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Sample records for beating heart coronary

  1. On-pump beating heart coronary revascularization: Is it valid for emergency revascularization?

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ahmet; Erkut, Bilgehan

    2015-01-01

    On-pump beating heart coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may be considered as an alternative to the conventional on-pump surgery in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome requiring emergency revascularization. This study reports our clinical experience and early outcomes with the on-pump beating heart coronary surgery on patients with acute coronary syndrome. A retrospective study conducted from August 2009 to October 2015, in a regional training and research hospital in Turkey. A total of 1432 patients underwent isolated CABG at our institution. A total of 316 of these patients underwent the on-pump beating heart procedure without cardioplegic arrest by the same surgeon. The time interval from the onset of acute myocardial infarction to CABG was 10 (2.2) hours. The mean number of grafts was 3.0 (0.6). Hospital mortality was 2.9% (9 patients). Twelve patients had low cardiac output syndromes after surgery. Eight of them had renal dysfunction but none of them needed hemodialysis. The mean intensive care unit stay was 3 (2) days and the mean hospital length of stay was 7 (4) days. We think that the on-pump beating heart revascularization technique can be a good choice for emergency CABG of high-risk patients with a multivessel coronary artery disease.

  2. Autoregulation of coronary blood flow in the isolated beating pig heart.

    PubMed

    Schampaert, Stéphanie; van 't Veer, Marcel; Rutten, Marcel C M; van Tuijl, Sjoerd; de Hart, Jurgen; van de Vosse, Frans N; Pijls, Nico H J

    2013-08-01

    The isolated beating pig heart model is an accessible platform to investigate the coronary circulation in its truly morphological and physiological state, whereas its use is beneficial from a time, cost, and ethical perspective. However, whether the coronary autoregulation is still intact is not known. Here, we study the autoregulation of coronary blood flow in the working isolated pig heart in response to brief occlusions of the coronary artery, to step-wise changes in left ventricular loading conditions and contractile states, and to pharmacologic vasodilating stimuli. Six slaughterhouse pig hearts (473 ± 40 g) were isolated, prepared, and connected to an external circulatory system. Through coronary reperfusion and controlled cardiac loading, physiological cardiac performance was achieved. After release of a coronary occlusion, coronary blood flow rose rapidly to an equal (maximum) level as the flow during control beats, independent of the duration of occlusion. Moreover, a linear relation was found between coronary blood flow and coronary driving pressure for a wide variation of preload, afterload, and contractility. In addition, intracoronary administration of papaverine did not yield a transient increase in blood flow indicating the presence of maximum coronary hyperemia. Together, this indicates that the coronary circulation in the isolated beating pig heart is in a permanent state of maximum hyperemia. This makes the model excellently suitable for testing and validating cardiovascular devices (i.e., heart valves, stent grafts, and ventricular assist devices) under well-controlled circumstances, whereas it decreases the necessity of sacrificing large mammalians for performing classical animal experiments. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  3. [Minimally invasive robotic coronary bypass on the beating heart using da Vinci S system].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chang-qing; Yang, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Li, Li-xia; Wang, Jia-li; Xiao, Cang-song; Zhou, Qi

    2009-04-15

    To summarize the experience of minimally invasive robotic coronary bypass on beating heart using da Vinci S in China. Fifty-six patients underwent selected robotic coronary bypass on beating heart from April 2007 to December 2008. All the patients had history of angina and the coronary arteriography showed severe stenosis in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), of which 10 cases had right coronary artery or left circumflex coronary (LCX) stenosis. The age was 33 to 74 years old, with a mean of (55.8 +/- 9.4) years old. The weight was (71.4 +/- 13.2) kg. All the patients had good lung function and had no medical history of pleurisy and thoracic surgery. CT scan of double internal thoracic artery (ITA) was routinely checked preoperatively. The procedures included: (1) The robotically assisted endoscopic atraumatic coronary artery bypass surgery. The approach was via a small left anterior thoracotomy (6 to 8 cm) after robotic ITA was taken down. The ITA was manually anastomosed to the LAD or LCX on beating heart. (2) Totally endoscopic coronary bypass graft on beating heart. After ITA harvesting, the endo stabilizer was inserted via the fourth port in the xiphoid area under endoscopic vision. The left ITA to the LAD grafting was done using U-clips on beating heart in a totally endoscopic manner using da Vinci S system through 4 ports. For all patients the ITA flow was checked by the Doppler flowmeter after anastomosis was completed. After the surgery was completed, the thoracic port was checked carefully to avoid bleeding. The operating procedures and a variety of clinical parameters were recorded and analyzed. (3) Stent placement after robotic surgery in a hybrid manner. The graft patency rate was evaluated by CT or arteriography. All patients successfully accepted robotic minimally invasive coronary bypass on the beating heart using da Vinci S surgical system without complications. The mean graft flow was (23.2 +/- 16.7) ml/min. And there was no surgical

  4. Coronary image quality of 320-MDCT in patients with heart rates above 65 beats per minute: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Allan B; Nandurkar, Dee; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E; Crossett, Marcus; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Cameron, James D; Troupis, John M

