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Sample records for bearing ehrlich ascites

  1. Antitumor Activity of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) Tumor Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, Raju; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Perumal, Perumal; Dhanasekaran, Thangavel; Alvin Jose, Manonmani; Jothimanivannan, Chennakesavalu

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor activity of ethanol extract of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. (EPG) was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor model in Swiss albino mice on dose dependent manner. The activity was assessed using survival time, average increase in body weight, hematological parameters and solid tumor volume. Oral administration of EPG at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg, significantly (p < 0.001) increased the survival time and decreased the average body weight of the tumor bearing mice. After 14 days of inoculation, EPG was able to reverse the changes in the hematological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumor inoculation. Oral administration of EPG was effective in reducing solid tumor mass development induced by EAC cells. The results indicate that EPG possess significant antitumor activity on dose dependent manner. PMID:24250382

  2. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor.

  3. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90.

  4. Role of isothiocyanate conjugate of pterostilbene on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Bodipati, Naganjaneyulu; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-15

    Naturally occurring pterostilbene (PTER) and isothiocyanate (ITC) attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-leukemic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. A novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by introducing an ITC moiety on PTER backbone was evaluated for its anti-cancer efficacy in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro and Ehrlich ascitic tumor bearing mice model in vivo. The novel hybrid molecule showed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity (IC{sub 50}=25±0.38) when compared to reference compound PTER (IC{sub 50}=65±0.42). The conjugate molecule induced both S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest as indicated by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, the conjugate induced cell death was characterized by changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome-c into cytosol and increased Bax: Bcl-2 ratio. The conjugate also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. The conjugate induced cell death was significantly increased in presence of A6730 (a potent Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor). Moreover, the conjugated PTER inhibited tumor growth in Ehrlich ascitic cell induced tumor bearing mice as observed by reduction in tumor volume compared to untreated animals. Collectively, the pro-apoptotic effect of conjugate is mediated through the activation of caspases, and is correlated with the blockade of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Conjugate was prepared by appending isothiocyanate moiety on pterostilbene backbone. • Conjugate showed anticancer effects at comparatively lower dose than pterostilbene. • Conjugate caused blockage of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. • Conjugate significantly reduced solid tumor volume as compared to pterostilbene.

  5. Olmesartan Potentiates the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Sorafenib in Mice Bearing Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma: Role of Angiotensin (1–7)

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alhaseeb, Mohammad M.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Moustafa, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Local renin-angiotensin systems exist in various malignant tumor tissues; this suggests that the main effector peptide, angiotensin II, could act as a key factor in tumor growth. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-angiogenic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers need to be further evaluated. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of olmesartan alone or in combination with sorafenib, an angiotensin (1–7) agonist or an angiotensin (1–7) antagonist in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor was induced by intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into mice. Tumor discs were used to evaluate the microvessel density; the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I); and their intratumoral receptors, VEGF receptor-2 and IGF-I receptor, respectively. All parameters were determined following the treatment course, which lasted for 21 days post-inoculation. Monotherapy with olmesartan and its combination with sorafenib resulted in a significant reduction in microvessel density and serum levels of VEGF and IGF-I, as well as their intratumoral receptors. In addition, the combination of olmesartan (30 mg/kg) with an angiotensin (1–7) agonist reduced the microvessel density, IGF-I serum levels and the levels of its intratumoral receptor. In conclusion, olmesartan reduced the levels of the angiogenesis markers IGF-I and VEGF and down-regulated the intratumoral expression of their receptors in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were dependent on the angiotensin (1–7) receptor. These results suggest that olmesartan is a promising adjuvant to sorafenib in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24465768

  6. Synchronization of replicons in Ehrlich ascites cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gekeler, V.; Probst, H. )

    1988-03-01

    Ehrlich ascites cells, in which replication units at the beginning of the S phase started and grew synchronously, were obtained by the following protocol: (1) selection of G{sub 1} cells by zonal centrifugation, (2) hypoxia for 12 h, (3) reaeration, (4) addition of cycloheximide (30 {mu}M) within the first minute after reoxygenation. Studies on the effectiveness of the different steps revealed: (i) G{sub 1} cells reoxygenated after 12 h of hypoxia traverse two succeeding cell cycles high synchronously. This was shown by monitoring the thymidine incorporation rate, the thymidine pulse-labeling index, and the mitotic index. (ii) Cycloheximide, like hypoxia, suppresses replicon initiation in Ehrlich ascites cells without interfering with DNA chain growth and DNA maturation. The reversibility of the suppression is less complete than in the case of hypoxia. This was shown by DNA fiber autoradiography and by analyzing the length distribution of pulse- or pulse/pulse-chase-labeled daughter DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The alkaline sedimentation patterns of daughter-strand DNA, pulse labeled immediately after the cycloheximide addition at the end of the elaborated protocol and 1 and 2 h later, indicated synchronous initiation and growth of a homogeneous population of DNA molecules to replicon-sized lengths.

  7. Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Özkol, Halil; Musa, Davut; Tuluce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic agent against cancer, and high doses of CP have been known to cause nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Some reports claim that antioxidants can reduce CP-induced toxicity. This study investigated the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L methanolic extract (UDME) against CP toxicity in Erhlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice. Levels of serum hepatic enzymes, renal function markers, and oxidant/antioxidant parameters of liver tissue were measured. Mice were inoculated with EAT on day 0 and treated with nothing else for 24 hours. After a single dose of CP administration on day 1, the extract was given at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight daily during 6 days. Almost all doses of UDME performed a significant (P < 0.05) preventive role against CP toxicity by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels, and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as increasing reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. This suggests that UDME has a protective capacity and antioxidant activity against CP toxicity in EAT-bearing mice, probably by promoting antioxidative defense systems.

  8. Comparison of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, KIN-804, KIN-844, KIN-806 and TX-1877, on brain and liver metabolizing capacities in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abou-Bedair, Farid Ahmed; Hori, Hitoshi; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Abu-Zeid, Medhat; Inayama, Seiichi

    2002-05-01

    The biochemical effects of the 2-nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers KIN-804, KIN-806, and their analogues KIN-844 and TX-1877 on brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and hepatic free radical scavenging systems, such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) levels, and hepatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were evaluated in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The assay of brain AChE revealed nonsignificant changes with all drugs examined. To evaluate the hepatic metabolic capacity, groups of mice were divided into control, EAC-inoculated, 10-Gy local gamma-irradiated, and KIN-804, KIN-844, KIN-806, or TX-1877 (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) groups, and gamma-irradiation was combined with each drug. EAC inoculation markedly suppressed GSH, G-6-PDH, SOD, and catalase levels. On the other hand, treatment with gamma-irradiation significantly enhanced them. The treatment of EAC-bearing mice with each drug alone in the absence of gamma-irradiation revealed that KIN-806 and its derivative TX-1877 showed antitumor activity through their significant recovery of GSH and SOD levels, respectively, in the EAC-bearing mice group. Similarly, the combined treatment of EAC-bearing mice with gamma-irradiation with each of the drugs tested showed that KIN-806 and TX-1877 significantly increased GSH and SOD, and to a lesser extent G-6-PDH and catalase levels. On the other hand, KIN-804 and KIN-844 had only a nonsignificant effect on all parameters examined. In conclusion, these data reveal that the administration of KIN-806 and TX-1877 with or without subsequent gamma-irradiation, resulted in significant recovery of GSH and SOD activities that were inhibited by EAC inoculation.

  9. Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Flávia R F; Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2006-04-25

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides.

  10. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; Latorre, Andreia Oliveira; Zaidan-Dagli, Maria Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the antiproliferative effect of P. cupana treatment in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)-bearing animals. Female mice were treated with three doses of powdered P. cupana (100, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 7 days, injected with 10(5) EAC cells and treated up to day 21. In addition, a survival experiment was carried out with the same protocol. P. cupana decreased the ascites volume (p = 0.0120), cell number (p = 0.0004) and hemorrhage (p = 0.0054). This occurred through a G1-phase arrest (p < 0.01) induced by a decreased gene expression of Cyclin D1 in EAC cells. Furthermore, P. cupana significantly increased the survival of EAC-bearing animals (p = 0.0012). In conclusion, the P. cupana growth control effect in this model was correlated with a decreased expression of cyclin D1 and a G1 phase arrest. These results reinforce the cancer therapeutic potential of this Brazilian plant.

  11. Transport of calcium ions by Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Landry, Y; Lehninger, A L

    1976-08-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells accumulate Ca2+ when incubated aerobically with succinate, phosphate and rotenone, as revealed by isotopic and atomic-absorption measurements. Ca2+ does not stimulate oxygen consumption by carefully prepared Ehrlich cells, but des so when the cells are placed in a hypo-osmotic medium. Neither glutamate nor malate support Ca2+ uptake in 'intact' Ehrlich cells, nor does the endogenous NAD-linked respiration. Ca2+ uptake is completely dependent on mitochondrial energy-coupling mechansims. It was an unexpected finding that maximal Ca2+ uptake supported by succinate requires rotenone, which blocks oxidation of enogenous NAD-linked substrates. Phosphate functions as co-anion for entry of Ca2+. Ca2+ uptake is also supported by extra-cellular ATP; no other nucleoside 5'-di- or tri-phosphate was active. The accumulation of Ca2+ apparently takes place in the mitochondria, since oligomycin and atractyloside inhibit ATP-supported Ca2+ uptake. Glycolysis does not support Ca2+ uptake. Neither free mitochondria released from disrupted cells nor permeability-damaged cells capable of absorbing Trypan Blue were responsible for any large fraction of the total observed energy-coupled Ca2+ uptake. The observations reported also indicate that electron flow through energy-conserving site 1 promotes Ca2+ release from Ehrlich cells and that extra-cellular ATP increase permeability of the cell membrane, allowing both ATP and Ca2+ to enter the cells more readily.

  12. Apoptogenic effects of black tea on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Pal, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; K Datta, Goutam; Sa, Gaurisankar; Das, Tanya

    2003-01-01

    Next to water, tea is the most ancient and widely consumed beverage in the world. Epidemiological studies have suggested a cancer protective effect, but the results obtained so far are not conclusive. In the current study, mechanisms of the apoptogenic effect of black tea extract were delineated. Black tea administration to Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice caused a significant decrease in the tumor cell count in a dose-dependent manner. Flowcytometric analysis showed an increase in the number of cells in the sub-G(0)/G(1) population signifying tumor cell apoptosis by black tea. These results were further confirmed by nuclear staining that demonstrated distinct morphological features of apoptosis. Our data also revealed an increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic protein p53 in EAC. It is known that upon p53 induction, multiple downstream factors contribute to the decision making between growth arrest and apoptosis. Among those, pro-apoptotic gene Bax is up regulated during p53-mediated apoptosis. On the other hand, p53-mediated growth arrest involves p21 as a major effecter. In our system, increase in p53 expression was followed by moderate expression of p21/Waf-1 and high expression of Bax at protein levels. Interestingly, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down regulated resulting in decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. All these observations together signify that black tea-induced apoptogenic signals overrode the growth-arresting message of p21, thereby leading the tumor cells towards death.

  13. Studies of methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) 1: effect on free radical scavenging system in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zeid, M; Hori, H; Nagasawa, H; Uto, Y; Inayama, S

    2000-02-01

    Methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative containing a hydroxamate side chain designed to enhance the radiosensitization response of hypoxic cells. The possible sensitization of tumor tissue by KIN-804 can be evaluated through investigation of the levels of the free radical scavengers; namely, glutathione (GSH) and its complex enzyme system including glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). Female albino mice were inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma in the thigh. Administration of KIN-804 (i.p. 80 mg/kg body weight) was carried out 20 min before localized irradiation of 10 Gy. The data revealed that KIN-804 administration, followed or not by gamma irradiation, resulted in a significant decrease in GSH content in tumor tissues associated with inhibition in GR and G-6-PD activities. Blood GSH-Px was enhanced in tumor inoculated mice and the administration of KIN-804 returned it to the normal value. These changes were more noticeable in tumor bearing mice exposed to both KIN-804 and irradiation.

  14. PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhulika; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Mishra, Sanjay; Kumar, Pradeep; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-01-01

    The clinical success of the applicability of tea polyphenols awaits efficient systemic delivery and bioavailability. Herein, following the concept of nanochemoprevention, which uses nanotechnology for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, we employed tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in a biodegradable nanoparticulate formulation based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with approximately 26% and 18% encapsulation efficiency, respectively. It was observed that TF/EGCG encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) offered an up to ~7-fold dose advantage when compared with bulk TF/EGCG in terms of exerting its antiproliferative effects and also enhanced the anticancer potential of cisplatin (CDDP) in A549 (lung carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia) cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TF/EGCG-NPs were more efficient than bulk TF/EGCG in sensitizing A549 cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis, with a dose advantage of up to 20-fold. Further, TF/EGCG-NPs, alone or in combination with CDDP, were more effective in inhibiting NF-κB activation and in suppressing the expression of cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor, involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, respectively. EGCG and TF-NPs were also found to be more effective than bulk TF/EGCG in inducing the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Further, in vivo evaluation of these NPs in combination with CDDP showed an increase in life span (P<0.05) in mice bearing Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma cells, with apparent regression of tumor volume in comparison with mice treated with bulk doses with CDDP. These results indicate that EGCG and TF-NPs have superior cancer chemosensitization activity when compared with bulk TF/EGCG. PMID:26586942

  15. Chronobiological organization of reproduction of Ehrlich's ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Qu, A.; Stepanenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The rhythms of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis were studied in a hypotetraploid strain of Ehrlich's ascites tumor (EAT) and compared with data obtained previously on the hyperdiploid strain of EAT. Eighty-five noninbred male albino mice were used. An injection of tritium-thymidine, with specific radioactivity of 4.1 Ci/mmole, was given to the mice one hour before sacrifice. The results obtained are presented; it is shown that the number of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypotetraploid strain during the 5th and 6th days of growth of EAT was 503 and 479 /sup 0//00, respectively. Fluctuations of the radioactive index during these days were not significant. Only a significant fall in the radioactive index toward noon on the seventh day of development of the hypotetraploid strain of EAT was observed.

  16. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids.

  17. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  18. Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Jerome J.; Engle, James L.; Rudkin, George T.; Schultz, Jack

    1959-01-01

    A flying spot ultraviolet microscope, employing a fast scan and pulsed operation of the raster, has been used to induce radiation damage in ascites tumor slide cultures, and to study by time-lapse cinematography the progressive stages of cell damage. The cells observed came from a strain (EF7) of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Irradiated cells were found to show a characteristic syndrome of damage, involving blebbing at the cell surface, while control cells in the adjacent areas of the preparation remained unchanged. The end of the blebbing period is marked by swelling of the cells, and the time taken for this phenomenon to occur was used as a measure of the severity of the damage. It was found that the time required for swelling is dependent on the size of the dose employed, as well as on the sensitivity of the cells. This latter sensitivity was found to decline as the physiological age of the tumor increased. If ultraviolet illumination below 255 mµ is excluded, no symptoms of damage occur, even when very large doses are used. These observations are discussed in relation to the nature of the system in the cell which is affected. PMID:13654439

  19. A new boron compound (guanidine biboric acid adduct) as an antitumour agent against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P; Sur, B; Bag, S P; Sur, P

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of a new boron compound of guanidine biboric acid adduct (GB) and guanidium chloride (L1) on the growth of ascites tumour in female Swiss mice were studied by monitoring the survival, tumour weight, tumour cell count, transplantability of Ehrlich ascites cells, precursor incorporation and the haematological parameters of the treated mice. 5-Fluorouracil, a known anticancer drug, was used as a positive control. The most important parameter was the survival time, which increased significantly when tumour-bearing mice were treated with the boron compound. Haematological parameters of the treated animals showed minimum toxic effects when boron was coupled with guanidine.

  20. Internucleotide protein linkers in Ehrlich ascites cell DNA.

    PubMed

    Werner, D; Krauth, W; Hershey, H V

    1980-07-29

    DNA from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is nicked or gapped by a reaction which is induced by proteases such as autodigested pronase, proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin and subtilisin. The cleavage of the protease-sensitive sites is inhibited by protease inhibitors. The nicks or gaps induced by proteases can be demonstrated by nuclease S1 sensitivity of native DNA and by a change of the sedimentation rate of alkali-denatured DNA. The limit size of denatured DNA released after optimal protease treatment is 8.5 x 10(6) daltons (27 kilo bases). The molecular weight of the native DNA pieces released after nuclease S1 degradation of DNA containing the protease-induced nicks or gaps is in the same order indicating that the protease-sensitive sites are alternatively arranged on the opposite DNA strands at an average distance of 13.5 kilo base pairs. Since the protease-induced nicks or gaps in phosphatase-treated DNA are not attacked by Escherichia coli polymerase I, one or both ends liberated by the protease treatment must be blocked by a material other than phosphate groups. The results are most compatible with peptide/protein linkers joining adjacent single-strand DNA subunits. Alternative explanations such as alkali-stable RNA linkers, protein-protected RNA linkers, site-specific nuclease contaminations in the protease preparations or cellular nucleases activated by the protease treatment are eliminated by the results presented in this paper.

  1. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma.

  2. Antineoplasic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus Amboinicus in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandao, Eduardo M.; Brandão, Paulo H. D. M.; Souza, Ivone A.; Paiva, Gerson S.; de C. Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  3. Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. Methods We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Results Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Conclusion Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract. PMID:24274337

  4. Utilization of ascites plasma very low density lipoprotein triglycerides by Ehrlich cells.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, D E; Spector, A A

    1974-07-01

    Much of the lipid present in the ascites plasma in which Ehrlich cells grow is contained in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Chemical measurements indicated that triglycerides were taken up by the cells during in vitro incubation with ascites VLDL. When tracer amounts of radioactive triolein were incorporated into the ascites VLDL, the percentage uptakes of glyceryl tri[1-(14)C]oleate and triglycerides measured chemically were similar. The cells also took up [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate that was added to VLDL, but the percentage of available (3)H recovered in the cell lipids was 30-40% less than that of (1 4)C from glyceryl tri[1-(1 4)C]oleate. This difference was accounted for by water-soluble (3)H that accumulated in the incubation medium, suggesting that extensive hydrolysis accompanied the uptake of VLDL triglycerides. Radioactive fatty acids derived from the VLDL triglycerides were incorporated into cell phospholipids, glycerides, and free fatty acids, and they also were oxidized to CO(2). Triglyceride utilization increased as the VLDL concentration was raised. These results suggest that one function of the ascites plasma VLDL may be to supply fatty acid to the Ehrlich cells and that the availability of fatty acid to this tumor is determined in part by the ascites plasma VLDL concentration. Although Ehrlich cells incorporate almost no free glycerol into triglycerides, considerable amounts of [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate radioactivity were recovered in cell triglycerides. This indicates that at least some VLDL triglycerides were taken up intact. The net uptake of VLDL protein and cholesterol was very small relative to the triglyceride uptake, suggesting that intact triglycerides are transferred from the ascites VLDL to the Ehrlich cells and that hydrolysis occurs after the triglyceride is associated with the cells.

  5. PGE from Octopus aegina Induces Apoptosis in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma of Mice.

    PubMed

    Karthigayan, S; Balasubashini, M Sri; Balasubramanian, T; Somasundaram, S T

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to assess the antitumor effect of venomous peptide from the cephalopod Octopus aegina on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC). Male albino Swiss mice were used in the present study. Four groups of animals were treated with three doses of the sublethal dose of venom, 15, 75, and 150 mug/kg body weight (intraperitoneal injection), along with the standard drug 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg b.w.). After 10 days of treatment, six animals from each group were sacrificed for the biochemical analysis and the rest were left to calculate the mean survival time. In EAC-bearing mice, mean lifespan, tumor volume, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and lymphocytes were significantly decreased when compared to the normal animals. While body weight, neutrophils, and viable tumor cell count were increased in the EAC-bearing mice, these changes were brought back to near normal levels in different treatment groups. The macromolecule concentration of peritoneal cells, such as DNA, RNA, and protein, were altered in the EAC-bearing mice and observed to be near normal in the treatment groups. The caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in the peritoneal cells of the treatment groups when compared to the EAC-bearing mice. The role of apoptotic cascade in EAC cell death was confirmed by the DNA fragmentation on agarose gel. Apart from the antitumor effect, octopus venom reduced the tumor burden on the liver and altered the changes in the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Therefore, the venom from O. aegina has a potential antitumor effect on the EAC-bearing mice.

  6. Enhancement of radiation effect by Aphanamixis polystachya in mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Venkatesha, Venkatasubbaiah Ashoka Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The effect of radiation on tumor tissue can be optimized by adding radiosensitizing agents, in order to achieve a greater degree of tumor damage than expected from the use of either treatment alone. The ethanolic extract of Aphanamixis polystachya (APE) was tested in Swiss albino mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and exposed to various doses of gamma-radiation. EAC mice received 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg body wt APE before exposure to 6 Gy gamma-radiation followed by once daily administration for another 8 consecutive days post-irradiation. The optimum radiosensitizing dose was found to be 50 mg/kg APE that was further tested in EAC mice exposed to 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 Gy hemi body gamma-radiation. The best effect of APE and radiation was observed for 6 Gy gamma-radiation. The splitting of 50 mg into two equal fractions of 25 mg and administering the split dose with a gap of 8 h on 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9 d of tumor inoculation resulted in an increased survival even when the drug was administered at late stages (day 5) of tumor development. The APE treatment before irradiation elevated lipid peroxidation followed by a reduction in the glutathione contents. Treatment of tumor bearing mice with APE before irradiation further reduced the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase at different post last drug administration (PLDA) times.

  7. [Chronobiological analysis of thyroxine action on cell proliferation in the hypotetraploid strain of Ehrlich's ascitic tumor].

    PubMed

    Romanov, Iu A; Stepanenko, V A

    1989-11-01

    Experiments on white random-bred male mice were made to study the effect of L-thyroxine on cell proliferation of the hypotetraploid strain of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma. It was shown that prolonged thyroxine administration (during 6 days of carcinoma growth) lead to synchronization of cell proliferation and the maximum values of the mitotic index was found 3 hours earlier then in the control experiments. At the same time thyroxine did not exert any noticeable effect on the average daily magnitudes of the number of DNA-synthesizing cells and did not change the pattern of modulations in the radioactive index. The changes in the mitotic index and radioactive index were asynchronous in control and experimental animals. Analogous results were found for hyperdiploid strain of Ehrlich's ascites tumor. Ploidy of cells did not influence the tipe rhythms of the cell proliferation and its reaction on the action of thyroxine.

  8. Boric acid enhances in vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell proliferation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S; Al-Shabanah, O A; Al-Harbi, M M; Al-Bekairi, A M; Raza, M

    2001-08-13

    The influence of boric acid, a boron carrier, on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell-bearing mice was investigated in view of its importance in the boron neutron capture therapy and the influence of boron on proliferation and progression of cancer cells mediated by proteoglycans and collagen. The present study included the evaluation of boric acid for the effects on total count and viability of EAC cells in addition to their non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as parameters for conjugative detoxication potency and possible oxidative damage. The EAC cell-bearing animals were also observed for the effect on survival, body weight changes, and histopathological evaluation of the tumors grown at the site of inoculation. The treatment with boric acid significantly increased the total number of peritoneal EAC cells and their viability. A significant increase in the body weight was observed that dose-dependently reached plateau levels by 20 days of treatment. Conversely, a reduction in the duration of survival of these animals was evident with the same protocol. Boric acid treatment resulted in a decrease in NP-SH contents with a concomitant increase in MDA levels in EAC cells as revealed by the results of the biochemical analysis. These data are supported by our results on histopathological investigations, which apparently showed fast growth, in addition to several mitotic figures and mixed inflammatory reaction, after treatment with boric acid. It seems likely that a particular combination of properties of boric acid, rather than a single characteristic alone, will provide useful information on the use of this boron carrier in neutron capture therapy.

  9. Growth inhibition and pro-apoptotic activity of violacein in Ehrlich ascites tumor.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Natália; Dreyfuss, Juliana L; Regatieri, Caio V; Palladino, Marcelly V; Durán, Nelson; Nader, Helena B; Haun, Marcela; Justo, Giselle Z

    2010-06-07

    The continuing threat to biodiversity lends urgency to the need of identification of sustainable source of natural products. This is not so much trouble if there is a microbial source of the compound. Herein, violacein, a natural indolic pigment extracted from Chromobacterium violaceum, was evaluated for its antitumoral potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Evaluation of violacein cytotoxicity using different endpoints indicated that EAT cells were twofold (IC(50)=5.0 microM) more sensitive to the compound than normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro studies indicated that violacein cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated by a rapid (8-12h) production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in intracellular GSH levels, probably due to oxidative stress. Additionally, apoptosis was primarily induced, as demonstrated by an increase in Annexin-V positive cells, concurrently with increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities up to 4.5-, 6.0- and 5.5-fold, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Moreover, doses of 0.1 and 1.0 microg kg(-1) violacein, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to EAT-bearing mice throughout the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. In view of these results, a 35-day toxicity study was conducted in vivo. Complete hematology, biochemistry (ALT, AST and creatinine levels) and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of violacein up to 1000 microg kg(-1) for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity when administered i.p. to mice. Altogether, these results indicate that violacein causes oxidative stress and an imbalance in the antioxidant defense machinery of cells culminating in apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, this is the first report of its antitumor activity in vivo, which occurs in the absence of toxicity to

  10. Antitumour activity of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stellaa; Narayanan, N; Raj Kapoor, B

    2011-04-01

    The antitumour activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf (PCL) and stem bark (PCB) of Prosopis cineraria (L.) in Swiss albino mice was evaluated against an Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumour model. The activity was assessed using survival time, peritoneal cells, haematological studies, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, solid tumour mass and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCL and PCB were found to be potent and possessed significant cytotoxicity towards EAC tumour cells.

  11. The proton stoichiometry of electron transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1979-06-10

    Initial rate measurements of the stoichiometric relationships between H+ ejection, K+ and Ca2+ uptake, and electron transport were carried out on mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells grown in mice. With succinate as substrate and N-ethylmaleimide to prevent interfering H+ reuptake via the phosphate carrier, close to 8 H+ were ejected per oxygen atom reduced (H+/O ejection ratio = 8.0); with the NAD-linked substrates pyruvate or pyruvate + malate, the H+/O ejection ratio was close to 12. The average H+/site ratio (H+ ejected/2e-/energy-conserving site) was thus close to 4. The simultaneous uptake of charge-compensating cations, either K+ (in the presence of valinomycin) or Ca2+, was also measured, yielding average K+/site uptake ratios of very close to 4 and Ca2+/site ratios close to 2. It was also demonstrated that each calcium ion enters the respiring tumor mitochondria carrying two positive electric charges. These stoichiometric data observed in mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells thus are in complete agreement with similar data on normal rat liver and rat heart mitochondria and suggest that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport may be 4 generally. It was also observed that the rate of deltaH+ back-decay in anaerobic tumor mitochondria following oxygen pulses is some 6- to 8-fold greater than in rat liver mitochondria tested at equal amounts of mitochondrial protein.

  12. Chronobiological characteristics of the action of thyroxine of reproduction of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, V.A.; Romanov, Y.A.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the action of thyroxine on cell proliferation in a hyperdiploid strain of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor (EAT) depending on clock time. Five albino mice were given an injection of tritium-thymidine in a dose of 0.5 u Ci/g body weight (specific radioactivity 4.1 Ci/mmole) one hour before sacrifice. On autoradiographs from each animal, during examination of 3000-5000 cells, the number of dividing and DNA-synthesizing cells was counted and mitotic index and radioactive index were calculated and expressed in promille. Parameters method and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by the Fisher-Student method. Differences were considered significant at the P less than 0.05 level.

  13. Immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera freyn and sint seeds on ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Shiwenhui, Chengyufeng; Abudureyimu, Meiliwan; Maimaitiyiming, Dilinuer

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera Freyn and Sint seeds (NGS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Kunming mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAC) were treated with NGS by oral administration. On the 11th day after the EAC implant, mouse thymus, liver, spleen and kidney tumors were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses. Results: The results indicate that NGS treatment leads to an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-2 blood serum levels. Absence of viable EAC and presence of necrotic cells were observed in the tumor tissue of the NGS-treated animals. Conclusions: The study results indicated that a water extract of NGS had the highest anti-tumor effect. Moreover, NGS treatment also showed an increase in the immune system activity. PMID:23929999

  14. THE ISOLATION OF LYSOSOMES FROM EHRLICH ASCITES TUMOR CELLS FOLLOWING PRETREATMENT OF MICE WITH TRITON WR-1339

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Agnes; Baxandall, Jane; Touster, Oscar

    1969-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining highly purified lysosomes from Ehrlich ascites tumo cells grown in mice injected with Triton WR-1339. The isolated particles show a high specific activity for aryl sulfatase, representing an 80–90-fold purification over the homogenate, and a 15–18% yield of the total enzyme activity. Mitochondrial and microsomal marker enzymes are present in negligible amounts (0.2% of the activity of the homogenate). The biochemical evidence for a rather high degree of homogeneity of the fraction is supported by the electron microscopic examination of the purified lysosomes. The intracellular localizations of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase in Ehrlich ascites cells are also reported, the first two being present in highest concentration in the combined mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction and the third in the microsomal fraction. PMID:5792335

  15. The isolation of lysosomes from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells following pretreatment of mice with Triton WR-1339.

    PubMed

    Horvat, A; Baxandall, J; Touster, O

    1969-08-01

    A method is described for obtaining highly purified lysosomes from Ehrlich ascites tumo cells grown in mice injected with Triton WR-1339. The isolated particles show a high specific activity for aryl sulfatase, representing an 80-90-fold purification over the homogenate, and a 15-18% yield of the total enzyme activity. Mitochondrial and microsomal marker enzymes are present in negligible amounts (0.2% of the activity of the homogenate). The biochemical evidence for a rather high degree of homogeneity of the fraction is supported by the electron microscopic examination of the purified lysosomes. The intracellular localizations of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase in Ehrlich ascites cells are also reported, the first two being present in highest concentration in the combined mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction and the third in the microsomal fraction.

  16. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  17. Interactions of lectins with plasma membrane glycoproteins of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Nachbar, M S; Oppenheim, J D; Aull, F

    1976-02-06

    Several aspects of the interaction of various lectins with the surface of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells are described. The order of agglutinating activity for various lectins is Ricinus communis greater than wheat germ greater than or equal to concanavalin A greater than or equal to soybean greater than Limulus polyphemus. No agglutination was noted for Ulex europaeus. Using 125I-labeled lectins it was determined that there are 1.6 and 7 times as many Ricinus communis lectin binding sites for concanavalin A and soybean lectins. Sodium deoxycholate-solubilized plasma membrane material was subjected to lectin affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The lectin receptors of the plasma membrane appeared to be heterogeneous and some qualitative differences could be discerned among the electrophoretically analyzed material, which bound to and was specifically eluted from the various lectin affinity columns. The characteristics of elution of bound material from individual lectin columns indicated secondary hydrophobic interactions between concanavalin A or wheat germ agglutinin and their respective lectin receptor molecules.

  18. Cellular uptake of {sup 212}BiOCl by Ehrlich ascites cells: A dosimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, J.C.; Whitlock, J.L.; Harper, P.V.; Rotmensch, J.; Stinchcomb, T.G.; Schwartz, J.L.; Hines, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Bi-212 is an alpha-emitting radionuclide being investigated as a therapeutic agent in the intraperitoneal treatment of micrometastatic ovarian carcinoma. In evaluating a new therapeutic modality, cell-survival studies are often used as a means of quantifying the biological effects of radiation. In this analysis, Ehrlich ascites cells were irradiated under conditions similar to therapy in various concentrations of Bi-212. Immediately following irradiation, a cell survival assay was performed in which cells were plated and colonies were counted after 10--14 days. Both a macrodosimetric and a microdosimetric approach were used in analyzing these data. These models used as input the fraction of activity within the cell and in solution, the distribution of cell sizes, and the variation of LET along individual alpha-particle tracks. The results indicate that the energy deposited within the nucleus varies significantly among individual cells. There is a small fraction of cell nuclei which receive no hits, while the remaining cells receive energy depositions which can differ significantly from the mean value. These dosimetric parameters are correlated with measured cell survival and will be a useful predictor of outcome for therapeutic doses.

  19. Dinucleosidetetraphosphatase from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells: inhibition by adenosine, guanosine and uridine 5'-tetraphosphates.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Lobatón, C D; Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1982-01-01

    1. An enzyme has been partially purified from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells which specifically hydrolyses dinucleosidetetraphosphates, with Km values of around 2 microM. The products of the hydrolysis are the corresponding nucleoside tri- and monophosphates. Dinucleoside Tri- and diphosphates were not substrates of the reaction. 2. The enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+, is maximally active at a pH value of approx. 7.5 and has a mol, wt of 19,800 as estimated by filtration on Sephadex G-75. Nucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates were competitive inhibitors of the reaction with Ki values in the 0.1 mM range. 3. Particularly relevant is the inhibition of this enzyme by adenosine and guanosine 5'tetraphosphates. In the course of this investigation, the presence of uridine 5'-tetraphosphate was detected in a commercial preparation of UTP. Adenosine, guanosine and uridine 5'-tetraphosphates were very strong inhibitors of the reaction with Ki values in the nM range.

  20. Action of the antitumor and antispermatogenic agent lonidamine on electron transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Floridi, A; Lehninger, A L

    1983-10-01

    The effect of lonidamine, an antispermatogenic and antitumor drug, on the oxygen consumption, ATPase activity, and redox state of the electron carriers of Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria has been studied. Lonidamine inhibits ADP- and uncoupler-stimulated respiration on various NAD- and FAD-linked substrates, but does not affect state 4 respiration. Experiments to determine its site of action showed that lonidamine does not significantly inhibit electron flow through cytochrome oxidase. Electron flow through site 2, the ubiquinone-cytochrome b-cytochrome c1 complex, also was unaffected by lonidamine, which failed to inhibit the oxidation of duroquinol. Moreover, inhibition of electron flow through site 2 was also excluded because of the inability of the N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine bypass to relieve the lonidamine inhibition of the oxidation of pyruvate + malate. The F0F1ATPase activity and vectorial H+ ejection are also unaffected by lonidamine. The inhibition of succinate oxidation by lonidamine was found to take place at a point between succinate and iron-sulfur center S3. Spectroscopic experiments demonstrated that lonidamine inhibits the reduction of mitochondrial NAD+ by pyruvate + malate and other NAD-linked substrates in the transition from state 1 to state 4. However, lonidamine does not inhibit reduction of added NAD+ by submitochondrial vesicles or by soluble purified NAD-linked dehydrogenases. These observations, together with other evidence, suggest that electron transport in tumor mitochondria is inhibited by lonidamine at the dehydrogenase-coenzyme level, particularly when the electron carriers are in a relatively oxidized state and/or when the inner membrane-matrix compartment is in the condensed state. The action of lonidamine in several respects resembles the selective inhibition of electron transport in tumor cells produced by cytotoxic macrophages (D. L. Granger and A. L. Lehninger (1982) J. Cell Biol. 95, 527).

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Baker's Yeast, suppresses the growth of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2008-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in immunocompetent mice. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. At day 8, mice bearing Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma tumor (SEC) were intratumorally (IT) injected with killed S. cerevisiae (10 x 10(6) and 20 x 10(6) cells) for 35 days. Histopathology of yeast-treated mice showed extensive tumor degeneration, apoptosis, and ischemic (coagulative) and liquefactive necrosis. These changes are associated with a tumor growth curve that demonstrates a significant antitumor response that peaked at 35 days. Yeast treatment (20 x 10(6) cells) three times a week resulted in a significant decrease in tumor volume (TV) (67.1%, P < 0.01) as compared to PBS-treated mice. The effect was determined to be dependent on dose and frequency. Yeast administered three and two times per week induced significant decrease in TV as early as 9 and 25 days post-treatment, respectively. Administration of yeast significantly enhanced the recruitment of leukocytes, including macrophages, into the tumors and triggered apoptosis in SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry (78.6%, P < 0.01) at 20 x 10(6) cells, as compared to PBS-treated mice (42.6%). In addition, yeast treatment elevated TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma plasma levels and lowered the elevated IL-10 levels. No adverse side effects from the yeast treatment were observed, including feeding/drinking cycle and life activity patterns. Indeed, yeast-treated mice showed significant final body weight gain (+21.5%, P < 0.01) at day 35. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancer with yeast, which is known to be safe for human consumption.

  2. Virus - tumor cell relationships. In vivo cocultivation of para-influenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and of Rous sarcoma virus (Schmidt-Ruppin strain) in mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Chira, M; Suru, M; Repanovici, R; Anghelescu, S

    1985-01-01

    Co-infection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice with Sendai virus and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) did not result in the formation of complete RSV. Sendai virus could be, however, propagated in this system over 8 serial passages. As demonstrated by immunofluorescence and complement fixation reactions, antigens specific to each virus were synthesized in EAC cells following either single or mixed virus infection. The virus progens also contained antigenic fractions incorporated from the host cell. The incomplete progens synthesized when RSV inoculation preceded that of Sendai virus possessed three polypeptide fractions characteristic of Sendai virus and one RSV-specific fraction.

  3. In vivo tumor inhibitory effects of nutritional rice bran supplement MGN-3/Biobran on Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Ghoneum, Mamdooh

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anti-tumor activity of MGN-3/Biobran, a modified arabinoxylan rice bran. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. On Day 8, mice bearing a solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) tumor were treated with MGN-3 via intraperitoneal injection. Tumor growth, cytokine production, and apoptotic effect of MGN-3 were examined. MGN-3 caused a highly significant delay in both tumor volume (63.27%) and tumor weight (45.2%) as compared to controls (P < 0.01). The mechanisms by which MGN-3 exerts its antitumor effect seem to involve its ability to induce apoptosis and immune modulation. MGN-3 induced a 1.8-fold increase in the percentage of apoptotic SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry and the histopathological examination. In addition, MGN-3 influenced plasma cytokine production by increasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, while downregulating levels of the immune suppressing cytokine interleukin-10. Data also showed that non-tumor-bearing mice intramuscularly injected with MGN-3 resulted in a twofold increase in natural killer activity. No adverse side effects due to MGN-3 treatment were observed; all animals displayed normal feeding/drinking and life activity patterns. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancers.

  4. A p-menth-1-ene-4,7-diol (EC-1) from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dhnh. triggers apoptosis and cell cycle changes in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farhadul; Khanam, Jahan Ara; Khatun, Mahbuba; Zuberi, Natasha; Khatun, Laboni; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Reza, Md Abu; Ali, M M; Rabbi, M A; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2015-04-01

    Anticancer activities of p-menth-1-ene-4,7-diol (EC-1) isolated from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dhnh. were studied on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Anticancer activities also analyzed in EAC-bearing mice by assessment of cancer growth inhibition, changes in cancer volume, changes in life span, and hematological parameters. Apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence microscope, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, PARP-1, p53, and Bax, were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). EC-1 significantly inhibited proliferation of EAC cells in vivo and restored the altered hematological parameters of EAC-bearing mice. Cytological observation by fluorescence microscope showed apoptosis of EAC cells upon treatment with EC-1. Also, DNA fragmentation assay revealed EAC cells' apoptosis following EC-1 treatment. Increased mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax genes and negative expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X were observed in cells treated with EC-1. These findings confirmed the induction of apoptosis by EC-1. In addition, MTT assay showed dose-dependent anticancer activity of EC-1 against EAC cell. Cell cycle analysis revealed that EC-1 treatment caused suppression of EAC cells at S phase. To conclude, EC-1 is a novel anticancer compound and showed antiproliferative and apoptotic activities in cellular and mice models.

  5. Morphogenesis of Influenza A Virus in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells as Revealed by Thin-Sectioning and Freeze-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Bächi, T.; Gerhard, W.; Lindenmann, J.; Mühlethaler, K.

    1969-01-01

    The budding of a tumor-adapted strain of influenza A0 virus at the surface of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by electron microscopy. Thin sections of budding sites showed the formation of a fuzzy coat on the outside of the cell membrane and simultaneously the apposition of a dark layer on the inner side. The continuity of cellular and viral membrane seemed to be preserved up to the point where the virion remained attached by only a thin stalk. Freeze-etching of virus budding sites yielded pictures in which a clear differentiation between the viral membrane and the host cell membrane was visible. The breaks across the fuzzy coat revealed striations corresponding to the “spikes” seen in negative contrast, whereas tangentially broken virus particles were best interpreted by assuming that splitting occurred midway between the two outer layers of the envelope. Images PMID:5391162

  6. Inhibition by 2,5-anhydromannitol of glycolysis in isolated rat hepatocytes and in Ehrlich ascites cells.

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, P T; Kneer, N M; Wernette-Hammond, M E; Lardy, H A

    1985-01-01

    2,5-Anhydromannitol decreases lactate formation and 3H2O formation from [5-3H]glucose in isolated rat hepatocytes metabolizing high concentrations of glucose. The inhibition of glycolysis is accompanied by a slight decrease in the cellular content of fructose-6-P and a more substantial decrease in the cellular content of fructose-1,6-P2, with no change in the content of glucose-6-P. The 3H2O release data and changes in hexosephosphate distribution indicate possible inhibitions at phosphofructokinase-1 and phosphoglucose isomerase. 2,5-Anhydromannitol also inhibits glycolysis in Ehrlich ascites cells, but the tumor cells, unlike hepatocytes, must be treated with 2,5-anhydromannitol prior to exposure to glucose to obtain the inhibition. The decrease in 3H2O formation from [5-3H]glucose and the metabolite pattern that results from the addition of low concentrations (less than or equal to 0.25 mM) of 2,5-anhydromannitol indicate an inhibition at phosphofructokinase-1 that cannot be attributed to a decrease in the cellular content of fructose-2,6-P2. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 0.5 mM) of 2,5-anhydromannitol cause a substantial decrease in the cellular content of ATP that is accompanied by decreases in the content of glucose-6-P and fructose-6-P and transient increases in fructose-1,6-P2. In Ehrlich ascites cells, 2,5-anhydromannitol is metabolized to 2,5-anhydromannitol mono- and bisphosphate. The inhibition of glycolysis caused by 2,5-anhydromanitol decreases with time, because the phosphorylated metabolites formed during the preliminary incubation in the absence of glucose are rapidly dephosphorylated during the incubation in the presence of glucose. PMID:3155858

  7. Characteristics of the accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate derivatives in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.W.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    The intracellular synthesis and retention of polygammaglutamyl derivatives of methotrexate and their interactions with H/sub 2/ folate reductase was evaluated. Methotrexate polyglutamates were detected within 15 minutes in hepatocytes exposed to 1 microM methotrexate, and continued to accumulate for at least 60 minutes producing a large transmembrane gradient. These derivatives appeared to be preferentially retained within the cell. In studies with the Ehrlich ascites tumor accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates was increased over 5-fold by the addition of 5 mM L-glutamine or L-glutamate and exhibited a positive correlation with the extracellular concentration of methotrexate. When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were exposed to 10 microM methotrexate and 5 mM L-glutamine intracellular polyglutamates were detected within 10 minutes and their levels increased linearly over 4 hours. As these derivatives accumulated, there was a decline in intracellular methotrexate due at least in part to a replacement of methotrexate on H/sub 2/ folate reductase by polyglutamates and subsequent efflux of the previously bound methotrexate from the cell. When polyglutamate derivatives were in excess of the H/sub 2/ folate reductase binding capacity and extracellular methotrexate removed, methotrexate rapidly exited the cell whereas the majority of its metabolites were retained and eventually saturated the major portion of the enzyme. These studies indicate that (1) intracellular methotrexate is rapidly converted to polygammaglutamyl derivatives, (2) these metabolites effectively compete with methotrexate for binding sites on H/sub 2/ folate reductase, (3) these derivatives are retained within the cell more effectively than methotrexate, and (4) vincristine and probenecid may be potentially useful for selectively increasing methotrexate polyglutamates in tumor cells.

  8. Prooxidative effect of copper--metallothionein in the acute cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Suntres, Zacharias E; Lui, Edmund M K

    2006-01-16

    This study was concerned with the role of copper (Cu) and Cu-metallothionein (Cu-MT) in oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative injury was examined in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells isolated from host mice pretreated with 0, 1 or 2mg of CuSO(4) (ip) 24h earlier. Control Ehrlich cells contained low levels of Cu and Cu treatment produced dose-related increases in cellular Cu and Cu-MT levels and corresponding increases in sensitivity to oxidative toxicity of H(2)O(2) (LC(50), cell blebbing, lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)](i)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment also resulted in the oxidation of MT thiolates, reduction in the binding of Cu to MT resulting in translocation of Cu to other subcellular sites. d-penicillamine, a Cu-chelating agent, obliterated the sensitization effect of Cu-pretreatment and reduced the redistribution of MT-bound Cu, suggesting the participation of Cu ions derived from MT in promoting oxidant stress. Additional experiments with desferoxamine and mannitol have revealed the involvement of a Cu-dependent Fenton reaction in the mediation of the prooxidative effect of Cu-MT. These data suggest that cells with high levels of Cu-MT may be particularly susceptible to oxidative stress.

  9. Effect of various doses of chalone-containing alcohol precipitate from Ehrlich's ascites tumor on mitotic activity and DNA synthesis in that tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsak, N.Ya.; Romanov, Yu.A.; Antokhin, A.I.

    1987-06-01

    Experiments were carried out on noninbred male albino mice to assess the effects of varying doses of chalone-containing alcohol precipitates on mitotic activity and DNA synthesis in Ehrlich ascites tumor. Histological preparations of the tumor and small intestine were made by standard methods. Hydrolysis of the tumor in HCl was carried out before application of the nuclear photographic emulsion in order to prepare autoradiographs of the tumor. Tritium-labelled thymidine was injected as the radioactive marker.

  10. Long-Term Treatment with Aqueous Garlic and/or Tomato Suspensions Decreases Ehrlich Ascites Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bom, Jenifer; Gunutzmann, Patrícia; Hurtado, Elizabeth C Pérez; Maragno-Correa, Jussara M R; Kleeb, Silvia Regina; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive and therapeutic effects of aqueous suspensions of garlic, tomato, and garlic + tomato in the development of experimental Ehrlich tumors in mice. The aqueous suspensions (2%) were administered over a short term for 30 days before tumor inoculation and 12 days afterward, and suspensions at 6% were administered for 180 days before inoculation and for 12 days afterward. The volume, number, and characteristics of the tumor cells and AgNOR counts were determined to compare the different treatments. Aqueous 6% suspensions of garlic, tomato, and garlic + tomato given over the long term significantly reduced tumor growth but when given over the short term, they did not alter tumor growth.

  11. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  12. Inhibition of electron flow through complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Dutta, S; Halder, J; Ray, M

    1994-10-01

    The effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption of Ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma (EAC)-cell mitochondria was tested by using different respiratory substrates, electron donors at different segments of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and site-specific inhibitors to identify the specific respiratory complex which might be involved in the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption by these cells. The results indicate that methylglyoxal strongly inhibits ADP-stimulated alpha-oxo-glutarate and malate plus pyruvate-dependent respiration, whereas, at a much higher concentration, methylglyoxal fails to inhibit succinate-dependent respiration. Methylglyoxal also fails to inhibit respiration which is initiated by duroquinol, an artificial electron donor. Moreover, methylglyoxal cannot inhibit oxygen consumption when the NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine by-pass is used. The inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is identical on both ADP-stimulated and uncoupler-stimulated respiration. Lactaldehyde, a catabolite of methylglyoxal, can exert a protective effect on the inhibition of EAC-cell mitochondrial respiration by methylglyoxal. We suggest that methylglyoxal possibly inhibits the electron flow through complex I of the EAC-cell mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  13. Damage effects of protoporphyrin IX - sonodynamic therapy on the cytoskeletal F-actin of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Liu, Quanhong; Tang, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Gong, Liyan; Wang, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report evidence of the damage effects of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on a novel intracellular target, cytoskeletal F-actin, that has great importance for cancer treatment. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells suspended in PBS were exposed to ultrasound at 1.34 MHz for up to 60s in the presence and absence of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). To evaluate the polymeric state and distribution of actin filaments (AF) we employed FITC-Phalloidin staining. The percentage of cells with intact AF was decreased with 10-80 microM PPIX after ultrasonic exposure, while only few cells with disturbed F-actin were observed with 80 microM PPIX alone. The fluorescence intensity of FITC-Phalloidin labeled cells was detected by flow cytometry. The morphological changes of EAC cells were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33258 to determine apoptosis. Cytoskeletal F-actin and cell morphological changes were dependent on the time after SDT. Some cells suffered deformations of plasma membrane as blebs that reacted positively to FITC-Phalloidin at 2h after SDT treatment. Many of the cells showed the typically apoptotic chromatin fragmentation. The alterations were more significant 4h later. Our results showed that cytoskeletal F-actin might represent an important target for the SDT treatment and the observed effect on F-actin and the subsequent bleb formation mainly due to apoptosis formation due to the treatment.

  14. Ultrastructural changes produced in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanins

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.J.; Pawlowski, A.; Persad, S.D.; Menon, I.A.; Haberman, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in the presence of pheomelanin, i.e., red hair melanin (RHM), has been reported to produce extensive cell lysis. Irradiation in the presence of eumelanin, i.e., black hair melanin (BHM), or irradiation in the absence of either type of melanin did not produce this effect. We observed that RHM particles penetrated the cell membrane without apparent structural damage to the cell or the cell membrane. Irradiation of the cells in the absence of melanin did not produce any changes in the ultrastructure of the cells. Incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM produced only minor structural, mainly cytoplasmic changes. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of RHM produced extensive ultrastructural changes prior to complete cell lysis; these changes were more severe than the effects of incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM. When the cells incubated in the dark or irradiated in the presence of latex particles or either one of the eumelanins particles, viz. BHM or synthetic dopa melanin, these particles did not penetrate into the cells or produce any ultrastructural changes. These particles were in fact not even ingested by the cells.

  15. M3 Macrophages Stop Division of Tumor Cells In Vitro and Extend Survival of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Yuri; Raetskaya, Anastasiya; Malyshev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Background M1 macrophages target tumor cells. However, many tumors produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, which reprogram the anti-tumor M1 macrophages into the pro-tumor M2 macrophages. We have hypothesized that the problem of pro-tumor macrophage reprogramming could be solved by using a special M3 switch phenotype. The M3 macrophages, in contrast to the M1 macrophages, should respond to anti-inflammatory cytokines by increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to retain its anti-tumor properties. Objectives of the study were to form an M3 switch phenotype in vitro and to evaluate the effect of M3 macrophages on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. Material/Methods Tumor growth was initiated by an intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells into C57BL/6J mice. Results 1) The M3 switch phenotype can be programed by activation of M1-reprogramming pathways with simultaneous inhibition of the M2 phenotype transcription factors, STAT3, STAT6, and/or SMAD3. 2) M3 macrophages exerted an anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo, which was superior to anti-tumor effects of cisplatin or M1 macrophages. 3) The anti-tumor effect of M3 macrophages was due to their anti-proliferative effect. Conclusions Development of new biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth using in vitro reprogrammed M3 macrophages is very promising. PMID:28123171

  16. The bioflavonoid galangin suppresses the growth of ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss Albino mice: a molecular insight.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Jai V; Wadegaonkar, Prasad A; Hajare, Sunil W

    2012-07-01

    Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancer caused by various stress conditions. Galangin (4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-), a flavonoid, is a polyphenolic compound found primarily in medicinal herb, Alpinia galanga. This study aims to demonstrate the galangin as a pharmacological lead compound using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico model targeting specific cancer condition and proteins. The proliferation of MCF-7 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was significantly inhibited with an IC₅₀ of 34.11 and 22.29 μg/ml, respectively. In an animal model system, galangin has inhibited the tumor growth by 73.51% ± 4.742 in EAC-induced Swiss Albino mice with no evidences of mortality as compared to standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. The effectiveness of galangin is proven in an animal system suggesting its pharmacokinetics behavior in an animal model which is also complemented by outcome of in silico analysis with more than 88 % of human intestinal absorption and significant Caco-2 cell, MDCK cell, and skin permeability as predicted by in silico methods. Galangin was docked against 19 different proteins involved in tumorogenesis and apoptosis; the energetic analysis indicates that it exhibits higher predicted binding free energy of -12.7 kcal/mol with Bcl-xL protein.

  17. Genetic constraints in the induction of the immune response to Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    Marusic, M.; Perkins, E.H.

