are opposite to those described for mammalian NGF (mNGF). However in experiments on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cvNGF showed the same proliferative effects as mNGF and had no cytotoxic action on tumor cells in vitro. These data suggest that cvNGF slows down EAC growth via an indirect mechanism in which TrkA receptors are involved. PMID:24577582

  8. Cirrhotic ascites review: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christopher M; Van Thiel, David H

    2013-01-01

    Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of peritoneal fluidcommonly observed in decompensated cirrhotic states.Its causes are multi-factorial, but principally involve significant volume and hormonal dysregulation in the setting of portal hypertension. The diagnosis of ascites is considered in cirrhotic patients given a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, and ultimately confirmed, with insight into etiology, by imaging and paracentesis procedures. Treatment for ascites is multi-modal including dietary sodium restriction, pharmacologic therapies, diagnostic and therapeutic paracentesis, and in certain cases transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Ascites is associated with numerous complications including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Given the complex nature of ascites and associatedcomplications, it is not surprising that it heralds increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients and increased cost-utilization upon the health-care system. This review will detail the pathophysiology of cirrhotic ascites, common complications derived from it, and pertinent treatment modalities. PMID:23717736

  9. Management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2017-08-23

    Ascites represents the most common decompensating event in patients with liver cirrhosis. The appearance of ascites is strongly related to portal hypertension, which leads to splanchnic arterial vasodilation, reduction of the effective circulating volume, activation of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems, and avid sodium and water retention in the kidneys. Bacterial translocation further worsens hemodynamic alterations of patients with cirrhosis and ascites. The first-line treatment of uncomplicated ascites is a moderate sodium-restricted diet combined with diuretic treatment. In patients who develop refractory ascites, paracentesis plus albumin represents the most feasible option. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement is a good alternative for selected patients. Other treatments such as vasoconstrictors and automated low-flow pumps are two potential options still under investigations. Ascites is associated with a high risk of developing further complications of cirrhosis such as dilutional hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and/or other bacterial infections and acute kidney injury (AKI). Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the most life-threatening type of AKI in patients with cirrhosis. The most appropriate medical treatment in patients with AKI-HRS is the administration of vasoconstrictors plus albumin. Finally, ascites impairs both the quality of life and survival in patients with cirrhosis. Thus, all patients with ascites should be evaluated for the eligibility for liver transplantation. The aim of this article is to review the management of patients with cirrhosis, ascites and HRS.

  10. Myxedema Ascites: A Rare Presentation of Uncontrolled Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, FNU; Abbass, Aamer; Gordon, Dwayne; Abusaada, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Less than four percent of patients with hypothyroidism develop ascites. Ascites as the presenting feature of hypothyroidism is uncommon, hence diagnosis is often delayed. Once it is diagnosed, treatment of hypothyroidism leads to quick clinical improvement in ascites. We report a case of a female patient who presented with ascites secondary to severe hypothyroidism and discuss the diagnostic characteristics of the ascitic fluid in myxedema ascites on the basis of literature review. PMID:28083456

  11. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload.

  12. The role of ascitic fluid viscosity in the differential diagnosis of ascites

    PubMed Central

    Gokturk, Huseyin Savas; Demir, Mehmet; Ozturk, Nevin Akcaer; Unler, Gulhan Kanat; Kulaksizoglu, Sevsen; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Serin, Ender; Yilmaz, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ascites is defined as the pathological accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis, which is also the most common cause of ascites. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. Plasma viscosity is influenced by the concentration of plasma proteins and lipoproteins, with the major contribution from fibrinogen. To our knowledge, the viscosity of ascitic fluid has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of ascitic fluid viscosity in discriminating between ascites due to portal hypertension-related and nonportal hypertension-related causes, and to compare results with the serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG). METHODS: The present study involved 142 patients with ascites presenting with diverse medical problems. Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and complete blood count were obtained for all subjects. Paracentesis was performed routinely on admission and all ascitic fluid samples were evaluated by manual cell count with differential, ascitic fluid culture and biochemistry (total protein, albumin, glucose and LDH). Cultures of ascitic fluid were performed at bedside in all patients using blood culture bottles. Ascitic fluid viscosity was measured in a commercially available cone and plate viscometer. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients studied, 34 (24%) had an SAAG of 11 g/L or less, whereas 108 (76%) had an SAAG of greater than 11 g/L. Sex and mean age did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). Serum total protein, albumin, glucose, LDH levels, leukocyte count, ascitic fluid glucose levels and ascitic fluid leukocyte counts were similar in both groups, with no statistically significant relationship detected (P>0.05). However, the mean (±SD) ascitic fluid total protein (0.0172±0.1104 g/L versus 0.043±0.011 g/L), albumin (0.0104±0.0064 g/L versus 0.0276±0.0069 g/L) and LDH (102.76±80.95 U/L versus 885

  13. Cancer preventive effects of whole cell type immunization against mice Ehrlich tumors.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Bayrak, Omer Faruk; Aydemir, Esra; Telci, Dilek; Sahin, Fikrettin; Yardimci, Cem; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Effects of whole cell type immunization on mice Ehrlich tumours were evaluated. After preliminary study, mice were divided two major groups; 1 x 1000 and 100 x 1000 live Ehrlich cell transferred major groups, each divided into four subgroups (n: 10). Study groups were immunized with Ehrlich cell lysates in 0, 3, 7, 14th days and after 30 days of last immunization, live Ehrlich cells were transferred. Mice were observed for six months and evaluated for total and cancer free days. Out of 100 x 1000 cell transferred solid type study group, all study group mean and tumour free periods were statistically longer than control groups. All 1 x 1000 Ehrlich cell transferred study groups survived significantly longer than 100 x 1000 Ehrlich cell transferred groups. Ehrlich mice tumours were prevented and survival prolonged with whole cell type immunization. Effects are related to the number of transferred tumor cells.

  14. Chemoprotective and chemosensitizing properties of selenium nanoparticle (Nano-Se) during adjuvant therapy with cyclophosphamide in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arin; Basu, Abhishek; Biswas, Jaydip; Sen, Tuhinadri; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the widely used anticancer agents; however, it has serious deleterious effects on normal host cells due to its nonspecific action. The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is suggested to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy and currently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Previous report had shown Nano-Se could protect CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal Swiss albino mice; however, its role in cancer management is still not clear. The aim of present study is to investigate the chemoprotective efficacy of Nano-Se against CP-induced toxicity as well as its chemoenhancing capability when used along with CP in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. CP was administered (25 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and Nano-Se was given (2 mg Se/kg b.w., p.o.) in concomitant and pretreatment schedule. Increase levels of serum hepatic marker, hepatic lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and chromosomal aberration in CP-treated mice were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by Nano-Se. The lowered status of various antioxidant enzymes in tumor-bearing mice after CP treatment was also effectively increased by Nano-Se. Administration of Nano-Se along with CP caused a significant reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased the survivability of the tumor-bearing hosts. The results suggest that Nano-Se exhibits significant antitumor and antioxidant effects in EAC-bearing mice. The potential for Nano-Se to ameliorate the CP-evoked toxicity as well as to improve the chemotherapeutic effect could have beneficial implications for patients undergoing chemotherapy with CP.

  15. CART: Cell-free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy against malignancy-related ascites.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuya; Hanafusa, Norio

    2017-08-30

    A standard strategy against ascites, a common symptom observed in cirrhotic and cancer patients, includes restriction of sodium intake and use of a diuretic. Paracentesis is a widely applied method against refractory ascites that do not react to such treatment. However, emerging fatigue and hemodynamic instability are possibly attributable to a loss of protein included in ascites. Cell-free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy (CART) is also applied against refractory ascites. CART comprises three processes. After ascites is first filtered to remove cell components, it is concentrated to reduce its volume. Fluid obtained through these processes, including useful proteins such as albumin and globulin, is finally reinfused intravenously. CART was reported first in the 1970s. Since then, it has been applied mainly against cirrhotic ascites with a thinner cell component. Now, its indication is expanding to include malignancy-related ascites. Additionally, CART can be applied safely against malignancy-related ascites. Its favorable effects on control of patients' symptoms are anticipated, especially on fatigue. Although related evidence has not been established, CART can be anticipated for use as a strategy against refractory ascites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quercetin Reduces Ehrlich Tumor-Induced Cancer Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calixto-Campos, Cassia; Corrêa, Mab P.; Carvalho, Thacyana T.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Rossaneis, Ana C.; Coelho-Silva, Leticia; Pavanelli, Wander R.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Bernardy, Catia C. F.; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pain directly affects the patient's quality of life. We have previously demonstrated that the subcutaneous administration of the mammary adenocarcinoma known as Ehrlich tumor induces pain in mice. Several studies have shown that the flavonoid quercetin presents important biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and antitumor activity. Therefore, the analgesic effect and mechanisms of quercetin were evaluated in Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatments with quercetin reduced Ehrlich tumor-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, but not paw thickness or histological alterations, indicating an analgesic effect without affecting tumor growth. Regarding the analgesic mechanisms of quercetin, it inhibited the production of hyperalgesic cytokines IL-1β and TNFα and decreased neutrophil recruitment (myeloperoxidase activity) and oxidative stress. Naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) inhibited quercetin analgesia without interfering with neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production, and oxidative stress. Importantly, cotreatment with morphine and quercetin at doses that were ineffective as single treatment reduced the nociceptive responses. Concluding, quercetin reduces the Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain by reducing the production of hyperalgesic cytokines, neutrophil recruitment, and oxidative stress as well as by activating an opioid-dependent analgesic pathway and potentiation of morphine analgesia. Thus, quercetin treatment seems a suitable therapeutic approach for cancer pain that merits further investigation. PMID:26351625

  17. Quercetin reduces Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Calixto-Campos, Cassia; Corrêa, Mab P; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Rossaneis, Ana C; Coelho-Silva, Leticia; Pavanelli, Wander R; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bernardy, Catia C F; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pain directly affects the patient's quality of life. We have previously demonstrated that the subcutaneous administration of the mammary adenocarcinoma known as Ehrlich tumor induces pain in mice. Several studies have shown that the flavonoid quercetin presents important biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and antitumor activity. Therefore, the analgesic effect and mechanisms of quercetin were evaluated in Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatments with quercetin reduced Ehrlich tumor-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, but not paw thickness or histological alterations, indicating an analgesic effect without affecting tumor growth. Regarding the analgesic mechanisms of quercetin, it inhibited the production of hyperalgesic cytokines IL-1β and TNFα and decreased neutrophil recruitment (myeloperoxidase activity) and oxidative stress. Naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) inhibited quercetin analgesia without interfering with neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production, and oxidative stress. Importantly, cotreatment with morphine and quercetin at doses that were ineffective as single treatment reduced the nociceptive responses. Concluding, quercetin reduces the Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain by reducing the production of hyperalgesic cytokines, neutrophil recruitment, and oxidative stress as well as by activating an opioid-dependent analgesic pathway and potentiation of morphine analgesia. Thus, quercetin treatment seems a suitable therapeutic approach for cancer pain that merits further investigation.

  18. Ascites

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome Pericarditis - constrictive Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated by: Subodh K. ... gastroenterologist at Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Internal review and ...

  19. Paul Ehrlich and the Early History of Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Kay, A Barry

    2016-08-01

    Paul Ehrlich's techniques, published between 1879 and 1880, for staining blood films using coal tar dyes, and his method of differential blood cell counting, ended years of speculation regarding the classification of white cells. Acidic and basic dyes had allowed him to recognize eosinophil and basophil granules, respectively, work that was a direct continuation of his discovery of the tissue mast cell described in his doctoral thesis. Ehrlich went on to develop neutral dyes that identified epsilon granules in neutrophils ("cells with polymorphous nuclei"). He also speculated, for the most part correctly, on the formation, function, and fate of blood neutrophils and eosinophils. Before Ehrlich, a number of important observations had been made on white cells and their role in health and disease. Among the most notable were William Hewson's studies of blood and lymph; the early descriptions of leukemia by Alfred Donné, John Hughes Bennett, Rudolf Virchow, and others; as well as seminal observations on inflammation by William Addison, Friedrich von Recklinghausen, and Julius Cohnheim. Eosinophils were almost certainly recognized previously by others. In 1846, Thomas Wharton Jones (1808-1891) described "granule blood-cells" in several species including humans. The term "granule cell" had also been used by Julius Vogel (1814-1880), who had previously observed similar cells in inflammatory exudates. Vogel, in turn, was aware of the work of Gottlieb Gluge (1812-1898), who had observed "compound inflammatory globules" in pus and serum that resembled eosinophils. Almost 20 years before Ehrlich developed his staining methods, Max Johann Schultze (1825-1874) performed functional experiments on fine and coarse granular cells using a warm stage microscopic technique and showed they had amoeboid movement and phagocytic abilities. Despite these earlier observations, it was Ehrlich's use of stains that heralded the modern era of studies of leukocyte biology and pathology.

  20. Ascites in Cattle: Ultrasonographic Findings and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ueli

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonography enables the examiner to detect very small amounts of fluid in the peritoneal cavity and to determine its location, amount, and sonographic features. The pathologic process responsible for the ascites, for example, ileus, hepatic fibrosis, thrombosis of the caudal vena cava, or traumatic reticuloperitonitis, often can be identified. Abdominocentesis and analysis of the aspirated fluid allow differentiation of inflammatory and noninflammatory ascites as well as the diagnosis of uroperitoneum, hemoperitoneum, chylous ascites, and bile peritonitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nickel(II) diacetyl monoxime-2-pyridyl hydrazone complex can inhibit Ehrlich solid tumor growth in mice: A potential new antitumor drug.

    PubMed

    Saad, Entsar A; Hassanien, Mohamed M; El-Lban, Faten W

    2017-03-11

    The chief chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin had common bad effects such as nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and bone marrow depression. This led us to develop a new potential anticancer drug based on nickel metal ion that may be less toxic. Nickel(II) diacetyl monoxime-2-pyridyl hydrazone complex cytoprotective effect, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and anticancer activities were studied. In vitro, the complex showed SOD-like activity of 86.62%. It was capable to kill 90.2% of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and to protect 92.48% of human RBCs. In vivo, the complex lowered the tumor burden markedly in a concentration-dependent manner. Noticeably, solid tumor growth was suppressed; tumor volume and weight were reduced and mice life span was lengthened. The hematological indices were improved, catalase activity was re-elevated and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was reversed towards normal. Nucleic acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, urea and creatinine contents were reduced to near normal ranges. Glutathione (GSH), SOD, albumin and total protein levels were increased. In conclusion, our results revealed that the complex has the ability to suppress Ehrlich solid tumor growth in mice with minimal side effects. This may possibly via its redox activity. Surprisingly, nickel complex antitumor activities were more potent than those of cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathophysiology of cyclic hemorrhagic ascites and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ussia, Anastasia; Betsas, George; Corona, Roberta; De Cicco, Carlo; Koninckx, Philippe R

    2008-01-01

    Massive hemorrhagic ascites (4470 mL, range 1-10 L) in women with endometriosis is a rare condition occurring predominantly in black women. Of the 43 case reports published, 42 are compatible with the hypothesis that the hemorrhagic ascites is predominantly a consequence of excessive ovarian transudation similar to a Meigs syndrome. Indeed, bilateral ovariectomy cures the condition without recurrences, whereas after unilateral ovariectomy or cystectomy recurrence rate is more than 50%; during ovarian suppression by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist ascites disappears, but reappears after treatment. Superficial pelvic endometriosis also contributes to the ascites because after superficial endometriosis destruction the recurrence rate is only 4 in 14. Based on these data, it is suggested, to scrutinize the ovaries for tumors given the analogy with Meigs syndrome. In women desiring fertility, conservative treatment with destruction of endometriosis only can be attempted given the cure rate of some 20%. It is unknown what the effect of ovulation induction would be.

  3. Efficiency of calcium phosphate composite nanoparticles in targeting Ehrlich carcinoma cells transplanted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Gawad, Eman I.; Hassan, Amal I.; Awwad, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the mode of action of nano-CaPs in vivo as a therapy for solid tumor in mice. To achieve this goal, Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) was transplanted into 85 Swiss male albino mice. After nine days, the mice were divided into 9 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were allocated as the EAC control. Groups 3 and 4 were injected once intratumorally (IT) by nano-calcium phosphate (nano-CaP). Groups 5 and 6 received once intraperitoneal injection (IP) of nano-CaP. Groups 7, 8, and 9 received nano-CaP (IP) weekly. Blood samples and thigh skeletal muscle were collected after three weeks from groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 and after four weeks from groups 2, 4, 6, and 8. On the other hand, group 9 received nano-CaP (IP) for four weeks and lasted for three months to follow up the recurrence of tumor and to ensure the safety of muscle by histopathological analysis. Tumor growth was monitored twice a week throughout the experiment. DNA fragmentation of tumor cells was evaluated. In thigh tissue, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin (5HT), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured. In serum, 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed. Histopathological and biochemical results showed a significant therapeutic effect of nano-CaP on implanted solid tumor and this effect was more pronounced in the animals treated IP for four weeks. This improvement was evident from the repair of fragmented DNA, the significant decrease of caspase-3, 8-OHDG, myosin, and VEGF, and the significant increase of neurotransmitters (NA, DA, 5HT, and GABA). Additionally, histopathological examination showed complete recovery of cancer cells in the thigh muscle after three months. PMID:26843980

  4. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway.

  5. Recurrent massive ascites due to mossy endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Dun, Erica C; Wong, Serena; Lakhi, Nisha A; Nehzat, Ceana H

    2016-11-01

    To report the medical and surgical management of a rare case of recurrent moss-like endometriosis and associated hemorrhagic ascites. Video description of the case, demonstration of the surgical technique, discussion of the histology, and review of endometriosis-associated ascites. Tertiary referral center. A 26-year-old nulliparous woman of Nigerian heritage with recurrent hemorrhagic ascites due to endometriosis. Three years previously she underwent an exploratory laparotomy for similar symptoms, and 7 L of hemorrhagic ascites were evacuated from her abdomen. Friable lesions covering the peritoneum of the uterus, bladder, and pouch of Douglas were biopsied and consistent with endometriosis. After her initial surgery, the patient was hormonally suppressed with goserelin for 3 months and oral medroxyprogesterone for 1 year. She then stopped the medications to attempt pregnancy but was unsuccessful. She used clomiphene for 3 months, and the ascites reaccumulated. The patient was started on depot leuprolide and oral norethindrone, but the ascites persisted. The patient underwent small-diameter laparoscopy using a multipuncture technique, evacuation of 7.8 L of hemorrhagic ascites, enterolysis, appendectomy, chromopertubation, and treatment of the endometriosis. Diffuse olive-green "mossy" endometriosis lesions blanketed the pelvic and abdominal peritoneum. The endometriosis was surgically resected with a combination of peritoneal stripping, excision with carbon dioxide laser, and ablation with neutral argon plasma. Examination of the ascites showed scattered hemosiderin-laden macrophages in a background of red blood cells. Histology of the olive-green mossy lesions revealed dense sheets of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and rare foci of endometriosis. Surgical reports in deidentified patients are exempted from Institutional Review Board approval. The patient gave consent to use photography and images for the video article. No postoperative hormone suppression was

  6. [100 years of Dr. Ehrlich's magic bullet (1909-2009)].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García, Enrique; Merino, María Lucila

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this article is to pay tribute to Paul Ehrlich and his contributions to science, in particular those related to antimicrobial therapy, at the end of a prodigious decade of celebrations to fête his person and work. The year 2009 marks the centenary of the discovery of the experimental anti-syphilitic activity of Salvarsan and the first clinical studies showing its efficacy against syphilis. This homage is conveyed through the presentation of bibliographic data, mention of his most important scientific achievements based on his original publications, and by analyzing the film Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet (1940) by William Dieterle. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. REJECTION OF ASCITES TUMOR ALLOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Gideon; Sullivan, Karen A.; Amos, Bernard

    1972-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), obtained after the rejection of EL4 leukemia by BALB/c mice, are much more effective in the specific in vitro destruction of 51Cr-labeled EL4 cells than are spleen, thymus, lymph node, or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The presence of a large number of effector cells at the site of graft rejection is reflected in the potent cytolytic activity seen in vitro. Effector cells temporarily lose cytolytic reactivity when treated with trypsin but regain reactivity with time. This recovery occurs in normal as well as in immune serum. The destructive reactivity of PEC is increased when macrophages are removed. The remaining population of nonadherent PEC is composed primarily of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes. Complex tissue culture media are not needed, but there is a definite requirement for serum. The required serum component is heat stable, nondialyzable, and is not consumed during the reaction. The use of an ascites allograft system made these observations possible and permitted the isolation of those host cells intimately associated with rejection. PMID:5025438

  8. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea Alberto; Lippi, Donatella

    2007-03-01

    Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) is nowadays considered a pioneer in a number of medical fields, and in the course of time his role in the establishment and development of disciplines such as histology, immunology, oncology and haematology has been acknowledged. Aim of this historical note is to illustrate, in the area of chemotherapy, the special importance of this brilliant scientist whose 150th anniversary of birth occurred in 2004. Already as a medical student, Ehrlich was obsessed by structural organic chemistry and dyes, and, continually studying these issues, he elaborated his theory regarding the discovery of a "magic bullet", able to specifically destroy tumour cells and micro-organisms. In practice he applied methylene blue to the treatment of malaria patients, following his intuition that such a dye could destroy parasites. However, his culminating achievements in the chemotherapic field, reached even at the expense of his health, were the concept of the one-dose treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, and the creation of arsphenamine (compound 606, or Salvarsan), the first really effective compound in controlling human syphilis. Within the many and various contributions of Ehrlich to the development of experimental and clinical medicine, a special mention of his experimental studies and clinical applications in the area of chemotherapy is essential, since his achievements in this biomedical area remain a paramount legacy in the history of the therapy of infections.

  9. Regulation of the Nucleolar DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Amino Acids in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Franze-Fernández, M. T.; Pogo, A. O.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were performed to ascertain the degree to which the amount of amino acids might be one of the regulatory factors that control the activity of the nucleolar RNA polymerase. Assays of the enzymatic activity were done with isolated nuclei from cells incubated with low and high concentrations of amino acids. Soon after the cells were exposed to a medium enriched in amino acids, a rapid increase of nucleolar RNA polymerase activity occurred. A similar result was obtained in cells incubated with lower concentrations of amino acids. However, the rate of ribosomal RNA synthesized was regularly much higher in cells incubated in a medium enriched with amino acids than in a medium low in amino acids. Apparently, the amino acids only controlled ribosomal RNA synthesis. Thus, neither maturation, processing, and transport of nuclear precursors into cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA, nor the synthesis of rapidly labeled RNA was affected. PMID:4108870

  10. Dorzolamide synergizes the antitumor activity of mitomycin C against Ehrlich's carcinoma grown in mice: role of thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, Belal M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Shouman, Samia A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-12-01

    The antitumor activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors is attributed to their ability to induce a state of intracellular acidification. In fact, acidic intracellular pH was demonstrated to upregulate several tumor suppressor proteins and increase the activity of many chemotherapies. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of the CA inhibitor, dorzolamide, in combination with mitomycin C and to study the effect of these drugs on tumoral thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) as well as tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Solid tumors were induced by subcutaneous inoculation of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in female mice. Mice were treated with dorzolamide (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and/or mitomycin C (1 mg/kg, i.p.) weekly for 3 weeks. Treatment with mitomycin C increased TXNIP level in EAC solid tumors in mice. Likewise, treatment with dorzolamide upregulated TXNIP and p53 while downregulated bcl-2. Both drug therapies increased tumoral caspase 9, caspase 3, and PARP-1 cleavage in addition to decreasing the proliferative Ki-67-stained nuclear fraction. Indeed, a synergistic effect was detected between mitomycin C and dorzolamide. The current data demonstrated that the antitumor activity of mitomycin C and dorzolamide was, at least in part, mediated through stimulating tumoral expression of TXNIP and enhancing tumor apoptosis.

  11. Cirrhosis with ascites: Is the presence of hemorrhagic ascites an indicator of poor prognosis?

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Hakan; Akdoğan, Meral; Suna, Nuretdin; Öztaş, Erkin; Kuzu, Ufuk B; Bilge, Zülfükar; Aydınlı, Onur; Taşkıran, İsmail

    2016-07-01

    Hemorrhagic ascites in patients with cirrhosis is described as a RBC (Red Blood cell) > 50,000/mm³ and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Positive red blood cells at a level of less than 50,000/mm³ (10,000-50,000) may be encountered in the ascites but it is not known whether this is clinically significant or not. This study aimed to examine the outcome of hemorrhagic ascites in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Data from 329 cirrhotic patients with ascites who received paracentesis at least once due to ascites was retrospectively analyzed from the period of 2007-2013 from the Türkiye Yüksek İhtisas Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology. Patients were divided according to the number of RBC, with greater than 10,000/mm³ being described as hemorrhagic ascites, and less than 10,000/mm³ described as the normal or control group. Patient data included: number of accepted intensive unit service stays, acute kidney injury (AKI), hepatic encephalopathy (HES), model for end-liver disease (MELD) score, Child Pugh score (CPS), degree of esophageal varices, spleen size and mortality rates. Patients were defined as having hemorrhagic ascites with a RBC count greater than 10,000/mm³ in 118 (35.9%) patients and as a non-hemorrhagic ascites group with less than 10,000/mm³ in 211 (64.1%) patients. The hemorrhagic ascites group had advanced liver disease symptoms compared to the control group. Meld score in the hemorrhagic group was statistically higher than in the control group (21.5±8.3 vs. 17.3±6.6; p value: 0.001). The median value of bilirubin was 5.9 (0.45-33) in the hemorrhagic ascites group and 4.01 (0.39-33) in the non-hemorrhagic group (p value: 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, hemorrhagic ascites was also an independent predictor of mortality (HR 2.7 1.4-6.3), with other mortality indicators being HCC (HR 3.1 1.5-6.4) and HRS (HR 2.6 1.2-5.5). Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had higher HRS, SBP and admissions to the intensive

  12. Role of peritoneal absorption in ascites.

    PubMed

    Luttwak, E M; Fabian, R P; Mordochovich, D

    1975-11-01

    The movement of water, electrolytes and protein across the peritoneum was studied experimentally and clinically in ascites. In the experimental and clinically in ascites. In the experimental studies, large amounts of solutions of various osmolar and colloid osmolar concentrations were infused rapidly into the peritoneal cavities of 32 dogs. In 26 of these dogs, the ureters were ligated before the experiment was begun; the other six dogs served as controls. The clinical studies were done in five patients with ascites. Tritium, 35S and RISA dilution techniques were used to study the kinetics of the different components of peritoneal fluid. Osmolarity changes were measured in plasma and peritoneal fluid by the freezing point depression method. Volume changes of peritoneal fluid were measured serially up to 24 hours for the assessment of the peritoneal absorption rate. The rate of fluid movement across the peritoneal membrane seems to be influenced, among others, by the composition of the intraperitoneal fluid, as well as by the properties of the membrane itself. An asymmetric pattern of peritoneal absorption rate of the different compositional elements of ascitic fluid was observed in this study which seems to interrelate with dynamic equilibrium which develops between ascites and the physiologic body fluid compartments. No cessation of peritoneal fluid absorption or a maximal reabsorption rate was observed in this study; nevertheless, variations in the rate of peritoneal absorption due to miscellaneous influences are possible.

  13. Hemorrhagic ascites. Clinical presentation and outcomes in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Singal, Amit G.; Cuthbert, Jennifer A.; Rockey, Don C.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Hemorrhagic ascites can pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed at exploring the characteristics and outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and hemorrhagic ascites. Methods The records of all patients with cirrhosis and ascites, who underwent paracentesis between 2003 and 2010 at Parkland Memorial Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Hemorrhagic ascites was defined as an ascitic fluid red blood cell (RBC) count ≥10,000/μl. We compared each patient with 3 age- and gender-matched controls (cirrhotic patients with ascites and an ascitic RBC count <10,000/μl). Survival curves were generated using Kaplan–Meier plots and compared using the log rank test. Results 1113 cirrhotic patients underwent paracentesis; 214 (19%) had hemorrhagic ascites. Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had higher rates of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (p <0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI, p <0.001), and were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU)-level care (p = 0.01) compared to patients without hemorrhagic ascites. Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had a higher mortality than controls at one month (87% vs. 72%), 1 year (72% vs. 50%) and 3 years (61% vs. 41%). Using multivariate regression analysis, hemorrhagic ascites was also an independent predictor of mortality (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.68) after adjusting for the model for end-stage liver disease score (HR 1.04, 1.03–1.05), ICU-level care (HR 2.02, 1.63–2.51) and presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HR 2.27, 1.61–3.19). Conclusions Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had a significantly higher rate of ICU care, AKI, and mortality than patients with portal hypertension and ascites but without hemorrhagic ascites. We conclude that hemorrhagic ascites is a marker of advanced liver disease and poor outcome. PMID:23348236

  14. Chylous ascites in a hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Roh, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Cho, Ara; Kim, Min-Su; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-12-01

    An African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed as chylous ascites with biliary cirrhosis. Abdomenocentesis revealed a milky fluid with a 324 mg/dl triglyceride level. On serum biochemical examination, the hedgehog had hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and high blood urea nitrogen. There was no cytologic or genomic evidence of infection, and a blood culture was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a liver with proliferative bile ducts that were often surrounded by prominent septa of fibrous connective tissue. In the area of ductular reaction, proliferative cells positive for CD66, an embryogenic antigen of epithelial cells, were revealed. The potential association between chylous ascites and liver cirrhosis is undetermined but could be an aspect of future study. This is the first description of chylous ascites in a hedgehog.