    2011-06-01

    High heart rate may negatively influence the image quality of cardiac CT. The technical advances of 320-MDCT may overcome issues with poor image quality associated with high heart rate. This study aimed to evaluate the coronary image quality of 320-MDCT in patients with heart rates above 65 beats/min. Patients who presented for cardiac CT were divided into two groups according to heart rate, either greater than 65 beats/min or less than or equal to 65 beats/min. Two radiologists were blinded to the patient groups and evaluated images of 15 coronary artery segments per patient using 320-MDCT with consensus agreement. The image quality was scored subjectively as 1 or 2 (diagnostic quality) or 3 (poor quality and nondiagnostic). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, and body mass index (p > 0.05). The median heart rate was 70 beats/min (range, 67-110 beats/min) for the group with heart rate greater than 65 beats/min and 60 beats/min (range, 48-65 beats/min) for the group with heart rate less than or equal to 65 beats/min (p < 0.001). In patients with heart rates greater than 65 beats/min, diagnostic quality images (scores of 1 or 2) were obtained in 95.6% of the analyzed segments, compared with 96.9% in the group with heart rate less than or equal to 65 beats/min (p = 0.7). Our initial evaluation suggests that coronary artery images of diagnostic quality can be obtained using 320-MDCT in most patients with heart rates greater than 65 beats/min, in percentages similar to those for patients with heart rates less than or equal to 65 beats/min. This finding may be the result of the inherent image acquisition and reconstruction technique of 320-MDCT.

  5. Emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery for acute coronary syndrome: beating heart versus conventional cardioplegic cardiac arrest strategies.

    PubMed

    Rastan, Ardawan Julian; Eckenstein, Judith Isabell; Hentschel, Bettina; Funkat, Anne Kathrin; Gummert, Jan Fritz; Doll, Nicolas; Walther, Thomas; Falk, Volkmar; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2006-07-04

    Aim of this study was to compare the outcome of beating heart versus conventional coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) strategies in acute coronary syndromes for emergency indications. 638 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving emergency CABG surgery via midline sternotomy from January 2000 to September 2005 were evaluated. Propensity score analysis was used to predict the probability of undergoing beating heart (BH) (n=240) versus cardioplegic cardiac arrest (CA) (n=398) strategies. Patients presented with stable hemodynamics (n=531) or in cardiogenic shock (CS) (n=107). Hospital and follow-up outcome was compared by propensity score adjusted multiregression analysis. BH included 116 on-pump and 124 off-pump (OPCAB) procedures. There was a propensity to operate CS patients on the beating heart (multivariate odds ratio [OR], 3.8; P=0.001). Under stable hemodynamics significant predictors for BH selection were logEuroSCORE >20% (OR, 2.05), creatinine >1.8 mg/dL (OR, 4.12), complicated percutaneous coronary intervention (OR, 1.88), ejection fraction <30% (OR, 2.64), whereas left main disease (OR, 0.68), circumflex artery (OR, 0.32), and 3-vessel disease (OR, 0.67) indicated preference for cardioplegic arrest. Time from skin incision to culprit lesion revascularization was significantly reduced in BH patients. BH surgery led to a significant benefit in terms of less drainage loss, less transfusion requirement, less inotropic support, shorter ventilation time, lower stroke rate, and shorter intensive care unit stay. In CS, BH was associated with lower incidence of stroke, inotropic support, acute renal failure, new atrial fibrillation and sternal wound healing complications. In CS patients, hospital mortality rate was reduced when using beating heart strategies (P=0.048). Overall survival, major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular event rate, and repeated revascularization was comparable during a 5-year follow-up. Beating heart strategies are

  6. On-pump beating heart coronary surgery for high risk patients requiring emergency multiple coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; Stalder, Nicolas; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2008-07-02

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegic arrest remains the method of choice for patients requiring standard myocardial revascularization. Therefore, very high-risk patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, onset of cardiac decompensation and requiring emergency multiple myocardial revascularization, can have a poor outcome. The on-pump beating heart technique can reduce the mortality and the morbidity in such a selected group of patients and this report describes our clinical experience. Out of 290 patients operated for CABG from January 2005 to January 2006, 25 (8.6%) selected high-risk patients suffering from life threatening coronary syndrome (mean age 69 +/- 7 years) and requiring emergency multiple myocardial revascularization, underwent on-pump beating heart surgery. The mean pre-operative left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was 27 +/- 8%. The majority of them (88%) suffered of tri-vessel coronary disease and 6 (24%) had a left main stump disease. Nine patients (35%) were on severe cardiac failure and seven among them (28%) received a pre-operative intra-aortic balloon pump. The pre-operative EuroScore rate was equal or above 8 in 18 patients (73%). All patients underwent on-pump-beating heart coronary revascularization. The mean number of graft/patient was 2.9 +/- 0.6 and the internal mammary artery was used in 23 patients (92%). The mean CPB time was 84 +/- 19 minutes. Two patients died during the recovery stay in the intensive care unit, and there were no postoperative myocardial infarctions between the survivors. Eight patients suffered of transitorily renal failure and 1 patient developed a sternal wound infection. The mean hospital stay was 12 +/- 7 days. The follow-up was complete for all 23 patients survived at surgery and the mean follow-up time was 14 +/- 5 months. One patient died during the follow-up for cardiac arrest and 2 patients required an implantable cardiac defibrillator. One