    1981-07-15

    A single injection of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells induces immunity in normal mice but fails to do so in T-cell-deficient-thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (TIR) mice. TIR mice injected with normal syngeneic T cells develop an immune response to EAT when injected with irradiated EAT cells and reject a subsequent tumor cell challenge. In the present studies allogeneic T cells were unable to protect against EAT in TIR recipients even if harvested from donors tolerant to the recipient's transplantation antigens and injected into the TIR mice tolerant to the transplantation antigens of the injected T cells. Tolerance was produced by establishing long-term radiation chimeras of the P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ type. Semiallogeneic T cells also failed to afford protection against EAT in TIR recipients. Whereas tolerance to other parental-strain transplantation antigens did not reverse the inability of parental T cells (cells from P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ chimeric donors) to protect against EAT in F/sub 1/ TIR mice, it did enable F/sub 1/ T cells to afford protection in P ..-->.. F/sub 1/ TIR mice.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial activity and DNA content in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by dual parameter flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, T; Löffler, M

    1989-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were permeabilized using low concentrations of digitonin, 8 micrograms/10(6) cells. Permeabilization was monitored by the assay of lactate dehydrogenase released into the incubation medium and of hexokinase partially bound to mitochondria. Integrity of the cellular organelles was unaffected as determined by assay of the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. Cells were stained with rhodamine 123 as a mitochondrial specific dye and propidium iodide/mithramycin as DNA specific dyes. The green fluorescence of bound rhodamine 123 versus red fluorescence of DNA in individual cells was analysed by dual parameter flow cytometry. Incubation of cells with inhibitors of mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as, potassium cyanide and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished binding of rhodamine 123. Flow cytometric data allowed a correlation between cell position in the mitotic cycle with total mitochondrial activity. In addition, comparison of the characteristics of propidium iodide and ethidium bromide staining further elucidated the molecular basis of the staining with the positively-charged fluorescent dye rhodamine 123.

  19. Disposition of 1,4,6,8-tetramethyl-furoquinolinone in normal and ascitic tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Rita; Baccichetti, Francarosa; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Guiotto, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    1,4,6,8-Tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3h]quinolin-2-one (FQ) belongs to a series of furocoumarin isosters, designed to obtain new drugs for photochemotherapy. The objective of this study was to characterize the disposition of orally administered 3H-FQ in normal and ascitic tumor bearing mice and to evaluate the influence of UVA irradiation in control mice. This compound was rapidly absorbed and its decay in serum was biphasic. Binding to serum proteins, which was maximum at 30 min (74 %), time-dependently declined. FQ was distributed to all the studied tissues, primarily to the liver and kidneys. The administered radioactivity was excreted mostly in the urine (43 %) and was associated with polar metabolites. The unchanged compound was not present to any detectable extent in the urine. Elimination in the faeces, that may include FQ not absorbed, was low (14 % of administered radioactivity), emphasizing the quantitatively efficient gastrointestinal absorption of the drug. UVA irradiation of FQ-treated mice for 2 h caused a significant increase in radioactivity measured in serum as well as in the liver. In mice bearing Ehrlich ascitic tumor, serum and tissue concentrations were lower than in control animals, possibly due to the larger volume of body fluids (10+/-4 ml of ascitic fluid) available for drug distribution.

  20. Fluorescent redox dyes. 1. Production of fluorescent formazan by unstimulated and phorbol ester- or digitonin-stimulated Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Stellmach, J

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of a new series of tetrazolium salts to red fluorescent formazans by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is described. The qualitative effect on this reaction of two cell surface-active compounds and of six exogenous electron carriers was investigated by varying the incubation conditions. After incubation of Ehrlich ascites cells with the new colourless, water soluble 5-cyan-2.3-ditolyltetrazolium salts, bright red water-insoluble formazan crystals on the cell surface can be observed under fluorescence microscopy. The production of formazan is enhanced by 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or digitonin (DIG), two potent stimulators of oxygen consumption or by the electron carriers phenazine methosulphate (PMS), 1-methoxy-phenazine methosulphate (MPMS), meldola blue (MB), methylene blue (MTB), and 2.6-dichlorindophenol (DCIP). These results provide further evidence for the existence of redox enzymes bound to the plasma membrane of intact ascites cells and for a free radical mechanism of tetrazolium salt reduction. The fluorescence property of the new redox dyes offers the advantage of high sensitivity. Moreover, their greater homogeneity relative to the commonly used di-tetrazolium salts lowers the chances of misinterpretations due to impurities. The possible application of these new mono-tetrazolium salts to cytochemical investigations of oxidative metabolic reactions is discussed.

  1. Solanum tuberosum lectin inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells growth by inducing apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Rahman, Md Musfikur; Amin, Ruhul; Karim, Md Rezaul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Hossain, M Tofazzal

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a lectin was purified from the potato cultivated in Bangladesh locally known as Sheel. In the present study cytotoxicity of the lectin against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was studied by MTT assay in vitro in RPMI-1640 medium and 8.0-36.0 % cell growth inhibition was observed at the range of 2.5-160 μg/ml protein concentration when incubated for 24 h. The lectin-induced apoptosis in EAC cells was confirmed by fluorescence and optical microscope. The apoptotic cell death was also confirmed by using caspase inhibitors. Cells growth inhibition caused by the lectin (36 %) was remarkably decreased to 7.6 and 22.3 % respectively in the presence of caspase-3 and -8 inhibitors. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-X, p53, and Bax. An intensive expression of Bcl-X gene was observed in untreated control EAC cells with the disappeared of the gene in Sheel-treated EAC cells. At the same time, Bax gene expression appeared only in Sheel-treated EAC cells and the expression level of the p53 gene was increased remarkable after the treatment of EAC cells with the lectin. The lectin showed strong agglutination activity against EAC cells. Flow cytometry was used to study the cell cycle phases of EAC cells and it was observed that the lectin arrested the G2/M phase. In conclusion, Sheel lectin inhibited EAC cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

  2. Boswellic acids synergize antitumor activity and protect against the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in mice bearing Ehrlich's carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa A; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether boswellic acids add to the antitumor effects of doxorubicin against solid tumors of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) grown in mice, and to investigate the protective effects of boswellic acids against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Sixty-four female Swiss albino mice bearing EAC solid tumors were distributed among 8 groups as follows: group 1, EAC control group; group 2, doxorubicin treatment group [mice were injected with doxorubicin (6 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·week(-1)) for 3 weeks]; groups 3-5, these mice were treated with boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively; groups 6-8, these mice were treated with a combination of doxorubicin and boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively, for 3 weeks. The results indicated that boswellic acids synergized the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-treated mice showed elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB as well as cardiac malondialdehyde. Further, decreases in cardiac levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed. These effects were accompanied by an increase in cardiac expression of caspase 3. Thus, treatment with boswellic acids attenuated doxorubicin-evoked disturbances in the above-mentioned parameters, highlighting antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Therefore, boswellic acids could be potential candidates for ameliorating the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin.

  3. Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of two classes of 5,6-dihydrothymidine derivatives. Action on the Ehrlich's ascites cells thymidine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Teoule, R; Fouque, B; Cadet, J

    1975-01-01

    Trans (+) and (-) 6-alkoxy-5-bromo-5,6 dihydrothymidine and trans (+) and (-) 6-alkoyloxy-5-bromo-5,6-dihydrothymidine compounds have been prepared. The synthesis of these substances (alkoxy : methoxy, ethoxy, butyloxy and isoamyloxy and alkoyloxy : acetoxy and bensovloxy) is described. Diastereoisomers of all products have been isolated by thin layer chromatography and their spectroscopic properties (IR, UV, NMR, mass spectrometry) studied. These compounds have been shown to be competitive inhibitors of Ehrlich's ascites cells thymidine kinase with respect ot thymidine. PMID:1169761

  4. Virus--tumor host cell relationships. In vivo cocultivation of adenovirus type 5 and of SV40 in mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Chira, M; Hozoc, M; Athanasiu, P; Teleguţă, L; Suru, M; Stoian, M; Pirvu, C

    1982-01-01

    Mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells proved to be a semipermissive substrate for in vivo cultivation of adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and SV40. The multiplication of SV40 in EAC cells was facilitated by the coinfection with Ad5. As demonstrated by ID and EID reactions, the virus progens isolated at the first passage after the mixed infection of EAC cells with Ad5 and SV40 possess an antigenic mosaic with fractions characteristic of the parental viruses and of the cell substrate in which they had cultivated in vitro and in vivo. The progens gave positive seroneutralization and complement fixation reactions only with antiserum to SV40.

  5. Antineoplastic and cytogenetic effects of chlorpromazine on human lymphocytes in vitro and on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lialiaris, Theodore S; Papachristou, Fotini; Mourelatos, Constantine; Simopoulou, Maria

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of phenothiazines in tumor growth and cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo has been established. These reports motivated us to investigate the genotoxic, cytotoxic, and cytostatic potential of chlorpromazine, alone or in combination with mitomycin C, in vitro and in vivo. Sister chromatid exchange levels were assessed providing a quantitative index of genotoxicity. In-vitro studies were performed on human lymphocyte cultures and in-vivo studies involved Ehrilch ascites tumor (EAT) cells. An antitumour study was also conducted on the survival time and the ascitic volume in EAT-bearing Balb/C mice. The combination of chlorpromazine plus caffeine and mitomycin C exerted cytostatic and cytotoxic actions in human lymphocytes. The combination of chlorpromazine plus mitomycin C exerted cytostatic and cytotoxic actions in EAT cells, significantly increased the survival span of the mice inoculated with EAT cells, and suppressed the expected tumor growth increase. The findings of this basic study illustrate that high chlorpromazine concentrations increase chemotherapeutic effectiveness of mitomycin C. Chlorpromazine concentrations within the observed human plasma concentration range need to be tested along with antineoplastic agents in vitro for its synergistic action so as to evaluate a potential clinical application. Further investigation including other phenothiazines, biological systems, and cancer models is required.

  6. Effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol and other metabolic inhibitors on the thermograms of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells registered with a microcalorimeter.

    PubMed

    Ito, E; Sakihama, H; Toyama, K; Matsui, K

    1984-05-01

    The heat produced by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was measured microcalorimetrically to investigate the characteristics of the energetics of these cells. 2,4-Dinitrophenol and other inhibitors were used to obtain the standard thermograms. The heat level of starved Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (endogenous) was almost constant and linear and depended on the cell number used in the experiments (about 1 cal/1 X 10(8) cells/hr). The endogenous heat generation was suppressed strongly by potassium cyanide but not by iodoacetic acid or 2,4-dinitrophenol. On the other hand, heat evolution was directly related to the amount of glucose added to the medium but not to the number of cells (19 cal/mmol of glucose). The addition of iodoacetic acid markedly suppressed heat generation, but potassium cyanide did not. In contrast, glucose with dinitrophenol increased heat production markedly to about 10% higher than that of the control, possibly due to the uncoupled energy from oxidative phosphorylation. Malonic acid (1 mM) suppressed slightly the endogenous heat but caused a 15% reduction in exogenous heat. The amount of heat produced by the addition of glucose (19 cal/mmol) was equivalent to 40% of the theoretical value of energy released through glycolysis (47 cal/mmol). Thus, the heat produced by exogenous glucose appears to be mainly dependent on glycolysis.

  7. Hyaluronic acid grafted PLGA copolymer nanoparticles enhance the targeted delivery of Bromelain in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-08-01

    Rapidly increasing malignant neoplastic disease demands immediate attention. Several dietary compounds have recently emerged as strong anti-cancerous agents. Among, Bromelain (BL), a protease from pineapple plant, was used to enhance its anti-cancerous efficacy using nanotechnology. In lieu of this, hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted PLGA copolymer, having tumor targeting ability, was developed. BL was encapsulated in copolymer to obtain BL-copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) that ranged between 140 to 281nm in size. NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in cells with high CD44 expression as compared with non-targeted NPs. In vivo results on tumor bearing mice showed that NPs were efficient in suppressing the tumor growth. Hence, the formulation could be used as a self-targeting drug delivery cargo for the remission of cancer.

  8. Effects of alkylation and immunopotentiation against Ehrlich ascites murine carcinoma in vivo using novel tetra-O-acetate haloacetamido carbohydrate analogs.

    PubMed

    Trendowski, Matthew; Christen, Timothy D; Zoino, Joseph N; Fondy, Thomas P

    2015-06-15

    Tetra-O-acetate haloacetamido carbohydrate analogs (Tet-OAHCs) are novel alkylating agents that appear to have alkylating activity at the plasma membrane, specificity against neoplastic cells, and may potentiate host leukocyte influx. This study sought to characterize the chemical attributes and in vivo activity of Tet-OAHCs. Four Tet-OAHCs were assessed for their partition coefficient and alkylating activity to determine cellular environments where adduct formation would be favorable. In vitro, IC50 values of all four Tet-OAHCs were determined against Ehrlich ascites murine carcinoma, as well as two leukemias (U937 human monocytic leukemia and L1210 murine lymphoid leukemia) to assess their cytotoxicity in multiple neoplastic cell lines. In vivo, B6D2F1 and CD2F1 mice were challenged i.p. with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma prior to, or after being treated with a single dose of one of the analogs. Finally, a quantitative comparison of host leukocyte influx between Tet-OAHCs and other alkylating agents was performed to confirm previous in vivo observations that the tetra-O-acetate carbohydrate moiety is important for inducing a host leukocyte response in murine models. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Tet-OAHCs appear to demonstrate high alkylating activity in amphiphilic environments. 2) All four congeners have comparable in vitro cytotoxicities against the neoplastic cell lines examined. 3) The analogs demonstrate marked in vivo activity in both B6D2F1 and CD2F1 mice challenged with a lethal dose of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, and frequently produce long term survival at 60 days, which is not observed in simple halo derivatives or two currently approved antineoplastic agents (daunorubicin and mechlorethamine). These effects are observed when the agents are administered either before or after the tumor challenge. 4) The carbohydrate moiety appears to be important for potentiating host leukocyte influx, as Tet-OAHCs, but not other alkylating agents

  9. Cell content of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells in response to cell volume perturbations in anisotonic and in isosmotic media.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Doris K; Jensen, Annelie Kolbjørn; Harbak, Henrik; Christensen, Søren C; Simonsen, Lars Ole

    2007-08-01

    The labelling pattern of cellular phosphoinositides (PtdInsP(n)) was studied in Ehrlich ascites cells labelled in vivo for 24 h with myo-[2-(3)H]- or l-myo-[1-(3)H]inositol and exposed to anisotonic or isosmotic volume perturbations. In parallel experiments the cell volume ([(14)C]3-OMG space) was monitored. In hypotonic media the cells initially swelled osmotically and subsequently as expected showed a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. Concurrently, the cell content of PtdInsP(2) showed a marked, transient decrease and the content of PtdInsP a small, transient increase. The changes in PtdInsP(2) and PtdInsP content increased progressively with the extent of hypotonicity (in the range 1.00-0.50 relative osmolarity). No evidence was found for either hydrolysis of PtdInsP(2) or formation of PtdInsP(3). In hypertonic medium (relative osmolarity 1.50), cells initially shrank osmotically and subsequently as expected showed a small regulatory volume increase (RVI) response. Concurrently, the cell content of PtdInsP(2) showed a marked increase and the content of PtdInsP a small decrease, i.e. changes in the opposite direction of those seen in hypotonic media. In isosmotic media with high (100 mm) or low (0.8 mm) K(+) concentration, cells slowly swelled or shrank due to uptake or loss of isosmotic KCl. Under these conditions, with largely unchanged intracellular ionic strength, the cell content of PtdInsP(2) and PtdInsP remained constant. Our results show that PtdInsP(2) is not volume sensitive per se, and moreover that the regulatory volume adjustments in Ehrlich ascites cells are not mediated by PtdInsP(2) hydrolysis and its subsequent production of second messengers. The simplest interpretation of the observed effects would be that PtdInsP(2) is controlled by ionic strength, probably via activation/inhibition of phosphoinositide-specific phosphatases/kinases. In Ehrlich ascites cells, as shown previously, the opposing ion channels and transporters activated

  10. In vitro conversion of MVM parvovirus single-stranded DNA to the replicative form by DNA polymerase alpha from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, E A; Rankin, C D

    1982-01-01

    A partially purified preparation of DNA polymerase alpha, obtained from the cytosol of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, has been found to catalyze the conversion of MVM parvovirus, SS DNA (5 kilobases) to RF in vitro. The reaction initiates at a natural 55 base pair hairpin which exists at the 3' terminus of MVM SS DNA. The SS leads to RF conversion is sensitive to aphidicolin, resistant to ddTTP and is promoted by purine ribonucleoside 5' triphosphates, a phenomenon which could not be explained simply by stabilization effects on the in vitro deoxynucleotide precursor pool. In the absence of rNTPs, nascent complementary strands frequently terminate prematurely at a preferred location, between 1300 and 1700 nucleotides from the initiating 3' hairpin terminus. This in vitro system, involving self-primed parvovirus DNA synthesis, provides a convenient assay for those components of the mammalian replicative DNA polymerase complex which are required for the elongation of nascent DNA chains. Images PMID:6812024

  11. (Accumulation of methyl-deficient rat liver messenger ribonucleic acid on ethionine administration). Progress report. [Methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and effects of phorbol ester on methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, E.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme fractions were isolated from Ehrlich ascites cells which introduced methyl groups into methyl deficient rat liver mRNA and unmethylated vaccinia mRNA. The methyl groups were incorporated at the 5' end into cap 1 structures by the viral enzyme, whereas both cap 0 and cap 1 structures were formed by the Ehrlich ascites cell enzymes. Preliminary results indicate the presence of adenine N/sup 6/-methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites cells. These results indicate that mRNA deficient in 5'-cap methylation and in internal methylation of adenine accumulated in rats on exposure to ethionine. The methyl-deficient mRNA isolated from the liver of ethionine-fed rats differed in its translational properties from mRNA isolated from control animals. Preliminary experiments indicate that single topical application of 17n moles of TPA to mouse skin altered tRNA methyltransferases. The extent of methylation was increased over 2-fold in mouse skin treated with TPA for 48 hours. These changes have been observed as early as 12 hours following TPA treatment. In contrast, the application of initiating dose of DMBA had no effect on these enzymes. It should be emphasized that the changes in tRNA methyltransferases produced by TPA are not merely an increase of the concentration of the enzyme, rather that they represent alterations of specificity of a battery of enzymes. In turn the change in enzyme specificity can produce alterations in the structure of tRNA. (ERB)

  12. Magnetite Nanoparticles Inhibit Tumor Growth and Upregulate the Expression of P53/P16 in Ehrlich Solid Carcinoma Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bassiony, Heba; Sabet, Salwa; Salah El-Din, Taher A.; Mohamed, Mona M.; El-Ghor, Akmal A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used as contrast agents and have promising approaches in cancer treatment. In the present study we used Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC) bearing mice as a model to investigate MNPs antitumor activity, their effect on expression of p53 and p16 genes as an indicator for apoptotic induction in tumor tissues. Method MNPs coated with ascorbic acid (size: 25.0±5.0 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized. Ehrlich mice model were treated with MNPs using 60 mg/Kg day by day for 14 injections; intratumorally (IT) or intraperitoneally (IP). Tumor size, pathological changes and iron content in tumor and normal muscle tissues were assessed. We also assessed changes in expression levels of p53 and p16 genes in addition to p53 protein level by immunohistochemistry. Results Our results revealed that tumor growth was significantly reduced by IT and IP MNPs injection compared to untreated tumor. A significant increase in p53 and p16 mRNA expression was detected in Ehrlich solid tumors of IT and IP treated groups compared to untreated Ehrlich solid tumor. This increase was accompanied with increase in p53 protein expression. It is worth mentioning that no significant difference in expression of p53 and p16 could be detected between IT ESC and control group. Conclusion MNPs might be more effective in breast cancer treatment if injected intratumorally to be directed to the tumor tissues. PMID:25375144

  13. Sialoadhesin expression by bone marrow macrophages derived from Ehrlich-tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, S; Ruiz de Morales, J M; Rullas, J; Danilets, M G; Subiza, J L

    1999-12-01

    Sialoadhesin (sheep erythrocyte receptor, SER) is a macrophage-restricted adhesion molecule that binds certain sialylated ligands. It is borne by bone marrow stromal macrophages, promoting the interaction with developing myeloid cells, and by a subset of tissue macrophages involved in antigen presentation and activation of tumor-reactive T cells. The expression of sialoadhesin on SER+ macrophages is not constitutive but requires the continuous supply of a sialoadhesin-inducing serum factor. Tumor growth is often associated with marked alterations of myelopoiesis and impairment of T cell activation; yet the expression of sialoadhesin in macrophages derived from tumor bearers has not been addressed. The aim of this study was to assess whether Ehrlich tumor (ET) - a murine mammary carcinoma - growth may modify the sialoadhesin expression by bone marrow macrophages and/or sialoadhesin-inducing activity in ET-bearing sera. Moreover, putative functional sialoadhesin inhibitors produced by ET cells were tested. The results indicate that bone marrow cells from ET bearers show a seven- to eight-fold decrease in SER+ cells as detected by flow cytometry. This is accompanied by an overall decrease in sheep erythrocyte binding to tumor-bearer-derived bone marrow cells, but also by lower numbers of plastic-adherent cells. Functional sialoadhesin expression is preserved at the single-cell level and no inhibitors are found in ET-bearing sera or ET cell culture supernatants. Tumor progression does not impair the sialoadhesin-inducing activity of ET-bearing sera, or the ability of SER- macrophages (e.g. peritoneal macrophages) to respond to such an induction. In conclusion, while SER+ macrophages are greatly decreased in bone marrow from ET bearers, this is not due to a down-regulation of sialoadhesin expression, nor to an impairment of sialoadhesin-inducing factor or to the presence of sialoadhesin-binding moieties of tumor origin, but, more likely, to a decrease of fully mature

  14. Probing of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell using in situ aggregates of Au-NPs as SERS label created by plasmon exciting hybrid- TEM*11 laser mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Mehta, D. S.; Saraswati, S.; Shakher, C.

    2012-02-01

    Apart from commonly employed target-specific labeling/adsorption of antibodies over Au-NPs surface for the creation of localized aggregates, an alternative approach using optical tweezers (OT) driven by hybrid-TEM*11 mode has been devised and exploited for in vitro detection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC) relying on enhanced scattering. Intra-cavity generated spatially featured asymmetric (SFA) laser beam (λ = 532 nm) has effected simultaneous trapping of mice-EAC cells and in-situ crowd/assembly of incubated Au-NPs/small gold nano-aggregates (created from two or more individual Au-NPs). Relatively larger focus spot created by tightly focused SFA beam than frequently employed Gaussian-mode in OT has offered an extended working area and hence dilute heating has taken care of EAC cells. GNA improves significantly the sensitivity of diagnostics relying on scattered light and the safety and efficacy of therapeutic nanotechnologies for the diseases of cancer and vascular system in medicine.

  15. A fluorescent redox dye. Influence of several substrates and electron carriers on the tetrazolium salt-formazan reaction of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Stellmach, J; Severin, E

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed to elaborate the best conditions for measuring the redox activity of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells by using a new tetrazolium salt, cyantolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). This tetrazolium salt forms a fluorescent water-insoluble formazan on reduction on the surface of intact vital cells. The influences of fixation and of various substrates and electron carriers on the cellular reduction of CTC were investigated quantitatively using an elution technique. The amount of formazan obtained after incubating vital cells with Meldola Blue as electron carrier was greater than that obtained with Methylene Blue, menadione, 2,6-dichloroindophenol, 1-methoxyphenazine methosulphate or phenazine methosulphate. Using flow cytometry, the formazan production per cell and, after staining the nuclear DNA, the distribution of the redox activity in the cell population can be visualized with satisfactory resolution. We conclude from our findings that dehydrogenases are only partially involved in the reduction of tetrazolium salts by intact cells and that a redox activity, probably related to a cell membrane-bound NAD(P)H-oxidase system, is mainly measured.

  16. Turnover of (/sup 14/C)thiamin and activities of thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes in tissues of mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Trebukhina, R.V.; Ostrovsky, Y.M.; Shapot, V.S.; Mikhaltsevich, G.N.; Tumanov, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    Turnover of (/sup 14/C)thiamin was studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma fed a thiamin-deficient diet and injected with 5 or 2 micrograms/mouse of the labeled vitamin. The process of conversion of (/sup 14/C)thiamin to thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) was monitored by measuring the activities of transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. The amount of coenzyme-unsaturated apotransketolase was assessed by measuring the TPP effect--determining transketolase activity with and without the addition of TPP in vitro. Tumor growth was accompanied by thiamin deficiency, manifested in an increase in (/sup 14/C)thiamin incorporation into the host tissues and the absence of saturation of the tissues with the labeled vitamin over 13 days. Increased values for the turnover coefficients, reduction of thiamin-dependent enzyme activities, elevation of the TPP effect, and a decrease in urinary excretion of the radioactive products also provided evidence for a disturbance in thiamin metabolism. The severity of the disturbance in thiamin metabolism during malignant tumor growth was directly related to the dose of the exogenous vitamin.

  17. Identity-based High-performance thin Layer Chromatography Fingerprinting Profile and Tumor Inhibitory Potential of Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nilesh; Lobo, Richard; Kumar, Nimmy; Bhagat, Jay Kumar; Mathew, Jessy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) wall belonging to the family Lamiaceae is a plant that is widely used in folk medicine for treating eczema, cold, cough, and fever. Objective: In the present study, we explored the anticancer potential of A. carnosus leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and estimated the quantity of luteolin present in various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. Materials and Methods: Various factors such as tumor volume, tumor cell viability, tumor weight, prolongation of lifespan, and hematological parameters were assessed. Result: We observed a significant lowering in tumor volume, tumor weight, and cell viability in EAC-induced mice following intervention with A. carnosus extracts. Also, there was a considerable prolongation of host lifespan and restoration of hematological parameters to almost normal levels with A. carnosus treatment. HPTLC fingerprinting of various extracts and fractions of A. carnosus along with luteolin as the reference standard revealed the occurrence of luteolin in all tested extracts and fractions of A. carnosus with the highest concentration being reported in the ethanol fraction. Conclusion: A. carnosus exhibits potent anti-tumor potential which can most likely be attributed to the occurrence of different phytochemicals such as phytosterols, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the plant. Further studies to isolate compounds from A. carnosus and understand the mechanism of anti-tumor activity would be worthwhile. SUMMARY EAC induced mice that received A. carnosus treatment exhibited significant reduction in tumor volume, tumor weight and tumor cell viability. Their life span was considerably prolonged. We detected luteolin in A. carnosus aqueous and ethanol extract using HPTLC. Hence, anticancer activity of A. carnosus can be partly attributed to the presence of luteolin. PMID:26929584

  18. The activity against Ehrlich's ascites tumors of doxorubicin contained in self assembled, cell receptor targeted nanoparticle with simultaneous oral delivery of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lipika; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2013-04-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known anticancer drug used for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. However, undesired toxicity of DOX limits its uses. To address the issue of minimizing toxicity of DOX by making it targeted towards cancer cells, DOX was entrapped in self-assembled 6-O-(3-hexadecyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-hyaluronic acid (HDHA) nanoparticles. We hypothesized that by encapsulating the drug in biodegradable nanoparticles, its therapeutic efficacy would improve, if targeted against cancer cells. We synthesized cell receptor targeted, DOX loaded HDHA nanoparticles (NPs) and non-targeted DOX loaded O-hexadecylated dextran (HDD) nanoparticles (NPs) and characterized them for their entrapment efficiency, percent yield, drug load, surface morphology, particle size and in vitro drug release. The anticancer efficacy of DOX loaded HDHA-NPs was evaluated by measuring the changes in tumor volumes, tumor weights, and mean survival rate of Swiss albino mice grafted with Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. For this, the animals were given HDHA-DOX-NPs (1.5 mg/kg b.wt.) intravenously and a green tea polyphenol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (20 mg/kg b.wt.), orally through gavage. The targeted NP dose with EGCG significantly increased mean survival time of the animals and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of the drug compared to the non-targeted NPs and free DOX. Further, we showed that these NPs (HDD and HDHA) were more active in the presence of EGCG than DOX alone in inducing apoptosis in EAC cells as evident by an increase in sub-G1 cells (percent), Annexin V positive cells and chromatin condensation along with the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The study demonstrates that DOX loaded HDHA-NPs along with EGCG significantly inhibit the growth of EAC cells with ∼38-fold dose advantage compared to DOX alone and thus opens a new dimension in cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Effects of ultraviolet-visible irradiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, I.A.; Persad, S.; Ranadive, N.S.; Haberman, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the possibility that ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of pheomelanin may be more harmful to cells than the irradiation in the presence of eumelanin. The effects of UV-visible irradiation upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of the melanin isolated from human black hair (eumelanin) or from red hair (pheomelanin) were investigated. Irradiation of these cells was found to produce cell lysis, as observed by leakage of 51Cr from labeled cells and intracellular lactic dehydrogenase from the cells and decrease in cell viability demonstrated by the trypan blue exclusion test. The three parameters were quantitatively parallel to one another under various experimental conditions, namely different periods of irradiation and irradiation in the presence of different concentrations of melanin. The above effects were more pronounced when the irradiation was carried out in the presence of melanin from red hair than in the presence of black-hair melanin. In the absence of either melanin, the irradiation did not produce any significant effect in cell viability or cell lysis. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of red-hair melanin also decreased the transplantability of these cells. These observations clearly show that irradiation of cells in the presence of pheomelanin could produce cytotoxic effects. The present experimental design may have application in the development of in vitro models for the study of UV radiation-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. The reactions of pheomelanin may be related to the susceptibility of ''Celtic'' skin to UV radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

  20. Cholesterol modulates the volume-regulated anion current in Ehrlich-Lettre ascites cells via effects on Rho and F-actin.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-10-01

    The mechanisms controlling the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the modulation of VRAC by cellular cholesterol and the potential involvement of F-actin, Rho, Rho kinase, and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] in this process. In Ehrlich-Lettre ascites (ELA) cells, a current with biophysical and pharmacological properties characteristic of VRAC was activated by hypotonic swelling. A 44% increase in cellular cholesterol content had no detectable effects on F-actin organization or VRAC activity. A 47% reduction in cellular cholesterol content increased cortical and stress fiber-associated F-actin content in swollen cells. Cholesterol depletion increased VRAC activation rate and maximal current after a modest (15%), but not after a severe (36%) reduction in extracellular osmolarity. The cholesterol depletion-induced increase in maximal VRAC current was prevented by F-actin disruption using latrunculin B (LB), while the current activation rate was unaffected by LB, but dependent on Rho kinase. Rho activity was decreased by approximately 20% in modestly, and approximately 50% in severely swollen cells. In modestly swollen cells, this reduction was prevented by cholesterol depletion, which also increased isotonic Rho activity. Thrombin, which stimulates Rho and causes actin polymerization, potentiated VRAC in modestly swollen cells. VRAC activity was unaffected by inclusion of a water-soluble PtdIns(4,5)P(2) analogue or a PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-blocking antibody in the pipette, or neomycin treatment to sequester PtdIns(4,5)P(2). It is suggested that in ELA cells, F-actin and Rho-Rho kinase modulate VRAC magnitude and activation rate, respectively, and that cholesterol depletion potentiates VRAC at least in part by preventing the hypotonicity-induced decrease in Rho activity and eliciting actin polymerization.

  1. The effect of atebrine and an acridine analog (BCMA) on the coenzyme fluorescence spectra of cultured melanoma and Ehrlich ascites (EL2) cells.

    PubMed

    Viallet, P; Kohen, E; Schachtschabel, D O; Marty, A; Salmon, J M; Kohen, C; Leising, H B; Thorell, B

    1978-09-15

    Coenzyme fluorescence spectra of single living cells are due to free pyridine nucleotides (folded configuration), bound pyridine nucleotides (unfolded configuration) and a third component, possibly a mixture or flavins. Such spectra can be used to recognize possible differences in coenzyme composition between cell lines or changes of metabolic pathways due to chemicals acting at levels below or above cytotoxicity, by high resolution spectrofluorometry. A study of spectra recorded from cultured Ehrlich ascites (EL2), and Harding Passey melanoma cells (HPM-67 and HPM-73 line) grown under comparable conditions, shows that free NAD(P)H predominates in HPM-67 and EL2, while this coenzyme is bound in HPM-73. The free/bound ratio may be profoundly modifed by chemicals, e.g. in the HPM-73 increase of free and decrease of bound NAD(P)H occurred upon treatment with 10(-6) oligomycin. When atebrine at levels (10(-6) M) below cytotoxicity was added, there was a decrease of the free NAD(P)H spectrum possibly through energy transfer from NAD(P)H to atebrine. Consideration of long range energy transfer i.e., excitation of atebrine by fluorescence of NAD(P)H vs. short range transfer of excitation energy from free NAD(P)H to atebrine, favors the latter mechanism. A transient (reversible) increase in atebrine fluorescence is seen following intracellular microinjection of substrate (e.g. glucose-6-P) leading to an increase in free NAD(P)H. At cytotoxic levels of atebrine (e.g 2 x 10(-5) M) an irreversible increase of atebrine fluorescence is seen. The microspectrofluorometric technique appears therefore well suited to study physiological processes at the level of intracellular coenzymes, as well as possible processes of intermolecular energy transfer in the microenvironment.

  2. The influence of 1-10 kD fraction from brains of the hibernating ground squirrel and the Yakut horse on proliferation and protein synthesizing system of Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Grischenko, V I; Tereschenko, O S; Shchenyavcky, I J

    2005-01-01

    The experimental data presented in the work testify to the cytostatic activity of 1-10 kD polypeptide fractions from brains of the hibernating ground squirrel and the Yakut horse towards Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma (EAC) cells. The experiments on the investigation of the inhibiting influence of 1-10 kD fractions from tissues of the hibernating and cold-adapted animals on protein-synthesizing system of EAC cells allow us to conclude that the cytostatic effect of the fractions is effected at the genetic level in the tumor cells.

  3. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation

  4. The synergistic effect between vanillin and doxorubicin in ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Younis, Nahla N; Shaheen, Mohamed A; Elseweidy, Mohamed M

    2016-09-01

    Despite the remarkable anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX), its clinical application is limited due to multiple organ toxicities. Products with less side effects are therefore highly requested. The current study investigated the anti-cancer activities of vanillin against breast cancer and possible synergistic potentiation of DOX chemotherapeutic effects by vanillin. Vanillin (100mg/kg), DOX (2mg/kg) and their combination were administered i.p. to solid Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice for 21days. MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was treated with vanillin (1 and 2mM), DOX (100μM) or their combination. Protection against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity was studied in rats that received vanillin (100mg/kg, ip) for 10days with a single dose of DOX (15mg/kg) on day 6. Vanillin exerted anticancer effects comparable to DOX and synergesticlly potentiated DOX anticancer effects both in-vivo and in-vitro. The anticancer potency of vanillin in-vivo was mediated via apoptosis and antioxidant capacity. It also offered an in-vitro growth inhibitory effect and cytotoxicity mediated by apoptosis (increased caspase-9 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio) along with anti-metasasis effect. Vanillin protected against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In conclusion, vanillin can be a potential lead molecule for the development of non-toxic agents for the treatment of breast cancer either alone or combined with DOX.

  5. Biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomal cisplatin administered in Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, José Geraldo Coimbra; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Leite, Elaine Amaral; Maroni, Laís de Carvalho; Wainstein, Alberto Julius Alves; Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Savassi-Rocha, Paulo Roberto; Pereira, Márcio Tadeu; de Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; De Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2011-07-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents and has been widely used in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. However, CDDP, a low-molecular-weight compound, is rapidly absorbed by the capillaries in the i.p. serosa and transferred to the bloodstream, inducing the appearance of systemic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the i.p. CDDP chemotherapy is limited to patients whose residual tumor nodules are less than 0.5 cm in diameter after surgical debulking. The failure of i.p. therapy is attributed to the poor penetration of CDDP into larger tumors. One strategy to improve drug delivery in the peritoneal region and reduce toxicity is the use of drug delivery systems. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP), as compared with free CDDP, after their i.p. administration in Ehrlich ascitic tumor-bearing mice. After administering a 6 mg/kg single i.p. bolus injection of either free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP, ascitic fluid (AF), blood and organs (kidneys, liver, spleen and lungs) were collected and analyzed for CDDP content. The area under the CDDP concentration-time curve (AUC) obtained for AF and blood after SpHL-CDDP administration was 3.3-fold larger and 1.3-fold lower, respectively, when compared with free CDDP treatment, thus indicating its high retention within the peritoneal cavity. The determination of the ratio between AUC in each tissue and that in blood (Kp) showed a lower accumulation of CDDP in kidneys after SpHL-CDDP treatment. The SpHL-CDDP treatment demonstrated a significant uptake by the liver and spleen. SpHL-CDDP treatment led to a higher survival rate of mice with initial or disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis than CDDP treatment. These results indicate that SpHL-CDDP may be useful for i.p. chemotherapy due to their greater concentration in the peritoneal

  6. Synthesis, Structure, Electrochemistry, and Spectral Characterization of Bis-Isatin Thiocarbohydrazone Metal Complexes and Their Antitumor Activity Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sathisha, M. P.; Revankar, V. K.; Pai, K. S. R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry, and biological studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of thiocarbohydrazone ligand are described. The ligand is synthesized starting from thiocarbohydrazide and isatin. It is evident from the IR data that in all the complexes, only one part of the ligand is coordinated to the metal ion resulting mononuclear complexes. The ligand coordinates essentially through the carbonyl oxygen of the isatin fragment, the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group, and sulfur atom after deprotonation to give five membered rings. H1 NMR spectrum of the ligand shows only one set of signals for the aromatic protons, while the NH of isatin and NH of hydrazone give rise to two different singlets in the 11–14 ppm range. The formulations, [Cu(L)Cl]·2H2O, [Cu(L)(CH3COO)]·2H2O, [Ni(L)Cl], [Ni(L)(CH3COO)], [Co(L2)], and [Zn(L2)]·2H2O are in accordance with elemental analyses, physical, and spectroscopic measurements. The complexes are soluble in organic solvents. Molar conductance values in DMF indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes. Copper complex displays quasireversible cyclic voltametric responses with Ep near −0.659 v and 0.504 v Vs Ag/AgCl at the scan rate of 0.1 V/s. Copper(II) complexes show a single line EPR signals. For the observed magnetic moment and electronic spectral data possible explanation has been discussed. From all the available data, the probable structures for the complexes have been proposed. The compounds synthesized in present study have shown promising cytotoxic activity when screened using the in vitro method and at the same time were shown to have good activity when tested using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model. The antimicrobial screening showed that the cobalt complex possesses enhanced antimicrobial activity towards fungi. PMID:18320020

  7. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia for treatment of Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice: toxicological and histopathological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Yamamoto, Kelly Reis; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Matos, Breno Noronha; de Almeida, Marcos Célio; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; de Souza Filho, José; Fernandes, Juliana Menezes Soares; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2014-04-01

    Dextran-functionalized maghemite fluid (DexMF) has been tested to treat Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice, evidencing its potential use in mediating magnetohyperthermia in breast cancer treatment. However, although magnetic nanoparticles tend to accumulate in tumor tissues, part of the nanomaterial can reach the blood stream, and then the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute systemic effects of the intratumoral injection of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in the treatment of an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, assessed through histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, heart and spleen, comet assay, micronucleus test, hemogram, and serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and urea. The tumor's histopathology and morphometry were used to assess its aggressiveness and regression. DexMF mediating hyperthermia was effective in containing tumor aggressiveness and in inducing tumor regression, besides showing no toxic effects. Its physical characteristics also suggest that it is safe to use in other biomedical applications.

  8. Formation and utilization of acetoin, an unusual product of pyruvate metabolism by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-07-15

    [14C]Pyruvate was rapidly non-oxidatively decarboxylated by Ehrlich tumor mitochondria at a rate of 40 nmol/min/mg of protein in the presence or absence of ADP. A search for decarboxylation products led to significant amounts of acetoin formed when Ehrlich tumor mitochondria were incubated with 1 mM [14C] pyruvate in the presence of ATP. Added acetoin to aerobic tumor mitochondria was rapidly utilized in the presence of ATP at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg of protein. Citrate has been found as a product of acetoin utilization and was exported from the tumor mitochondria. Acetoin has been found in the ascitic liquid of Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor-bearing animals. These unusual reactions were not observed in control rat liver mitochondria.

  9. Effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of usnic acid in ascitic tumor-bearing mice treated with bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Su, Zu-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Sun, Chao-Yue; Xie, Jian-Hui; Li, Yu-Cui; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Hai-Ming

    2017-03-08

    Usnic acid (UA) can be found in certain lichen species. Growing evidence suggests that UA possesses antitumoral, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Bleomycin (BLM) is widely used in the treatment of malignant ascites, however, it unexpectedly causes pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Researches show that excessive inflammatory response and oxidative stress in lung tissue is conspicuous causes of BLM-induced PF. Here we investigated mechanism underlying the effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing activity of UA on H22-bearing mice treated with BLM. UA combined with BLM was significantly more effective than BLM alone in inhibiting the tumor growth, arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and promoting the cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-8 activities to induce cancer cellular apoptosis. The mechanism may be associated with the transcriptional regulation of p53/p21/Cyclin pathway. Furthermore, UA effectively moderated the histopathological changes, reduced the content of MDA, HYP, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1, and increased the level of SOD when combined with BLM in lung tissues of H22-bearing mice, which was believed to be related to the inhibition on the protein level of p-Smad2/3 and enhancement of Smad7 expression. These findings suggested that UA might be a potential effect-enhancing and toxicity-reducing candidate for BLM in the treatment of malignant ascites.

  10. Enhanced Ehrlich tumor inhibition using DOX-NP™ and gold nanoparticles loaded liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mady, M. M.; Al-Shaikh, F. H.; Al-Farhan, F. F.; Aly, A. A.; Al-Mohanna, M. A.; Ghannam, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) is a common regime in treating various types of cancer. DOX-NP™ is one of a well established marketed liposomal formulation for DOX. It offers distinct advantages over conventional DOX in reducing the cardiac toxicity and increasing the tolerability and efficacy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), a typical biocompatible nanomaterial, have been widely used in biomedical engineering and bioanalytical applications such as biomedical imaging and biosensors. Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, free doxorubicin (DOX) in solution, gold nanoparticles loaded liposomes and commercial liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX-NP™). The results showed that GNPs loaded liposomes could enhance the antitumor activity of commercial liposomal formulation (DOX-NP™) and displayed significantly decreased systemic toxicity compared with free DOX and commercial liposomal formulation (DOX-NP™) at the equivalent dose. So the combination of GNPs and liposomes is expected to significantly increase the likelihood of cell killing and make it a promising new approach to cancer therapy.

  11. Anticancer activity of cissampelos pareira against dalton's lymphoma ascites bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Thavamani, B. Samuel; Mathew, Molly; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cissampelos pareira (Menispermaceae) is used in folk Indian system of alternative medicine, for its analgesic, antipyretic, diuretic, antilithic, and emmenagogue properties. Objective: To evaluate Cissampelos pareira (C. pareira) for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cells in Swiss mice. Materials and Methods: Cissampelos pareira was successively extracted using different solvents. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT assay. An in vivo study was carried out in methanol extract. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of the DLA cells in mice, the methanol extract of C. pariera (MECP) was administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, six mice were sacrificed and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life-span. The antitumor effect was assessed by evaluating the packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, increase in body weight, and increase in life-span. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters and anti-oxidant properties were assessed by estimating the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation. Results: Methanol Extract of Cissampelos pariera (MECP) showed a potent cytotoxic activity, with an IC50 value of 95.5 μg/ml and a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in packed cell volume, viable cell count, and an increased lifespan (54 and 72%). The hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in MECP-treated mice. The MECP-treated group significantly (P < 0.001) decreased SOD, lipid peroxidation, and CAT to normal. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that C. pariera exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities and that it was reasonably imputable to its increasing endogenous mechanism of antioxidant property. PMID:25210304

  12. DNA damage and inhibition of akt pathway in mcf-7 cells and ehrlich tumor in mice treated with 1,4-naphthoquinones in combination with ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Fabiana; Kviecinski, Maicon R; Felipe, Karina B; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Farias, Mirelle S; Castro, Luiza S E P W; Grinevicius, Valdelúcia M A S; Valderrama, Jaime; Rios, David; Benites, Julio; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the antitumor mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones and ascorbate. Juglone, phenylaminonaphthoquinone-7, and 9 (Q7/Q9) were evaluated for effects on CT-DNA and DNA of cancer cells. Evaluations in MCF-7 cells are DNA damage, ROS levels, viability, and proliferation. Proteins from MCF-7 lysates were immunoblotted for verifying PARP integrity, γH2AX, and pAkt. Antitumor activity was measured in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The same markers of molecular toxicity were assessed in vivo. The naphthoquinones intercalate into CT-DNA and caused oxidative cleavage, which is increased in the presence of ascorbate. Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced viability and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Effects were potentiated by ascorbate. No PARP cleavage was observed. Naphthoquinones, combined with ascorbate, caused phosphorylation of H2AX and inhibited pAkt. ROS were enhanced in MCF-7 cells, particularly by the juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate. Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by juglone, Q7, or Q9, but the potentiating effect of ascorbate was reproduced in vivo only in the cases of juglone and Q7, which caused up to 60% inhibition of tumor and the largest extension of survival. Juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate caused enhanced ROS and DNA damage and inhibited pAkt also in Ehrlich carcinoma cells.

  13. Exosomes Isolated from Ascites of T-Cell Lymphoma-Bearing Mice Expressing Surface CD24 and HSP-90 Induce a Tumor-Specific Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Menay, Florencia; Herschlik, Leticia; De Toro, Julieta; Cocozza, Federico; Tsacalian, Rodrigo; Gravisaco, María José; Di Sciullo, María Paula; Vendrell, Alejandrina; Waldner, Claudia I.; Mongini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including endosome-derived nanovesicles (exosomes), are involved in cell–cell communication. Through transfer of their molecular contents, extracellular nanovesicles can alter the function of recipient cells. Due to these characteristics, EVs have shown potential as a new alternative for cancer immunotherapy. Tumor exosomes isolated from malignant ascites can activate dendritic cells, thereby priming the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. However, a suppressive role on tumor immune response has also been reported, suggesting that the neoplastic stage of carcinogenesis and the microenvironment where tumor cells grow may influence the amount of EVs released by the cell. This neoplastic stage and microenvironment may also impact EVs’ components such as proteins and miRNA, determining their biological behavior. Most T-cell lymphomas have an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. Consequently, complementary alternative therapies are needed to improve the survival rates achieved with conventional treatments. In this work, we have characterized EVs isolated from ascites of mice bearing a very aggressive murine T-cell lymphoma and have studied their immunogenic properties. Small EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and ultracentrifugation at 100,000 × g on a sucrose cushion. The EVs were defined as exosomes by their morphology and size analyzed by electron microscopy, their floating density on a sucrose gradient, as well as their expression of endosome marker proteins ALIX, TSG-101; the tetraspanins CD63, CD9, and CD81. In addition, they contain tumor antigens, the marker for malignancy CD24, the heat shock protein HSP-70, and an unusual surface expression of HSP-90 was demonstrated. The administration of EVs isolated from ascites (EVs A) into naïve-syngeneic mice induced both humoral and cellular immune responses that allowed the rejection of subsequent tumor challenges. However

  14. Immunostimulatory activities of a low molecular weight antitumoral polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (LMPAB) in Sarcoma 180 ascitic tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Cai; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Su, Fu-Qin; Cui, Hong-Xia

    2009-07-01

    LMPAB is a linear beta-(1-3)-glucan we isolated from polysaccharide extract of Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM). Effects of LMPAB on splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity, splenocyte proliferation, index of spleen and thymus, IFN-gamma expression in spleen and the concentration of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in serum of S180 ascitic tumor-bearing mice were detected. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of LMPAB (100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) significantly increased the thymus index. LMPAB augmented splenic NK cell activity in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The concanavalin A (3 microg/ ml) stimulated splenocyte proliferation was significantly enhanced by LMPAB at dosages of 50, 100 or 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). Further studies showed that LMPAB (50, 100 or 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), 14d) significantly increased the production of IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-18 and the expression IFN-gamma as determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the anti-tumor effects of LMPAB are closely associated with up-regulation of activity of NK cells, expression of IFN-gamma in spleen and the systemic level of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in tumor-bearing mice.

  15. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  16. Antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects of palladium(II) complexes on Ehrlich tumour.

    PubMed

    Quilles, Marcela B; Carli, Camila B A; Ananias, Sandra R; Ferreira, Lucas S; Ribeiro, Livia C A; Maia, Danielle C G; Resende, Flávia A; Moro, Antônio C; Varanda, Eliana A; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Mauro, Antonio E; Carlos, Iracilda Z

    2013-01-01

    Palladium(II) complexes are an important class of cyclopalladated compounds that play a pivotal role in various pharmaceutical applications. Here, we investigated the antitumour, anti-inflammatory, and mutagenic effects of two complexes: [Pd(dmba)(Cl)tu] (1) and [Pd(dmba)(N3)tu] (2) (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine and tu = thiourea), on Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) from mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumour. The cytotoxic effects of the complexes on EAT cells and PECs were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of the complexes on the immune system were assessed based on the production of nitric oxide (NO) (Griess assay) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) (ELISA). Finally the mutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 98. Cisplatin was used as a standard. The IC50 ranges for the growth inhibition of EAT cells and PECs were found to be (72.8 +/- 3.23) microM and (137.65 +/- 0.22) microM for 1 and (39.7 +/- 0.30) microM and (146.51 +/- 2.67) microM for 2, respectively. The production of NO, IL-12, and TNF-alpha, but not IL-10, was induced by both complexes and cisplatin. The complexes showed no mutagenicity in vitro, unlike cisplatin, which was mutagenic in the strain. These results indicate that the complexes are not mutagenic and have potential immunological and antitumour activities. These properties make them promising alternatives to cisplatin.

  17. Antioxidant potential by arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3/biobran, represents a mechanism for its oncostatic effect against murine solid Ehrlich carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Eman; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Bibars, Mona A; Abou Mossallam, Ahlam A; Ghoneum, Mamdooh

    2008-09-18

    We have recently examined the oncolytic effect of arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3/biobran, against solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC)-bearing mice via immune-modulation and apoptosis [N.K. Badr El-din, E. Noaman, M. Ghoneum, In vivo tumor inhibitory effects of nutritional rice bran supplement MGN-3/biobran on Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice, Nutr. Cancer 60 (2) (2008) 235-244]. In the present study, we examined the antioxidant system as another possible mechanism through which MGN-3 exerts its oncostatic potential. Female albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. MGN-3 (25 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) six times a week for 25 days into mice at either day 4 or day 11 post-EAC cell inoculation. Tumor growth, lipid peroxidation (LPx), glutathione (GSH) contents, the activity of the antioxidant scavenger enzymes, and alterations in gene expression were examined. MGN-3 efficiently suppressed the growth of tumors, which was associated with normalization of the LPx levels and augmentation of GSH contents. MGN-3 enhanced the activity of the endogenous antioxidant scavenging enzymes -- superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) -- in blood, liver, and tumor tissue. Similarly it up-regulated the expression of GPx, SOD1 and CAT mRNA in the liver. The effect of MGN-3 was more pronounced when treated early, at day 4 of tumor cell inoculation, as compared to later treatment at 11 days. In conclusion, MGN-3-induced oncostatic activity by modulating lipid peroxidation, augmenting the antioxidant defense system and protecting against oxidative stress.

  18. Interaction between three subpopulations of Ehrlich carcinoma in mixed solid tumours in nude mice: evidence of contact domination.

    PubMed Central

    Aabo, K.; Vindeløv, L. L.; Spang-Thomsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Clonal interaction between three subpopulations of Ehrlich carcinoma were studied during growth as mixed solid tumours and as ascites tumours in immune-incompetent nude NMRI mice. The tumour cell lines differed in DNA content as determined by DNA flow cytometry (FCM). Tumour growth was evaluated by tumour growth curves including calculation of tumour volume doubling times, tumour weight on day 14, cell cycle times (per cent labelled mitoses) and cell cycle distributions (FCM). Two subpopulations (E1.15 and E1.95) showed nearly identical growth characteristics during both solid and ascites tumour growth. The third subpopulation (E1.80) grew more slowly. FCM on fine-needle tumour aspirates was used to determine the relative proportions of the cell populations in mixed solid tumours in which E1.95 showed a growth-dominating effect on E1.15. No such effect was demonstrated during single-cell tumour growth in ascitic fluid in which the cells had no intimate contact. Ascitic fluid from E1.95-bearing animals or radiation-killed E1.95 cells had no effect on the growth of E1.15, and no remote effect was seen when the two cell lines were growing in opposite flanks. This indicates that only viable E1.95 cells in close in vivo contact were able to induce growth inhibition of the E1.15 subpopulation. Both the E1.95 and the E1.15 cells dominated the E1.80 cells, but in these cases cell kinetic differences may have played a role as the E1.95 and the E1.15 lines grew faster than the E1.80. The E1.80 cell line had no dominating effect on the E1.15 or E1.95. It is concluded that non-immunologically mediated cellular dominance in heterogeneous tumours may contribute to the evolution of these tumours and may be involved in fundamental tumour biological phenomena. PMID:8018547

  19. Ascitic fluid analysis in malignancy-related ascites.

    PubMed

    Runyon, B A; Hoefs, J C; Morgan, T R

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study identified 45 patients with malignancy-related ascites among 448 ascites patients (10% of the total). Patients were categorized into five subgroups based on the pathophysiology of ascites formation. Each subgroup had a distinctive ascitic fluid analysis. Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis but without massive liver metastases (53.3% of the patients with malignancy-related ascites) had a uniformly positive ascitic fluid cytology, high ascitic fluid protein concentration and low serum-ascites albumin gradient. Patients with massive liver metastases and no other cause for ascites formation (13.3% of the series) had a negative cytology, low ascitic fluid protein concentration, high serum-ascites albumin gradient and markedly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. Those with peritoneal carcinomatosis and massive liver metastases (13.3% of the series) had a nearly uniformly positive ascitic fluid cytology, variable protein concentration, high serum-ascites albumin gradient and markedly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. Chylous ascites (6.7%) was characterized by a milky appearance, negative cytology and an elevated ascitic fluid triglyceride concentration. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma superimposed on cirrhosis (13.3%) had negative ascitic fluid cytology, low ascitic fluid protein concentration, high serum-ascites albumin gradient and elevated serum and ascitic fluid alpha-fetoprotein concentration. Two-thirds of patients with malignancy-related ascites had peritoneal carcinomatosis; 96.7% of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis had positive ascitic fluid cytology. Ascitic fluid analysis is helpful in identifying and distinguishing the subgroups of malignancy-related ascites.