  15. Eosinophilic ascites: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shefali; Vohra, Sandeep; Rawat, Sangeeta; Kashyap, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge. The mainstay of diagnosis is peripheral hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-rich ascitic fluid on diagnostic paracentesis. Oral steroid therapy is usually the first line of treatment with dramatic response. Due to a propensity for relapse, steroid-sparing therapy should be considered for relapses of EGE. We report a case of subserosal EGE with diagnostic clinical features and treatment response and review the current strategy in the management of eosinophilic ascites. PMID:27721930

  16. Paul Ehrlich: pioneer of chemotherapy and cure by arsenic (1854-1915).

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, A L

    1983-01-01

    Paul Ehrlich's experiments in staining techniques at the end of the nineteenth century resulted in many discoveries which help to form the basis of present research work. Ehrlich's chemotherapy research led to his formulating the arsenic compound, Salvarsan, which was used in the treatment of syphilis during the first half of this century until it was superseded by penicillin. Images PMID:6196079

  17. Laparoscopic diagnosis of ascites in Lesotho.

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, R I; Fitzgerald, J M; Mulpeter, K

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective study of 98 consecutive patients with undiagnosed ascites examined by laparoscopy a correct immediate diagnosis was made in 76 (78%) and a final diagnosis in 92 (94%) of those who underwent laparoscopy. Visual diagnosis was highly accurate in patients with tuberculous peritonitis but only moderately accurate in those with carcinomatosis and liver disease. When the laparoscopic findings were compared with histological and microbiological results visual diagnosis was found to be the most accurate diagnostic method. Laparoscopy may readily be used in rural hospitals for diagnosing ascites. PMID:3160432

  18. Lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in ascitic fluid of decompensated cirrhotic patients with and without spontaneous ascites infection.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Murat; Nak, Selim Giray; Budak, Ferah; Gurel, Selim; Oral, Barbaros; Dolar, Enver; Gulten, Macit

    2006-06-01

    Spontaneous ascites infection is a frequently encountered and important complication of decompensated liver cirrhosis. The immune system plays an important role in the development or eradication of this infection. A number of compositional and functional alterations in immune system cells have been demonstrated in cirrhotic patients; however, there is a lack of knowledge about this issue in ascitic infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate lymphocyte subsets and levels of some ascitic and lymphocytic intracytoplasmic cytokines in decompensated cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous ascites infection. The study population consisted of 45 decompensated cirrhotic patients (32 men, 13 women) with different etiologies. Patients with ascitic polymorphonuclear leukocyte count > or =250/mm(3) and/or positive ascitic bacterial cultures were classified as the "infected group". Comparison was made between the infected and non-infected group for the following parameters: ascites leukocyte counts and differentiations; ascitic fluid protein; albumin levels and serum-ascites albumin gradients; flow cytometric detection of cell surface markers for ascitic T, B and natural killer lymphocytes; intracytoplasmic interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma; levels of ascitic IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-alpha; and soluble Fas antigen and soluble Fas ligand. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly decreased and expression of T cell receptor-gammadelta was increased in the infected group. Furthermore, ascites TNF-alpha levels were also elevated in this group. Ascitic IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in patients with positive ascitic bacterial culture. These results suggest that a cytotoxic, especially Th1, immune response predominates in ascites infections. It also demonstrates that TNF-alpha might be involved in the pathogenesis of ascites infections.

  19. Automated low-flow ascites pump for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites

    PubMed Central

    Stirnimann, Guido; Banz, Vanessa; Storni, Federico; De Gottardi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump®) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder. Ascites can therefore be aspirated in a time- and volume-controlled mode and evacuated by urination. Here we review the currently available data about patient selection, efficacy and safety of the alfapump and provide recommendations for the management of patients treated with this new method. PMID:28203285

  20. Automated low-flow ascites pump for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Stirnimann, Guido; Banz, Vanessa; Storni, Federico; De Gottardi, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump(®)) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder. Ascites can therefore be aspirated in a time- and volume-controlled mode and evacuated by urination. Here we review the currently available data about patient selection, efficacy and safety of the alfapump and provide recommendations for the management of patients treated with this new method.

  1. Quantitative modeling of the physiology of ascites in portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although the factors involved in cirrhotic ascites have been studied for a century, a number of observations are not understood, including the action of diuretics in the treatment of ascites and the ability of the plasma-ascitic albumin gradient to diagnose portal hypertension. This communication presents an explanation of ascites based solely on pathophysiological alterations within the peritoneal cavity. A quantitative model is described based on experimental vascular and intraperitoneal pressures, lymph flow, and peritoneal space compliance. The model's predictions accurately mimic clinical observations in ascites, including the magnitude and time course of changes observed following paracentesis or diuretic therapy. PMID:22453061

  2. Efficacy of extracorporeal ultrafiltration of ascitic fluid as a treatment of refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Daimon, S; Yasuhara, S; Saga, T; Tokunaga, S; Chikaki, H; Dan, K

    1998-10-01

    Refractory ascites is recognized in patients with various conditions. Although intravenous reinjection of ascitic fluid after its filtration and concentration (IRA) is an effective method of treating this condition, many associated side-effects have been reported. We performed extracorporeal ultrafiltration of ascitic fluid (EUA) to demonstrate the efficacy and advantages of this method of treating refractory ascites. EUA was performed in seven patients with hepatic cirrhosis (3 cases), lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and carcinomatous peritonitis (2 cases) for a total of 122 sessions. IRA was performed in three of these seven patients for a total of 12 sessions. The average volumes of ascitic fluid removed by EUA and IRA were 3.94+/-1.45 litres and 2.87+/-0.69 litres (mean+/-SD) respectively. Although chills and acute renal failure were recognized as complications of IRA in five and one sessions respectively, the only complication of EUA was severe intra-abdominal haemorrhage, which resolved spontaneously. In spite of rapid and massive removal of ascitic fluid (maximum 2.0 litres per 15 min), significant changes in blood pressure were not noted during EUA. In three patients (hepatic cirrhosis, lupus nephritis, and diabetic nephropathy), de novo production of ascitic fluid disappeared. In one patient with hepatic cirrhosis and chronic renal failure on haemodialysis, 67 sessions of EUA have been performed under stable conditions. Three patients (one case of hepatic cirrhosis and two cases of carcinomatous peritonitis) died of their primary diseases. We conclude that EUA is a useful method for the treatment of massive refractory ascites.

  3. Paul Ehrlich's magic bullet concept: 100 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Strebhardt, Klaus; Ullrich, Axel

    2008-06-01

    Exceptional advances in molecular biology and genetic research have expedited cancer drug development tremendously. The declared paradigm is the development of 'personalized and tailored drugs' that precisely target the specific molecular defects of a cancer patient. It is therefore appropriate to revisit the intellectual foundations of the development of such agents, as many have shown great clinical success. One hundred years ago, Paul Ehrlich, the founder of chemotherapy, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. His postulate of creating 'magic bullets' for use in the fight against human diseases inspired generations of scientists to devise powerful molecular cancer therapeutics.

  4. Divergent Selection for Ascites Incidence in Chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken lines that were either resistant or susceptible to ascites syndrome were developed by using a hypobaric chamber to induce the disease. Birds were reared in a hypobaric chamber that simulated high altitude by operating under a partial vacuum, which thereby lowered the partial pressure of oxyg...

  5. Characteristics of Patients and Their Ascites Who Underwent Repeated Cell-Free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sayako; Yabuuchi, Junko; Nobuta, Hiroshi; Makiishi, Tetsuya; Hirose, Kunihiko

    2015-08-01

    Novel cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (KM-CART) is easy to use, safe and applicable for refractory ascites. We can get the full amount of ascites, filtrate, and concentrate in a short time. KM-CART can be applied as palliative care for dying patients including patients with massive malignant ascites. Some patients who underwent repeated KM-CART survived longer than those who did not repeat the therapy. The aim of this study was to identify the type of patients with ascites for whom KM-CART would be effective and candidates for repeated KM-CART. In this retrospective cohort observational study, we examined 123 CART processes performed on 58 patients with refractory ascites. Data were collected before and after processing of the ascites. We compared two groups; patients who underwent KM-CART ≥ 5 times and those who underwent this process ≤ 4 times. Age, disease, benign or malignant status of the disease, the amount of ascites, concentrations of total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) and their amounts in the original ascites and the filtered and concentrated ascitic fluid and the recovery ratio of TP and Alb were determined. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in age, disease, amount of ascites, and the recovery ratio of TP and Alb. Significant differences were observed in the amounts of TP and Alb in the original ascites and the filtered and concentrated ascitic fluid. Patients who underwent KM-CART ≥ 5 times had higher Alb levels in the original ascites than those who underwent this therapy ≤ 4 times. Patients with higher Alb concentrations in the original ascites could be candidates for repeated KM-CART. © 2015 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  6. Chylous ascites caused by resection of a choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Tatsuzo; Okada, Tadao; Honda, Shohei; Miyagi, Hisayuki; Minato, Masashi; Todo, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Chylous ascites is a rare complication of abdominal surgery in children. Particularly, reports of postoperative chylous ascites are rare. This report describes the very rare case of a 10-month-old girl complicated by chylous ascites after resection of a choledochal cyst with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, who was successfully treated medically. To date, we have found a few cases of postoperative chylous ascites in the paediatric literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chylous ascites after the resection of a choledochal cyst in a child who was successfully treated solely by no fasting. No fasting might be a therapeutic option of paediatric postoperative chylous ascites after the resection of a choledochal cyst if the outflow volume of chylous ascites is small.

  7. Profiling of cytokines in human epithelial ovarian cancer ascites

    PubMed Central

    Matte, Isabelle; Lane, Denis; Laplante, Claude; Rancourt, Claudine; Piché, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background The behavior of tumor cells is influenced by the composition of the surrounding tumor environment. The importance of ascites in ovarian cancer (OC) progression is being increasingly recognized. The characterization of soluble factors in ascites is essential to understand how this environment affects OC progression. The development of cytokine arrays now allows simultaneous measurement of multiple cytokines per ascites using a single array. Methods We applied a multiplex cytokine array technology that simultaneously measures the level of 120 cytokines in ascites from 10 OC patients. The ascites concentration of a subset (n = 5) of cytokines that was elevated based on the multiplex array was validated by commercially available ELISA. The ascites level of these 5 cytokines was further evaluated by ELISA in a cohort of 38 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the association of cytokine expression with progression-free survival (PFS) in this cohort. Results We observed a wide variability of expression between different cytokines and levels of specific cytokines also varied in the 10 malignant ascites tested. Fifty-three (44%) cytokines were not detected in any of the 10 ascites. The level of several factors including, among others, angiogenin, angiopoietin-2, GRO, ICAM-1, IL-6, IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10, leptin, MCP-1, MIF NAP-2, osteprotegerin (OPG), RANTES, TIMP-2 and UPAR were elevated in most malignant ascites. Higher levels of OPG, IL-10 and leptin in OC ascites were associated with shorter PFS. IL-10 was shown to promote the anti-apoptotic activity of malignant ascites whereas OPG did not. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that there is a complex network of cytokine expression in OC ascites. Characterization of cytokine profiles in malignant ascites may provide information from which to prioritize key functional cytokines and understand the mechanism by which they alter tumor cells behavior. A better understanding of the cytokine network is

  8. Behavior and clinical impact of ascites after living donor liver transplantation: risk factors associated with massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Togashi, Junichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Arita, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-11-01

    Massive ascites after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), defined as small-for-size graft syndrome, is a risk factor for a poor prognosis. Few studies have reported factors associated with ascites and the relevant outcome after LDLT. Data from 413 adult patients that underwent LDLT were retrospectively analyzed. Recipient age, preoperative albumin level, Child-Pugh score, preoperative ascites, graft volume, intraoperative blood loss, and duration of warm ischemic time and the anhepatic phase were significantly associated with the total amount of ascites between postoperative day (POD) 1 and POD14. Multivariate analysis identified preoperative ascites, intraoperative blood loss, and duration of anhepatic phase as factors. Massive ascites (ascitic fluid discharge >1,000 ml/day on POD14 after LDLT) occurred in 200 (48.4%) patients, and mild ascites occurred in the remaining 213 patients. Daily changes in the ascites volume differed between the two groups. Nevertheless, massive ascites itself did not have a critical impact on the patient short- and long-term outcomes when properly managed with rigorous diuretics and albumin administration. Massive ascites is frequent after LDLT; however, the impact of it could be minimized with an appropriate management. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  9. Effect of atorvastatin and methotrexate on solid Ehrlich tumor.

    PubMed

    Kabel, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Nabih; El-Sisi, Alaa El-Din E; Haleem, Mahmoud Said; Ezzat, Nadia M; El Rashidy, Mohamed A

    2013-08-05

    Hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase is the key enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. A relationship was found between cholesterol and the development of many types of cancer. Atorvastatin is a hypolipidemic drug that may have a role in treatment of cancer. Moreover, atorvastatin was reported to decrease the resistance of cancer cells to many chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this work was to study the effect of each of methotrexate (MTX) and atorvastatin alone and in combination on solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) in mice. Fifty BALB/c mice were divided into five equal groups: control untreated group, SEC, SEC+MTX, SEC+atorvastatin, SEC+MTX+atorvastatin. Tumor volume, tissue glutathione reductase (GR), catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), cholesterol and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined. A part of the tumor was examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical study. MTX or atorvastatin alone or in combination induced significant increase in tissue catalase and GR with significant decrease in tumor volume, tissue MDA, cholesterol and TNF-α and alleviated the histopathological changes with significant increase in p53 expression and apoptotic index compared to SEC group. In conclusion, the combination of MTX and atorvastatin had a better effect than each of MTX or atorvastatin alone against solid Ehrlich tumor in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosis and therapy of ascites in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Ascites is one of the major complications of liver cirrhosis and is associated with a poor prognosis. It is important to distinguish noncirrhotic from cirrhotic causes of ascites to guide therapy in patients with noncirrhotic ascites. Mild to moderate ascites is treated by salt restriction and diuretic therapy. The diuretic of choice is spironolactone. A combination treatment with furosemide might be necessary in patients who do not respond to spironolactone alone. Tense ascites is treated by paracentesis, followed by albumin infusion and diuretic therapy. Treatment options for refractory ascites include repeated paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement in patients with a preserved liver function. Potential complications of ascites are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). SBP is diagnosed by an ascitic neutrophil count > 250 cells/mm3 and is treated with antibiotics. Patients who survive a first episode of SBP or with a low protein concentration in the ascitic fluid require an antibiotic prophylaxis. The prognosis of untreated HRS type 1 is grave. Treatment consists of a combination of terlipressin and albumin. Hemodialysis might serve in selected patients as a bridging therapy to liver transplantation. Liver transplantation should be considered in all patients with ascites and liver cirrhosis. PMID:21455322

  11. Kinetic analysis of ligand binding to the Ehrlich cell nucleoside transporter: Pharmacological characterization of allosteric interactions with the sup 3 Hnitrobenzylthioinosine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Kinetic analysis of the binding of {sup 3}Hnitrobenzylthioinosine ({sup 3}H NBMPR) to Ehrlich ascites tumor cell plasma membranes was conducted in the presence and absence of a variety of nucleoside transport inhibitors and substrates. The association of {sup 3}H NBMPR with Ehrlich cell membranes occurred in two distinct phases, possibly reflecting functional conformation changes in the {sup 3}HNBMPR binding site/nucleoside transporter complex. Inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR, tested at submaximal inhibitory concentrations, generally decreased the rate of association of {sup 3}HNBMPR, but the magnitude of this effect varied significantly with the agent tested. Adenosine and diazepam had relatively minor effects on the association rate, whereas dipyridamole and mioflazine slowed the rate dramatically. Inhibitors of nucleoside transport also decreased the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR, with an order of potency significantly different from their relative potencies as inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR. Dilazep, dipyridamole, and mioflazine were effective inhibitors of both {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation and equilibrium binding. The lidoflazine analogue R75231, on the other hand, had no effect on the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR at concentrations below 300 microM, even though it was one of the most potent inhibitors of {sup 3}HNBMPR binding tested (Ki less than 100 nM). In contrast, a series of natural substrates for the nucleoside transport system enhanced the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR with an order of effectiveness that paralleled their relative affinities for the permeant site of the transporter. The most effective enhancers of {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation, however, were the benzodiazepines diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and triazolam.

  12. Ascites syndrome in SPF Light Sussex chickens.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L

    1991-11-01

    An ascites syndrome was induced in 17 to 28 per cent of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Light Sussex (LSX) chickens given a low protein (16 per cent crude protein) high calcium (3.5 per cent calcium) layer crumble feed on two separate occasions 6 months apart. Affected chickens had increased right ventricular weight as a proportion of either total heart weight or live-weight at 3 weeks of age, compared with non-affected LSX chickens on the same feed, thus indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. The incidence of ascites was not increased by infection with avian nephritis virus, nor by limited cold-stress during brooding. It was not produced in LSX chickens given other feeds, nor in SPF Rhode Island Red chickens.

  13. [Pharmacokinetics of cimetidine in ascitic cirrhotics].

    PubMed

    Albin, H; Couzigou, P; Vinçon, G; Péhourcq, F; Fleury, B; Béraud, C

    1983-03-01

    Eleven patients with ascitic cirrhosis and eleven patients without liver disease received 200 mg of cimetidine orally and intravenously. Plasma concentrations of cimetidine were analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography. No differences were observed in cimetidine half-life (2.53 +/- 0.63 and 2.33 +/- 0.40 h) between the two groups. Cimetidine clearance was diminished by about 30 p 100 in cirrhotic patients (0.426 +/- 0.138 vs. 0.649 +/- 0.163 l/h/kg). The apparent volume of distribution was also significantly diminished (1.50 +/- 0.44 vs. 2.14 +/- 0.55 l/kg) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

  14. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and colon involvement.

    PubMed

    Levinson, J D; Ramanathan, V R; Nozick, J H

    1977-12-01

    The case of a 39-year old white man with eosinophilic gastroenteritis is presented. The major clinical features were gastric outlet obstruction, diarrhea and massive ascites. At surgery, significant involvement of the entire gastrointestinal tract from the gastric antrum to the sigmoid colon was found. Histologic documentation of colon involvement was obtained. The response to corticosteroids was prompt and sustained. At present, he is maintained on an alternating day schedule of steroid administration.

  15. Massive Ascites and Pleural Effusion in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Deveer, Ruya; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Kasap, Burcu; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is defined as new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation and complicates approximately 2-8% of all pregnancies. Release of vasoconstrictive agents, endothelial damage, hyperpermeability of the capillaries and microangiopathic haemolysis involves the basic pathophysiology. It has variable clinical presentation. Here, we report a case of severe preeclampsia who developed postpartum massive ascites and pleural effusion. Primigravid patient was admitted to our clinic at 35 weeks of gestation with very high blood pressure. In biochemical analysis, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 401 U/L, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 292 U/L. An emergency caesarean section was performed because of fetal distress. On the 2nd post-operative day, abdominal distension and severe abdominal pain occurred. On the 3rd post-operative day, her abdominal distension increased and Ultrasonography (USG) revealed massive ascites. Abdominal drainage was performed and albumin infusion was administered. On postoperative day 4, she still had abdominal distension and concomitant respiratory distress. Computed Tomography (CT) showed ascites and bilateral pleural effusion. Her complaint regressed on the following days.

  16. [Peritoneal mesothelioma with elevated amylase in the ascitic fluid].

    PubMed

    Carrión, A; Jover, R; Carnicer, F; García, M F; Aranda, F I; Martínez, J F; Griñó

    1995-03-01

    The case of a 42-year-old woman with no previous disease admitted for abdominal pain and ascites is presented. Analysis of the ascitic fluid demonstrated high concentrations of amylase with normal lipase. The diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma was obtained by laparotomy. This association has not been previously described. The authors suggest that this diagnostic possibility should be considered in patients without pancreatic disease and high amylase levels in ascitic fluid.

  17. Low gradient ascites: A seven-year course review

    PubMed Central

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Shafaghi, Afshin; Bagherzadeh, Amir-Hossein; Fallah, Mohammad-Sadegh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with low gradient ascites in hospitals of Guilan Province (northern Iran). METHODS: Patients admitted in hospitals of Guilan Province with low gradient ascites from 1993 to 2000 were enrolled in the study. Serum and ascitic fluid albumin levels were determined by biochemical reactions. The serum-ascitic albumin gradient (SAAG) less than 1.1 g/dL was considered low. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 9.0 software and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 148 patients enrolled in the study, 72 (48.6%) were males and 76 (51.4%) were females with a mean age of 59.03±13.54 years. Tuberculous peritonitis was the most frequent cause of low gradient ascites in 68 (45.9%). Other most frequent causes were cancer in 62 (41.9%), nephrotic syndrome in 9 (6%), pancreatitis in 6 (4%). Peritoneal cancer was found in 22 (35%), ovarian and gastric cancers were found in 14 (22.5%) and 12 (19.3%), respectively. All of which were the causes of ascites. The mean SAAG was 0.68±0.19 g/dL. The mean serum and ascitic fluid albumin concentrations were higher in tuberculous patients (P<0.006), but lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was higher in cancer patients (P<0.0001). In peritoneal tuberculosis, mean ascitic glucose concentration was significantly lower than other patients (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis should be considered in all patients with low gradient ascites especially in developing countries (like Iran), as the first cause of ascites. In the approach to patients with low gradient ascites, ascitic fluid glucose, and LDH level are useful indicators for decision making. PMID:15818749

  18. Spontaneous Fungal Peritonitis in Ascites of Cardiac Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Seema; Attar, Bashar M.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is an infrequent but severe complication most commonly described in patients with liver cirrhosis. We present the first case of culture-proven SFP occurring in cardiogenic ascites. The diagnosis of SFP was clinically challenging as the initial ascites was consistent with the more common diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The patient did not respond to antibacterial therapy, however, and the final diagnosis was only made with positive ascitic cultures that grew Candida glabrata. SFP should be considered in patients with either cardiac or cirrhotic ascites and have a delayed or lack of response to traditional SBP treatment. PMID:28386572

  19. [Non-cirrhotic ascites: pathophysiology, diagnosis and etiology].

    PubMed

    Carrier, P; Jacques, J; Debette-Gratien, M; Legros, R; Sarabi, M; Vidal, E; Sautereau, D; Bezanahary, H; Ly, K H; Loustaud-Ratti, V

    2014-06-01

    Ascites, in 20% of cases, is not linked to liver cirrhosis. The pathophysiology is most often different. The understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms can lead to etiologic diagnosis. The diagnostic approach is mainly based on the biological study of ascites, especially protein concentration and albumin gradient between serum and ascites. In Western countries, tumors and heart diseases are the predominant causes, while developing countries are mainly concerned by infectious diseases, among which tuberculosis is the leading cause. Other uncommon causes must be recognized, as ascites may be the presenting feature of the disease. Their knowledge will facilitate the therapeutic approach.

  20. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Eun; Chae, Kwon Mook

    2011-12-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease.

  1. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Eun

    2011-01-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease. PMID:22319743

  2. Pancreas Adenocarcinoma: Ascites, Clinical Manifestations, and Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Angel Mier; Chou, Joanne; Capanu, Marinela; Lowery, Maeve A.; Yu, Kenneth H.; O’Reilly, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    This was a cohort analysis evaluating patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who presented with or developed ascites. Among the 180 patients analyzed, the use of serial paracenteses and indwelling catheters is a common practice to effect symptom palliation. The complication rate was higher in patients with indwelling catheters. Analyzing ascitic fluid and calculating the serum ascites albumin gradient can help attribute the etiology of the ascites and potentially identify which patients may benefit from diuretics or other intervention. Background Ascites develops in a subset of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) at presentation or as the disease advances. Limited data exist on the prognostic importance of malignant ascites in PAC. Our hypothesis is that this information will provide an understanding of the natural history and facilitate management decisions. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 180 patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center diagnosed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014, with PAC and with ascites either at presentation or that developed during the disease course. Results For the 180 patients, the overall survival was 15 months. The time from diagnosis to ascites presentation was 11 months, and the survival time after ascites development was 1.8 months (range, 1.6–2.3 months; 95% confidence interval). Of 62 patients (34%) who had ascitic fluid analyzed, 36 (58%) had positive cytology. Fifty-one (82%) patients had a serum ascites albumin gradient ≥ 1, and 11 (18%) had serum ascites albumin gradient < 1. Sixty-four (36%) patients had their ascites managed solely by serial paracenteses. A total of 116 patients required a catheter; of these, 108 (93%) had a Tenckhoff catheter, 4 (3%) a Pleurx catheter, 4 (3%) a pigtail catheter, and 1 (1%) a Denver catheter. Eight (7%) patients required 2 catheters to be placed, and in 6 (5%), Tenckhoff catheters had to be removed. The main observed complications were

  3. Ascites syndrome in broilers: physiological and nutritional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baghbanzadeh, A; Decuypere, E

    2008-04-01

    Broiler chickens are intensively selected for productive traits. The management of these highly productive animals must be optimal to allow their full genetic potential to be expressed. If this is not done, inefficient production and several metabolic diseases such as ascites become apparent. The causes of the ascites are multifactorial but diet and, particularly, interactions between diet, other environmental and genetic factors play an important role. The relatively high heritability estimates for ascites-related traits and the significance of maternal genetic effects for most of the traits indicate that direct and maternal genetic effects play an important role in development of the ascites syndrome. An imbalance between oxygen supply and the oxygen required to sustain rapid growth rates and high food efficiencies causes ascites in broiler chickens. Because of the relationship to oxygen demand, ascites is affected and/or precipitated by factors such as growth rate, altitude (hypoxia) and environmental temperature. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth) is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative) or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Manipulation of the diet composition and/or feed allocation system can have a major effect on the incidence of ascites. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence.

  4. Correlation of tumour markers in ascitic fluid and serum: are measurements of ascitic tumour markers a futile attempt?

    PubMed

    Tuzun, Y; Celik, Y; Bayan, K; Yilmaz, S; Dursun, M; Canoruc, F

    2009-01-01

    Correlations between tumour markers in ascitic fluid and serum were investigated to determine whether ascitic fluid analysis had any diagnostic advantage over serum in 91 adults with ascites (55 malign; 36 benign). Serum and ascitic fluid were analysed for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 125, CA19.9, CA72.4, CA15.3, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA). The tumour markers were skewed between the groups so were logarithmically transformed. Correlations between serum and ascitic fluid were tested using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Serum and ascitic fluid levels of CEA, CA125, CYFRA and AFP in the malign group were statistically different and CEA, CA19.9, CA5.3, CYFRA and AFP were statistically different in the benign group. For both groups, all tumour markers were highly correlated in serum and ascitic fluid, with the exception of CYFRA in the malign group. These results indicate that, where malignant ascites is suspected, analysing tumour markers in ascitic fluid does not have any advantage over serum analysis.