  7. Is it time to adopt beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting? A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Emad Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Avoiding the morbidity of cardiopulmonary bypass should theoretically reduce the incidence of organ dysfunction and lead to improved patient outcomes. Recently, cardiac mechanical stabilization techniques were developed, facilitating on-pump CABG (OPCAB). The use of CPB may influence the economic outcome, while maintaining quality of care and patient satisfaction. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Science Citation Index (SCI), Current Contents, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NEED), and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) databases were searched from the date of their inception to the end of March 2008, using the search terms off-pump, minimally invasive, beating heart, coronary artery bypass, and their variants. Off-pump revascularization offers a safe, cost-effective alternative to conventional coronary revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass (CABG) and cardioplegic arrest.

  8. Beating heart continuous coronary perfusion for valve surgery: what next for clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Salhiyyah, Kareem; Raja, Shahzad G; Akeela, Hiba; Pepper, John; Amrani, Mohamed

    2010-11-01

    Prior to the introduction of cardioplegia, beating heart continuous coronary perfusion (BHCCP) was the only available method of myocardial protection. Currently, cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest is the gold standard strategy. Cardioplegic arrest provides an easier and safer way to operate on a still heart. It enables the performance of a broader range of cardiac procedures, and avoids the potential difficulties of continuous perfusion on a beating heart. Despite the overall effectiveness and safety of cardioplegia, some adverse effects remain, mainly due to the insult of ischemia, which results in ischemic reperfusion injury. As a result BHCCP has seen a revival as an alternative to cardioplegia for performing complex valvular surgery. Increasing experience reporting safety and efficacy of BHCCP is being published. However, despite the reported advantages, current available evidence validating safety and efficacy of BHCCP is controversial. This article provides an overview of BHCCP highlighting the current best available evidence supporting this strategy, concerns, controversies and potential areas for further research.

  9. Off-pump or on-pump beating heart: which technique offers better outcomes following coronary revascularization?

    PubMed

    Sepehripour, Amir H; Chaudhry, Umar A R; Harling, Leanne; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2015-04-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether on-pump beating heart coronary artery bypass (BH-ONCAB) surgery has a different outcome profile in comparison to off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). A total of 205 papers were found by systematic search of which 7 provided the largest and most recent outcome analysis comparing BH-ONCAB with OPCAB, and represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results were tabulated. Reported outcome measures included mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, myocardial damage, change in ejection fraction, number of bypass grafts and completeness of revascularization. With the exception of one study that favoured the off-pump technique, our review did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in terms of mortality between the groups. We did not identify a statistically significant difference in any reported morbidity outcomes. However, there was a trend towards better outcomes for the on-pump beating heart technique, despite a higher risk profile in terms of age, ejection fraction and burden of coronary disease in this group. Consistent statistically significant differences between the groups were the mean number of grafts performed and the completeness of revascularization, both of which were higher with the on-pump beating heart technique. Limitations to the current evidence include the finding that most of the current data arise from specialist off-pump surgeons or centres that would usually only carry out BH-ONCAB in the higher risk patients where the added safety of cardiopulmonary bypass is desired.

  10. [Flowmetric assessment of coronary bypass grafts in the conditions of artificial circulation and on the beating heart].

    PubMed

    Bazylev, V V; Nemchenko, E V; Karnakhin, V A; Pavlov, A A; Mikulyak, A I

    2016-01-01

    Advantages and shortcomings of aortocoronary bypass grafting on the beating heart and in the conditions of artificial circulation (AC) have long been discussed. The data on patency of bypass grafts in the remote period are indicative of comparable results of operations with and without AC or advantages of using AC. In order to determine benefits of each method it is necessary to reveal intraoperative predictors of bypass grafts occlusion in the remote period. We analyzed the results of ultrasound flowmetry of the blood flow through the left internal thoracic artery during bypass grafting of the anterior descending artery with the use of AC and on the beating heart. A retrospective study included a total of 352 patients subdivided into 2 groups: Group One was composed of 120 patients undergoing surgery in the conditions of AC and Group Two comprised 232 patients subjected to similar operations on the beating heart. Blood flow was measured with the help of flowmeter VeryQ MediStim® after termination of AC and inactivation of heparin by protamine, with systolic pressure of 100-110 mm Hg. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups by the diameter and degree of stenosis of the anterior descending artery, diameter of the left internal thoracic artery. The mean volumetric blood flow velocity (Qmean) along the shunts in Group One was higher (p=0.01). No statistically significant differences by the pulsatility index (PI) between the groups were revealed (p=0.2). A conclusion was drawn that coronary bypass grafting of the anterior descending artery by the left internal thoracic artery in the conditions of artificial circulation made it possible to achieve higher volumetric velocity of blood flow through the conduit as compared with operations on the beating heart, with similar resistance index. The immediate results of the operations with the use of the both techniques did not differ.