  20. GROWTH FACTORS AND COX2 IN WOUND HEALING: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY WITH EHRLICH TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, Flávio L. L.; ARTIGIANI-NETO, Ricardo; LOPES-FILHO, Gaspar de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Healing is an innate biological phenomenon, and carcinogenesis acquired, but with common humoral and cellular elements. Carcinogenesis interferes negatively in healing. Aim: To evaluate the histological changes in laparotomy scars of healthy Balb/c mice and with an Ehrlich tumor in its various forms of presentation. Methods: Fifty-four mice were divided into three groups of 18 animals. First group was the control; the second had Ehrlich tumor with ascites; and the third had the subcutaneous form of this tumor. Seven days after tumor inoculation, all 54 mice were submitted to laparotomy. All of the animals in the experiment were operated on again on 7th day after surgery, with resection of the scar and subsequent euthanasia of the animal. The scars were sent for histological assessment using immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate Cox-2 (cyclooxygenase 2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and FGF (fibroblast growth factor). Semi-quantitatively analysis was done in the laparotomy scars and in the abdominal walls far away from the site of the operation. Results: Assessing the weight of the animals, the correct inoculation of the tumor and weight gain in the group with tumoral ascites was observed. The histological studies showed that groups with the tumor showed a statistically significant higher presence of Cox-2 compared to the control. In the Cox-2 analysis of the abdominal wall, the ascites group showed the most significant difference. VEGF did not present any significant differences between the three groups, regardless of the site. The FGF showed a significant increase in animals with the tumor. Conclusion: Histological findings in both laparotomy scar and the abdominal wall showed that with Ehrlich's neoplasia there was an exacerbated inflammatory response, translated by more intense expression of Cox-2 and greater fibroblast proliferation, translated by more intense expression of FGF, that is, it stimulated both the immediate

  1. Natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine profile in tumor-bearing mice treated with MAPA, a magnesium aggregated polymer from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Justo, G Z; Durán, N; Queiroz, M L S

    2003-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of MAPA, an antitumor aggregated polymer of protein magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride, isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced spleen cell proliferation, cytokine production and on natural killer (NK) cell activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. The Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growth led to diminished mitogen-induced expansion of spleen cell populations and total NK activity. This was accompanied by striking spleen enlargement, with a marked increase in total cell counts. Moreover, a substantial enhancement in IL-10 levels, paralleled by a significant decrease in IL-2 was observed, while production of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered. Treatment of mice with 5 mg/kg MAPA for 7 days promoted spleen cell proliferation, IL-2 production and NK cell activity regardless of tumor outgrowth. In addition, MAPA treatment markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels and reduced IL-10 production relative to EAT mice. A 35% reduction in splenomegaly with normal number of nucleated cells was also found. Altogether, our results suggest that MAPA directly and/or indirectly modulates immune cell activity, and probably disengages tumor-induced suppression of these responses. Clearly, MAPA has an impact and may delay tumor outgrowth through immunotherapeutic mechanisms.

  2. Lipid metabolism in tumour bearing mice treated withAeromonas L-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Benny, P J; Kurup, G M; Sreejith, K

    1997-07-01

    The anticancerous drug isolated in our laboratory from estuarineAeromonas was characterised and is found to be an enzyme, L-asparaginase. The antileukaemic effect of this drug was studied in mice by inducing leukaemia with Ehrlich ascites cell lines. It was compared with commercially available drug, Leunase, isolated fromE. coli. The lipid profiles in mice during leukaemia and under treatment was studied. The decreased levels of cholesterol and increased levels of triglycerides and phospholipids in serum, liver and kidney were observed in tumour bearing mice. Significant changes in the above values were observed with enzyme therapy. It could bring some of the values to near normal level. L-asparaginase fromAeromonas was found to be more effective.

  3. Immunogenicity of ascites tumor cells following in vitro hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, J.A.; Jasiewicz, M.L.; Simpson, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    The concept that host immunization may be achieved by heat-induced antigenic modifications of cancer cells and/or the release of immunogenic products by dead or dying tumor cells following in vitro heating was examined. Ehrlich ascites cells were used, inasmuch as it was claimed that in vitro hyperthermia increased the immunogenicity of these cells. Tumor cell populations of different viability were obtained by heating Ehrlich cells at 42.5 degrees, 45 degrees, or 60 degrees C. Viable and nonviable cells were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation; viable nonreplicating cells were obtained by treatment with mitomycin C. Cell populations of different viability after heating were left to die slowly over 3 days at 37 degrees C. Swiss TO mice were then given injections of the treated cells and/or medium. No survival benefit occurred in mice inoculated with any of these different components and then challenged with viable tumor cells. Injection of irradiated cells, however, did produce host immunity. Similarly, D23 rat hepatoma ascites cells produced host immunity after 15,000 rad but not after heating. The claim that in vitro hyperthermia increases the immunogenicity of tumor cells was not confirmed.

  4. [Treatment of refractory ascites].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Albillos, Agustín

    2014-07-01

    Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation.

  5. [Laboratory chemical analysis in ascites].

    PubMed

    Satz, N

    1991-04-13

    Chemical analysis of ascitic fluid may be helpful in determining the underlying disease. We discuss the diagnostic accuracy of the common and newer chemical parameters (protein, LDH, lactate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, fibronectin, albumin gradient [value of serum minus value of ascites], ferritin, tumor markers, immunomodulators, leukocytes, bacterial and cytologic examinations). We also review the pathogenesis and clinical findings of the most frequent ascites forms (benign hepatic, infective, malignant ascites, ascites associated with liver metastases or hepatocellular carcinoma, cardiac and pancreatic ascites) and the most important diagnosis criteria. In the malignant ascites a high cholesterol, a narrow albumin gradient or a high ferritin value have high diagnostic accuracy, but diagnosis is by the finding of malignant cells. For the diagnosis of infective ascites, bacteriology is mandatory even though the results are negative in most cases, particularly in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis where diagnosis has to be established clinically, by a low pH or by a high leukocyte count. Benign hepatic ascites is diagnosed by demonstrating an underlying chronic liver disease and laboratory examinations of the peritoneal fluid to exclude other causes. The laboratory tests in ascites associated with liver metastases or with hepatocellular carcinoma were similar to those in benign hepatic ascites and the two ascites forms must be separated by other clinical and technical findings. Pancreatic ascites can easily be distinguished from the other forms by the high amylase and lipase content.

  6. Diagnosis of malignant ascites. Comparison of ascitic fibronectin, cholesterol, and serum-ascites albumin difference.

    PubMed

    Prieto, M; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Hoyos, M; Castell, J V; Carrasco, D; Berenguer, J

    1988-07-01

    The ascitic fluid concentrations of cholesterol and fibronectin and the serum-ascites albumin difference were compared with two conventional tests of ascitic fluid, total protein and LDH, in their diagnostic ability for detection of malignancy in ascitic samples from 69 patients with ascites: 54 with ascites due to liver disease and 15 whose ascites was caused by peritoneal metastases. Sixteen cirrhotic patients with superimposed hepatocellular carcinoma in whom ascites was of uncertain etiology were considered separately. The mean ascitic fluid total protein, LDH, cholesterol, and fibronectin values in the peritoneal metastases group were 3.70 +/- 1.20 g/dl, 247.26 +/- 148.14 units/liter, 109.06 +/- 29.85 mg/dl, and 91.57 +/- 41.52 micrograms/ml, respectively, and all were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the liver disease group (P less than 0.001), which were 1.37 +/- 0.59 g/dl, 75.40 +/- 110.70 units/liter, 23.75 +/- 11.22 mg/dl, and 31.86 +/- 10.51 micrograms/ml, respectively. Mean serum-ascites albumin difference in the peritoneal metastases group was 0.62 +/- 0.38 g/dl, which was significantly different from the corresponding value in the liver disease group (1.92 +/- 0.41 g/dl, P less than 0.001). Both ascitic cholesterol above 46 mg/dl and an ascitic fibronectin concentration greater than 50 micrograms/ml had high diagnostic accuracy (97%) for malignancy, being higher than that achieved using a serum-ascites albumin difference under 1.1 g/dl and an ascitic total protein above 2.5 g/dl, which had accuracies of 94% and 93%, respectively. Ascitic fluid LDH was the least reliable test. No differences in the ascitic fluid analysis were found between cirrhotic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Usefulness of serum-ascites albumin difference in separating transudative from exudative ascites. Another look.

    PubMed

    Mauer, K; Manzione, N C

    1988-10-01

    The serum-ascites albumin difference is reported to be superior to ascitic total protein, ascitic-to-serum total protein ratio, lactic dehydrogenase, and ascitic-to-serum lactic dehydrogenase ratio in differentiating between ascites from liver disease and malignant ascites, S-A greater than 1.1 reflecting portal hypertension. We analyzed ascitic fluid from 46 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease, 28 patients with ascites associated with malignancy, 10 patients with right-sided heart failure, 4 patients with hypothyroidism, and 6 patients with miscellaneous causes of ascites to determine if this albumin difference is indeed a more valuable parameter. Analysis of our data confirms with a larger number of patients that the serum-ascites albumin difference is a more reliable indicator of transudative ascites, better termed portal hypertensive ascites. Malignant ascites without liver metastases had features of nonportal hypertensive ascites, and the serum-ascites albumin difference confirms this. The characteristics of malignant ascites associated with liver metastases, however, resemble those of the portal hypertensive ascites complicating liver disease. This new parameter is also helpful in distinguishing congestive heart failure with high protein ascites and portal hypertensive ascitic features from malignant ascites without liver metastases. Of particular note, myxedematous ascitic fluid, classically categorized as exudative, had an S-A greater than 1.1, indicating the possible role of portal hypertension in the development of ascites in these patients.

  8. [Tlaloc and ascites].

    PubMed

    Viesca-Treviño, Carlos; Macuil-García, Carmen; Monzón-Barranco, Abraham; Rosas-Peña, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Ascites has been a common pathological sign among prehispanic Mexican people, as a result from hepatic and cardiac ailments. In this sense it represents a significant epidemiological problem. But it also is important because is related to Tlaloc and the rain gods and goddesses. The hidropic body is a symbolic water container and have a special function: serve as a Tlaloc and related gods vehicle to transport the precious liquid. In this paper we analyze the Tlaloc role as water and alimentary substances provider and his capital importance for people survival. We also describe five different plastic ways to represent water in the body, all of them with clear relationships to Tlaloc.

  9. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition) may indicate that the chloride exchange and conductance pathways are not completely separate and distinct modes of transport, but may involve common elements. The reduced chloride permeability in the presence of phloretin is estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the ground permeability of the cell membrane. PMID:529133

  10. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in ascites tumor mitochondria and cells by intramitochondrial Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1980-03-25

    Accumulation of Ca2+ (+ phosphate) by respiring mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites or AS30-D hepatoma tumor cells inhibits subsequent phosphorylating respiration in response to ADP. The respiratory chain is still functional since a proton-conducting uncoupler produces a normal stimulation of electron transport. The inhibition of phosphorylating respiration is caused by intramitochondrial Ca2+ (+ phosphate). ATP + Mg2+ together, but not singly, prevents the inhibitory action of Ca2+. Neither AMP, GTP, GDP, nor any other nucleoside 5'-triphosphate or 5'-diphosphate could replace ATP in this effect. Phosphorylating respiration on NAD(NADP)-linked substrates was much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of intramitochondrial Ca2+ than succinate-linked respiration. Significant inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is given by the endogenous Ca2+ present in freshly isolated tumor mitochondria. The phosphorylating respiration of permeabilized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is also inhibited by Ca2+ accumulated by the mitochondria in situ. Possible causes of the Ca2+-induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation are considered.

  11. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, HC; Quevedo, MS; Cabrales, LB; Bruzón, RP; Salas, MF; Pena, OG; González, TR; López, DS; Flores, JM

    2004-01-01

    Background In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. Methods BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 106 and 1 × 105 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups) consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm3, four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm3) and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm3, two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Results Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm3, respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil infiltration, an acute

  12. Ayurvedic management of cirrhotic ascites

    PubMed Central

    Aswathy, G.; Dharmarajan, Prasanth; Sharma, Ananth Ram; Sasikumar, V. K.; Vasudevan Nampoothiri, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final stage of most of the chronic liver diseases and is most invariably complicated by portal hypertension resulting in ascites. A case of chronic liver disease with portal hypertension (cryptogenic cirrhosis), managed at Amrita School of Ayurveda is discussed in this paper. The clinical picture was that of an uncomplicated cirrhotic ascites. Snehapāna (therapeutic oral administration of lipids) followed by virecana (purgation) was done after an initial course of nityavirecana (daily purgation). Later Vardhamāna pippalī rasāyana [administration of single drug - pippalī (piper longum) in a structured dose pattern] was administered with an intention of rejuvenating liver cells. Ascites and lower limb oedema were completely resolved after the therapy. No recurrence of ascites has been reported after a follow up period of one year. PMID:27621523

  13. Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N

    2003-11-01

    The antitumour activity of the ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) has been evaluated against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of EBV-treated tumour bearing mice was found with respect to control group. EBV treatment was found to enhance peritoneal cell counts. After 14 days of inoculation, EBV is able to reverse the changes in the haemotological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumour inoculation.

  14. The return of Ehrlich's 'Therapia magna sterilisans' and other Ehrlich concepts?. Series of papers honoring Paul Ehrlich on the occasion of his 150th birthday.

    PubMed

    Sörgel, F

    2004-04-01

    On March 14th of this year, the birthday of Paul Ehrlich, the great German researcher and 'founder of chemotherapy', returned for the 150th time. Interestingly, his later colleague Emil von Behring was born one day later in 1854. Both were coworkers in Robert Koch's laboratory and became Nobel Prize laureates (for their work in immunology), making great contributions to antiinfectious treatments. Emil von Behring's approach was through the use of immunological agents, while Ehrlich favored an approach of antiinfectious treatment by chemical agents. Through an ingenious concept that was a clear continuation of his early days in research with dyes, he found the first chemotherapeutic agents. From his dye work, he had concluded the following: if there are dyes that one can use to stain cells, why not develop pharmacological agents that, like stains, also attach to a structure in the living pathogen and kill them. He gave these agents the emotionally charged name 'magic bullets'. This introductory review will initiate a series of papers on the occasion of Ehrlich's 150th birthday and the 'World Conference on Dosing of Antiinfectives: Dosing the Magic Bullets', which is going to be held in Nürnberg, Germany, from September 9 to 11, 2004 (see www.ehrlich2004.org). Apart from the conference topic, this conference will also commemorate a real science giant of the last century and yet a modest human being whom, as Robert Koch put it, 'one had to like'. This article recalls Ehrlich's ingenious concepts, including modern syphilis treatment, one-dose treatment ('therapia magna sterilisans') of Helicobacter pylori infections and introduction of an arsenic compound, arsenic trioxide, as well as experiments and new exciting data on Congo red, a well-known 'non-Ehrlich dye'.

  15. Adjuvant effect of Pluchea quitoc extract on the resistance of tumor-bearing mice by modulation of the host hematopoietic response.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M L; Justo, G Z; Valadares, M C; Pereira-da-Silva, F R; Müller, A H

    2001-05-01

    Progressive tumor growth is regularly accompanied by changes in the cellular constituents of the immune system. Evidence suggests that soluble factors generated during tumor growth can affect the amount of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. In vitro colony growth of progenitor cells may be an early indicator of the cellular changes associated with tumor growth. Pluchea quitoc has been previously found to modulate the hematopoietic response during bacterial infection. This study was designed to investigate the effects of P. quitoc on the growth and differentiation of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to the myelosuppression developed in the tumor-bearing animals, treatment with P. quitoc ethanolic extract (250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days after tumor challenge reversibly stimulated myelopoiesis, restoring the number of CFU-GM to normal. This same dose-schedule also increased colony formation in normal mice as compared to controls. In addi tion, P. quitoc significantly enhanced survival of tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest an immunoregulatory role for P. quitoc in counteracting the tumor-induced myelopoietic suppression as well as usefulness as adjuvant treatment of cancer.

  16. Mobilization of malignant ascites with diuretics is dependent on ascitic fluid characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pockros, P J; Esrason, K T; Nguyen, C; Duque, J; Woods, S

    1992-10-01

    Serial ascites and plasma volumes were measured during diuresis in nine patients with ascites caused by peritoneal carcinomatosis, four patients with chylous malignant ascites, and three patients with portal hypertension-related ascites caused by massive hepatic metastases. Oral diuretics were given to achieve an adequate natriuresis on a sodium-restricted diet. During the study period (7.8 +/- 3.2 days), patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and chylous ascites lost 0.49 +/- 0.31 and 0.51 +/- 0.42 kg/day in weight, respectively, with negligible change in ascites volumes (-0.03 +/- 0.11 and 0.02 +/- 0.09 L/day). Patients with ascites caused by massive hepatic metastasis lost 1.06 +/- 0.15 kg/day in weight (P = 0.01 for massive hepatic metastasis vs. peritoneal carcinomatosis) and 0.23 +/- 0.13 L/day of ascites (P less than 0.05 vs. other groups). Plasma volume changes were not significantly different among the three groups. Patients with edema (9/16) had a greater natriuresis and daily weight loss. Three patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and one with chylous ascites developed renal dysfunction or symptomatic hypotension. No patient with massive hepatic metastasis developed these complications. In patients with ascites caused by peritoneal carcinomatosis or chylous malignant ascites there is no mobilization of ascites, whereas in patients with massive hepatic metastasis, ascites may be mobilized with diuretics.

  17. [100 years of Dr. Ehrlich's magic bullet (1909-2009)].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García, Enrique; Merino, María Lucila

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this article is to pay tribute to Paul Ehrlich and his contributions to science, in particular those related to antimicrobial therapy, at the end of a prodigious decade of celebrations to fête his person and work. The year 2009 marks the centenary of the discovery of the experimental anti-syphilitic activity of Salvarsan and the first clinical studies showing its efficacy against syphilis. This homage is conveyed through the presentation of bibliographic data, mention of his most important scientific achievements based on his original publications, and by analyzing the film Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet (1940) by William Dieterle.

  18. Cirrhotic ascites review: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christopher M; Van Thiel, David H

    2013-01-01

    Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of peritoneal fluidcommonly observed in decompensated cirrhotic states.Its causes are multi-factorial, but principally involve significant volume and hormonal dysregulation in the setting of portal hypertension. The diagnosis of ascites is considered in cirrhotic patients given a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, and ultimately confirmed, with insight into etiology, by imaging and paracentesis procedures. Treatment for ascites is multi-modal including dietary sodium restriction, pharmacologic therapies, diagnostic and therapeutic paracentesis, and in certain cases transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Ascites is associated with numerous complications including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Given the complex nature of ascites and associatedcomplications, it is not surprising that it heralds increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients and increased cost-utilization upon the health-care system. This review will detail the pathophysiology of cirrhotic ascites, common complications derived from it, and pertinent treatment modalities. PMID:23717736

  19. Myxedema Ascites: A Rare Presentation of Uncontrolled Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, FNU; Abbass, Aamer; Gordon, Dwayne; Abusaada, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Less than four percent of patients with hypothyroidism develop ascites. Ascites as the presenting feature of hypothyroidism is uncommon, hence diagnosis is often delayed. Once it is diagnosed, treatment of hypothyroidism leads to quick clinical improvement in ascites. We report a case of a female patient who presented with ascites secondary to severe hypothyroidism and discuss the diagnostic characteristics of the ascitic fluid in myxedema ascites on the basis of literature review. PMID:28083456

  20. Quercetin Reduces Ehrlich Tumor-Induced Cancer Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calixto-Campos, Cassia; Corrêa, Mab P.; Carvalho, Thacyana T.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Rossaneis, Ana C.; Coelho-Silva, Leticia; Pavanelli, Wander R.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bernardy, Catia C. F.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pain directly affects the patient's quality of life. We have previously demonstrated that the subcutaneous administration of the mammary adenocarcinoma known as Ehrlich tumor induces pain in mice. Several studies have shown that the flavonoid quercetin presents important biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and antitumor activity. Therefore, the analgesic effect and mechanisms of quercetin were evaluated in Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatments with quercetin reduced Ehrlich tumor-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, but not paw thickness or histological alterations, indicating an analgesic effect without affecting tumor growth. Regarding the analgesic mechanisms of quercetin, it inhibited the production of hyperalgesic cytokines IL-1β and TNFα and decreased neutrophil recruitment (myeloperoxidase activity) and oxidative stress. Naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) inhibited quercetin analgesia without interfering with neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production, and oxidative stress. Importantly, cotreatment with morphine and quercetin at doses that were ineffective as single treatment reduced the nociceptive responses. Concluding, quercetin reduces the Ehrlich tumor-induced cancer pain by reducing the production of hyperalgesic cytokines, neutrophil recruitment, and oxidative stress as well as by activating an opioid-dependent analgesic pathway and potentiation of morphine analgesia. Thus, quercetin treatment seems a suitable therapeutic approach for cancer pain that merits further investigation. PMID:26351625

  1. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload.

  2. Paul Ehrlich and the Early History of Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Kay, A Barry

    2016-08-01

    Paul Ehrlich's techniques, published between 1879 and 1880, for staining blood films using coal tar dyes, and his method of differential blood cell counting, ended years of speculation regarding the classification of white cells. Acidic and basic dyes had allowed him to recognize eosinophil and basophil granules, respectively, work that was a direct continuation of his discovery of the tissue mast cell described in his doctoral thesis. Ehrlich went on to develop neutral dyes that identified epsilon granules in neutrophils ("cells with polymorphous nuclei"). He also speculated, for the most part correctly, on the formation, function, and fate of blood neutrophils and eosinophils. Before Ehrlich, a number of important observations had been made on white cells and their role in health and disease. Among the most notable were William Hewson's studies of blood and lymph; the early descriptions of leukemia by Alfred Donné, John Hughes Bennett, Rudolf Virchow, and others; as well as seminal observations on inflammation by William Addison, Friedrich von Recklinghausen, and Julius Cohnheim. Eosinophils were almost certainly recognized previously by others. In 1846, Thomas Wharton Jones (1808-1891) described "granule blood-cells" in several species including humans. The term "granule cell" had also been used by Julius Vogel (1814-1880), who had previously observed similar cells in inflammatory exudates. Vogel, in turn, was aware of the work of Gottlieb Gluge (1812-1898), who had observed "compound inflammatory globules" in pus and serum that resembled eosinophils. Almost 20 years before Ehrlich developed his staining methods, Max Johann Schultze (1825-1874) performed functional experiments on fine and coarse granular cells using a warm stage microscopic technique and showed they had amoeboid movement and phagocytic abilities. Despite these earlier observations, it was Ehrlich's use of stains that heralded the modern era of studies of leukocyte biology and pathology.

  3. Nickel(II) diacetyl monoxime-2-pyridyl hydrazone complex can inhibit Ehrlich solid tumor growth in mice: A potential new antitumor drug.

    PubMed

    Saad, Entsar A; Hassanien, Mohamed M; El-Lban, Faten W

    2017-03-11

    The chief chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin had common bad effects such as nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and bone marrow depression. This led us to develop a new potential anticancer drug based on nickel metal ion that may be less toxic. Nickel(II) diacetyl monoxime-2-pyridyl hydrazone complex cytoprotective effect, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and anticancer activities were studied. In vitro, the complex showed SOD-like activity of 86.62%. It was capable to kill 90.2% of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and to protect 92.48% of human RBCs. In vivo, the complex lowered the tumor burden markedly in a concentration-dependent manner. Noticeably, solid tumor growth was suppressed; tumor volume and weight were reduced and mice life span was lengthened. The hematological indices were improved, catalase activity was re-elevated and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was reversed towards normal. Nucleic acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, urea and creatinine contents were reduced to near normal ranges. Glutathione (GSH), SOD, albumin and total protein levels were increased. In conclusion, our results revealed that the complex has the ability to suppress Ehrlich solid tumor growth in mice with minimal side effects. This may possibly via its redox activity. Surprisingly, nickel complex antitumor activities were more potent than those of cisplatin.

  4. Efficiency of calcium phosphate composite nanoparticles in targeting Ehrlich carcinoma cells transplanted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Gawad, Eman I.; Hassan, Amal I.; Awwad, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the mode of action of nano-CaPs in vivo as a therapy for solid tumor in mice. To achieve this goal, Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) was transplanted into 85 Swiss male albino mice. After nine days, the mice were divided into 9 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were allocated as the EAC control. Groups 3 and 4 were injected once intratumorally (IT) by nano-calcium phosphate (nano-CaP). Groups 5 and 6 received once intraperitoneal injection (IP) of nano-CaP. Groups 7, 8, and 9 received nano-CaP (IP) weekly. Blood samples and thigh skeletal muscle were collected after three weeks from groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 and after four weeks from groups 2, 4, 6, and 8. On the other hand, group 9 received nano-CaP (IP) for four weeks and lasted for three months to follow up the recurrence of tumor and to ensure the safety of muscle by histopathological analysis. Tumor growth was monitored twice a week throughout the experiment. DNA fragmentation of tumor cells was evaluated. In thigh tissue, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin (5HT), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured. In serum, 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed. Histopathological and biochemical results showed a significant therapeutic effect of nano-CaP on implanted solid tumor and this effect was more pronounced in the animals treated IP for four weeks. This improvement was evident from the repair of fragmented DNA, the significant decrease of caspase-3, 8-OHDG, myosin, and VEGF, and the significant increase of neurotransmitters (NA, DA, 5HT, and GABA). Additionally, histopathological examination showed complete recovery of cancer cells in the thigh muscle after three months. PMID:26843980

  5. Ascites

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome Pericarditis - constrictive Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated by: Subodh K. ... gastroenterologist at Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Internal review and ...

  6. Chemoprotective and chemosensitizing properties of selenium nanoparticle (Nano-Se) during adjuvant therapy with cyclophosphamide in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arin; Basu, Abhishek; Biswas, Jaydip; Sen, Tuhinadri; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the widely used anticancer agents; however, it has serious deleterious effects on normal host cells due to its nonspecific action. The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is suggested to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy and currently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Previous report had shown Nano-Se could protect CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal Swiss albino mice; however, its role in cancer management is still not clear. The aim of present study is to investigate the chemoprotective efficacy of Nano-Se against CP-induced toxicity as well as its chemoenhancing capability when used along with CP in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. CP was administered (25 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and Nano-Se was given (2 mg Se/kg b.w., p.o.) in concomitant and pretreatment schedule. Increase levels of serum hepatic marker, hepatic lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and chromosomal aberration in CP-treated mice were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by Nano-Se. The lowered status of various antioxidant enzymes in tumor-bearing mice after CP treatment was also effectively increased by Nano-Se. Administration of Nano-Se along with CP caused a significant reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased the survivability of the tumor-bearing hosts. The results suggest that Nano-Se exhibits significant antitumor and antioxidant effects in EAC-bearing mice. The potential for Nano-Se to ameliorate the CP-evoked toxicity as well as to improve the chemotherapeutic effect could have beneficial implications for patients undergoing chemotherapy with CP.

  7. Value of ascitic fluid ferritin in the differential diagnosis of malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Kountouras, J; Boura, P; Tsapas, G; Charisis, K; Magoula, I; Tsakiri, I

    1993-01-01

    The ascitic fluid ferritin concentrations were compared with serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG), in their diagnostic ability for detection of malignancy in 60 patients with ascites: 29 with chronic liver disease alone (CLD) and 31 patients with various neoplasms. Of the patients with malignancy, 12 had liver metastases, 9 had no evidence of liver involvement, and 10 had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with or without coexisting liver cirrhosis. Analysis of our data confirms that the ascitic ferritin is a more accurate indicator of malignant ascites (MA) than the SAAG. This new parameter is particularly helpful in distinguishing MA associated with HCC and/or metastatic liver disease from nonmalignant ascites due to CLD alone.

  8. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea Alberto; Lippi, Donatella

    2007-03-01

    Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) is nowadays considered a pioneer in a number of medical fields, and in the course of time his role in the establishment and development of disciplines such as histology, immunology, oncology and haematology has been acknowledged. Aim of this historical note is to illustrate, in the area of chemotherapy, the special importance of this brilliant scientist whose 150th anniversary of birth occurred in 2004. Already as a medical student, Ehrlich was obsessed by structural organic chemistry and dyes, and, continually studying these issues, he elaborated his theory regarding the discovery of a "magic bullet", able to specifically destroy tumour cells and micro-organisms. In practice he applied methylene blue to the treatment of malaria patients, following his intuition that such a dye could destroy parasites. However, his culminating achievements in the chemotherapic field, reached even at the expense of his health, were the concept of the one-dose treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, and the creation of arsphenamine (compound 606, or Salvarsan), the first really effective compound in controlling human syphilis. Within the many and various contributions of Ehrlich to the development of experimental and clinical medicine, a special mention of his experimental studies and clinical applications in the area of chemotherapy is essential, since his achievements in this biomedical area remain a paramount legacy in the history of the therapy of infections.

  9. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway.

  10. Pathophysiology of cyclic hemorrhagic ascites and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ussia, Anastasia; Betsas, George; Corona, Roberta; De Cicco, Carlo; Koninckx, Philippe R

    2008-01-01

    Massive hemorrhagic ascites (4470 mL, range 1-10 L) in women with endometriosis is a rare condition occurring predominantly in black women. Of the 43 case reports published, 42 are compatible with the hypothesis that the hemorrhagic ascites is predominantly a consequence of excessive ovarian transudation similar to a Meigs syndrome. Indeed, bilateral ovariectomy cures the condition without recurrences, whereas after unilateral ovariectomy or cystectomy recurrence rate is more than 50%; during ovarian suppression by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist ascites disappears, but reappears after treatment. Superficial pelvic endometriosis also contributes to the ascites because after superficial endometriosis destruction the recurrence rate is only 4 in 14. Based on these data, it is suggested, to scrutinize the ovaries for tumors given the analogy with Meigs syndrome. In women desiring fertility, conservative treatment with destruction of endometriosis only can be attempted given the cure rate of some 20%. It is unknown what the effect of ovulation induction would be.

  11. [Concentration of lipids in ascitic fluid and the concentration gradient of albumin in blood and ascites: diagnostic significance].

    PubMed

    Barbare, J C; Diab, G; Delavenne, J; Philippe, J M; Vorhauer, W; Latrive, J P; Capron, J P

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic value of ascitic fluid cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and of serum-ascites albumin concentration gradient in the differentiation between cirrhotic and malignant ascites. These biological parameters were determined, on the one hand in 34 cirrhotic patients, 6 of them having an hepatocellular carcinoma and 6 others having a spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and, on the other hand, in 16 patients with malignant ascites, 13 of them having an abdominal extra-hepatic or pelvic cancer, and 3 others having an extra-abdominal cancer with multiple liver metastases. Ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen assay and ascitic fluid cytology were also done in the 50 patients. In differentiating the cirrhotic patients from those with malignancy, ascitic fluid cholesterol concentration (discriminating value less than 1.1 mmol/l) ascitic fluid triglycerides concentration (discriminating value 0.5 mmol/l) and serum-ascites albumin concentration gradient (discriminating value greater than 11 g/l) allowed a diagnostic efficiency of 0.92, 0.80 and 0.77, respectively. Ascitic fluid cytology showed presence of malignant cells in 3/6 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis, in 9/16 patients having a malignant ascites, and was negative in other patients. Ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen assay was abnormal only in 3/16 patients with malignant ascites. These results suggest that measurement of ascitic fluid cholesterol concentration must be included in the initial evaluation of patients with ascites of unknown origin.

  12. Regulation of the Nucleolar DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Amino Acids in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Franze-Fernández, M. T.; Pogo, A. O.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were performed to ascertain the degree to which the amount of amino acids might be one of the regulatory factors that control the activity of the nucleolar RNA polymerase. Assays of the enzymatic activity were done with isolated nuclei from cells incubated with low and high concentrations of amino acids. Soon after the cells were exposed to a medium enriched in amino acids, a rapid increase of nucleolar RNA polymerase activity occurred. A similar result was obtained in cells incubated with lower concentrations of amino acids. However, the rate of ribosomal RNA synthesized was regularly much higher in cells incubated in a medium enriched with amino acids than in a medium low in amino acids. Apparently, the amino acids only controlled ribosomal RNA synthesis. Thus, neither maturation, processing, and transport of nuclear precursors into cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA, nor the synthesis of rapidly labeled RNA was affected. PMID:4108870

  13. Dorzolamide synergizes the antitumor activity of mitomycin C against Ehrlich's carcinoma grown in mice: role of thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, Belal M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Shouman, Samia A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-12-01

    The antitumor activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors is attributed to their ability to induce a state of intracellular acidification. In fact, acidic intracellular pH was demonstrated to upregulate several tumor suppressor proteins and increase the activity of many chemotherapies. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of the CA inhibitor, dorzolamide, in combination with mitomycin C and to study the effect of these drugs on tumoral thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) as well as tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Solid tumors were induced by subcutaneous inoculation of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in female mice. Mice were treated with dorzolamide (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and/or mitomycin C (1 mg/kg, i.p.) weekly for 3 weeks. Treatment with mitomycin C increased TXNIP level in EAC solid tumors in mice. Likewise, treatment with dorzolamide upregulated TXNIP and p53 while downregulated bcl-2. Both drug therapies increased tumoral caspase 9, caspase 3, and PARP-1 cleavage in addition to decreasing the proliferative Ki-67-stained nuclear fraction. Indeed, a synergistic effect was detected between mitomycin C and dorzolamide. The current data demonstrated that the antitumor activity of mitomycin C and dorzolamide was, at least in part, mediated through stimulating tumoral expression of TXNIP and enhancing tumor apoptosis.

  14. Paul Ehrlich: pioneer of chemotherapy and cure by arsenic (1854-1915).

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, A L

    1983-01-01

    Paul Ehrlich's experiments in staining techniques at the end of the nineteenth century resulted in many discoveries which help to form the basis of present research work. Ehrlich's chemotherapy research led to his formulating the arsenic compound, Salvarsan, which was used in the treatment of syphilis during the first half of this century until it was superseded by penicillin. Images PMID:6196079

  15. Chylous ascites in a hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Roh, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Cho, Ara; Kim, Min-Su; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-12-01

    An African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed as chylous ascites with biliary cirrhosis. Abdomenocentesis revealed a milky fluid with a 324 mg/dl triglyceride level. On serum biochemical examination, the hedgehog had hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and high blood urea nitrogen. There was no cytologic or genomic evidence of infection, and a blood culture was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a liver with proliferative bile ducts that were often surrounded by prominent septa of fibrous connective tissue. In the area of ductular reaction, proliferative cells positive for CD66, an embryogenic antigen of epithelial cells, were revealed. The potential association between chylous ascites and liver cirrhosis is undetermined but could be an aspect of future study. This is the first description of chylous ascites in a hedgehog.

  16. Eosinophilic ascites: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shefali; Vohra, Sandeep; Rawat, Sangeeta; Kashyap, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge. The mainstay of diagnosis is peripheral hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-rich ascitic fluid on diagnostic paracentesis. Oral steroid therapy is usually the first line of treatment with dramatic response. Due to a propensity for relapse, steroid-sparing therapy should be considered for relapses of EGE. We report a case of subserosal EGE with diagnostic clinical features and treatment response and review the current strategy in the management of eosinophilic ascites. PMID:27721930

  17. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macer, Matthew; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures. PMID:27747116

  18. Laparoscopic diagnosis of ascites in Lesotho.

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, R I; Fitzgerald, J M; Mulpeter, K

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective study of 98 consecutive patients with undiagnosed ascites examined by laparoscopy a correct immediate diagnosis was made in 76 (78%) and a final diagnosis in 92 (94%) of those who underwent laparoscopy. Visual diagnosis was highly accurate in patients with tuberculous peritonitis but only moderately accurate in those with carcinomatosis and liver disease. When the laparoscopic findings were compared with histological and microbiological results visual diagnosis was found to be the most accurate diagnostic method. Laparoscopy may readily be used in rural hospitals for diagnosing ascites. PMID:3160432

  19. Automated low-flow ascites pump for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Stirnimann, Guido; Banz, Vanessa; Storni, Federico; De Gottardi, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump(®)) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder. Ascites can therefore be aspirated in a time- and volume-controlled mode and evacuated by urination. Here we review the currently available data about patient selection, efficacy and safety of the alfapump and provide recommendations for the management of patients treated with this new method.

  20. Automated low-flow ascites pump for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites

    PubMed Central

    Stirnimann, Guido; Banz, Vanessa; Storni, Federico; De Gottardi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump®) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder. Ascites can therefore be aspirated in a time- and volume-controlled mode and evacuated by urination. Here we review the currently available data about patient selection, efficacy and safety of the alfapump and provide recommendations for the management of patients treated with this new method. PMID:28203285

  1. Divergent Selection for Ascites Incidence in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken lines that were either resistant or susceptible to ascites syndrome were developed by using a hypobaric chamber to induce the disease. Birds were reared in a hypobaric chamber that simulated high altitude by operating under a partial vacuum, which thereby lowered the partial pressure of oxyg...

  2. Kinetic analysis of ligand binding to the Ehrlich cell nucleoside transporter: Pharmacological characterization of allosteric interactions with the sup 3 Hnitrobenzylthioinosine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Kinetic analysis of the binding of {sup 3}Hnitrobenzylthioinosine ({sup 3}H NBMPR) to Ehrlich ascites tumor cell plasma membranes was conducted in the presence and absence of a variety of nucleoside transport inhibitors and substrates. The association of {sup 3}H NBMPR with Ehrlich cell membranes occurred in two distinct phases, possibly reflecting functional conformation changes in the {sup 3}HNBMPR binding site/nucleoside transporter complex. Inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR, tested at submaximal inhibitory concentrations, generally decreased the rate of association of {sup 3}HNBMPR, but the magnitude of this effect varied significantly with the agent tested. Adenosine and diazepam had relatively minor effects on the association rate, whereas dipyridamole and mioflazine slowed the rate dramatically. Inhibitors of nucleoside transport also decreased the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR, with an order of potency significantly different from their relative potencies as inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR. Dilazep, dipyridamole, and mioflazine were effective inhibitors of both {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation and equilibrium binding. The lidoflazine analogue R75231, on the other hand, had no effect on the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR at concentrations below 300 microM, even though it was one of the most potent inhibitors of {sup 3}HNBMPR binding tested (Ki less than 100 nM). In contrast, a series of natural substrates for the nucleoside transport system enhanced the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR with an order of effectiveness that paralleled their relative affinities for the permeant site of the transporter. The most effective enhancers of {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation, however, were the benzodiazepines diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and triazolam.

  3. Chylous ascites caused by resection of a choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Tatsuzo; Okada, Tadao; Honda, Shohei; Miyagi, Hisayuki; Minato, Masashi; Todo, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Chylous ascites is a rare complication of abdominal surgery in children. Particularly, reports of postoperative chylous ascites are rare. This report describes the very rare case of a 10-month-old girl complicated by chylous ascites after resection of a choledochal cyst with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, who was successfully treated medically. To date, we have found a few cases of postoperative chylous ascites in the paediatric literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chylous ascites after the resection of a choledochal cyst in a child who was successfully treated solely by no fasting. No fasting might be a therapeutic option of paediatric postoperative chylous ascites after the resection of a choledochal cyst if the outflow volume of chylous ascites is small.

  4. Ascites syndrome in SPF Light Sussex chickens.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L

    1991-11-01

    An ascites syndrome was induced in 17 to 28 per cent of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Light Sussex (LSX) chickens given a low protein (16 per cent crude protein) high calcium (3.5 per cent calcium) layer crumble feed on two separate occasions 6 months apart. Affected chickens had increased right ventricular weight as a proportion of either total heart weight or live-weight at 3 weeks of age, compared with non-affected LSX chickens on the same feed, thus indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. The incidence of ascites was not increased by infection with avian nephritis virus, nor by limited cold-stress during brooding. It was not produced in LSX chickens given other feeds, nor in SPF Rhode Island Red chickens.

  5. [Ascitic fluid: the value of various biological tests in the differential diagnosis between cirrhotic and neoplastic ascites].

    PubMed

    Ghilain, J M; Henrion, J; Schapira, M; Majois, F; Beauduin, M; Heller, F R

    1990-01-01

    The authors have analyzed sixty cases of ascites including twenty of neoplastic origin and thirty-six of cirrhotic origin in order to evaluate the usefulness of several laboratory tests for the differential diagnosis of ascites. The tests which gave more than 85% diagnostic accuracy were ascitic fluid concentrations of fibronectin and total protein, serum-ascites gradients of albumin and total protein concentrations, ascitic fluid concentrations of albumin and cholesterol. The last three tests gave a diagnostic accuracy of more than 92% at discriminant levels of 3.8 gr/dl, 1.6 gr/dl and 60 mg/dl, respectively. For these six tests, neoplastic ascites due to liver metastasis had values intermediate between cirrhotic ascites and neoplastic ascites due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. A serum-ascites albumin gradient of more than 1.1 gr/dl was indicative of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients; the total protein serum-ascites gradient had a better diagnostic accuracy. Flow cytometry had less diagnostic accuracy than cytology; moreover, all cases with abnormal flow cytometry were already recognized by cytology.

  6. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and colon involvement.

    PubMed

    Levinson, J D; Ramanathan, V R; Nozick, J H

    1977-12-01

    The case of a 39-year old white man with eosinophilic gastroenteritis is presented. The major clinical features were gastric outlet obstruction, diarrhea and massive ascites. At surgery, significant involvement of the entire gastrointestinal tract from the gastric antrum to the sigmoid colon was found. Histologic documentation of colon involvement was obtained. The response to corticosteroids was prompt and sustained. At present, he is maintained on an alternating day schedule of steroid administration.

  7. Massive Ascites and Pleural Effusion in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Deveer, Ruya; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Kasap, Burcu; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is defined as new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation and complicates approximately 2-8% of all pregnancies. Release of vasoconstrictive agents, endothelial damage, hyperpermeability of the capillaries and microangiopathic haemolysis involves the basic pathophysiology. It has variable clinical presentation. Here, we report a case of severe preeclampsia who developed postpartum massive ascites and pleural effusion. Primigravid patient was admitted to our clinic at 35 weeks of gestation with very high blood pressure. In biochemical analysis, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 401 U/L, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 292 U/L. An emergency caesarean section was performed because of fetal distress. On the 2nd post-operative day, abdominal distension and severe abdominal pain occurred. On the 3rd post-operative day, her abdominal distension increased and Ultrasonography (USG) revealed massive ascites. Abdominal drainage was performed and albumin infusion was administered. On postoperative day 4, she still had abdominal distension and concomitant respiratory distress. Computed Tomography (CT) showed ascites and bilateral pleural effusion. Her complaint regressed on the following days.

  8. [Peritoneal mesothelioma with elevated amylase in the ascitic fluid].

    PubMed

    Carrión, A; Jover, R; Carnicer, F; García, M F; Aranda, F I; Martínez, J F; Griñó

    1995-03-01

    The case of a 42-year-old woman with no previous disease admitted for abdominal pain and ascites is presented. Analysis of the ascitic fluid demonstrated high concentrations of amylase with normal lipase. The diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma was obtained by laparotomy. This association has not been previously described. The authors suggest that this diagnostic possibility should be considered in patients without pancreatic disease and high amylase levels in ascitic fluid.

  9. Low gradient ascites: A seven-year course review

    PubMed Central

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Shafaghi, Afshin; Bagherzadeh, Amir-Hossein; Fallah, Mohammad-Sadegh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with low gradient ascites in hospitals of Guilan Province (northern Iran). METHODS: Patients admitted in hospitals of Guilan Province with low gradient ascites from 1993 to 2000 were enrolled in the study. Serum and ascitic fluid albumin levels were determined by biochemical reactions. The serum-ascitic albumin gradient (SAAG) less than 1.1 g/dL was considered low. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 9.0 software and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 148 patients enrolled in the study, 72 (48.6%) were males and 76 (51.4%) were females with a mean age of 59.03±13.54 years. Tuberculous peritonitis was the most frequent cause of low gradient ascites in 68 (45.9%). Other most frequent causes were cancer in 62 (41.9%), nephrotic syndrome in 9 (6%), pancreatitis in 6 (4%). Peritoneal cancer was found in 22 (35%), ovarian and gastric cancers were found in 14 (22.5%) and 12 (19.3%), respectively. All of which were the causes of ascites. The mean SAAG was 0.68±0.19 g/dL. The mean serum and ascitic fluid albumin concentrations were higher in tuberculous patients (P<0.006), but lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was higher in cancer patients (P<0.0001). In peritoneal tuberculosis, mean ascitic glucose concentration was significantly lower than other patients (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis should be considered in all patients with low gradient ascites especially in developing countries (like Iran), as the first cause of ascites. In the approach to patients with low gradient ascites, ascitic fluid glucose, and LDH level are useful indicators for decision making. PMID:15818749

  10. Tissue Distribution and Efficacy of Gold Nanorods Coupled with Laser Induced Photoplasmonic Therapy in Ehrlich Carcinoma Solid Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Shabaka, Ali A.; El-Shabrawy, Osama A.; Yassin, Nemat A.; Mahmoud, Sawsan S.; El-Shenawy, Siham M.; Al-Ashqar, Emad; Eisa, Wael H.; Farag, Niveen M.; El-Shaer, Marwa A.; Salah, Nabila; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNR) within tumor microregions are characterized by their ability to absorb near IR light and emit heat in what is called photoplasmonic effect. Yet, the efficacy of nanoparticles is limited due to intratumoral tissue distribution reasons. In addition, distribution of GNRs to normal tissue might result in non specific toxicity. In the current study, we are assessing the intratumoral and tissue distribution of PEGylated GNRs on the top of its antitumor characteristics when given intravenously or intratumoral to solid tumor bearing mice and coupled with laser photoplasmonic sessions. PEGylated GNRs with a longitudinal size of less than 100 nm were prepared with aspect ratio of 4.6 showing strong surface plasmon absorption at wavelength 800 nm. Pharmacokinetics of GNR after single I.V. administration (0.1 mg/kg) showed very short systemic circulating time (less than 3 h). On the other hand, tissue distribution of I.V. GNR (0.1 mg/kg) to normal animals showed preferential deposition in spleen tissue. Repeated administration of I.V. GNR resulted in preferential accumulation in both liver and spleen tissues. In addition, I.V. administration of GNR to Ehrlich carcinoma tumor bearing mice resulted in similar tissue distribution; tumor accumulation and anti-tumor effect compared to intratumoral administration. In conclusion, the concentration of GNR achieved within tumors microregions after I.V. administration was comparable to I.T. administration and sufficient to elicit tumoral growth arrest when coupled with laser-aided photoplasmonic treatment. PMID:24098446

  11. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Eun; Chae, Kwon Mook

    2011-12-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease.

  12. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Eun

    2011-01-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease. PMID:22319743

  13. Spontaneous Fungal Peritonitis in Ascites of Cardiac Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Seema; Attar, Bashar M.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is an infrequent but severe complication most commonly described in patients with liver cirrhosis. We present the first case of culture-proven SFP occurring in cardiogenic ascites. The diagnosis of SFP was clinically challenging as the initial ascites was consistent with the more common diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The patient did not respond to antibacterial therapy, however, and the final diagnosis was only made with positive ascitic cultures that grew Candida glabrata. SFP should be considered in patients with either cardiac or cirrhotic ascites and have a delayed or lack of response to traditional SBP treatment. PMID:28386572

  14. Ascites syndrome in broilers: physiological and nutritional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baghbanzadeh, A; Decuypere, E

    2008-04-01

    Broiler chickens are intensively selected for productive traits. The management of these highly productive animals must be optimal to allow their full genetic potential to be expressed. If this is not done, inefficient production and several metabolic diseases such as ascites become apparent. The causes of the ascites are multifactorial but diet and, particularly, interactions between diet, other environmental and genetic factors play an important role. The relatively high heritability estimates for ascites-related traits and the significance of maternal genetic effects for most of the traits indicate that direct and maternal genetic effects play an important role in development of the ascites syndrome. An imbalance between oxygen supply and the oxygen required to sustain rapid growth rates and high food efficiencies causes ascites in broiler chickens. Because of the relationship to oxygen demand, ascites is affected and/or precipitated by factors such as growth rate, altitude (hypoxia) and environmental temperature. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth) is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative) or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Manipulation of the diet composition and/or feed allocation system can have a major effect on the incidence of ascites. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence.

  15. Pancreas Adenocarcinoma: Ascites, Clinical Manifestations, and Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Angel Mier; Chou, Joanne; Capanu, Marinela; Lowery, Maeve A.; Yu, Kenneth H.; O’Reilly, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    This was a cohort analysis evaluating patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who presented with or developed ascites. Among the 180 patients analyzed, the use of serial paracenteses and indwelling catheters is a common practice to effect symptom palliation. The complication rate was higher in patients with indwelling catheters. Analyzing ascitic fluid and calculating the serum ascites albumin gradient can help attribute the etiology of the ascites and potentially identify which patients may benefit from diuretics or other intervention. Background Ascites develops in a subset of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) at presentation or as the disease advances. Limited data exist on the prognostic importance of malignant ascites in PAC. Our hypothesis is that this information will provide an understanding of the natural history and facilitate management decisions. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 180 patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center diagnosed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014, with PAC and with ascites either at presentation or that developed during the disease course. Results For the 180 patients, the overall survival was 15 months. The time from diagnosis to ascites presentation was 11 months, and the survival time after ascites development was 1.8 months (range, 1.6–2.3 months; 95% confidence interval). Of 62 patients (34%) who had ascitic fluid analyzed, 36 (58%) had positive cytology. Fifty-one (82%) patients had a serum ascites albumin gradient ≥ 1, and 11 (18%) had serum ascites albumin gradient < 1. Sixty-four (36%) patients had their ascites managed solely by serial paracenteses. A total of 116 patients required a catheter; of these, 108 (93%) had a Tenckhoff catheter, 4 (3%) a Pleurx catheter, 4 (3%) a pigtail catheter, and 1 (1%) a Denver catheter. Eight (7%) patients required 2 catheters to be placed, and in 6 (5%), Tenckhoff catheters had to be removed. The main observed complications were

  16. [Non-cirrhotic ascites: pathophysiology, diagnosis and etiology].

    PubMed

    Carrier, P; Jacques, J; Debette-Gratien, M; Legros, R; Sarabi, M; Vidal, E; Sautereau, D; Bezanahary, H; Ly, K H; Loustaud-Ratti, V

    2014-06-01

    Ascites, in 20% of cases, is not linked to liver cirrhosis. The pathophysiology is most often different. The understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms can lead to etiologic diagnosis. The diagnostic approach is mainly based on the biological study of ascites, especially protein concentration and albumin gradient between serum and ascites. In Western countries, tumors and heart diseases are the predominant causes, while developing countries are mainly concerned by infectious diseases, among which tuberculosis is the leading cause. Other uncommon causes must be recognized, as ascites may be the presenting feature of the disease. Their knowledge will facilitate the therapeutic approach.

  17. [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity].

    PubMed

    Lokaj, J; John, C

    2008-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 was awarded to Ilya I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich for recognition of their work on immunity. Mechnikov have discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis as the basis of natural cellular immunity. His ,,phagocytic theory" is the principle of immunological concept "self and not self" as the prerequisition of physiological inflammation, and selfmaintaining of organism. Ehrlich developed the methods for standardization of antibody activity in immune sera, described neutralizing and complement-depending effect of antibodies and enunciated the ,"ide-chain" theory of the formation of antibodies. Their concept of the key-stone of immunity was different, but they expressed the basic paradigma of immunology: immunity imply the protection of identity and guarantee the integrity of organism. Both are the founders of immunology as the scientific discipline. Discoveries and conceptions of I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich exceedingly influenced development of immunology and are also applicable, instructive and suggestive in contemporary immunology and microbiology.

  18. [Sero-ascitic gradient of albumin: usefulness and diagnostic limitations].

    PubMed

    Alba, D; Torres, E; Vázquez, J J

    1995-08-01

    The serum-ascites albumin (SAA) gradient has been defined as the serum albumin concentration minus the ascitic fluid albumin concentration. The SAA gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept to classify ascites, being a exact portal hypertension (PH) marker. An elevated SAA gradient (1.1 g/L or greater) correlates with PH, whereas a low gradient indicates no PH. The SAA gradient correlates well with PH in cirrhotic patients. It is also of particular utility to differentiate between congestive heart failure and malignant ascites without liver metastases (both of them with elevated ascites fluid proteins -AFP-). However, a low SAA gradient do not differentiate between tuberculous and malignant ascites. Consequently, there are still need for tests a cytology, culture for mycobacteria or ascites fluid polymorphonuclear cell count in some cases. The level of AFP, apart from the exudate-transudate concept, has some value for certain cases (a low level of AFP implicates a high risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis). The SAA gradient should replace the AFP concentration as the initial test to classify ascites.