  5. Outcomes of Percutaneous Cholecystostomy in the Presence of Ascites.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christopher; Hunt, Stephen J; Gade, Terence; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Nadolski, Gregory J

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate whether the presence of ascites increases complications following placement of percutaneous cholecystostomy tubes (PCTs). Retrospective review of all transhepatic PCTs placed between January 2005 and June 2014 was performed: 255 patients were included (median age of 65 y; range, 20-95 y). Of these patients, 97 had ascites and 158 had no ascites or only pelvic fluid. In all, 115 patients had calculous cholecystitis (45%), 127 had acalculous cholecystitis (50%), and 13 had common bile duct obstruction (5%). The primary outcome of interest was all complications, including bile peritonitis, pericatheter leakage requiring PCT change, pericholecystic abscess formation, drain dislodgment, or death from biliary sepsis within 14 days of initial PCT insertion. The overall complication rate was 11% among patients with ascites (n = 11), compared with 10% in those without (n = 16; P = .834). No difference was found between the two groups in any one complication. The overall outcome of PCT drainage differed between groups, with significantly shorter survival times in patients with ascites. Patients with ascites underwent cholecystectomy less often than patients without ascites (21% vs 39%; P = .002). Likewise, patients with ascites were more likely than those without ascites to die with the PCT in place (49% vs 25%; P = .001). Frequencies of complications following PCT insertion were similar in patients with and without ascites. Additionally, the overall complication rate was low and not significantly different between the two groups. These observations support the use of PCT placement in patients with ascites. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  7. Tissue Distribution and Efficacy of Gold Nanorods Coupled with Laser Induced Photoplasmonic Therapy in Ehrlich Carcinoma Solid Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Shabaka, Ali A.; El-Shabrawy, Osama A.; Yassin, Nemat A.; Mahmoud, Sawsan S.; El-Shenawy, Siham M.; Al-Ashqar, Emad; Eisa, Wael H.; Farag, Niveen M.; El-Shaer, Marwa A.; Salah, Nabila; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNR) within tumor microregions are characterized by their ability to absorb near IR light and emit heat in what is called photoplasmonic effect. Yet, the efficacy of nanoparticles is limited due to intratumoral tissue distribution reasons. In addition, distribution of GNRs to normal tissue might result in non specific toxicity. In the current study, we are assessing the intratumoral and tissue distribution of PEGylated GNRs on the top of its antitumor characteristics when given intravenously or intratumoral to solid tumor bearing mice and coupled with laser photoplasmonic sessions. PEGylated GNRs with a longitudinal size of less than 100 nm were prepared with aspect ratio of 4.6 showing strong surface plasmon absorption at wavelength 800 nm. Pharmacokinetics of GNR after single I.V. administration (0.1 mg/kg) showed very short systemic circulating time (less than 3 h). On the other hand, tissue distribution of I.V. GNR (0.1 mg/kg) to normal animals showed preferential deposition in spleen tissue. Repeated administration of I.V. GNR resulted in preferential accumulation in both liver and spleen tissues. In addition, I.V. administration of GNR to Ehrlich carcinoma tumor bearing mice resulted in similar tissue distribution; tumor accumulation and anti-tumor effect compared to intratumoral administration. In conclusion, the concentration of GNR achieved within tumors microregions after I.V. administration was comparable to I.T. administration and sufficient to elicit tumoral growth arrest when coupled with laser-aided photoplasmonic treatment. PMID:24098446

  8. Chylous Ascites in a Newborn with Gastroschisis. Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zalles-Vidal, Cristian Ruben; Peñarrieta-Daher, Alejandro; Ibarra-Rios, Daniel; Fernandez-Portilla, Emilio; Bracho-Blachet, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Chylous ascites is a rare disease, only two cases associated with gastroschisis have been published. We report a case treated conservatively with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and octreotide. We reviewed the literature about management options for the chylous ascites. PMID:28083502

  9. Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

    1983-09-01

    The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

  10. Chylous ascites as a consequence of idiopathic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baban, Chwanrow Karim; Murphy, Michael; O'Sulleabháin, Cristóir; O'Hanlon, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Chylous ascites (chyloperitoneum) is a rare clinical condition, characterized by an accumulation of lymph fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Most commonly it is associated with abdominal malignancy (usually lymphoma). We present an unusual case of a woman who developed a persistent pseudocyst and recurrent chylous ascites following acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:24501332

  11. Management of uninfected and infected ascites in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Solà, Elsa; Solé, Cristina; Ginès, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Ascites is the most frequent complication of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is related to increased renal sodium retention as a result of increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to marked vasodilation of the splanchnic circulation. Management of uncomplicated ascites is based on a low-sodium diet and diuretics. However, approximately 10% of patients develop refractory ascites during follow-up, which is associated with a poor prognosis. The treatment of choice in patients with refractory ascites is large-volume paracentesis associated with intravenous albumin. Moreover, patients who develop refractory ascites should be considered as candidates for liver transplantation. Patients with ascites are all at risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). SBP is a common infection in patients with cirrhosis with a risk of mortality of 20%. Empirical antibiotics are the treatment of choice in patients with SBP but differ depending on the acquisition site of infection, because nosocomial infections have a higher risk of being caused by multiresistant bacteria. In addition to antibiotic treatment, all patients with SBP should also receive intravenous albumin. This review summarizes the management of uninfected ascites and SBP in cirrhosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Predictive Value of Physical Examinations for Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Steven; Papadakis, Maxine; Melnick, Jane; Gooding, Gretchen A. W.; Tierney, Lawrence M.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the predictive value of physical signs for ascites, we compared the results of physical examination with those of abdominal sonography in 90 men in hospital with liver disease. The positive predictive values of shifting dullness and prominent fluid waves were low (51% and 73%). We divided the patients into two groups: those with prolonged prothrombin times (72% prevalence of ascites by sonogram), and those with normal prothrombin times (15% prevalence). In patients with prolonged prothrombin times, a prominent fluid wave had a very high positive predictive value for ascites (96%). Many patients with prolonged prothrombin times had ascites despite negative physical signs. In contrast, in those with normal prothrombin times, both shifting dullness and prominent fluid waves were usually falsely positive. Patients with normal prothrombin times and no shifting dullness rarely (2%) had ascites. The predictive value of physical signs for ascites depends on the prevalence of ascites in groups of patients that are examined. The prothrombin time is a useful index for identifying inpatients with a high or low prevalence of ascites and the predictive value of physical signs is enhanced by interpreting them in combination with a patient's prothrombin time. PMID:3892916

  13. Evaluation and treatment of malignant ascites secondary to gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC), and poses significant difficulties for both patients and clinicians. In addition to the dismal general condition of affected patients and the diversity of associated complications such as jaundice and ileus, problems in assessing scattered tumors have hampered the expansion of clinical trials for this condition. However, the accumulation of reported studies is starting to indicate that the weak response to treatment in GC patients with malignant ascites is more relevant to their poor prognosis rather than to the ascites volume at diagnosis. Therefore, precise assessment of initial state of ascites, repetitive evaluation of treatment efficacy, selection of suitable treatment, and swift transition to other treatment options as needed are paramount to maximizing patient benefit. Accurately determining ascites volume is the crucial first step in clinically treating a patient with malignant ascites. Ultrasonography is commonly used to identify the existence of ascites, and several methods have been proposed to estimate ascites volume. Reportedly, the sum of the depth of ascites at five points (named “five-point method”) on three panels of computed tomography images is well correlated to the actual ascites volume and/or abdominal girth. This method is already suited to repetitive assessment due to its convenience compared to the conventional volume rendering method. Meanwhile, a new concept, “Clinical Benefit Response in GC (CBR-GC)”, was recently introduced to measure the efficacy of chemotherapy for malignant ascites of GC. CBR-GC is a simple and reliable patient-oriented evaluation system based on changes in performance status and ascites, and is expected to become an important clinical endpoint in future clinical trials. The principal of treatment for GC patients with ascites is palliation and prevention of ascites-related symptoms. The treatment options are various, including a

  14. Evaluation and treatment of malignant ascites secondary to gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2015-10-21

    Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC), and poses significant difficulties for both patients and clinicians. In addition to the dismal general condition of affected patients and the diversity of associated complications such as jaundice and ileus, problems in assessing scattered tumors have hampered the expansion of clinical trials for this condition. However, the accumulation of reported studies is starting to indicate that the weak response to treatment in GC patients with malignant ascites is more relevant to their poor prognosis rather than to the ascites volume at diagnosis. Therefore, precise assessment of initial state of ascites, repetitive evaluation of treatment efficacy, selection of suitable treatment, and swift transition to other treatment options as needed are paramount to maximizing patient benefit. Accurately determining ascites volume is the crucial first step in clinically treating a patient with malignant ascites. Ultrasonography is commonly used to identify the existence of ascites, and several methods have been proposed to estimate ascites volume. Reportedly, the sum of the depth of ascites at five points (named "five-point method") on three panels of computed tomography images is well correlated to the actual ascites volume and/or abdominal girth. This method is already suited to repetitive assessment due to its convenience compared to the conventional volume rendering method. Meanwhile, a new concept, "Clinical Benefit Response in GC (CBR-GC)", was recently introduced to measure the efficacy of chemotherapy for malignant ascites of GC. CBR-GC is a simple and reliable patient-oriented evaluation system based on changes in performance status and ascites, and is expected to become an important clinical endpoint in future clinical trials. The principal of treatment for GC patients with ascites is palliation and prevention of ascites-related symptoms. The treatment options are various, including a

  15. [Refractory ascites and dilutional hyponatremia: current management and new aquaretics].

    PubMed

    Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis and is associated with 50% mortality at 2 years if patients do not receive orthotopic liver transplantation. Recently the International Ascites Club defined ascites into three groups: In grade I ascites fluid is detected only by ultrasound; in grade II, ascites is moderate with symmetrical distention of the abdomen; and in Grade 3 ascites is large or tense with marked abdominal distention. About 10% of patients with ascites are refractory to treatment with diuretics. In refractory ascites, patients do not respond to highest doses of diuretics (spironolactone 400 mg/day and furosemide 160 mg/ day) or develop side effects (hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hepatic encephalopathy, or renal failure) that prohibit their use. Patients may be treated either by repeated large volume paracentesis plus albumin or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Dilutional hyponatremia in cirrhotic patients is defined as serum sodium < or = 130 mEq/L in the presence of an expanded extracellular fluid volume, as indicated by the presence of ascites and/or edema. This complication of cirrhotic patients with ascites has recently gained attention given that several reports indicate that when serum sodium concentration is combined with the Model for End-Stage liver disease (MELD) it improves the prognostic accuracy of MELD score in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). The first step in the management of dilutional hyponatremia is fluid restriction and discontinuation of diuretics. Water restriction at 1,000 mL/day helps prevent the progressive decrease in serum sodium concentration but usually does not correct hyponatremia in most cases. Actually are developing drugs that are active orally and act by selectively antagonizing the specific receptors (V2 receptor) of arginine vasopressin. These agents act in the distal collecting ducts of the kidneys, by increasing solute free water excretion and, thus, improving

  16. Catumaxomab: malignant ascites: unjustified marketing authorisation.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    The only treatment for malignant ascites in patients with refractory cancer is paracentesis, a procedure to relieve symptoms. Catumaxomab, a monoclonal antibody, is now authorised in the European Union for intraperitoneal administration to patients with epithelial cancers that overexpress epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and provoke ascites unresponsive to chemotherapy. Clinical evaluation of catumaxomab in this setting is based on a comparative, randomised but unblinded trial including 258 patients. Patients in the catumaxomab group had four paracenteses over a 10-day period, followed by a 6-hour intraperitoneal catumaxomab infusion, while patients in the control group had a single paracentesis. Catumaxomab did not extend median survival time, which was about two months. Methodological biases rule out any conclusions as to whether catumaxomab reduced the number of paracenteses needed during this short survival period. In this trial, 80% of patients treated with catumaxomab experienced serious adverse events, versus 29% of controls, resulting in hospitalisation in respectively about 29% versus 16% of patients. Two-thirds of patients had reactions linked to intraperitoneal catumaxomab infusion. Gastrointestinal disorders were frequent, and included abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Catumaxomab is hepatotoxic. In addition, most patients develop anti-catumaxomab antibodies, although the clinical consequences are unclear. Catumaxomab therapy is inconvenient: it lasts 10 days and requires 4 intraperitoneal infusions that last 6 hours each and require 24-hour monitoring. In practice, catumaxomab has more harms than benefits. It is better to focus on individually tailored palliative care for these terminally ill patients.

  17. Treatment of cancerous ascites and radical gastrectomy with intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water and cis-diaminodichloro-platinum perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Xing; Chen, Jia-Ping; Chen, Zhong; Peng, De-Shu; Zhen, Ji-Xiang; Tan, Jian-San

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic effect of intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water and cis-diaminodichloro-platinum (DDP) perfusion for cancerous ascites and radical gastrectomy. METHODS: LACA mice were injected peritoneally with H22 cancer cells (2 × 107 tumor cells). Five days later, the mice received treatments with either intraperitoneal perfusion of 37 °C isotonic fluid (group I), or 43 °C simple hyperthermic double-distilled water (group II), isotonic fluid (group III), DDP (group IV) or a combination of the hyperthermic double-distilled water with DDP (group V). A clinical experiment with intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water perfusion with DDP was carried out from September 1991 through September 1993 with 32 advanced gastric cancer patients who had undergone radical gastrectomy. RESULTS: In comparison with the untreated control group of cancer cell-bearing LACA mice, the mice in all treatment groups showed near complete obliteration of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity, markedly reduced ascites, prolonged survival times, and reduced growth of peritoneal cancerous nodes. In the clinical experiment, all 32 patients with advanced carcinoma had achieved satisfactory results at the 1-year follow-up, but had unsatisfactory results at the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The intraperitoneal hyperthermic double-distilled water perfusion with DDP inhibited the occurrence of ascites in LACA mice bearing cancer cells, and prolonged the lifetime of patients with gastric cancer who had undergone radical gastrectomy. PMID:27053879

  18. Electrochemical treatment of mouse Ehrlich tumor with direct electric current.

    PubMed

    Cabrales, L B; Ciria, H C; Bruzón, R P; Quevedo, M S; Aldana, R H; De Oca, L M; Salas, M F; Peña, O G

    2001-07-01

    Electrochemical treatment of cancer utilizes direct electric current (DEC) to produce direct alterations and chemical changes in tumors. However, the DEC treatment is not established and mechanisms are not well understood. In vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of DEC on animal tumor models. Ehrlich tumors were implanted subcutaneously in sixty male BALB/c mice. When the tumor volumes reached 850 mm(3), four platinum electrodes were inserted into the tumors. DEC of 4 mA was applied for 21 min to the treated group; the total charge was 5 C. The healthy and sick control groups were subjected to the same conditions but without DEC. Hematological and chemical parameters as well as histopathological and peritumoral findings were studied. After the electrochemical therapy it was observed that both tumor volume decrease and necrosis percentage increase were significant in the treated group. Moreover, 24 h after treatment an acute inflammatory response, as well as sodium ion decrease, and potassium ion and spleen weight increase were observed in this group. It was concluded that both electrochemical reactions (fundamentally those in which reactive oxygen species are involved), and immune system stimulation induced by cytotoxic action of the DEC could constitute the most important antitumor mechanisms. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The contribution of Paul Ehrlich to histochemistry: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his death.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, Igor; Boecker, Werner; Tiemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Paul Ehrlich is the founder of a number of areas in biomedical research: in the first line, immunology and chemotherapy. Aim of this historical note to the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's death is to commemorate his tribute to the establishment and development of histochemistry.

  20. A Rare Case of Ascites due to Peritoneal Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Stofer, Fernanda; Barretto, Maria Fernanda; Gouvea, Ana Luisa; Ribeiro, Mario; Neves, Marcio; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg; Mocarzel, Luís Otavio

    2016-06-29

    The clinical manifestations of amyloidosis depend on the type of insoluble protein as well as the location of amyloid deposits in tissues or organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine is the most common site of amyloid deposits, whereas peritoneal involvement and ascites are rare. We report on a case of ascites due to peritoneal amyloidosis. A 65-year-old patient was admitted to our institution due to anasarca and pulmonary congestion, mimicking heart failure. We started the patient on diuretics and vasodilators. Despite improvement in pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema, his ascites was not reduced. Echocardiogram revealed restrictive cardiomyopathy and a speckle-tracking pattern suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis. Subcutaneous and peritoneal biopsies revealed amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is rare in the peritoneum and is usually asymptomatic. Ascites occurs in only 20% of patients with peritoneal amyloidosis. We searched PubMed using "ascites" and "amyloidosis" and identified only eight case reports of amyloidosis with ascites. Physicians should be particularly careful in heart failure and anasarca cases when ascites is disproportional or not responsive to diuretic treatment. To date, there is no specific treatment for peritoneal amyloidosis.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal xerocytosis associated with ascites.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Myriam; Palacio, Montse; Borrell, Antoni; Carmona, Francesc; Cobo, Teresa; Coll, Oriol; Cararach, Vicenç

    2005-01-01

    To discuss the prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal xerocytosis associated with ascites. A 29-year-old woman with hereditary xerocytosis was found to present a fetus with severe ascites on the 20-week scan. Cordocentesis showed mild anemia and blood transfusion was discarded. Ascites worsened and 2 weeks later a new cordocentesis showed lower hematocrit values. Blood transfusion was performed but ascites remained unchanged. Cordocentesis was repeated at 28 weeks and albumin was transfused. Fetal hemoglobin was within the normal range. Peak systolic velocity of the middle cerebral artery remained normal and correctly predicted mild anemia. Expectant management was followed. An elective cesarean section was performed at 32 weeks because of breech presentation and preterm labor which did not respond to aggressive tocolysis. A female newborn weighing 2,615 g was delivered and required paracenteses and exchange transfusion. The newborn was discharged at 4 weeks of life and at 2 months of age, the ascites resolved completely. The mechanism of development of ascites in fetal xerocytosis remains unanswered. As ascites does not seem to be related to fetal anemia or hypoalbuminemia, does not substantially change after blood transfusion and tends to resolve in late gestation, a conservative management is reasonable if fetal anemia is not severe. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Severe ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated CA125 concentration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Imaeda, Kenro; Mizuno, Tatsuo; Wakami, Kazuko; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Okayama, Naotsuka; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Joh, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Ascites caused by hypothyroidism is rare and the pathogenesis is unclear. Several reports have presented cases of progressive ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated tumor markers. We report a 31-year-old female case with massive ascites and elevated serum CA 125 concentrations. The patient had no typical feature of hypothyroidism except an accumulation of ascitic fluid which showed elevated total protein concentration and a high serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG). There was no finding of malignancy. Following thyroid hormone replacement, the ascites was completely resolved accompanied by reduced concentrations of serum CA125. In general, primary hypothyroidism with ascites presents with coexisting massive pericardial or pleural effusion. The massive ascites and increased serum CA125 concentrations may have led us to make the incorrect diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. The evaluation of thyroid function is useful to determine the pathology of high-protein ascites or elevated tumor markers, and ascites may be treatable by thyroid replacement therapy.

  3. [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity].

    PubMed

    Lokaj, J; John, C

    2008-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 was awarded to Ilya I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich for recognition of their work on immunity. Mechnikov have discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis as the basis of natural cellular immunity. His ,,phagocytic theory" is the principle of immunological concept "self and not self" as the prerequisition of physiological inflammation, and selfmaintaining of organism. Ehrlich developed the methods for standardization of antibody activity in immune sera, described neutralizing and complement-depending effect of antibodies and enunciated the ,"ide-chain" theory of the formation of antibodies. Their concept of the key-stone of immunity was different, but they expressed the basic paradigma of immunology: immunity imply the protection of identity and guarantee the integrity of organism. Both are the founders of immunology as the scientific discipline. Discoveries and conceptions of I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich exceedingly influenced development of immunology and are also applicable, instructive and suggestive in contemporary immunology and microbiology.

  4. Study on the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the development of mouse S180 ascites sarcoma in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Huanqi; Qu, Zhina; Liu, Xifeng; Cheng, Shaohui

    2004-07-01

    The antitumor effects of low-energy laser irradiation (LELI) are always the focus of scientific investigation. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of low-energy He-Ne laser irradiation on mouse S180 ascites sarcoma. After innoculating S180 sarcoma cells at the dosage of 1 x 106 cells per mouse, five group of BALB/c mice were irradiated at the spot of one Harder's glands of the mouse eye for six days with five different dosages of 7.33, 11.00, 14.67, 22.00 and 29.33 J/cm2 respectively. The antitumor effects were evaluated in two aspects: life prolongation ratio and ascites growth of tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that low energy He-Ne laser irradiation of 7.33, 11.00, 14.67, 22.00 and 29.33 J/cm2 could inhibit the proliferation speed of S180 ascites sarcoma in vivo, and therefore could prolong the survival time of the tumor bearing mice in some degree. Moreover, the dosage of 14.67 J/cm2 showed the most remarkable inhibiting effects among the four dosages, and the life prolongation ratio was up to 45.51%. On the contrary, the proliferation speed of S180 ascites sarcoma cells in vivo was accelerated by the large dosage of 29.33 J/cm2 LELI and the survival time of the tumor bearing mice were remarkably shortened. Low energy He-Ne laser irradiation with proper dosages can inhibit the development of the mouse S180 ascites sarcoma, while too large dosage shows promotive effects.

  5. Diarrhoea, ascites and eosinophilia: an unusual triad.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Tom K; Winter, Desmond C

    2007-12-01

    The onset of diarrhoea and cramp-like abdominal pain following consumption of an identified food type is not an uncommon presentation to many practitioners. However, when it fails to settle and is associated with unusual features both on examination and on initial work-up, then a more complex diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum needs to be considered. We report on such a case where the onset of diarrhoea was associated with ascites and peripheral eosinophilia. A variety of causes including parasitic and tuberculous infection were excluded. A diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on definite criteria, and appropriate management was instituted. In this report we discuss the diagnostic criteria and some of the proposed pathophysiologic theories in order to explain this unusual disease process.

  6. Synthesis of some novel quinolines and pyrimido [4,5-b] quinolines bearing A sulfonamide moiety as potential anticancer and radioprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Ragab, Fatma A; Noaman, Eman; Heiba, Helmy I; El-Hossary, Ebaa M

    2007-01-01

    Some novel 4-(quinolin-1-yl)-benzenesulfonamide and 4-(pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolin-10-yl)-benzenesulfonamide derivatives have been synthesized. All the newly synthesized target compounds were subjected to in vitro cytotoxic screening to be evaluated for their anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Among these new compounds, compounds 9a, 11, 12b, 18 and, in particular, 19 showed promising in vitro cytotoxic activity compared with doxorubicin (CAS 23214-92-8) as a reference drug. Moreover, compound 8 exhibited in vivo radioprotective activity against gamma-irradiation in mice.

  7. An unusual presentation of fistulating Crohn's disease: Ascites.

    PubMed

    Kia, Richard; White, David; Sarkar, Sanchoy

    2010-01-16

    Whilst ascites is a common presenting complaint in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease and disseminated malignancy, in Crohn's disease however, it is exceptionally rare. We describe a patient with no prior history of inflammatory bowel or liver disease, presenting with rapid onset gross ascites and scrotal swelling. Further investigations revealed severe hypoalbuminemia and transudative ascitic fluid with normal other liver function tests and a negative liver screen. Computed tomography revealed widespread ascites and pleural effusions with no features of malignancy or portal hypertension, and a small bowel barium series showed features of fistulating small bowel Crohn's disease. An ileo-colonoscopy confirmed the presence of terminal ileal inflammatory stricture. The patient's clinical condition and serum albumin improved with a combination of diuretics, elemental diet, antibiotics and oral 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy.

  8. Long-term medical management and complications of `resistant' ascites

    PubMed Central

    Summerskill, William H. J.; Clowdus, Bernard F.; Rosevear, John W.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of treating patients with hepatic cirrhosis and ascites with an aldosterone inhibitor in addition to conventional therapy. Good results are demonstrated in 13 patients previously resistant to treatment. PMID:13918387

  9. Refractory ascites - a rare presentation of severe aortic regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Charles; Rajaratnam, Shanker; Joshi, Pragnesh; Passage, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    A 47 year-old male with a history of refractory ascites presented to our centre complaining of dyspnoea, abdominal distention, and weight gain. He was admitted under a medical team for investigation and management. Work-up excluded all common aetiologies of ascites. Echocardiography revealed severe aortic regurgitation (AR) with a dilated left ventricle but no right heart pathology or pulmonary hypertension. He underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement. Intra-operatively, a prolapsing left coronary leaflet of the aortic valve with frayed edges raised suspicion of resolved infective endocarditis. Postoperative course was uneventful. Following replacement of the aortic valve, the patient was completely free of ascites. This case demonstrates that ascites can be an unusual clinical presentation of severe aortic regurgitation, which may respond to aortic valve replacement. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intractable ascites in systemic mastocytosis treated by portal diversion.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, P; Smadja, C; Szekely, A M; Delage, Y; Calmus, Y; Poupon, R; Franco, D

    1987-02-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with intractable ascites due to systemic mastocytosis. The diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was established by histology of the bone marrow which showed mast cell infiltration and fibrosis. Ascites was related to portal hypertension which was documented by esophageal varices at endoscopy and by an increase of wedged-free hepatic venous pressure gradient. Liver biopsy disclosed dense fibrosis of hepatic arterial and portal venule walls, resulting in complete obstruction of some portal radicles. Peliosis hepatis and fibrous deposits in the walls of hepatic venules were also present. Because of intractable ascites and significant malnutrition, a portacaval shunt was performed which cleared ascites and dramatically improved the general condition of the patient.

  11. Palliation of malignant ascites by the Denver peritoneovenous shunt.

    PubMed Central

    Downing, R.; Black, J.; Windsor, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Five out of 8 Denver peritoneovenous shunts placed in 7 patients provided excellent palliation of malignant ascites. Subclinical consumptive coagulopathy was detected after placement of 6 shunts, but no patient developed overt bleeding. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6207757

  12. [Postsurgical chylous ascites: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Olivar Roldán, J; Fernández Martínez, A; Martínez Sancho, E; Díaz Gómez, J; Martín Borge, V; Gómez Candela, C

    2009-01-01

    Chylous ascites derives from chyle leakage into the peritoneal cavity, either due to rupture or obstruction of abdominal lymphatic vessels. The main clinical sign is abdominal distention, while diagnosis requires the presence of triglycerides in ascitic fluid. Neoplasms are the most common cause of chylous ascites, although less common causes, such as abdominal surgery, should also be considered. The mainstay of therapy is hyperproteic diet with fat restriction and middle-chain triglycerides. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for cases in which dietary treatment fails to restore an optimal nutritional status or is contraindicated, whereas surgery is considered for patients that are deemed refractory to conservative therapy. We present a case of chylous ascites secondary to retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy.

  13. Abdominal Pain and Ascites: Not Always Related to Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kisang, Gilbert; Green, Michael; Tofteland, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with an estimated prevalence of one in 100,000. The typical presentation consists of vague gastrointestinal symptoms with the mucosal involvement of the digestive system. Rarely, it presents as eosinophilic ascites. We report the case of a 22-year-old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and ascites. The laboratory studies were remarkable for eosinophilia and the ascitic fluid demonstrated high eosinophilic counts. Push enteroscopy with biopsy supported the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, with likely serosal involvement. Other differential diagnoses were excluded. A prednisone taper along with dietary treatment was initiated. We report complete resolution of symptoms two weeks following the initiation of therapy. Nine months later, she remains asymptomatic without recurrence of ascites. PMID:27843730

  14. Cases with Refractory Ascites and a Delayed Response to Tolvaptan

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Satoru; Nishida, Naoshi; Chishina, Hirokazu; Ida, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Komeda, Yoriaki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 67-year-old female with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. She was administered furosemide at 20 mg/day and spironolactone at 25 mg/day, but the ascites did not improve. Despite the additional administration of tolvaptan at 3.75 mg/day, the response to ascites was still poor. While the dose of tolvaptan was thereafter increased to 7.5 mg/day on the 7th hospital day, the ascites still persisted. However, she continued to receive tolvaptan (7.5 mg/day) because the worsening of her subjective symptoms was mild and she wished to do so. The ascites was later found to have almost completely disappeared on computed tomography (CT) at 6 months. PMID:27853068

  15. [Septic ascites: a rare post-operative complication].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Taglienti, D; de Anna, L; Masoni, L; Gasparrini, M; Viola, M; Nicolai, A P; Lucidi, V; Montori, A

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with chronic hepatitis represents a very controversial matter in terms of frequency, pathology and treatment. This unusual complication mainly due to decreased immunological defences and ascitic fluid opsonic activity is not accepted by all the Authors as a rare event. However, there is agreement as far as management is concerned: cultural examination of the ascitic fluid and the relative antibiogram are the best tools in guiding the approach to an adequate antibiotic therapy.

  16. Coughing may lead to spontaneous chylothorax and chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Battal, Muharrem; Dogan, Yasar; Karyagar, Savas; Kutlu, Asim

    2007-12-31

    Chylous ascites is a rare form of ascites resulting from the accumulation of lymph in the abdominal cavity. It is due to an interruption in the lymphatic system. Surgical management is indicated in cases of recurrence or failure after conservative treatment. We report a case of spontaneous chylous peritonitis after chylothorax, which is a rare clinical event. The primary reason was unclear and the outcome of medical and surgical treatment was successful.

  17. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  18. Ascitic Fluid Culture in Cirrhotic Patients with Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Mohammad; Khan, Zard Ali; Khan, Mohammad Shoaib

    2016-08-01

    To determine the frequency and compare the culture yield of bacterial isolation by conventional and blood culture BACTEC bottle techniques in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Cross-sectional comparative study. Pathology Department, Bannu Medical College, Bannu, KPK, from January 2012 to December 2013. Paracentesis of 20 ml of ascitic fluid tapped from cirrhotic patients with SBPwas carried out by a single technologist. The analysis included differential leukocyte count (DLC), while 5 ml each of the fluid was inoculated into conventional culture media and BACTEC blood culture bottle. All the data were analysed on (SPSS) version 16 to determine frequencies with percentages and mean values with standard deviation. Chi-square test was used for comparing the yield of conventional and blood culture bottle methods. P-value was considered significant if < 0.05. In 105 cases of ascitic fluid analyses, 27 (25.72%) had positive ascitic fluid culture whereas 78 (74.28%) had negative ascitic fluid culture. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 6 cases by conventional culture media and in 27 cases by BACTEC culture bottle media (p < 0.001). Bacterial isolation was obtained by both culture methods in 6 cases (p < 0.001). Direct bedside inoculation of ascitic fluid by BACTEC culture bottle method has better yield as compared to conventional culture method.