  11. [Clinical Experience of Beating Heart Atrial Septostomy Using a Device for Coronary Artery Anastomosis Site Creator].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Goro; Sai, Sadahiro; Konishi, Akinobu

    2015-09-01

    Intra-atrial communication was mandatory for several congenital cardiac diseases, such as pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS), and either sided aortoventricular valve atresia. We assessed whether the new methods of atrial septal defect(ASD)creation was effective. We experienced 4 cases of the surgical atrial septostomy performed under on-pump beating. We used a new device, a circular punch out defect creator. All cases were alive. The mean ASD diameter was enlarged from 4.37 mm to 5.55 mm and the mean ASD shunt flow was significantly decreased from 1.47 m/s to 1.11 m/s. We performed the surgical atrial septostomy using an aortic puncher under beating heart effectively and safely.

  12. Oxygen supply (HbO2) in beating hearts of 14 coronary patients obtained by tissue monitoring with optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Klaus H.; Kloevekorn, P.; Zuendorf, J.; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2002-06-01

    Local intra capillary HbO2 was monitored in beating hearts of 14 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The spectra were measured in the epicardium of the left ventricle, supplied by the left coronary artery (LAD). All selected patients suffered form stenosis or occlusion of two to three vessels. The patients suffered from severe angina and showed hypokinesia in the angiography. Micro-light guide fibers with a diameter of 75micrometers were used for monitoring before and after bypass surgery. These light guides were connected to the Erlanger Micro Light guide Spectro Photometer EMPHO for registration. Local measurements were performed in the epicardium of the left ventricle in 25 areas 2.25cm2 each. Integrated gradient fields were plotted for each of the 14 patients before and after bypass surgery. The mean values of HbO2 in the respective areas were calculated and evaluated against the local value distribution.

  13. Coronary artery bypass grafting on the beating heart without the use of extracorporeal circulation: review of 2052 cases.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, O; Vural, K M; Karagoz, H; Bayazit, K

    1998-07-01

    A total of 2052 patients operated on with the off-pump technique (coronary artery bypass grafting on the beating heart without the use of extracorporeal circulation) between June 1993 and March 1996 are retrospectively reviewed. Predictors for early mortality, perioperative myocardial infarction, and low cardiac output state were statistically analyzed. Our indications for an off-pump procedure were either patients with technically suitable coronary lesions (the vast majority) or patients who could not tolerate cannulation, hypothermia, or cardiopulmonary bypass because of the poor left ventricular function (198 patients) and/or associated diseases or conditions (73 patients). Overall operative mortality was 1.9% and perioperative myocardial infarction occurred in 59 patients (2.9%). According to logistic regression analysis, associated bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), hypertension (p = 0.05), poor quality of the left anterior descending artery (p = 0.02), and ungrafted circumflex coronary artery disease (p = 0.007) were the early mortality predictors. Nonbypassed circumflex disease was also associated with a high incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction and low cardiac output state. No homologous blood or packed red cell transfusion was required in 74.2% of the patients. On the basis of the presented data, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting appeared to be a safe and effective technique in selected patients with appropriate coronary lesions.

  14. Local Use of Ankaferd Blood Clotter in Emergent Beating Heart Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Hakan; Atalay, Atakan; Dogan, Omer F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe beeding which requiring massive blood transfusion after emergent beating heart surgery is shown to be 1–3%. Therefore, complications and side effects of transfusion can be seen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Ankaferd blood clotter (ABC) as a new topical herbal blood clotter to decrease mediastinal bleeding in emergent beating heart CABG patients who medicated with clopidogrel and acetyl salisilic acite (ASA) prior to CABG surgery. Materials and Methods: 25 CABG patients received a high dose clopidogrel (600 mgr) and 300 mgr ASA have been included into the study (ABC group). 25 patients have also been included into the study for comparison (placebo group, PG). After the administration of protamine sulphate, a 10 ml of ABC solution has been sprayed to the surgical area including mediastinum and epicardial sac. We compared mediastinal drenaige, reoperation due to tamponade, and required blood and blood products in both groups. Results: The mean amount of bleeding after operation was 230 ml in ABC group, and 490 ml in CG (P=0.001). In ICU, bleeding in ABC group and CG was 410ml and 680ml, respectively (P=0.0022). The mean total bleeding from mediastinum was 530±280 mL and 990±440 mL In ABC and CG group, respectively (P=0.001). The amount of autotransfusion was as follows: 175 mL in ABC group, and 290 mL in CG (P=0.002). No patient needed the surgical revision in ABC group, but four patients (16%) from CG group because of cardiac tamponade. Seventeen patients from CG required blood transfusion due to low hematocrite level postoperatively. In CG, the mean hematocrite level was 17±2,3. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelets in ABC group and CG were as follows: 0.2 and 0 in ABC group, and 0.3and 0.4 in CG. Conclusion: Our study showed that the local use of 10 mL ABC reduces bleeding significantly. Therefore, transfusion requirements of PRBC, platelets, and total blood units in patients on clopidogrel and ASA