  19. Chylous Ascites in a Newborn with Gastroschisis. Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zalles-Vidal, Cristian Ruben; Peñarrieta-Daher, Alejandro; Ibarra-Rios, Daniel; Fernandez-Portilla, Emilio; Bracho-Blachet, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Chylous ascites is a rare disease, only two cases associated with gastroschisis have been published. We report a case treated conservatively with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and octreotide. We reviewed the literature about management options for the chylous ascites. PMID:28083502

  20. Chylous ascites as a consequence of idiopathic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baban, Chwanrow Karim; Murphy, Michael; O'Sulleabháin, Cristóir; O'Hanlon, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Chylous ascites (chyloperitoneum) is a rare clinical condition, characterized by an accumulation of lymph fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Most commonly it is associated with abdominal malignancy (usually lymphoma). We present an unusual case of a woman who developed a persistent pseudocyst and recurrent chylous ascites following acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:24501332

  1. Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

    1983-09-01

    The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

  2. Evaluation and treatment of malignant ascites secondary to gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC), and poses significant difficulties for both patients and clinicians. In addition to the dismal general condition of affected patients and the diversity of associated complications such as jaundice and ileus, problems in assessing scattered tumors have hampered the expansion of clinical trials for this condition. However, the accumulation of reported studies is starting to indicate that the weak response to treatment in GC patients with malignant ascites is more relevant to their poor prognosis rather than to the ascites volume at diagnosis. Therefore, precise assessment of initial state of ascites, repetitive evaluation of treatment efficacy, selection of suitable treatment, and swift transition to other treatment options as needed are paramount to maximizing patient benefit. Accurately determining ascites volume is the crucial first step in clinically treating a patient with malignant ascites. Ultrasonography is commonly used to identify the existence of ascites, and several methods have been proposed to estimate ascites volume. Reportedly, the sum of the depth of ascites at five points (named “five-point method”) on three panels of computed tomography images is well correlated to the actual ascites volume and/or abdominal girth. This method is already suited to repetitive assessment due to its convenience compared to the conventional volume rendering method. Meanwhile, a new concept, “Clinical Benefit Response in GC (CBR-GC)”, was recently introduced to measure the efficacy of chemotherapy for malignant ascites of GC. CBR-GC is a simple and reliable patient-oriented evaluation system based on changes in performance status and ascites, and is expected to become an important clinical endpoint in future clinical trials. The principal of treatment for GC patients with ascites is palliation and prevention of ascites-related symptoms. The treatment options are various, including a

  3. [Refractory ascites and dilutional hyponatremia: current management and new aquaretics].

    PubMed

    Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis and is associated with 50% mortality at 2 years if patients do not receive orthotopic liver transplantation. Recently the International Ascites Club defined ascites into three groups: In grade I ascites fluid is detected only by ultrasound; in grade II, ascites is moderate with symmetrical distention of the abdomen; and in Grade 3 ascites is large or tense with marked abdominal distention. About 10% of patients with ascites are refractory to treatment with diuretics. In refractory ascites, patients do not respond to highest doses of diuretics (spironolactone 400 mg/day and furosemide 160 mg/ day) or develop side effects (hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hepatic encephalopathy, or renal failure) that prohibit their use. Patients may be treated either by repeated large volume paracentesis plus albumin or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Dilutional hyponatremia in cirrhotic patients is defined as serum sodium < or = 130 mEq/L in the presence of an expanded extracellular fluid volume, as indicated by the presence of ascites and/or edema. This complication of cirrhotic patients with ascites has recently gained attention given that several reports indicate that when serum sodium concentration is combined with the Model for End-Stage liver disease (MELD) it improves the prognostic accuracy of MELD score in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). The first step in the management of dilutional hyponatremia is fluid restriction and discontinuation of diuretics. Water restriction at 1,000 mL/day helps prevent the progressive decrease in serum sodium concentration but usually does not correct hyponatremia in most cases. Actually are developing drugs that are active orally and act by selectively antagonizing the specific receptors (V2 receptor) of arginine vasopressin. These agents act in the distal collecting ducts of the kidneys, by increasing solute free water excretion and, thus, improving

  4. Severe ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated CA125 concentration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Imaeda, Kenro; Mizuno, Tatsuo; Wakami, Kazuko; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Okayama, Naotsuka; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Joh, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Ascites caused by hypothyroidism is rare and the pathogenesis is unclear. Several reports have presented cases of progressive ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated tumor markers. We report a 31-year-old female case with massive ascites and elevated serum CA 125 concentrations. The patient had no typical feature of hypothyroidism except an accumulation of ascitic fluid which showed elevated total protein concentration and a high serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG). There was no finding of malignancy. Following thyroid hormone replacement, the ascites was completely resolved accompanied by reduced concentrations of serum CA125. In general, primary hypothyroidism with ascites presents with coexisting massive pericardial or pleural effusion. The massive ascites and increased serum CA125 concentrations may have led us to make the incorrect diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. The evaluation of thyroid function is useful to determine the pathology of high-protein ascites or elevated tumor markers, and ascites may be treatable by thyroid replacement therapy.

  5. Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Intergenerational Reflections--An Interview with Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    In a September 2013 interview, Thomas Ehrlich and Ernestine Fu--whose passion for public service is manifested in differing ways and from two dramatically different generational standpoints--discussed insights from their co-authored book, "Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service (2013)." Septuagenarian Tom…

  6. Synergistic efficacy of γ-radiation together with gallium trichloride and/or doxorubicin against Ehrlich carcinoma in female mice.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Eman; Aziz, Nahed Abdel

    2016-02-01

    Combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy represents a key oncology strategy for a more comprehensive attack toward cancers and improves treatment outcome for various solid tumor malignancies. The present study aims to evaluate the synergistic antitumor effect of γ-radiation together with gallium trichloride (GaCl3) and/or doxorubicin (DOX) against solid Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) in female mice. GaCl3 (300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) was administered by gavages daily on the seventh day after tumor inoculation, while the cytotoxic drug DOX (4 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally once a week. Whole-body γ-radiation was carried out at a dose 2 Gy once a week. Biochemical analysis showed that solid EC induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content with a significant decrease in the antioxidant state (glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities) and depleted serum iron concentration compared to normal control. Moreover, a significant increase was observed in calcium level and caspase-3 concentrations in both serum and tumor homogenate respectively associated with a significant alteration in heart, liver, and kidney functions, as compared to control. Treatment of EC-bearing mice with GaCl3and/or DOX combined with γ-radiation exposure significantly reduced tumor volume and displayed a significant improvement in most studied markers which may indicate a synergistic effect of this combination against organ dysfunction and cellular injury. The histopathologically investigation showed that treatment of animals bearing EC with GaCl3and/or DOX with γ-radiation exposure showed shrinkage in tumor lesions and wide zones of apoptotic cells with signs of regenerations. It was concluded that the combination of GaCl3and/or DOX with γ-radiation exposure resulted in super-additive cytotoxic effects on treatment of cancer cells.

  7. Synthesis of some novel quinolines and pyrimido [4,5-b] quinolines bearing A sulfonamide moiety as potential anticancer and radioprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Ragab, Fatma A; Noaman, Eman; Heiba, Helmy I; El-Hossary, Ebaa M

    2007-01-01

    Some novel 4-(quinolin-1-yl)-benzenesulfonamide and 4-(pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolin-10-yl)-benzenesulfonamide derivatives have been synthesized. All the newly synthesized target compounds were subjected to in vitro cytotoxic screening to be evaluated for their anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Among these new compounds, compounds 9a, 11, 12b, 18 and, in particular, 19 showed promising in vitro cytotoxic activity compared with doxorubicin (CAS 23214-92-8) as a reference drug. Moreover, compound 8 exhibited in vivo radioprotective activity against gamma-irradiation in mice.

  8. Abdominal Pain and Ascites: Not Always Related to Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kisang, Gilbert; Green, Michael; Tofteland, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with an estimated prevalence of one in 100,000. The typical presentation consists of vague gastrointestinal symptoms with the mucosal involvement of the digestive system. Rarely, it presents as eosinophilic ascites. We report the case of a 22-year-old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and ascites. The laboratory studies were remarkable for eosinophilia and the ascitic fluid demonstrated high eosinophilic counts. Push enteroscopy with biopsy supported the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, with likely serosal involvement. Other differential diagnoses were excluded. A prednisone taper along with dietary treatment was initiated. We report complete resolution of symptoms two weeks following the initiation of therapy. Nine months later, she remains asymptomatic without recurrence of ascites. PMID:27843730

  9. Cases with Refractory Ascites and a Delayed Response to Tolvaptan

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Satoru; Nishida, Naoshi; Chishina, Hirokazu; Ida, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Komeda, Yoriaki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 67-year-old female with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. She was administered furosemide at 20 mg/day and spironolactone at 25 mg/day, but the ascites did not improve. Despite the additional administration of tolvaptan at 3.75 mg/day, the response to ascites was still poor. While the dose of tolvaptan was thereafter increased to 7.5 mg/day on the 7th hospital day, the ascites still persisted. However, she continued to receive tolvaptan (7.5 mg/day) because the worsening of her subjective symptoms was mild and she wished to do so. The ascites was later found to have almost completely disappeared on computed tomography (CT) at 6 months. PMID:27853068

  10. Long-term medical management and complications of `resistant' ascites

    PubMed Central

    Summerskill, William H. J.; Clowdus, Bernard F.; Rosevear, John W.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of treating patients with hepatic cirrhosis and ascites with an aldosterone inhibitor in addition to conventional therapy. Good results are demonstrated in 13 patients previously resistant to treatment. PMID:13918387

  11. Palliation of malignant ascites by the Denver peritoneovenous shunt.

    PubMed Central

    Downing, R.; Black, J.; Windsor, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Five out of 8 Denver peritoneovenous shunts placed in 7 patients provided excellent palliation of malignant ascites. Subclinical consumptive coagulopathy was detected after placement of 6 shunts, but no patient developed overt bleeding. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6207757

  12. An unusual presentation of fistulating Crohn's disease: Ascites.

    PubMed

    Kia, Richard; White, David; Sarkar, Sanchoy

    2010-01-16

    Whilst ascites is a common presenting complaint in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease and disseminated malignancy, in Crohn's disease however, it is exceptionally rare. We describe a patient with no prior history of inflammatory bowel or liver disease, presenting with rapid onset gross ascites and scrotal swelling. Further investigations revealed severe hypoalbuminemia and transudative ascitic fluid with normal other liver function tests and a negative liver screen. Computed tomography revealed widespread ascites and pleural effusions with no features of malignancy or portal hypertension, and a small bowel barium series showed features of fistulating small bowel Crohn's disease. An ileo-colonoscopy confirmed the presence of terminal ileal inflammatory stricture. The patient's clinical condition and serum albumin improved with a combination of diuretics, elemental diet, antibiotics and oral 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy.

  13. Intractable ascites in systemic mastocytosis treated by portal diversion.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, P; Smadja, C; Szekely, A M; Delage, Y; Calmus, Y; Poupon, R; Franco, D

    1987-02-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with intractable ascites due to systemic mastocytosis. The diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was established by histology of the bone marrow which showed mast cell infiltration and fibrosis. Ascites was related to portal hypertension which was documented by esophageal varices at endoscopy and by an increase of wedged-free hepatic venous pressure gradient. Liver biopsy disclosed dense fibrosis of hepatic arterial and portal venule walls, resulting in complete obstruction of some portal radicles. Peliosis hepatis and fibrous deposits in the walls of hepatic venules were also present. Because of intractable ascites and significant malnutrition, a portacaval shunt was performed which cleared ascites and dramatically improved the general condition of the patient.

  14. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years.

  15. [Septic ascites: a rare post-operative complication].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Taglienti, D; de Anna, L; Masoni, L; Gasparrini, M; Viola, M; Nicolai, A P; Lucidi, V; Montori, A

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with chronic hepatitis represents a very controversial matter in terms of frequency, pathology and treatment. This unusual complication mainly due to decreased immunological defences and ascitic fluid opsonic activity is not accepted by all the Authors as a rare event. However, there is agreement as far as management is concerned: cultural examination of the ascitic fluid and the relative antibiogram are the best tools in guiding the approach to an adequate antibiotic therapy.

  16. Coughing may lead to spontaneous chylothorax and chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Battal, Muharrem; Dogan, Yasar; Karyagar, Savas; Kutlu, Asim

    2007-12-31

    Chylous ascites is a rare form of ascites resulting from the accumulation of lymph in the abdominal cavity. It is due to an interruption in the lymphatic system. Surgical management is indicated in cases of recurrence or failure after conservative treatment. We report a case of spontaneous chylous peritonitis after chylothorax, which is a rare clinical event. The primary reason was unclear and the outcome of medical and surgical treatment was successful.

  17. Evaluation and management of patients with refractory ascites

    PubMed Central

    Senousy, Bahaa Eldeen; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Some patients with ascites due to liver cirrhosis become no longer responsive to diuretics. Once other causes of ascites such as portal vein thrombosis, malignancy or infection and non-compliance with medications and low sodium diet have been excluded, the diagnosis of refractory ascites can be made based on strict criteria. Patients with refractory ascites have very poor prognosis and therefore referral for consideration for liver transplantation should be initiated. Search for reversible components of the underlying liver pathology should be undertaken and targeted therapy, when available, should be considered. Currently, serial large volume paracentesis (LVP) and transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent-shunt (TIPS) are the two mainstay treatment options for refractory ascites. Other treatment options are available but not widely used either because they carry high morbidity and mortality (most surgical options) rates, or are new interventions that have shown promise but still need further evaluation. In this comprehensive review, we describe the evaluation and management of patients with refractory ascites from the prospective of the practicing physician. PMID:19115470

  18. A Rare Case of Ascites due to Peritoneal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Stofer, Fernanda; Barretto, Maria Fernanda; Gouvea, Ana Luisa; Ribeiro, Mario; Neves, Marcio; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg; Mocarzel, Luís Otavio

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 65 Final Diagnosis: Peritoneal amyloidosis Symptoms: Anasarca • Dyspnea • Orthopnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Paracentesis and peritoneal biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The clinical manifestations of amyloidosis depend on the type of insoluble protein as well as the location of amyloid deposits in tissues or organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine is the most common site of amyloid deposits, whereas peritoneal involvement and ascites are rare. Case Report: We report on a case of ascites due to peritoneal amyloidosis. A 65-year-old patient was admitted to our institution due to anasarca and pulmonary congestion, mimicking heart failure. We started the patient on diuretics and vasodilators. Despite improvement in pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema, his ascites was not reduced. Echocardiogram revealed restrictive cardiomyopathy and a speckle-tracking pattern suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis. Subcutaneous and peritoneal biopsies revealed amyloidosis. Conclusions: Amyloidosis is rare in the peritoneum and is usually asymptomatic. Ascites occurs in only 20% of patients with peritoneal amyloidosis. We searched PubMed using “ascites” and “amyloidosis” and identified only eight case reports of amyloidosis with ascites. Physicians should be particularly careful in heart failure and anasarca cases when ascites is disproportional or not responsive to diuretic treatment. To date, there is no specific treatment for peritoneal amyloidosis. PMID:27353538

  19. Bile Duct Perforation due to Inspissated Bile Presenting as Refractory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Lal, Bikrant Bihari; Bharathy, Kishore G; Alam, Seema; Khanna, Rajeev; Patidar, Yashwant; Rawat, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    Non hepatic origin of refractory ascites is not a rarity. Hemolytic anemias are known to cause inspissated bile and biliary obstruction. Distal biliary obstruction can lead to biliary perforation. The authors report a case of hereditary spherocytosis leading to inspissated bile causing bile duct perforation and biliary ascites. A high index of suspicion for biliary ascites should be kept in a child with refractory ascites in the setting of progressive ascites with decreasing bilirubin. Ascitic fluid bilirubin analysis will clinch the diagnosis. Surgical repair is the optimal management.

  20. A Case of Successful Conservative Treatment for Chylous Ascites After Living-Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Hiroaki; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Gocho, Takeshi; Ishida, Yuichi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    A 46-year-old man underwent living-donor liver transplantation and splenectomy for primary biliary cirrhosis. On postoperative day 22, cloudiness of ascites increased, and triglyceride concentration in ascites was as high as 1046 mg/dL. With a diagnosis of chylous ascites, total parenteral nutrition was started. Nine days after starting total parenteral nutrition, cloudiness of ascites decreased, and triglycerides in ascites decreased to 93 mg/dL. Oral intake was restarted, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 46. Chylous ascites is a rare complication after living-donor liver transplantation for which total parenteral nutrition may be useful. PMID:23294080

  1. Generation of hydroxyl radicals during ascites experimentally induced in broilers.

    PubMed

    Arab, H A; Jamshidi, R; Rassouli, A; Shams, G; Hassanzadeh, M H

    2006-04-01

    Increased metabolic rates, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac dysfunction are the most important features of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. However, the mechanism of cell injury causing the pathogenesis of the syndrome is not clearly understood. Our study aimed to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in broiler chickens experiencing ascites. The hundred and fifty 1-d-old chickens were purchased from a local hatchery and reared in an open poultry house for 46 d. They were divided at random into three groups and ascites was induced in two groups by exposing them to low temperature or administration of triiodothyronine (T(3)). The third group served as control and was reared normally. Haematological, biochemical and pathological tests were used to determine the incidence of ascites: including total red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), release of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight (RV/TV). A salicylate hydroxylation method was used to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in treated groups. TWo hydroxylated salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (2,3- and 2,5-DHBA), were measured by HPLC to detect the generation of OH*. An ascites syndrome was observed in T(3) and low-temperature treated groups, as shown by necropsy changes and increases in f RBC, PCV, ALT, AST and the ratio of RV/TV. Concentrations of 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA were increased in groups experiencing ascites compared to control group. It is suggested that reactive oxygen species that is OH* ions, may be involved in the pathogenesis of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

  2. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive.

  3. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  4. Evaluation of the effects of thalidomide-loaded biodegradable devices in solid Ehrlich tumor.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno Gonçalves; Ligorio Fialho, Silvia; Maria de Souza, Cristina; Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Silva-Cunha, Armando

    2013-03-01

    Regarding thalidomide's effects in cancer and the problems related to its physicochemical characteristics and toxic effects, we proposed a new biodegradable polymeric implant to this drug. In this paper, we evaluate the antiangiogenic activity and antitumor effect of thalidomide when incorporated in poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) implants in an animal model for Ehrlich tumor. This dosage form permits the prolonged drug release. The biodegradable implants could reduce the blood vessel in a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. When applied to the Ehrlich tumor model, implant also showed to reduce the number of vessels. It was also observed to reduce areas of inflammation and increases the area of necrosis in the group of thalidomide implant. A 47% reduction in tumor volume was observed in the thalidomide implant group, which is discussed in relation to literature reported results of thalidomide conventional administration ways.

  5. The ascites N-glycome of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Biskup, Karina; Braicu, Elena I; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

    2017-03-22

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is worldwide the sixth most lethal form of cancer occurring in women. More than one third of ovarian patients have ascites at the time of diagnosis and almost all of them have it when recurrence occurs. Although its effect on tumor cell microenvironment remains poorly understood, its presence is correlated with bad diagnosis. In previous studies, we proposed a novel glycan-based biomarker for the diagnosis of EOC, which showed an improved sensitivity and specificity at any stage of the disease and an improved discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. In this work, we report for the first time the N-glycome profiles of ascitic fluid from primary serous EOC patients and compare them with the serum N-glycomes of the same patients as well as of healthy controls. N-Glycans were digested from equivalent amount of ascites and serum from 18 EOC patients and from serum of 20 age-matched controls and measured by MALDI-TOF-MS. Ascites N-glycome showed increased antennarity, branching, sialylation and Lewis(X) motives compared to healthy serum. In addition, a correlation was established between ascites volume and degree of sialylation.

  6. The effect of abdominal massage in reducing malignant ascites symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Jane, Sui-Whi; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2015-02-01

    As many as 50% of end-stage cancer patients will develop ascites and associated symptoms, including pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, loss of appetite, dyspnea, perceived abdominal bloating, and immobility. Abdominal massage may stimulate lymph return to the venous system and reduce ascites-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of abdominal massage in reducing these symptoms and reducing ascites itself as reflected in body weight. For a randomized controlled design using repeated measures, a sample of 80 patients with malignant ascites was recruited from gastroenterology and oncology units of a medical center in northern Taiwan and randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. A 15-minute gentle abdominal massage, using straight rubbing, point rubbing, and kneading, was administered twice daily for 3 days. The control group received a twice-daily 15-minute social interaction contact with the same nurse. Symptoms and body weight were measured in the morning for 4 consecutive days from pre- to post-test. In generalized estimation equation modeling, a significant group-by-time interaction on depression, anxiety, poor wellbeing, and perceived abdominal bloating, indicated that abdominal massage improved these four symptoms, with the greatest effect on perceived bloating. The intervention had no effect on pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, poor appetite, shortness of breath, mobility limitation, or body weight. Abdominal massage appears useful for managing selected symptoms of malignant ascites.

  7. Paul Ehrlich: pathfinder in cell biology. 1. Chronicle of his life and accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kasten, F H

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the life of Paul Ehrlich and his biomedical accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy. Ehrlich achieved renown as an organic chemist, histologist, hematologist, immunologist, and pharmacologist. He disliked the formality of school but managed to excel in Latin and mathematics. His role model was an older cousin, Carl Weigert, who became a lifelong friend. Ehrlich studied medicine at Breslau, Strasbourg, Freiburg, and Leipzig, coming under the influence of Wilhelm Waldeyer, Julius Cohnheim, Rudolf Heidenhein, and Ferdinand Cohn. As a medical student, Ehrlich was captivated by structural organic chemistry and dyes. When he was 23, his first paper was published on selective staining. His doctoral thesis, "Contribution to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining" contained most of the germinal ideas that would guide his future career. Most of his early work was centered in Berlin at Charite Hospital, where he did pioneering studies on blood and intravital staining, and at Robert Koch's Institute for Infectious Diseases, where he undertook important investigations in immunology. Ehrlich became an authority on antitoxin standardization and developed the "side-chain theory" of antibody formation for which he was later awarded the Nobel Prize. He became director of an Institute for Experimental Therapy in Frankfurt where he continued research in immunology and carried out routine serum testing. He developed new lines of investigation in cancer research and originated the field of chemotherapy. Using principles developed in his early work with dyes, he successfully treated certain experimental trypanosomal infections with azo dyes. His crowning accomplishment was discovering that the compound Salvarsan could control human syphilis. Ehrlich's legacy in immunology and chemotherapy is discussed and an intimate portrait is drawn of Ehrlich the person.

  8. Effects of alfapump system on kidney and circulatory function in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Solà, Elsa; Sanchez-Cabús, Santiago; Rodriguez, Ezequiel; Elia, Chiara; Cela, Raquel; Moreira, Rebeca; Pose, Elisa; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Cañete, Nuria; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Campos, Francisco; Balust, Jaume; Guevara, Mónica; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Ginès, Pere

    2017-03-20

    The alfapump system has been proposed as a new treatment for the management of refractory ascites. The system removes ascites from the peritoneal cavity to urinary bladder, producing a continuous low-volume paracentesis.

  9. Observations on the mechanism and location of ascites reabsorption in man

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, W.G. Jr.; Ibarra, F.

    1987-04-01

    Animal data indicate that ascites is reabsorbed by a lymphatic mechanism and that these vessels are subdiaphragmatic in location. We evaluated the relative role of lymphatics in ascites reabsorption in man by comparing the ascites clearance and plasma appearance rates of intraperitoneally injected radiolabeled albumin to those of intraperitoneally injected labeled autologous red blood cells, which require, owing to their large size, lymphatic removal, in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. To evaluate the location of reabsorption, we repeated these measurements after replacing ascites in the subdiaphragmatic region with 500-1000 ml of intraperitoneally injected air, reasoning that this maneuver should slow or eliminate ascites reabsorption occurring at this site. We found that the transfer rates of albumin and red cells out of ascites were similar and that creation of pneumoperitoneum did not influence these rates. These data confirm that ascites protein reabsorption occurs via a lymphatic mechanism in man. They suggest, however, that these vessels may not be subdiaphragmatic in location.

  10. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  11. Combination antitumor effect with central nervous system depressants on rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Koshiura, R; Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F

    1980-02-01

    Combined effect of twenty-one central nervous system depressants with several antitumor agents was studied in the in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, using rat ascites hepatoma call lines, AH13 and AH44, sensitive and insensitive to alkylating agents, respectively. Reserpine remarkably enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 1-(gamma-chloropropyl)-2-chloromethylpiperidine hydrobromide (CAP-2) both on AH13 and AH44 cells. In the in vivo combined experiments, reserpine also synergistically enhanced the life-prolonging effect of CAP-2 on AH13-bearing rats and, although CAP-2 was not potent on the prolongation of life span of AH44-bearing rats and reserpine was also ineffective at the doses examined, the life span of tumor-bearing rats receiving the combined administration was apparently prolonged compared with control groups. Thus, there was a parallelism between in vitro and in vivo experiments. These findings suggested that the antitumor-enhancing effect of reserpine might be due to the direct action on the tumor cells, and a possible mechanism that reserpine inhibited the DNA damage-repairing activity of the cells was contradictory. Other mechanisms are also discussed.

  12. Gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission.

  13. A rational approach to the treatment of ascites

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, V.; Rodés, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational approach to the diuretic therapy of ascites is proposed. Fifty-five patients were classified according to their ability to excrete sodium and free water. Patients with a high urinary sodium excretion can be treated by low sodium intake alone. In most patients with a low sodium excretion but high free water clearance, distal diuretics (spironolactone or triamterene) with a low sodium diet will relieve ascites. Patients with low values for sodium excretion and free water clearance also have poor glomerular filtration rate and only a few of these will respond to diuretic therapy. PMID:1234341

  14. Journal bearing

    DOEpatents

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  15. Rapid onset of massive ascites as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, P J; Noyer, C M

    2000-01-01

    Ascites in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rarely massive, and either accompanies the typical manifestations of active disease or results from nephrotic syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy, constrictive pericarditis, and conditions unrelated to lupus. Marked ascites has been attributed to chronic lupus peritonitis, characterized by the insidious onset of massive, painless ascites and unrelated to disease activity. Regardless of the etiology, ascites typically has a gradual onset and occurs after a diagnosis of SLE has been made. We describe a young woman presenting with the rapid development of massive ascites as the initial manifestation of SLE.

  16. Congenital plaque-type glomuvenous malformation associated with chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Maria; Martín-Santiago, Ana; Gómez, Cristina; Fiol, Miquel; Benítez-Segura, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Congenital plaque-type glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is caused by loss of function mutations in glomulin gene. We report a newborn with this rare vascular disorder associated with chylous ascites. The common mesenchymal origin of GVM and lymphatic vessels as well as the glomulin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in utero could help explain this unusual prenatal complication of glomuvenous malformations.

  17. Acute eosinophilic ascites: an unusual form of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Kodan, Parul; Shetty, Meenakshi A; Pavan, M R; Kariappa, Ahalya; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is an uncommon disease characterised by eosinophilic infiltration in the gastrointestinal tract. EGE may involve more than one layer of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical features depend on the layer and location which is involved. We report an unusual case of eosinophilic ascites associated with antinuclear antibody positivity, which is an unusual variety of serosal form of EGE.

  18. Refractory ascites in the chronic myeloproliferative syndrome: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, P.; Wood, L.; Robson, S. )

    1991-06-01

    In a patient with myelofibrosis, tense ascites refractory to conventional therapy resulted from extensive seeding of the peritoneum with colonies of extramedullary haematopoiesis. Whole abdominal radiation was found to be effective and well tolerated, and brought about prompt and lasting resorption of the exudate, with weight reduction and improvement in performance status from 50% to 90% on the Karnofsky rating.

  19. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yijun; Lu, Hongjuan; Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ► Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ► The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ► Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ► Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ► Buthionine sulfoximine does not

  20. Hemodynamic Consequences of Malignant Ascites in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Surgery∗

    PubMed Central

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pietzner, Klaus; Koch, Mandy; Krannich, Alexander; Sehouli, Jalid; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malignant ascites (MA) is most commonly observed in patients scheduled for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery and is supposed as a major risk factor promoting perioperative hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic consequences of MA on systemic circulation in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. This study is a predefined post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a goal-directed algorithm to optimize hemodynamic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. Ascites was used to stratify the EOC patients prior to randomization in the main study. We analyzed 2 groups according to the amount of ascites (NLAS: none or low ascites [<500 mL] vs HAS: high ascites group [>500 mL]). Differences in hemodynamic variables with respect to time were analyzed using nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data and multivariate generalized estimating equation adjusting the analysis for the randomized study groups of the main study. A total of 31 patients in the NLAS and 16 patients in the HAS group were analyzed. Although cardiac output was not different between groups suggesting a similar circulatory blood flow, the HAS group revealed higher heart rates and lower stroke volumes during surgery. There were no differences in pressure-based hemodynamic variables. In the HAS group, fluid demands, reflected by the time to reindication of a fluid challenge after preload optimization, increased steadily, whereas stroke volume could not be maintained at baseline resulting in hemodynamic instability after 1.5 h of surgery. In contrast, in the NLAS group fluid demands were stable and stroke volume could be maintained during surgery. Clinically relevant associations of the type of fluid replacement with hemodynamic consequences were particularly observed in the HAS group, in which transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was associated to an improved circulatory flow and reduced

  1. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers.

  2. A corny cause of cerebrospinal fluid ascites: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Hira; Abrams, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare cause of cerebrospinal fluid ascites. Methods: A 37-year-old female with history of intracranial hypertension and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was referred to liver clinic for evaluation of newly developed ascites. Results: Initially, the cause of ascites was thought to be secondary to a liver etiology. However, this was excluded after a comprehensive evaluation including portal pressure measurements. We determined the ascites to be infected cerebrospinal fluid secondary to a rare commensal organism, Corynebacterium non-Jeikeium, which resolved after removing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, appropriate antibiotics and conversion to a ventriculo-atrial shunt. Conclusion: Cerebrospinal fluid ascites is a rare complication of VP shunts and since 1976 only 8 cases of Corynebacterium non jk VP shunt infections have been reported in the literature but none associated with ascites. Also this report highlights the beneficial role of transjugular portal pressure measurements in the evaluation of ascites. PMID:27489721

  3. Reduction of ascites mortality in broilers by coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M; Yang, Y

    2004-09-01

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites were studied in broilers. One hundred eighty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates each. From d 8, the diets were supplemented with CoQ10 at levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. From d 15 to 21, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature (15 to 18 degrees C) to induce ascites. Average feed intake, BW gain, and feed conversion ratio of the broilers during 0 to 3 wk, 3 to 6 wk, and 0 to 6 wk were measured. The results showed that there were no influences observed on broilers' growth performance, but the mortality due to ascites was reduced by CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 compared with the control, but no significant changes were observed on blood packed cell volume (PCV) among the treatments. Pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure was significantly decreased on d 36, but no significant changes were observed on right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, and the maximum change ratio of right intraventricular pressure (+/- dp/ dtmax). Ascites heart index (AHI) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). The results of this study suggested that CoQ10 has a beneficial effect in reducing ascites mortality in broilers, and 40 mg/kg CoQ10 seems to be more effective than 20 mg/ kg CoQ10.

  4. GAS BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of methotrexate released from polymeric implants in solid Ehrlich tumor.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Pereira, Adriana; Mara da Costa, Vivian; Cristina Magalhães Santos, Millene; Maciel de A Ribeiro, Rosy Iara; Gabriela Silva, Ana; Carmo Horta Pinto, Flávia; Vieira Teixeira Vidigal, Paula; Rodrigues Da Silva, Gisele

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effects of the controlled and sustained release of methotrexate from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) implants were evaluated in the solid Ehrlich tumor. The drug locally leached from the implantable devices was capable of reducing the tumor growth and the necrotic areas of the tumor site. Furthermore, the methotrexate exerted its anti-tumor effect probably by the recruitment of neutrophils at the tumor site, which assisted in modulating the growth of the tumor. The polymeric implants containing methotrexate could be a chemotherapic alternative to treat locally solid tumors with lower systemic side effects.

  6. Growth rate of ascites-resistant versus ascites-susceptible broilers in commercial and experimental lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Hadad, Y; Cahaner, A

    2008-05-01

    The high growth rate (GR) of contemporary broilers is driven by high rate of feed intake and metabolism. Because of the consequent high oxygen demand, especially when coupled with exposure to high altitude or low temperatures, some broilers fail to regulate oxygen supply and develop the ascites syndrome (AS), which leads to mortality and economic losses. Because of the association between high GR, oxygen demand, and AS, it has been suggested that AS is induced by high GR. If true, further GR enhancement should be avoided because it will increase the proportion of AS-susceptible individuals in contemporary stocks. An alternative hypothesis claims that AS is associated with high actual GR only because the latter increases oxygen demand and that there are genetically AS-resistant broilers that do not develop AS, even when exhibiting high GR. These hypotheses were tested in trials in the years 2002 and 2006, with broilers differing in potential GR: contemporary fast-growing commercial lines and an experimental line derived from commercial broilers in 1986, and (in 2002 only) divergently selected AS-susceptible and AS-resistant lines. A protocol of high-challenge ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) from d 19 was used to distinguish between AS-susceptible and AS-resistant individuals and to determine their GR up to this age. The difference in AS incidence between the divergent lines (93.9 vs. 9.5%) was not explained by the 5% difference in their GR, thus indicating a lack of genetic correlation. In the broiler lines, AS incidence was 31 and 47% in 2002 and 2006, respectively, and 32% in the 1986 slow-growing line. Most broilers that remained healthy under the high-challenge AIC exhibited the same early GR and BW as those that later developed AS. These results, and the relatively high incidence of AS in the slow-growing line, indicate that there is very little, if any, direct genetic association between AS and genetic differences in potential GR, and suggest that AS

  7. Development of ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Ben-David, A; Cahaner, A

    2007-05-01

    The rapid growth of modern broilers is associated with enhanced appetite and high metabolic rate and, consequently, high O(2) demand. Ascites syndrome (AS) develops in individuals that fail to fully supply the increasing demand for O(2) in their bodies under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) such as high altitude or low temperatures. The tendency of broilers to develop AS is heritable, but efficacious selection against AS susceptibility (without affecting the normal expression of other important traits) requires identification of indirect selection criteria. In the present study, divergent AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R) lines were developed to confirm the heritability of AS and to facilitate future detection of criteria for indirect selection against AS susceptibility. The base population consisted of 85 sire families with a mean of 73 progeny per sire, reared in a commercial broiler house under low-challenge AIC (cold environment and pelleted feed). Chicks dying with AS manifestations were designated AS-susceptible, whereas the surviving birds were designated AS-resistant. By the end of the trial (d 48), AS mortality had accumulated to 17.2%, but AS incidence per family (%ASF) ranged from 0 to 49%, with a high heritability (0.57). Parents of 7 families with very high %ASF produced the first generation (S(1)) of the AS-S line, and parents of 7 families with very low %ASF produced the S(1) of the AS-R line. The S(1) males and females reproduced generation S(2) of the selected lines, whereas additional S(1) males were tested under high-challenge AIC (individual cages, cool wind, and pelleted feed). Progeny testing under this high-challenge AIC, followed by sib selection, was repeated in generations S(2) and S(3), resulting in a divergence of 86.6% in the incidence of AS between the AS-S (91.3%) and AS-R (4.7%) lines. The rapid genetic divergence, and family analysis of %ASF suggested that a single or few major genes are responsible for the difference

  8. Grizzly bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  9. Reabsorption of ascites and the factors that affect this process in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Akay, Sinan; Ozutemiz, Omer; Kilic, Murat; Karasu, Zeki; Akyildiz, Murat; Karasulu, Ercument; Baka, Meral; Doganavsargil, Basak; Ersoz, Galip; Ulukaya, Sezgin; Alper, Isik; Ates, Utku; Batur, Yucel

    2008-10-01

    Ascites is one of the main features of liver decompensation in cirrhosis, and it is considered to be a dynamic process. In this study, we aimed to (1) measure the reabsorption rate of ascites; (2) evaluate whether these findings were related to features of ascites, hemodynamics, and serum measurements; and (3) examine morphologic changes in the diaphragm of cirrhotic patients. In all, 42 cirrhotic patients with ascites were enrolled in the study to comprise our study group. Using the dextran 70 test, patient ascites volumes and reabsorption rates were measured. Biopsies from the peritoneal side of the diaphragm were also processed for scanning electron microscopy and lymphatic immunohistochemical studies from the cirrhotic patients and control cadavers. The mean ascites reabsorption rate was 4.5 +/- 4.5 (0.18-14.6) mL/min, which correlated significantly with the calculated ascites volume (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The mean ascites viscosity was 1.07 +/- 0.07 (0.99-1.17) centipoise, which demonstrated a high degree of negative correlation with the ascites reabsorption rate (r = -0.77, P < 0.001). Patients with a history of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis had significantly lesser ascites reabsorption rates than patients without this particular history. The size of lymphatic stomata in scanning electron microscopy depictions was increased, and lymphatic lacunae were dilated in immunohistochemical studies in the cirrhotic patients with ascites. However, these findings were not uniform in every cirrhotic patient with ascites. The volume and viscosity of ascites seem to influence its reabsorption rate. Additionally, previous episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis may be responsible for the decreased ascites reabsorption rates observed in certain patient populations.

  10. Genetic parameters of body weight and ascites in broilers: effect of different incidence rates of ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpanah, J; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N; Shadparvar, A A; Pakdel, A

    2017-02-01

    1. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of incidence rate (5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) of ascites syndrome on the expression of genetic characteristics for body weight at 5 weeks of age (BW5) and AS and to compare different methods of genetic parameter estimation for these traits. 2. Based on stochastic simulation, a population with discrete generations was created in which random mating was used for 10 generations. Two methods of restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling were used for the estimation of genetic parameters. A bivariate model including maternal effects was used. The root mean square error for direct heritabilities was also calculated. 3. The results showed that when incidence rates of ascites increased from 5% to 30%, the heritability of AS increased from 0.013 and 0.005 to 0.110 and 0.162 for linear and threshold models, respectively. 4. Maternal effects were significant for both BW5 and AS. Genetic correlations were decreased by increasing incidence rates of ascites in the population from 0.678 and 0.587 at 5% level of ascites to 0.393 and -0.260 at 50% occurrence for linear and threshold models, respectively. 5. The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for BW5 was greater based on a linear-threshold model compared with the linear model of analysis (0.0092 vs. 0.0015). The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for AS was greater based on a linear-linear model (1.21 vs. 1.14). 6. In order to rank birds for ascites incidence, it is recommended to use a threshold model because it resulted in higher heritability estimates compared with the linear model and that BW5 could be one of the main components of selection goals.

  11. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  12. Management of drainage for malignant ascites in gynaecological cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Alison; Fitzgerald, Debbie; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background Most patients with advanced ovarian cancer and some patients with advanced endometrial cancer need repeated drainage for malignant ascites. Guidelines to advise those involved in the drainage of ascites are usually produced locally and are generally not evidence-based but mainly based on clinicians’ anecdotal evidence and experience. To discover whether there are ways of managing drains that have been demonstrated to improve the efficacy and quality of the procedure is key in making recommendations which could improve the quality of life (QOL) for women at this critical period of their lives. Objectives To evaluate the benefit and harms of different practices in the management of drains for malignant ascites in the care of women with advanced or recurrent gynaecological cancer. The review aimed to evaluate the evidence regarding the following questions; How long should the drain stay in place? Should the volume of fluid drained be replaced intravenously? Should the drain be clamped to regulate the drainage of fluid? Should any particular vital observations be regularly recorded? Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 1, 2009, Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, MEDLINE1950 to February Week 3 2009, Embase 1980 to 2009 Week 8 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of review articles and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and non-randomised studies that compared a range of interventions for management of multiple paracentesis in women with malignant ascites who had a confirmed histological diagnosis of gynaecological cancer. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. No trials were found and therefore no data were analysed. Main results The search

  13. Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers and adsorption of Au, Cu and Ag stepped (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlattar, M.; Elkoraychy, E.; Sbiaai, K.; Mazroui, M.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We use a combination of quenched molecular dynamics and embedded atom method to calculate the activation energy barriers for the hopping and exchange mechanisms of Au, Ag or Cu on Au(100), Ag(100) or Cu(100) stepped surfaces. Our findings show that the Ehrlich-Schwöbel (ES) barriers for an adatom to undergo jump or exchange at a step edge are found to be dependent of the nature of substrate stepped surfaces. We also find that the ES barriers for the hopping processes are too high, except for Cu/Au(100). While for exchange process the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers are found to be very low and even negative. These ES barriers can explain the difference in the growth modes for the different systems. On the other hand, we calculated the adsorption energies at the most stable adsorption sites near step edges. In particular, we wish to clarify the relation between the adatom diffusion energy barriers and the adatom adsorption energies. These results may serve as some guiding rules for studying stepped surface morphologies, which are of importance to surface nanoengineering.

  14. Ode to Ehrlich and Raven or how herbivorous insects might drive plant speciation.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Robert J; Salazar, Diego; Baer, Christina; Reinhardt, Jason; Priest, Galen; Barnett, Kirk

    2016-11-01

    Fifty years ago, Ehrlich and Raven proposed that insect herbivores have driven much of plant speciation, particularly at tropical latitudes. There have been no explicit tests of their hypotheses. Indeed there were no proposed mechanisms either at the time or since by which herbivores might generate new plant species. Here we outline two main classes of mechanisms, prezygotic and postzygotic, with a number of scenarios in each by which herbivore-driven changes in host plant secondary chemistry might lead to new plant lineage production. The former apply mainly to a sympatric model of speciation while the latter apply to a parapatric or allopatric model. Our review suggests that the steps of each mechanism are known to occur individually in many different systems, but no scenario has been thoroughly investigated in any one system. Nevertheless, studies of Dalechampia and its herbivores and pollinators, and patterns of defense tradeoffs in trees on different soil types in the Peruvian Amazon provide evidence consistent with the original hypotheses of Ehrlich and Raven. For herbivores to drive sympatric speciation, our findings suggest that interactions with both their herbivores and their pollinators should be considered. In contrast, herbivores may drive speciation allopatrically without any influence by pollinators. Finally, there is evidence that these mechanisms are more likely to occur at low latitudes and thus more likely to produce new species in the tropics. The mechanisms we outline provide a predictive framework for further study of the general role that herbivores play in diversification of their host plants.

  15. Selection strategies for body weight and reduced ascites susceptibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; Bijma, P; Ducro, B J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-04-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Mortality due to ascites results in significant economic losses and has a negative impact on animal welfare. It has been shown that genetic factors play a considerable role in susceptibility of birds to ascites, which offers perspectives for selection against this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies for BW and resistance to ascites syndrome using deterministic simulation. In addition to the consequences of current selection (i.e., selection for increased BW only) alternative selection strategies including information on different ascites-related traits measured under normal or cold conditions and the consequences of having information on the underlying genes (i.e., MAS) were quantified. Five different breeding schemes were compared based on the selection response for BW, ascites susceptibility, and the rate of inbreeding. Traits investigated in the index as indicators for ascites were hematocrit value (HCT) and ratio of right ventricle to the total ventricular weight of the heart (RV:TV). The results indicated that by ignoring ascites susceptibility in the breeding goal, the gain for BW is 130 g and the birds will become more susceptible to ascites. Testing 50% of the birds under cold temperature conditions and including information of ascites related traits (HCT and RV:TV) measured under normal and cold conditions makes it possible to achieve a relatively high gain for BW (111.4 g) while controlling the genetic level for ascites susceptibility (selection response was 0). The results of scenarios including QTL information of ascites susceptibility showed that QTL information could be used very effectively in controlling ascites susceptibility.

  16. Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  17. Chylous ascites after resection of giant adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karakoyun, Rojbin; Demirci, Erkan; Alikanoglu, Arsenal Sezgin

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative chylous ascites (PCA) is a rare clinical state that occurs during abdominal surgery. Despite its rarity, the need to diagnose and treat PCA is increasing in importance with the increased number of wide resections and lymph node dissections being performed and the serious consequences of treatment. Here we describe the PCA complications we observed after resection for treating a case of giant adrenocortical carcinoma and we have the brief review of the PCA complication. PMID:28149812

  18. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  19. Foil bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  20. Foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  1. The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.

    PubMed

    van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M

    2010-08-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome.

  2. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  3. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Yuming; Ning, Dong; Peng, Yunzhi; Cai, Hong; Tan, Jianzhuang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2012-12-11

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  4. Genetics of Ascites Resistance and Tolerance in Chicken: A Random Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kause, Antti; van Dalen, Sacha; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two complementary mechanisms to reduce the detrimental effects of parasites, pathogens, and production diseases on host performance. Using body weight and ascites data on domesticated chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, we demonstrate the use of random regression animal model and covariance functions to estimate genetic parameters for ascites resistance and tolerance and illustrate the way individual variation in resistance and tolerance induce both genotype re-ranking and changes in variation of host performance along increasing ascites severity. Tolerance to ascites displayed significant genetic variance, with the estimated breeding values of tolerance slope ranging from strongly negative (very sensitive genotype) to weakly negative (less sensitive). Resistance to ascites had heritability of 0.34. Both traits are hence expected to respond to selection. The two complementary defense strategies, tolerance and resistance, were genetically independent. Ascites induced changes to the correlations between ascites resistance and body weight, with the genetic correlations being weak when birds were ascites-free but moderately negative when both healthy and affected birds were present. This likely results because ascites reduces growth, and thus high ascites incidence is genetically related to low adult body weight. Although ascites induced elevated phenotypic and genetic variances in body weight of affected birds, heritability displayed negligible changes across healthy and affected birds. Ascites induced moderate genotype re-ranking in body weight, with the genetic correlation of healthy birds with mildly affected birds being unity but with severely affected birds 0.45. This study demonstrates a novel approach for exploring genetics of defense traits and their impact on genotype-by-environment interactions. PMID:22670223

  5. Pathogenesis of ascites in broilers raised at low altitude: aetiological considerations based on echocardiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Abbott, J A; Classen, H L

    2005-05-01

    This study reports novel insight into the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. The scope of measurements was focused on anatomical and functional parameters, and blood flow patterns in leghorns (resistant to ascites), fast-growing broilers (susceptible to ascites), broilers developing ascites, and ascitic broilers evaluated in vivo using echocardiography, and further examined in the context of postmortem findings. Both, in vivo observed features and postmortem findings, showed clear differences between broilers and leghorns, and between normal and ascitic broilers. Abnormalities in the heart chamber geometry and blood flow patterns were detected upon echocardiographic examination in all ascitic broilers. Right and left atrio-ventricular (AV) valve regurgitation were common findings in ascitic broilers and some apparently normal broilers, with left AV valve insufficiency being a predominant feature with respect to degree and frequency of occurrence. Blood flow disturbances were not detected in leghorns. Left ventricular fractional shortening (functional parameter) was considerably reduced (P < 0.01) in ascitic birds (mean: 21.7 +/- 2.0 SE) in comparison with normal broilers (mean: 39.1 +/- 3.6 SE), or leghorns (mean: 43.3 +/- 2.4 SE). The presented findings indicate that pathological and functional changes in the left ventricle and atrium play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ascites in broilers. Severe dilation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins seen on postmortem examination, as well as regurgitant blood flow in the left atrium, demonstrated by Doppler study in ascitic birds, provide evidence that chronically elevated pressure in the left atrium is involved in the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in fast-growing broilers.

  6. Inferior Vena Cava Torsion and Stenosis Complicated by Compressive Pericaval Regional Ascites following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, Richard; Johnson, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) stenosis and torsion are well-described rare complications following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We present a case of inferior vena cava intermittent torsion and stenosis complicated by compressive regional ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of post-OLT regional ascites related compressive IVC stenosis reported and the first reported case of torsion complicated by regional ascites compression. PMID:24386585

  7. Leucas aspera inhibits the Dalton's ascitic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice: A preliminary study exploring possible mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Bibin Baby; Dash, Suvakanta; Lahkar, Mangala; Sarma, Usha; Samudrala, Pavan Kumar; Thomas, Jaya Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: North East India is a rich source of medicinal plants and a number of plant extracts are used by tribal peoples living in this area for various disorders. L.aspera is such a plant, traditionally used as an antitumor agent. Aim: In the present study, aerial parts of L.aspera were investigated for antitumor activity in Dalton's lymphoma (DAL) bearing mice. The ability of plant extract in free radical scavenging, neoangiogenesis inhibition and macrophage stimulation were also checked. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies ethyl acetate fraction of L.aspera (EALA) was selected for the detailed study. DAL ascites tumor model was performed to check the antitumor activity of EALA (200 and 400mg/kg of body weight). Hematological and histopathological parameters were estimated. Antioxidant levels, neoangiogenesis and peritoneal macrophage count were also determined. Results: In vitro MTT and Trypan blue assay results showed the cytotoxic effect of EALA in DAL cells lines. EALA treatment resulted in significant decrease in ascites tumor volume and viable cell count. Hematological and liver antioxidant parameters were normalised by EALA treatment. It was also found that EALA treatment inhibits neovascularisation and produce macrophage stimulation in treated mice. Conclusion: The results showed that EALA is a promising anticancer agent and its activity is comparable to the standard drug 5-Flouro uracil (5-FU). PMID:24914276

  8. Increased oxidative stress in the placenta tissue and cell culture of tumour-bearing pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M T; Ventrucci, G; Gomes-Marcondes, M C C

    2011-11-01

    Placental dysfunction leads to foetal damage, which jeopardises the exchange between the maternal and foetal systems. We evaluated the effects of tumour growth on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in placental tissue and cell culture from tumour-bearing pregnant rats compared to non-tumour-bearing pregnant rats that were ascitic fluid injected. Ascitic fluid is obtained from Walker tumour-bearing rats and contains a cytokine called Walker factor (WF), which is a molecule similar to proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), and induces changes in protein metabolism and oxidative stress. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into control (C), tumour-bearing (W) and ascitic fluid injected (A) groups and were sacrificed on days 16, 19 and 21 of pregnancy to analyse the profile of enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in placental tissue. Meanwhile, placenta samples from all groups were obtained on day 21, placed in primary culture and treated with WF for 72 h. The presence of tumour or ascitic fluid reduced the protein content of the placental tissue. On day 16 there was a significant reduction in AP activity in W rats, and on day 19, CAT activity and MDA content significantly increased. These results indicate that the presence of cancer decreased antioxidant enzyme capacity in the placenta, increasing the amount of oxidation in these cells, which may contribute to irreversible placental damage and compromisefoetal development. WF treatment induces similar changes in placental cells in primary culture, resulting in less cell viability and increased oxidative stress. These results indicate that WF, provided by the tumour or inoculation of ascitic fluid, has negative effects on placental homeostasis, which impairs foetal health.

  9. Preventing and Treating Acute Kidney Injury Among Hospitalized Patients with Cirrhosis and Ascites: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Elliot B; Bonder, Alan; Cardenas, Andres

    2016-05-01

    Acute kidney injury in the setting of ascites and cirrhosis is a medical emergency characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians other than gastroenterologists are often the front line against acute kidney injury for patients with ascites. Owing to the specifics of cirrhotic physiology, the treatment and prevention of acute kidney injury in the setting of ascites has unique features, widespread knowledge of which will benefit our patients with cirrhosis. Early detection and treatment of infection, maximization of cardiac output, and avoidance of medications that limit cardiorenal adaptations to arterial underfilling are part of a multipronged strategy to protect the renal function of our patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

  10. Paul Ehrlich's mastzellen: a historical perspective of relevant developments in mast cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ghably, Jack; Saleh, Hana; Vyas, Harsha; Peiris, Emma; Misra, Niva; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of mast cells (or mastzellen) by the prolific physician researcher, Paul Ehrlich, many advances have improved our understanding of these cells and their fascinating biology. The discovery of immunoglobulin E and receptors for IgE and IgG on mast cells heralded further in vivo and in vitro studies, using molecular technologies and gene knockout models. Mast cells express an array of inflammatory mediators including tryptase, histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They play a role in many varying disease states, from atopic diseases, parasitic infections, hematological malignancies, and arthritis to osteoporosis. This review will attempt to summarize salient evolving areas in mast cell research over the last few centuries that have led to our current understanding of this pivotal multifunctional cell.

  11. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites.

  12. Protective Effect of Zingiber officinale Against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumour by Regulating Inflammatory Mediator and Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Rubila, Sundararaj; Ranganathan, Thottiam Vasudevan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Zingiber officinale paste against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced tumours in Swiss albino mice. Experimental animals received Z. officinale paste (low dose 100 mg/kg bw and high dose 500 mg/kg bw) orally for eight alternative days. Treatment with Z. officinale paste showed significant increase in haemoglobin level and decrease in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) level. Z. officinale paste reduced the inflammatory mediators and cytokine levels, such as inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor level (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment with Z. officinale paste also significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme level, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione transferase (GST), and decreased the lipid peroxidation. Treatment also increased the vitamin C and E levels in treated animals compared with the DLA-bearing host. Histopathological studies also confirmed the protective influence of Z. officinale paste against DLA. The present study suggested that Z. officinale paste could be used as natural spice and a potent antitumour agent.