  19. Treatment and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Buder, Robert; Kapun, Lisbeth; Voglmayr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ascites and renal dysfunction are frequent complications experienced by patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and is one of the cardinal signs of portal hypertension. The diagnostic evaluation of ascites involves assessment of its granulocyte count and protein concentration to exclude complications such as infection or malignoma and to allow risk stratification for the development of spontaneous peritonitis. Although sodium restriction and diuretics remain the cornerstone of the management of ascites, many patients require additional therapy when they become refractory to this treatment. In this situation, the treatment of choice is repeated large-volume paracentesis. Alteration in splanchnic hemodynamics is one of the most important changes underlying the development of ascites. Further splanchnic dilation leads to changes in systemic hemodynamics, activating vasopressor agents and leading to decreased renal perfusion. Small alterations in renal function influence the prognosis, which depends on the cause of renal failure. Prerenal failure is evident in about 70% of patients, whereas in about 30% of patients the cause is hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), which is associated with a worse prognosis. Therefore, effective therapy is of great clinical importance. Recent data indicate that use of the new definition of acute kidney injury facilitates the identification and treatment of patients with renal insufficiency more rapidly than use of the current criteria for HRS. In this review article, we evaluate approaches to the management of patients with ascites and HRS. PMID:25729433

  20. Evaluation and management of patients with refractory ascites

    PubMed Central

    Senousy, Bahaa Eldeen; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Some patients with ascites due to liver cirrhosis become no longer responsive to diuretics. Once other causes of ascites such as portal vein thrombosis, malignancy or infection and non-compliance with medications and low sodium diet have been excluded, the diagnosis of refractory ascites can be made based on strict criteria. Patients with refractory ascites have very poor prognosis and therefore referral for consideration for liver transplantation should be initiated. Search for reversible components of the underlying liver pathology should be undertaken and targeted therapy, when available, should be considered. Currently, serial large volume paracentesis (LVP) and transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent-shunt (TIPS) are the two mainstay treatment options for refractory ascites. Other treatment options are available but not widely used either because they carry high morbidity and mortality (most surgical options) rates, or are new interventions that have shown promise but still need further evaluation. In this comprehensive review, we describe the evaluation and management of patients with refractory ascites from the prospective of the practicing physician. PMID:19115470

  1. A Rare Case of Ascites due to Peritoneal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Stofer, Fernanda; Barretto, Maria Fernanda; Gouvea, Ana Luisa; Ribeiro, Mario; Neves, Marcio; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg; Mocarzel, Luís Otavio

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 65 Final Diagnosis: Peritoneal amyloidosis Symptoms: Anasarca • Dyspnea • Orthopnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Paracentesis and peritoneal biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The clinical manifestations of amyloidosis depend on the type of insoluble protein as well as the location of amyloid deposits in tissues or organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine is the most common site of amyloid deposits, whereas peritoneal involvement and ascites are rare. Case Report: We report on a case of ascites due to peritoneal amyloidosis. A 65-year-old patient was admitted to our institution due to anasarca and pulmonary congestion, mimicking heart failure. We started the patient on diuretics and vasodilators. Despite improvement in pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema, his ascites was not reduced. Echocardiogram revealed restrictive cardiomyopathy and a speckle-tracking pattern suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis. Subcutaneous and peritoneal biopsies revealed amyloidosis. Conclusions: Amyloidosis is rare in the peritoneum and is usually asymptomatic. Ascites occurs in only 20% of patients with peritoneal amyloidosis. We searched PubMed using “ascites” and “amyloidosis” and identified only eight case reports of amyloidosis with ascites. Physicians should be particularly careful in heart failure and anasarca cases when ascites is disproportional or not responsive to diuretic treatment. To date, there is no specific treatment for peritoneal amyloidosis. PMID:27353538

  2. Gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission.

  3. 76 FR 44015 - Thirteenth International Paul-Ehrlich-Seminar: Allergen Products for Diagnosis and Therapy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... diagnostics, blood and blood products, and more recently, tissue and medicinal products for gene therapy... Products for Diagnosis and Therapy: Regulation and Science; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug...- Ehrlich-Seminar: Allergen Products for Diagnosis and Therapy: Regulation and Science.'' The purpose of the...

  4. Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Intergenerational Reflections--An Interview with Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    In a September 2013 interview, Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu--whose passion for public service is manifested in differing ways and from two dramatically different generational standpoints--discussed insights from their co-authored book, "Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service (2013)." Septuagenarian Tom…

  5. Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Intergenerational Reflections--An Interview with Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    In a September 2013 interview, Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu--whose passion for public service is manifested in differing ways and from two dramatically different generational standpoints--discussed insights from their co-authored book, "Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service (2013)." Septuagenarian Tom…

  6. Journal bearing

    DOEpatents

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  7. Synergistic efficacy of γ-radiation together with gallium trichloride and/or doxorubicin against Ehrlich carcinoma in female mice.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Eman; Aziz, Nahed Abdel

    2016-02-01

    Combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy represents a key oncology strategy for a more comprehensive attack toward cancers and improves treatment outcome for various solid tumor malignancies. The present study aims to evaluate the synergistic antitumor effect of γ-radiation together with gallium trichloride (GaCl3) and/or doxorubicin (DOX) against solid Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) in female mice. GaCl3 (300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) was administered by gavages daily on the seventh day after tumor inoculation, while the cytotoxic drug DOX (4 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally once a week. Whole-body γ-radiation was carried out at a dose 2 Gy once a week. Biochemical analysis showed that solid EC induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content with a significant decrease in the antioxidant state (glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities) and depleted serum iron concentration compared to normal control. Moreover, a significant increase was observed in calcium level and caspase-3 concentrations in both serum and tumor homogenate respectively associated with a significant alteration in heart, liver, and kidney functions, as compared to control. Treatment of EC-bearing mice with GaCl3and/or DOX combined with γ-radiation exposure significantly reduced tumor volume and displayed a significant improvement in most studied markers which may indicate a synergistic effect of this combination against organ dysfunction and cellular injury. The histopathologically investigation showed that treatment of animals bearing EC with GaCl3and/or DOX with γ-radiation exposure showed shrinkage in tumor lesions and wide zones of apoptotic cells with signs of regenerations. It was concluded that the combination of GaCl3and/or DOX with γ-radiation exposure resulted in super-additive cytotoxic effects on treatment of cancer cells.

  8. Treatment of Walker ascites tumor cells by combination of photodynamic therapy with cyclophosphamide and interleukin-2 entrapped in liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Vasile F.; Ionescu, Mircea D.; Balotescu, Carmen; Dima, V. S.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial and adverse local effects of PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy on rats bearing Walker ascites tumor cells. Experiments were performed on five batches of Wistar inbred rats with ascites tumor cells receiving intraperitoneally PDT (Photofrin II and 18 hrs later HeNe laser irradiation); Cyclophosphamide (CY); interleukin-2 (IL-2) or associated therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2). The control batch consisted of untreated rats (HBSS). The following results were noticed: (a) sole administration of PDT, IL-2 or CY reduced tumor growth, gave survival rates between 28.4 and 56.5% and cure rates ranging from 12.4 to 33.3%; (b) combined therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2) decreased tumor growth, increased survival rates (88.5%) and cure rates were 73.1% forty-two days post-transplantation. Summing up, in this study we noticed that PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy reduced mortality as well as tumor volumes and increased cure rates in rats with ascites tumor cells. This approach points to the need for further evaluation in patients with peritoneal malignancies.

  9. A Case of Successful Conservative Treatment for Chylous Ascites After Living-Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Hiroaki; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Gocho, Takeshi; Ishida, Yuichi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    A 46-year-old man underwent living-donor liver transplantation and splenectomy for primary biliary cirrhosis. On postoperative day 22, cloudiness of ascites increased, and triglyceride concentration in ascites was as high as 1046 mg/dL. With a diagnosis of chylous ascites, total parenteral nutrition was started. Nine days after starting total parenteral nutrition, cloudiness of ascites decreased, and triglycerides in ascites decreased to 93 mg/dL. Oral intake was restarted, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 46. Chylous ascites is a rare complication after living-donor liver transplantation for which total parenteral nutrition may be useful. PMID:23294080

  10. [Current status of treatment of refractory ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Shao, J; Zhang, L; Han, G H; Fan, D M

    2016-10-20

    Ascites is a common clinical manifestation of cirrhotic portal hypertension, and about 60%-80% of cirrhotic patients develop the symptom of ascites within 10 years. Once ascites occurs, the 5-year survival rate is reduced from 80% to 50%. With the progression of liver diseases, approximately 5%-10% of patients with ascites develop refractory ascites, and the median survival time is only 6-12 months. This article reviews the definition and diagnosis of refractory ascites, evaluation of prognostic factors, and treatment regimens, including large-volume paracentesis combined with protein supplementation, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation.

  11. Bile Duct Perforation due to Inspissated Bile Presenting as Refractory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Lal, Bikrant Bihari; Bharathy, Kishore G; Alam, Seema; Khanna, Rajeev; Patidar, Yashwant; Rawat, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    Non hepatic origin of refractory ascites is not a rarity. Hemolytic anemias are known to cause inspissated bile and biliary obstruction. Distal biliary obstruction can lead to biliary perforation. The authors report a case of hereditary spherocytosis leading to inspissated bile causing bile duct perforation and biliary ascites. A high index of suspicion for biliary ascites should be kept in a child with refractory ascites in the setting of progressive ascites with decreasing bilirubin. Ascitic fluid bilirubin analysis will clinch the diagnosis. Surgical repair is the optimal management.

  12. [Stromal leydig cell tumor coexisting with ascites].

    PubMed

    Czupkałło, G; Jakowicki, J A; Baranowski, W

    2001-10-01

    The stromal Leydig cell tumour (SLCT), a very rare, benign neoplasm was described in 75-year old woman. The patient presented the typical signs of virilisation (hirsutism, masculine alopecia, moderate clitoris enlargement, deep voice) as well as hypertension and insulin independent type of diabetes mellitus (IIDM). Additionally, she had marked ascites (3400 ml as established during surgery). The serum concentration of testosterone before the surgery was elevated up to 7.6 ng/ml. FSH and LH were at very low range (2.5 mIU/ml, 3.4 mIU/ml, respectively) whereas 17 beta-oestradiol was elevated (56 pg/ml). Total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) and omentectomy were performed. The histopathological findings revealed stromal Leydig cell tumour with Reinke crystalloids. The postoperative follow-up was complicated by venous thrombosis. Five weeks after the surgery only slight regression of the signs of virilisation was observed. Hormonal findings were adequate to the patient age range (FSH--16.7 mIU/ml, LH--21.1 mIU/ml, testosterone--0.19 ng/ml, 17 beta-oestradiol concentration below 10 pg/ml).

  13. Generation of hydroxyl radicals during ascites experimentally induced in broilers.

    PubMed

    Arab, H A; Jamshidi, R; Rassouli, A; Shams, G; Hassanzadeh, M H

    2006-04-01

    Increased metabolic rates, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac dysfunction are the most important features of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. However, the mechanism of cell injury causing the pathogenesis of the syndrome is not clearly understood. Our study aimed to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in broiler chickens experiencing ascites. The hundred and fifty 1-d-old chickens were purchased from a local hatchery and reared in an open poultry house for 46 d. They were divided at random into three groups and ascites was induced in two groups by exposing them to low temperature or administration of triiodothyronine (T(3)). The third group served as control and was reared normally. Haematological, biochemical and pathological tests were used to determine the incidence of ascites: including total red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), release of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight (RV/TV). A salicylate hydroxylation method was used to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in treated groups. TWo hydroxylated salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (2,3- and 2,5-DHBA), were measured by HPLC to detect the generation of OH*. An ascites syndrome was observed in T(3) and low-temperature treated groups, as shown by necropsy changes and increases in f RBC, PCV, ALT, AST and the ratio of RV/TV. Concentrations of 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA were increased in groups experiencing ascites compared to control group. It is suggested that reactive oxygen species that is OH* ions, may be involved in the pathogenesis of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

  14. Inflammatory ascites formation induced by macromolecules in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2009-07-01

    Different macromolecules were administered intraperitoneally to stimulate formation of protein-rich ascitic fluid in rodents. Stimulatory effect of plant lectins depended on the attachment to cell surface carbohydrates, Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) lectin was used in the majority of experiments. The time course of ConA-induced ascites was divided into an early (up to 4 h) and a late (from 6 h on) phase, with a transitional period between the two. Water and protein accumulation showed parallel time courses: volume of the ascitic fluid peaked at around 3 h, and fibrin threads appeared after 6 h. Viscosity of the ascitic fluid and its supernatant increased with time, reaching maximal fibrinogen concentration at around 16 h. Peritoneal permeability, followed by pleural and pericardial effusions, was elicited only by lectins that form soluble complexes with serum glycoproteins, whereas the effect of serum-precipitating lectins was restricted to the peritoneum. Macromolecules with serial positive charges (e.g., polylysine or polyethyleneimine) enhanced peritoneal permeability by ionic interactions with cell surface molecules. Viscosity of the polycation-induced ascitic fluid did not tend to increase with time and corresponded to the early phase of the ConA-induced ascites. Polyglutamate, a polyanionic macromolecule, inhibited the effect of polycations, but not that of ConA. The most efficient stimulatory macromolecules appear to induce ascites by noncovalent cross-linking of cell surface glycoproteins or glycosaminoglycans or both. A similar mechanism may operate in the maintenance of basal secretion to prevent eventual desiccation. Noncovalent cross-linking appears to be a common denominator of both basal and enhanced permeability.

  15. Pathogenesis of ascites and predictors of resistance to therapy.

    PubMed

    De Franchis, Roberto; Salerno, Francesco

    2002-12-01

    Ascites is one of the most frequent complications of cirrhosis. Its appearance is considered as the marker of the transition from the compensated to the decompensated stage of the disease. Appearance of ascites also has prognostic significance, as it causes a sharp drop in the expected survival rate. Portal hypertension is a sine qua-non for the development of ascites. Although no precise portal pressure threshold has been defined for the development of ascites, the latter rarely develops with portal pressures below 12 mmHg. In addition, in patients treated with interventions that markedly decrease portal pressure, such as surgical porta-caval shunts or transjugular intrahepatic portalsystemic shunts, a disappearance or a marked reduction of ascites can be observed. The currently most accepted theory of ascites formation is the so-called 'forward' theory. According to this theory, the development of ascites is related to the presence of severe sinusoidal portal hypertension, which causes marked splanchnic arterial vasodilation and a forward increase in the splanchnic production of lymph. Splanchnic arterial vasodilation also causes a significant reduction of the effective blood volume, leading to activation of sodium and water-retaining mechanisms. The retained sodium and water, however, while increasing total plasma volume, are unable to compensate for the reduced effective blood volume, initiating a vicious cycle. In the advanced stages of cirrhosis, the extreme underfilling of the arterial circulation leads to a maximal stimulation of the vasoconstrictor mechanisms which override the protective effect of renal vasodilator factors and cause renal vasoconstriction, further aggravating ascites and leading to functional renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency is also one of the main causes of resistance to diuretic therapy. While several studies have investigated the predictors of survival in cirrhotic patients with ascites, this has not been done for the

  16. The effect of abdominal massage in reducing malignant ascites symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Jane, Sui-Whi; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2015-02-01

    As many as 50% of end-stage cancer patients will develop ascites and associated symptoms, including pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, loss of appetite, dyspnea, perceived abdominal bloating, and immobility. Abdominal massage may stimulate lymph return to the venous system and reduce ascites-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of abdominal massage in reducing these symptoms and reducing ascites itself as reflected in body weight. For a randomized controlled design using repeated measures, a sample of 80 patients with malignant ascites was recruited from gastroenterology and oncology units of a medical center in northern Taiwan and randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. A 15-minute gentle abdominal massage, using straight rubbing, point rubbing, and kneading, was administered twice daily for 3 days. The control group received a twice-daily 15-minute social interaction contact with the same nurse. Symptoms and body weight were measured in the morning for 4 consecutive days from pre- to post-test. In generalized estimation equation modeling, a significant group-by-time interaction on depression, anxiety, poor wellbeing, and perceived abdominal bloating, indicated that abdominal massage improved these four symptoms, with the greatest effect on perceived bloating. The intervention had no effect on pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, poor appetite, shortness of breath, mobility limitation, or body weight. Abdominal massage appears useful for managing selected symptoms of malignant ascites.

  17. The ascites N-glycome of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Biskup, Karina; Braicu, Elena I; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

    2017-03-22

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is worldwide the sixth most lethal form of cancer occurring in women. More than one third of ovarian patients have ascites at the time of diagnosis and almost all of them have it when recurrence occurs. Although its effect on tumor cell microenvironment remains poorly understood, its presence is correlated with bad diagnosis. In previous studies, we proposed a novel glycan-based biomarker for the diagnosis of EOC, which showed an improved sensitivity and specificity at any stage of the disease and an improved discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. In this work, we report for the first time the N-glycome profiles of ascitic fluid from primary serous EOC patients and compare them with the serum N-glycomes of the same patients as well as of healthy controls. N-Glycans were digested from equivalent amount of ascites and serum from 18 EOC patients and from serum of 20 age-matched controls and measured by MALDI-TOF-MS. Ascites N-glycome showed increased antennarity, branching, sialylation and Lewis(X) motives compared to healthy serum. In addition, a correlation was established between ascites volume and degree of sialylation.

  18. GAS BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  19. Grizzly bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  20. Observations on the mechanism and location of ascites reabsorption in man

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, W.G. Jr.; Ibarra, F.

    1987-04-01

    Animal data indicate that ascites is reabsorbed by a lymphatic mechanism and that these vessels are subdiaphragmatic in location. We evaluated the relative role of lymphatics in ascites reabsorption in man by comparing the ascites clearance and plasma appearance rates of intraperitoneally injected radiolabeled albumin to those of intraperitoneally injected labeled autologous red blood cells, which require, owing to their large size, lymphatic removal, in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. To evaluate the location of reabsorption, we repeated these measurements after replacing ascites in the subdiaphragmatic region with 500-1000 ml of intraperitoneally injected air, reasoning that this maneuver should slow or eliminate ascites reabsorption occurring at this site. We found that the transfer rates of albumin and red cells out of ascites were similar and that creation of pneumoperitoneum did not influence these rates. These data confirm that ascites protein reabsorption occurs via a lymphatic mechanism in man. They suggest, however, that these vessels may not be subdiaphragmatic in location.

  1. Effects of alfapump system on kidney and circulatory function in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Solà, Elsa; Sanchez-Cabús, Santiago; Rodriguez, Ezequiel; Elia, Chiara; Cela, Raquel; Moreira, Rebeca; Pose, Elisa; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Cañete, Nuria; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Campos, Francisco; Balust, Jaume; Guevara, Mónica; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Ginès, Pere

    2017-03-20

    The alfapump system has been proposed as a new treatment for the management of refractory ascites. The system removes ascites from the peritoneal cavity to urinary bladder, producing a continuous low-volume paracentesis.

  2. Combination antitumor effect with central nervous system depressants on rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Koshiura, R; Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F

    1980-02-01

    Combined effect of twenty-one central nervous system depressants with several antitumor agents was studied in the in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, using rat ascites hepatoma call lines, AH13 and AH44, sensitive and insensitive to alkylating agents, respectively. Reserpine remarkably enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 1-(gamma-chloropropyl)-2-chloromethylpiperidine hydrobromide (CAP-2) both on AH13 and AH44 cells. In the in vivo combined experiments, reserpine also synergistically enhanced the life-prolonging effect of CAP-2 on AH13-bearing rats and, although CAP-2 was not potent on the prolongation of life span of AH44-bearing rats and reserpine was also ineffective at the doses examined, the life span of tumor-bearing rats receiving the combined administration was apparently prolonged compared with control groups. Thus, there was a parallelism between in vitro and in vivo experiments. These findings suggested that the antitumor-enhancing effect of reserpine might be due to the direct action on the tumor cells, and a possible mechanism that reserpine inhibited the DNA damage-repairing activity of the cells was contradictory. Other mechanisms are also discussed.

  3. Multicystic mesothelioma--a rare case of ascites: case report.

    PubMed

    Manuc, M; Lamatic, C; Pop, C; Dobrea, C; Becheanu, G; Grasu, M; Iosif, D; Diculescu, M

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 37-year-old male, admitted to our clinic with abdominal tenderness, right supraclavicular tumour, and ascites. The presence of ascites was incidentally reported 6 years before, but no other evaluation was done at that moment or during this period. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scan revealed moderate ascites, perivascular adenopathies, and multiple abdominal cystic lesions, while thoracic CT scan revealed the same lesions in mediastinum. Laboratory data were within normal limits, including the tumoral markers, and the tests for hydatid cysts. A biopsy from the right supraclavicular nodule was performed, and based on usual and immunohistochemical stains (calretinin, mesotheline, CK 5/6, CK 7, CK18 diffusely positive in mesothelial cells, and CEA -M, bcl-2 and vimentin negative), suggested the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Based on these results, the diagnosis of "multicystic mesothelioma" was made. The patient was referred for surgery.

  4. Analysis of the inhibitory effects of VP-16-213 (etoposide) and podophyllotoxin on thymidine transport and metabolism in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.

    1984-03-01

    Uptake of /sup 3/H after exposure of cells to (/sup 3/H)-thymidine is characterized by a rapid initial velocity that approximates membrane transport followed by a slower rate of uptake that parallels the accumulation of phosphorylated derivatives of thymidine, primarily thymidine triphosphate, within the cell. The high rate of thymidine transport relative to thymidine metabolism to the triphosphate within the cell decreases as the extracellular nucleoside concentration is reduced due to a much greater decrease in membrane transport than the subsequent metabolic step. Hence, as extracellular thymidine is decreased, transport becomes increasingly rate limiting to metabolism within the cell. VP-16-213 (etoposide) or podophyllotoxin inhibits the initial uptake rate for thymidine and, as a consequence, inhibits the intracellular formation of thymidine triphosphate. When extracellular thymidine is high, inhibitory effects on transport are transient, and the net rate of thymidine triphosphate accumulation within drug-treated cells rapidly approaches a velocity comparable to that of control cells, indicating no direct VP-16-213 or podophyllotoxin effect on nucleoside and nucleotide phosphorylation. When extracellular thymidine is reduced so that transport is rate limiting to metabolism, the duration of the inhibitory effects of VP-16-213 on thymidine triphosphate formation is prolonged. A secondary effect of VP-16-213 becomes manifest beyond 10 min of incubation with (3H)thymidine with the virtual complete cessation of thymidine incorporation into the acid precipitate without any change in the thymidine triphosphate level. This late effect is not observed with podophyllotoxin and indicates a direct effect of VP-16-213 on DNA synthesis that is distinct from the earlier inhibitory effect on thymidine phosphorylation, which is secondary to membrane transport.

  5. Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  6. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  7. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. A rational approach to the treatment of ascites

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, V.; Rodés, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational approach to the diuretic therapy of ascites is proposed. Fifty-five patients were classified according to their ability to excrete sodium and free water. Patients with a high urinary sodium excretion can be treated by low sodium intake alone. In most patients with a low sodium excretion but high free water clearance, distal diuretics (spironolactone or triamterene) with a low sodium diet will relieve ascites. Patients with low values for sodium excretion and free water clearance also have poor glomerular filtration rate and only a few of these will respond to diuretic therapy. PMID:1234341

  9. Chylous ascites: a sequel of pelvic radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sipes, S.L.; Newton, M.; Lurain, J.R.

    1985-12-01

    Chylous ascites is an unusual condition with many causes. Two cases are presented in which it appeared to be related to whole pelvis irradiation in one patient for carcinoma of the vagina and in another for carcinoma of the vulva. The diagnosis is made by paracentesis and analysis of the fluid. The underlying disease usually requires identification by exploratory laparotomy. Although a malignant process is the most common cause, the only findings in the authors' cases were widespread radiation changes in the intestine. After diagnosis treatment by low-fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplements resulted in disappearance of chylous ascites.

  10. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  11. Evaluation of the effects of thalidomide-loaded biodegradable devices in solid Ehrlich tumor.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno Gonçalves; Ligorio Fialho, Silvia; Maria de Souza, Cristina; Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Silva-Cunha, Armando

    2013-03-01

    Regarding thalidomide's effects in cancer and the problems related to its physicochemical characteristics and toxic effects, we proposed a new biodegradable polymeric implant to this drug. In this paper, we evaluate the antiangiogenic activity and antitumor effect of thalidomide when incorporated in poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) implants in an animal model for Ehrlich tumor. This dosage form permits the prolonged drug release. The biodegradable implants could reduce the blood vessel in a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. When applied to the Ehrlich tumor model, implant also showed to reduce the number of vessels. It was also observed to reduce areas of inflammation and increases the area of necrosis in the group of thalidomide implant. A 47% reduction in tumor volume was observed in the thalidomide implant group, which is discussed in relation to literature reported results of thalidomide conventional administration ways.

  12. Directing self-assembly of nanostructures kinetically: Patterning and the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan-Fu; Hammouda, Ajmi B. H.; Kan, Hung-Chih; Bartelt, N. C.; Phaneuf, R. J.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of homoepitaxial growth on a patterned substrate in the presence of an extra barrier to a diffusing adatom crossing of steps from above (Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier) on topographically patterned surfaces. Our results indicate that over a wide range of Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier heights, incident atom fluxes, and temperatures that multilayer islands or “growth mounds” grow in arrangements which are directed by the topographical pattern. Our simulations indicate that a series of arrangements should form as the temperature is changed due to a competition between the temperature-dependent mound size and the pattern period. We compare these predictions with experimental observation of directed mound assembly on nanopatterned GaAs(001).

  13. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive.

  14. The role of ascitic fluid viscosity in differentiating the nature of ascites and in the prediction of renal impairment and duration of ICU stay.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Amr S

    2016-09-01

    Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) has been used in the classification of ascites for the last 20 years but it has some drawbacks. This study searches for possible correlations between ascitic fluid viscosity and the etiology of ascites, renal impairment, and length of ICU stay. The study was conducted in Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. It included 240 patients with ascites due to various causes. The patients were divided into two groups: the cirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients, and the noncirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients. Ascitic patients on medical management with diuretics, antibiotics, paracentesis, and infusion of plasma or albumin were excluded.The laboratory analysis included routine investigations to detect the cause of ascites as well as specific investigations such as ascitic fluid viscosity using a falling ball viscosimeter (microviscosimeter) at 37°C. The mean ascitic viscosity of patients with SAAG at least 1.1 was 1.16±0.56, which was associated with serum creatinine 1.35±0.52 mg/dl and ICU stay of 3.3±1.2 days. In patients with SAAG less than 1.1 g/dl, the mean ascitic viscosity was 2.98±0.87, with serum creatinine 2.1±0.56 mg/dl and ICU stay of 7.1±1.3 days. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65; it can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995 using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Ascitic viscosity measurement is rapid, inexpensive, and requires small sample volumes. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65. It can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995.

  15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of ascites tumour. Activation by AMP and other properties of potential significance in metabolic regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A; Sols, A

    1980-01-01

    1. AMP is an activator of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of the Ehrlich--Lettré ascites tumour, increasing its V up to 2-fold, with Ka of 40 microM at pH 7.4. This activation appears to be an allosteric effect on the decarboxylase subunit of the complex. 2. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex has a Km for pyruvate within the range 17--36 microM depending on the pH, the optimum pH being approx. 7.4, with a V of approx. 0.1 unit/g of cells. The rate-limiting step is dependent on the transformation of the enzyme--substrate complex. The Km for CoA is 15 microM. The Km for NAD+ is 0.7 mM for both the complex and the lipoamide dehydrogenase. The complex is inhibited by acetyl-CoA competitively with CoA; the Ki is 60 microM. The lipoamide dehydrogenase is inhibited by NADH and NADPH competitively with NAD+, with Ki values of 80 and 90 microM respectively. In the reverse reaction the Km values for NADH and NADPH are essentially equal to their Ki values for the forward reaction, the V for the latter being 0.09 of that of the former. Hence the reaction rate of the complex in vivo is likely to be markedly affected by feedback isosteric inhibition by reduced nicotinamide nucleotides and possibly acetyl-CoA. PMID:7193456

  16. A Modified Hydroxyproline Assay Based on Hydrochloric Acid in Ehrlich's Solution Accurately Measures Tissue Collagen Content.

    PubMed

    Cissell, Derek D; Link, Jarrett M; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2017-04-01

    Collagen quantification has long been relevant to biomedical research and clinical practice to characterize tissues and determine disease states. The hydroxyproline assay, while a broadly employed method of quantifying collagen, uses perchloric acid to dissolve Ehrlich's reagent. Since perchloric acid poses occupational safety hazards and high costs, in this study, a new hydroxyproline assay was developed that replaces perchloric acid with a relatively safer and cheaper alternative, hydrochloric acid (HCl). To validate this biochemical technique, first, using either acid to dissolve Ehrlich's reagent, the assays were completed for native and engineered collagenous tissues. No statistical differences were identified between the assays (p = 0.32). Subsequently, both biochemical techniques were compared to amino acid analysis, considered a proteomics gold standard. Interestingly, utilizing HCl in lieu of perchloric acid yielded greater concordance with amino acid analysis (ρc = 0.980) than did the traditional assay (ρc = 0.947); that is, the HCl-based assay more closely estimates hydroxyproline content, and, consequently, true collagen content. Thus, using Ehrlich's reagent containing HCl in the hydroxyproline assay represents an advance in both mitigating laboratory safety hazards and improving biochemical collagen quantification.

  17. Models for biological research: the theory and practice of Paul Ehrlich.

    PubMed

    Travis, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the study of the living world placed considerable reliance on applied chemistry and chemical concepts. Paul Ehrlich, the subject of this paper, adopted from the mid-1870s principles of organic chemistry to devise procedures for use in histology, to suggest features of cellular structure, and to draw up cartoons that explained the nature of immunity. From a distinctly molecular basis, he devised meaningful experimental strategies and was inspired to develop speculative but effective theoretical models along the same lines that chemists had used to resolve problems of molecular structure and behavior. Thus, Ehrlich suggested that combining power and toxicity were independent properties of the antigen toxin. He succeeded to classify synthetic dyestuffs as stains, to use them for investigating molecular combustion, to adapt theories of dyeing to develop models for both combustion and immunity, and to exploit the properties of dyes in the development of chemotherapy. Ehrlich not only speculated on the behavior of synthetic chemicals toward his model of the protoplasm but also invoked biological specificity, a concept that would have a tremendous impact on immunology, drug development, and molecular biology.

  18. Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  19. Rapid onset of massive ascites as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, P J; Noyer, C M

    2000-01-01

    Ascites in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rarely massive, and either accompanies the typical manifestations of active disease or results from nephrotic syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy, constrictive pericarditis, and conditions unrelated to lupus. Marked ascites has been attributed to chronic lupus peritonitis, characterized by the insidious onset of massive, painless ascites and unrelated to disease activity. Regardless of the etiology, ascites typically has a gradual onset and occurs after a diagnosis of SLE has been made. We describe a young woman presenting with the rapid development of massive ascites as the initial manifestation of SLE.