  15. Beating heart myocardial revascularization on extracorporeal circulation in patients with end-stage coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Prifti, E; Bonacchi, M; Frati, G; Giunti, G; Proietti, P; Leacche, M; Massetti, M; Babatasi, G; Sani, G

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate in a cohort of ESCAD patients (pts) the effects of on-pump/beating-heart versus conventional CABG in terms of early and mid-term survival and morbidity and LV function improvement. Between January 1993 and December 2000, 78 (Group I) ESCAD pts underwent on-pump/beating-heart surgery. Mean age in Group I was 66.2+/-6 (58-79), NYHA and CCS class were 3.2+/-0.6 and 3.3+/-0.4 respectively, Myocardial viability index 0.69+/-0.1 (%), LVEF (%) 24.8+/-4, LVEDP (mmHg) 28.1+/-5.8 and LVEDD(mm) 69.5+/-6. Group II consisted in 78 ESCAD patients undergoing conventional CABG selected in a randomized fashion from an age, sex, and LVEF corrected group of patients. Mean age in Group II was 65.7+/-5 (57-78), NYHA 3.1+/-0.7, CCS 3.4+/-0.8, LVEF(%) 25+/-5, LVEDP(mmHg) 27.9+/-4.4 and LVEDD(mm) 69.2+/-7.2. Postoperatively, 5(7.7%) patients died in Group I versus 7(11.5%) patients in Group II (P>0.1). CPB time resulted to be in Group II patients (P=0.001) and the mean distal anastomoses per patient was similar between groups (P=Ns). Perioperative AMI (P=0.039), LCOS (P=0.002), necessity for ultrafiltration (P=0.018) and bleeding>1000 ml (P=0.029) were significantly higher in Group II. None of the Group I patients underwent surgical revision for bleeding versus 8(10.3%) patients in Group II (P=0.011). At 6 months after surgery, the LV function improved significantly in Group I patients, demonstrated by an increased LVEF=27.2+/-4(%)(P=0.001), lower LVEDP=26.4+/-3(mmHg)(P=0.029) and LVEDD=67+/-4(mm) (P=0.004) instead of a lower LVEDD=66.8+/-6(mm)(P=0.032) versus the preoperative data in Group II. The actuarial survival at 1, 3 and 5 yr were 90, 82 and 71% in Group I and 89, 83 and 74% in Group II (P=Ns). In ESCAD patients who may poorly tolerate cardioplegic arrest, on-pump/beating-heart CABG may be an acceptable alternative associated with lower postoperative mortality and morbidity. Such a technique offers a better myocardial and renal protection associated with lower

  16. Effects of phenylephrine and noradrenaline on coronary artery motion in an open-chest porcine beating heart model.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Seto, Yuki; Wakamatsu, Hiroki; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Shinya; Omata, Sadao; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-06-01

    During off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB), surgeons are required to perform a precise anastomosis on the beating heart. The hypotension caused by vertical displacement of the heart during OPCAB is usually treated with vasopressors, such as noradrenaline and phenylephrine. However, the effects of these agents on coronary artery motion are unknown. The present study analyzed the motion of the target coronary arteries during noradrenaline or phenylephrine infusion using three-dimensional motion capture and reconstruction technology. The left anterior descending (LAD) artery, left circumflex (LCX) artery and right coronary artery (RCA) of 12 female landrace pigs (weight 50 ± 1 kg) were stabilized using a tissue stabilizer. The motions in the regions were captured before and during noradrenaline (n = 5) and phenylephrine (n = 7) infusion. Noradrenaline (0.15 μg/kg/min) and phenylephrine (1.1 μg/kg/min) significantly increased the blood pressure. Noradrenaline significantly increased the motion parameters, such as the distance moved, maximum velocity, acceleration and deceleration at the LAD (4.2 vs. 7.9 mm, P = 0.025; 95.7 vs. 215.5 mm/s, P = 0.0074; 35.3 vs. 83.6 m/s(2), P = 0.0096 and -35.6 vs. -83.6 m/s(2), P = 0.005, respectively). The values during phenylephrine infusion did not change except for the distance moved at the LAD (3.8 vs. 7.7 mm, P = 0.042). The motion parameters at the LCX and RCA during noradrenaline and phenylephrine infusion did not change significantly. The effect of phenylephrine on the coronary artery motion was less dramatic than that of noradrenaline.