  13. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (ascites syndrome) in broilers: a review.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Rhoads, D D; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers (also known as ascites syndrome and pulmonary hypertension syndrome) can be attributed to imbalances between cardiac output and the anatomical capacity of the pulmonary vasculature to accommodate ever-increasing rates of blood flow, as well as to an inappropriately elevated tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the pulmonary arterioles. Comparisons of PAH-susceptible and PAH-resistant broilers do not consistently reveal differences in cardiac output, but PAH-susceptible broilers consistently have higher pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances compared with PAH-resistant broilers. Efforts clarify the causes of excessive pulmonary vascular resistance have focused on evaluating the roles of chemical mediators of vasoconstriction and vasodilation, as well as on pathological (structural) changes occurring within the pulmonary arterioles (e.g., vascular remodeling and pathology) during the pathogenesis of PAH. The objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the pathophysiological progression initiated by the onset of pulmonary hypertension and culminating in terminal ascites; (2) review recent information regarding the factors contributing to excessively elevated resistance to blood flow through the lungs; (3) assess the role of the immune system during the pathogenesis of PAH; and (4) present new insights into the genetic basis of PAH. The cumulative evidence attributes the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH-susceptible broilers to an anatomically inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity, to excessive vascular tone reflecting the dominance of pulmonary vasoconstrictors over vasodilators, and to vascular pathology elicited by excessive hemodynamic stress. Emerging evidence also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of PAH includes characteristics of an inflammatory/autoimmune disease involving multifactorial genetic, environmental, and immune system components. Pulmonary

  14. Astatine-211-tellurium radiocolloid cures experimental malignant ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Neirinckx, R.D.; Adelstein, S.J.; Gordon, P.R.; Ruth, T.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-04-17

    An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211-tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this ..cap alpha..-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison, negatron-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated with ..cap alpha..-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of ..cap alpha..-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.

  15. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nicotina, P A; Ruggeri, P; Ferlazzo, G; Fimiani, V

    1991-01-01

    Some cytochemical and immunocytochemical investigations were carried out on actively growing Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells. These cells displayed an intense granular alpha-naphthylacetate esterase (ANAE) staining while the alpha-naphthylbutyrate esterase (ANBE) reaction was in part fluoride-sensitive and marked particularly in the large-size malignant cells. Acid phosphatase as well as peroxidase activities were not detected. The lack of immunoreactive lysozyme and alpha 1-antitrypsin suggested a poor differentiation of the above-mentioned tumor cells, but fibronectin and S-100 protein where highly expressed, as in tumors arising from the mononuclear phagocyte system.

  16. Congenital Chylous Ascites and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VI

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, John; Esty, Brittany; Sempler, Jessica K.; Carey, John C.; O’Gorman, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of a patient with contgenital chylous ascites (CCA) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI due to primary lymphatic defect with additional vascular anomaly. CCA is a rare condition, and there is limited understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment options. We also review the patient’s treatment course mitigated with octreotide and total parenteral nutritional support, as there are no current established guidelines for CCA. Early recognition of possible association with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is important for quick intervention and successful management of pediatric patients. PMID:28119937

  17. [Guidelines for diagnosis and management of cirrhotic ascites and its complications. The Israeli Association for the Study of the Liver].

    PubMed

    Sikuler, Emanuel; Ackerman, Zvi; Braun, Marius; Baruch, Yaakov; Bruck, Refael; Safadi, Rifaat; Shlomai, Amir; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2012-12-01

    Ascites is the most common manifestation of decompensated liver cirrhosis. The life expectancy of cirrhotic patients developing uncomplicated ascites is 50% for 3 years. Refractory ascites, electrolyte imbalance, hepato-renal syndrome and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis may develop. Successful treatment can improve symptoms and outcomes. This article summarizes the Israeli Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines for diagnosis and management of cirrhotic ascites and its complications.

  18. Bowel sounds analysis: a novel noninvasive method for diagnosis of small-volume ascites.

    PubMed

    Liatsos, Christos; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Mavrogiannis, Christos; Patch, David; Panas, Stavros M; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2003-08-01

    Ascites is more difficult to detect when only a small quantity is present. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the optimal bowel sound characteristics in order to distinguish no ascites from small-volume ascites by advanced processing of bowel sound wave patterns. This analysis results in the definition of the normal range of bowel sound patterns, thus providing a novel, simple, and noninvasive way of determining on abnormal pattern, which may reflect presence of small volume ascites. Cirrhotic patients with radiologically proven small-volume ascites and a control group were subjected to bowel sound recordings. The latter were analyzed using a denoising wavelet transform-based filter and a higher-order crossings-based technique in a blinded fashion for linearly distinguishing the two classes. Scatter plots of third-order zero crossings reflect distinct changes seen in the denoised bowel sound pattern between patients and controls due to altered transmission path, providing a distinct separation of all cirrhotic patients with small ascites from controls (P < 0.0001). We conclude that the proposed bowel sounds analysis appears to provide new information regarding the changes of the bowel sound patterns due to the presence of small-volume ascites, potentially contributing towards a safe, effective, noninvasive, and easily implemented alternative method for the diagnosis of small volume ascites at the bedside.

  19. Chylous Ascites: A Rare Complication of Thoracic Duct Embolization for Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, Ron C. Owens, Charles A.; Bui, James T.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Knuttinen, M. Grace

    2011-02-15

    Thoracic duct embolization represents a safe and effective method to treat postsurgical chylothorax. Complications of this procedure are rare despite transabdominal puncture of lymphatic channels for thoracic duct access, and chylous ascites is unreported. Herein, we describe a case of chylous ascites formation after lymphatic puncture and attempted cannulation. Our management approach is also discussed.

  20. Reverse relationship between malignancy and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Yoshida rat ascites hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Nakamura, S; Nomura, M; Yamamoto, H; Sanae, F; Hidaka, H

    1993-08-31

    Rat ascites hepatoma (AH) cells (10(6) cells/head) inoculated intraperitoneally into rats had host-killing ability (malignancy) in the order AH66F > AH44 > AH13 > AH7974 > AH109A > AH66 > AH130. The life span of the rats after inoculation closely correlated with the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) in the tumor cells but not the activity of Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). N-[2-[N-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2-propenyl]amino]ethyl]-5- isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-87), a potent, selective inhibitor of protein kinase A, inhibited in vitro growth of these hepatoma cells with a similar potency and, intraperitoneally injected, prolonged the lives of rats bearing less malignant AH66 cells (with high protein kinase A activity) but did not affect the life span of rats bearing highly malignant AH66F cells (with low protein kinase A activity). On the other hand N-(2-methylpiperazyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, inhibited AH66F cells more than AH66 cells, but did not influence the life span of rats bearing either hepatoma. From these results it is deduced that protein kinase A may be important in the regulation of malignancy and in vivo proliferation of AH cells.

  1. Management of refractory ascites in cirrhosis: Are we out of date?

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Alagappan; Wisdom, Lauren; Herada, Megan; Nourredin, Mazen; Ayoub, Walid; Sundaram, Vinay; Klein, Andrew; Nissen, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with liver transplantations as it only possible cure. In the face of a significant organ shortage many patients die waiting. A major complication of cirrhosis is the development of portal hypertension and ascites. The management of ascites has barely evolved over the last hundred years and includes only a few milestones in our treatment approach, but has overall significantly improved patient morbidity and survival. Our mainstay to ascites management includes changes in diet, diuretics, shunt procedures, and large volume paracentesis. The understanding of the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and portal hypertension has significantly improved in the last couple of decades but the changes in ascites management have not seemed to mirror this newer knowledge. We herein review the history of ascites management and discuss some its current limitations. PMID:27729954

  2. Etiology of Ascites and Pleural Effusion Associated with Ovarian Tumors: Literature Review and Case Reports of Three Ovarian Tumors Presenting with Massive Ascites, but without Peritoneal Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Hara, Takeya; Tanaka, Asuka; Komura, Naoko; Komiya, Shinnosuke; Kanao, Serika; Takeda, Masumi; Mimura, Mayuko; Nagamatsu, Masaaki; Yokoi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors are benign but relatively large tumors that are often initially mistaken as ovarian cancers. We report three cases of stage I borderline ovarian tumors having massive ascites that we (preoperatively) suspected of being advanced ovarian cancer. The three patients (35, 47, and 73 years old) reported feeling fullness of the abdomen before consulting their gynecologist. By CT scan, they were diagnosed with a pelvic tumor accompanied by massive ascites, the diameters of which were 11, 20, and 11 cm, respectively. Postsurgical pathology showed all were stage I borderline ovarian tumors without dissemination; two were mucinous and one was serous. The amount of ascites was 6,300, 2,600, and 3,600 mL, respectively, and was serous in all. Cytodiagnosis of the ascites found that one was positive for tumor cells and two were negative. After resection of the mass, the ascites disappeared in all three cases. No pleural effusion was present at any time. The literature is reviewed concerning ascites and pleural effusions linked to ovarian tumors, and a supposition is forwarded of why pleural effusion presents sporadically in these cases. PMID:26858849

  3. Multi-generational genome wide association studies identify chromosomal regions associated with ascites phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, K J; Dey, S; Kinney, R; Anthony, N B; Rhoads, D D

    2017-02-21

    Ascites is a multi-faceted disease commonly observed in fast growing broilers, which is initiated when the body is insufficiently oxygenated. A series of events follow, including an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and pericardium. Advances in management practices along with improved selection programs have decreased ascites incidence in modern broilers. However, ascites syndrome remains an economically important disease throughout the world, causing estimated losses of $100 million per year. In this study, a 60 K Illumina SNP BeadChip was used to perform a series of genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the 16th and 18th generation of our relaxed (REL) line descended from a commercial elite broiler line beginning in 1995. Regions significantly associated with ascites incidence were identified on chromosome 2 around 70 megabase pairs (Mbp) and on chromosome Z around 60 Mbp. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were evaluated as indicators for these 2 regions in order to identify association with ascites and right ventricle to total ventricle weight (RVTV) ratios. Chromosome 2 SNP showed an association with RVTV ratios in males phenotyped as ascites resistant and ascites susceptible (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). The chromosome Z region also indicates an association with resistant female RVTV values (P = 0.02). Regions of significance identified on chromosomes 2 and Z described in this study will be used as proposed candidate regions for further investigation into the genetics of ascites. This information will lead to a better understanding of the underlying genetics and gene networks contributing to ascites, and thus advances in ascites reduction through commercial breeding schemes.

  4. Malignant ascites in ovarian cancer and the role of targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smolle, Elisabeth; Taucher, Valentin; Haybaeck, Johannes

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most lethal gynecological malignancy and the main cause of gynecological cancer death in industrialized countries. Malignant ascites is often found in OC, with about 10% of patients suffering from recurrent OC. Tumor cells in OC-associated malignant ascites promote disease recurrence and patient mortality is mainly associated with widespread metastasis to serosal surfaces and accompanying peritoneal effusions. Targeted therapies have recently been developed as novel therapeutic options for malignant ascites. The tri-functional anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule and anti-cluster of differentiation 3 monoclonal antibody catumaxumab has been assessed in the therapy of malignant ascites, and proven to significantly reduce the ascitic flow rate when applied into the peritoneal cavity. The anti-angiogenic targeted agent bevacizumab has also shown good effects in the symptomatic treatment of malignant ascites, significantly prolonging the time until the next paracentesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap, or aflibercept, is a fusion protein that inhibits VEGF-receptor binding. Aflibercept has proven to be effective in reduction of ascites, diminishing clinical symptoms of ascites and prolonging the time to next paracentesis. All three agents we review in the present article are effective in symptomatic control of ascites, leading to a rapid reduction of effusion and prolonging the time interval between paracenteses. However, no improvement in overall survival was observed in any of the clinical trials reported. We, thus, conclude that further investigations on larger patient series are needed to clarify whether the reduction of ascites by these targeted agents leads to a prolongation in tumor-related survival or not.

  5. Regulating ehrlich and demethiolation pathways for alcohols production by the expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Jia, Kai-Zhi; Xia, Shi-Tao; Xu, Yang-Hua; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlich and demethiolation pathways as two competing branches converted amino acid into alcohols. Controlling both pathways offers considerable potential for industrial applications including alcohols overproduction, flavor-quality control and developing new flavors. While how to regulate ehrlich and demethiolation pathways is still not applicable. Taking the conversion of methionine into methionol and methanethiol for example, we constructed two suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of Clonostachys rosea by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology for screening regulators controlling the conversion. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1 screened from forward SSH library was validated to be related with the biosynthesis of end products. Overexpressing HUWE1 in C. rosea and S. cerevisiae significantly increased the biosynthesis of methanethiol and its derivatives in demethiolation pathway, while suppressed the biosynthesis of methional and methionol in ehrlich pathway. These results attained the directional regulation of both pathways by overexpressing HUWE1. Thus, HUWE1 has potential to be a key target for controlling and enhancing alcohols production by metabolic engineering. PMID:26860895

  6. A huge renal cyst mimicking ascites: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal cysts are common in old patients, and usually remain untreated. Giant renal cyst measuring more than 15 cm in diameter and containing more than 1500 mls of serous fluid are rarely seen. We report a case of a 75-year-old man with a giant right renal cyst. Case presentation A 75-year-old man presented with a five years history of suprapubic pain, abdominal distension. He had no urological symptoms. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with shifting dullness. Routine hematology, biochemistry, and serum tumor markers were within normal limits. Erroneously diagnosed as ascites on ultrasonographic examination. Abdominal paracentesis of supposed ascites was performed. The diagnosis of giant renal cyst was finally made by Computed tomography (CT) and patient underwent continuous percutaneous catheter drainage with negative pressure, whereby 8 liters of fluid were removed with negative cytology. Subsequent Computed tomography after 6 months revealed disparition of the cysts, and the patient remained asymptomatic. Conclusion Giant renal cysts are uncommon; we conclude that the CT remains the best exam in patients evaluated for giant renal cyst. This to the best of our knowledge is the largest renal cyst in the medical literature. Studies are needed with particular attention to the factors associated with renal cyst enlargement. PMID:24428865

  7. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  8. CUSHIONED BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A vibration damping device effective to dampen vibrations occurring at the several critical speeds encountered in the operation of a high-speed centrifuge is described. A self-centering bearing mechanism is used to protect both the centrifuge shaft and the damping mechanism. The damping mechanism comprises spaced-apant, movable, and stationary sleeve members arranged concentrically of a rotating shaft with a fluid maintained between the members. The movable sleeve member is connected to the shaft for radial movement therewith.

  9. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  10. Advances In Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1994-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum reviews state of technology of magnetic bearings, focusing mainly on attractive bearings rather than repulsive, eddy-current, or Lorentz bearings. Attractive bearings offer greater load capacities and preferred for aerospace machinery.

  11. Prognostic significance of new onset ascites in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervos, Emmanuel E; Osborne, Dana; Boe, Brian A; Luzardo, German; Goldin, Steven B; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for development of malignant ascites and its prognostic significance in patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods A prospective database was queried to identify patients with pancreatic cancer who develop ascites. Stage at presentation, size, and location of primary tumor, treatment received and length of survival after onset of ascites were determined. Results A total of 15 patients were identified. Of which 4 patients (1 stage II, 3 stage III) underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and manifested with ascites 2, 3, 24 and 47 months after surgery (tumor size 2.9 ± 1.32 cm). All but one of the remaining 11 patients (tumor size 4.4 ± 3.38 cm) presented with metastatic disease, and all developed malignant ascites 9 months after diagnosis, dying 2 months later. Resected patients lived longer before the onset of ascites, but not after. Conclusion Once diagnosed, ascites in pancreatic cancer patients heralds imminent death. Limited survival should be considered when determining the aggressiveness of further intervention. PMID:16569225

  12. Vascular remodeling and its role in the pathogenesis of ascites in fast growing commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Nain, S; Wojnarowicz, C; Laarveld, B; Olkowski, A A

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the putative role of blood vessel pathology in the development of ascites in broilers. Major blood vessels (aorta, brachiocephalic arteries, pulmonary arteries, and vena cava) from normal commercial male broiler chickens, and broilers that developed congestive heart failure (CHF) with or without ascites were subjected to gross and microscopic examination. On cross-section, grossly, the arteries from normal broilers and those showing dilated cardiomyopathy without ascites appeared circular, with firm wall tone characteristic of the normal artery. In contrast, the arteries from ascitic broilers appeared flaccid and lacked elasticity, which was evidenced by collapsing, ellipsoid cross-sectional arterial lumen owing to the structural weakness of the arterial walls. Microscopically, ascitic broilers showed thinning or occasionally total loss of elastic elements in the arterial wall, and reduced network density of the structural matrix of the vascular wall, as well as increased thickness of fibers in vena cava. The structural changes seen in the major arteries from ascitic broilers are maladaptive, and as such would definitively impose an increased hemodynamic burden on the already failing heart pump. The changes in veins are indicative of pathological remodeling conducive to increased permeability of the vascular wall, particularly in the situation when a poorly distensible structure is further subjected to wall stress associated with increased pressure and volume overload. Taken together, increased hemodynamic burden and reduced structural density of the venous wall constitute conditions conducive for seepage and accumulation of ascitic fluid.

  13. High circulating D-dimers are associated with ascites and hepatocellular carcinoma in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Spadaro, Aldo; Tortorella, Vincenza; Morace, Carmela; Fortiguerra, Agostino; Composto, Paola; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Alibrandi, Angela; Luigiano, Carmelo; Caro, Giuseppe De; Ajello, Antonino; Ferraù, Oscar; Freni, Maria Antonietta

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To measure plasma D-dimer levels in cirrhotic patients with and without ascites, assessing the effect of ascites resolution in D-dimer concentration. METHODS: Seventy consecutive cirrhotic patients (M = 44, F = 26, mean age 65 years, SD ± 13), observed from October 2005 to March 2006 were enrolled. Circulating D-dimer levels were measured using a latex-enhanced, immunoturbidimetric test. In patients with ascites (n = 42) the test was repeated after ascites resolution. RESULTS: Ascites was present in 42 patients (group A) and absent in 28 (group B). Group A patients had more advanced liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was diagnosed in 14 patients and was more frequent in group B. Above normal range D-dimers were found in 45/70 patients. High D-dimers were more frequent in group A than in group B (P = 0.001). High D-dimers were associated with presence of HCC (P = 0.048) only in group B. After ascites resolution, obtained in all patients, mean D-dimer values decreased in those 34 patients with high basal levels (P = 0.007), returning to normal in 17. CONCLUSION: In patients with liver cirrhosis, ascites and HCC are the main factors associated with increased fibrinolytic activity. PMID:18330946

  14. Hypobaric hypoxia in ascites resistant and susceptible broiler genetic lines influences gut morphology.

    PubMed

    de los, Santos F Solis; Tellez, G; Farnell, M B; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Pavlidis, H O; Donoghue, A M

    2005-09-01

    Genetic selection based on rapid growth rates, improved feed conversion, and increased body weights has led to a predisposition to ascites in broiler populations. Sire-family selection was applied to a commercial elite line to produce divergent lines of ascites-resistant (RES) and ascites-susceptible (SUS) broilers by the 8th generation. One objective of this research was to determine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on gut morphology in these genetic lines. In two separate trials, pedigree broiler chickens were randomly assigned to cages in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level) or a matching local altitude chamber (390 m above sea level). Ascites incidence was characterized by heart enlargement and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. At the end of the study on d 42, all surviving birds were killed and evaluated for the presence of ascites and 2-cm sections from the duodenum and lower ileum were collected from 5 chickens per line, per altitude for each trial for morphometric analysis. At a high altitude, ascites incidence was lower in the RES line (20.9 and 3.7%) than in the SUS line (86.4 and 66.9%, Trials 1 and 2, respectively). No ascites was observed at a local altitude. Under hypoxic conditions, duodenum villus surface area was higher (P < 0.05) in the RES line (181.3 +/- 16.8 and 219 +/- 10.9 microm) compared with the SUS line (130.1 +/- 10.5 and 134.3 +/- 9.3 microm; Trials 1 and 2, respectively). No differences in ileum villus morphology were observed for any of the parameters measured. The reduced surface area in the duodenum of birds selected for ascites susceptibility suggests reduced enteric function and may provide clues as to why these birds have increased incidence of ascites.

  15. Effect of dietary aspirin on ascites in broilers raised in a hypobaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Huff, W E

    2000-08-01

    During the course of ascites development in broilers, many factors can interact to cause hypoxia. To counteract hypoxia, birds with ascites develop greatly increased hematocrit and red cell counts. Increasing hematocrits result in more viscous blood. Prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of constriction and dilation of pulmonary blood vessels and in the formation of blood clots. Dietary aspirin, a prostaglandin inhibitor, was used in an attempt to promote vasodilation and inhibit blood clotting in broilers, with the objective of determining the effect of aspirin on ascites progression. The experimental design consisted of two trials with a total of 1,360, 1-d-old male broiler chicks, which were placed at either local altitude (390 m above sea level) or in a hypobaric chamber that simulated an altitude of 2,900 m above sea level. At each elevation, five dietary treatments were employed: [control, 0.025% crystalline acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 0.05% aspirin, 0.10% aspirin, and 0.20% aspirin]. Bird and feed weights were recorded weekly. At the end of 5 wk, blood samples and organ weights were collected, and all birds were examined for signs of ascites. In both trials, birds raised at high altitudes were significantly lighter, had a higher incidence of ascites, and had differences in hematology, compared with birds raised at local elevation. Only in Trial 2, however, did dietary aspirin appear to have any effect on ascites incidence. At the 0.20% aspirin level, a reduction in ascites incidence approached significance compared with controls (34% vs. 56%, P < or = 0.06). Unfortunately, birds fed 0.20% aspirin also were significantly (P < or = 0.01) lighter than controls. Because slowing growth rate is known to reduce ascites, this decrease in BW may have been partially responsible for any beneficial effect on ascites development and progression obtained through feeding aspirin.

  16. Disease-induced variability of genetic correlations: ascites in broilers as a case study.

    PubMed

    de Greef, K H; Janss, L L; Vereijken, A L; Pit, R; Gerritsen, C L

    2001-07-01

    Breeding against a production disease is complicated by multiple relationships between productivity, disease, and environment. Ascites in broilers is such a disease. The combination of the reasonably well understood etiology (a physiological/pathological cascade due to inadequate oxygen supply) and the practical relevance makes ascites a relevant case for demonstrating and partly revealing these complex relationships. Chickens (n = 2,788) were tested in an ascites-challenging (cold) environment. Genetic analysis of mortality and pathology in combination with performance and physiological traits (especially blood gas traits) revealed ample opportunities for selection against ascites expression. The genetic correlation structure indicated that different mortality traits and pathology traits roughly represent one common characteristic. Direct selection against pathology is more effective than selection on the basis of growth or blood gas traits. The observed negative correlation (-0.26) between productivity and ascites was unexpected. From the etiology of ascites (inadequate supply of oxygen relative to the demand), a positive (unfavorable) correlation was expected. To demonstrate that the actual disease occurrence caused this apparent contradiction, the data from the undiseased subpopulation were reanalyzed. In the undiseased subpopulation, the genetic correlation between productivity and ascites was positive (0.29). This discrepancy was confirmed by comparing regression of ascites expression on actual performance with regression of ascites on independently assessed performance breeding values. The lability of the genetic correlation was explained from complex interactions between productivity, disease susceptibility, and actual occurrence of the disease. The revealed mechanism can be generalized to other production-related diseases and results in systematically lower genetic correlations between disease and productivity. It was inferred that genetic correlations

  17. Major contribution of the Ehrlich pathway for 2-phenylethanol/rose flavor production in Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Ravasio, Davide; Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Aroma alcohols of fermented food and beverages are derived from fungal amino acids catabolism via the Ehrlich pathway. This linear pathway consists of three enzymatic reactions to form fusel alcohols. Regulation of some of the enzymes occurs on the transcriptional level via Aro80. The riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii produces strong fruity flavours in contrast to its much less aromatic relative Eremothecium cymbalariae. Genome comparisons indicated that A. gossypii harbors genes for aromatic amino acid catabolism (ARO8a, ARO8b, ARO10, and ARO80) while E. cymbalariae only encodes ARO8a and thus lacks major components of aromatic amino acid catabolism. Volatile compound (VOC) analysis showed that both Eremothecium species produce large amounts of isoamyl alcohol while A. gossypii also produces high levels of 2-phenylethanol. Deletion of the A. gossypii ARO-genes did not confer any growth deficiencies. However, A. gossypii ARO-mutants (except Agaro8a) were strongly impaired in aroma production, particularly in the production of the rose flavour 2-phenylethanol. Conversely, overexpression of ARO80 via the AgTEF1 promoter resulted in 50% increase in VOC production. Together these data indicate that A. gossypii is a very potent flavour producer and that amongst the non-Saccharomyces biodiversity strains can be identified that could provide positive sensory properties to fermented beverages.

  18. Simultaneous synthesis of 2-phenylethanol and L-homophenylalanine using aromatic transaminase with yeast Ehrlich pathway.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joon-Young; Park, Jihyang; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Minho; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2009-04-01

    2-Phenylethanol is a widely used aroma compound with rose-like fragrance and L-homophenylalanine is a building block of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. 2-phenylethanol and L-homophenylalanine were synthesized simultaneously with high yield from 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, respectively. A recombinant Escherichia coli harboring a coupled reaction pathway comprising of aromatic transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, carbonyl reductase, and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was constructed. In the coupled reaction pathway, the transaminase reaction was coupled with the Ehrlich pathway of yeast; (1) a phenylpyruvate decarboxylase (YDR380W) as the enzyme to generate the substrate for the carbonyl reductase from phenylpyruvate (i.e., byproduct of the transaminase reaction) and to shift the reaction equilibrium of the transaminase reaction, and (2) a carbonyl reductase (YGL157W) to produce the 2-phenylethanol. Selecting the right carbonyl reductase showing the highest activity on phenylacetaldehyde with narrow substrate specificity was the key to success of the constructing the coupling reaction. In addition, NADPH regeneration was achieved by incorporating the GDH from Bacillus subtilis in the coupled reaction pathway. Based on 40 mM of L-phenylalanine used, about 96% final product conversion yield of 2-phenylethanol was achieved using the recombinant E. coli.

  19. Postoperative Ascites of Unknown Origin following Laparoscopic Appendicectomy: An Unusual Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Feretis, M.; Boyd-Carson, H.; Karim, A.

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative ascites is a very rare complication of laparoscopic surgery. Significant iatrogenic injuries to the bowel, the urinary tract, and the lymphatic system should be excluded promptly to avoid devastating results for the patient. In some cases, in spite of investigating patients extensively, no definitive causative factor for the accumulation of fluid can be identified. In such cases, idiopathic allergic or inflammatory reaction of the peritoneum may be responsible for the development of ascites. We present a case of ascites of an unknown origin in a young female patient following a laparoscopic appendicectomy. PMID:24822146

  20. Meeting the challenge of ascites in ovarian cancer: new avenues for therapy and research

    PubMed Central

    Kipps, Emma; Tan, David S. P.; Kaye, Stan B.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ascites presents a considerable clinical challenge to the management of ovarian cancer, but also provides a wealth of opportunities for translational research. The accessibility of ascitic fluid and its cellular components make it an excellent source of tumour tissue for the investigation of prognostic and predictive biomarkers, pharmacodynamic markers and for molecular profiling analysis. In this Opinion article, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of its pathophysiology, the development of new methods to characterize its molecular features and how these findings can be used to improve the treatment of malignant ascites, particularly in the context of ovarian cancer. PMID:23426401

  1. Application of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration to Gastric Varices Complicating Refractory Ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Tetsuya; Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Sugimoto, Koji; Fujii, Masahiko; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Izaki, Kenta; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-15

    We report two cases of gastric varices complicated by massive ascites that disappeared after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). The first patient had progressive gastric varices that continued to enlarge even after three episodes of esophagogastric variceal bleeding, and the second patient was admitted to our hospital because of the bleeding from gastric varices. After B-RTO procedures in both patients, significant improvement of the ascites, hepatic function reserve, and hypoalbuminemia was observed. Although further experience is needed, our experience points to the likelihood of the amelioration of ascites after B-RTO.

  2. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  3. Ascites Due to Anastomotic Stenosis After Liver Transplantation Using the Piggyback Technique: Treatment with Endovascular Prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Quiroga, Jorge; Pueyo, Jesus Ciro; Vivas, Isabel; Delgado, Carlos; Pardo, Fernando

    2000-03-15

    Liver transplantation preserving the retrohepatic inferior vena cava, the so-called piggyback technique, is becoming more frequently used because it avoids caval cross-clamping during the anhepatic phase of surgery. However, hepatic venous outflow blockade causing ascites seems to be less infrequent after piggyback than with cavo-caval anastomosis. We report a 62-year-old patient who underwent liver transplantation using the piggyback technique and developed a stenosis in the anastomosis between the hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava leading to severe postoperative ascites. Ascites was unresponsive to diuretic therapy and was associated with renal function impairment. Since the etiology of the stenosis was mechanical (torsion), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was unsuccessful. Finally, an autoexpandable prosthesis was placed across the anastomosis resulting in rapid and permanent (3 years of follow-up) resolution of ascites.

  4. A quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Smith, Candace D.; Al-Rubaye, Adnan A.; Erf, Gisela F.; Wideman, Robert F.; Anthony, Nicholas B.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide SNP survey was used to identify chromosomal regions that showed linkage disequilibrium with respect to ascites susceptibility and ventricular hypertrophy in an F2 cross between previously described ascites-resistant and -susceptible lines. Variable number tandem repeats were used to obtain genotype data to further characterize these regions. A region on chromosome 9 (12 to 13 Mbp in 2011 assembly) shows association with ascites in the ascites lines and in several commercial broiler breeder lines with a significant sex effect. There are 2 candidate genes, AGTR1 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and UTS2D (urotensin 2 domain containing), in this region that have been associated with hypertension and hypoxic response in mammals. PMID:24570451

  5. Further investigation of a quantitative trait locus for ascites on chromosome 9 in broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Dey, Shatovisha; Krishna, Sriram; Anthony, Nicholas B; Rhoads, Douglas D

    2016-10-10

    Previously, we reported a genome wide association study (GWAS) that had shown association of a region between 11.8 and 13.6 Mbp on chromosome 9 with ascites phenotype in broilers. We had used microsatellite loci to demonstrate an association of particular genotypes for this region with ascites in experimental ascites lines and commercial broiler breeder lines. We identified two potential candidate genes, AGTR1 and UTS2D, within that chromosomal region for mediating the quantitative effect. We have now extended our analysis using SNPs for these genes to assess association with resistance or susceptibility to ascites in these same broiler lines. Surprisingly, in contrast to our previous GWAS and microsatellite data for this region, we find no association of the SNP genotypes or haplotypes in the region suggesting that the two genes might have limited association with the disease phenotype.

  6. Differential expression of cardiac muscle mitochondrial matrix proteins in broilers from ascites-resistant and susceptible lines.

    PubMed

    Cisar, C R; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Donoghue, A M

    2005-05-01

    Ascites is a metabolic disorder of modern broilers that is distinguished by cardiopulmonary insufficiency in the face of intense oxygen demands of rapidly growing tissues. Broilers with ascites exhibit sustained elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy, the end result of which is heart failure. It has been shown that mitochondrial function is impaired in broilers with ascites. In the current study, mitochondrial matrix protein levels were compared between ascites-resistant line broilers and ascites-susceptible line broilers with and without ascites using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. One hundred seventy-two protein spots were detected on the gels, and 9 of the spots were present at different levels in the 4 groups of broilers. These 9 protein spots were selected for identification by mass spectrometry. Two of the spots were found to contain single mitochondrial matrix proteins. Both mitochondrial matrix proteins, the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and the alpha-subunit of mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme, were present at higher levels in ascites-resistant line broilers with ascites in the present study. The elevated levels of 2 key proteins in aerobic metabolism in ascites-resistant line broilers with ascites observed in the present study suggests that the mitochondria of broilers with this disease may respond inappropriately to hypoxia.

  7. Risk Factors for Intractable Ascites After Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Using Left Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Shinichi; Ishizaki, Yoichi; Yoshimoto, Jiro; Fujiwara, Noriko; Kawasaki, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Background Intractable ascites is one of the causes of graft loss after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using a small graft. Identification of factors associated with increasing posttransplant ascites has important implications for prevention and treatment. Methods All 59 consecutive adult patients who underwent left lobe LDLT without portal inflow modulation between October 2002 and February 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Factors associated with the average daily amount of ascites for 2 weeks after LDLT were assessed. Results The median daily amount of ascites during the 2 weeks was 1052 mL (range, 52-3480 mL). Although 16 of the 59 patients developed intractable ascites, exceeding 1500 mL daily (massive ascites group), the remaining 43 patients produced less than 1500 mL of ascites daily (nonmassive ascites group). The presence of pretransplant ascites (P = 0.001), albumin (P = 0.011), albumin/globulin ratio (P = 0.026), cold ischemia time (P = 0.004), operation time (P = 0.022), and pretransplant portal vein pressure (PVP) (P = 0.047) differed significantly between the 2 groups. Neither posttransplant PVP nor portal vein flow differed between the 2 groups. The variables associated with intractable ascites that remained significant after logistic regression analysis were pretransplant PVP (P = 0.047) and cold ischemia time (P = 0.049). After appropriate fluid resuscitation for intractable ascites, 58 (98%) of the 59 recipients were discharged from hospital after removal of the indwelling drains. Conclusions It is important to shorten the scold ischemia time to reduce massive ascites after LDLT. Pretransplant portal hypertension is more closely associated with ascites production than posttransplant hemodynamic status. PMID:28361122

  8. A bivariate mixture model analysis of body weight and ascites traits in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zerehdaran, S; van Grevehof, E M; van der Waaij, E H; Bovenhuis, H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to use bivariate mixture models to study the relationships between body weight (BW) and ascites indicator traits. Existing data were used from an experiment in which birds were housed in 2 groups under different climate conditions. In the first group, BW, the ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight (RV:TV), and hematocrit value (HCT) were measured in 4,202 broilers under cold conditions; in the second group, the same traits were measured in 795 birds under normal temperature conditions. Cold-stress conditions were applied to identify individuals that were susceptible to ascites. The RV:TV and HCT were approximately normally distributed under normal temperature conditions, whereas the distributions of these traits were skewed under cold temperature conditions, suggesting different underlying distributions. Fitting a bivariate mixture model to the observations showed that there was only one homogeneous population for ascites traits under normal temperature conditions, whereas there was a mixture of (2) distributions under cold conditions. One distribution contained nonascitic birds and the other distribution contained ascitic birds. In the distribution of nonascitic birds, the inferred phenotypic correlations (phenotypic correlations with 2 distinguishing underlying distributions) of BW with RV:TV and HCT were close to zero (0.10 and -0.07, respectively), whereas in the distribution of ascitic birds, the inferred phenotypic correlations of BW with RV:TV and HCT were negative (-0.39 and -0.4, respectively). The negative inferred correlations of BW with RV:TV and HCT in the distribution of ascitic birds resulted in negative overall correlations (correlations without 2 distinguishing distributions) of BW with RV:TV (-0.30) and HCT (-0.37) under cold conditions. The present results indicate that the overall correlations between BW and ascites traits are dependent on the relative frequency of ascitic and

  9. [Dielectric parameters of ascitic and pleural fluids in the microwave range in different nosologies].

    PubMed

    Romanov, A N; Kovrigin, A O; Grigorchuk, O G; Lubennikov, V A; Lazarev, A F

    2011-01-01

    The dielectric parameters of ascitic and pleural fluids formed in the human body in oncological and nononcological diseases of different nosology have been estimated in the range between 400 MHz and 1.2 GHZ. The dependence of refractive and absorption indices of ascitic and pleural liquids on the signal frequency and mass concentration of dissolved substances was found. Common regularities and distinctions in the behavior of their dielectric properties were revealed.

  10. Structural changes of the diaphragmatic peritoneum in patients with schistosomal hepatic fibrosis: its relation to ascites.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A H; Mohamed, F S

    1986-06-01

    The histopathologic changes of the peritoneum of the hemidiaphragm were studied in 30 patients with schistosomal liver disease and compared with ten control subjects. The diaphragmatic peritoneum of patients with ascites was markedly thickened with infiltration of inflammatory cells and collagen bundles resembling the interstitial changes of peripheral lymphedema. Obliteration of diaphragmatic lymphatic stomata with restricted lymph flow as well as excess lymph formation from portal hypertension are both major factors in the magnitude and intractability of ascites associated with schistosomal hepatic fibrosis.

  11. Critical impact of Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier on GaN surface morphology during homoepitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Nils. A. K.; Lahourcade, L.; Hourahine, B.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the impact of kinetics, and in particular the effect of the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier (ESB), on the growth and surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers. The presence of an ESB can lead to various self-assembled surface features, which strongly affect the surface roughness. We present an in-depth study of this phenomenon on GaN homoepitaxial layers grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. We show how a proper tuning of the growth parameters allows for the control of the surface morphology, independent of the growth technique.

  12. Effects of hyperthermia and calcium channel blocker co-therapy on mice injected with Meth A solid of Meth A ascites tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effectiveness of treating tumor-injected mice with verapamil, a calcium antagonist, and hyperthermia. The co-treatment reduced the incidence of tumors in animals injected with Meth A solid cells. It was shown that the decrease in tumors corresponded to increases in natural killer (NK) cell activity measured in a /sup 51/Cr release assay, in the amount of anti-Meth A antibody measured in an immunofluorescence assay, and a decrease in the amount of intra-tumor cyclic AMP measured by radioimmunoassay in co-treated compared to untreated sarcoma-injected animals. A role of the immune system for mediating the prevention of sarcoma growth was indicated by Winn assays. Splenocytes sensitized in vivo against Meth A solid cells for 14 days exhibited an enhanced cytotoxic activity against syngeneic target cells compared to untreated tumor-sensitized splenocytes following heat-drug co-treatment. It was established that the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells against a histocompatibility antigen (H-2/sup d/) present on Meth A sarcoma cells resulted in tumor cell lysis. Animals bearing established Meth A solid sarcomas did not manifest tumor regressions following the administration of co-treatment alone or the adoptive transfer of co-treated tumor-sensitized splenocytes. The growth of Meth A ascites and Meth A ascites-derived solid sarcomas, unlike Meth A solid cell tumors, were not prevented in Winn assays. Additionally, the lifespan of animals injected with Meth A ascites cells was reduced by 50% compared to animals injected with Meth A solid sarcoma cells.

  13. Malignant ascites in patients with terminal cancer is effectively treated with permanent peritoneal catheter

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Frank V.; Madsen, Hans Henrik Torp

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant ascites is a pathological condition caused by intra- or extra-abdominal disseminated cancer. The object of treatment is palliation. In search of an effective and minimally invasive palliative treatment of malignant ascites placement of a permanent intra peritoneal catheter has been suggested. Purpose To evaluate our experiences with treatment of malignant ascites by implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter. Material and Methods A retrospective study was conducted, comprising 20 consecutive patients with terminal cancer, who had a permanent PleurX catheter implanted because of malignant ascites in the period from February to November 2014. Using the patients’ medical records, we retrieved data on patients and procedures. Results The technical success rate was 100%. Catheter patency was 95.2%, one catheter was removed due to dislocation. Ten patients (50.0%) experienced minor adverse events. No procedural difficulties were reported and there was no need for additional treatment of malignant ascites after catheter implantation. Median residual survival after catheter implantation was 27 days. Conclusion Implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter is a minimally invasive and effective procedure with only minor adverse events and a high rate of catheter patency in patients with malignant ascites caused by terminal cancer disease. PMID:26346641

  14. Effect of Glycyrrhiza on the Diuretic Function of Euphorbia kansui: An Ascites Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ya; Zhang, Yanqiong; Shang, Erxin; Lai, Wenfang; Zhu, Hongwei; Fang, Yuhua; Qin, Qingxia; Zhao, Haiyu; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic role of the herbal combination Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) in ascites during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The AVPR2 and AQP2 expression in kidney tissues of ascites mice in different groups was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR analyses. When the dose of GS was less than 0.70 g/kg at a ratio of GC : GS not exceeding 0.4 : 1, the combination of GS and GC exhibited synergistic effects on HCC ascites and significantly elevated the expression levels of AVPR2 and AQP2 (all P < 0.05). On the contrary, when GS ≥ 0.93 g/kg and GC ≥ 1.03 g/kg with the GC-to-GS ratio exceeding 1.11 : 1, the combination of GS and GC displayed antagonistic effects on HCC ascites and dramatically reduced the expression levels of AVPR2 and AQP2 (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the administration of herbal pair GS and GC at different ratios did not exacerbate the pathological changes in liver and kidney tissues of HCC ascites mice. The different combinations of GS and GC exerted synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites, partially by regulating the expression of AVPR2 and AQP2. PMID:27247609

  15. Fibrin glue application in the management of refractory chylous ascites in children.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, S; Delarue, A; Rome, A; Roquelaure, B

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective review of the charts of 6 children who underwent surgical treatment of chylous ascites refractory to conservative measures between 1993 and 2006 was to evaluate the efficiency of fibrin glue application for control of lymph leakage. Five children had postoperative chylous ascites (neuroblastoma, 4; cystic lymphangioma, 1) and 1 had a congenital malformation. Surgical exploration revealed large areas of diffuse lymphatic leakage in all of the patients. Lymphatic fistula was not identified intraoperatively in any patient. Ingestion of lipophilic dye in a concentrated fatty meal was not helpful in locating a lymph fistula. Absorbable mesh was used in association with glue application in the last 3 patients treated. Control of ascites was achieved immediately in 2 patients and within 3 weeks in 2 patients. Repeat surgery was required in the remaining 2 patients. The mean follow-up time was 4.3 years. One patient died of tumor recurrence 12 months after surgical treatment without relapse of the ascites. Two mild late recurrences were observed at 6 and 11 months after surgery and were managed conservatively. The findings of this study show that fibrin glue application on absorbable mesh after dissection of the leakage zones is easy, safe, and effective. We recommend that surgery with glue application be repeated until control of ascites is achieved. We suggest fibrin glue application as a preventive measure against postoperative chylous ascites.

  16. [Apparently opposite postulates of Ehrlich (Horror autotoxicus) and Metchnikoff (physiological autoimmunization) are not irreconcilable].

    PubMed

    Dighiero, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1900, the group from Metchnikoff suggested the concept of autoimmunization by demonstrating the presence of autoantibodies in normal conditions; which was opposed to the concept of horror autotoxicus raised by Ehrlich. Landsteiner's description of the transfusion compatibility rules and 50 year-later work from Burnett's and Medawar's groups lead to the clonal deletion theory as a general explanation of tolerance and autoimmunity. However, more recent work succeeded demonstrating that autoreactive B cells constitute a substantial part of the B-cell repertoire and that this autoreactive repertoire secretes the so-called natural autoantibodies (NAA) characterized by their broad reactivity mainly directed against very well conserved public epitopes. They fulfill the definition of an autoantibody since they are self-reactive, but they are not self-specific. As yet, NAA directed against determinants of polymorphism have not been reported. The presence of this repertoire in normal conditions challenges the clonal deletion theory as a unique explanation for self-tolerance. However, if we take into account that this autoreactive B-cell repertoire is not self-specific, this contradiction may not be a real one opposition. Indeed, the Lansteiner's rule that a subject belonging to group A will never produce anti-A antibodies and will always produce natural antibodies against the B-cell group, could never be challenged. Clonal deletion is probably accounting for this phenomenon. However, the serum of healthy adult individuals frequently exhibits low titers of anti-I antibodies, which is a precursor molecule of AB0 antigen system. The mechanism accounting for deletion of B cells directed against critical determinants like antigens A and B in the red blood cell system and allowing the production of autoantibodies against I remains elusive.

  17. Cancer cachexia: physical activity and muscle force in tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Míriam; Busquets, Sílvia; Sirisi, Sònia; Serpe, Roberto; Orpí, Marcel; Coutinho, Joana; Martínez, Raquel; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Argilés, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma are subjected to substantial weight loss, which is accompanied by anorexia at the end of the tumour cycle. Total physical activity (measured using the IR Actimeter system and Actitrack software) was determined during 11 days in control and tumour-bearing animals, skeletal muscle strength being also by the grip-strength test. The results presented clearly show that the presence of the tumour induces an earlier decrease in physical performance, which affects both skeletal muscle force and physical activity (both locomotor movements and stereotyped movements and distance travelled, among others parameters).

  18. The Contributions of Paul Ehrlich to Pharmacology: A Tribute on the Occasion of the Centenary of His Nobel Prize

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia

    2008-01-01

    On the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's Nobel Prize, this German researcher deserves to be remembered as a pioneer in a large number of scientific disciplines. As a result of his enthusiasm and scientific abilities, dedication, and contacts with other scientists of his time, he was able to make countless contributions in fields as diverse as histology, haematology, immunology, oncology, microbiology and pharmacology, among others. Although the Swedish award was meant to recognize the standardization of the manufacture of antidiphtheria serum, it was the discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis which won him wider international acclaim. From a pharmacological perspective, Ehrlich's outstanding contributions include dissemination of the ‘magic bullet’ concept for the synthesis of antibacterials, introduction of concepts such as chemoreceptor and chemotherapy, and linking the chemical structure of compounds to their pharmacological activity. These achievements took place within the framework he established for the transition from experimental pharmacology to therapeutic pharmacology. He introduced a modern research system based on the synthesis of multiple chemical structures for pharmacological screening in animal models of disease states. These contributions were undoubtedly decisive in propitiating the wider development of antibiotics decades later. For these reasons, it is fitting to mark the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to this great scientist by commemorating the importance of his contributions to the advance of pharmacology. PMID:18679046

  19. The contributions of Paul Ehrlich to pharmacology: a tribute on the occasion of the centenary of his Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia

    2008-01-01

    On the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's Nobel Prize, this German researcher deserves to be remembered as a pioneer in a large number of scientific disciplines. As a result of his enthusiasm and scientific abilities, dedication, and contacts with other scientists of his time, he was able to make countless contributions in fields as diverse as histology, haematology, immunology, oncology, microbiology and pharmacology, among others. Although the Swedish award was meant to recognize the standardization of the manufacture of antidiphtheria serum, it was the discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis which won him wider international acclaim. From a pharmacological perspective, Ehrlich's outstanding contributions include dissemination of the 'magic bullet' concept for the synthesis of antibacterials, introduction of concepts such as chemoreceptor and chemotherapy, and linking the chemical structure of compounds to their pharmacological activity. These achievements took place within the framework he established for the transition from experimental pharmacology to therapeutic pharmacology. He introduced a modern research system based on the synthesis of multiple chemical structures for pharmacological screening in animal models of disease states. These contributions were undoubtedly decisive in propitiating the wider development of antibiotics decades later. For these reasons, it is fitting to mark the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to this great scientist by commemorating the importance of his contributions to the advance of pharmacology.

  20. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: effect of cold and normal temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Ascites syndrome is a growth-related disorder of broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at low temperatures. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among ascites-related traits measured either under cold or under normal temperature conditions, and to estimate genetic correlations between ascites-related traits measured under cold and normal conditions. (2) Several traits related to ascites were measured on more than 4000 chickens under cold conditions and on more than 700 chickens under normal conditions. (3) The heritability estimates for body weight (BW) measured under cold and normal conditions were 0.42 and 0.50, respectively, for haematocrit value 0.46 and 0.17, respectively, and for ratio of right to total ventricular weight 0.45 and 0.12, respectively. (4) The genetic correlation between BW and haematocrit value under cold conditions was -0.23 and between BW and ratio of right to total ventricular weight -0.27. Under normal conditions, however, these genetic correlations were 0.55 and 0.50, respectively. (5) These results demonstrate that the heritability estimates of ascites-related traits as well as genetic correlations between ascites-related traits and BW depend on the temperature conditions under which animals are kept. (6) Strong positive genetic correlations (around 0.8) were observed between total mortality, fluid in the abdomen and ratio of right to total ventricular weight under cold conditions. The genetic correlation between ratio of right to total ventricular weight under cold and normal conditions was 0.91. (7) These results suggest that the ratio of right to total ventricular weight measured under normal temperature conditions might serve as a good indicator trait for ascites.

  1. Effect of prebiotic on gut development and ascites incidence of broilers reared in a hypoxic environment.

    PubMed

    Solis de los Santos, F; Farnell, M B; Téllez, G; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Torres-Rodriguez, A; Higgins, S; Hargis, B M; Donoghue, A M

    2005-07-01

    Modern broilers have been genetically selected for an increased growth rate and improved feed conversion, but they are also more susceptible to ascites. Ascites occurs when there is an imbalance between available oxygen and the oxygen demand of the broiler. We hypothesized that promoting neonatal gut development with a prebiotic, such as Aspergillus meal (Prebiotic-AM), would enhance gut efficiency, decrease the oxygen demand of the gut, and reduce ascites incidence. In this study, we compared the effect of Prebiotic-AM on ascites incidence and gut development in commercial broilers reared at a local altitude (390 m above sea level) and a simulated high altitude (2,900 m above sea level). Half of the birds received a National Research Council recommended corn-soybean ration, and the other half received the same ration supplemented with 0.2% Prebiotic-AM. These 2 groups were further divided into a local altitude group and a simulated high altitude group for a total of 4 treatment combinations. Tissues were collected on d 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 from the duodenum and lower ileum and placed in 10% buffered formalin for morphometric analysis. At a simulated high altitude, ascites incidence was 68% for birds fed the Prebiotic-AM supplement compared with 92% ascites incidence in birds given the control feed. The simulated high altitude decreased (P < 0.05) gut development, but prebiotic-treated birds reared in hypoxic conditions had similar gut development to control birds reared at local altitude. These data suggest that a feed ration supplemented with Prebiotic-AM may reduce the effect of hypoxia on broiler gut development and ascites incidence.

  2. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  3. Successful treatment of massive ascites due to lupus peritonitis with hydroxychloroquine in old- onset lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Sonia; Bdioui, Fethia; Ouaz, Afef; Loghmari, Hichem; Mahjoub, Sylvia; Saffar, Hamouda

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is an auto-immune disease with multiple organ involvements that occurs mainly in young women. Literature data suggest that serositis is more frequent in late-onset SLE. However, peritoneal serositis with massive ascites is an extremely rare manifestation. We report a case of old-onset lupus peritonitis treated successfully by Hydroxychloroquine. A 77-year-old Tunisian woman was hospitalized because of massive painful ascites. Her family history did not include any autoimmune disease. She was explored 4 years prior to admission for exudative pleuritis of the right lung without any established diagnosis. Physical examination showed only massive ascites. Laboratory investigations showed leucopenia: 3100/mm3, lymphopenia: 840/mm3 and trace protein (0.03 g/24 h). Ascitic fluid contained 170 cells mm(3) (67% lymphocytes), 46 g/L protein, but no malignant cells. The main etiologies of exudative ascites were excluded. She had markedly elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titer of 1/1600 and a significantly elevated titer of antibody to double-stranded DNA (83 IU/mL) with hypo-complementemia (C3 levl was at 67 mg/dL). Antibody against the Smith antigen was also positive. Relying on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with SLE and treated with Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg daily in combination with diuretics. One month later, there was no detectable ascitic fluid and no pleural effusions. Five months later she remained free from symptoms while continuing to take chloroquine. This case was characterized by old age of onset of SLE, the extremely rare initial presentation with lupus peritonitis and massive painful ascites with dramatic response to only hydroxychloroquine treatment.

  4. Identification of a Zn(2+)-sensitive component of Ehrlich cell plasma membrane redox system by CHAPS-agarose-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and in situ staining of activity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caso, L; Rodríguez-Agudo, D; del Castillo-Olivares, A; Márquez, J; Núñez de Castro, I; Medina, M A

    1997-01-01

    A procedure based on CHAPS-agarose-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and in situ staining of activity was used to detect a Zn(2+)-sensitive component of Ehrlich cell plasma membrane redox system. The procedure is so powerful that it allows to use crude plasma membrane fractions and can be easily adapted for use in an electrophoretic approach to the purification of this protein.

  5. Effect of cold stress on broilers selected for resistance or susceptibility to ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Kidd, B D; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B

    2003-09-01

    Genetic selection for an ascites-resistant line of broilers is seen as a permanent solution to the ascites problem. Ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible lines have been developed using sire family selection based on mortality data taken from siblings reared in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level). The relaxed line is representative of the original commercial pureline stock randomly mated with no artificial selection pressure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differences between the lines when reared in floor pens and subjected to an ascites-inducing cold stress. Seven hundred eighty three straight run broilers were reared in floor pens at local elevation (390 m above sea level). Feed and water were available ad libitum. Birds were brooded at 32 C during the first week. The second week birds were maintained at 30 degrees C. Cold stress was applied for the remaining 4 wk at 14 degrees C. Mortalities were necropsied daily to determine cause of death. Birds and feed were weighed weekly. At 6 wk, five birds per pen were bled, and half the survivors in each pen (8 to 15 birds) were killed, necropsied, and scored for ascites. Blood gases, clinical chemistries, and blood cell counts were taken. Liver, spleen, split heart, and lung weights were recorded. Body weights were not different among the resistant, susceptible, and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was better in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Ascites incidence, as measured by mortality and lesion score at necropsy, was higher in the susceptible and relaxed lines when compared to the resistant line; 18.8, 12.7, and 1.6% respectively (P < 0.001). Susceptible and relaxed lines showed more right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with the resistant line (P < 0.05). The results show that under severe cold stress at local altitude (390 m above sea level), the ascites-resistant line was growing as rapidly as the other

  6. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  7. Evaluation of between-line variation for within-line selection against ascites in broilers.