  20. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yijun; Lu, Hongjuan; Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ► Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ► The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ► Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ► Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ► Buthionine sulfoximine does not

  1. Paul Ehrlich: pathfinder in cell biology. 1. Chronicle of his life and accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kasten, F H

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the life of Paul Ehrlich and his biomedical accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy. Ehrlich achieved renown as an organic chemist, histologist, hematologist, immunologist, and pharmacologist. He disliked the formality of school but managed to excel in Latin and mathematics. His role model was an older cousin, Carl Weigert, who became a lifelong friend. Ehrlich studied medicine at Breslau, Strasbourg, Freiburg, and Leipzig, coming under the influence of Wilhelm Waldeyer, Julius Cohnheim, Rudolf Heidenhein, and Ferdinand Cohn. As a medical student, Ehrlich was captivated by structural organic chemistry and dyes. When he was 23, his first paper was published on selective staining. His doctoral thesis, "Contribution to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining" contained most of the germinal ideas that would guide his future career. Most of his early work was centered in Berlin at Charite Hospital, where he did pioneering studies on blood and intravital staining, and at Robert Koch's Institute for Infectious Diseases, where he undertook important investigations in immunology. Ehrlich became an authority on antitoxin standardization and developed the "side-chain theory" of antibody formation for which he was later awarded the Nobel Prize. He became director of an Institute for Experimental Therapy in Frankfurt where he continued research in immunology and carried out routine serum testing. He developed new lines of investigation in cancer research and originated the field of chemotherapy. Using principles developed in his early work with dyes, he successfully treated certain experimental trypanosomal infections with azo dyes. His crowning accomplishment was discovering that the compound Salvarsan could control human syphilis. Ehrlich's legacy in immunology and chemotherapy is discussed and an intimate portrait is drawn of Ehrlich the person.

  2. Acute eosinophilic ascites: an unusual form of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Kodan, Parul; Shetty, Meenakshi A; Pavan, M R; Kariappa, Ahalya; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is an uncommon disease characterised by eosinophilic infiltration in the gastrointestinal tract. EGE may involve more than one layer of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical features depend on the layer and location which is involved. We report an unusual case of eosinophilic ascites associated with antinuclear antibody positivity, which is an unusual variety of serosal form of EGE.

  3. Refractory ascites in the chronic myeloproliferative syndrome: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, P.; Wood, L.; Robson, S. )

    1991-06-01

    In a patient with myelofibrosis, tense ascites refractory to conventional therapy resulted from extensive seeding of the peritoneum with colonies of extramedullary haematopoiesis. Whole abdominal radiation was found to be effective and well tolerated, and brought about prompt and lasting resorption of the exudate, with weight reduction and improvement in performance status from 50% to 90% on the Karnofsky rating.

  4. Congenital plaque-type glomuvenous malformation associated with chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Maria; Martín-Santiago, Ana; Gómez, Cristina; Fiol, Miquel; Benítez-Segura, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Congenital plaque-type glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is caused by loss of function mutations in glomulin gene. We report a newborn with this rare vascular disorder associated with chylous ascites. The common mesenchymal origin of GVM and lymphatic vessels as well as the glomulin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in utero could help explain this unusual prenatal complication of glomuvenous malformations.

  5. Ascites causing a false-positive radionuclide liver image

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.G. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Wicks, J.D.

    1983-02-01

    False-positive radionuclide liver images can occur due to impingement on the liver by adjacent normal anatomic structures or adjacent pathologic masses or fluid collections. A patient with ascites in the anterior subphrenic space had an apparent cold lesion in the left lobe of the liver. Ultrasonography demonstrated a normal left lobe and localized the fluid collection.

  6. A rare cause of massive ascites: familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Mehmet; Demir, Güner; Esen, Ramazan; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Beğenik, Hüseyin; Çelik, Yılmaz; Küçükoğlu, Mehmet Emin; Bahar, Kadir

    2012-06-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent fever and peritoneal and pleural inflammation. It is an inherited disorder commonly found in Armenians, Turks, Arabs, Balkans, and Jews originating from North African countries. A small amount of peritoneal fluid collection can be observed during peritoneal attacks in patients with Familial Mediterranean fever, but chronic ascites has been described rarely in these patients. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic in June 2010 with fever, severe abdominal pain and abdominal distention that had continued for one month. There was no family history of periodic fevers or abdominal pain. We could not find any cause for ascites, including tuberculosis. A diagnosis of Familial Mediterranean fever was suspected based on the clinical findings and her family history. She was screened for mutations causing Familial Mediterranean fever, and when found to be homozygous for M694V, treatment with colchicine was initiated. After treatment, the amount of ascites decreased, and relief of symptoms was confirmed during a follow-up. In conclusion, because Familial Mediterranean fever is common in our country, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with ascites of unknown etiology in populations where hereditary inflammatory disease is endemic.

  7. Evaluation of tumor markers for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Kong, Xinjuan; Dou, Qian; Ye, Jin; Xu, Dong; Shang, Haitao; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant ascites is a challenging problem in clinical practice, non-invasive techniques should be developed to improve diagnostic accuracy. The diagnostic performances of tumor markers in malignant ascites remained unsettled. Our aim was to evaluate diagnostic performance of tumor markers in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites. A total of 437 patients were enrolled, and the relevant parameters of the patients were analyzed for the differentiation of benign ascites from malignant ascites. At the predetermined cutoff values of tumor makers, tumor markers in ascitic fluid showed better diagnostic performance than those in serum. Combined use of tumor markers and the cytology increased the diagnostic yield of the latter by 37%. In cytologically negative malignant ascites, tumor markers provided assistance in differentiating malignant ascites from benign ascites, and the combination of ascitic tumor markers yielded 86% sensitivity, 97% specificity. Use of a panel of tumor markers exhibited excellent diagnostic performance in diagnosing malignant ascites, which indicated the detection of tumor markers may represent a beneficial adjunct to cytology, thus guiding the selection of patients who might benefit from further invasive procedures.

  8. Effects of ascites on outcomes of colorectal surgery in congestive heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven D; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    There are limited data regarding the effects of ascites on outcome of patients undergoing colorectal resection. We sought to identify complications related to ascites. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate congestive heart failure (CHF) patients who had ascites before colorectal resection between 2005 and 2012. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify affected outcomes. We sampled a total of 2,178 patients who suffered CHF and underwent colorectal resection, of which 195 (9%) had preoperative ascites. The mortality rate of patients who had preoperative ascites was 46.2% compared to 25.7% for patients without ascites (adjusted odd ratio [AOR], 3.38; P < .01). Complications affected by ascites include (P < .05) ventilator dependency (AOR, 2.40), acute renal failure (AOR, 2.18), and wound disruption (AOR, 2.44; P < .05). There was no increase in superficial surgical site infection rate in patients with ascites (AOR, 1.01; P = .9). The presence of ascites in CHF patients is associated with increased mortality in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. There is no correlation between ascites and surgical site infection but wound disruption increases in the presence of ascites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  10. Foil bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  11. Hemodynamic Consequences of Malignant Ascites in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Surgery∗

    PubMed Central

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pietzner, Klaus; Koch, Mandy; Krannich, Alexander; Sehouli, Jalid; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malignant ascites (MA) is most commonly observed in patients scheduled for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery and is supposed as a major risk factor promoting perioperative hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic consequences of MA on systemic circulation in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. This study is a predefined post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a goal-directed algorithm to optimize hemodynamic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. Ascites was used to stratify the EOC patients prior to randomization in the main study. We analyzed 2 groups according to the amount of ascites (NLAS: none or low ascites [<500 mL] vs HAS: high ascites group [>500 mL]). Differences in hemodynamic variables with respect to time were analyzed using nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data and multivariate generalized estimating equation adjusting the analysis for the randomized study groups of the main study. A total of 31 patients in the NLAS and 16 patients in the HAS group were analyzed. Although cardiac output was not different between groups suggesting a similar circulatory blood flow, the HAS group revealed higher heart rates and lower stroke volumes during surgery. There were no differences in pressure-based hemodynamic variables. In the HAS group, fluid demands, reflected by the time to reindication of a fluid challenge after preload optimization, increased steadily, whereas stroke volume could not be maintained at baseline resulting in hemodynamic instability after 1.5 h of surgery. In contrast, in the NLAS group fluid demands were stable and stroke volume could be maintained during surgery. Clinically relevant associations of the type of fluid replacement with hemodynamic consequences were particularly observed in the HAS group, in which transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was associated to an improved circulatory flow and reduced

  12. A corny cause of cerebrospinal fluid ascites: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Hira; Abrams, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare cause of cerebrospinal fluid ascites. Methods: A 37-year-old female with history of intracranial hypertension and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was referred to liver clinic for evaluation of newly developed ascites. Results: Initially, the cause of ascites was thought to be secondary to a liver etiology. However, this was excluded after a comprehensive evaluation including portal pressure measurements. We determined the ascites to be infected cerebrospinal fluid secondary to a rare commensal organism, Corynebacterium non-Jeikeium, which resolved after removing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, appropriate antibiotics and conversion to a ventriculo-atrial shunt. Conclusion: Cerebrospinal fluid ascites is a rare complication of VP shunts and since 1976 only 8 cases of Corynebacterium non jk VP shunt infections have been reported in the literature but none associated with ascites. Also this report highlights the beneficial role of transjugular portal pressure measurements in the evaluation of ascites. PMID:27489721

  13. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers.

  14. Reduction of ascites mortality in broilers by coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M; Yang, Y

    2004-09-01

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites were studied in broilers. One hundred eighty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates each. From d 8, the diets were supplemented with CoQ10 at levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. From d 15 to 21, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature (15 to 18 degrees C) to induce ascites. Average feed intake, BW gain, and feed conversion ratio of the broilers during 0 to 3 wk, 3 to 6 wk, and 0 to 6 wk were measured. The results showed that there were no influences observed on broilers' growth performance, but the mortality due to ascites was reduced by CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 compared with the control, but no significant changes were observed on blood packed cell volume (PCV) among the treatments. Pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure was significantly decreased on d 36, but no significant changes were observed on right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, and the maximum change ratio of right intraventricular pressure (+/- dp/ dtmax). Ascites heart index (AHI) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). The results of this study suggested that CoQ10 has a beneficial effect in reducing ascites mortality in broilers, and 40 mg/kg CoQ10 seems to be more effective than 20 mg/ kg CoQ10.

  15. Reabsorption of ascites and the factors that affect this process in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Akay, Sinan; Ozutemiz, Omer; Kilic, Murat; Karasu, Zeki; Akyildiz, Murat; Karasulu, Ercument; Baka, Meral; Doganavsargil, Basak; Ersoz, Galip; Ulukaya, Sezgin; Alper, Isik; Ates, Utku; Batur, Yucel

    2008-10-01

    Ascites is one of the main features of liver decompensation in cirrhosis, and it is considered to be a dynamic process. In this study, we aimed to (1) measure the reabsorption rate of ascites; (2) evaluate whether these findings were related to features of ascites, hemodynamics, and serum measurements; and (3) examine morphologic changes in the diaphragm of cirrhotic patients. In all, 42 cirrhotic patients with ascites were enrolled in the study to comprise our study group. Using the dextran 70 test, patient ascites volumes and reabsorption rates were measured. Biopsies from the peritoneal side of the diaphragm were also processed for scanning electron microscopy and lymphatic immunohistochemical studies from the cirrhotic patients and control cadavers. The mean ascites reabsorption rate was 4.5 +/- 4.5 (0.18-14.6) mL/min, which correlated significantly with the calculated ascites volume (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The mean ascites viscosity was 1.07 +/- 0.07 (0.99-1.17) centipoise, which demonstrated a high degree of negative correlation with the ascites reabsorption rate (r = -0.77, P < 0.001). Patients with a history of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis had significantly lesser ascites reabsorption rates than patients without this particular history. The size of lymphatic stomata in scanning electron microscopy depictions was increased, and lymphatic lacunae were dilated in immunohistochemical studies in the cirrhotic patients with ascites. However, these findings were not uniform in every cirrhotic patient with ascites. The volume and viscosity of ascites seem to influence its reabsorption rate. Additionally, previous episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis may be responsible for the decreased ascites reabsorption rates observed in certain patient populations.

  16. Effects of cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) on symptom relief of malignancy-related ascites.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuya; Hanafusa, Norio; Iwase, Satoru; Noiri, Eisei; Nangaku, Masaomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    It is expected that cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) will relieve the symptoms caused by ascites. To date, however, no report of objective changes in patients' symptoms has been published. We have therefore evaluated symptom management by CART. From April 2011 to July 2012, 37 patients at our hospital, most of whom had malignancies, received CART. Symptom severity was evaluated in each patient 24 h before and after the first CART procedure using a numerical rating scale for abdominal tension and the Japanese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-J) for various symptoms. CART significantly improved the scores for abdominal tension and the symptom and interference scores of the MDASI-J within 24 h of the procedure. The abdominal tension scores decreased from 7.19 to 3.81 (p < 0.001), the symptom scores of the MDASI-J decreased from 4.73 to 2.75 and the interference scores of the MDASI-J decreased from 7.05 to 5.12. Detailed investigation revealed many symptoms, including fatigue and gastric symptoms, which are the usual targets of paracentesis, as well as general symptoms. No significant correlation between improved scores and the amount of reinfused protein or ascites removed was observed. Patients experienced no severe adverse event. Among the 37 patients receiving CART, various symptoms related to malignant ascites, especially fatigue, improved within the 24-h period following CART. Factors that ameliorate these symptoms remain to be elucidated.

  17. Growth rate of ascites-resistant versus ascites-susceptible broilers in commercial and experimental lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Hadad, Y; Cahaner, A

    2008-05-01

    The high growth rate (GR) of contemporary broilers is driven by high rate of feed intake and metabolism. Because of the consequent high oxygen demand, especially when coupled with exposure to high altitude or low temperatures, some broilers fail to regulate oxygen supply and develop the ascites syndrome (AS), which leads to mortality and economic losses. Because of the association between high GR, oxygen demand, and AS, it has been suggested that AS is induced by high GR. If true, further GR enhancement should be avoided because it will increase the proportion of AS-susceptible individuals in contemporary stocks. An alternative hypothesis claims that AS is associated with high actual GR only because the latter increases oxygen demand and that there are genetically AS-resistant broilers that do not develop AS, even when exhibiting high GR. These hypotheses were tested in trials in the years 2002 and 2006, with broilers differing in potential GR: contemporary fast-growing commercial lines and an experimental line derived from commercial broilers in 1986, and (in 2002 only) divergently selected AS-susceptible and AS-resistant lines. A protocol of high-challenge ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) from d 19 was used to distinguish between AS-susceptible and AS-resistant individuals and to determine their GR up to this age. The difference in AS incidence between the divergent lines (93.9 vs. 9.5%) was not explained by the 5% difference in their GR, thus indicating a lack of genetic correlation. In the broiler lines, AS incidence was 31 and 47% in 2002 and 2006, respectively, and 32% in the 1986 slow-growing line. Most broilers that remained healthy under the high-challenge AIC exhibited the same early GR and BW as those that later developed AS. These results, and the relatively high incidence of AS in the slow-growing line, indicate that there is very little, if any, direct genetic association between AS and genetic differences in potential GR, and suggest that AS

  18. Development of ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Ben-David, A; Cahaner, A

    2007-05-01

    The rapid growth of modern broilers is associated with enhanced appetite and high metabolic rate and, consequently, high O(2) demand. Ascites syndrome (AS) develops in individuals that fail to fully supply the increasing demand for O(2) in their bodies under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) such as high altitude or low temperatures. The tendency of broilers to develop AS is heritable, but efficacious selection against AS susceptibility (without affecting the normal expression of other important traits) requires identification of indirect selection criteria. In the present study, divergent AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R) lines were developed to confirm the heritability of AS and to facilitate future detection of criteria for indirect selection against AS susceptibility. The base population consisted of 85 sire families with a mean of 73 progeny per sire, reared in a commercial broiler house under low-challenge AIC (cold environment and pelleted feed). Chicks dying with AS manifestations were designated AS-susceptible, whereas the surviving birds were designated AS-resistant. By the end of the trial (d 48), AS mortality had accumulated to 17.2%, but AS incidence per family (%ASF) ranged from 0 to 49%, with a high heritability (0.57). Parents of 7 families with very high %ASF produced the first generation (S(1)) of the AS-S line, and parents of 7 families with very low %ASF produced the S(1) of the AS-R line. The S(1) males and females reproduced generation S(2) of the selected lines, whereas additional S(1) males were tested under high-challenge AIC (individual cages, cool wind, and pelleted feed). Progeny testing under this high-challenge AIC, followed by sib selection, was repeated in generations S(2) and S(3), resulting in a divergence of 86.6% in the incidence of AS between the AS-S (91.3%) and AS-R (4.7%) lines. The rapid genetic divergence, and family analysis of %ASF suggested that a single or few major genes are responsible for the difference

  19. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  20. Genetic parameters of body weight and ascites in broilers: effect of different incidence rates of ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpanah, J; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N; Shadparvar, A A; Pakdel, A

    2017-02-01

    1. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of incidence rate (5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) of ascites syndrome on the expression of genetic characteristics for body weight at 5 weeks of age (BW5) and AS and to compare different methods of genetic parameter estimation for these traits. 2. Based on stochastic simulation, a population with discrete generations was created in which random mating was used for 10 generations. Two methods of restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling were used for the estimation of genetic parameters. A bivariate model including maternal effects was used. The root mean square error for direct heritabilities was also calculated. 3. The results showed that when incidence rates of ascites increased from 5% to 30%, the heritability of AS increased from 0.013 and 0.005 to 0.110 and 0.162 for linear and threshold models, respectively. 4. Maternal effects were significant for both BW5 and AS. Genetic correlations were decreased by increasing incidence rates of ascites in the population from 0.678 and 0.587 at 5% level of ascites to 0.393 and -0.260 at 50% occurrence for linear and threshold models, respectively. 5. The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for BW5 was greater based on a linear-threshold model compared with the linear model of analysis (0.0092 vs. 0.0015). The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for AS was greater based on a linear-linear model (1.21 vs. 1.14). 6. In order to rank birds for ascites incidence, it is recommended to use a threshold model because it resulted in higher heritability estimates compared with the linear model and that BW5 could be one of the main components of selection goals.

  1. C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor-1 in differential diagnosis of ascites.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razik, Ahmed; Eldars, Waleed; Elhelaly, Rania; Elzehery, Rasha

    2016-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are produced mainly by the liver; the output of these markers in response to inflammatory processes may be affected in patients with hepatic dysfunction. This may explain the differences in IGF-1 and CRP values in patients with non-portal and portal hypertension ascites. We aimed to evaluate serum and ascitic fluid IGF-1 and CRP as diagnostic markers in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites. In this prospective study, 398 consecutive patients with ascites were included. Serum and ascitic fluid levels of IGF-1 and CRP were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were divided into group 1, due to benign ascites (n = 324), and group 2, due to malignant ascites (n = 74). Serum and ascitic IGF-1 were significantly increased in malignant ascites than benign ascites group [305 ± 65.7 ng/mL vs 95 ± 53.8 ng/mL; P < 0.001 and 288 ± 54.7 ng/mL vs 83.2 ± 36.7 ng/mL; P < 0.001], respectively. Serum and ascitic CRP were significantly higher in malignant ascites than benign ascites patients [12.8 ± 6.3 mg/mL vs 6.1 ± 4.9 mg/mL; P < 0.001 and 5.1 ± 2.2 mg/mL vs 1.6 ± 1.3 mg/mL; P < 0.001], respectively. At a cutoff value of 309.4 ng/mL and 7.8 mg/mL, serum IGF-1 and CRP had (95.1%, 81%) sensitivity and (88.6%, 75.5%) specificity for detecting malignant ascites [area under the curve: 0.932, 0.845], respectively. At a cutoff value of 291.6 ng/mL and 2.6 mg/mL, ascitic IGF-1 and CRP had (94.6%, 84%) sensitivity and (83.2%, 80.3%) specificity for detecting malignant ascites (area under the curve: 0.911, 0.893) correspondingly. Elevated serum and ascitic fluid IGF-1 and CRP levels were associated with malignant ascites. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Management of drainage for malignant ascites in gynaecological cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Alison; Fitzgerald, Debbie; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background Most patients with advanced ovarian cancer and some patients with advanced endometrial cancer need repeated drainage for malignant ascites. Guidelines to advise those involved in the drainage of ascites are usually produced locally and are generally not evidence-based but mainly based on clinicians’ anecdotal evidence and experience. To discover whether there are ways of managing drains that have been demonstrated to improve the efficacy and quality of the procedure is key in making recommendations which could improve the quality of life (QOL) for women at this critical period of their lives. Objectives To evaluate the benefit and harms of different practices in the management of drains for malignant ascites in the care of women with advanced or recurrent gynaecological cancer. The review aimed to evaluate the evidence regarding the following questions; How long should the drain stay in place? Should the volume of fluid drained be replaced intravenously? Should the drain be clamped to regulate the drainage of fluid? Should any particular vital observations be regularly recorded? Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 1, 2009, Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, MEDLINE1950 to February Week 3 2009, Embase 1980 to 2009 Week 8 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of review articles and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and non-randomised studies that compared a range of interventions for management of multiple paracentesis in women with malignant ascites who had a confirmed histological diagnosis of gynaecological cancer. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. No trials were found and therefore no data were analysed. Main results The search

  3. Differentiating Transudative From Exudative Ascites Using Quantitative B-Mode Gray-Scale Ultrasound Histogram.

    PubMed

    Çekiç, Bulent; Toslak, Iclal Erdem; Şahintürk, Yasin; Cekin, Ayhan Hilmi; Koksel, Yasemin Kocabas; Koroglu, Mert; Demos, Terrence C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate exudative from transudative ascites using B-mode gray-scale ultrasound histogram analysis. Sixty-two consecutive patients with ascites were prospectively studied from June 2014 through June 2015. All underwent ultrasound (US) and paracentesis in the radiology department. Five patients were excluded (three with hemorrhage and two with peritoneal carcinomatosis). The remaining 57 patients were divided into those with exudative and transudative ascites according to results of paracentesis. Electronically recorded US images were transferred to a workstation, and gray-scale histograms were generated. The ascites-to-rectus abdominis muscle echogenicity ratio (ARAER) was obtained from ascites adjacent to the rectus abdominis muscle. ROC curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method in differentiating exudative from transudative ascites. ARAERs for exudative ascites were significantly higher than those for transudative ascites (p < 0.001). ROC was done to evaluate ARAERs for exudative ascites. The best cutoff value for ARAER histogram was 0.002. The sensitivity and specificity of ARAER were 87.5% and 79.2% (AUC = 0.843), respectively. ARAER is an easily applicable noninvasive quantitative sonographic method with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating exudative from transudative ascites.

  4. Increased oxidative stress in the placenta tissue and cell culture of tumour-bearing pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M T; Ventrucci, G; Gomes-Marcondes, M C C

    2011-11-01

    Placental dysfunction leads to foetal damage, which jeopardises the exchange between the maternal and foetal systems. We evaluated the effects of tumour growth on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in placental tissue and cell culture from tumour-bearing pregnant rats compared to non-tumour-bearing pregnant rats that were ascitic fluid injected. Ascitic fluid is obtained from Walker tumour-bearing rats and contains a cytokine called Walker factor (WF), which is a molecule similar to proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), and induces changes in protein metabolism and oxidative stress. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into control (C), tumour-bearing (W) and ascitic fluid injected (A) groups and were sacrificed on days 16, 19 and 21 of pregnancy to analyse the profile of enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in placental tissue. Meanwhile, placenta samples from all groups were obtained on day 21, placed in primary culture and treated with WF for 72 h. The presence of tumour or ascitic fluid reduced the protein content of the placental tissue. On day 16 there was a significant reduction in AP activity in W rats, and on day 19, CAT activity and MDA content significantly increased. These results indicate that the presence of cancer decreased antioxidant enzyme capacity in the placenta, increasing the amount of oxidation in these cells, which may contribute to irreversible placental damage and compromisefoetal development. WF treatment induces similar changes in placental cells in primary culture, resulting in less cell viability and increased oxidative stress. These results indicate that WF, provided by the tumour or inoculation of ascitic fluid, has negative effects on placental homeostasis, which impairs foetal health.

  5. Impact of ascites volume on clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Szender, J Brian; Emmons, Tiffany; Belliotti, Sarah; Dickson, Danielle; Khan, Aalia; Morrell, Kayla; Khan, A N M Nazmul; Singel, Kelly L; Mayor, Paul C; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Segal, Brahm H; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the impact of ascites volume on ovarian cancer outcomes. Clinicopathologic features of a cohort of patients with ovarian cancer were obtained from a curated database at a single institution. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded. Ascites volume at primary surgery was dichotomized at 2000mL and comparisons for high and low volume ascites were made. Additionally, to elucidate interactions between ascites and ovarian tumor progression, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal administrations of murine cell-free ascites versus saline in a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer. Out of 685 patients identified, 58% had ascites present at the time of initial surgery. Considering the volume of ascites continuously, each liter of ascites was associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17) and OS (HR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.07-1.17). Patients with ascites greater than the median of 2000mL had significantly shorter PFS (14.5months vs. 22.7months; p<0.001) and OS (27.7months vs. 42.9months; p<0.001). After adjusting for stage, presence of ascites was inversely associated with ability to achieve optimal cytoreductive surgery. Consistent with these correlative results in patients, intraperitoneal administrations of murine cell-free ascites accelerated ovarian cancer progression in mice. The volume of ascites at initial diagnosis of ovarian cancer correlated with worse PFS and OS. The effect of large volume on prognosis is likely to be in part related to reduced likelihood for complete resection of tumor (R0). If these findings are confirmed in independent studies, consideration should be made to add the presence of large volume ascites at diagnosis to the staging criteria for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection strategies for body weight and reduced ascites susceptibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; Bijma, P; Ducro, B J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-04-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Mortality due to ascites results in significant economic losses and has a negative impact on animal welfare. It has been shown that genetic factors play a considerable role in susceptibility of birds to ascites, which offers perspectives for selection against this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies for BW and resistance to ascites syndrome using deterministic simulation. In addition to the consequences of current selection (i.e., selection for increased BW only) alternative selection strategies including information on different ascites-related traits measured under normal or cold conditions and the consequences of having information on the underlying genes (i.e., MAS) were quantified. Five different breeding schemes were compared based on the selection response for BW, ascites susceptibility, and the rate of inbreeding. Traits investigated in the index as indicators for ascites were hematocrit value (HCT) and ratio of right ventricle to the total ventricular weight of the heart (RV:TV). The results indicated that by ignoring ascites susceptibility in the breeding goal, the gain for BW is 130 g and the birds will become more susceptible to ascites. Testing 50% of the birds under cold temperature conditions and including information of ascites related traits (HCT and RV:TV) measured under normal and cold conditions makes it possible to achieve a relatively high gain for BW (111.4 g) while controlling the genetic level for ascites susceptibility (selection response was 0). The results of scenarios including QTL information of ascites susceptibility showed that QTL information could be used very effectively in controlling ascites susceptibility.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of famotidine in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Vinçon, G; Baldit, C; Couzigou, P; Demotes-Mainard, F; Elouaer-Blanc, L; Bannwarth, B; Begaud, B

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of famotidine has been investigated in ascitic cirrhotic patients. 10 decompensated cirrhotic patients were studied (9m, 1f), who had normal renal function, and six healthy control subjects (4m, 2f), matched for age, sex and weight. Each subject received on two occasions, at least four days apart, a single oral (40 mg) or intravenous dose (20 mg) of famotidine, at 21.00 h in a randomised manner. Serial blood samples were collected and famotidine in plasma was determined by a HPLC/UV method. Plasma data were subjected to non compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the two groups after either the intravenous or oral administration of famotidine. The findings suggest that the dose of famotidine may not require any adjustment in ascitic patients without renal failure.

  8. The clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Na; Dong, Wei-Guo; Wang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Ascites can be caused by many kinds of diseases. Patients with undetermined ascites represent a diagnostic challenge. The aims of this study were to determine the diagnostic value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in differentiation of malignant ascites from benign ascites and to investigate the clinical value of ascitic VEGF as an independent prognostic parameter. The study included 462 consecutive patients with malignant ascites and 550 patients with benign ascites, VEGF level in ascites were determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using the Cox hazards model. In our study, we found VEGF levels in malignant ascites (676.59 ± 303.86 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in benign ascites (218.37 ± 98.15 pg/ml) (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, we also found that VEGF levels in malignant ascites from patients with ovarian cancer were higher than those with other cancers. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of ascitic VEGF was 0.940. At a cutoff value of 319.5 pg/ml, VEGF yielded a sensitivity of 89.2 % and a specificity of 88.4 %. Patients associated with the high-level VEGF value (≥613.38 pg/ml) in malignant ascites exhibited poor mean survival rates (8.3 ± 0.52 vs 15.11 ± 0.66 months, P < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression model, higher ascitic VEGF was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Planned subgroup analysis was performed for patients with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage I. In the univariate analysis, only ascitic VEGF was associated with overall survival. VEGF was found to have a highly accurate sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that it could be considered as a new biomarker to differentiate malignant ascites from the benign one. The high level of VEGF value in malignant ascites may be used as an independent

  9. Chylous ascites after resection of giant adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karakoyun, Rojbin; Demirci, Erkan; Alikanoglu, Arsenal Sezgin

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative chylous ascites (PCA) is a rare clinical state that occurs during abdominal surgery. Despite its rarity, the need to diagnose and treat PCA is increasing in importance with the increased number of wide resections and lymph node dissections being performed and the serious consequences of treatment. Here we describe the PCA complications we observed after resection for treating a case of giant adrenocortical carcinoma and we have the brief review of the PCA complication. PMID:28149812

  10. New Biochemical Parameters in the Differential Diagnosis of Ascitic Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Angeleri, Anabela; Rocher, Adriana; Caracciolo, Beatriz; Pandolfo, Marcela; Palaoro, Luis; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the cases of ascitis, it is essential to determine their origin using the parameters obtained by the cytological and biochemical examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different biochemical markers and the number of cells in the differential diagnosis of ascitic fluid (AF). Methods One hundred ninety-one cases of AF were studied, who were admitted to the hospital from January 01, 2009 to December 31, 2014. One hundred fifty-two of them were included in the analysis, and the remaining 39 were excluded because they had more than one associated pathology, clotted or hemolyzed. Results The more frequent etiologies of AF were the cirrhosis (29%), the infections (22%) and the neoplasies (19%). Other pathologies reached 16%. Cutoff > 300 cells/mm3 detected the 78% of exudates. The AF/serum (S) of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (> 0.5), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (> 0.6), proteins (PT) (> 0.5), cholesterol (COL) (> 0.4), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (> 0.5) correctly detected 80%, 78%, 72%, 70% and 70% of the exudates, respectively. Conclusion We proposed the utilization of a new cutoff of cellular counting, major of 300/mm3, since it would allow improving the detection of exudate ascites, without including the transudate ascites. AST AF/serum ratio (AF/S) showed the major usefulness in the differentiation and characterization of AF; LDH, proteins, cholesterol and ALT might be also acceptable in the above mentioned differentiation. The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) turned out to be a good marker of portal hypertension associated with cirrhotic processes. Creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase (AMI), total bilirubin (TB), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (GLU) did not allow differentiating exudates from transudates. PMID:27785319

  11. Nucleation on a stepped surface with an Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromcova, Z.; Tringides, M. C.; Chvoj, Z.