  17. Esmolol is noninferior to metoprolol in achieving a target heart rate of 65 beats/min in patients referred to coronary CT angiography: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Károlyi, Mihály; Horváth, Tamás; Szilveszter, Bálint; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Jermendy, Ádám L; Panajotu, Alexisz; Celeng, Csilla; Suhai, Ferenc I; Major, Gyöngyi P; Csobay-Novák, Csaba; Hüttl, Kálmán; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is an established tool to rule out coronary artery disease. Performance of coronary CTA is highly dependent on patients' heart rates (HRs). Despite widespread use of β-blockers for coronary CTA, few studies have compared various agents used to achieve adequate HR control. We sought to assess if the ultrashort-acting β-blocker intravenous esmolol is at least as efficacious as the standard of care intravenous metoprolol for HR control during coronary CTA. Patients referred to coronary CTA with a HR >65 beats/min despite oral metoprolol premedication were enrolled in the study. We studied 412 patients (211 male; mean age, 57 ± 12 years). Two hundred four patients received intravenous esmolol, and 208 received intravenous metoprolol with a stepwise bolus administration protocol. HR and blood pressure were recorded at arrival, before, during, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the coronary CTA scan. Mean HRs of the esmolol and metoprolol groups were similar at arrival (78 ± 13 beats/min vs 77 ± 12 beats/min; P = .65) and before scan (68 ± 7 beats/min vs 69 ± 7 beats/min; P = .60). However, HR during scan was lower in the esmolol group vs the metoprolol group (58 ± 6 beats/min vs 61 ± 7 beats/min; P < .0001), whereas HRs immediately and 30 minutes after the scan were higher in the esmolol group vs the metoprolol group (68 ± 7 beats/min vs 66 ± 7 beats/min; P = .01 and 65 ± 8 beats/min vs 63 ± 8 beats/min; P < .0001; respectively). HR ≤ 65 beats/min was reached in 182 of 204 patients (89%) who received intravenous esmolol vs 162 of 208 of the patients (78%) who received intravenous metoprolol (P < .05). Of note, hypotension (systolic BP <100 mm Hg) was observed right after the scan in 19 patients (9.3%) in the esmolol group and in 8 patients (3.8%) in the metoprolol group (P < .05), whereas only 5 patients (2.5%) had hypotension 30 minutes after the scan in the esmolol group compared to 8 patients (3.8%) in the metoprolol

  18. [Systemic coronary surgery in the beating heart. Experience in 250 cases].

    PubMed

    Cartier, R; Bouchard, D; Martineau, R; Couturier, A

    1999-01-01

    To report our recent experience with off-pump coronary artery revascularization in multi-vessel disease. Between October 1996 and August 1998, 250 off-pump (OP) procedures were completed at the Montreal Heart Institute, representing more than 90% of all procedures done during the same time frame (97% for 1998). These patients have been compared to 1870 patients operated upon under cardiopulmonary bypass during the years 1995-1996 (CPB). Mean age, sexe distribution, and preoperative risk factors were comparable for both groups. On average 2.89 +/- 0.8 and 2.84 +/- 0.6 grafts/patient were completed in OP and CPB groups respectively. A majority (70%) of patients had either a triple or quadruple bypass. Coronary anastomoses were achieved with myocardial mechanical stabilization and heart "verticalization". Ischemic time was shorter in the OP group (29.8 +/- 0.9 vs 45 +/- 0.4 min, p < 0.05). Similarly, need for transfusion was significantly less (OP: 34 vs CPB: 66%, p < 0.005). Use of postoperative intra-aortic counterpulsation as well as the raise of CK-MB were lesser in the OP group. Operative mortality (OP: 1.6%, vs CPB: 2%, p = ns) and perioperative myocardial infarction rate (OP: 3.6% vs CPB: 4.2) were comparable for both groups. Off-pump complete coronary artery revascularization is an acceptable alternative to conventional surgery in a majority of patients with good results given progressive experience, rigorous technique, and adequate coronary artery stabilization.

  19. [Complete revascularization for multi-vessel coronary diseases through lower ministernotomy on beating heart off-pump surgery].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z B; Zhang, Y; Guo, J Z; Li, Y Y; Zhang, Y P

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To discuss a novel method of complete revascularization for multi-vessel coronary diseases on beating heart off-pump surgery through lower ministernotomy. Methods: Clinical data of 79 patients underwent ministernotomy off-pump coronary artery bypass from January 2015 to May 2016 at Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. There were 62 male and 17 female patients, with an average age of (65±9) years. All the patients were multi-vessel coronary diseases and planned to receive coronary artery bypass grafting. Left internal mammary artery, radial artery and great saphenous veins were harvested and prepared, respectively. The perioperative clinical data was observed and collected. Postoperative ventilator-assisted time, intensive care time, and 24-hour thoracic mediastinal drainage volume were recorded. Postoperative cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The data were compared between pre- and post-operative using paired t test. Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 2 patients during operation because of unstable hemodynamic status, but the incision was not needed to extend for those 2 patients. The lower ministernotomy was converted to traditional full sternotomy in 2 patients due to limited space for proximal anastomosis. In total, 79 patients had an average of (2.8±0.6) grafts. One proximal anastomosis was performed in 75 patients and 2 anastomoses in 4 patients. Distal target vessels consisted of left descending arteries for 79 patients, posterior descending artery for 60 patients, obtuse marginal branch and intermediate branch for 56 patients and diagonal branches for 25 patients, respectively. Average postoperative ventilation time was (19.0±2.2) hours and ICU stay was (60±20) hours. One patient developed postoperative myocardial infarction and needed temporary intra-aortic balloon pump support. One patient was subjected to incision