    PubMed

    de Greef, K H; Kwakernaak, C; Ducro, B J; Pit, R; Gerritsen, C L

    2001-01-01

    Within-line opportunities for selection against ascites were studied in a data set comprising a 10-line comparison. The study attempted to reveal whether contrasts between lines provide reliable candidate traits for within-line selection. Mortality was chosen as the reference trait. As no pedigree information was available, a trait was required that related mortality to the nonmortality data. By principal component analysis, such a trait (ASC_INDIC = ascites indicator) was developed from pathology data. The composite trait ASC_INDIC ranked lines well for their mortality figures (r = 0.96), from which it was concluded that ASC_INDIC represents an underlying continuous ascites trait. Between lines, blood gas traits seemed to be the most promising traits. Within lines, performance traits appeared to be highly correlated to ascites. Comparison of within-line variation to between-line contrasts revealed considerable differences. The high correlation of the blood gas traits with mortality was not present within lines. However, although the magnitude was considerably reduced, the nature of the blood gas traits in their relationship to ascites was similar within and between lines. The study primarily demonstrates that contrasts between lines carry systematic but limited information for within-line coherence. Therefore, line contrasts must be interpreted with care when aiming to study genetic variation and coherence within lines.

  8. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the management of cirrhotic refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2006-07-01

    Cirrhotic ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which is secondary to a decreased effective arterial blood volume. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement is currently indicated in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites who require large-volume paracentesis (LVP) more than two or three times per month. TIPS placement is associated with normalization of sinusoidal pressure and a significant improvement in urinary sodium excretion that correlates with suppression of plasma renin activity, which is, itself, indicative of an improvement in effective arterial blood volume. Compared with serial LVP, placement of an uncovered TIPS stent is more effective at preventing ascites from recurring; however, increased incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt dysfunction rates after TIPS placement are important issues that increase its cost. Although evidence suggests that TIPS placement might result in better patient survival, this needs to be confirmed, particularly in light of the development of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents. Favorable results apply to centers experienced in placing the TIPS, with the aim being to decrease the portosystemic gradient to <12 mmHg but >5 mmHg. This article reviews the pathophysiologic basis for the use of a TIPS in patients with refractory ascites, the results of controlled trials comparing TIPS placement (using uncovered stents) versus LVP, and a systematic review of predictors of death after TIPS placement for refractory ascites.

  9. Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone for a Patient of POEMS Syndrome Presenting with Massive Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shuji; Yonemoto, Sayoko; Oka, Kazumasa; Fujii, Naohiko; Nakata, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hitomi; Kataoka, Seiko; Iwama, Yuki; Narahara, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Yuichi; Inui, Yoshiaki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes. POEMS syndrome is a rare cause of refractory ascites. We report the case of a patient with POEMS syndrome presenting with massive ascites who was treated with very-low-dose lenalidomide and dexamethasone. A 57-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with pleural effusion, massive ascites, and leg edema. The diagnosis of POEMS syndrome was made based on the combination of the following findings: peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, serum monoclonal protein elevation, skin changes, plasma VEGF elevation, and evidence of extravascular volume overload. Renal dysfunction induced by biopsy-proven renal involvement of POEMS syndrome was observed. Massive ascites of the patient dramatically diminished with long-time treatment of very-low-dose lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Lenalidomide seems to be a very promising therapy for POEMS syndrome presenting with extravascular volume overload such as edema, pleural effusion, and ascites. Very-low-dose lenalidomide might be effective especially for the patients with POEMS-related nephropathy. PMID:24782932

  10. Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone for a Patient of POEMS Syndrome Presenting with Massive Ascites.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shuji; Yonemoto, Sayoko; Oka, Kazumasa; Fujii, Naohiko; Nakata, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hitomi; Kataoka, Seiko; Iwama, Yuki; Narahara, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Yuichi; Inui, Yoshiaki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes. POEMS syndrome is a rare cause of refractory ascites. We report the case of a patient with POEMS syndrome presenting with massive ascites who was treated with very-low-dose lenalidomide and dexamethasone. A 57-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with pleural effusion, massive ascites, and leg edema. The diagnosis of POEMS syndrome was made based on the combination of the following findings: peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, serum monoclonal protein elevation, skin changes, plasma VEGF elevation, and evidence of extravascular volume overload. Renal dysfunction induced by biopsy-proven renal involvement of POEMS syndrome was observed. Massive ascites of the patient dramatically diminished with long-time treatment of very-low-dose lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Lenalidomide seems to be a very promising therapy for POEMS syndrome presenting with extravascular volume overload such as edema, pleural effusion, and ascites. Very-low-dose lenalidomide might be effective especially for the patients with POEMS-related nephropathy.

  11. Myxedema ascites with an extremely elevated CA125 Level: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Hideo; Bando, Yukihiro; Tomita, Manabu; Kontani, Makoto; Takegoshi, Yasuo; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is a tumor-marker frequently associated with ovarian malignancies; however, benign gynecologic conditions (e.g. ovarian cysts) commonly cause a smaller increase in CA125 levels. This report describes an elderly Japanese woman with high CA125 levels and massive ascites caused by hypothyroidism. A 67-year-old woman presented herself with a weight gain of about 12 kg and abdominal distension. Her serum CA125 level was markedly elevated (822 U/ml) and abdominal CT revealed a right ovarian cyst and massive ascites. Hormonal laboratory data showed severe primary hypothyroidism with a serum TSH of 594 IU/L and a free thyroxin level of 0.05 ng/dl. Ascitic fluid was found to be exudate with a high protein content of 42 g/L. Cytological analysis and FDG-PET showed no evidence of malignancy. The ascites completely disappeared and serum CA125 normalized after adequate hormonal replacement therapy. These data suggest that hypothyroidism should be considered in patients with ascites and elevated serum CA125.

  12. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  13. Cryogenic foil bearing turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Alston L.

    1993-01-01

    Cryogenic foil bearing turbopumps offer high reliability and low cost. The fundamental cryogenic foil bearing technology has been validated in both liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. High load capacity, excellent rotor dynamics, and negligible bearing wear after over 100 starts and stops, and over many hours of testing, were observed in both fluids. An experimental liquid hydrogen foil bearing turbopump was also successfully demonstrated. The results indicate excellent stability, high reliability, wide throttle-ability, low bearing cooling flow, and two-phase bearing operability. A liquid oxygen foil bearing turbopump has been built and is being tested at NASA MSFC.

  14. Introduction to ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of a ball bearing is to provide a relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and a housing. For high rotational speeds (e.g., in gyroscope ball bearings) the purpose can be expanded to include rotational freedom with practically no wear in the bearing. This condition can be achieved by separating the bearing parts with a coherent film of fluid known as an elastohydrodynamic film. This film can be maintained not only when the bearing carries the load on a shaft, but also when the bearing is preloaded to position the shaft to within micro- or nano-inch accuracy and stability. Background information on ball bearings is provided, different types of ball bearings and their geometry and kinematics are defined, bearing materials, manufacturing processes, and separators are discussed. It is assumed, for the purposes of analysis, that the bearing carries no load.

  15. Caffeine causes pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kamely, M; Torshizi, M A Karimi; Rahimi, S; Wideman, R F

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), or ascites, is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Experimental models are required for triggering PHS to study the pathogenesis of this syndrome and to select resistant genetic lines. Caffeine increases vascular resistance and promotes systemic hypertension in mammals, but a similar effect of caffeine on the pulmonary circulation had not previously been demonstrated. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of caffeine alone (Exp. 1) or in combination with cold temperature (Exp. 2) on parameters associated with PHS in young broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 288 chicks were distributed among 24 pens and brooded at standard environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 2, 192 chicks were distributed among 16 pens and brooded at cool environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 1 caffeine administered at or above 12.5 mg/(kg BW·d) induced severe PHS and resulted in acute mortality and RVH ( < 0.05). Hematocrit also slightly increased by caffeine supplementation ( = 0.07). In Exp. 2 caffeine-treated broilers exposed to cold temperatures remarkably exhibited PHS incidences and developed RVH with right ventricular to total ventricular weight ratios of 30% or greater. Moreover, hematocrit significantly increased because of caffeine supplementation in cool ambient temperature ( = 0.002). Our data demonstrate that caffeine induces high incidences of PHS in broilers, which is exacerbated by exposure to low temperatures.

  16. Hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress and other metabolic changes in broilers with the ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, A; Nava, C; Villanueva, R; Serret, M; Guinzberg, R; Piña, E

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gluconeogenic response of in vitro stimulated hepatocytes from control broilers and broilers with clinical manifestations of the ascites syndrome. The basal rate of glucose synthesis from lactate was found to be threefold greater in sick birds than in the control group and stimulation obtained with epinephrine was found to be quantitatively similar in both groups. Under basal conditions, the hepatocytes from the sick broilers exhibited 60% more ammonium than the control birds. In addition, the quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as indicators of cellular lipoperoxidation, showed an increase of over 100% in heart and liver of sick broilers fowl. In conclusion, the complex integrated response of gluconeogenesis to epinephrine is maintained in broilers with ascites, although their hepatocytes present changes compatible with those observed in cases of oxidative stress. It is not known whether this stress is a cause or a consequence of the ascites syndrome.

  17. Portal Hypertension and Ascites Due to an Arterioportal Fistula: Sequela of a Remote Traumatic Liver Laceration

    PubMed Central

    Hulkower, Benjamin M.; Butty, Sabah

    2016-01-01

    Arterioportal fistulas (APFs) are a group of vascular disorders, in which systemic arteries communicate with the portal circulation, presenting as a congenital syndrome or more commonly acquired from iatrogenic instrumentation or abdominal trauma. We report the case of a 58-year-old man who developed ascites without underlying risk factors for portal hypertension, which was attributed to an APF found on imaging, manifesting 43 years after sustaining a liver laceration. After angiographic embolization of the APF, the patient’s ascites resolved completely. The prolonged latent period between the patient’s abdominal trauma and eventual presentation with ascites highlights the need to consider vascular malformations in the differential diagnosis of unexplained noncirrhotic portal hypertension. PMID:27807573

  18. Symptomatic treatment of ascites with a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system in a dog.

    PubMed

    Venzin, C; Kook, P; Jenni, S; Wilhelm, S; Degen, T; Braun, A; Rütten, M; Glaus, T M

    2012-02-01

    A six-year-old Rottweiler with chronic ascites and moderate panhypoproteinaemia that had been treated with large volume paracentesis over several months duration was diagnosed with a large bi-atrial mass and hepatic fibrosis. For palliative treatment, a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system with an integrated chargeable battery and an integrated computer to control pump function and to transmit data transcutaneously was implanted by coeliotomy. The pump was left in place for 10 weeks, eliminating the need for further paracentesis during this time. At the end of this period, no ascites was discernible and serum protein concentrations had returned to their respective reference intervals. As a complication, decubitus with skin perforation had developed above the pump. Besides palliative treatment of chronic refractory ascites, this pump may have application in other conditions characterised by chronic cavity effusion or in peritoneal dialysis.

  19. Artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum to facilitate thermal ablation of liver tumors: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Chick, Jeffrey F B; Chauhan, Nikunj R; Shyn, Paul B

    2017-02-01

    Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation is increasingly utilized in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. Peripherally located hepatic tumors can be difficult to access or located adjacent to critical structures that can be injured. As a result, ablation of peripheral tumors may be avoided or may be performed too cautiously, leading to inadequate ablation coverage. In these cases, separating the tumor from adjacent critical structures can increase the efficacy and safety of procedures. Artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum are techniques that utilize fluid and gas, respectively, to insulate critical structures from the thermal ablation zone. Induction of artificial ascites and artificial pneumoperitoneum can enable complete ablation of otherwise inaccessible hepatic tumors, improve tumor visualization, minimize unintended thermal injury to surrounding organs, and reduce post-procedural pain. This pictorial essay illustrates and discusses the proper technique and clinical considerations for successful artificial ascites and pneumoperitoneum creation to facilitate safe peripheral hepatic tumor ablation.

  20. Refractory ascites in systemic lupus erythematosus: further biological support of intraperitoneal steroid treatment as a suitable therapeutical option.

    PubMed

    Atisha-Fregoso, Yemil; Hernández-Ramírez, Diego F; Olivares-Martínez, Elizabeth; Núñez-Alvarez, Carlos A; Llorente, Luis; Hernández-Molina, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate the ascitic fluid of a patient with refractory lupus ascites (proband) at different time points-pre- and post-intraperitoneal treatment with dexamethasone-using a multiparametric approach which included the presence of autoantibodies and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and a proteomic analysis. As controls, we studied two additional patients also with lupus ascites (only at basal evaluation) and two patients with ascites due to alcoholic liver cirrhosis. High levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-nucleosomes autoantibodies were detected in the ascitic fluid of all lupus patients and remained elevated in the proband throughout the follow-up. All lupus patients have detectable ascitic high levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IGF-1 which diminished gradually in the proband after intraperitoneal dexamethasone. In the proteomic analysis of the ascitic fluid, a marked increment of apolipoprotein A1 was observed and again, it diminished gradually after intraperitoneal treatment. Our findings further support the use of intraperitoneal steroids as an effective therapeutic option for refractory ascites in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  1. Radiological Insertion of Denver Peritoneovenous Shunts for Malignant Refractory Ascites: A Retrospective Multicenter Study (JIVROSG-0809)

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Shunsuke; Sone, Miyuki; Arai, Yasuaki; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Aramaki, Takeshi; Sato, Yozo; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Ueno, Teruko; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Tsushima, Takahiro

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Peritoneal venous shunts (PVSs) are widely used for palliating symptoms of refractory malignant ascites and are recognized as one of the practical methods. However, reliable clinical data are insufficient because most previous reports have been small studies from single centers. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiologically placed PVSs in patients with malignant refractory ascites. Methods: A total of 133 patients with malignant ascites refractory to medical therapies were evaluated for patient characteristics, technical success, efficacy, survival times, adverse events, and changes in laboratory data. Results: PVSs were successfully placed in all patients and were effective (i.e., improvement of ascites symptoms lasting 7 days or more) in 110 (82.7%). The median duration of symptom palliation was 26 days and median survival time was 41 days. The most frequent adverse event was PVS dysfunction, which occurred in 60 (45.1%) patients, among whom function was recovered with an additional minimally invasive procedure in 9. Abnormalities in coagulation (subclinical disseminated intravascular coagulation) occurred in 37 (27.8%) patients, although only 7 (5.3%) developed clinical disseminated intravascular coagulation. Other major adverse events were gastrointestinal bleeding (9.8%), sepsis (3.8%), and acute heart failure (3.0%). PVS was least effective in patients with elevated serum creatinine, bloody ascites, or gynecologic tumor. Conclusions: Radiological PVS is a technically feasible and effective method for palliating the symptoms from refractory malignant ascites, but preoperative evaluation and monitoring the postprocedural complications are mandatory to preclude severe adverse events after PVS.

  2. Polymorphonuclear counts in ascitic fluid and microorganisms producing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: an under-recognized relationship.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Xavier; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Castellote, José; Xiol, Xavier; Ariza, Javier

    2013-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. In cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) higher polymorphonuclear (PMN) count in ascitic fluid have been reported in infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) as opposed to Gram-positive cocci (GPC). However, the influence of other associated factors on the PMN count, such as the specific microorganism causing the episode of SBP, has not been well established. METHODS. Retrospective observational study of 194 episodes of positive ascitic and/or blood culture SBP in 159 patients with liver cirrhosis (2001-2009). Parameters associated with PMN count in ascitic fluid at diagnosis were evaluated. RESULTS. The multivariate analysis (model 1) showed that a virulent etiology of the infection [coefficient 3.941 (95% confidence interval (95 CI): 0.421-7.461)] and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score [coefficient 0.196 (95 CI: 0.007-0.384)] were positively associated with the PMN count in ascites, while a nosocomial acquisition was inversely associated [coefficient -3.546 (95 CI: -6.855 - -0.238)]. A nonsignificant trend toward higher PMN count was found in GNB versus GPC, but there were differences between groups of microorganisms: pyogenic streptococci [median (p25-p75): 3211 (1615-8004)], Enterobacteriaceae [2958 (917-7690)], Vibrionaceae [9215 (375-17280)], nonfermenting GNB [1384 (565-3865)], viridans group streptococci [1044 (503-2354)] and enterococci [1050 (476-4655)](p = 0.005). No clear cut-offs of ascitic PMN count predicting a particular etiology could be calculated out of these data. CONCLUSIONS. In cirrhotic patients with SBP, the causing microorganism, the place of acquisition of the infection and the host liver condition were the main factors determining PMN count in ascitic fluid. Third-generation cephalosporin resistance was associated with low PMN count probably because this group included bacteria with inherent low virulence.

  3. [A case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with ascites caused by hypoproteinemia after a massive bleeding from a gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Guji, A; Nishiya, H; Haga, T; Aoki, M; Nozue, N; Ono, Y; Kunii, O; Miyashita, H

    1993-01-01

    A case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) developed in an old man whose ascitic fluid was related neither to portal hypertension nor nephrotic syndrome, but with severe hypoalbuminemia emerged after a massive bleeding from a gastric ulcer in a malnutrition state. Ascitic fluid, increasing day by day, yielded Enterobacter cloacae and Bacteroides fragilis. Though autopsy was not carried out because of refusal of his family, neither liver necropsy, nor abdominal CT scan nor repeated abdominal ultrasonography showed findings suggesting existence of liver cirrhosis. In the presence of his ascites, the extent of a chemiluminescence (CL) response of polymorphonuclear cells from volunteers was significantly lower than that of his serum. This report shows that SBP can develop in a patient with ascites unrelated to portal hypertension when ascitic fluid induces little CL response.

  4. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  5. Ethacrynic acid can be effective for refractory congestive heart failure and ascites.

    PubMed

    Alisky, Joseph M; Tuttle, Thomas F

    2003-11-01

    Ethacrynic acid is a loop diuretic little used today because of its side-effect profile and the availability of multiple alternative agents. However, in our clinical experience, ethacrynic acid can alleviate acute congestive heart failure and ascites resistant to other diuretics. Two patients aged 89 and 94 in life-threatening pulmonary edema were stabilized by ethacrynic acid after furosemide proved ineffective. A third patient, aged 83, with a pleural effusion and ascites secondary to end-stage hepatitis B and C, responded to ethacrynic acid when spironolactone and furosemide produced little urine output. Ethacrynic acid may have a unique niche as a diuretic of last resort, especially in geriatric practice.

  6. [Antitumor effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on a model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Shved, D M; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Korystov, Iu N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Sadovnikov, V B; Alekhin, A I; Goncharov, N G; Chemeris, N K

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different exposure regimes of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the growth rate of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice has been studied. It was shown that, at an optimum repetition factor of exposure (20 min daily for five consecutive days after the tumor inoculation), there is a clearly pronounced frequency dependence of the antitumor effect. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the radiation may be related to the modification of the immune status of the organism. The results obtained show that extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation at a proper selection of exposure regimes can result in distinct and stable antitumor effects.

  7. Effect of infrared and X-ray radiation on thymus cells and the rate of growth of Ehrlich carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dyukina, A R; Zaichkina, S I; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Romanchenko, S P; Sorokina, S S

    2012-09-01

    We studied the effect of infrared light with a wavelength of 850 nm and modulated frequency of 101 Hz and X-ray radiation on the induction of cross-adaptive and radiation responses in the thymus and on the rate of tumor growth in mice in vivo. Preliminary exposure to infrared and X-ray radiation was shown to result in recovery in thymus weight after irradiation in a dose of 1.5 Gy and also inhibited the growth rate of Ehrlich carcinoma. These data attest to common mechanisms of the adaptive response induced by infrared and X-ray radiation in mice. Infrared light can be used as an adaptogen to adapt the animals to adverse factors.

  8. In vivo suppression of solid Ehrlich cancer via chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT: an albino mouse tumour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Iman; Saraya, Hend; Zekri, Maha; Abdel-Kader, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    In this study, copper chlorophyllin was used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in Ehrlich tumour mouse model. Six groups of animals comprising 5 animals per group were subcutaneously transplanted with 1x106 Ehrlich tumour cells. A single dose of 200 μg/gm body weight chlorophylin derivative was administered by intravenous (IV) or intratumoral (IT) routes. Mice were exposed to monochromatic red laser of 630 nm for 1 h, and tumour regression was followed up for three consecutive months post treatment. Several Biochemical, histological and molecular tests were performed in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the applied treatment. An interest has been also directed towards investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT. PDT-treated animals via either the IV or IT routes showed significant decrease in tumour size 72 h post-treatment. Tumours at the IV-PDT group disappeared totally within a week with no recurrence over three months follow up. In the IT-PDT, the decrease in tumour size at the first week was interrupted by a slight increase; however never reached the original size. Histological examination of tumour tissues of the IV-PDT group at 24 h post treatment demonstrated restoring the normal muscle tissue architecture, and the biochemical assays indicated normal liver functions. The immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3, and the quantitative PCR results of caspases-8 and 9 proved the presence of extrinsic apoptotic pathway after cholorphyllin derivative-mediated PDT. In conclusion IV-PDT strategy proved better cure rate than the IT-PDT, with no recurrence over three months of follow up.

  9. Investigating Science through Bears (and Teddy Bears).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karlene Ray

    1997-01-01

    Presents cooperative classroom projects using science as the initial basis for the study of bears. These projects may also involve other areas of the curriculum such as mathematics, art, and music. "Black Bear" activities include following a park ranger to study our National Parks and researching and building a full-sized brown bear…

  10. Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 2. High haematocrit values in juvenile chickens.

    PubMed

    Scheele, C W; van Der Klis, J D; Kwakernaak, C; Buys, N; Decuypere, E

    2003-07-01

    1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of differences in haematocrit values in 12-d-old chickens on the development of ascitic symptoms. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FRC) were measured from 2 to 5 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded from 2 to 6 weeks. The birds were kept at a low ambient temperature to stimulate the incidence of ascites. 2. From each stock 32 birds with the highest (High Ht) and 32 birds with the lowest (Low Ht) haematocrit values in venous blood were selected at 12 d of age for an examination on susceptibility for the ascites syndrome at 5 weeks. 3. At 2 weeks 448 birds per stock (including High Ht and Low Ht birds) were allotted to 32 floor pens (1 High Ht and 1 Low Ht in each pen). Venous blood samples were taken weekly in High Ht and Low Ht birds for haematocrit measurements and at week 5 also thyroid hormone (T3, T4) concentrations in plasma were measured. At 5 weeks all High Ht and Low Ht birds were examined post-mortem and arterial pressure index, heart weight, lung weight and liver weight (all relative to body weight) were recorded. High values for arterial pressure index, relative heart and liver weights and low values for relative lung weights and plasma thyroid hormone were considered to be indicators for ascites susceptibility. 4. Stock A, with the highest ascites mortality, had lower values for BWG and FCR than stock B. Throughout, a clear difference in Ht values between High Ht and Low Ht birds was maintained. No significant effects of 12-d haematocrit values were found on the incidence of ascitic symptoms until week 5. High Ht values tended to correlate with low relative lung weights and low plasma T3 concentrations in High Ht birds. 5. Within the groups of selected birds, there was an effect of stock on ascitic symptoms (arterial pressure index, relative heart weight and T3

  11. Mechanical spin bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spin bearing assembly including, a pair of mutually opposing complementary bearing support members having mutually spaced apart bearing support surfaces which may be, for example, bearing races and a set of spin bearings located therebetween. Each spin bearing includes a pair of end faces, a central rotational axis passing through the end faces, a waist region substantially mid-way between the end faces and having a first thickness dimension, and discrete side surface regions located between the waist region and the end faces and having a second thickness dimension different from the first thickness dimension of the waist region and wherein the side surface regions further have respective curvilinear contact surfaces adapted to provide a plurality of bearing contact points on the bearing support members.

  12. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  13. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  14. Clinical, biochemical, and hormonal changes after a single, large-volume paracentesis in cirrhosis with ascites.

    PubMed

    Gentile, S; Angelico, M; Bologna, E; Capocaccia, L

    1989-03-01

    The use of paracentesis has recently been reproposed as a safe and effective alternative to diuretics for management of ascites. We have investigated the clinical and biochemical effects of large-volume paracentesis in 19 cirrhotics with tense ascites, and the relative changes in the hormones involved in sodium and water renal handling. Plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (PA), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels and conventional liver and renal function tests were measured before and after 1, 2, and 7 days after the paracentesis. No complications were observed, but patients regained 37% of the weight lost after 1 wk. Percent weight regained was significantly and directly correlated with PA concentration measured before the paracentesis. No changes were recorded after paracentesis in biochemical and clinical data, except for a significant drop in diastolic blood pressure. No changes in AVP levels were observed. A significant increase in PA occurred after paracentesis, with a maximum peak after 48 h. The increase in PA was not accompanied by changes in PRA, but was associated with a reduction of urinary sodium excretion. A relevant fraction of body aldosterone was confined to the ascitic fluid. We conclude that the clinical results of a large-volume paracentesis can be predicted in part on the basis of PA measurement, and that removal of ascites is followed by an increase of PA of uncertain origin and effectiveness.

  15. Direct and maternal genetic effects for ascites-related traits in broilers.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; Van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2002-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities for ascites-related traits in broilers and to assess the importance of maternal genetic effects for these traits. Several traits related to ascites were measured on more than 4,000 broilers kept under cold conditions. Heritabilities were estimated using an animal model with a direct genetic effect and a model with direct and maternal genetic effects. Estimated heritabilities from the direct genetic effects model were 0.46 for hematocrit value, 0.42 for BW, 0.47 for right ventricular weight, 0.46 for total ventricular weight, 0.45 for ratio of right ventricular weight to the total ventricular weight, 0.32 for total mortality, and 0.18 for fluid accumulation in the heart sac. Maternal effects significantly influenced the traits BW, total ventricular weight, and total mortality. Direct and maternal heritabilities, respectively, for BW were 0.21 and 0.04, for total ventricular weights were 0.29 and 0.03, and for total mortality were 0.16 and 0.05. The heritability estimates for ascites-related traits and the significance of maternal genetic effects for most of these traits indicate that direct and maternal genetic effects play an important role in the development of the ascites syndrome.

  16. Graded atmospheric oxygen level effects on performance and ascites incidence in broilers.

    PubMed

    Beker, A; Vanhooser, S L; Swartzlander, J H; Teeter, R G

    2003-10-01

    The effects of graded atmospheric O2 concentration (12, 14, 16, 18, and 20.6%) on chick performance and propensity to develop ascites were investigated using commercial male broilers. Chicks were housed in calorimetry chambers for 2 wk with incoming air diluted with N to provide the desired O2 concentration at thermoneutral (TN) ambient temperature. Day 14 body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, and gain-to-feed ratio increased (P < 0.01) as O2 concentration incrementally rose from 12 to 20.6%. Body weight was 138 g for the lowest atmospheric O2 level compared to 371 g for 20.6% O2. The greatest treatment difference occurred between the 12 and 14% O2 concentrations. Growth depression appeared related to feed consumption. Ascites heart ratio (AHR), ascites score (AS), right ventricular mass (RVM), and hematocrit (HCT) all increased (P < 0.01) as O2 concentration decreased. Blood HCT appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physiological change attributable to atmospheric O2 than AHR, AS, or RVM. The data reported herein suggests that 19.6% atmospheric O2 is the minimal allowable level for housing birds within a relatively stress-free, TN environment to avoid cardiac and HCT changes related to ascites.

  17. Congenital plaque-type glomuvenous malformations associated with fetal pleural effusion and ascites.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Elisa; Cordoro, Kelly M; Barat, Muriel; Rousseau, Thierry; Brouillard, Pascal; Vikkula, Miikka; Frieden, Ilona J; Vabres, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Glomuvenous malformations are hereditary vascular anomalies, usually without extracutaneous involvement. We report two cases of extensive thoracic plaque-type glomuvenous malformation in newborns who had previously been diagnosed in utero with pleural effusion and ascites, suggesting a pathogenic link between the two conditions.

  18. Malignant ascites: A review of prognostic factors, pathophysiology and therapeutic measures

    PubMed Central

    Sangisetty, Suma L; Miner, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Malignant ascites indicates the presence of malignant cells in the peritoneal cavity and is a grave prognostic sign. While survival in this patient population is poor, averaging about 20 wk from time of diagnosis, quality of life can be improved through palliative procedures. Selecting the appropriate treatment modality remains a careful process, which should take into account potential risks and benefits and the life expectancy of the patient. Traditional therapies, including paracentesis, peritoneovenous shunt placement and diuretics, are successful and effective in varying degrees. After careful review of the patient’s primary tumor origin, tumor biology, tumor stage, patient performance status and comorbidities, surgical debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy should be considered if the benefit of therapy outweighs the risk of operation because survival curves can be extended and palliation of symptomatic malignant ascites can be achieved in select patients. In patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis who do not qualify for surgical cytoreduction but suffer from the effects of malignant ascites, intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be safely and effectively administered via laparoscopic techniques. Short operative times, short hospital stays, low complication rates and ultimately symptomatic relief are the advantages of laparoscopically administering heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy, making it not only a valuable treatment modality but also the most successful treatment modality for achieving palliative cure of malignant ascites. PMID:22590662

  19. Anti leukemia activity (Dunning ascitic) of 6-mercaptopurine and its metallo complexes in rats.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S M; Swatzell, J M; Lewis, R W

    1978-01-01

    Six-mercaptopurine and its Pt, Pd and Bi complexes were used at various dosage levels to treat Dunning ascitic leukemia in rats. Significant anticarcinogenic activity was found in all compounds with toxicity apparent at the highest dosage level of all but the platinum compound.

  20. Premature parturition, edema, and ascites in an alpaca infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Firshman, Anna M.; Sharkey, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old alpaca was presented for fever, anorexia, edema, ascites, and premature parturition. She was determined to have Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection based on positive blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and positive acute and convalescent serum titers. Antibiotics and supportive therapies were administered and the alpaca made a complete recovery. PMID:23633715

  1. Probabilistic neural network prediction of ascites in broilers based on minimally invasive physiological factors.

    PubMed

    Roush, W B; Cravener, T L; Kirby, Y K; Wideman, R F

    1997-11-01

    A Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) was trained to predict ascites in broilers based on minimally invasive inputs (i.e., physiological factors that do not require the death of the bird). A PNN is a supervised, three-layer, artificial neural network that classifies input patterns (e.g., physiological data) into specific output categories (e.g., ascites or no ascites). The PNN inputs were O2 level in the blood, body weight, electrocardiogram (ECG), hematocrit, S wave, and heart rate of individual birds. These data were from three experiments that have been described previously (Roush et al., 1996a,b). The three data sets were pooled into a combined data set for a total of 170 observations. From the pooled data, a training set (117 birds), a calibration set (17 birds), and a verification set (36 birds) were extracted. The PNN was trained on the training data set. To prevent the PNN from overfitting the training data, the neural network was evaluated on its ability to make correct predictions of the calibration data set. At the point at which the neural network made the highest number of correct classifications for the calibration data set, the trained neural network was saved on the computer. When the PNN was applied to the complete data set, the sensitivity or proportion of the birds with ascites that the PNN correctly diagnosed was 0.97 (75/77 birds). The specificity or proportion of birds that the PNN made a correct diagnosis of not having ascites was 0.98 (91/93 birds). When the PNN was applied to the verification data set, which was not subjected to neural network training, the sensitivity was 0.95 (19/20) and the specificity was 0.88 (14/16 birds). Use of models developed with artificial neural networks may enhance the diagnosis of ascites in broilers. The results may be useful in choosing and developing broiler strains that do not have a propensity for ascites.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.

    2000-02-01

    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  3. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  4. Ascites syndrome and related pathologies in feed restricted broilers raised in a hypobaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Cooper, M A; Kidd, B D; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2000-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that the incidence of ascites can be significantly reduced through feed restriction. This method is thought to have an effect by slowing the growth rate of the birds. Interestingly, when birds are grown in a hypobaric chamber, ascites incidence increases while the overall growth rate of the birds is decreased. Unfortunately, the restriction programs practiced also have a detrimental effect on growth characteristics. An experiment was conducted to determine if the timing and duration of feed restriction can be used to reduce the incidence of ascites for broilers reared under high altitude and local elevation without having a negative impact on growth. A total of 600 commercial broiler males were used. Birds were divided, placing 360 birds in the hypobaric chamber at a simulated 2900 m (9,500 ft) above sea level, and 240 birds were placed at local elevation [390 m (1,300 ft) above sea level]. At each altitude there were four treatments: 1) fully fed controls; 2) feed available for 8 h/d for 6 wk (the duration of the study); 3) feed available for 8 h/d during the first 3 wk, then full feed for the remaining 3 wk; and 4) full feed for the first wk, then 3 wk of 8 h of feed availability, then 2 wk of full feed. Birds and feed were weighed weekly, and mortalities were necropsied to determine the cause of death. At the end of 6 wk, blood samples were taken, and the birds were weighed, necropsied, and scored for ascites, and organ weights were recorded. All feed restriction treatments significantly reduced ascites incidence, when compared with the fully fed controls. Treatment 2 birds were significantly lighter than any other group at both altitudes. The fully fed controls at local elevation were heavier than the fully fed controls at simulated high altitude, as seen in past experiments.

  5. Tolvaptan regulates aquaporin-2 and fecal water in cirrhotic rats with ascites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Chen, Ren-Pin; Lin, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Wen-You; Huang, Xie-Lin; Huang, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of tolvaptan in regulating aquaporin (AQP)-2 expression and fecal water content in cirrhotic rats with ascites. METHODS: Cirrhosis with ascites was induced in rats by repetitive dorsal injection of CCl4 for 14 wk. In total, 84 cirrhotic rats with ascites divided into three groups (vehicle, 3 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg tolvaptan), and then further divided into five subgroups (days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Blood samples were obtained to measure vasopressin and sodium concentrations. Rats were killed and colonic mucosa was scraped for analysis of protein expression and AQP-2 transcriptional level. The whole layer was fixed for hematoxylin&eosin (HE) staining and feces were collected for determination of fecal water content. CONCLUSION: Compared with vehicle, vasopressin decreased significantly in the tolvaptan groups from day 2 to a similar level in each treatment group. AQP-2 showed significant upregulation in cirrhotic rats with ascites compared with an untreated control group (100% ± 22.9% vs 22.2% ± 10.23%, P < 0.01). After administration of tolvaptan, AQP-2 expression began to decrease significantly from day 2 in each treatment group, but no significant difference was finally found between the treatment groups. Fecal water content in the distal colon was increased by 5 mg/kg tolvaptan on day 1 (66.8% ± 9.3% vs 41.4% ± 6.3%, in the vehicle group, P < 0.05). Fecal water content returned to baseline at day 4 at the latest in both treatment groups, and did not correspond to the change in AQP-2 expression. HE staining of the colonic mucosa showed no mucosal damage related to tolvaptan. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of AQP-2 in the distal colon is found in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Tolvaptan inhibits its expression and may decrease water reabsorption and induce diarrhea. PMID:27022218

  6. Alpha-2A Adrenoceptor Agonist Guanfacine Restores Diuretic Efficiency in Experimental Cirrhotic Ascites: Comparison with Clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Sansoè, Giovanni; Aragno, Manuela; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Mengozzi, Giulio; Parola, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background In human cirrhosis, adrenergic hyperfunction causes proximal tubular fluid retention and contributes to diuretic-resistant ascites, and clonidine, a sympatholytic drug, improves natriuresis in difficult-to-treat ascites. Aim To compare clonidine (aspecific α2-adrenoceptor agonist) to SSP-002021R (prodrug of guanfacine, specific α2A-receptor agonist), both associated with diuretics, in experimental cirrhotic ascites. Methods and Results Six groups of 12 rats were studied: controls (G1); controls receiving furosemide and potassium canrenoate (G2); rats with ascitic cirrhosis due to 14-week CCl4 treatment (G3); cirrhotic rats treated (over the 11th-14th CCl4 weeks) with furosemide and canrenoate (G4), furosemide, canrenoate and clonidine (G5), or diuretics and SSP002021R (G6). Three rats of each group had their hormonal status and renal function assessed at the end of 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th weeks of respective treatments.Cirrhotic rats in G3 and G4 gained weight over the 12th-14th CCl4 weeks. In G4, brief increase in sodium excretion over the 11th-12th weeks preceded worsening of inulin clearance and natriuresis (diuretic resistance). In comparison with G4, the addition of clonidine (G5) or guanfacine (G6) to diuretics improved, respectively, sodium excretion over the 11th-12th CCl4 weeks, or GFR and electrolytes excretion over the 13th-14th CCl4 weeks. Natriuretic responses in G5 and G6 were accompanied by reduced catecholamine serum levels. Conclusions α2A-receptor agonists restore glomerular filtration rate and natriuresis, and delay diuretic-resistant ascites in experimental advanced cirrhosis. Clonidine ameliorates diuretic-dependent natriuresis just for a short time. PMID:27384184

  7. Body Posture Angle Affects the Physiological Indices of Patients With Liver Cirrhosis Ascites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-chuan; Ho, Lun-hui; Lin, Mei-hsiang; Chiu, Hsiu-ling

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of different angles of lying positions on the physiological indices of patients with cirrhosis ascites. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were ranked 9th among the top 10 causes of death. Ascites is the most common cirrhosis comorbidity. Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure, making it an important clinical nursing intervention significantly affecting patient recovery. This was a quasi-experimental study design. From a medical center in Taiwan, 252 patients with cirrhosis ascites were recruited. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups by bed angle: 15°, 30°, and 45°. Physiological indices were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes to determine any changes in heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygenation saturation. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and the generalized estimating equation for statistical analysis with significance set at α= 0.05. After controlling for confounding variables, the three groups differed significantly in heart rate at 20, 25, and 30 minutes, oxygenation saturations at 15 and 20 minutes, and respiration rate at 5 and 10 minutes (α< 0.05). Body posture can affect pulmonary ventilation and arterial oxygen partial pressure and is thus an important clinical nursing intervention that significantly affects the recovery of patients. When caring for patients with cirrhosis ascites, nurses should help patients to choose the most comfortable angle for them with no particular restrictions. Our results can be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of care for patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis patients with ascites.

  8. Pocket ultrasound device as a complement to physical examination for ascites evaluation and guided paracentesis.

    PubMed

    Keil-Ríos, Daniel; Terrazas-Solís, Hiram; González-Garay, Alejandro; Sánchez-Ávila, Juan Francisco; García-Juárez, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The pocket ultrasound device (PUD) is a new tool that may be of use in the early detection of ascites. Abdominal ultrasound-guided paracentesis has been reported to decrease the rate of complications due to the procedure, but must be performed in a healthcare setting; this new tool may be a useful on an ambulatory basis. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of the PUD in the diagnosis of ascites and the safety of guided paracentesis. We conducted a retrospective study that included adult patients suspected of having ascites and in whom an evaluation was performed with the PUD to identify it. Concordance with abdominal ultrasound (AUS) was determined with the Kappa coefficient. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and likelihood ratios (LR) were determined and compared with physical examination, AUS, computed tomography and procurement of fluid by paracentesis. Complications resulting from the guided paracentesis were analyzed. 89 participants were included and 40 underwent a paracentesis. The PUD for ascites detection had 95.8 % Se, 81.8 % Sp, 5.27 +LR and 0.05 -LR. It had a concordance with AUS of 0.781 (p < 0.001). Technical problems during the guided paracentesis were present in only two participants (5 %) and three patients (7.5 %) developed minor complications that required no further intervention. There were no severe complications or deaths. This study suggests that the PUD is a reliable tool for ascites detection as a complement to physical examination and appears to be a safe method to perform guided paracentesis.

  9. Evaluation of minimally invasive indices for predicting ascites susceptibility in three successive hatches of broilers exposed to cool temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Wing, T; Kirby, Y K; Forman, M F; Marson, N; Tackett, C D; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    1998-10-01

    Broilers from three consecutive hatches were exposed to cool temperatures to amplify the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites). The largest apparently healthy individuals on Day 42 were evaluated using minimally invasive diagnostic indices [percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, hematocrit (HCT), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) Lead II, body weight), then they were subjected to the ongoing pressures of fast growth and cool temperatures to determine which of these indices are predictive of the subsequent onset of PHS. Approximately 20% of the males and females evaluated on Day 42 subsequently developed PHS by Day 51. When data for all hatches were pooled and broilers that subsequently developed ascites were compared with those that did not (nonascitic), body weights, heart rates, and percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen were lower on Day 42 for ascitic than for nonascitic males, and HCT was higher in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females, respectively. Comparisons of the ECG Lead II wave amplitudes for all hatches pooled indicated that RS-wave amplitude was larger in ascitic than in nonascitic males, and that S-wave amplitude was more negative in ascitic males and females than in nonascitic males and females. Necropsies conducted on Day 51 revealed higher right:total ventricular weight ratios in ascitic than in nonascitic broilers, whereas normalizing the left ventricle plus septum weight for differences in body weight generated similar values for ascitic and nonascitic males and females, respectively. These results support a primary role for pulmonary hypertension but not cardiomyopathy in the pathogenesis of ascites triggered by cool temperatures. Values obtained for minimally invasive diagnostic indices on Day 42 also establish predictive thresholds that can be used to evaluate the PHS susceptibility of large and apparently healthy male and female broilers.

  10. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers.

    PubMed

    Closter, A M; van As, P; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2009-03-01

    Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO(2)), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO(2)), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO(2), 0.03 for pvO(2), and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 +/- 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 +/- 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO(2), the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (-0.62 +/- 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO(2). For pvCO(2), the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (-0.04 +/- 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study

  11. Bearings: Technology and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  12. One-step purification of mouse monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluid by DEAE Affi-Gel blue chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bruck, C; Portetelle, D; Glineur, C; Bollen, A

    1982-09-30

    Monoclonal antibodies can be purified directly from ascitic fluids by chromatography on a DEAE Affi-gel blue column. Optimal conditions were determined for the recovery of immunoglobulins free of contaminating protease and nuclease activities.

  13. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  14. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  15. Linear magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.

  16. Malignant biliary obstruction complicated by ascites: Closure of the transhepatic tract with cyanoacrylate glue after placement of an endoprosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cekirge, Saruhan; Akhan, Okan; Ozmen, Mustafa; Saatci, Isil; Besim, Aytekin

    1997-05-15

    A new technique using cyanoacrylate glue is suggested for closing the transparenchymal tract following metallic endoprosthesis placement in a patient with malignant biliary obstruction complicated by ascites. With this technique, complications related to bile reflux through the transparenchymal tract would be avoided after transhepatic endoprosthesis placement in patients who have ascites. This technique would also be useful for avoiding bleeding following transhepatic portal venous puncture.

  17. Magnetic nanoparticle-induced hyperthermia with appropriate payloads: Paul Ehrlich's "magic (nano)bullet" for cancer theranostics?

    PubMed

    Datta, N R; Krishnan, S; Speiser, D E; Neufeld, E; Kuster, N; Bodis, S; Hofmann, H

    2016-11-01

    Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology. The rapid developments in multifunctional nanoparticles provide ample opportunities to integrate both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities into a single effective cancer "theranostic" vector. Nanoparticles could extravasate passively into the tumour tissues in preference to the adjacent normal tissues by capitalizing on the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Tumour targeting might be further augmented by conjugating tumour-specific peptides and antibodies onto the surface of these nanoparticles or by activation through electromagnetic radiations, laser or ultrasound. Magnetic nanoparticles can induce hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, thereby multifunctionally with tumour-specific payloads empowering tumour specific radiotheranostics (for both imaging and radiotherapy), chemotherapy drug delivery, immunotherapy and gene silencing therapy. Such a (nano)bullet could realise the "magic bullet" conceived by Paul Ehrlich more than a century ago. This article discusses the various aspects of this "magic (nano)bullet" and the challenges that need to be addressed to usher in this new paradigm in modern cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

  18. [The Innovation Office of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut. Regulatory support during the scientific development of ATMP].

    PubMed

    Ziegele, B; Dahl, L; Müller, A T

    2011-07-01

    In conformity with Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are now subject to the centralized marketing authorization procedure. This also applies to most medicinal products in regenerative medicine. ATMP that have been marketed in a member state by the end of 2008 must be centrally authorized by the end of 2012 at the latest. In exceptional cases, a national authorization is acceptable. Developers of these medicinal products are usually academic institutions or small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME). They focus on scientific aspects and usually have little experience with pharmaceutical law. The Innovation Office of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) is designed to support developers of medicinal products in the areas between research and development, on the one hand, and regulatory requirements, on the other. Its main role is supportive advice in the regulatory field with an emphasis on ATMP. For this purpose, the Innovation Office makes use of core competences from various experts at the PEI in order to provide a quality consulting service to those companies who are seeking advice as early as possible and hand in hand with the development process. The aim is to support the developer to identify the appropriate regulatory pathway and to provide advice for each individual medicinal product at its corresponding stage of development in order to develop a high-quality ATMP manufactured on the basis of positive nonclinical results and appropriate clinical studies that meet all the necessary requirements for the application of a marketing authorization.

  19. Influence of metronidazole and some electron acceptors on the chlorin e6 photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekulayev, V.; Shevchuk, Igor; Mihkelsoo, Virgo T.; Kallikorm, A. P.

    1992-06-01

    A decrease in the effectiveness of photosensitized killing of neoplasm cells was observed in the presence of chlorin-e6 at a reduced concentration of oxygen. But when metronidazole (MZ) was injected in vitro as well as in vivo, a significant increase in the photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells by chlorin-e6 was observed. Moreover, contrary to the hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), MZ increases the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using chlorin-e6 not only in the hypoxic but also in the aerobic conditions. The interaction between MZ and the excited photosensitizer may account for an increased phototoxicity of chlorin-e6. The formation of cytotoxic nitroimidazole radicals as a result of photochemical processes of type 1 is discussed. This property of the photosensitizer may be successfully used in working out a method of potentiating PDT in combination not only with nitroimidazoles, but also with other electron acceptor compounds (EACp), e.g., quinone antitumor antibiotics.

  20. Inverted Wedding Cake Growth Operated by the Ehrlich-Schwoebel Barrier in Two-Dimensional Nanocrystal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Xudong

    2016-02-05

    Wedding cake growth is a layer-by-layer growth model commonly observed in epitaxial growth of metal films, featured by repeated nucleation of new atomic layers on the topmost surface owing to the confinement of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Herein, we report an inverted wedding cake growth phenomenon observed in two-dimensional nanostructure evolution. Through a dynamically controlled vapor-solid deposition process of ZnO, a unique basin-shaped crown was formed on the tip of each nanowire, featured with concentric steps. The atomic steps were nucleated along the edge and propagated toward the center. This is an opposite growth behavior compared to the conventional wedding cake growth, and is thus denoted as inverted wedding cake growth. Through the relation between the crown expansion rate and the temperature, the ES barrier of ZnO was determined to be 0.88 eV. The discovery of inverted wedding cake growth provided insight into the developing nanostructure growth mechanisms.

  1. The LeVeen shunt in the elective treatment of intractable ascites in cirrhosis. A prospective study on 140 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Smadja, C; Franco, D

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and forty patients with an intractable ascites complicating a chronic liver disease received a peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) using the LeVeen valve. Operative mortality was ten per cent but was 25% in patients with severe liver failure. Intraoperative drainage of ascites sharply decreased postoperative complications and mortality. One-year actuarial survival rate was 81.4%, respectively 77.7%, 61.3%, and 24.7% in patients with good liver function and moderate or severe liver failure. Variceal hemorrhage occurred in 11 patients and late infection in another 11 patients. Thirty-eight patients (30.5%) had recurrence of ascites. This was mostly due to an obstruction on the venous side of the shunt. An elective portacaval shunt had to be done in 23 patients for recurrence of ascites or variceal bleeding. Among the 57 patients still alive at time of writing, 51 were free of ascites. These results suggest that PVS is an efficient operation. This procedure may be largely indicated in the selected and small group of cirrhotic patients with true intractable ascites and moderate or no liver insufficiency. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. PMID:3977450

  2. A Case of Congenital Malignant Spinal Cord Glioma as a Cause of Congenital Ascites in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Omesi, Lenore; Chang, Sunny; Handel, Andrew; Hegedus, Monica; Maduekwe, Echezona

    2016-01-01

    Congenital ascites is rare, but when it occurs, urinary ascites secondary to posterior urethral valve obstruction is the most common, and tumors are the least. Among the tumors in the pediatric population, the central nervous system tumors are common, but spinal cord tumors are rare. We describe a very rare case of congenital malignant spinal cord glioma presenting as isolated congenital ascites secondary to neurogenic bladder. A female infant was diagnosed sonographically with isolated congenital ascites at 40 weeks' gestational age, with uneventful development prior to 40 weeks' gestational age. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine done within the first week of life identified a lobulated spinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the conus medullaris. Spinal fluid analysis showed evidence of small round blue cells and the pathology from the excision biopsy of the mass confirmed a WHO grade III or IV malignant glioma. The postoperative course was uneventful with resolution of the ascites and spontaneous micturition. The patient was discharged home without an indwelling urinary catheter. We report the first documented case of a newborn infant with isolated congenital ascites from neurogenic bladder secondary to a spinal cord glioma. PMID:27597917

  3. Chronic granulomatous disease presenting as aseptic ascites in a 2-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Moreau, J F; Ozolek, John A; Lin, P Ling; Green, Todd D; Cassidy, Elaine A; Venkat, Veena L; Buchert, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited immunodeficiency syndrome that results from abnormal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase function. This defect leads to recurrent catalase-positive bacterial and fungal infections as well as associated granuloma formation. We review the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with ascites and fever of an unknown origin as manifestations of CGD. Cultures were negative for infection throughout his course, and CGD was suspected after identification of granulomas on peritoneal biopsy. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the CYBB gene underlying his condition. This paper highlights the importance of considering CGD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and ascites in children.

  4. [Antineoplastic effect of hydrogel prospidin on Seidel ascites hepatoma used as a model].

    PubMed

    Bychkovskiĭ, P M; Iurkshtovich, T L; Kladiev, A A; Revtovich, M Iu

    2012-01-01

    Antineoplastic effect of hydrogel dextran phosphate, hydrogel prospidin, and prospidin in an injectable preparation has been assessed using Seidel ascites hepatoma as a model. Injectable and hydrogel prospidin in doses from 250, 500 to 1000 mg/kg and hydrogel phosphate dextran in doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg were administered to rats intraperitoneally in a single dose in a volume of 1 or 2 ml per each 100 g of animal body weight. The study has shown that irrespective of rats with Seidel ascites hepatoma and significantly increase in the dosage of prospidin preparations and hydrogel dextran phosphate results in a longer average life expectancy of rats Compared with its injectable variant, hydrogel prospidin appears to produce more than twice as high antineoplastic effect, and is found to provide prolonged therapeutic effects, as well as cure of animals in more than 60 % of cases.

  5. First case report of chylous ascites after robot-assisted donor nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Janki, Shiromani; Terkivatan, Türkan; Kimenai, Hendrikus J.A.N.; IJzermans, Jan N.M.; Tran, T.C. Khé

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case report of chylous ascites following total robot-assisted donor nephrectomy. A 39-year-old female underwent a transperitoneal left-sided total robot-assisted donor nephrectomy. The procedure was uneventful and the patient was discharged without any symptoms. At postoperative Day 29, the patient presented with abdominal pain, nausea and a distended, painful abdomen with shifting dullness. She was diagnosed with chylous ascites by ultrasonography and puncture analysis, and treated with therapeutic drainage and dietary restriction. After 4 weeks, she was free of symptoms. The occurrence of this complication is rare after donor nephrectomy. Fortunately, the complication can be successfully treated within a few weeks with minimal discomfort for the patient as demonstrated in this case. It is of utmost importance to minimize the risks and limit discomfort for live kidney donors who willingly undergo major surgery to improve the well-being of another individual. PMID:27381018

  6. The lymphatic vascular system in liver diseases: its role in ascites formation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chuhan; Iwakiri, Yasuko

    2013-06-01

    The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system and plays a key role in normal vascular function. Its failure plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of various diseases including liver diseases. Lymphangiogenesis (the growth of lymphatic vessels) and changes in the properties of lymphatic vessels are associated with pathogenesis of tumor metastases, ascites formation, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Despite its significant role in liver diseases and its importance as a potential therapeutic target for those diseases, the lymphatic vascular system of the liver is poorly understood. Therefore, how the lymphatic vascular system in general and lymphangiogenesis in particular are mechanistically related to the pathogenesis and maintenance of liver diseases are largely unknown. This article summarizes: 1) the lymphatic vascular system; 2) its role in liver tumors, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and portal hypertension; and 3) its role in ascites formation.

  7. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens.