    2013-07-01

    During deposition on a stepped surface the growth mode depends on the conditions such as temperature T, deposition rate F and width of the terraces w. In this work we studied the influence of all the above mentioned characteristics using the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) technique. We concentrated on the conditions on the terrace at the moment of the first nucleation. The critical density of monomers for nucleation ηm decreases with the width of the terrace and the nucleation starts at surprisingly low densities of monomers. We tested several definitions of the critical width for nucleation wc used in various articles in the past and we compared our results with results of the analytical steady-state mean-field model (Ranguelov and Altman 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245419). To check how the simplified assumption about the steady-state regime during deposition influences the resulting dependence of wc ≃ (D/F)κ, we set and also solved a time-dependent analytical model. This analytical model as well as kMC predict that wc ≃ (D/F)1/5. kMC simulation also shows that the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier has only limited influence on the nucleation on the stepped surface at conditions close to the nucleation regime. For all widths of terraces there is a critical value of the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier \\Delta {E}_{{ES}}^{{c}}/{k}_{{B}}T\\sim 7.3 (\\Delta {E}_{{ES}}^{{c}}\\sim 0.1 1 eV at T = 175 K), and only below this critical value does the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier affect the final value of the density of nuclei. The results of the kMC are summarized in a semi-empirical analytical formula which describes the dependence of the step-flow growth and nucleation on the terrace width w, diffusion coefficient D and deposition rate F. In our simulations we tested two models of the stepped surface with different thicknesses of the step, both with an Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier on the edge of the terrace.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of methotrexate released from polymeric implants in solid Ehrlich tumor.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Pereira, Adriana; Mara da Costa, Vivian; Cristina Magalhães Santos, Millene; Maciel de A Ribeiro, Rosy Iara; Gabriela Silva, Ana; Carmo Horta Pinto, Flávia; Vieira Teixeira Vidigal, Paula; Rodrigues Da Silva, Gisele

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effects of the controlled and sustained release of methotrexate from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) implants were evaluated in the solid Ehrlich tumor. The drug locally leached from the implantable devices was capable of reducing the tumor growth and the necrotic areas of the tumor site. Furthermore, the methotrexate exerted its anti-tumor effect probably by the recruitment of neutrophils at the tumor site, which assisted in modulating the growth of the tumor. The polymeric implants containing methotrexate could be a chemotherapic alternative to treat locally solid tumors with lower systemic side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier and interface-limited decay in island kinetics on Ag(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xin; Morgenstern, Karina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate diffusion and decay of adatom and vacancy islands on Ag(100) between ≈10 and ≈1000 nm2 in size at room temperature by fast scanning tunneling microscopy. Adatom and vacancy islands decay in the diffusion and in the attachment limit, respectively. This adatom-driven kinetics confirms the existence of an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on Ag(100). The dependence of the diffusivity of vacancy islands on island size is consistent with a kink-dominated periphery diffusion mechanism. Quantitative differences to previously published work are discussed.

  14. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  15. Leucas aspera inhibits the Dalton's ascitic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice: A preliminary study exploring possible mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Bibin Baby; Dash, Suvakanta; Lahkar, Mangala; Sarma, Usha; Samudrala, Pavan Kumar; Thomas, Jaya Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: North East India is a rich source of medicinal plants and a number of plant extracts are used by tribal peoples living in this area for various disorders. L.aspera is such a plant, traditionally used as an antitumor agent. Aim: In the present study, aerial parts of L.aspera were investigated for antitumor activity in Dalton's lymphoma (DAL) bearing mice. The ability of plant extract in free radical scavenging, neoangiogenesis inhibition and macrophage stimulation were also checked. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies ethyl acetate fraction of L.aspera (EALA) was selected for the detailed study. DAL ascites tumor model was performed to check the antitumor activity of EALA (200 and 400mg/kg of body weight). Hematological and histopathological parameters were estimated. Antioxidant levels, neoangiogenesis and peritoneal macrophage count were also determined. Results: In vitro MTT and Trypan blue assay results showed the cytotoxic effect of EALA in DAL cells lines. EALA treatment resulted in significant decrease in ascites tumor volume and viable cell count. Hematological and liver antioxidant parameters were normalised by EALA treatment. It was also found that EALA treatment inhibits neovascularisation and produce macrophage stimulation in treated mice. Conclusion: The results showed that EALA is a promising anticancer agent and its activity is comparable to the standard drug 5-Flouro uracil (5-FU). PMID:24914276

  16. Arterial Blood Pressure Is Closely Related to Ascites Development in Compensated HCV-Related Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilar Gomez, Eduardo; Torres Gonzalez, Ana; Calzadilla Bertot, Luis; Yasells Garcia, Ali; Sanchez Rodriguez, Yoan; Perez, Yadina Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial blood pressure (BP) is a reliable marker of circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. There are no prospective studies evaluating the association between different levels of arterial BP and ascites development in compensated cirrhotic patients. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between arterial BP and ascites development in compensated cirrhotic patients. Materials and Methods A total of 402 patients with compensated HCV-related cirrhosis were prospectively followed during 6 years to identify ascites development. At baseline, patients underwent systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Any history of arterial hypertension was also recorded. The occurrence of events such as bleeding, hepatocellular carcinoma, death and liver transplantation prior to ascites development were considered as competing risk events. Results Over a median of 156 weeks, ascites occurred in 54 patients (13%). At baseline, MAP was significantly lower in patients with ascites development (75.9 mm/Hg [95%CI, 70.3–84.3]) than those without ascites (93.6 mm/Hg [95% CI: 86.6–102.3]). After adjusting for covariates, the 6-year cumulative incidence of ascites was 40% (95%CI, 34%–48%) for patients with MAP<83.32 mm/Hg. In contrast, cumulative incidences of ascites were almost similar among patients with MAP values between 83.32 mm/Hg and 93.32 mm/Hg (7% [95% CI: 4%–12%]), between 93.32 mm/Hg and 100.31 mm/Hg (5% [95% CI: 4%–11%]) or higher than 100.31 mm/Hg (3% [95% CI: 1%–6%]). The MAP was an independent predictor of ascites development. Conclusions The MAP is closely related to the development of ascites in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis. The risk of ascites development increases in 4.4 fold for subjects with MAP values <83.32 mm/Hg. PMID:24755710

  17. Proteome–Metabolome Profiling of Ovarian Cancer Ascites Reveals Novel Components Involved in Intercellular Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Shender, Victoria O.; Pavlyukov, Marat S.; Ziganshin, Rustam H.; Arapidi, Georgij P.; Kovalchuk, Sergey I.; Anikanov, Nikolay A.; Altukhov, Ilya A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Butenko, Ivan O.; Shavarda, Alexey L.; Khomyakova, Elena B.; Evtushenko, Evgeniy; Ashrafyan, Lev A.; Antonova, Irina B.; Kuznetcov, Igor N.; Gorbachev, Alexey Yu.; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ascites is a native medium for cancer cells that allows investigation of their secretome in a natural environment. This medium is of interest as a promising source of potential biomarkers, and also as a medium for cell–cell communication. The aim of this study was to elucidate specific features of the malignant ascites metabolome and proteome. In order to omit components of the systemic response to ascites formation, we compared malignant ascites with cirrhosis ascites. Metabolome analysis revealed 41 components that differed significantly between malignant and cirrhosis ascites. Most of the identified cancer-specific metabolites are known to be important signaling molecules. Proteomic analysis identified 2096 and 1855 proteins in the ovarian cancer and cirrhosis ascites, respectively; 424 proteins were specific for the malignant ascites. Functional analysis of the proteome demonstrated that the major differences between cirrhosis and malignant ascites were observed for the cluster of spliceosomal proteins. Additionally, we demonstrate that several splicing RNAs were exclusively detected in malignant ascites, where they probably existed within protein complexes. This result was confirmed in vitro using an ovarian cancer cell line. Identification of spliceosomal proteins and RNAs in an extracellular medium is of particular interest; the finding suggests that they might play a role in the communication between cancer cells. In addition, malignant ascites contains a high number of exosomes that are known to play an important role in signal transduction. Thus our study reveals the specific features of malignant ascites that are associated with its function as a medium of intercellular communication. PMID:25271300

  18. Inferior Vena Cava Torsion and Stenosis Complicated by Compressive Pericaval Regional Ascites following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, Richard; Johnson, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) stenosis and torsion are well-described rare complications following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We present a case of inferior vena cava intermittent torsion and stenosis complicated by compressive regional ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of post-OLT regional ascites related compressive IVC stenosis reported and the first reported case of torsion complicated by regional ascites compression. PMID:24386585

  19. The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.

    PubMed

    van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M

    2010-08-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome.

  20. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  1. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Yuming; Ning, Dong; Peng, Yunzhi; Cai, Hong; Tan, Jianzhuang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2012-12-11

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  2. Genetics of Ascites Resistance and Tolerance in Chicken: A Random Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kause, Antti; van Dalen, Sacha; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two complementary mechanisms to reduce the detrimental effects of parasites, pathogens, and production diseases on host performance. Using body weight and ascites data on domesticated chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, we demonstrate the use of random regression animal model and covariance functions to estimate genetic parameters for ascites resistance and tolerance and illustrate the way individual variation in resistance and tolerance induce both genotype re-ranking and changes in variation of host performance along increasing ascites severity. Tolerance to ascites displayed significant genetic variance, with the estimated breeding values of tolerance slope ranging from strongly negative (very sensitive genotype) to weakly negative (less sensitive). Resistance to ascites had heritability of 0.34. Both traits are hence expected to respond to selection. The two complementary defense strategies, tolerance and resistance, were genetically independent. Ascites induced changes to the correlations between ascites resistance and body weight, with the genetic correlations being weak when birds were ascites-free but moderately negative when both healthy and affected birds were present. This likely results because ascites reduces growth, and thus high ascites incidence is genetically related to low adult body weight. Although ascites induced elevated phenotypic and genetic variances in body weight of affected birds, heritability displayed negligible changes across healthy and affected birds. Ascites induced moderate genotype re-ranking in body weight, with the genetic correlation of healthy birds with mildly affected birds being unity but with severely affected birds 0.45. This study demonstrates a novel approach for exploring genetics of defense traits and their impact on genotype-by-environment interactions. PMID:22670223

  3. Pathogenesis of ascites in broilers raised at low altitude: aetiological considerations based on echocardiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Abbott, J A; Classen, H L

    2005-05-01

    This study reports novel insight into the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. The scope of measurements was focused on anatomical and functional parameters, and blood flow patterns in leghorns (resistant to ascites), fast-growing broilers (susceptible to ascites), broilers developing ascites, and ascitic broilers evaluated in vivo using echocardiography, and further examined in the context of postmortem findings. Both, in vivo observed features and postmortem findings, showed clear differences between broilers and leghorns, and between normal and ascitic broilers. Abnormalities in the heart chamber geometry and blood flow patterns were detected upon echocardiographic examination in all ascitic broilers. Right and left atrio-ventricular (AV) valve regurgitation were common findings in ascitic broilers and some apparently normal broilers, with left AV valve insufficiency being a predominant feature with respect to degree and frequency of occurrence. Blood flow disturbances were not detected in leghorns. Left ventricular fractional shortening (functional parameter) was considerably reduced (P < 0.01) in ascitic birds (mean: 21.7 +/- 2.0 SE) in comparison with normal broilers (mean: 39.1 +/- 3.6 SE), or leghorns (mean: 43.3 +/- 2.4 SE). The presented findings indicate that pathological and functional changes in the left ventricle and atrium play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ascites in broilers. Severe dilation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins seen on postmortem examination, as well as regurgitant blood flow in the left atrium, demonstrated by Doppler study in ascitic birds, provide evidence that chronically elevated pressure in the left atrium is involved in the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in fast-growing broilers.

  4. System for testing bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, John C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed here is a system for testing bearings wherein a pair of spaced bearings provides support for a shaft on which is mounted a bearing to be tested, this bearing being mounted in a bearing holder spaced from and in alignment with the pair of bearings. The bearing holder is provided with an annular collar positioned in an opening in the bearing holder for holding the bearing to be tested. A screw threaded through the bearing holder into engagement with the annular collar can be turned to force the collar radially out of alignment with the pair of bearings to apply a radial load to the bearing.

  5. Preventing and Treating Acute Kidney Injury Among Hospitalized Patients with Cirrhosis and Ascites: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Elliot B; Bonder, Alan; Cardenas, Andres

    2016-05-01

    Acute kidney injury in the setting of ascites and cirrhosis is a medical emergency characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians other than gastroenterologists are often the front line against acute kidney injury for patients with ascites. Owing to the specifics of cirrhotic physiology, the treatment and prevention of acute kidney injury in the setting of ascites has unique features, widespread knowledge of which will benefit our patients with cirrhosis. Early detection and treatment of infection, maximization of cardiac output, and avoidance of medications that limit cardiorenal adaptations to arterial underfilling are part of a multipronged strategy to protect the renal function of our patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

  6. Nonimmune fetal ascites: identification of ultrasound findings predictive of perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Baccega, Felipe; de Lourdes Brizot, Maria; Jornada Krebs, Vera Lúcia; Vieira Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    To determine the ultrasonographic findings that predict death in fetal ascites. This was a retrospective cohort study involving pregnancies with ultrasonographic findings related to fetal ascites. The inclusion criteria were as follows: single pregnancy with a live fetus; ultrasound findings of ascites; ascites unrelated to maternal fetal alloimmunization; and pregnancy follow-up at our institution. The χ2-test was used to evaluate the association of ultrasound findings and death. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the ultrasound findings that are predictive of death prior to hospital discharge. A total of 154 pregnancies were included in the study. In 8 (5.19%) cases, ascites was an isolated finding, and in 146 cases, other alterations were observed during the ultrasound evaluation. Death before hospital discharge occurred in 117 cases (76.00%). The following ultrasonographic findings were significantly associated with death: gestational age at diagnosis <24 weeks (P<0.0001); stable/progressive ascites evolution (P=0.004); the presence of hydrops (P<0.0001); and the presence of cystic hygroma (P<0.0001). The presence of hydrops, the presence of respiratory tract malformations, and stable/progressive ascites evolution were significantly associated with the prediction of death. Based on ultrasound examination, the presence of hydrops, malformation of the respiratory tract, and stable/progressive evolution of ascites increase the chances of death in cases of fetal ascites.

  7. CUSHIONED BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A vibration damping device effective to dampen vibrations occurring at the several critical speeds encountered in the operation of a high-speed centrifuge is described. A self-centering bearing mechanism is used to protect both the centrifuge shaft and the damping mechanism. The damping mechanism comprises spaced-apant, movable, and stationary sleeve members arranged concentrically of a rotating shaft with a fluid maintained between the members. The movable sleeve member is connected to the shaft for radial movement therewith.

  8. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  9. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  10. Unexpected additional mode of energization of amino-acid transport into Ehrlich cells.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Sancho, J; Sanchez, A; Handlogten, M E; Christensen, H N

    1977-01-01

    Ehrlich cells treated with dinitrophenol and iodoacetate rapidly recover their 30-sec uptake of 2-(methyl-amino)-isobutyrate on treatment with 0.1 mM phenazine methosulfate + 20 mM sodium ascorbate before they begin to recover from the severely depressed ATP levels and alkali-ion gradients. Addition of 10 mM pyruvate also restores uptake of methylaminoisobutyrate before the alkali-ion gradients rise. This restoration is prevented by rotenone, but rotenone does not handicap restoration by phenazine methosulfate/ascorbate. Na+-independent uptake of 2-aminonorbornane-2-carboxylate by Ehrlich cells is affected the same way. Quinacrine almost completely suppresses uptake of methylaminoisobutyrate within the 30-sec uptake test, even when ATP levels are sustained by pyruvate and alkali-ion gradients are not depressed. Ouabain prevents restoration of both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent amino-acid transport by phenazine methosulfate/ascorbate or pyruvate. We interpret these results to indicate that amino-acid transport can be energized not only by known means, but also by reducing equivalents, which presumably reach the plasma membrane in the form of NADH from the mitochondria when the source of energy is pyruvate. In support of this hypothesis, the distribution of methylaminoisobutyrate between plasma membrane vesicles and their supporting media was influenced in the predictable way by NADH, quinacrine, and an uncoupling agent, proceeding on the assumption that more of the vesicles had the everted rather than the natural orientation. PMID:266189

  11. Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers and adsorption of Au, Cu and Ag stepped (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlattar, M.; Elkoraychy, E.; Sbiaai, K.; Mazroui, M.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We use a combination of quenched molecular dynamics and embedded atom method to calculate the activation energy barriers for the hopping and exchange mechanisms of Au, Ag or Cu on Au(100), Ag(100) or Cu(100) stepped surfaces. Our findings show that the Ehrlich-Schwöbel (ES) barriers for an adatom to undergo jump or exchange at a step edge are found to be dependent of the nature of substrate stepped surfaces. We also find that the ES barriers for the hopping processes are too high, except for Cu/Au(100). While for exchange process the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers are found to be very low and even negative. These ES barriers can explain the difference in the growth modes for the different systems. On the other hand, we calculated the adsorption energies at the most stable adsorption sites near step edges. In particular, we wish to clarify the relation between the adatom diffusion energy barriers and the adatom adsorption energies. These results may serve as some guiding rules for studying stepped surface morphologies, which are of importance to surface nanoengineering.

  12. Ode to Ehrlich and Raven or how herbivorous insects might drive plant speciation.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Robert J; Salazar, Diego; Baer, Christina; Reinhardt, Jason; Priest, Galen; Barnett, Kirk

    2016-11-01

    Fifty years ago, Ehrlich and Raven proposed that insect herbivores have driven much of plant speciation, particularly at tropical latitudes. There have been no explicit tests of their hypotheses. Indeed there were no proposed mechanisms either at the time or since by which herbivores might generate new plant species. Here we outline two main classes of mechanisms, prezygotic and postzygotic, with a number of scenarios in each by which herbivore-driven changes in host plant secondary chemistry might lead to new plant lineage production. The former apply mainly to a sympatric model of speciation while the latter apply to a parapatric or allopatric model. Our review suggests that the steps of each mechanism are known to occur individually in many different systems, but no scenario has been thoroughly investigated in any one system. Nevertheless, studies of Dalechampia and its herbivores and pollinators, and patterns of defense tradeoffs in trees on different soil types in the Peruvian Amazon provide evidence consistent with the original hypotheses of Ehrlich and Raven. For herbivores to drive sympatric speciation, our findings suggest that interactions with both their herbivores and their pollinators should be considered. In contrast, herbivores may drive speciation allopatrically without any influence by pollinators. Finally, there is evidence that these mechanisms are more likely to occur at low latitudes and thus more likely to produce new species in the tropics. The mechanisms we outline provide a predictive framework for further study of the general role that herbivores play in diversification of their host plants.

  13. Efficacy and safety of cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) in gynecologic cancer patients with a large volume of ascites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangcheng; Okubo, Takashi; Shinsaka, Mamiko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Ogasawara, Miwa; Sakaguchi, Riko; Nagai, Tomonori; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cell-free concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) on a large amount of ascites. Fifty-eight CART procedures were performed in nine patients with ovarian, endometrial, or cervical cancer from February 2013 to September 2014. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed for the amount of collected ascites, vital signs, and laboratory results before and after CART. No obvious change in the plasma protein and plasma albumin concentration was found after CART for < 5 L of ascites; however, obvious increases in both were observed in CART for ≥ 5 L of ascites (P < 0.001). The optimum cut-off value for obtaining a positive variant of plasma protein and plasma albumin after CART was 7.9 L. CART for ≥ 5 L of ascites did not increase the risk of transient water retention in the body (odds ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-13.83; P = 0.38); however, CART for ≥ 7.9 L of ascites increased the risk of water retention (odds ratio = 8.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-44.09; P = 0.004). The optimal cut-off value of ascites for predicting water retention due to CART was 9.2 L. Massive ascites collection in CART < 9.2 L appears to be a safe and effective treatment for improving general condition, plasma protein, and electrolytes in gynecologic cancer patients. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. [A New Treatment Strategy-Novel Cell-Free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion System(KM-CART)for Massive Malignant Ascites].

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Keisuke

    2016-12-01

    Massive ascites associated with cancerous peritonitis can result in severe respiratory discomfort and abdominal fullness. Additionally, it can significantly impair the activities of daily living of a patient, and relaxation is difficult to achieve, even with opioids. Frequent ascites drainage can cause rapid worsening of the patient's general condition, and a large amount of ascites can lead to discontinuation of anti-cancer treatment. Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy(CART)for refractory ascites was first covered by the insurance system in 1981. However, cancerous ascites includes many cellular components as well as mucus, and purification was a difficult process. Therefore, since the 1990s, CART disappeared from the field of cancer treatment. I have devised a Keisuke Matsusaki(KM)-CART system that has the ability to clean the filtration membrane. This system enables purification of massive cancerous ascites that may exceed 20 L. The general condition of the patients and their symptoms improve after use of KM-CART, making it possible to initiate or resume anti-cancer therapy. KM-CART helps remove unwanted components, such as cancer cells, cytokines, and vascular endothelial growth factors from the abdominal cavity through filtration of drained ascites. Therefore, the peritoneal environment can be improved, leading to enhancement of the efficacy of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In addition, a large number of cancer cells and lymphocytes can be obtained with KM-CART, and it is possible to use these cells for customized cancer treatments, such as dendritic cell vaccine therapy, and to perform anti-cancer agent susceptibility testing. I believe that KM-CART is a good treatment approach for massive ascites associated with cancerous peritonitis.

  15. Advances In Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1994-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum reviews state of technology of magnetic bearings, focusing mainly on attractive bearings rather than repulsive, eddy-current, or Lorentz bearings. Attractive bearings offer greater load capacities and preferred for aerospace machinery.

  16. Ascites in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: Causes, Characteristics and Predicting Factors.

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Khan, Asad Ali; Abbas, Zaigham; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Hassan, Syed Mujahid

    2016-05-01

    To describe the causes, characteristics and factors associated with ascites in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Observational study. Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from November 2007 to November 2014. All patients on maintenance hemodialysis and age > 16 years with ascites were included. Frequencies and percentages were computed for different categorical variables. Chi-square or Fischer exact test were used to identify factors associated with ascites like frequency of hemodialysis, serum albumin and cardiac ejection fraction (EF). Odds ratios were calculated for associated factors. Ninety patients were included in this study; 55.5% were males. Median age was 33 years. Cause of ascites was nephrogenic in 77.8%, cardiac failure in 16.7%, hypothyroidism in 6.67%, liver cirrhosis in 4.4%, abdominal tuberculosis in 2.2%, and peritoneal carcinomatosis in 1.1% patients. The ascites was severe in 53.3% patients and severity was associated with serum albumin < 2.8 gm/dL(p=0.007) and cardiac EF < 40% (p=0.028). The ascites was low serum ascites albumin gradient (SAAG), high protein type (LSHP) in 60% patients and associated with hemorrhage (p=0.040). High SAAG, high protein (HSHP) ascites, found in 33.3%, was associated with cardiac EF < 40% (p=0.005) and portal hypertension (p=0.048). High SAAG, low protein (HSLP) ascites, seen in 6.7%, was associated with portal hypertension (p=0.006). The commonest cause of ascites in hemodialysis dependent patients is nephrogenic followed by cardiac failure. Low serum albumin and low cardiac EF predispose to severe forms of ascites.

  17. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites.

  18. Protective Effect of Zingiber officinale Against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumour by Regulating Inflammatory Mediator and Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Rubila, Sundararaj; Ranganathan, Thottiam Vasudevan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Zingiber officinale paste against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced tumours in Swiss albino mice. Experimental animals received Z. officinale paste (low dose 100 mg/kg bw and high dose 500 mg/kg bw) orally for eight alternative days. Treatment with Z. officinale paste showed significant increase in haemoglobin level and decrease in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) level. Z. officinale paste reduced the inflammatory mediators and cytokine levels, such as inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor level (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment with Z. officinale paste also significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme level, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione transferase (GST), and decreased the lipid peroxidation. Treatment also increased the vitamin C and E levels in treated animals compared with the DLA-bearing host. Histopathological studies also confirmed the protective influence of Z. officinale paste against DLA. The present study suggested that Z. officinale paste could be used as natural spice and a potent antitumour agent.

  19. Reverse relationship between malignancy and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Yoshida rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Nakamura, S; Nomura, M; Yamamoto, H; Sanae, F; Hidaka, H

    1993-08-31

    Rat ascites hepatoma (AH) cells (10(6) cells/head) inoculated intraperitoneally into rats had host-killing ability (malignancy) in the order AH66F > AH44 > AH13 > AH7974 > AH109A > AH66 > AH130. The life span of the rats after inoculation closely correlated with the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) in the tumor cells but not the activity of Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). N-[2-[N-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2-propenyl]amino]ethyl]-5- isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-87), a potent, selective inhibitor of protein kinase A, inhibited in vitro growth of these hepatoma cells with a similar potency and, intraperitoneally injected, prolonged the lives of rats bearing less malignant AH66 cells (with high protein kinase A activity) but did not affect the life span of rats bearing highly malignant AH66F cells (with low protein kinase A activity). On the other hand N-(2-methylpiperazyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, inhibited AH66F cells more than AH66 cells, but did not influence the life span of rats bearing either hepatoma. From these results it is deduced that protein kinase A may be important in the regulation of malignancy and in vivo proliferation of AH cells.

  20. [Guidelines for diagnosis and management of cirrhotic ascites and its complications. The Israeli Association for the Study of the Liver].

    PubMed

    Sikuler, Emanuel; Ackerman, Zvi; Braun, Marius; Baruch, Yaakov; Bruck, Refael; Safadi, Rifaat; Shlomai, Amir; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2012-12-01

    Ascites is the most common manifestation of decompensated liver cirrhosis. The life expectancy of cirrhotic patients developing uncomplicated ascites is 50% for 3 years. Refractory ascites, electrolyte imbalance, hepato-renal syndrome and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis may develop. Successful treatment can improve symptoms and outcomes. This article summarizes the Israeli Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines for diagnosis and management of cirrhotic ascites and its complications.

  1. Persistent ascites resolving with gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist 18 months after hospitalization for severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comba, Cihan; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Bastu, Ercan; Iyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem; Topuz, Samet

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a life- threatening complication of controlled ovarian stimulation. One of the main symptoms of OHSS is ascites. Treatment is symptomatic with resolution of the symptoms over days to weeks. We report a case of severe OHSS with persistent ascites 18 months after the diagnosis. Persistent ascites secondary to OHSS was diagnosed and single dose leuprolide acetate depot 11.25 mg was administered. At follow-up, no ascites was observed.

  2. Bowel sounds analysis: a novel noninvasive method for diagnosis of small-volume ascites.

    PubMed

    Liatsos, Christos; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Mavrogiannis, Christos; Patch, David; Panas, Stavros M; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2003-08-01

    Ascites is more difficult to detect when only a small quantity is present. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the optimal bowel sound characteristics in order to distinguish no ascites from small-volume ascites by advanced processing of bowel sound wave patterns. This analysis results in the definition of the normal range of bowel sound patterns, thus providing a novel, simple, and noninvasive way of determining on abnormal pattern, which may reflect presence of small volume ascites. Cirrhotic patients with radiologically proven small-volume ascites and a control group were subjected to bowel sound recordings. The latter were analyzed using a denoising wavelet transform-based filter and a higher-order crossings-based technique in a blinded fashion for linearly distinguishing the two classes. Scatter plots of third-order zero crossings reflect distinct changes seen in the denoised bowel sound pattern between patients and controls due to altered transmission path, providing a distinct separation of all cirrhotic patients with small ascites from controls (P < 0.0001). We conclude that the proposed bowel sounds analysis appears to provide new information regarding the changes of the bowel sound patterns due to the presence of small-volume ascites, potentially contributing towards a safe, effective, noninvasive, and easily implemented alternative method for the diagnosis of small volume ascites at the bedside.

  3. Chylous Ascites: A Rare Complication of Thoracic Duct Embolization for Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, Ron C. Owens, Charles A.; Bui, James T.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Knuttinen, M. Grace

    2011-02-15

    Thoracic duct embolization represents a safe and effective method to treat postsurgical chylothorax. Complications of this procedure are rare despite transabdominal puncture of lymphatic channels for thoracic duct access, and chylous ascites is unreported. Herein, we describe a case of chylous ascites formation after lymphatic puncture and attempted cannulation. Our management approach is also discussed.