  20. On-pump with beating heart or cardioplegic arrest for emergency conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass during off-pump coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Gu, Tianxiang; Shi, Enyi; Wang, Chun; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Yuhai; Lu, Chunmao

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative conversion, especially under emergent circumstances during off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB), is associated with a significantly higher rate of hospital mortality. This study compared the clinical early outcomes of patients emergently converting to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with or without cardioplegic arrest and evaluated the efficacy of an on-pump beating heart technique for these critically ill patients. A retrospective study of patients treated at The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University over an 8-year period (2005 to 2013). Between January 2005 and September 2013, 104 patients were emergently converted to CPB during OPCAB. In the first 55 patients (53%), the cardioplegic arrest was performed. In the most recent 49 patients (47%), the on-pump beating heart procedure was used without cardioplegic arrest. There were no significant differences in their baseline clinical characteristics, number of anastomoses performed per patient, and reasons for conversions (P > .05). A significant reduction occurred in the observed mortality between the cardioplegic arrest group and the on-pump beating heart group (25.6% vs 6.1%, P=.008). A statistical difference was found between the cardioplegic arrest group and the on-pump beating heart group in the time of CPB, peak cardiac troponin I, duration of inotropic support, time to extubation, intensive care unit stay, postoperative hospital stay, incidence of new intra-aortic balloon pump support, and pulmonary complications (P < .05). The incidence of blood requirements, postoperative myocardial infarction, new-onset atrial fibrillation, hemodialysis, stroke, infective complications, and resurgery for bleeding were lower in on-pump beating heart group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P > .05). The on-pump beating heart technique is the preferred method of emergency conversion to CPB during OPCAB. It has lower postoperative mortality and morbidity than the

  1. Project HeartBeat!

    PubMed Central

    Labarthe, Darwin R.; Dai, Shifan; Day, R. Sue; Fulton, Janet E.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Shah, Syed M.; Wen, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors begin development in childhood and adolescence. Project HeartBeat! studied early development of these risk factors as growth processes. Growth, body composition, sexual maturation, major CVD risk factors, and cardiac structure and function were monitored every 4 months for up to 4 years among 678 children and adolescents (49.1% girls; 20.1% blacks) aged 8, 11, or 14 years at study entry. All resided in The Woodlands or Conroe TX. Interviews were conducted at entry and annually on diet, physical activity, and health history of participants and their families. Data were collected from 1991 to 1995, and study investigators continue data analysis and reporting. Overlap in ages at examination among three cohorts (aged 8–12, 11–15, and 14–18 years at baseline) and use of multilevel modeling methods permit analysis of some 5500 observations on each principal variable for the synthetic cohort from ages 8 to 18 years. The mixed-longitudinal design provides trajectories of change with age, for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; systolic, and fourth-phase and fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular mass. These trajectories are then related to concurrent measures of multiple indices of body composition and sexual maturation and adjusted for energy intake and physical activity. The data provide valuable insights into risk factor development and suggest a fresh approach to understanding influences on blood lipids, blood pressure, and left ventricular mass during the period of childhood and adolescence, a period of dynamic change in these risk factors. PMID:19524162

  2. Beating-heart coronary artery bypass surgery with the help of mini extracorporeal circulation for very high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Munos, Emmanuel; Calderon, Joachim; Pillois, Xavier; Lafitte, Stéphane; Ouattara, Alexandre; Labrousse, Louis; Roques, Xavier; Barandon, Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Left ventricle dysfunction and co-morbidities are responsible for a large number of complications after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The best strategy for these patients, including the use or not and type of extracorporeal circulation (ECC), the use of minimized ECC (MECC), or conventional ECC (CECC), remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of on-pump beating-heart (OPBH) surgery with the help of MECC for CABG in patients with a high-risk EuroSCORE and to compare this strategy to three other different procedures, including OPCAB and MECC or CECC with cardiac arrest. Patients were included if their EuroSCORE was strictly >" xbd="1427" xhg="1404" ybd="1477" yhg="1440"/>9. Four groups were retrospectively compared: an OPCAB, an OPBH, a MECC and a CECC group under cardiac arrest. 214 patients, mean age 74.26 ± 8.5 years, 68.7% male, were operated. Mean EuroSCORE was 12.1 ± 2.9, left ventricular (LV) function 37.4 ± 12.3%, recent myocardial infarction (MI) 49.5%, renal failure 48.1%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 42.2%, and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) 55.6%. Mean number of grafts per patient was 2.4 ± 0.7. Our study showed that it was possible, in very high-risk patients, to carry out revascularisation with OPBH similar to that using MECC or CECC under cardiac arrest (p=NS). This technique reduces troponin release (3.23 vs 6.56, p<0.01), postoperative myocardial complications (2% vs 8%, p<0.01), cardiotonic drug prescription (15.7% vs 31.3%, p<0.01), ventilation time (4.57H vs 6.48H, p<0.01) and length of stay (LOS) in ICU (2.16 vs 2.53, p=0.02). The OPBH method seems to be safe, secure and effective in this population of very high-risk patients, reducing early complications and multi-organ failure. OPBH surgery, combining MECC without aortic cross-clamping, makes it possible to perform complete revascularization and is an interesting alternative for CABG in high-risk patients.