  8. Splenic artery embolization for the treatment of refractory ascites after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Quintini, Cristiano; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Brown, Chase; Aucejo, Federico; Hashimoto, Koji; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Sands, Mark; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2011-06-01

    Refractory ascites (RA) is a challenging complication after orthotopic liver transplantation. Its treatment consists of the removal of the precipitating factors. When the etiology is unknown, supportive treatment can be attempted. In severe cases, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, portocaval shunts, and liver retransplantation have been used with marginal results. Recently, splenic artery embolization (SAE) has been described as an effective procedure for reducing portal hyperperfusion in patients undergoing partial or whole liver transplantation. Here we describe our experience with SAE for the treatment of RA. Between June 2004 and June 2010, 6 patients underwent proximal SAE for RA. Intraoperative flow measurements, graft characteristics, embolization portal vein (PV) velocities before and after SAE, and spleen/liver volume ratios were collected and analyzed. The response to treatment was assessed with imaging (ultrasound/computed tomography) and on the basis of clinical outcomes (weight changes, diuretic requirements, and the time to ascites resolution). The PV velocity decreased significantly for each patient after the embolization (median = 66.5 cm/second before SAE and median = 27.5 cm/second after SAE, P < 0.01). All patients experienced a significant postprocedural weight loss (mean = 88.1 ± 28.4 kg before SAE and mean = 75.8 ± 28.4 kg after SAE, P < 0.01) and a dramatic decrease in their diuretic requirements. All but 1 of the patients experienced a complete resolution of ascites after a median time of 49.5 days (range = 12-295 days). No patient presented with postembolization complications. In conclusion, SAE was effective in reducing the PV velocity immediately after the procedure. Clinically, this translated into a dramatic weight loss, a reduction of diuretic use, and a resolution of ascites. SAE appears to be a safe and effective treatment for RA.

  9. Clinical efficacy of tolvaptan for treatment of refractory ascites in liver cirrhosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Shu-Zhen; Zheng, Jun-Fu; Zhao, Wen-Min; Li, Peng; Fan, Chun-Lei; Li, Bing; Dong, Pei-Ling; Li, Lei; Ding, Hui-Guo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan to treat refractory ascites in decompensated liver cirrhosis patients with or without further complications, such as hepatorenal syndrome and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (mean age 55 years, males: 32) with decompensated liver cirrhosis and refractory ascites were enrolled. All patients received a combination of tolvaptan (15 mg/d for 5-14 d) and diuretics (40-80 mg/d of furosemide and 80-160 mg/d of spironolactone). The etiology of cirrhosis included hepatitis B (69.2%), hepatitis C (7.7%) and alcohol-induced (23.1%). Changes in the urine excretion volume, abdominal circumference and edema were assessed. The serum sodium levels were also measured, and adverse events were recorded. A follow-up assessment was conducted 1 mo after treatment with tolvaptan. RESULTS: Tolvaptan increased the mean urine excretion volume (1969.2 ± 355.55 mL vs 3410.3 ± 974.1 mL, P < 0.001), and 89.7% of patients showed improvements in their ascites, 46.2% of whom showed significant improvements. The overall efficacy of tolvaptan in all patients was 89.7%; the efficacies in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatorenal syndrome were 84.2% and 77.8%, respectively. The incidence of hyponatremia was 53.8%. In patients with hyponatremia, the serum sodium levels increased after tolvaptan treatment (from 128.1 ± 4.22 mEq/L vs 133.1 ± 3.8 mEq/L, P < 0.001). Only mild drug-related adverse events, including thirst and dry mouth, were observed. CONCLUSION: Tolvaptan is a promising aquaretic for the treatment of refractory ascites in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. PMID:25170228

  10. Clinical Profile and Complications of Paracentesis in Refractory Ascites Patients With Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Bangalore Raja, Shiva Kumar; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Noroozpour, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background Large volume paracentesis is found to be safer and more effective for the treatment of tense ascites compared with larger-than-usual doses of diuretics according to studies. The objectives of the study was to evaluate patients with refractory ascites regarding clinical profile, technique of paracentesis, complications, amount of ascites drained, prognosis and co-morbid conditions associated with it. Methods Retrospective study was performed including patients between January 2011 and December 2013 with data pooled from total of five hospitals. A total of 4,389 paracenteses were performed on the 1,218 patients with a mean volume of 4,900 ± 2,795 mL ascitic fluid drained. Blind technique, ultrasound-guided technique of paracentesis and pig tail catheter drainage were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus data from available patients and data regarding co-morbidities were analyzed. Coagulation abnormalities in patients were studied. Results Study group age ranged from 34 to 79 years, and alcohol is the main cause of cirrhosis. Dyslipidemia was observed in 1,080 patients (88.66%). At the time of inclusion in the study, 40% of the patients had ≥ 2 other cirrhosis-related complications and 20% of the study population had ≥ 3 complications. Early complications occurred in 27.5% (337) of patients and late complications constituted 16.83% (205 patients). Conclusions Even with abnormal coagulation, paracentesis is a safe procedure. But significant co-morbidities should be addressed with care in cirrhosis patients. Ultrasound guidance during the procedure whenever required should be encouraged. PMID:27785301

  11. Low cost lobed bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Separate sectors for each lobed area of the bearing are assembled into the bearing housing individually and bolted tightly against the housing inside diameter. The center of a grinding wheel and the center of the housing are offset, resulting in the desired inner radius and tilt of the sector.

  12. Damper bearing rotordynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1990-01-01

    High side loads reduce the life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) bearings. High stiffness damper seals were recommended to reduce the loads on the pump and turbine end bearings in the HPOTP. The seals designed for use on the pump end are expected to adequately reduce the bearing loads; the predicted performance of the planned turbine end seal is marginal. An alternative to the suggested turbine end seal design is a damper bearing with radial holes from the pressurized center of the turbopump rotor, feeding a smooth land region between two rough-stator/smooth-rotor annular seals. An analysis was prepared to predict the leakage and rotor dynamic coefficients (stiffness, damping, and added mass) of the damper bearing. Governing equations of the seal analysis modified to model the damper bearing; differences between the upstream conditions of the damper bearing and a typical annular seal; prediction of the damper bearing analysis; and assumptions of the analysis which require further investigation are described.

  13. Bearing fatigue investigation 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

  14. Cylindrical bearing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Pirvics, J.

    1981-01-01

    Program CYBEAN computes behavior of rolling-element bearings including effects of bearing geometry, shaft misalinement, and temperature. Accurate assessment is possible for various outer-ring and housing configurations. CYBEAN is structured for coordinated execution of modules that perform specific analytical tasks. It is written in FORTRAN IV for use on the UNIVAC 1100/40 computer.

  15. Use of low doses of clenbuterol to reduce incidence of ascites syndrome in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, L; Cortez, U; Sumano, H; Avila, E

    1998-09-01

    Beta-adrenergic agonists have been shown to be capable of improving growth performance in poultry when added to the feed at 1.0 ppm. However, no reference has been made concerning the cardiovascular responses when one of these agents is added to the feed at a lower concentration during the whole production cycle. The aim of this paper was to assess the effects on the ascites syndrome of 0.25 ppm clenbuterol in the feed, throughout 52 d, in broiler chicks. Results showed a lack of difference in growth and feed conversion rate between the untreated control groups and the experimental group. There were differences in mortality due to the ascites syndrome, abdominal fat:body weight ratio, and ventricular index. A statistically significant positive correlation was also found between ventricular index and mortality rate (r = 0.98). If adequate withdrawal times are ensured, the use of clenbuterol at 0.25 ppm is suggested to reduce mortality due to the ascites syndrome in broilers.

  16. Absence of trisomy 7 in nonneoplastic human ascitic and pleural fluid cells. An interphase cytogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Larramendy, M L; Björkqvist, A M; Tammilehto, L; Taavitsainen, M; Mattson, K; Knuutila, S

    1994-11-01

    Trisomy 7 is a frequent aneuploid change in lymphomas, adenocarcinomas, and malignant mesenchymal and neurogenic tumors. Moreover, it has been observed in cultured and uncultured non-neoplastic cells from brain, kidney, liver, lung, and atherosclerotic plaques, among other tissues, opening debate on the role of this change in normal and neoplastic tissue. We used nonradioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) with a biotinylated chromosome 7-specific alpha-satellite DNA probe to seek an extra copy of chromosome 7 in ascitic and pleural fluid interphase cells from 26 donors. The donors comprised 24 patients with nonmalignant clinical history, one patient with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma (positive control), and one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, negative control). The highest frequency of fluid cells with three hybridization signals in patients without neoplasia was 0.5%, in contrast to the frequency of 40.5% noted in the fluid cells of the patient with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma. The results demonstrate that the frequency of trisomic cells in pleural as well as in ascitic fluid is very low, making possible use of the cells in ascitic or pleural fluids in identification of malignancy.

  17. CRIg-expressing peritoneal macrophages are associated with disease severity in patients with cirrhosis and ascites

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M.; Banh, Xuan; Gadd, Victoria L.; Wojcik, Kyle K.; Ariffin, Juliana K.; Jose, Sara; Lukowski, Samuel; Baillie, Gregory J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Powell, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. Hypothesizing that innate immune dysfunction contributes to susceptibility to infection, we assessed ascitic fluid macrophage phenotype and function. The expression of complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) and CCR2 defined two phenotypically and functionally distinct peritoneal macrophage subpopulations. The proportion of CRIghi macrophages differed between patients and in the same patient over time, and a high proportion of CRIghi macrophages was associated with reduced disease severity (model for end-stage liver disease) score. As compared with CRIglo macrophages, CRIghi macrophages were highly phagocytic and displayed enhanced antimicrobial effector activity. Transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing and comparison with human macrophage and murine peritoneal macrophage expression signatures highlighted similarities among CRIghi cells, human macrophages, and mouse F4/80hi resident peritoneal macrophages and among CRIglo macrophages, human monocytes, and mouse F4/80lo monocyte-derived peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that CRIghi and CRIglo macrophages may represent a tissue-resident population and a monocyte-derived population, respectively. In conclusion, ascites fluid macrophage subset distribution and phagocytic capacity is highly variable among patients with chronic liver disease. Regulating the numbers and/or functions of these macrophage populations could provide therapeutic opportunities in cirrhotic patients. PMID:27699269

  18. Spot urinary sodium for assessing dietary sodium restriction in cirrhotic ascites

    PubMed Central

    El-Bokl, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Senousy, Bahaa Eldeen; El-Karmouty, Khaled Zakaria; Mohammed, Inas El-Khedr; Mohammed, Sherif Monier; Shabana, Sherif Sadek; Shalaby, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of spot urinary Na/K and Na/creatinine (Cr) ratios as an alternative to 24-h urinary sodium in monitoring dietary compliance in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretics. METHODS: The study was carried on 40 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretic therapy. Patients were divided into two groups according to 24-h urinary sodium. We measured spot urine Na/K ratio, Na/Cr ratio and 24-h urinary sodium. Student’s t test was used to compare the interval variables and χ2 test to compare the nominal variables between the two groups. Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for Na/K and Na/Cr ratio. RESULTS: The best cutoff point for Na/K ratio was 2.5 (P < 0.001) and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9, and for Na/Cr ratio, the best cutoff point was 35 (P < 0.001) and AUC was 0.885. Na/K ratio showed higher sensitivity and accuracy compared to Na/Cr ratio (87.5% and 87% for Na/K ratio; 81% and 85% for Na/Cr ratio, respectively). CONCLUSION: Spot urine Na/K ratio has adequate accuracy for assessment of dietary sodium restriction compared with 24-h urinary sodium in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. PMID:19653340

  19. Peritoneal ultrafiltration for refractory fluid overload and ascites due to pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Husain-Syed, Faeq; Muciño-Bermejo, María-Jimena; Ronco, Claudio; Seeger, Werner; Birk, Horst-Walter

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common finding in patients with advanced liver disease. Similarly, among patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension, right heart failure leads to congestive hepatopathy. Diuretic resistant fluid overload in both advanced pulmonary hypertension and chronic liver disease is a demanding challenge for physicians. Venous congestion and ascites-induced increased intra-abdominal pressure are essential regarding recurrent hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Due to impaired right-ventricular function, many patients cannot tolerate extracorporeal ultrafiltration. Peritoneal dialysis, a well-established, hemodynamically tolerated treatment for outpatients may be a good alternative to control fluid status. We present a patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension and congestive hepatopathy hospitalized for over 3 months due to ascites induced refractory volume overload treated with peritoneal ultrafiltration. We report the treatment benefits on fluid balance, cardiorenal and pulmonary function, as well as its safety. In conclusion, we report a case in which peritoneal ultrafiltration was an efficient treatment option for refractory ascites in patients with congestive hepatopathy.

  20. Arcturus and the Bears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    2009-08-01

    Arcturus is the brightest star in Bootes. The ancient Greek name Arktouros means Bear Guard. The star, however, is not close to Ursa Maior (Big She-Bear) and Ursa Minor (Little She-Bear), as the name would suggest. This curious discrepancy could be explained by the star proper motion, assuming the name Bear Guard is a remote cultural heritage. The proper motion analysis could allow us to get an insight also into an ancient myth regarding Ursa Maior. Though we cannot explain scientifically such a myth, some interesting suggestions can be obtained about its possible origin, in the context of the present knowledge of the importance of the cult of the bear both during the Palaeolithic times and for several primitive populations of modern times, as shown by the ethnological studies.

  1. Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

  2. Comparison of three lines of broilers differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 2. Egg weight loss, gas pressures, embryonic heat production, and physiological hormone levels.

    PubMed

    De Smit, L; Tona, K; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Hassanzadeh, M; Arckens, L; Decuypere, E

    2005-09-01

    Ascites is a metabolic disorder that accounts for over 25% of overall mortality in the broiler industry. This disorder is manifested between wk 5 and 6 posthatch, but there are previous indications that predisposition may be identified during embryonic development. In this current study, we determined embryonic physiological and metabolic parameters that may be associated with ascites predisposition. For this purpose, we used broiler eggs from 3 lines that differed in ascites sensitivity. These included an ascites-sensitive dam line (DAS), an ascites-resistant dam line (DAR), and an ascites-sensitive sire line (SASL). Eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions. The following parameters were measured during incubation: egg weights at setting, egg weight losses at 18 d, embryo body weights and embryo heart weights throughout development, air cell partial gas pressures (pCO2 and pO2) levels at d 18 and at internal pipping (IP); plasma triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and corticosterone levels at d 18, IP, and hatch; heat production from d 17 until hatch, hematocrit values at hatch, and posthatch growth rate to 7 d along with hematocrit values. The data obtained revealed that selection for ascites sensitivity or rapid growth rate had no consistent influence on some of these parameters such that they could be wholly associated with ascites sensitivity for predictive purposes. Whereas differences in embryonic developmental patterns were apparent throughout embryonic development, these differences in physiological and metabolic parameters may be due partly to genetic differences unrelated to ascites sensitivity.

  3. HTS magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Flögel-Delor, Uta; Rothfeld, Rolf; Wippich, Dieter; Riedel, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Radial HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) up to 200 mm size are developed and tested in prototype fast rotating machines to demonstrate the potential to replace conventional bearings. The individual rotational bearing components HTS and PM, their physical interaction and technology is reviewed. Characterisation experiments are conducted to understand the rotor dynamic behaviour. In terms of unbalance and critical speeds the suspended wheels and rotors compare favourably with conventional bearing devices. The rationale of our present bearing technology lies in the assembling of both low-speed magnetic bearings for centrifugal and wafer processing units up to 20,000 rpm as well as a high-speed optical mirror accelerated to rim speed of more than 500 m/s (174,000 rpm) confirming stable low-drag and low energy operation. Two new-type U shaped semicircle HTS bearings coupled each with a 6 W/80 K cryocooler of the Stirling type allow the contact-free operation of a Si wafer carrier in semiconductor wet processes.

  4. To Study the Incidence, Predictive Factors and Clinical Outcome of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients of Cirrhosis with Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmine; Kazal, Harbans Lal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence and predictive factors of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients of cirrhosis with ascites and to study the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with SBP. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted on 122 cases admitted in Department of Medicine, through emergency, in Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India. Cases of cirrhosis (irrespective of aetiology) with ascites between the ages of 18-75 years were included in this study. Ascitic fluid of every patient was aspirated under all aseptic measures, before initiation of antibiotic therapy and was sent for biochemical analysis, culture and cytological analysis. Results Mean age of patients enrolled was 50.30± 10.98 years. 85% were male and 15% were female. Alcohol (73.8%) was the leading cause of cirrhosis followed by HCV (37.7%) and HBV (4.9%). Of the 122 patients studied, 27 (20.4%) patients were diagnosed as having SBP and its variants. Monomicrobial Bacterascites (BA) was present in 5 patients and Culture Negative Neutrocytic Ascites (CNNA) was present in 22 patients. Escherichia coli were the most common isolated organism followed by Klebsiella. The various factors that predispose to development of SBP include low ascitic fluid protein concentration, a high level of serum bilirubin, deranged serum creatinine, high Child-Pugh score and high MELD score. Conclusion Ascitic fluid analysis remains the single most important test for identifying and assessing a course of SBP. Bedside inoculation of 10-20ml of ascitic fluid into culture bottle at patient bedside will yield better results. Early diagnosis and treatment will reduce the mortality rate in these patients. PMID:26393155

  5. Ball and Roller Bearings. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual provides a subject reference for ball and roller bearings. The following topics are included: (1) bearing nomenclature, (2) bearing uses, (3) bearing capacities, (4) shop area working conditions, (5) bearing removal, (6) bearing cleaning and inspection, (7) bearing replacement, (8) bearing lubrication, (9) bearing installation, (10)…

  6. Ball Bearing Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Load-deflection relationships for different types of elliptical contacts such as those found in a ball bearing are developed. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented. Ball bearings subjected to radial, thrust and combined ball loads are analyzed. A design criterion for fatigue life of ball bearings is developed. The section of a satisfactory lubricant, as well as describing systems that provide a constant flow of lubricant to the contact, is considered.

  7. Arkansas black bear hunter survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pharris, Larry D.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires were mailed to black bear (Ursus americanus) hunters in Arkansas following the 1980-84 bear seasons to determine participation, hunter success, and number of bears observed by hunters. Man-days of hunting to harvest a bear ranged from 148 to 671 and hunter success ranged from 0.4% to 2.2%. With the exception of 1980, number of permits issued, man-days of bear hunting, and bears harvested appear affected by hunting permit cost. 

  8. Assessment of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides burm.f

    PubMed Central

    Gayatri, S.; Maheswara Reddy, C. Uma; Chitra, K.; Parthasarathy, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of plants have been used in Indian system of medicine such as ayurveda, unani and siddha, but most of these plants were not explored properly. Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (SA) Burm.f., is one such plant used as an energizer in siddha. Objective: To evaluate the anticancer effect of chloroform extract of the whole plant of SA Burm.f. against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The anticancer effect of chloroform extract was investigated in Swiss albino mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma at two different dose levels. Acute toxicity studies were also performed to determine the safety of the extract. Mice injected with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were treated with the extract of doses 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and standard 5-fluorouracil 20 mg/kg body weight for 15 consecutive days. Animals were sacrificed on day 15 for determination of anticancer activity by evaluating tumor volume, nonviable and viable tumor cell count and hematological parameters. Results: Mice treated with the extract showed a significant decrease in tumor volume and viable cell count and an increase in nonviable cell count and mean survival time. The hematological parameters were also found to be restored to a normal level. Conclusion: The results indicate that the chloroform extract was producing anticancer activity comparable with that of the standard 5-fluorouracil. PMID:25829795

  9. Modeling RHEED intensity oscillations in multilayer epitaxy: Determination of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier in Ge(001) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Byungha; Aziz, Michael J.

    2007-10-15

    We report the study of submonolayer growth of Ge(001) homoepitaxy by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures, 100-150 deg. C, using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations obtained for a range of low incidence angles, where the influence of the dynamical nature of electron scattering such as the Kikuchi features is minimized. We develop a model for the RHEED specular intensity in multilayer growth that includes the diffuse scattering off surface steps and the layer interference between terraces of different heights using the kinematic approximation. The model describes the measured RHEED intensity oscillations very well for the entire range of incidence angles studied. We show that the first intensity minimum occurs well above 0.5 ML (monolayer) of the total deposited coverage, which contradicts the common practice of assigning the intensity minimum to 0.5 ML. By using the model to interpret the measured RHEED intensity, we find the evolution of the coverage of the first 1-2 ML. We find that second-layer nucleation takes place at low coverage, 0.3 ML, implying a substantial Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. The value inferred for the ES barrier height, 0.084{+-}0.019 eV, includes an analysis of the beam steering effect by step edges. Comparison is made with the value of the barrier height inferred from other measurements. The model for RHEED intensity and the method of inferring the ES barrier height can be applied to any system for which RHEED measurements can be obtained without interference from Kikuchi features.

  10. Inhibitory efficacy of the quantified prunellae spica extract on H22 tumor bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2013-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistence of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. In this report, we assessed the antitumor activity of a prunellae spica aqueous extract (PSE) in vitro and in vivo. PSE was quantified by HPLC and UV. MTT assay showed that PSE did not effectively inhibit the growth of H22 cells. The in vivo anti-tumor activity was assessed by using the mice bearing H22 tumor. In vivo studies showed the higher antitumor efficacy of PSE without significant side effect assessed by the reduced tumor weight, and the extended survival time of the mice bearing H22 solid and ascites tumor. Collectively, PSE is a promising Chinese medicinal herb for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  11. Roller bearing geometry design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  12. Chemical sympathectomy increases neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in tumor-bearing rats but does not influence cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Lubica; Tillinger, Andrej; Sivakova, Ivana; Mikova, Lucia; Mravec, Boris; Bucova, Maria

    2015-01-15

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates many immune functions and modulates the anti-tumor immune defense response, too. Therefore, we studied the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine induced sympathectomy on selected hematological parameters and inflammatory markers in rats with Yoshida AH130 ascites hepatoma. We found that chemically sympathectomized tumor-bearing rats had significantly increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, leukocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although our findings showed that sympathetic denervation in tumor-bearing rats led to increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, that is an indicator of the disease progression, we found no significant changes in tumor growth and survival of sympathectomized tumor-bearing rats.

  13. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  14. High speed hybrid bearing comprising a fluid bearing and a rolling bearing convected in series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of an antifriction bearing and a process by which its fatigue life may be extended. The method involves a rotating shaft supported by a fluid bearing and a rolling element bearing coupled in series. Each bearing turns at a fraction of the rotational speed of the shaft. The fluid bearing is preferably conical, thereby providing thrust and radial load support in a single bearing structure.

  15. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

  16. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  17. Investigation of Pressurized Wave Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

    2003-01-01

    The wave bearing has been pioneered and developed by Dr. Dimofte over the past several years. This bearing will be the main focus of this research. It is believed that the wave bearing offers a number of advantages over the foil bearing, which is the bearing that NASA is currently pursuing for turbomachinery applications. The wave bearing is basically a journal bearing whose film thickness varies around the circumference approximately sinusoidally, with usually 3 or 4 waves. Being a rigid geometry bearing, it provides precise control of shaft centerlines. The wave profile also provides good load capacity and makes the bearing very stable. Manufacturing techniques have been devised that should allow the production of wave bearings almost as cheaply as conventional full-circular bearings.

  18. Binding and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Aizono, Y; Funatsu, G

    1984-08-01

    The binding of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes was studied in detail. Scatchard plots of binding of 125I-lectins to these cells gave biphasic lines except for HeLa cells at 0 degree C. The association constants of lectins for the three cell types at 37 degrees C were lower than those at 0 degree C. The numbers of total binding sites were estimated to be 7 to 16 X 10(7) per HeLa cell, 3 to 4 X 10(7) per Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cell and 0.4 to 1 X 10(6) per erythrocyte. A fraction, 16 to 27% of the total amount of cell-bound lectin at 37 degrees C, appeared to be bound irreversibly as judged by non-removal on washing with 0.1 M lactose, whereas no lectin was irreversibly bound at 0 degree C. In the case of erythrocytes, no lectin became irreversibly bound even at 37 degrees C. The toxicity of lectins on HeLa cells and Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells was investigated. The toxicity of ricin D was 50 times for Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and 140 times for HeLa cells as much as that for castor bean hemagglutinin. As to the sensitivities of both cell types to these lectins, it became apparent that Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells were more susceptible than HeLa cells.

  19. Ovarian cancer ascites enhance the migration of patient-derived peritoneal mesothelial cells via cMet pathway through HGF-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Matte, Isabelle; Lane, Denis; Laplante, Claude; Garde-Granger, Perrine; Rancourt, Claudine; Piché, Alain

    2015-07-15

    Ovarian cancer ascites consist of a proinflammatory environment that is characterized by the presence of abundant human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Cytokines and growth factors in ascites modulate cell activities of tumor cells. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in ascites is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype. The effect of ascites on HPMCs is for the most part unknown but this interplay is thought to be important for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. Here, we examine the components of ascites, which stimulate patient-derived HPMC migration, from women with advanced EOC. We show that ovarian cancer ascites enhanced the migration of HPMCs. This effect was inhibited by heat treatment, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) blocking antibodies and a HGF receptor (cMet) inhibitor. In ovarian cancer ascites, HGF is present at high concentration compared to benign fluids. Ascites-mediated activation of cMet was associated with Akt and EKR1/2 phosphorylation. This response was partly inhibited by heat treatment and cMet inhibitor. Ascites-induced migration and a cMet phosphorylation were strongly inhibited by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor PD153035, suggesting the transactivation of cMet by EGFR. Our study suggests that HGF and ligands of EGFR are factors that mediate ovarian cancer ascites-mediated migration of HPMCs by activating cMet and possibly downstream ERK1/2 and Akt pathways. The study provides evidence for the first time that ascites not only support tumor growth but also enhance the migratory potential of cancer-associated mesothelial cells, which in turn may support cancer progression.

  20. Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The liver is the first line of defence against continuously occurring influx of microbial-derived products and bacteria from the gut. Intestinal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Escape of intestinal bacteria into the ascites is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between faecal bacterial populations and alcoholic liver cirrhosis has not been resolved. Methods Relative ratios of major commensal bacterial communities (Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium leptum group, Enterobactericaea and Lactobacillus spp.) were determined in faecal samples from post mortem examinations performed on 42 males, including cirrhotic alcoholics (n = 13), non-cirrhotic alcoholics (n = 15), non-alcoholic controls (n = 14) and in 7 healthy male volunteers using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Translocation of bacteria into liver in the autopsy cases and into the ascites of 12 volunteers with liver cirrhosis was also studied with RT-qPCR. CD14 immunostaining was performed for the autopsy liver samples. Results Relative ratios of faecal bacteria in autopsy controls were comparable to those of healthy volunteers. Cirrhotics had in median 27 times more bacterial DNA of Enterobactericaea in faeces compared to the healthy volunteers (p = 0.011). Enterobactericaea were also the most common bacteria translocated into cirrhotic liver, although there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups. Of the ascites samples from the volunteers with liver cirrhosis, 50% contained bacterial DNA from Enterobactericaea, Clostridium leptum group or Lactobacillus spp.. The total bacterial DNA in autopsy liver was associated with the percentage of CD14 expression (p = 0.045). CD14 expression percentage in cirrhotics was significantly higher than in the autopsy controls (p = 0

  1. MicroRNA-155 is upregulated in ascites in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Philipp; M´haimid, Mohamed; Pohlmann, Alessandra; Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Christian; Schierwagen, Robert; Klein, Sabine; Strassburg, Christian P.; Spengler, Ulrich; Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-01-01

    MircoRNA’s (miR) have been recognised as important modulators of gene expression and potential biomarkers. However, they have been rarely investigated in bio fluids apart from blood. We investigated the association of miR-125b and miR-155 with complications of cirrhosis. Ascites was prospectively collected from patients with cirrhosis undergoing paracentesis at our department. miR’s were determined in the supernatant using qPCR and normalized by SV-40. Clinical parameters were assessed at paracentesis and during follow-up. 76 specimens from 72 patients were analysed. MiR’s were not associated to age, sex or aetiology of cirrhosis. MiR-125b levels differed between patients with low and high MELD score, and miR-125b levels showed an inverse correlation to serum creatinine (r2 = −0.23; p = 0.05). MiR-155 was elevated in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) (n = 10; p = 0.04). MiR-155 levels differed between patients with and without 30-day survival (p = 0.02). No association of ascites levels of investigated miR’s to size of varices, episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding or hepatorenal syndrome was observed. While miR-125b levels in ascites seem to be associated with liver and renal dysfunction, miR-155 might be implicated in local immune response in SBP. PMID:28074870

  2. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  3. Congenital monoblastic leukemia presenting as jaundice, pleural effusion, and ascites: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiling; Du, Lizhong; Wang, Xiumin

    2011-01-01

    Congenital leukemias are a rare group of hematologic neoplasms with a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. Here we reported a neonate presenting with jaundice, pleural effusion and ascites. The total protein and serum albumin were markedly low at 48 and 12 g/L. Computerized tomography showed the density of liver was asymmetry with several hypoechoic regions. Initial blood routine examination revealed only thrombocytopenia while blood white cells increased to 30.0×10(9)/L with 17% blast cells several days later. Bone marrow biopsy showed the proportion of blasts and promonocytes increased and she was diagnosed as acute monoblastic leukemia.

  4. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  5. Acute and chronic eggshell temperature manipulations during hatching term influence hatchability, broiler performance, and ascites incidence.

    PubMed

    Sozcu, A; Ipek, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine how a control temperature and acute and chronic high eggshell temperatures during the last three days of incubation, can affect hatchability, chick quality, and organ development on day of hatch as well as broiler performance and ascites incidence in later life. The eggshell temperature manipulations were applied during hatching term (days 19 to 21) as follows: control EST (37.3 to 38.0°C), acute high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4- to 39.0°C for three hours daily) and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4 to 39.0°C). The lowest hatchability and the highest cull chick rate were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. Lower chick quality parameters correlated with lower chick weights and heavier residual yolk sac weights that were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group depending on hatch time. The live weights on the 1(st) day of the growing period were higher in the control and acute high eggshell temperature manipulations groups than the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. At 6 wk of age, live weights of broilers were the highest in the control than in the acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups. The total mortality was 2.5, 9.2, and 13.3%, the mortality due to ascites was 2.1, 8.3, and 12.9% in the control, acute ,and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups, respectively. The right ventricular/total ventricular ratios for the control, acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups were 0.22, 0.28, and 0.30%, respectively. In conclusion, short-term and long-term higher temperatures during the hatching term affect embryo development, incubation results, broiler performance, and ascites incidence. Although the acute high eggshell temperature manipulations did not affect the chick quality parameters at hatch, it negatively affected incubation results and broiler performance

  6. Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin; Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B.

    1996-03-15

    Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

  7. Leiomyosarcoma of Inferior Vena Cava and Right Atrium with Ascites and Jaundice: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminasab Zavareh, Roshanak; Riahi Beni, Hassan; Iranpour, Aida; Alam Samimi, Mojgan; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Alavi Niakou, Seyedeh Nina

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is one of the soft tissue sarcomas that could originate from different parts of body and are mostly presented as retropritoneal mass. Leiomyosarcomas of vascular origin are particularly rare tumors occurring mainly in inferior vena cava (IVC). Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented with ascites and jaundice. Further evaluation revealed large hepatic and cardiac masses with extension to IVC. Since it was not possible to determine the point of origin of leiomyosarcoma, the patient received chemotherapy under diagnosis of metastatic leiomyosarcoma but unfortunately passed away. PMID:27928478

  8. Chylous ascites in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with venoocclusive liver disease.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Scott P; Fontenot, Deidre K; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha A

    2003-12-01

    An 11-yr-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) was diagnosed clinically with hepatic and renal disease and euthanatized after an extended illness. Postmortem examination revealed 8-10 L of milky white fluid in the abdominal cavity and markedly dilated lymphatic vessels within the intestinal mesentery. The abdominal fluid was a chylous effusion based on the cytologic predominance of lymphocytes and macrophages and comparison of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the fluid and in serum. Gross and histopathologic lesions in the liver were consistent with a diagnosis of venoocclusive liver disease. Chylous ascites is uncommon with human chronic liver disease and is rarely identified in animals.

  9. TIPSS Procedure in the Treatment of a Single Patient After Recent Heart Transplantation Because of Refractory Ascites Due to Cardiac Cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fava, Mario; Meneses, Luis Loyola, Soledad; Castro, Pablo; Barahona, Fernando

    2008-07-15

    We present the case of a female patient with arrhythmogenic dysplasia of the right ventricle who evolved to refractory heart failure, ascites, and peripheral edema. As a result, heart transplantation was performed. Subsequently, refractory ascites impaired the patient's respiratory function, resulting in prolonged mechanical ventilation. She was successfully treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) placement, which allowed satisfactory weaning of ventilatory support.

  10. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  11. Fault tolerant magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J.; Aimone, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

  12. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  13. Comparison of three lines of broiler breeders differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 1. Relationship between acoustic resonance data and embryonic or hatching parameters.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Kemps, B; Bruggeman, V; Bamelis, F; De Smit, L; Onagbesan, O; De Baerdemaeker, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-09-01

    Ascites is a prevalent cardiovascular disease among modern broilers with negative impacts on production and animal welfare. The peak of mortality due to ascites occurs at the end of the growing period, but the etiology of this problem may start during embryonic development. A few recent reports have demonstrated that the signs of ascites susceptibility are manifested during the late stages of incubation. In the current study, we used a nondestructive method based on egg acoustic resonance parameters [resonant frequency (RF) and damping] to establish a relationship between embryo physiological events during early development in broiler eggs and susceptibility to ascites. The hatching eggs of 3 broiler lines differing in ascites susceptibility were used for this study: ascites-resistant dam line (DAR), ascites-sensitive dam line (DAS), and ascites-sensitive sire line (SASL). These lines were selected on the basis of fast growth, high breast meat yield, and ascites induction at low temperatures such that the order of ascites susceptibility in terms of mortality was SASL > DAS > DAR. Eggs were incubated under standard conditions in forced-draft incubators. We measured egg weights at setting, albumen pH, Haugh units (HU) at setting, and embryo weights at d 11 and 18, at internal pipping (IP), and at hatch. The durations of IP, external pipping (EP), and hatching were also determined. At 2 hourly periods during incubation, egg RF and damping were also measured. There were differences in egg weights between DAR and SASL vs. DAS, but albumen HU, albumen pH, and the ratio of yolk weight to egg weight were similar. There were differences in RF, damping, embryonic growth rates, and hatching events. Changes in resonant frequency and damping, which certainly suggest eggshell differences among lines, were not totally related to variations in physiological events during early and late embryonic development. A comparison between DAR and DAS, between DAS and SASL, or DAR and SASL

  14. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. IV. Lack of adrenergic activation of phosphorylase in rat ascites hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Yanaoka, T; Sanae, F; Wakusawa, S; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase a activity in 7 rat ascites hepatoma cell lines treated with adrenergic agents, phenylephrine, epinephrine and isoproterenol, was investigated as compared with that in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Basal phosphorylase activities in hepatoma cells except AH7974 cells were lower than that in hepatocytes. Phosphorylase in hepatoma cells was not activated by any of the agents, while the enzyme activity in hepatocytes was clearly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylase in hepatocytes was sensitive to glucagon, but it was found to be insensitive to glucagon in all hepatoma cells. The present results suggest that rat ascites hepatoma cells may escape the glycogenolytic regulation by catecholamines and glucagon.

  15. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  16. Magnetic bearings for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have been successfully applied to motorized rotor systems in the multi-kilogram range, at speeds up to 1200 radians per second. These engineering models also indicated the need for continued development in specific areas to make them feasible for spacecraft applications. Significant power reductions have recently been attained. A unique magnetic circuit, combining permanent magnets with electromagnetic control, has a bidirectional forcing capability with improved current sensitivity. The multi-dimensional nature of contact-free rotor support is discussed. Stable continuous radial suspension is provided by a rotationally symmetric permanent magnet circuit. Two bearings, on a common shaft, counteract the normal instability perpendicular to the rotational axis. The axial direction is servoed to prevent contact. A new bearing technology and a new field of application for magnetics is foreseen.

  17. Solving bearing overheating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jendzurski, T.

    1995-05-08

    Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.

  18. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  19. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  20. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  1. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  2. Preparation of human ovarian cancer ascites-derived exosomes for a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Navabi, H; Croston, D; Hobot, J; Clayton, A; Zitvogel, L; Jasani, B; Bailey-Wood, R; Wilson, K; Tabi, Z; Mason, M D; Adams, M

    2005-01-01

    Despite initial response to chemotherapy, at least 50% of ovarian cancer patients will relapse within 18 months. Progression-free survival is related to tumour infiltration with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We recently demonstrated that CD8+ T cell responses to recall antigens improve following tumour response to chemotherapy. Vaccination designed to expand CTL, specific for tumour-associated antigens, may be a means of improving outcome. We are planning a clinical trial in advanced ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy using a combination of a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist and tumour-associated ascites-derived exosomes. Tumour-derived exosomes are a potential source of tumour antigens able to induce CD8+ T cell responses when loaded on mature dendritic cells (DC). DC maturation can be achieved with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, such as the GMP-grade synthetic double stranded RNA, poly[I]:poly[C12U] (Ampligen) which is a TLR-3 agonist. Here, we describe the development of a method suitable for the preparation of GMP-grade exosomes from the ascites fluid of ovarian cancer patients, and the methods used for the molecular and immunological characterisation of these exosomes preceding their use in a clinical trial.

  3. Calcium antagonist verapamil prevented pulmonary arterial hypertension in broilers with ascites by arresting pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Qiao, Jian; Wang, Huiyu; Gao, Mingyu; Ou, Deyuan; Zhang, Jianjun; Sun, Maohong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaobo; Guo, Yuming

    2007-04-30

    Calcium signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Verapamil, one of the calcium antagonists, is used to characterize the role of calcium signaling in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension syndrome in broilers. The suppression effect of verapamil on pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling was examined in broilers, from the age of 16 days to 43 days. Our results showed that oral administration of lower dose of verapamil (5 mg/kg body weight every 12 h) prevented the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the ascites heart index and the erythrocyte packed cell volume of birds at low temperature from increasing, the heart rate from decreasing, and pulmonary arteriole median from thickening, and no pulmonary arteriole remodeling in broilers treated with the two doses of verapamil at low temperature was observed. Our results indicated that calcium signaling was involved in the development of broilers' pulmonary arterial hypertension, which leads to the development of ascites, and we suggest that verapamil may be used as a preventive agent to reduce the occurrence and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in broilers.

  4. Unique proteome signature of post-chemotherapy ovarian cancer ascites-derived tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Greening, David; Samardzija, Chantel; Escalona, Ruth M.; Chen, Maoshan; Findlay, Jock K.; Kannourakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Eighty % of ovarian cancer patients diagnosed at an advanced-stage have complete remission after initial surgery and chemotherapy. However, most patients die within <5 years due to episodes of recurrences resulting from the growth of residual chemoresistant cells. In an effort to identify mechanisms associated with chemoresistance and recurrence, we compared the expression of proteins in ascites-derived tumor cells isolated from advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients obtained at diagnosis (chemonaive, CN) and after chemotherapy treatments (chemoresistant/at recurrence, CR) by using in-depth, high-resolution label-free quantitative proteomic profiling. A total of 2,999 proteins were identified. Using a stringent selection criterion to define only significantly differentially expressed proteins, we report identification of 353 proteins. There were significant differences in proteins encoding for immune surveillance, DNA repair mechanisms, cytoskeleton rearrangement, cell-cell adhesion, cell cycle pathways, cellular transport, and proteins involved with glycine/proline/arginine synthesis in tumor cells isolated from CR relative to CN patients. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways, DNA repair mechanisms and energy metabolism pathways in CR tumor cells. In conclusion, this is the first proteomics study to comprehensively analyze ascites-derived tumor cells from CN and CR ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27470985

  5. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells improve liver function and ascites in decompensated liver cirrhosis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Lin, Hu; Shi, Ming; Xu, Ruonan; Fu, Junliang; Lv, Jiyun; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; Li, Yuanyuan; Yu, Shuangjie; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Lau, George K K; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC), a life-threatening complication of chronic liver disease, is one of the major indications for liver transplantation. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusion has been shown to lead to the regression of liver fibrosis in mice and humans. This study examined the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) in patients with decompensated LC. A total of 45 chronic hepatitis B patients with decompensated LC, including 30 patients receiving UC-MSC transfusion, and 15 patients receiving saline as the control, were recruited; clinical parameters were detected during a 1-year follow-up period. No significant side-effects and complications were observed in either group. There was a significant reduction in the volume of ascites in patients treated with UC-MSC transfusion compared with controls (P < 0.05). UC-MSC therapy also significantly improved liver function, as indicated by the increase of serum albumin levels, decrease in total serum bilirubin levels, and decrease in the sodium model for end-stage liver disease scores. UC-MSC transfusion is clinically safe and could improve liver function and reduce ascites in patients with decompensated LC. UC-MSC transfusion, therefore, might present a novel therapeutic approach for patients with decompensated LC.

  6. Methylation of tRNA by normal mouse liver and Erhlich ascites cell extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.D.; Sitz, T.O.

    1986-05-01

    When Erhlich ascites tumor and normal mouse liver extracts were incubated with (/sup 3/H-CH/sub 3/)-S-adenosylmethionine and E. coli tRNA, the tumor extracts had a ten-fold higher methyltransferase activity than mouse liver extracts. However, only a two-fold higher methyltransferase activity was observed when methyl deficient mouse liver tRNA was used as a substrate. DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of alkaline hydrolysates of methyl deficient mouse liver tRNA (tRNA isolated from mice treated with ethionine) showed 70% of the /sup 3/H-methyl groups in the mononucleotide peak and 30% in alkaline stable di-, tri- and oligonucleotide peaks demonstrating methylation of both the base and ribose moieties. Perchloric acid digest of material isolated from the di-, tri- and oligonucleotide peaks confirm that the /sup 3/H-methyl groups are on the ribose moieties. In hydrolysates of E. coli tRNA /sup 3/H-methyl groups appeared in only the mononucleotide peak, i.e. only base methylation. These data, from Erhlich ascites cells, suggest that ribose methyltransferases may have greater RNA substrate specificity than the base methyltransferases and may act processively to produce alkaline stable oligonucleotides.

  7. Composite Bear Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Jara, Steve; Suffel, Susan

    2003-01-01

    To many national park campers and mountain climbers saving their foods in a safe and unbreakable storage container without worrying being attacked by a bear is a challenging task. In some parks, the park rangers have mandated that park visitors rent a bear canister for their food storage. Commercially available bear canisters are made of ABS plastic, weigh 2.8 pounds, and have a 180 cubic inch capacity for food storage. A new design with similar capacity was conducted in this study to reduce its weight and make it a stiffer and stronger canister. Two prototypes incorporating carbon prepreg with and without honeycomb constructions were manufactured using hand lay-up and vacuum bag forming techniques. A 6061-T6-aluminum ring was machined to dimensions in order to reinforce the opening area of the canister. Physical properties (weight and volume) along with mechanical properties (flexural strength and specific allowable moment) of the newly fabricated canisters are compared against the commercial ones. The composite canister weighs only 56% of the ABS one can withstand 9 times of the force greater. The advantages and limitations of using composite bear canisters will be discussed in the presentation.

  8. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  9. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  10. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  11. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  12. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  13. Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, N. A. M.; Seybold, H.; Baram, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.

    2013-02-01

    Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with asymmetrically weighted couplings. Accordingly, these networks can exhibit optimal synchronization properties through fine-tuning of the local interaction strength as a function of node degree [Motter, Zhou, and Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016116 (2005)PLEEE81539-3755]. We show that, in analogy, the synchronizability of bearings can be maximized by counterbalancing the number of contacts and the inertia of their constituting rotor disks through the mass-radius relation, m˜rα, with an optimal exponent α=α× which converges to unity for a large number of rotors. Under this condition, and regardless of the presence of a long-tailed distribution of disk radii composing the mechanical system, the average participation per disk is maximized and the energy dissipation rate is homogeneously distributed among elementary rotors.

  14. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB`s) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS`s) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS`s, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, the authors present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  15. Bearings Incorporating Deadband Rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, Guy V.

    1996-01-01

    Bearings in high-pressure turbopump redesigned to incorporate rollers allowing limited axial motion within small deadband. Does not permit radial deadband motion. Axial deadband motion used for rotor-thrust-balance control. Design eliminates some nonlinearities in dynamics of pump rotor and assists in suppressing vibrations at harmonics of frequency of rotation.

  16. Magnetic-Bearing Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Poole, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Microcomputer-controlled magnetic-bearing test fixture used to develop approaches to design of controls for magnetic bearing actuators designed and constructed. Includes load cells connected to bar, in turn, connected through screw positioners to geared drive motors. Position of equivalent suspended element sensed by position sensors and controlled by drive motors. Provides control of gap in magnetic bearing and of current in electromagnet coil. Measurements made include magnetic-bearing gaps, magnetic flux in bearing gaps, and bearing forces. Approaches to linearization and control developed by use of fixture applicable to wide range of small-gap suspension systems.

  17. Bearing-Cartridge Damping Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggins, David G.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Chen, Wei C.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed design for improved ball-bearing cartridge, damping seal in form of thin-layer fluid journal bearing incorporated into cartridge. Damping seal acts as auxiliary bearing, relieving bearing balls of significant portions of both static and dynamic bearing loads. Damping from seal reduces dynamic loads even further by reducing amplitude of vibrations in second vibrational mode of rotor, which mode occurs when rotor turning at nearly full operating speed. Intended for use in high-pressure-oxygen turbopump of Space Shuttle main engine, also applicable to other turbomachinery bearings.

  18. Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

  19. Lubricant effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1986-01-01

    Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

  20. Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens: further evidence for involvement in ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Gilanpour, Hassan; Charkhkar, Saied; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the related physiological parameters in these chickens were followed. Lung weight as a percentage of body weight, the relative lung and heart volume, and the volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared with the layer and native chickens. Additionally, most of these parameters (e.g. relative lung weight, lung volume and thorax cavity) were significantly decreased with age in broiler chickens but were increased in layer and native chickens, which was concomitant with the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. Our data indicate that all cardiopulmonary parameters investigated are extremely unfavourable to broiler chickens and suggest a reduction in gas exchange area in broilers, and therefore higher susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension and ascites.

  1. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.

  2. A case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis in which gram staining of ascitic fluid was useful for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Fujita, Shouhei; Kawano, Fumihiro; Tsukamoto, Ryoichi; Honjo, Kunpei; Naito, Shigetoshi; Ishiyama, Shun; Miyano, Shozo; Machida, Michio; Kitabatake, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Minoru; Kojima, Kuniaki; Ogura, Kanako; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for steroid therapy for relapsing nephrotic syndrome. During hospitalization, she complained of sudden epigastric pain at night. Although there were signs of peritoneal irritation, CT showed a large amount of ascitic fluid, but no free intraperitoneal gas. Gram staining of ascitic fluid obtained by abdominal paracentesis showed Gram-negative rods, which raised a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation and peritonitis. Therefore, emergency surgery was performed. Exploration of the colon showed multiple sigmoid diverticula, one of which was perforated. The patient underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure. Imaging studies failed to reveal any evidence of gastrointestinal perforation, presenting a diagnostic challenge. However, a physician performed rapid Gram staining of ascitic fluid at night when laboratory technicians were absent, had a strong suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation, and performed emergency surgery. Gram staining is superior in rapidity, and ascitic fluid Gram staining can aid in diagnosis, suggesting that it should be actively performed. We report this case, with a review of the literature on the significance of rapid diagnosis by Gram staining.

  3. Ascitic fluid due to type II herpes simplex virus infection: report of a case with immunocytochemical confirmation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiko; Miyahira, Yoshimitsu; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Kagotani, Akiko; Arita, Namie; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Takikita, Mikiko; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is usually observed in the oral cavity and external genitals, and HSV peritonitis is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of type II HSV peritonitis successfully diagnosed by ascitic cytology. A 66-year-old Japanese man, who had been treated with steroid inhalation for 5 years due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was suspected to have acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative cytological examination of ascitic fluid were performed. Cytological study of ascitic fluid revealed that abundant granular cell debris, degenerative cells and apoptotic bodies were present, as well as some single or multinucleated cells with ground glass nuclei. However, vivid mesothelial cells were rarely seen. Immunocytochemical staining for type II HSV was positive in single or multinucleated cells with ground glass nuclei. Therefore, a diagnosis of type II HSV peritonitis was made. This is the first reported case of type II HSV peritonitis successfully diagnosed by ascitic cytology. This report highlights that the presence of abundant cell debris, degenerative cells and apoptotic bodies, and the absence of vivid mesothelial cells are the key cytological findings to suspect HSV peritonitis, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by careful surveillance for characteristic nuclear findings of single or multinucleated cells. The frequency of opportunistic infection is increased because of the increased numbers of iatrogenic immunocompromised patients as seen in this case, therefore, cytological examination is a useful method for early detection of the causative agent of peritonitis including HSV.

  4. Vygotsky and the Three Bears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczewski, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    Peggy Kulczewski, a kindergarten classroom teacher, remembers the day when students enjoyed a story she told them from the book "The Three Bears". The students' discussion about comparison of the bears was very helpful to the whole group.

  5. Growth, carcass characteristics, and incidence of ascites in broilers exposed to environmental fluctuations and oiled litter.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    2000-03-01

    The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations and removal of respirable dust, by application of canola oil to straw litter, on growth, carcass traits, and the degree of ascites was evaluated with 1,200 male broilers studied in two replicated 6-wk trials. Each trial used four pens of 150 birds. The temperature treatment consisted of a fluctuation of 3 C in temperature above the required temperature during the day (0600 to 1800 h) and 3 C below the required temperature at night (1800 to 0600 h) for a 6 C change in daily temperature. The control temperature was constant. All pens had the same mean daily temperature. In each trial, one control temperature pen and one fluctuation temperature pen received bi-weekly applications of canola oil to the litter (1.1 L/m2 of oil over 6 wk). At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fatpad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for lesions of ascites at time of processing. A score of 0 or 1 represented slight pericardial effusion, slight pulmonary congestion, and edema. A score of 4 represented birds with marked accumulation of ascitic fluid in one or more ceolomic cavities (other than the pericardium) and advanced liver lesions. A cross-sectional image of each 4-mm heart slice (cross-section of the ventricles) was digitally recorded, and with image analysis we determined the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA). The final BW of the broilers were significantly different, the oiled-litter treatment (2,249 g) had lower weight gain compared with the nonoiled litter treatment (2,293 g). There were no differences in fatpad weight, shank length, lung weight, and percentage breast muscle between the main treatments. The Pectoralis minor and Pectoralis major weight were significantly heavier in the temperature fluctuation treatment than in the control temperature treatment by 3.0 and 12.0 g, respectively. The birds subjected to the control

  6. Serum C-Reactive Protein in Children with Liver Disease and Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kalvandi, Gholamreza; Honar, Naser; Geramizadeh, Bita; Ataollahi, Maryam; Rahmani, Asghar; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of peritonitis as a complication of cirrhosis is an important clinical problem. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate serum C-reactive protein levels as a diagnostic factor for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in child patients with liver disease. Methods In this study, 150 children diagnosed with liver disease and ascites upon admission to Nemazee Teaching Hospital (Shiraz, Iran) were examined. Patients were divided into spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sterile ascetic fluid groups according to the PMN count ≥ 250/mm3 in the ascetic fluids. Routine laboratory tests were conducted and quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured for all of the patients. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CRP was evaluated for diagnosis of SBP. Results Of 150 cirrhotic patients, 109 patients presented without SBP (52.29% male, mean age: 5.02 ± 4.49 years) and 41 patients presented with SBP (51.21% male, mean age: 4.71 years). Cell counts, protein levels, albumin levels, and lactate dehydrogenize (LDH) levels of the ascetic fluid and serum samples in the SBP group were higher than the rates for those without SBP (P < 0.05(. The mean ± SD of CRP in the SBP group (36.89 ± 23.43) increased significantly compared to the rate among those without SBP (21.59 ± 15.43, P = 0.001). The percentages for sensitivity and specificity of CRP, the diagnosis of SBP based on the PMN count ≥ 250/mm3, and cultured ascites were 69.23%, 90.25%, 88.43%, and 84.32%, respectively. The areas under the curve of CRP for SBP based on the PMN count ≥ 250/mm3 and cultured ascites was 0.94 (CI 95%: 0.90 to 0.96) and 0.85 (CI 95%: 0.84 to 0.92), respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study showed that CRP is a marker with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of SBP in cirrhotic children. PMID:27795726

  7. A self-lubricating bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved bearing structure is described which includes a permanently magnetized porous body filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant for extending the operational life of self-lubricating bearings. The bearing structure is characterized by a permanently magnetized retainer formed of a porous material and filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant, whereby the pores serve as lubricant reservoirs from which the lubricant continuously is delivered to a film disposed between contiguous bearing surfaces.