  4. Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen

    2009-10-14

    We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature.

  5. Perisplenic halo on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy: a sign of mild ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Deland, F.H.

    1982-04-01

    A patient with acute parenchymal liver disease whose /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid (SC) liver/spleen scan showed a perisplenic halo in the posterior view (supine position) proved to have mild ascites at the time of autopsy. The signs of mild and massive ascites are briefly discussed.

  6. Prognostic Significance of a Minute Amount of Ascites During Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinoto, Makoto; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Terashima, Kotaro; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical factors for predicting overall survival (OS) and the significance of a minute amount of ascites on computed tomography (CT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Between 2003 and 2011, 48 consecutive patients with LAPC were treated with CRT. Various clinical factors, including ascites, were evaluated for correlation with OS. A subset analysis of 16 patients with a minute amount of ascites was also performed. The median survival duration and the 1-year OS rates were 11.5 months and 50%, respectively. A minute amount of ascites on CT and elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level were significantly associated with poorer OS. In 16 patients with ascites, the amount of ascites increased in the course of the disease, and these were considered to be cancerous clinically, regardless of the amount. A minute amount of ascites and CA19-9 were important prognostic factors in CRT. Any amount of ascites was considered an early indicator of peritoneal carcinomatosis in LAPC. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Congenital Chylous Ascites and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VI

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, John; Esty, Brittany; Sempler, Jessica K.; Carey, John C.; O’Gorman, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of a patient with contgenital chylous ascites (CCA) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI due to primary lymphatic defect with additional vascular anomaly. CCA is a rare condition, and there is limited understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment options. We also review the patient’s treatment course mitigated with octreotide and total parenteral nutritional support, as there are no current established guidelines for CCA. Early recognition of possible association with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is important for quick intervention and successful management of pediatric patients. PMID:28119937

  8. Astatine-211-tellurium radiocolloid cures experimental malignant ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Neirinckx, R.D.; Adelstein, S.J.; Gordon, P.R.; Ruth, T.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-04-17

    An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211-tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this ..cap alpha..-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison, negatron-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated with ..cap alpha..-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of ..cap alpha..-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.

  9. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (ascites syndrome) in broilers: a review.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Rhoads, D D; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers (also known as ascites syndrome and pulmonary hypertension syndrome) can be attributed to imbalances between cardiac output and the anatomical capacity of the pulmonary vasculature to accommodate ever-increasing rates of blood flow, as well as to an inappropriately elevated tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the pulmonary arterioles. Comparisons of PAH-susceptible and PAH-resistant broilers do not consistently reveal differences in cardiac output, but PAH-susceptible broilers consistently have higher pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances compared with PAH-resistant broilers. Efforts clarify the causes of excessive pulmonary vascular resistance have focused on evaluating the roles of chemical mediators of vasoconstriction and vasodilation, as well as on pathological (structural) changes occurring within the pulmonary arterioles (e.g., vascular remodeling and pathology) during the pathogenesis of PAH. The objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the pathophysiological progression initiated by the onset of pulmonary hypertension and culminating in terminal ascites; (2) review recent information regarding the factors contributing to excessively elevated resistance to blood flow through the lungs; (3) assess the role of the immune system during the pathogenesis of PAH; and (4) present new insights into the genetic basis of PAH. The cumulative evidence attributes the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH-susceptible broilers to an anatomically inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity, to excessive vascular tone reflecting the dominance of pulmonary vasoconstrictors over vasodilators, and to vascular pathology elicited by excessive hemodynamic stress. Emerging evidence also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of PAH includes characteristics of an inflammatory/autoimmune disease involving multifactorial genetic, environmental, and immune system components. Pulmonary

  10. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nicotina, P A; Ruggeri, P; Ferlazzo, G; Fimiani, V

    1991-01-01

    Some cytochemical and immunocytochemical investigations were carried out on actively growing Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells. These cells displayed an intense granular alpha-naphthylacetate esterase (ANAE) staining while the alpha-naphthylbutyrate esterase (ANBE) reaction was in part fluoride-sensitive and marked particularly in the large-size malignant cells. Acid phosphatase as well as peroxidase activities were not detected. The lack of immunoreactive lysozyme and alpha 1-antitrypsin suggested a poor differentiation of the above-mentioned tumor cells, but fibronectin and S-100 protein where highly expressed, as in tumors arising from the mononuclear phagocyte system.

  11. Is palliative laparoscopic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy effective in patients with malignant hemorrhagic ascites?

    PubMed

    de Mestier, Louis; Volet, Julien; Scaglia, Elodie; Msika, Simon; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bouché, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hemorrhagic ascites may complicate the terminal evolution of digestive cancers with peritoneal carcinomatosis. It has a bad influence on prognosis and may severely impair patients' quality of life. Palliative laparoscopic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been proposed to treat debilitating malignant ascites. Two cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis causing hemorrhagic ascites and severe anemia that needed iterative blood transfusions are reported. These patients were treated by laparoscopic HIPEC (mitomycin C and cisplatin with an inflow temperature of 43°C), resulting in cessation of peritoneal bleeding. No postoperative complication or relapse of ascites occurred during the following months. No more blood transfusion was needed. Laparoscopic HIPEC might be an effective and safe therapeutic option to consider in patients with malignant hemorrhagic ascites.

  12. Is Palliative Laparoscopic Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Effective in Patients with Malignant Hemorrhagic Ascites?

    PubMed Central

    de Mestier, Louis; Volet, Julien; Scaglia, Elodie; Msika, Simon; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bouché, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hemorrhagic ascites may complicate the terminal evolution of digestive cancers with peritoneal carcinomatosis. It has a bad influence on prognosis and may severely impair patients’ quality of life. Palliative laparoscopic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been proposed to treat debilitating malignant ascites. Two cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis causing hemorrhagic ascites and severe anemia that needed iterative blood transfusions are reported. These patients were treated by laparoscopic HIPEC (mitomycin C and cisplatin with an inflow temperature of 43°C), resulting in cessation of peritoneal bleeding. No postoperative complication or relapse of ascites occurred during the following months. No more blood transfusion was needed. Laparoscopic HIPEC might be an effective and safe therapeutic option to consider in patients with malignant hemorrhagic ascites. PMID:22679405

  13. Ascites modulates cancer cell behavior, contributing to tumor heterogeneity in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soochi; Kim, Boyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-09-01

    Malignant ascites constitute a unique tumor microenvironment providing a physical structure for the accumulation of cellular and acellular components. Ascites is initiated and maintained by physical and biological factors resulting from underlying disease and forms an ecosystem that contributes to disease progression. It has been demonstrated that the cellular contents and the molecular signatures of ascites change continuously during the course of a disease. Over the past decade, increasing attention has been given to the characterization of components of ascites and their role in the progression of ovarian cancer, the most malignant gynecologic cancer in women. This review will discuss the role of ascites in disease progression, in terms of modulating cancer cell behavior and contributing to tumor heterogeneity. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome complicated by ascites and vaginal lymphatic drainage in adolescence: a case report.

    PubMed

    Scribner, Dennis R; Lara-Torre, Eduardo; Heineck, Robert J; Weiss, Patrice M

    2012-12-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by capillary malformationsand soft tissue and bony hypertrophy and atypical varicosities. Management of this syndrome is focused primarily on treatment of the complications that arise from these malformations. Ascites and lymphedema are two of the more common complications in these patients. A 15-year-old female with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome presented with chylous ascites, vaginal drainage, and unilateral lower extremity lymphedema. Treatment included dilation, hysteroscopy and curettage, and laparoscopic evacuation of abdomino-pelvic ascites with resolution of symptoms for 32 months. Repeat laparoscopic drainage was successful and remains symptom free after 12 months. Vaginal drainage of chylous ascites is a rare complication from Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and can be successfully managed by techniques to remove abdomino-pelvic ascites. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of refractory ascites in cirrhosis: Are we out of date?

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Wisdom, Lauren; Herada, Megan; Nourredin, Mazen; Ayoub, Walid; Sundaram, Vinay; Klein, Andrew; Nissen, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with liver transplantations as it only possible cure. In the face of a significant organ shortage many patients die waiting. A major complication of cirrhosis is the development of portal hypertension and ascites. The management of ascites has barely evolved over the last hundred years and includes only a few milestones in our treatment approach, but has overall significantly improved patient morbidity and survival. Our mainstay to ascites management includes changes in diet, diuretics, shunt procedures, and large volume paracentesis. The understanding of the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and portal hypertension has significantly improved in the last couple of decades but the changes in ascites management have not seemed to mirror this newer knowledge. We herein review the history of ascites management and discuss some its current limitations. PMID:27729954

  16. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  17. Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff (1845-1915) and Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915): the centennial of the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schmalstieg, Frank C; Goldman, Armond S

    2008-05-01

    Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich shared the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Metchnikoff for discovering the major types and functions of phagocytes and Ehrlich for discovering the types of blood leukocytes, helping to uncover how to generate and use antibodies to protect against bacterial toxins, and formulating the receptor concept of antibodies binding to antigens. In 1908 phagocytic and humoral defences were thought to be unrelated but it was realized much later that they influence one other. Thus, it is fitting that the 1908 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine remain closely connected in the minds of modern immunologists. Metchnikoff and Ehrlich shared qualities of natural curiosity and tenacity coupled with remarkable inductive-mechanistic thinking and a zest for experimentation. However, their approaches to and methods of research were decidedly different - Metchnikoff's by evolutionary biology and an approach to experimentation via microscopy and Ehrlich's by an imaginative side-chain theory and organic chemistry.

  18. Etiology of Ascites and Pleural Effusion Associated with Ovarian Tumors: Literature Review and Case Reports of Three Ovarian Tumors Presenting with Massive Ascites, but without Peritoneal Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Hara, Takeya; Tanaka, Asuka; Komura, Naoko; Komiya, Shinnosuke; Kanao, Serika; Takeda, Masumi; Mimura, Mayuko; Nagamatsu, Masaaki; Yokoi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors are benign but relatively large tumors that are often initially mistaken as ovarian cancers. We report three cases of stage I borderline ovarian tumors having massive ascites that we (preoperatively) suspected of being advanced ovarian cancer. The three patients (35, 47, and 73 years old) reported feeling fullness of the abdomen before consulting their gynecologist. By CT scan, they were diagnosed with a pelvic tumor accompanied by massive ascites, the diameters of which were 11, 20, and 11 cm, respectively. Postsurgical pathology showed all were stage I borderline ovarian tumors without dissemination; two were mucinous and one was serous. The amount of ascites was 6,300, 2,600, and 3,600 mL, respectively, and was serous in all. Cytodiagnosis of the ascites found that one was positive for tumor cells and two were negative. After resection of the mass, the ascites disappeared in all three cases. No pleural effusion was present at any time. The literature is reviewed concerning ascites and pleural effusions linked to ovarian tumors, and a supposition is forwarded of why pleural effusion presents sporadically in these cases. PMID:26858849

  19. Association of umbilical hernia with volume of ascites in liver cirrhosis: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Qi, Xingshun; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Ning, Zheng; Dai, Junna; Hou, Feifei; Zhao, Jiancheng; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-11-01

    Umbilical hernia is a common abdominal complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Our study aimed to evaluate the correlation of umbilical hernia with the volume of ascites. Cirrhotic patients that underwent axial abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans at our hospital between June 2012 and June 2014 were eligible. All CT images were reviewed to confirm the presence of umbilical hernia. The volume of ascites was estimated by five-point method. One hundred and fifty-seven patients were enrolled into this study. Among them, 101 patients had ascites and 6 patients had umbilical hernia. Alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and serum sodium were significantly lower in patients with umbilical hernia (P = 0.008, P = 0.011, respectively). Child-Pugh scores and the volume of ascites were significantly higher in patients with umbilical hernia (P = 0.03, P < 0.0001, respectively). Correlation analysis demonstrated that the volume of ascites, Child-Pugh scores, and blood ammonia had positive correlations with umbilical hernia (r = 0.4579, P < 0.0001; r = 0.175, P = 0.03; r = 0.342, P = 0.001, respectively) and that serum sodium had a negative correlation with umbilical hernia (r = -0.203, P = 0.011). In patients with ascites ≥2000 mL, only AKP was significantly associated with umbilical hernia (P = 0.0497). No variables were significantly associated with umbilical hernia in a subgroup analysis of patients matched according to the volume of ascites. The volume of ascites has a positive correlation with umbilical hernia. However, the factors associated with umbilical hernia in patients with severe ascites remain unclear. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Malignant ascites in ovarian cancer and the role of targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smolle, Elisabeth; Taucher, Valentin; Haybaeck, Johannes

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most lethal gynecological malignancy and the main cause of gynecological cancer death in industrialized countries. Malignant ascites is often found in OC, with about 10% of patients suffering from recurrent OC. Tumor cells in OC-associated malignant ascites promote disease recurrence and patient mortality is mainly associated with widespread metastasis to serosal surfaces and accompanying peritoneal effusions. Targeted therapies have recently been developed as novel therapeutic options for malignant ascites. The tri-functional anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule and anti-cluster of differentiation 3 monoclonal antibody catumaxumab has been assessed in the therapy of malignant ascites, and proven to significantly reduce the ascitic flow rate when applied into the peritoneal cavity. The anti-angiogenic targeted agent bevacizumab has also shown good effects in the symptomatic treatment of malignant ascites, significantly prolonging the time until the next paracentesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap, or aflibercept, is a fusion protein that inhibits VEGF-receptor binding. Aflibercept has proven to be effective in reduction of ascites, diminishing clinical symptoms of ascites and prolonging the time to next paracentesis. All three agents we review in the present article are effective in symptomatic control of ascites, leading to a rapid reduction of effusion and prolonging the time interval between paracenteses. However, no improvement in overall survival was observed in any of the clinical trials reported. We, thus, conclude that further investigations on larger patient series are needed to clarify whether the reduction of ascites by these targeted agents leads to a prolongation in tumor-related survival or not.

  1. Multi-generational genome wide association studies identify chromosomal regions associated with ascites phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, K J; Dey, S; Kinney, R; Anthony, N B; Rhoads, D D

    2017-02-21

    Ascites is a multi-faceted disease commonly observed in fast growing broilers, which is initiated when the body is insufficiently oxygenated. A series of events follow, including an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and pericardium. Advances in management practices along with improved selection programs have decreased ascites incidence in modern broilers. However, ascites syndrome remains an economically important disease throughout the world, causing estimated losses of $100 million per year. In this study, a 60 K Illumina SNP BeadChip was used to perform a series of genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the 16th and 18th generation of our relaxed (REL) line descended from a commercial elite broiler line beginning in 1995. Regions significantly associated with ascites incidence were identified on chromosome 2 around 70 megabase pairs (Mbp) and on chromosome Z around 60 Mbp. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were evaluated as indicators for these 2 regions in order to identify association with ascites and right ventricle to total ventricle weight (RVTV) ratios. Chromosome 2 SNP showed an association with RVTV ratios in males phenotyped as ascites resistant and ascites susceptible (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). The chromosome Z region also indicates an association with resistant female RVTV values (P = 0.02). Regions of significance identified on chromosomes 2 and Z described in this study will be used as proposed candidate regions for further investigation into the genetics of ascites. This information will lead to a better understanding of the underlying genetics and gene networks contributing to ascites, and thus advances in ascites reduction through commercial breeding schemes.

  2. [Pharmacological study on kefir--a fermented milk product in Caucasus. I. On antitumor activity (1)].

    PubMed

    Kubo, M; Odani, T; Nakamura, S; Tokumaru, S; Matsuda, H

    1992-07-01

    The antitumor activity of kefir (YK-1), a fermented milk product in Caucasus, was investigated. YK-1 at oral doses of 100 or 500 mg/kg inhibited the proliferation of solid tumor of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma transplanted subcutaneously in mice. YK-1 did not show an inhibitory effect on the ear swelling induced contact dermatitis caused by picryl chloride (PC-CD). However, YK-1 inhibited the immunosuppression in Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice and with the frozen and dried ascites of the tumor-bearing mice containing immunosuppressive substances (EC-sup) in PC-CD-induced mice. And also, YK-1 activated the immunosuppressive activity of spleen cells of mouse treated with EC-sup. These results suggest that YK-1 may have antitumor activity against Ehrlich carcinoma and activate the immunosuppression with it.

  3. Evaluation of combinations of drugs that inhibit Ehrlich tumor cell ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Cory, J G

    1981-05-01

    The nature of the inhibition of Ehrlich tumor cell ribonucleotide reductase by combinations of agents directed at the non-heme iron-containing component and the effector-binding component was studied with the use of isobolograms. From these studies, it was determined that the combinations of pyrazoloimidazole (IMPY) and dialdehyde of inosine, IMPY and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP), IMPY and deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), and IMPY and deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) gave synergistic inhibition of cytidine diphosphate reductase. The combination of dATP and dGTP also gave synergistic inhibition. The combinations of hydroxyurea and IMPY, 4-methyl-5-aminoisoquinoline thiosemicarbazone (MAIQ) and IMPY, and dialdehyde of inosine and dialdehyde derivative of 5'-deoxyinosine gave antagonistic inhibition. Other combinations utilizing MAIQ and dATP, MAIQ and dGTP, MAIQ and dTTP, hydroxyurea and dGTP, and hydroxyurea and dTTP gave inhibition which was additive.

  4. Paul Ehrlich's mastzellen: a historical perspective of relevant developments in mast cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ghably, Jack; Saleh, Hana; Vyas, Harsha; Peiris, Emma; Misra, Niva; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of mast cells (or mastzellen) by the prolific physician researcher, Paul Ehrlich, many advances have improved our understanding of these cells and their fascinating biology. The discovery of immunoglobulin E and receptors for IgE and IgG on mast cells heralded further in vivo and in vitro studies, using molecular technologies and gene knockout models. Mast cells express an array of inflammatory mediators including tryptase, histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They play a role in many varying disease states, from atopic diseases, parasitic infections, hematological malignancies, and arthritis to osteoporosis. This review will attempt to summarize salient evolving areas in mast cell research over the last few centuries that have led to our current understanding of this pivotal multifunctional cell.

  5. A huge renal cyst mimicking ascites: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal cysts are common in old patients, and usually remain untreated. Giant renal cyst measuring more than 15 cm in diameter and containing more than 1500 mls of serous fluid are rarely seen. We report a case of a 75-year-old man with a giant right renal cyst. Case presentation A 75-year-old man presented with a five years history of suprapubic pain, abdominal distension. He had no urological symptoms. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with shifting dullness. Routine hematology, biochemistry, and serum tumor markers were within normal limits. Erroneously diagnosed as ascites on ultrasonographic examination. Abdominal paracentesis of supposed ascites was performed. The diagnosis of giant renal cyst was finally made by Computed tomography (CT) and patient underwent continuous percutaneous catheter drainage with negative pressure, whereby 8 liters of fluid were removed with negative cytology. Subsequent Computed tomography after 6 months revealed disparition of the cysts, and the patient remained asymptomatic. Conclusion Giant renal cysts are uncommon; we conclude that the CT remains the best exam in patients evaluated for giant renal cyst. This to the best of our knowledge is the largest renal cyst in the medical literature. Studies are needed with particular attention to the factors associated with renal cyst enlargement. PMID:24428865

  6. High circulating D-dimers are associated with ascites and hepatocellular carcinoma in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Spadaro, Aldo; Tortorella, Vincenza; Morace, Carmela; Fortiguerra, Agostino; Composto, Paola; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Alibrandi, Angela; Luigiano, Carmelo; Caro, Giuseppe De; Ajello, Antonino; Ferraù, Oscar; Freni, Maria Antonietta

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To measure plasma D-dimer levels in cirrhotic patients with and without ascites, assessing the effect of ascites resolution in D-dimer concentration. METHODS: Seventy consecutive cirrhotic patients (M = 44, F = 26, mean age 65 years, SD ± 13), observed from October 2005 to March 2006 were enrolled. Circulating D-dimer levels were measured using a latex-enhanced, immunoturbidimetric test. In patients with ascites (n = 42) the test was repeated after ascites resolution. RESULTS: Ascites was present in 42 patients (group A) and absent in 28 (group B). Group A patients had more advanced liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was diagnosed in 14 patients and was more frequent in group B. Above normal range D-dimers were found in 45/70 patients. High D-dimers were more frequent in group A than in group B (P = 0.001). High D-dimers were associated with presence of HCC (P = 0.048) only in group B. After ascites resolution, obtained in all patients, mean D-dimer values decreased in those 34 patients with high basal levels (P = 0.007), returning to normal in 17. CONCLUSION: In patients with liver cirrhosis, ascites and HCC are the main factors associated with increased fibrinolytic activity. PMID:18330946

  7. [Supportive care for malignant ascites in palliative phase: Place of paracentesis and diuretics].

    PubMed

    Gamblin, Vincent; Da Silva, Arlette; Villet, Stéphanie; El Hajbi, Farid

    2015-11-01

    Malignant ascites, occurring in advanced stages of cancer, is linked with poor prognosis and can cause invalidating symptoms. Physiopathological mechanisms of ascites formation are complex and have yet to be fully elucidated. In most cases, ascites is due to peritoneal carcinomatosis in which vascular permeability is enhanced by VEGF production while lymphatic drainage decreases. Ascites can also be secondary to portal hypertension, for example in case of multiple liver metastases, or due to lymphatic obstruction. While paracentesis and diuretics are commonly used, their efficiency has never been compared in a randomized controlled study. Paracentesis brings immediate but temporary relief in over 90% of cases, and implies multiple hospitalizations. Literature reports ascites control by aldosterone alone or in association with furosemide. But, available data is controversial, and there is no predictive factor to identify patients that respond to diuretic treatment. The indication of diuretic treatment is left to the appreciation of physicians. Existing recommendations are old, and practices influenced by results obtained in non-neoplastic ascites. Additional evidences are required before guidelines can be established for the palliative management of malignant ascites. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The experiences of patients with ascites secondary to cancer: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Day, Rebecca; Mitchell, Theresa; Keen, Alison; Perkins, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Ascites secondary to cancer has a dramatic effect on all aspects of patients' lives. Healthcare professional surveys have shown that there is considerable variation in the management of ascites. To explore patients' experiences of living with ascites and its management. Qualitative research study using digitally recorded semi-structured interviews. Twelve adult patients with ascites who, between them, had undergone 47 paracentesis procedures in hospitals and/or specialist palliative care units in Southern England. Symptoms were pain, discomfort and effects on appetite, digestion, breathing and mobility. All participants had experienced paracentesis in hospital or a specialist palliative care unit, and these experiences differed. They had views on what constituted a good procedure: setting, competence and pain control. They reported rapid improvement of symptoms after paracentesis. While some did not like the idea of a semi-permanent drain, those with them appreciated the convenience and not having to wait for repeated admissions or the recurrence of symptoms. The interval between ascitic taps was seen as a useful guide as to when a semi-permanent drain should be offered. Participants had mixed views on participation in a hypothetical randomised controlled trial of repeated ascitic taps versus semi-permanent drains. Patients' experiences of ascites management are variable and could be improved. These experiences can inform healthcare professionals. They have views on when semi-permanent drains should be offered and future research.

  9. Prognostic significance of new onset ascites in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervos, Emmanuel E; Osborne, Dana; Boe, Brian A; Luzardo, German; Goldin, Steven B; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for development of malignant ascites and its prognostic significance in patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods A prospective database was queried to identify patients with pancreatic cancer who develop ascites. Stage at presentation, size, and location of primary tumor, treatment received and length of survival after onset of ascites were determined. Results A total of 15 patients were identified. Of which 4 patients (1 stage II, 3 stage III) underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and manifested with ascites 2, 3, 24 and 47 months after surgery (tumor size 2.9 ± 1.32 cm). All but one of the remaining 11 patients (tumor size 4.4 ± 3.38 cm) presented with metastatic disease, and all developed malignant ascites 9 months after diagnosis, dying 2 months later. Resected patients lived longer before the onset of ascites, but not after. Conclusion Once diagnosed, ascites in pancreatic cancer patients heralds imminent death. Limited survival should be considered when determining the aggressiveness of further intervention. PMID:16569225

  10. Impact of acute ascites on the action of the canine abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Dimitri; De Troyer, André

    2008-06-01

    Although ascites causes abdominal expansion, its effects on abdominal muscle function are uncertain. In the present study, progressively increasing ascites was induced in supine anesthetized dogs, and the changes in abdominal (DeltaPab) and airway opening (DeltaPao) pressure obtained during stimulation of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles were measured; the changes in internal oblique muscle length were also measured. As ascites increased from 0 to 100 ml/kg body wt, Pab and muscle length during relaxation increased. DeltaPab also showed a threefold increase (P < 0.001). However, DeltaPao decreased (P < 0.001). When ascites increased further to 200 ml/kg, resting muscle length continued to increase and muscle shortening during stimulation became very small so that active muscle length was 155% of the resting muscle length in the control condition. Concomitantly, DeltaPab returned to the control value, and DeltaPao continued to decrease. Similar results were obtained with the animals in the head-up posture, although the decrease in DeltaPao appeared only when ascites was greater than 125 ml/kg. It is concluded that 1) ascites adversely affects the expiratory action of the abdominal muscles on the lung; 2) this effect results primarily from the increase in diaphragm elastance; and 3) when ascites is severe, the abdomen cross-sectional area is also increased and the abdominal muscles are excessively lengthened so that their active pressure-generating ability itself is reduced.

  11. Patient experience of non-malignant ascites and its treatment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Day, Rebecca; Hollywood, Coral; Durrant, Deborah; Perkins, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Ascites is an accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity. It can be caused by both malignant and non-malignant conditions and produces distressing symptoms. There have been no qualitative studies looking at the experiences of patients with non-malignant ascites. To explore the experiences of patients living with non-malignant ascites and its management. Also, to explore the views of these patients about services available to them. Phenomenological qualitative research study using digitally recorded semi-structured interviews. Six adult patients with non-malignant ascites who were receiving paracentesis to manage their symptoms in an acute hospital day unit. Participants experienced a wide variety of physical symptoms. They discussed how the ascites impacted on their social lives. They had views on diuretics, low sodium diet and paracentesis as methods of symptom management. Participants' confidence in staff performing paracentesis was a common finding, particularly as ultrasound was rarely used. While only some were suitable for liver transplant, all discussed their future care needs. Participants' experiences of non-malignant ascites are that it has a considerable effect on their quality of life. Patients like the system of day case admission for drainage, but question whether this is sustainable. Advanced practitioners can successfully provide a paracentesis service for these patients in hospitals and potentially this is transferable to hospices. Patients seemed happy to consider the option of semi-permanent drains and pumps as methods of managing ascites.

  12. Vascular remodeling and its role in the pathogenesis of ascites in fast growing commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Nain, S; Wojnarowicz, C; Laarveld, B; Olkowski, A A

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the putative role of blood vessel pathology in the development of ascites in broilers. Major blood vessels (aorta, brachiocephalic arteries, pulmonary arteries, and vena cava) from normal commercial male broiler chickens, and broilers that developed congestive heart failure (CHF) with or without ascites were subjected to gross and microscopic examination. On cross-section, grossly, the arteries from normal broilers and those showing dilated cardiomyopathy without ascites appeared circular, with firm wall tone characteristic of the normal artery. In contrast, the arteries from ascitic broilers appeared flaccid and lacked elasticity, which was evidenced by collapsing, ellipsoid cross-sectional arterial lumen owing to the structural weakness of the arterial walls. Microscopically, ascitic broilers showed thinning or occasionally total loss of elastic elements in the arterial wall, and reduced network density of the structural matrix of the vascular wall, as well as increased thickness of fibers in vena cava. The structural changes seen in the major arteries from ascitic broilers are maladaptive, and as such would definitively impose an increased hemodynamic burden on the already failing heart pump. The changes in veins are indicative of pathological remodeling conducive to increased permeability of the vascular wall, particularly in the situation when a poorly distensible structure is further subjected to wall stress associated with increased pressure and volume overload. Taken together, increased hemodynamic burden and reduced structural density of the venous wall constitute conditions conducive for seepage and accumulation of ascitic fluid.