  8. Successful nutritional support for a dysphagic patient with massive cirrhotic ascites and intrathoracic stomach using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Otani, Jun; Okuda, Junzo; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Sawada, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Tachiko; Ohshima, Chiaki

    2014-01-01

    Although massive cirrhotic ascites is generally considered a contraindication for the placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), such patients are usually poorly nourished. Preceding paracentesis of ascites is one method for controlling ascites and allowing the safe placement of PEG, but it often results in overuse of albumin. Preceding peritoneal-venous (P-V) shunting can avoid excessive use of albumin, but this introduces the risk of infectious contamination. We encountered an 88-y-old woman with massive cirrhotic ascites, a giant esophageal hernia with dislocation of the proximal stomach into the mediastinum, hypertrophy of the lateral segment of the liver, and malnutrition who had suffered from appetite loss and a swallowing disorder for 4 mo. She underwent PEG using a staged sequential introduction method using a Funada-style gastric wall fixation kit as follows: 1) full stretching and pushing out of the stomach from the mediastinum into the peritoneal cavity by deep insertion and a turning-over procedure of the endoscope, 2) full distention by air to adhere the gastric wall to the peritoneal wall without migration of the colon, 3) four-point square fixation under gastroenterological endoscopy without migration of the visceral organ, and 4) puncture of the needle introducer of the PEG tube in the center of the fixations under repeated gastroenterological endoscopy 3 d after the fixation. She underwent P-V shunting under local anesthesia on the 28th day after placement of PEG and enteral nutrition. Her case shows that we can achieve proper enteral nutritional support even for patients with massive cirrhotic ascites.

  9. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  10. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  11. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  12. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  13. Magnetic translator bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  14. The series hybrid bearing - A new high speed bearing concept.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Fleming, D. P.; Parker, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    The series-hybrid bearing couples a fluid-film bearing with a rolling-element bearing such that the rolling-element bearing inner race runs at a fraction of shaft speed. A series-hybrid bearing was analyzed and experiments were run at thrust loads from 100 to 300 lb and speeds from 4000 to 30,000 rpm. Agreement between theoretical and experimental speed sharing was good. The lowest speed ratio (ratio of ball bearing inner-race speed to shaft speed) obtained was 0.67. This corresponds to an approximate reduction in DN value of 1/3. For a ball bearing in a 3 million DN application, fatigue life would theoretically be improved by a factor as great as 8.

  15. Detection of ascitic feline coronavirus RNA from cats with clinically suspected feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Wada, Makoto; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    Ascitic feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA was examined in 854 cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by RT-PCR. The positivity was significantly higher in purebreds (62.2%) than in crossbreds (34.8%) (P<0.0001). Among purebreds, the positivities in the Norwegian forest cat (92.3%) and Scottish fold (77.6%) were significantly higher than the average of purebreds (P=0.0274 and 0.0251, respectively). The positivity was significantly higher in males (51.5%) than in females (35.7%) (P<0.0001), whereas no gender difference has generally been noted in FCoV antibody prevalence, indicating that FIP more frequently develops in males among FCoV-infected cats. Genotyping was performed for 377 gene-positive specimens. Type I (83.3%) was far more predominantly detected than type II (10.6%) (P<0.0001), similar to previous serological and genetic surveys.

  16. A Study of the Mechanisms of Attachment of Allergised Lymphocytes to BP8 Ascites Tumour Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P. J.; Cater, D. B.

    1969-01-01

    The attachment of allergised and non-allergised lymph-node cells from C57B1 mice to BP8 ascites tumour cells were compared in vitro in the presence of vaso-active agents and mediators of the inflammatory reaction. It was found that Priscol, noradrenaline, adrenaline, 5-HT and histamine caused some cell adherence, while bradykinin and lysolecithin caused a marked increase of adherence of the allergised lymph-node cells to the BP8 cells. Electrophoretic studies of BP8 cells in the presence of polyornithine showed an abolition of the anodic mobility. Theories of action of the various agents are discussed. ImagesFigs. 5-8Figs. 1-4 PMID:5364386

  17. Segregation analysis of blood oxygen saturation in broilers suggests a major gene influence on ascites.

    PubMed

    Navarro, P; Visscher, P M; Chatziplis, D; Koerhuis, A N M; Haley, C S

    2006-12-01

    1. Blood oxygen saturation (SaO) is a potential indicator trait for resistance to ascites in chickens. 2. The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic architecture of SaO in a meat-type chicken line reared in commercial conditions. 3. Data were collected over 15 generations of selection and were divided into two data sets on the basis of a change in recording age from 6 to 5 weeks of age, approximately halfway through the period. The resulting pedigrees comprised in excess of 90,000 birds each and, on average, 12% of these birds had SaO records. 4. Segregation analyses of SaO were carried out assuming a mixed inheritance model that included a major locus segregating in a polygenic background. 5. The analyses suggest that a major gene is involved in the genetic control of SaO in this line. The putative gene acts in a dominant fashion and has an additive effect of around 0.90 sigma(p), equivalent to a predicted difference in SaO between the two homozygous classes of more than 10%. The frequency of the allele that increases SaO changed from 0.53 to 0.65 from the first to the second set of data, consistent with selection on SaO scores. 6. Using estimated genotype probabilities at the putative major locus, we inferred that it acts in an overdominant fashion on body weight and fleshing score. If the low SaO allele leads to susceptibility to ascites, its combined effects are consistent with it being maintained in the population by a balance of natural selection on fitness nad artificial selection on growth and carcase traits. 7. Even with selection on both SaO and growth traits, the combined genotypic effects would make it difficult to remove the unfavourable low-SaO allele by means of traditional selection without the use of genetic markers.

  18. The bear that never was

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Herrero, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    From campfire stories to sensational books detailing gory attacks, Alaska's bears have long been maligned as deadly marauders capable of acquiring a taste for human flesh. Tall tales make for good storytelling but force bad reputations on the bears. When myth is compared to fact, the three North American's leading bear experts show that Alaska's three bear species are not the huge, unpredictable monsters they often are made out to be. Here, Smith, Amstrup, and Herrero examine the conventional wisdom people often hear regarding bears in the Great Land.

  19. Anti-backlash gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  20. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  1. Designing the brawny gas bearing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a graphic technique for matching specific groove parameters to operating conditions in order to optimize the load carrying capacity of a herringbone-grooved bearing. Details are given on the optimization of the film thickness ratio, the groove width ratio, the groove angle, and the groove length ratio to obtain a maximum radial load capacity. The effect of the dimensionless bearing number on optimal groove configuration parameters is shown in diagrams. Curves are also plotted to compare the capacities of a herringbone-grooved bearing and a plain bearing, showing the former has a higher load capacity than the latter when the dimensionless bearing number is large.

  2. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  3. Bearing, gearing, and lubrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of selected NASA research programs on rolling-element and fluid-film bearings, gears, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reported. Advances in rolling-element bearing material technology, which have resulted in a significant improvement in fatigue life, and which make possible new applications for rolling bearings, are discussed. Research on whirl-resistant, fluid-film bearings, suitable for very high-speed applications, is discussed. An improved method for predicting gear pitting life is reported. An improved formula for calculating the thickness of elastohydrodynamic films (the existence of which help to define the operating regime of concentrated contact mechanisms such as bearings, gears, and cams) is described.

  4. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  5. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOEpatents

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  6. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Tim; Thom, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based solvents, such as CFC-113 and 1,1,1, trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanism bearings. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change requiring the use of ODC-free cleaners for precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises; what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life? The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0 x 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90 C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing, the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition, the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  7. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach.

  8. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  9. Chronic unilateral occlusion of an extrapulmonary primary bronchus induces pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in male and female broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Kirby, Y K; Owen, R L; French, H

    1997-02-01

    Previously, it was demonstrated that acute (4 min) and chronic (12 d) occlusion of an extrapulmonary primary bronchus triggers pulmonary hypertension but not pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) in broilers. The present study was conducted to determine whether a more prolonged period of bronchus occlusion causes PHS similar to that induced by clamping one pulmonary artery. Male and female broiler chicks, 14 to 18 d old, were anesthetized, the thoracic inlet was opened, and a silver clip was positioned to fully obstruct the left extrapulmonary primary bronchus (BRONCHUS CLAMP group) or the left pulmonary artery (PA-CLAMP group). Sham-operated chicks were anesthetized and the thoracic inlet was opened; however, neither the pulmonary artery nor the bronchus was clamped (SHAM group). An electrocardiogram (ECG) was obtained whenever clinical ascites became apparent in individual broilers, or prior to the final necropsy for broilers surviving to the end (Day 36) of the experiment. The right:total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) was evaluated as an index of pulmonary arterial pressure. Early post-surgical mortality (up to 21 d of age) was higher in the PA-CLAMP group (27% for males and females combined) than in the BRONCHUS CLAMP (10%) and SHAM (2%) groups. Cumulative ascites mortality (Days 22 to 36) also was higher in the PA-CLAMP group (86% for males, 77% for females) than in the BRONCHUS CLAMP (69% for males, 41% for females) and SHAM (23% for males, 0% for females) groups. Ascitic birds in all treatment groups had higher RV:TV ratios and more negative ECG Lead II S-wave amplitudes than nonascitic birds, reflecting the right ventricular hypertrophy and generalized ventricular dilation typically associated with PHS. These results demonstrate that unilateral bronchus occlusion is an effective experimental model for triggering ascites at a lower incidence than that obtained by occluding one pulmonary artery. Following the onset of pulmonary hypertension, the

  10. The effects of feed restriction and ambient temperature on growth and ascites mortality of broilers reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, S; Takma, C; Yahav, S; Sögüt, B; Türkmut, L; Erturun, H; Cahaner, A

    2010-05-01

    The development of ascites was investigated in broilers at low versus high altitudes, cold versus normal ambient temperatures (AT), and 3 feeding regimens. One-day-old chicks obtained at sea level were reared at high altitude (highA; 1,720 m; n = 576) with 2 AT treatments, low AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/cold) and normal AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/norm), or at sea level (normal AT from 3 wk onward at low altitude, lowA/norm; n = 540). Under highA/cold, AT ranged between 16 to 17 degrees C in the fourth week, 17 to 19 degrees C in the fifth week, and 19 to 21 degrees C thereafter. Under highA/norm and lowA/norm, AT was 24 degrees C in the fourth week and ranged between 22 to 24 degrees C thereafter. Broilers in each condition were divided into 3 groups: feed restriction (FR) from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d, and ad libitum (AL). Ascites mortality and related parameters were recorded. Low mortality (0.4%) occurred under lowA/norm conditions. Under highA/norm, mortality was lower in females (8.6%) than in males (13.8%) and was not affected by the feeding regimen. The highA/cold treatment resulted in higher mortality but only in males; it was 44.2% among highA/cold AL-fed males and only about 26% under the FR regimens, suggesting that FR helped some males to better acclimatize to the highA/cold environment and avoid ascites. However, mortality was only 13.3% in AL-fed males at highA/norm and FR did not further reduce the incidence of ascites under these conditions. Thus, avoiding low AT in the poultry house by slight heating was more effective than FR in reducing ascites mortality at highA. Compared with FR from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d did not further reduce mortality and reduced growth. At 47 d, the majority of surviving broilers at highA had high levels of hematocrit and right ventricle:total ventricle weight ratio (>0.29), but they were healthy and reached approximately the same BW as their counterparts at low altitude. This finding may

  11. Gold-bearing skarns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.; Orris, Greta J.; Hammerstrom, Jane M.; Bliss, James D.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, a significant proportion of the mining industry's interest has been centered on discovery of gold deposits; this includes discovery of additional deposits where gold occurs in skarn, such as at Fortitude, Nevada, and at Red Dome, Australia. Under the classification of Au-bearing skarns, we have modeled these and similar gold-rich deposits that have a gold grade of at least 1 g/t and exhibit distinctive skarn mineralogy. Two subtypes, Au-skarns and byproduct Au-skarns, can be recognized on the basis of gold, silver, and base-metal grades, although many other geological factors apparently are still undistinguishable largely because of a lack of detailed studies of the Au-skarns. Median grades and tonnage for 40 Au-skarn deposits are 8.6 g/t Au, 5.0 g/t Ag, and 213,000 t. Median grades and tonnage for 50 byproduct and Au-skarn deposits are 3.7 g/t Au, 37 g/t Ag, and 330,000 t. Gold-bearing skarns are generally calcic exoskarns associated with intense retrograde hydrosilicate alteration. These skarns may contain economic amounts of numerous other commodities (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, As, Bi, W, Sb, Co, Cd, and S) as well as gold and silver. Most Au-bearing skarns are found in Paleozoic and Cenozoic orogenic-belt and island-arc settings and are associated with felsic to intermediate intrusive rocks of Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Native gold, electru, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth minerals, and magnetite or hematite are the most common opaque minerals. Gangue minerals typically include garnet (andradite-grossular), pyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite), wollastonite, chlorite, epidote, quartz, actinolite-tremolite, and (or) calcite.

  12. [Arteriovenous fistula of the spleen revealed by ascites and profuse diarrhea. A case report including ultrasonography and arteriography findings (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wenger, J J; Matter, D; Dupeyron, J P; Kretz, J G; Challan-Belval, P; Warter, P

    1981-05-01

    Abdominal pain, ascites and diarrhea revealed acute portal hypertension in a young woman. Ultrasonography and angiography demonstrated the causative congenital arterio-venous fistula of the splenic vessels. Surgery was successfully performed.

  13. Development of hybrid bearing system with thrust superconducting magnetic bearing and radial active electromagnetic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolsky, R.; Pereira, A. S.; de Andrade, R.; David, D. F. B.; Santisteban, J. A.; Stephan, R. M.; Ripper, A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Strasser, T.

    A superconducting/electromagnetic hybrid bearing system is currently under development and test. This system consists of a thrust superconducting magnetic bearing and a double radial active electromagnetic bearing/motor devices. The thrust bearing has been designed using NdFeB permanent magnets levitating on a set of superconducting monoliths of YBCO, prepared by top seeded melt texturing technique, which supports the weight of the rotor. The bearing/motor devices were conceived as 4-pole 2-phase induction machine using stator windings for delivering torque and radial positioning simultaneously. Using this superconducting axial bearing and the active bearings for the rotor radial positioning, a fully levitating vertical-shaft inductive machine has been tested. The tests were successful in reaching a controlled levitation up to 6,300 rpm.

  14. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  15. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  16. Myocardial expression of transforming growth factor beta family and endothelin-1 in the progression from heart failure to ascites in broilers with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Castañeda, Gabriel; Dominguez-Avila, Norma; González-Ramírez, Javier; Fernandez-Jaramillo, Nora; Escoto-Herrera, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis Manuel; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Bojalil, Rafael; Espinosa-Cervantes, Roman; Sánchez, Fausto

    2015-11-13

    We determined mRNA expression of genes of endothelin-1 (ET-1), and of the transforming growth factor beta ligands (TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and TGFβ3), their receptors (TβRI and TβRII) and their pseudoreceptor BAMBI in the heart of broilers raised under cold temperature conditions and affected by pulmonary hypertension. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR in right myocardial ventricle samples from 4-week-old chickens (n = 48) raised either under normal (control) or cold temperature conditions (22 °C versus 14 °C). We do not find differences among healthy birds, birds with cardiac failure and ascitic birds in the mRNA levels of TGFβ2, TGFβ3 and BAMBI. In the control group, ET-1 mRNA level was increased in the ascitic birds as compared with healthy birds and birds with cardiac failure (p < 0.05) whereas in the cold treated group, no increase was observed (p > 0.05); yet, ascitic birds in the cold group showed lower mean than ascitic birds in the control group (p < 0.05). TβRII mRNA expression was higher in ascitic than in healthy birds (p < 0.05) in both control and cold treated groups; however, in the ascitic birds of the cold treated group TβRII expression was lower than in ascitic birds from the control group (p < 0.05). Thus, the higher ET-1 and TβRII levels observed in ascitic birds seem to be attenuated by cold.

  17. Reduction in bearing size due to superconductors in magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Lewis, Paul; Dill, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept that reduces the size of magnetic bearings is assessed. The small size will enable magnetic bearings to fit into limited available bearing volume of cryogenic machinery. The design concept, called SUPERC, uses (high Tc) superconductors or high-purity aluminum conductors in windings instead of copper. The relatively high-current density of these conductors reduces the slot radial thickness for windings, which reduces the size of the bearings. MTI developed a sizing program called SUPERC that translates the high-current density of these conductors into smaller sized bearings. This program was used to size a superconducting bearing to carry a 500 lb. load. The sizes of magnetic bearings needed by various design concepts are as follows: SUPERC design concept = 3.75 in.; magnet-bias design concept = 5.25 in.; and all electromagnet design concept = 7.0 in. These results indicate that the SUPERC design concept can significantly reduce the size of the bearing. This reduction, in turn, reduces the weight and yields a lighter bearing. Since the superconductors have inherently near-zero resistance, they are also expected to save power needed for operation considerably.

  18. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Timothy Raymond; Thom, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC ) based solvents, such as Freon and 1,1,1, Trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanisms. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change to new ODC-free cleaners for the precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0* 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  19. Hemorrhagic ascites from spontaneous ectopic mesenteric varices rupture in NASH induced cirrhosis and successful outcome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Edula, Raja G R; Qureshi, Kamran; Khallafi, Hicham

    2014-07-07

    Bleeding from gastro-esophageal varices can often present as the first decompensating event in patients with cirrhosis. This can be a potentially life threatening event associated with a 15%-20% early mortality. We present a rare case of new onset ascites due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage from ruptured mesenteric varices; in a 37 years old male with newly diagnosed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced cirrhosis as the first decompensating event. The patient was successfully resuscitated with emergent evacuation of ascites for diagnosis, identification and control of bleeding mesenteric varices and eventually orthotopic liver transplantation with successful outcome. Various clinical presentations, available treatment options and outcomes of ectopic variceal bleeding are discussed in this report.

  20. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy as palliative treatment for malignant ascites A single-center experience and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Luigina; Marino, Elisabetta; De Angelis, Verena; Rebonato, Alberto; Donini, Annibale

    Malignant ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity of patients with intraperitoneal cancer dissemination. This clinical condition could represent the terminal evolution of a lethal disease and could influence the prognosis, severely impairing the patients' quality of life. Treatment options include a multitude of different procedures with limited efficacy and some degree of risk; diuretics, paracentesis, peritoneo-venous shunts and intraperitoneal biologic agents like anti-VEGF molecules, metalloproteinase inhibitors and immunomodulators are included. None of these approaches have been established as a standard of care because of their low efficacy or severe side effects. The last two decades saw the emergence of cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) as a viable therapeutic approach resulting in an effective cure against refractory malignant ascites. The following describes our experiences with 3 cases together with a literature review.

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Treatment of Cirrhosis-related Chylothorax and Chylous Ascites: Single-institution Retrospective Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kikolski, Steven G. Aryafar, Hamed Rose, Steven C.; Roberts, Anne C.; Kinney, Thomas B.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation to treat cirrhosis-related chylous collections (chylothorax and chylous ascites).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed data from four patients treated for refractory cirrhosis-related chylous collections with TIPS at our institution over an 8 year period.ResultsOne patient had chylothorax, and three patients had concomitant chylothorax and chylous ascites. There were no major complications, and the only procedure-related complications occurred in two patients who had mild, treatable hepatic encephalopathy. All patients had improvement as defined by decreased need for thoracentesis or paracentesis, with postprocedure follow-up ranging from 19 to 491 days.ConclusionTIPS is a safe procedure that is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis-related chylous collections.

  2. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOEpatents

    Claassen, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  3. Prototype testing of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, David P.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Frommer, David A.; Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.

    1987-01-01

    The testing and evaluation of the performance of a magnetic bearing assembly for flywheel energy storage applications are discussed. The experimental set up for determining the passive radial stiffness, active radial stiffness, and curent force sensitivity of the coils follows the method developed by Frommer (1986). Magnetic bearings design should preclude saturation and current limiting in the desired operating range, so that the system will be linear. A larger linear range will lead to a more stable magnetic bearing.

  4. Series-hybrid bearing - An approach to extending bearing fatigue life at high speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Coe, H. H.; Fleming, D. P.; Parker, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fluid film bearing of hybrid device consists of orifice compensated annular thrust bearing and self-acting journal bearing. In series hybrid bearing, both ball bearing and annular thrust bearing carry full system thrust load, but two bearings share speed. Operation of system is stable and automatically fail-safe.

  5. Sequence analysis of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II mRNA from ascitic and nonascitic commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Cisar, C R; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Donoghue, A M

    2003-10-01

    Ascites syndrome, also known as pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), is a common metabolic disorder in rapidly growing meat-type chickens. Environmental factors, such as cold, altitude, and diet, play significant roles in development of the disease, but there is also an important genetic component to PHS susceptibility. The human disease familial primary pulmonary hypertension (FPPH) is similar to PHS in broilers both genetically and physiologically. Several recent studies have shown that mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene are a cause of FPPH in humans. To determine whether mutations in the chicken BMPR2 gene play a similar role in PHS susceptibility, BMPR-II mRNA from ascitic and nonascitic commercial broilers were sequenced and compared with the published Leghorn chicken BMPR-II mRNA sequence. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in the commercial broiler BMPR-II mRNA. No mutations unique to ascites-susceptible broilers were present in the coding, 5' untranslated or 3' untranslated regions of BMPR-II mRNA. The twelve SNP present within the coding region of BMPR-II mRNA were synonymous substitutions and did not alter the BMPR-II protein sequence. In addition, analysis of BMPR2 gene expression by reverse transcriptase-PCR indicated that there were no differences in BMPR-II mRNA levels in ascitic and nonascitic birds. Therefore, it appears unlikely that mutations in the BMPR2 gene were responsible for susceptibility to PHS in these commercial broilers.

  6. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line.

  7. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the incidence of ascites in broilers in response to feed restriction and litter oiling.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-04-01

    The effect of feed restriction and the application of canola oil to broiler straw litter to contain respirable dust on growth performance, carcass traits, and the incidence of ascites was evaluated with 800 male broilers studied in two 6-wk periods. Two pens of birds were feed restricted. Two pens of birds received feed ad libitum for the 6-wk trial. One restricted and one ad libitum pen received biweekly addition of canola oil to the litter. At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fat pad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for the incidence of ascites at processing. A cross sectional image of each heart was digitally recorded and, using image analysis, the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. The right ventricular wall was removed and its weight was expressed as a percentage of total heart weight (PRVW). The 40-d BW was significantly greater in the ad libitum birds (2.07 kg) than in the feed-restricted birds (1.86 kg). The right ventricular weight (RVW) (1.69 and 1.92 g) and the RVA (0.35 and 0.40 cm2) were also significantly different between the two feeding treatments. The ascites score was significantly correlated to the RVW (r = 0.50) and RVA (r = 0.52). The RVA was also correlated to the RVW (r = 0.63). Oiling the litter did not result in differences in carcass characteristics. Litter oiling significantly reduced the RVA of the ad libitum birds (0.36 cm2) compared to the ad libitum birds that did not have oiled litter (0.44 cm2). Feed restriction reduced the incidence of ascites, but also reduced gain. Litter oiling in the feed-restricted groups reduced the RVA, but did not reduce mortality.

  8. Anticancer and immunoregulatory activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharides in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Lihua; Ren, Yingang; Gao, Yanli; Kang, Li; Qiao, Qing

    2014-08-01

    A neutral polysaccharide fraction (CGPP) was extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum by water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that the CGPP was mainly composed of mannose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and glucuronic acid in molar ratios of 2.0:2.2:1.3:2.2:1.2:2.5. The present study aimed at evaluating the antitumor potentials of CGPP on the growth of H22 tumor transplanted in mice and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that CGPP (50 and 200mg/kg) could effectively inhibit the solid tumor growth of H22 hepatocarcinoma transplanted in ICR mice. Besides, the body weight, spleen/thymus indexes and splenocytes proliferation of H22 tumor bearing mice were also improved in CGPP-treated groups. Furthermore, the level of the cytokines, such as IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ, as well as the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in tumor-bearing mice were markedly promoted by CGPP oral administration. In addition, CGPP treatment greatly prolonged the survival period in H22 ascites tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that CGPP has antitumor activity in vivo at least partly via improving immune responses of host organism, and seems to be a safe and effective supplementary agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  9. Evaluation of shuttle turbopump bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrane, K. F.; Kannel, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Because the high pressure turbopumps used on the space shuttle main engine (SSME) are high speed machines and rotor dynamics analysis of these units is very complicated, it was considered necessary to verify calculated turbomachinery shaft bearing loads by analysis of ball bearing load tracks. This report presents the methods used and the results of load track analysis on one set of bearings removed from a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump which had been subjected to SSME static firing tests. This type of analysis was found useful in determining bearing operating conditions and for verifying rotor dynamics computer models.

  10. Segregation among test-cross progeny suggests that two complementary dominant genes explain the difference between ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Cahaner, A

    2007-11-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) is a major cause of economic losses to the broiler industry. The tendency of broilers to develop AS was found to be heritable, suggesting that selective breeding could provide a solution to this problem. To further elucidate the genetic control of AS, AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R) lines were established by 3 cycles of divergent selection on pedigree data of AS mortality under AS-inducing conditions. The rapid divergence between the lines suggested the involvement of a major gene with dominance for AS resistance. It was hypothesized that the difference between the lines is controlled by a single dominant gene, denoted A, with AA (and some Aa) individuals in the AS-R line, and aa individuals in the AS-S line. The current study was designed to test this hypothesis by test-crossing heterozygous (Aa) sires from the AS-R line and F(1) from the AS-R x AS-S cross, with recessive homozygous (aa) dams from the AS-S line. A ratio of 1:1 was expected between progeny with AS vs. healthy progeny when reared under AS-inducing conditions. Test-cross progeny of 5 sires from the AS-R line segregated 1:1, indicating that these sires were heterozygous (Aa) in the suggested major gene and thus supporting the hypothesis of a single major gene with dominance of AS resistance. There was segregation among test-cross progeny of 8 F(1) sires, but with a 3:1 ratio of AS progeny to healthy progeny. The 3:1 ratio is expected if the F(1) sires are heterozygous (AaBb) with complementary interaction between the dominant alleles in 2 unlinked major genes. The segregation among test-cross progeny of the 9 heterozygous AS-R sires could also be explained by the same model. These results suggested that 2 major genes are responsible for the difference between the AS-R and AS-S lines. Resource populations derived from these lines will facilitate an efficient genomic search for these 2 genes. Once the alleles of these genes are identified and genotyping tests are

  11. Physiological parameters in broiler lines divergently selected for the incidence of ascites.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Shinder, D; Shlosberg, A; Cahaner, A; Yahav, S

    2009-09-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) is manifested in flocks of contemporary broilers that are allowed to fully manifest their genetic potential for rapid growth. After successful selection, a pair of divergent lines was established, AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R). These lines facilitate comparisons between genetically resistant and susceptible healthy young broilers when reared under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The aim of the present study was to look for predictive indicators for AS susceptibility by comparing relevant physiological parameters in the AS-S and AS-R lines under SBC and after exposure to extreme ascites-inducing conditions (AIC). In this design, a trait differing significantly between the 2 lines under SBC is expected to be a reliable indicator for selection against AS susceptibility in breeding stocks when reared under noninducing conditions. Males from the AS-S and AS-R lines were reared together under SBC to 19 d of age, then under the AIC protocol. Cumulative incidence of AS mortality was 93.2% in the AS-S line and only 9% in the AS-R line, confirming the genetic divergence between the lines. Exposure to AIC enhanced the imbalance between oxygen demands and supply in the AS-S birds and induced differences in blood parameter level between the 2 lines. The AS-S birds exhibited elevated hematocrit and red blood cell counts and a decline in oxygen saturation in the arterial blood. No difference in hemoglobin concentration was found, but calculation of hemoglobin content per 1,000 red blood cells revealed a significant reduction in hemoglobin content in the AS-S birds. Under SBC, there were no significant differences between the lines for hematocrit, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin count per 1,000 red cells, and blood oxygen saturation. However, heart rate during the first week of life was significantly higher in the AS-S birds than in the AS-R birds on d 1 and 7, suggesting that high heart rate may potentially

  12. The polar bear phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Maw, P.K. ); Lane, M.T.

    1990-02-01

    Results from measuring the thermal profile of polar bear pelts, reflectiveness of the pelts, and total thermal conversion data lead to the conclusion that the pelts from an ultra-efficient thermal diode for solar-thermal conversion. The transfer of the thermal energy from the surface of the fur to the skin where it is absorbed cannot be thermal, and therefore must be radiative. This process must have an efficiency of better than 90:0090 percent to account for measured values. The radiative transfer process is not known at present. To understand it, a detailed knowledge of the microscopic parameters of the pelts must be obtained. This is the current thrust of the polar solar research. If the process can be understood and synthesized,it will provide a major breakthrough in the area of solar-thermal energy conversion.

  13. Introduction to magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skowronski, Lori; Bisese, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Multi-axis suspension has several advantages over single axis system, in that it provides control of an object with precision in two or three orthogonal axes. In this report, we discuss the primary use of magnetic-bearing suspension and it's relevance to what was formally known as NASA's Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS). This system is an experimental pointing system with applications for the space shuttle and the space station programs. The objectives behind this magnetic suspension research project are to provide insight to the use of the ASPS configuration, to control the solar panels of the space station. This is important to maintain the correct position of the panels in relation to the sun and orbiting space station for the continuous supply of solar energy. Since the panels are suspended, they can be aligned with minimum outside interference. The approach of using magnetic suspension technology guarantees mechanical isolation since there are no contacting surfaces. This isolation reduces vibration transmission and mechanical wear which in turn extends the life of the payload and of the carrier. It should be noted that ASPS has a high pointing accuracy along the line of 0.01 arc-second. This research will be done in a laboratory setting by incorporating five bearing stations and one motion control station. We will attempt to suspend an object of dead weight similar to that of a solar panel. The long term applications may include deep-space navigation, fire control in weapon systems, and an improved mass transit system.

  14. The effects of dietary flax oil and antioxidants on ascites and pulmonary hypertension in broilers using a low temperature model.

    PubMed

    Walton, J P; Julian, R J; Squires, E J

    2001-03-01

    1. Three experiments were conducted using a low temperature model to induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ascites in broiler chickens. Diets containing 25 g or 50 g flax oil/kg food and control diets with an equivalent amount of animal/vegetable (A/V) blend oil, with and without supplemental antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) were used. The amount of PH was assessed by the ratio of right ventricle weight to total ventricle weight (RV/TV ratio). Birds were considered to suffer from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) if the RV/TV ratio was greater than 0.299. 2. In experiment 1, the test diets contained 50 g oil/kg food and were given during the grower period only. Birds fed on the flax oil diet tended to have a lower incidence of PHS, ascites and lower RV/TV ratios than birds fed on the control diet. However, when the flax oil diet was supplemented with antioxidants, the incidence of ascites, PHS, haematocrit and whole blood and plasma viscosity increased compared with birds fed on the flax oil diet without antioxidants. These effects were not seen in experiment 2, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food (25 g flax oil plus 5 g A/V blend oil/kg food compared to 30 g A/V blend oil/kg food) were given during the grower period. However, in experiment 3, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food were given from day 1 to week 8, birds fed on the control diet supplemented with antioxidants had a higher incidence of PHS than those fed on the control diet alone. 3. In all 3 experiments, there was no significant effect of dietary fat source or supplemental antioxidants on total food intake or food conversion. 4. We conclude that diets containing 50 g flax oil/kg food tend to reduce the incidence of PHS and ascites in broilers using a low temperature model but the results were not statistically significant. In some cases, supplementing diets with a combination of vitamin E and vitamin C increased the incidence of ascites and PHS.

  15. Effects of dietary L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 supplementation on performance and ascites mortality of broilers.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ailian; Guo, Yuming; Yuan, Jianmin

    2004-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites mortality of broilers. A 3 x 3 factorial arrangement was employed with three levels (0, 75 and 150 mg/kg) of L-carnitine and three levels of CoQ10 (0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) supplementation during the experiment. Five hundred and forty one-day-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into nine groups with six replicates each. All birds were fed with the basal diets from day 1 to 7 and changed to the experimental diets from day 8. During day 15 to 21 all the birds were exposed to low ambient temperature (15-18 degrees C) to induce ascites. The results showed that under this condition, growth performance of broilers were not significantly affected by CoQ10 or L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation during week 0-3 and 0-6, but body weight gain (BWG) of broilers was significantly reduced by 150 mg/ kg L-carnitine during week 0-6. Packed cell volume (PCV) of broilers was significantly decreased by L-carnitine and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation (P < 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), ascites heart index (AHI) and ascites mortality of broilers were significantly decreased by L-carnitine, CoQ10 and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation. Though no significant changes were observed in total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was increased by L-carnitine, CoQ10 and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation (P < 0.05). Malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased by CoQ10 and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation. The results indicate that dietary L-carnitine and CoQ10 supplementation reduce ascites mortality of broilers; the reason may be partially associated with their antioxidative effects.

  16. TIPS for refractory ascites: a 6-year single-center experience with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-grafts.

    PubMed

    Bercu, Zachary L; Fischman, Aaron M; Kim, Edward; Nowakowski, F Scott; Patel, Rahul S; Schiano, Thomas D; Chang, Charissa Y; Lookstein, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. This single-center study evaluated the use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stent-grafts for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement to manage portal hypertension-related refractory ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS. One hundred patients at a single tertiary care center in a major metropolitan hospital underwent TIPS placement with an ePTFE-covered stent-graft (Viatorr TIPS Endoprosthesis). Patients with portal hypertension-related ascites and preexisting hepatocellular carcinoma or liver transplant were excluded from the analysis. Records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, technical success of the TIPS procedures, and stent follow-up findings. Clinical results were assessed at 90- and 180-day intervals. RESULTS. Immediate technical success of the TIPS procedure was 100%. Of the 61 patients with documented follow-up, 55 (90.2%) had a partial or complete ascites response to TIPS creation. Of these 55 patients, nine experienced severe encephalopathy. Six of 61 patients (9.8%) did not experience a significant ascites response. Overall survival was 78.7% at 365-day follow-up. The 365-day survival was 84.2% for patients with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of less than 15, 67.0% for those with a score of 15-18, and 53.8% for those with a score of greater than 18 (p = 0.01). For patients with a MELD score of less than 18, the 365-day survival was 88.0% for those with an albumin value of 3 mg/dL or greater and 72.8% for those with an albumin value of less than 3 mg/dL (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION. TIPS placement using an ePTFE-covered stent-graft is an efficacious therapy for refractory ascites. Patients with preserved liver function-characterized by a MELD score of less than 15 or a MELD score of less than 18 and an albumin value of 3 mg/dL or greater-experience the greatest survival benefit.

  17. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  18. Spherical-Bearing Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Computer program SPHERBEAN, developed to predict thermomechanical performance characteristics of double-row spherical roller bearings over wide range of operating conditions. Analysis allows six degrees of freedom for each roller and three for each half of an optionally split cage. Program capabilities provide sufficient generality to allow detailed simulation of both high-speed and conventional bearing operation.

  19. Heritability of sudden death syndrome and its associated correlations to ascites and body weight in broilers.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, H K; McMillan, I; Chambers, J R; Julian, R J; Tranchant, C C

    2005-02-01

    (1) Genetic parameters for the sudden death syndrome (SDS) were estimated in meat-type chickens. Data were collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock). (2) The animal model was used exclusively with linear methods (LM) to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability (h2) of SDS on the liability scale was 0.30 +/- 0.002 and 0.25 +/- 0.002 in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (3) A positive genetic correlation (r(g)) with ascites (AS) was determined (approximately 0.3 +/- 0.006). However, it was not possible to estimate the rg of SDS with body weight because of the low prevalence of the defect trait studied (1.8% in the Cornish and 1-5% in the White Rock). (4) Heritability of SDS calculated using male records only was 0.45 +/- 0.009 and 0.35 +/- 0.009, and r(g) with body weight was 0.30 +/- 0.010 and 0.27 +/- 0.009, in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (5) In conclusion, the heart defect investigated was heritable with a positive genetic correlation with AS and body weight.

  20. Renal function impairment induced by change in posture in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, M; Santini, C; Trevisani, F; Baraldini, M; Ligabue, A; Gasbarrini, G

    1985-01-01

    The assumption of upright posture by patients with liver cirrhosis leads to striking activation of adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems. The tilting-induced modifications in renal function of eight healthy controls and 14 untreated patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites were related to plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, renin activity and aldosterone. All patients had preserved renal blood perfusion. All parameters were evaluated during bed rest for two hours and in the sitting posture for one hour. Basal plasma renin activity (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05), aldosterone and noradrenaline concentrations (p less than or equal to 0.01) were raised in cirrhotics. The renal function tests (creatinine clearance, filtered sodium, tubular rejection fraction, urinary sodium excretion) were significantly reduced in cirrhosis. Under basal conditions, in cirrhotic patients tubular rejection fraction and urinary sodium excretion were inversely related to both noradrenaline and aldosterone concentrations. After tilting, the noradrenaline and aldosterone integrated outputs (sigma delta) were significantly greater in cirrhosis. All renal function tests significantly decreased in cirrhotics, whereas creatinine clearance only significantly decreased in controls. Patient's tubular rejection fraction of sodium and sodium excretion were related to sigma delta aldosteronaemia (r = -0.72; p less than 0.01), but no longer to sigma delta plasma noradrenaline. PMID:3891534

  1. Importance of viability and attachment to an ascites tumor in the release of plasminogen activator.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Q.; Zhou, M.; Subbarao, V.; Ts'ao, C.

    1991-01-01

    Tumor plasminogen activator (PA) has been alleged to play a role in the growth and metastasis of tumors. Before such a role can be realized, PA first must be released from tumor cells. Having determined intra- and extracellular PA and PA-inhibitor activities in an experimental pancreatic ascites tumor grown in hamsters, the release of PA from these cells was investigated. No PA activity was detected in the suspension medium of freshly isolated tumor cells; inclusion of plasminogen, fibrinogen, or collagen in the medium yielded similar negative results. On the other hand, PA activity was demonstrated to be released in a time-dependent manner from these tumor cells embedded in fibrin clots. Plasminogen activator activity also was not found in the suspension medium of frozen-thawed tumor cells, despite the fact that most of them had breaks on their cell membrane. Unlike freshly isolated tumor cells, PA was not released from frozen-thawed cells embedded in fibrin clots. Full PA activity was demonstrated in frozen-thawed cells treated with Triton X-100, however. Frozen-thawed cells exhibited signs of severe damage, and more than 80% of them failed to exclude trypan blue. Obviously PA is released from viable tumor cells embedded in fibrin clots but not suspended in artificial medium. The PA-release mechanism, not PA itself, is destroyed in cells rendered nonviable by freeze thawing. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1902626

  2. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  3. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.

    1999-01-01

    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  4. Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

  5. Basic Expeditionary Airfield Resources (BEAR) Mission Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    FL BEAR Holloman AFB, NM Kadena, JP McAlester, OK Diego Garcia Saipan Munitions Storage Location General WRM Storage Location Capabilities • BEAR...Global BEAR Management MSgt Pedro Ramos , Supt, Global BEAR E i t & S (2G MSgt) (Vacant), Global BEAR Systems and Readiness Management (2G MSgt

  6. Genetic correlation between heart ratio and body weight as a function of ascites frequency in broilers split up into sex and health status.

    PubMed

    Closter, A M; van As, P; Elferink, M G; Crooijmanns, R P M A; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; Van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2012-03-01

    Ascites or pulmonary hypertension syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Male broilers have a higher BW and are therefore expected to be more prone to developing ascites than females. As genetic parameters might be affected by the ascites incidence, genetic parameters might differ between male and female broilers. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritability for the ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight (RATIO) and BW in male and female broilers, the genetic correlation between RATIO and BW separately for male and female broilers, and the genetic correlations between BW for ascitic and nonascitic broilers. Data were available from 7,856 broilers (3,819 males and 4,037 females). The broilers in the experiment were kept under a cold temperature regimen and increased CO(2) levels. In this study, we showed that the incidence of ascites is higher in male than in female broilers. Heritability estimates for BW at 7 wk of age were higher for male (0.22) than for female (0.17) broilers, and for RATIO heritability, estimates were higher for female (0.44) than for male (0.32) broilers. The genetic correlations between RATIO and BW measured at different ages changed from slightly positive at 2 wk of age to moderately negative at 7 wk. The change in genetic correlation was more extreme for male (from 0.01 to -0.62) than for female (from 0.13 to -0.24) broilers. The difference in ascites incidence between male and female broilers is the most likely reason for the difference in genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between BW traits measured in broilers with fluid in the abdomen and without fluid in the abdomen decreased from 0.91 at 2 wk to 0.69 at 7 wk. We conclude that under circumstances with ascites, data from male and female broilers should be analyzed separately.

  7. Risk factor analysis for massive lymphatic ascites after laparoscopic retroperitonal lymphadenectomy in gynecologic cancers and treatment using intranodal lymphangiography with glue embolization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for massive lymphatic ascites after laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in gynecologic cancer and the feasibility of treatments using intranodal lymphangiography (INLAG) with glue embolization. Methods A retrospective analysis of 234 patients with gynecologic cancer who received laparoscopic retroperitonal lymphadenectomy between April 2006 and November 2015 was done. In June 2014, INLAG with glue embolization was initiated to manage massive lymphatic ascites. All possible clinicopathologic factors related to massive lymphatic ascites were determined in the pre-INLAG group (n=163). Clinical courses between pre-INLAG group and post-INLAG group (n=71) were compared. Results In the pre-INLAG group (n=163), four patients (2.5%) developed massive lymphatic ascites postoperatively. Postoperative lymphatic ascites was associated with liver cirrhosis (three cirrhotic patients, p<0.001). In the post-INLAG group, one patient with massive lymphatic ascites had a congestive heart failure and first received INLAG with glue embolization. She had pelvic drain removed within 7 days after INLAG. The mean duration of pelvic drain and hospital stay decreased after the introduction of INLAG (13.2 days vs. 10.9 days, p=0.001; 15.2 days vs. 12.6 days, p=0.001). There was no evidence of recurrence after this procedure. Conclusion Underlying medical conditions related to the reduced effective circulating volume, such as liver cirrhosis and heart failure, may be associated with massive lymphatic ascites after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. INLAG with glue embolization can be an alternative treatment options to treat leaking lymphatic channels in patients with massive lymphatic leakage. PMID:27171674

  8. Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

  9. [FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF EHRLICH CARCINOMA CELLS AFTER TREATMENT WITH HYBRID NANOCOMPLEXES CONTAINING ORTHOVANADATES OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS, CHOLESTEROL AND LUMINESCENT DYE].

    PubMed

    Goltsev, A N; Babenko, N N; Gaevskaya, A; Chelombitko, O V; Bondarovich, N A; Dubrava, T G; Ostankov, M V; Klochkov, V K; Kavok, N S; Malyukin, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Tumor development is the consequence of expanding the population of low differentiated cells with unlimited self-maintenance potential, i.e. cancer stem cells (CSCs). Application of new forms of nanocomposites capable of binding to CSCs and inducing the tumor destruction is perspective direction for treating this pathology. There have been developed the methods of obtaining hybrid nanocomplexes containing rare-earth orthovanadates GdYVO4:Eu³⁺, cholesterol and luminescent dye Dil. By immune fluorescence method using monoclonal antibodies to CD44, CD24, CD117 and Sca-1 markers there has been established the change in the ratio of tumor progenitors of various differentiation levels in a general pool of Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) after treatment with hybrid nanocomplexes. Essential reduction in the concentration of the most tumorogenic CD44high cells with simultaneous rise in the number of CD117⁺-cells resulted in an increased index of CD44high/CD117⁺ ratio. It has been demonstrated that application of hybrid nanocomplexes suppressed the tumor growth almost by 80%. The value of cooperative interactions of the cells with different phenotype signs in tumor sites has been proved. The index of CD44high/CD117⁺ ratio can be used as one of diagnostic and prognostic parameters of development and inactivation rate of tumor process when using different types of anti-tumor therapy.

  10. The Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on an oxide surface: a combined Monte-Carlo and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Vasudevan, Rama K

    2015-11-13

    The controlled growth of epitaxial films of complex oxides requires an atomistic understanding of key parameters determining final film morphology, such as termination dependence on adatom diffusion, and height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. Here, through an in situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of mixed-terminated La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 (LCMO) films, we image adatoms and observe pile-up at island edges. Image analysis allows determination of the population of adatoms at the edge of islands and fractions on A-site and B-site terminations. A simple Monte-Carlo model, simulating the random walk of adatoms on a sinusoidal potential landscape using Boltzmann statistics is used to reproduce the experimental data, and provides an estimate of the ES barrier as ∼0.18 ± 0.04 eV at T = 1023 K, similar to those of metal adatoms on metallic surfaces. These studies highlight the utility of in situ imaging, in combination with basic Monte-Carlo methods, in elucidating the factors which control the final film growth in complex oxides.

  11. Effects of bearing cleaning and lube environment on bearing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Running torque data of SR6 ball bearings are presented for different temperatures and speeds. The data are discussed in contrast to generally used torque prediction models and point out the need to obtain empirical data in critical applications. Also, the effects of changing bearing washing techniques from old, universally used CFC-based systems to CFC-free aqueous/alkaline solutions are discussed. Data on wettability, torque and lubricant life using SR3 ball bearings are presented. In general, performance is improved using the new aqueous washing techniques.

  12. SSME turbopump bearing analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Merriman, T.

    1980-01-01

    Three shuttle pump bearings operating under severe overspeed and shut-down conditions are evaluated. The specific parameters investigated include outer race stresses, cage stresses, cage-race drag, bearing heating, and crush loading. A quasi-dynamic version of the BASDAP computer code was utilized which involved the calculation of ball-race forces (inner and outer), contact pressures, contact dimensions, and contact angles as a function of (1) axial load, (2) radial load, and (3) centrifugal load on the bearing. Generally, radial loads on the order of 13,300 N (3000 pounds) per bearing or 26,700 N (6000 pounds) per bearing pair, could be expected to cause severe problems to any of the bearings with a 17,800 N (4000 pounds) axial load. Further, when possible temperature excursions are considered, even a load of 8900 N (2000 pounds) may be excessive. However, high momentary radial loads with a 3800 N (850 pounds) axial load would not be anticipated to cause catastrophic failure of the fuel pump bearing.

  13. Magnetic Bearings at Draper Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondoleon, Anthony S.; Kelleher, William P.; Possel, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings, unlike traditional mechanical bearings, consist of a series of components mated together to form a stabilized system. The correct design of the actuator and sensor will provide a cost effective device with low power requirements. The proper choice of a control system utilizes the variables necessary to control the system in an efficient manner. The specific application will determine the optimum design of the magnetic bearing system including the touch down bearing. Draper for the past 30 years has been a leader in all these fields. This paper summarizes the results carried out at Draper in the field of magnetic bearing development. A 3-D radial magnetic bearing is detailed in this paper. Data obtained from recently completed projects using this design are included. One project was a high radial load (1000 pound) application. The second was a high speed (35,000 rpm), low loss flywheel application. The development of a low loss axial magnetic bearing is also included in this paper.

  14. Hybrid Hydrostatic/Transient Roller Bearing Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed bearing assembly for shaft of high-speed turbopump includes both hydrostatic and rolling-element bearings. Rolling-element bearing unloaded at high speed by centrifugal expansion of outer race and transient retainer.

  15. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  16. Case Report: Detection and quantification of tumor cells in peripheral blood and ascitic fluid from a metastatic esophageal cancer patient using the CellSearch ® technology

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Qian; Bittencourt, Marcelo De Carvalho; Cai, Huili; Bastien, Claire; Lemarie-Delaunay, Camille; Bene, Marie C; Faure, Gilbert C

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of ascitic fluid should help to identify and characterize malignant cells in gastrointestinal cancer. However, despite a high specificity, the sensitivity of traditional ascitic fluid cytology remains insufficient, at around 60%. Since 2004 the CellSearch ® technology has shown its advantages in the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood, which can perform an accurate diagnosis and molecular analysis at the same time. To our knowledge, no previous study has explored the potential utility of this technology for the detection and quantification of tumor cells in ascitic fluid samples. Herein we report a case of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 70-year-old man presenting with dysphagia and a large amount of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Analysis of a peripheral blood sample and ascites sample with the CellSearch ® technology both revealed the presence of putative tumor cells that were positive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cytokeratin (CK) expression. This study confirmed the hematogenous dissemination of esophageal cancer by the detection of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood, and is the first to demonstrate that tumor cells can be identified in ascitic fluid by using CellSearch ® technology. PMID:25075284

  17. Performance and physiological variables in broiler chicken lines differing in susceptibility to the ascites syndrome: 1. Changes in blood gases as a function of ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Buys, N; Scheele, C W; Kwakernaak, C; van der Klis, J D; Decuypere, E

    1999-03-01

    1. Male broilers of 5 genetic stocks (A, B, C, D, E) selected in different ways for fast growth and low food conversion ratio (FCR) and differing in ascites sensitivity were subjected to 2 different ambient temperature step down regimens: high temperature (HT: 33 to 20 degrees C over 33 d) and low temperature (LT: 30 to 15 degrees C over 17 d). 2. Ascites incidence was recorded daily. Food intake and body weight gain were measured weekly and FCR was calculated. Heat production (Hp) was calculated using the comparative slaughter method. At 28 d venous samples were taken for blood gas analysis and haematocrit and relative heart, lung and liver weights were recorded. 3. Populations A and C showed the highest growth rates combined with a low FCR and a higher ascites incidence. A low FCR in these stocks was attributable to low values for Hp. These stocks also had low PO2 and high pCO2 in venous blood at low ambient temperature compared with other stocks. Stock B, which exhibited the slowest growth rate and the highest FCR, was not susceptible to ascites and showed higher Hp and PO2 and pCO2 at low ambient temperature. Populations D and E were intermediate for almost all variables. Heart and lung weights were both increased at LT, while liver weight did not differ between temperature regimes. 4. Our results show that a high haematocrit is not necessarily linked with an increased susceptibility to ascites.

  18. An angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril can be transformed to an active metabolite, benazeprilat, by the liver of dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Ohba, Yasunori; Kuwahara, Yasuhito; Ohne, Rieko; Kondo, Masahiro; Nakano, Masakazu; Sasaki, Yoshihide; Kitoh, Katsuya

    2003-06-01

    To examine whether an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, benazepril, can be transformed to the active metabolite, benazeprilat, by severely injured liver of dogs with ascitic heartworm disease, benazepril hydrochloride was administered orally to dogs once daily for 7 consecutive days at a dose rate of 0.29 mg/kg to 0.63 mg/kg of body weight, and plasma benazepril and benazeprilat concentrations were determined on the 1st and 7th administration days. In 7 dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease, plasma benazeprilat concentrations tended to be higher than in 7 control dogs both on the 1st and 7th administration days. The peak concentration and area under the concentration-time curve tended to be greater in dogs of the ascites group than in control dogs, but the statistics could not detect significant differences in the time to peak concentration and t(1/2) between the control and ascites groups. Plasma ACE activities decreased after administration of benazepril. In dogs with ascitic heartworm disease, benazepril was readily transformed to benazeprilat by the liver, and was effective for suppression of plasma ACE activity.

  19. Mixed lymphocyte reactivity against normal cells by splenic lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice : ii. Studies of autoimmune-like activity in completely syngeneic and semisyngeneic systems.

    PubMed

    Devlin, R G; McCurdy, J D; Baronowsky, P E

    1974-01-01

    A possible consequence of an antilymphocytic autoimmune process would be serious impairment of an animal's ability to destroy tumor cells. One measure of autoimmune reactivity of this type would be the demonstration of cellular immune responsiveness by cells from tumor-bearing mice against syngeneic normal cells. These experiments demonstrate that spleen cells from mice bearing a lymphocytic leukemia of identical histocompatability type as the host mounted a vigorous immune response against normal syngeneic cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Moreover, ascitic cells from leukemic mice responded significantly to normal syngeneic spleen cells in MLR's. The former reactions are usually much more vigorous than the responses of normal to malignant cells. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between autoimmunity and neoplasia. Alternative explanations necessitated by the dangers involved in the interpretation of the immunology of transplantable tumors are considered.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis and Gene Identification in the Pulmonary Artery of Broilers with Ascites Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingyang; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhuang, Yu; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Tiancheng; Lin, Huayuan; Song, Yalu; Hu, Guoliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension, also known as Ascites syndrome (AS), remains a clinically challenging disease with a large impact on both humans and broiler chickens. Pulmonary arterial remodeling presents a key step in the development of AS. The precise molecular mechanism of pulmonary artery remodeling regulating AS progression remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained pulmonary arteries from two positive AS and two normal broilers for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and pathological observation. RNA-seq analysis revealed a total of 895 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with 437 up-regulated and 458 down-regulated genes, which were significantly enriched to 12 GO (Gene Ontology) terms and 4 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways (Padj<0.05) regulating pulmonary artery remodeling and consequently occurrence of AS. These GO terms and pathways include ribosome, Jak-STAT and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways which regulate pulmonary artery remodeling through vascular smooth cell proliferation, inflammation and vascular smooth cell proliferation together. Some notable DEGs within these pathways included downregulation of genes like RPL 5, 7, 8, 9, 14; upregulation of genes such as IL-6, K60, STAT3, STAT5 Pim1 and SOCS3; IKKα, IkB, P38, five cytokines IL-6, IL8, IL-1β, IL-18, and MIP-1β. Six important regulators of pulmonary artery vascular remodeling and construction like CYP1B1, ALDH7A1, MYLK, CAMK4, BMP7 and INOS were upregulated in the pulmonary artery of AS broilers. The pathology results showed that the pulmonary artery had remodeled and become thicker in the disease group. Conclusions/Significance Our present data suggested some specific components of the complex molecular circuitry regulating pulmonary arterial remodeling underlying AS progression in broilers. We revealed some valuable candidate genes and pathways that involved in pulmonary artery remodeling further contributing to the AS