  13. Moderate Ascites Identifies Patients with Low MELD Awaiting Liver Transplantation with High Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Somsouk, Ma; Kornfield, Rachel; Vittinghoff, Eric; Inadomi, John M.; Biggins, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    Donor livers are offered to patients with the highest risk of death. How ascites may inform risk models to reduce liver transplant wait-list mortality is unclear. All adult candidates for primary liver transplantation for cirrhosis without exception points who were registered with the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network from 2005 to 2007 comprised our study cohort. Using Cox models and advanced discriminative metrics, we evaluated the additional risk discrimination of moderate ascites over that of MELD and MELD plus serum sodium (MELDNa) alone to predict 90-day wait-list mortality with attention to geographic disparities. Additional analyses examined lower mortality risk candidates and those listed in high-demand, low-supply UNOS regions where accounting for ascites may impact wait-list mortality most significantly. Between 2005 and 2007, 18,124 subjects were listed for liver transplantation. Mortality was higher in patients with moderate ascites (15.5% vs. 6.0%, p<0.0001), a risk that persisted despite adjusting for MELD (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.42–1.76) and MELDNa (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.28–1.58). The effect of moderate ascites was more prominent when MELD<21, equating to 4.7 MELD units, or when MELDNa<21, equating to 3.5 MELDNa units. Wait-list mortality was higher in patients with moderate ascites listed in high-demand, limited-supply regions (25.8% vs. 17.5% at one-year, p<0.01). There was improvement in the overall risk model, particularly when MELD<21, with the addition of moderate ascites as measured by the C-index and IDI. Moderate ascites informs risk prediction, particularly when MELD<21 and in high-demand limited-supply regions. Under the MELD system, presence of moderate ascites should prompt clinicians to consider strategies to expand access to transplantation such as extended donor liver grafts. PMID:21280185

  14. Hypobaric hypoxia in ascites resistant and susceptible broiler genetic lines influences gut morphology.

    PubMed

    de los, Santos F Solis; Tellez, G; Farnell, M B; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Pavlidis, H O; Donoghue, A M

    2005-09-01

    Genetic selection based on rapid growth rates, improved feed conversion, and increased body weights has led to a predisposition to ascites in broiler populations. Sire-family selection was applied to a commercial elite line to produce divergent lines of ascites-resistant (RES) and ascites-susceptible (SUS) broilers by the 8th generation. One objective of this research was to determine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on gut morphology in these genetic lines. In two separate trials, pedigree broiler chickens were randomly assigned to cages in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level) or a matching local altitude chamber (390 m above sea level). Ascites incidence was characterized by heart enlargement and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. At the end of the study on d 42, all surviving birds were killed and evaluated for the presence of ascites and 2-cm sections from the duodenum and lower ileum were collected from 5 chickens per line, per altitude for each trial for morphometric analysis. At a high altitude, ascites incidence was lower in the RES line (20.9 and 3.7%) than in the SUS line (86.4 and 66.9%, Trials 1 and 2, respectively). No ascites was observed at a local altitude. Under hypoxic conditions, duodenum villus surface area was higher (P < 0.05) in the RES line (181.3 +/- 16.8 and 219 +/- 10.9 microm) compared with the SUS line (130.1 +/- 10.5 and 134.3 +/- 9.3 microm; Trials 1 and 2, respectively). No differences in ileum villus morphology were observed for any of the parameters measured. The reduced surface area in the duodenum of birds selected for ascites susceptibility suggests reduced enteric function and may provide clues as to why these birds have increased incidence of ascites.

  15. Effect of dietary aspirin on ascites in broilers raised in a hypobaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Huff, W E

    2000-08-01

    During the course of ascites development in broilers, many factors can interact to cause hypoxia. To counteract hypoxia, birds with ascites develop greatly increased hematocrit and red cell counts. Increasing hematocrits result in more viscous blood. Prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of constriction and dilation of pulmonary blood vessels and in the formation of blood clots. Dietary aspirin, a prostaglandin inhibitor, was used in an attempt to promote vasodilation and inhibit blood clotting in broilers, with the objective of determining the effect of aspirin on ascites progression. The experimental design consisted of two trials with a total of 1,360, 1-d-old male broiler chicks, which were placed at either local altitude (390 m above sea level) or in a hypobaric chamber that simulated an altitude of 2,900 m above sea level. At each elevation, five dietary treatments were employed: [control, 0.025% crystalline acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 0.05% aspirin, 0.10% aspirin, and 0.20% aspirin]. Bird and feed weights were recorded weekly. At the end of 5 wk, blood samples and organ weights were collected, and all birds were examined for signs of ascites. In both trials, birds raised at high altitudes were significantly lighter, had a higher incidence of ascites, and had differences in hematology, compared with birds raised at local elevation. Only in Trial 2, however, did dietary aspirin appear to have any effect on ascites incidence. At the 0.20% aspirin level, a reduction in ascites incidence approached significance compared with controls (34% vs. 56%, P < or = 0.06). Unfortunately, birds fed 0.20% aspirin also were significantly (P < or = 0.01) lighter than controls. Because slowing growth rate is known to reduce ascites, this decrease in BW may have been partially responsible for any beneficial effect on ascites development and progression obtained through feeding aspirin.

  16. Disease-induced variability of genetic correlations: ascites in broilers as a case study.

    PubMed

    de Greef, K H; Janss, L L; Vereijken, A L; Pit, R; Gerritsen, C L

    2001-07-01

    Breeding against a production disease is complicated by multiple relationships between productivity, disease, and environment. Ascites in broilers is such a disease. The combination of the reasonably well understood etiology (a physiological/pathological cascade due to inadequate oxygen supply) and the practical relevance makes ascites a relevant case for demonstrating and partly revealing these complex relationships. Chickens (n = 2,788) were tested in an ascites-challenging (cold) environment. Genetic analysis of mortality and pathology in combination with performance and physiological traits (especially blood gas traits) revealed ample opportunities for selection against ascites expression. The genetic correlation structure indicated that different mortality traits and pathology traits roughly represent one common characteristic. Direct selection against pathology is more effective than selection on the basis of growth or blood gas traits. The observed negative correlation (-0.26) between productivity and ascites was unexpected. From the etiology of ascites (inadequate supply of oxygen relative to the demand), a positive (unfavorable) correlation was expected. To demonstrate that the actual disease occurrence caused this apparent contradiction, the data from the undiseased subpopulation were reanalyzed. In the undiseased subpopulation, the genetic correlation between productivity and ascites was positive (0.29). This discrepancy was confirmed by comparing regression of ascites expression on actual performance with regression of ascites on independently assessed performance breeding values. The lability of the genetic correlation was explained from complex interactions between productivity, disease susceptibility, and actual occurrence of the disease. The revealed mechanism can be generalized to other production-related diseases and results in systematically lower genetic correlations between disease and productivity. It was inferred that genetic correlations

  17. Ascites Specific Inhibition of CD1d-Mediated Activation of NKT cells

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Tonya J.; Giuntoli, Robert L.; Rogers, Ophelia; Schneck, Jonathan; Oelke, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigen presented by CD1 molecules. NKT cells can both directly, through cytotoxicity, and indirectly, through activation of other effector cells, mediate anti-tumor immunity. However, it has been shown that tumor associated lipids are frequently shed into the tumor microenvironment, which can mediate immunosuppressive activity. Given that ovarian cancer associated ascites has been reported to have increased levels of gangliosides, we examined the effect of tumor associated and other ascites on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells. Experimental Design To investigate the effects of ascites on NKT cell activation, we pretreated CD1d-expressing cells with the ascites and measured their ability to stimulate cytokine production in NKT cells. To determine whether antigen processing or editing was necessary, CD1d-Ig-based artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) were also incubated with ascites. In addition, to examine specificity, we analyzed whether ascites fluid could influence the activation of classical CD8+ T cells. Results Pretreatment of CD1d-expressing cells with ascites from the majority of patients inhibited the cells’ ability to stimulate/activate NKT cells in a dose-dependent manner. Ascites treatment also partially blocked the ability of α-GalCer loaded CD1d-Ig-based artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) to activate NKT cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that treatment with ascites does not inhibit HLA-A2 mediated activation of classical CD8+ T cells. Conclusions Together, these data suggest that ovarian and other cancers may have developed immune evasion mechanisms specifically targeting the CD1/NKT cell system. PMID:19047090

  18. CCL18 from ascites promotes ovarian cancer cell migration through proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lane, Denis; Matte, Isabelle; Laplante, Claude; Garde-Granger, Perrine; Carignan, Alex; Bessette, Paul; Rancourt, Claudine; Piché, Alain

    2016-09-09

    Ovarian cancer (OC) ascites consist in a proinflammatory tumor environment that is characterized by the presence of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. The presence of these inflammatory-related factors in ascites is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype. CCL18 is a member of CCL chemokines and its expression has been associated with poor prognosis in some cancers. However, its role in OC progression has not been established. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of ascites CCL18 in OC progression. ELISA and tissue microarrays were used to assess CCL18 in ascites and phospho-Pyk2 expression in cancer tissues respectively. Cell migration was assessed using Boyden chambers. CCL18 and ascites signaling was examined in ovarian cancer cells utilizing siRNA and exogenous gene expression. Here, we show that CCL18 levels are markedly increased in advanced serous OC ascites relative to peritoneal effusions from women with benign conditions. Ascites and CCL18 dose-dependently enhanced the migration of OC cell lines CaOV3 and OVCAR3. CCL18 levels in ascites positively correlated with the ability of ascites to promote cell migration. CCL18 blocking antibodies significantly attenuated ascites-induced cell migration. Ascites and CCL18 stimulated the phosphorylation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) in CaOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. Most importantly, the expression of phosphorylated Pyk2 in serous OC tumors was associated with shorter progression-free survival. Furthermore, enforced expression of Pyk2 promoted tumor cell migration while siRNA-mediated downregulation of Pyk2 attenuated cell migration. Downregulation of Pyk2 markedly inhibited ascites and CCL18-induced cell migration. Taken together, our findings establish an important role for CCL18, as a component of ascites, in the migration of tumor cells and identify Pyk2 as prognostic factor and a critical downstream signaling pathway for ascites-induced OC cell migration.

  19. Postoperative Ascites of Unknown Origin following Laparoscopic Appendicectomy: An Unusual Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Feretis, M.; Boyd-Carson, H.; Karim, A.

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative ascites is a very rare complication of laparoscopic surgery. Significant iatrogenic injuries to the bowel, the urinary tract, and the lymphatic system should be excluded promptly to avoid devastating results for the patient. In some cases, in spite of investigating patients extensively, no definitive causative factor for the accumulation of fluid can be identified. In such cases, idiopathic allergic or inflammatory reaction of the peritoneum may be responsible for the development of ascites. We present a case of ascites of an unknown origin in a young female patient following a laparoscopic appendicectomy. PMID:24822146

  20. Ascites and abdominal pseudocyst: two uncommon ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications in two cases.

    PubMed

    Comba, Atakan; Gülenç, Nazlı; Çaltepe, Gönül; Dağçınar, Adnan; Yüce, Özlem; Kalaycı, Ayhan Gazi; Ulus, Aykan

    2013-01-01

    Ascites and abdominal pseudocysts (APC) are two rare complications that can occur following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Both complications are characterized by abnormal intraperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections. Although various factors have been implicated, the exact pathogenesis of the two conditions remains elusive. This paper presents two cases of VP shunt placement resulting from hydrocephaly. The first patient presented with generalized ascites and the other with APC, both of whom were six years old. APC and ascites after VP shunt placement are rare and distinct conditions; therefore, they may require different management strategies.

  1. Evaluation of the factors influencing the radiosensitivity of mouse ascites tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, M.; Tsuboi, A.; Tsuchiya, T.

    1983-02-01

    Factors influencing the radiosensitivity of the newly established mouse ascites tumor TMT-3 line were studied. In vivo radiosensitivity of the tumor cells decreased with the progression of the growth phase in mice. Oxygen depletion was the major cause of the decreased radiosensitivity. Polarographic measurement of the oxygen dissolved in suspension of various cell densities suggested that high cell density such as in the ascites might well cause severe hypoxia. Humoral factors in the ascites and cell-to-cell contact had no effect on tumor cell radiosensitivity when the influence of the repair of potentially lethal damage was excluded.

  2. Application of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration to Gastric Varices Complicating Refractory Ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Tetsuya; Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Sugimoto, Koji; Fujii, Masahiko; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Izaki, Kenta; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-15

    We report two cases of gastric varices complicated by massive ascites that disappeared after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). The first patient had progressive gastric varices that continued to enlarge even after three episodes of esophagogastric variceal bleeding, and the second patient was admitted to our hospital because of the bleeding from gastric varices. After B-RTO procedures in both patients, significant improvement of the ascites, hepatic function reserve, and hypoalbuminemia was observed. Although further experience is needed, our experience points to the likelihood of the amelioration of ascites after B-RTO.

  3. Massive ascites caused by intra-pancreatic arterioportal fistula: a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomoo; Ochi, Yasuhide; Tanaka, Naoki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Iwaya, Yugo; Seki, Ayako; Hara, Etsuo; Tanaka, Eiji; Watanabe, Tomoharu; Imai, Shun; Hasebe, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    An 86-year-old man with a long-term habit of ethanol consumption was admitted due to massive transudate ascites and leg edema. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a dilated main pancreatic duct and atrophied pancreatic parenchyma, leading to the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Moreover, the portal vein was enhanced in the early arterial phase, which indicated the presence of an arterioportal fistula. The fistula was located between the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and the portal vein near a pancreatic retention cyst. Transarterial coil embolization dramatically improved the ascites. Arterioportal fistula and ensuing ascites should be recognized as a complication of chronic pancreatitis.

  4. Role of malignant ascites on human mesothelial cells and their gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant ascites is often present at diagnostic in women with advanced ovarian cancer (OC) and its presence is associated with a worse outcome. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) are key components of malignant ascites. Although the interplay between HPMCs and OC cells is believed to be critical for tumor progression, it has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ascites on HPMCs and clarify the role of HPMCs in OC progression. Methods Human OC ascites and benign peritoneal fluids were assessed for their ability to stimulate HPMC proliferation. Conditioned medium from ascites- and benign fluid-stimulated HPMCs were compared for their ability to attenuate apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We conducted a comparative analysis of global expression changes in ascites-stimulated HPMCs using Agilent oligonucleotide microarrays. Results As compared to benign peritoneal fluids, malignant ascites stimulated the proliferation of HPMCs. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was attenuated in OC cells exposed to conditioned medium from ascites-stimulated HPMCs as compared to OC cells exposed to conditioned medium from benign fluid-stimulated HPMCs. A total of 649 genes were differentially expressed in ascites-stimulated HPMCs. Based on a ratio of more than 1.5-fold and a P < 0.05, 484 genes were up-regulated and 165 genes were down-regulated in ascites-exposed HPMCs. Stimulation of HPMCs with OC ascites resulted in differential expression of genes mainly associated with the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, cell death, cell cycle and cell assembly and organization, compared to benign peritoneal fluids. Top networks up-regulated by OC ascites included Akt and NF-κB survival pathways whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway was down-regulated. Conclusions The results of this study not only provide evidence supporting the importance of the interplay between cancer

  5. Meeting the challenge of ascites in ovarian cancer: new avenues for therapy and research

    PubMed Central

    Kipps, Emma; Tan, David S. P.; Kaye, Stan B.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ascites presents a considerable clinical challenge to the management of ovarian cancer, but also provides a wealth of opportunities for translational research. The accessibility of ascitic fluid and its cellular components make it an excellent source of tumour tissue for the investigation of prognostic and predictive biomarkers, pharmacodynamic markers and for molecular profiling analysis. In this Opinion article, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of its pathophysiology, the development of new methods to characterize its molecular features and how these findings can be used to improve the treatment of malignant ascites, particularly in the context of ovarian cancer. PMID:23426401

  6. Naringenin Ameliorates Doxorubicin Toxicity and Hypoxic Condition in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumor Mouse Model: Evidence from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, Venkatesan; Subburaman, Swathika; Krishna, Arun Venkatesh; Natarajan, Mathivanan; Rathinasamy, Gandhidasan; Ganesan, Kumaresan; Ramachandran, Murugesan

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known cytotoxic agent used extensively as a chemotherapeutic drug to eradicate a wide variety of human cancers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress during DOX treatment can induce cardiac, renal, and hepatic toxicities, which can constrain its use as a potential cytotoxic agent. The present work investigates the antioxidant potential of naringenin (NAR) against DOXinduced toxicities of a Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor-bearing mouse model. Mice were randomized into four groups: a negative control, positive control, DOX (2.5 mg/kg) treated, and DOX (2.5 mg/kg) + NAR (50 mg/kg/d) treated. DOX administration significantly altered the levels of functional markers in blood and antioxidant enzymes in kidney, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and tumor tissues. These changes in antioxidant enzymes and successive lipid peroxidation were prevented by NAR supplementation, resulting in decreases in the risk of toxicity due to DOX therapy. Histopathology results and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) of the tumor microenvironment confirmed this evidence. Using EPRI, pharmacokinetics of the nitroxide, 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (3-CP) was monitored intratumorally before and after chemotherapy. EPRI of the DOX + NAR-treated mouse model showed reduced tumor size with significant modification of the hypoxic condition inside the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, these findings suggest that NAR treatment significantly reduces DOX-induced toxicity and the hypoxic condition in a DLA tumor-bearing mouse model.

  7. Effect of Lawsonia inermis on tumor expression induced by Dalton’s lymphoma ascites in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Priya, R.; Ilavenil, S.; Kaleeswaran, B.; Srigopalram, S.; Ravikumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigating experimentally the possible antitumor effect of ethanol extract of root of Lawsonia inermis against Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) bearing mice. Mice were administered with L. inermis at a dosage of 180 mg/kg of body weight for 15 days after 24 h of DLA inoculation. The ethanolic root extract of L. inermis reverted the increased number of the WBC count, platelets and lymphocytes and decreased the number of the RBC count, hemoglobin content and monocytes. The effect of root extract of L. inermis also increased the pathophysiological marker enzyme, lipid profile and decreased the enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants. A histopathological result shows the loss of liver hepatocytes and kidney architecture in DLA bearing mice. However, mice treatment with L. inermis extract improves the liver and kidney function and rearranges more or less normal architecture. The present work indicates that the ethanol extract of L. inermis exhibited significant antitumor activity. PMID:23961147

  8. [Pancreatic involvement, ascites and diarrhea in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bellaiche, G; Fontaine, H; Choudat, L; Lusina, D; Ley, G; Slama, J L

    1997-01-01

    We report a new case of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome with multivisceral digestive failure. After an erroneous diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, the pathological examination of pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen demonstrated pancreatic fibrosis with eosinophilic infiltration without gastritis or duodenitis. The diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome was made three months later upon the classical criteria: a) blood eosinophilia of 1.5 G/L or more, persisting for more than 6 months; b) lack of evidence for any other recognised cause of eosinophilia: c) multiple organ systemic involvement: rheumatologic, cutaneous and digestive (pancreatitis, ascites and diarrhoea): d) previous history of allergic disease and increased plasmatic IgE levels; e) absence of leukemic markers. This case emphasises the difficulty in classifying eosinophilic infiltration of the gut and the possibility of transitional forms between eosinophilic gastro-enteritis and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. We argue that in case of eosinophilic infiltration of the gut, systematic research of multiple organ systemic involvement is mandatory.

  9. Cancer cachexia: physical activity and muscle force in tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Míriam; Busquets, Sílvia; Sirisi, Sònia; Serpe, Roberto; Orpí, Marcel; Coutinho, Joana; Martínez, Raquel; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Argilés, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma are subjected to substantial weight loss, which is accompanied by anorexia at the end of the tumour cycle. Total physical activity (measured using the IR Actimeter system and Actitrack software) was determined during 11 days in control and tumour-bearing animals, skeletal muscle strength being also by the grip-strength test. The results presented clearly show that the presence of the tumour induces an earlier decrease in physical performance, which affects both skeletal muscle force and physical activity (both locomotor movements and stereotyped movements and distance travelled, among others parameters).

  10. Qa-2 expression levels is related with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes profile during solid Ehrlich tumor development.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Istéfani Luciene; Veloso, Emerson Soares; Gonçalves, Ivy Nayra Nascimento; Braga, Ariadne Duarte; Lopes, Miriam Teresa Paz; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; Quintanilla, Miguel; Simões, Renata Toscano; Ferreira, Enio

    2017-08-01

    The Qa-2 has been described as Human Leucocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) murine homolog. This homology is well accepted to gene and protein structure, in different pathology process and embryos implantation. However, in some neoplasm, this homology is questioned, where Qa-2 has been proposed as an immunogenic molecule, associated to tumor rejection. In this way, the aim of this study was to describe the pattern of Qa-2 expression and its relationship with the profile of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in solid Ehrlich tumor. The Ehrlich tumor growth was evaluated in Balb/c female mice in different tumor stages. The inflammatory infiltration features were determined by histopathology and, both lymphocyte type and tissue Qa-2 expression by immunohistochemistry. ELISA kit was used to determine soluble Qa-2 in the serum from the animals. We observed that Qa-2 in neoplastic cells increases in intermediate tumor development stages, while, serum Qa-2 increases in the late stage. Qa-2 increasing is correlated with CD3+ increase. Our results suggest that Qa-2 has a role opposite to HLA-G in Ehrlich solid carcinoma, and may be modulating the immune response by attracting the inflammatory infiltrate, especially T CD8+ Lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulating ehrlich and demethiolation pathways for alcohols production by the expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Jia, Kai-Zhi; Xia, Shi-Tao; Xu, Yang-Hua; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlich and demethiolation pathways as two competing branches converted amino acid into alcohols. Controlling both pathways offers considerable potential for industrial applications including alcohols overproduction, flavor-quality control and developing new flavors. While how to regulate ehrlich and demethiolation pathways is still not applicable. Taking the conversion of methionine into methionol and methanethiol for example, we constructed two suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of Clonostachys rosea by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology for screening regulators controlling the conversion. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1 screened from forward SSH library was validated to be related with the biosynthesis of end products. Overexpressing HUWE1 in C. rosea and S. cerevisiae significantly increased the biosynthesis of methanethiol and its derivatives in demethiolation pathway, while suppressed the biosynthesis of methional and methionol in ehrlich pathway. These results attained the directional regulation of both pathways by overexpressing HUWE1. Thus, HUWE1 has potential to be a key target for controlling and enhancing alcohols production by metabolic engineering. PMID:26860895

  12. Crystal Structures of Yellowtail Ascites Virus VP4 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ivy Yeuk Wah; Paetzel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Yellowtail ascites virus (YAV) is an aquabirnavirus that causes ascites in yellowtail, a fish often used in sushi. Segment A of the YAV genome codes for a polyprotein (pVP2-VP4-VP3), where processing by its own VP4 protease yields the capsid protein precursor pVP2, the ribonucleoprotein-forming VP3, and free VP4. VP4 protease utilizes the rarely observed serine-lysine catalytic dyad mechanism. Here we have confirmed the existence of an internal cleavage site, preceding the VP4/VP3 cleavage site. The resulting C-terminally truncated enzyme (ending at Ala716) is active, as shown by a trans full-length VP4 cleavage assay and a fluorometric peptide cleavage assay. We present a crystal structure of a native active site YAV VP4 with the internal cleavage site trapped as trans product complexes and trans acyl-enzyme complexes. The acyl-enzyme complexes confirm directly the role of Ser633 as the nucleophile. A crystal structure of the lysine general base mutant (K674A) reveals the acyl-enzyme and empty binding site states of VP4, which allows for the observation of structural changes upon substrate or product binding. These snapshots of three different stages in the VP4 protease reaction mechanism will aid in the design of anti-birnavirus compounds, provide insight into previous site-directed mutagenesis results, and contribute to understanding of the serine-lysine dyad protease mechanism. In addition, we have discovered that this protease contains a channel that leads from the enzyme surface (adjacent to the substrate binding groove) to the active site and the deacylating water. PMID:23511637

  13. A Novel Combination of C-Reactive Protein and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Differential Diagnosis of Ascites.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razik, Ahmed; Mousa, Nasser; Elalfy, Hatem; Sheta, Tarek Fouad; Awad, Mahmoud; Abdelsalam, Mostafa; Elhelaly, Rania; Elzehery, Rasha; Gouda, Nawal S; Eldars, Waleed

    2017-03-01

    Ascites with unknown cause remains a diagnostic challenge, which needs novel noninvasive biomarkers for the precise diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the ascitic fluid and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as diagnostic markers in the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign ascites. In this prospective work, 315 consecutive patients with ascites were studied. Ascitic fluid and serum levels of CRP and VEGF were evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were divided into a benign ascites group (group 1) (n = 256) and a malignant ascites group (group 2) (n = 59). Ascitic and serum CRP were significantly elevated in malignant ascites than benign ascites group [5.08 (3.62-6.58) vs. 1.82 (0.64-3.86) ng/ml; P < 0.001 and 12.7 (8.55-17.05) vs. 5.94 (2.57-10.64) ng/ml; P < 0.001], respectively. Ascitic and serum VEGF were significantly increased in malignant ascites than benign ascites patients [0.68 (0.39-0.96) vs. 0.41 (0.25-0.83) ng/ml; P < 0.001 and 0.74 (0.41-1.08) vs. 0.54 (0.23-0.86) ng/ml; P < 0.001], respectively. At a cutoff value of 7.3 and 0.63 ng/ml, serum CRP and VEGF had specificity (77.3 and 89.5 %) and sensitivity (83.1 and 94.9 %) for detecting malignant ascites [area under the curve (AUC) 0.821, 0.921], respectively. At a cutoff value of 2.5 and 0.57 ng/ml, ascitic CRP and VEGF had specificity (81.6 and 85.5 %) and sensitivity (84.7 and 91.5 %) for detecting malignant ascites (AUC 0.842, 0.894), respectively. Elevated ascitic fluid and serum CRP and VEGF values were related to the malignant ascites.

  14. Pregnancy complicated by haemorrhagic ascites in a woman with newly diagnosed HIV.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Catrin; Nicholls, Kate; Gangat, Nusraat; Sansome, Stafford

    2016-07-29

    A young pregnant Zambian woman was referred from a district hospital in South Zambia to the university teaching hospital, Lusaka with severe anaemia and ascites. The ascites had developed over a month and the woman was currently 15 weeks pregnant. Further workup revealed that the patient was HIV-positive and the ascitic tap showed haemorrhagic fluid. After being reviewed by multiple doctors, the cause of the haemorrhagic ascites remained unclear; therefore, the decision was made to do a laparotomy. The laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a large cyst attached to the liver containing 5 L of bloodstained fluid. The histopathology report revealed features consistent with a giant haemangioma. There were many barriers to accessing optimum healthcare in this case. These included limited access to blood, poor communication resulting in the patient being unaware of her HIV status and lack of patient education about HIV. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Ascites Due to Anastomotic Stenosis After Liver Transplantation Using the Piggyback Technique: Treatment with Endovascular Prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Quiroga, Jorge; Pueyo, Jesus Ciro; Vivas, Isabel; Delgado, Carlos; Pardo, Fernando

    2000-03-15

    Liver transplantation preserving the retrohepatic inferior vena cava, the so-called piggyback technique, is becoming more frequently used because it avoids caval cross-clamping during the anhepatic phase of surgery. However, hepatic venous outflow blockade causing ascites seems to be less infrequent after piggyback than with cavo-caval anastomosis. We report a 62-year-old patient who underwent liver transplantation using the piggyback technique and developed a stenosis in the anastomosis between the hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava leading to severe postoperative ascites. Ascites was unresponsive to diuretic therapy and was associated with renal function impairment. Since the etiology of the stenosis was mechanical (torsion), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was unsuccessful. Finally, an autoexpandable prosthesis was placed across the anastomosis resulting in rapid and permanent (3 years of follow-up) resolution of ascites.

  16. Further investigation of a quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Dey, Shatovisha; Krishna, Sriram; Anthony, Nicholas B; Rhoads, Douglas D

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported a genome wide association study (GWAS) that had shown association of a region between 11.8 and 13.6 Mbp on chromosome 9 with ascites phenotype in broilers. We had used microsatellite loci to demonstrate an association of particular genotypes for this region with ascites in experimental ascites lines and commercial broiler breeder lines. We identified two potential candidate genes, AGTR1 and UTS2D, within that chromosomal region for mediating the quantitative effect. We have now extended our analysis using SNPs for these genes to assess association with resistance or susceptibility to ascites in these same broiler lines. Surprisingly, in contrast to our previous GWAS and microsatellite data for this region, we find no association of the SNP genotypes or haplotypes in the region suggesting that the two genes might have limited association with the disease phenotype. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. A quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Smith, Candace D.; Al-Rubaye, Adnan A.; Erf, Gisela F.; Wideman, Robert F.; Anthony, Nicholas B.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide SNP survey was used to identify chromosomal regions that showed linkage disequilibrium with respect to ascites susceptibility and ventricular hypertrophy in an F2 cross between previously described ascites-resistant and -susceptible lines. Variable number tandem repeats were used to obtain genotype data to further characterize these regions. A region on chromosome 9 (12 to 13 Mbp in 2011 assembly) shows association with ascites in the ascites lines and in several commercial broiler breeder lines with a significant sex effect. There are 2 candidate genes, AGTR1 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and UTS2D (urotensin 2 domain containing), in this region that have been associated with hypertension and hypoxic response in mammals. PMID:24570451

  18. Percutaneous Placement of Peritoneal Port-Catheter in Patients with Malignant Ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Orhan; Akinci, Devrim Gocmen, Rahsan; Cil, Barbaros; Ozmen, Mustafa; Akhan, Okan

    2007-04-15

    We report our experience with a radiologically placed peritoneal port-catheter in palliation of malignant ascites. Port-catheters were successfully placed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance in seven patients (five women, two men) who had symptomatic malignant ascites. The long-term primary patency rate was 100%. The mean duration of catheter function was 148 days. Seven patients had a total of 1040 port-days. Two patients received intraperitoneal chemotherapy via the port-catheter. There were no procedure-related mortality and major complications. Minor complications such as ascitic fluid leakage from the peritoneal entry site, migration of the catheter tip to the right upper quadrant, and reversal of the port reservoir occurred in four patients. None of these complications affected the drainage and required port explantation. In patients with symptomatic malignant ascites, a peritoneal port-catheter can provide palliation and eliminate multiple hospital visits for repeated paracentesis with high patency and low complication rates.

  19. Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Recommendations from two United States Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vinay; Manne, Vignan; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah MS

    2014-01-01

    Cirrhosis affects millions of people throughout the world. Two of the most serious complications of liver cirrhosis are ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The development of ascites is related to the severity of portal hypertension and is an indicator of increased mortality. Although sodium restriction and diuretic therapy have proven effective, some patients may not respond appropriately or develop adverse reactions to diuretic therapy. In such cases, interventions such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement are warranted. SBP is a complication of ascites that confers a very high mortality rate. Recognition and prompt treatment of this condition is essential to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Initiation of prophylaxis in SBP remains controversial. Given the burden of liver cirrhosis on the health care system, ascites and SBP will continue to provide challenges for the primary care provider, hospitalist, internist, and gastroenterologist alike. PMID:25253362