  3. ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway as an Alternative to Standard Endotracheal Tube in Securing Upper Airway in the Patients Undergoing Beating-heart Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kalpana

    2017-01-01

    Background: ProSeal laryngeal mask airways (PLMAs) are routinely used after failed tracheal intubation as airway rescue, facilitating tracheal intubation by acting as a conduit and to secure airway during emergencies. In long duration surgeries, use of endotracheal tube (ETT) is associated with various hemodynamic complications, which are minimally affected during PLMA use. However, except for few studies, there are no significant data available that promote the use of laryngeal mask during cardiac surgery. This prospective study was conducted with the objective of demonstrating the advantages of PLMA over ETT in the patients undergoing beating-heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methodology: This prospective, interventional study was carried out in 200 patients who underwent beating-heart CABG. Patients were randomized in equal numbers to either ETT group or PLMA group, and various hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were observed at different time points. Results: Patients in PLMA group had mean systolic blood pressure 126.10 ± 5.31 mmHg compared to the patients of ETT group 143.75 ± 6.02 mmHg. Pulse rate in the PLMA group was less (74.52 ± 10.79 per min) (P < 0.05) compared to ETT group (81.72 ± 9.8). Thus, hemodynamic changes were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PLMA than in ETT group. Respiratory parameters such as oxygen saturation, pressure CO2 (pCO2), peak airway pressure, and lung compliance were similar to ETT group at all evaluation times. The incidence of adverse events was also lower in PLMA group. Conclusion: In experience hand, PLMA offers advantages over the ETT in airway management in the patients undergoing beating-heart CABG. PMID:28074798

  4. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  5. Volumetric Single-Beat Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Relationship of Image Quality, Heart Rate, and Body Mass Index. Initial Patient Experience With a New Computed Tomography Scanner.

    PubMed

    Latif, Muhammad Aamir; Sanchez, Frank W; Sayegh, Karl; Veledar, Emir; Aziz, Muhammad; Malik, Rehan; Haider, Imran; Agatston, Arthur S; Batlle, Juan C; Janowitz, Warren; Peña, Constantino; Ziffer, Jack A; Nasir, Khurram; Cury, Ricardo C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) image quality (IQ) is very important for accurate diagnosis. We propose to evaluate IQ expressed as Likert scale, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from coronary CT angiography images acquired with a new volumetric single-beat CT scanner on consecutive patients and assess the IQ dependence on heart rate (HR) and body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively analyzed the data of the first 439 consecutive patients (mean age, 55.13 [SD, 12.1] years; 51.47% male), who underwent noninvasive coronary CT angiography in a new single-beat volumetric CT scanner (Revolution CT) to evaluate chest pain at West Kendall Baptist Hospital. Based on patient BMI (mean, 29.43 [SD, 5.81] kg/m), the kVp (kilovolt potential) value and tube current were adjusted within a range of 80 to 140 kVp and 122 to 720 mA, respectively. Each scan was performed in a single-beat acquisition within 1 cardiac cycle, regardless of the HR. Motion correction software (SnapShot Freeze) was used for correcting motion artifacts in patients with higher HRs. Autogating was used to automatically acquire systolic and diastolic phases for higher HRs with electrocardiographic milliampere dose modulation. Image quality was assessed qualitatively by Likert scale and quantitatively by SNR and CNR for the 4 major vessels right coronary, left main, left anterior descending, and left circumflex arteries on axial and multiplanar reformatted images. Values for Likert scale were as follows: 1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, good; 4, very good; and 5, excellent. Signal-to-noise ratio and CNR were calculated from the average 2 CT attenuation values within regions of interest placed in the proximal left main and proximal right coronary artery. For contrast comparison, a region of interest was selected from left ventricular wall at midcavity level using a dedicated workstation. We divided patients in 2 groups related to the HR: less than or equal to 70 beats/min (bpm) and

  6. New technique "Right Anterior Small Thoracotomy (RAST operation)" for beating heart grafting of the right internal thoracic artery to the posterior descending artery to the posterior descending artery in a third redo CABG patient. A novel coronary technique

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Maximo; Guida, Gustavo; Pecora, Giuseppina; Garate, Estefania De

    2014-01-01

    Third REDO-CABG is a challenge for the surgical team. Usually a patent mammary is the only graft working and the sternotomy becomes a risky procedure. Injury to a patent graft has been associated to a high mortality rate. Many different approaches have been proposed. We describe a novel technique to approach the right coronary artery through a right anterior small thoracotomy using the right mammary prolonged with saphenous vein for grafting the posterior descending artery on the beating heart. The technique is very simple and feasible because anatomically the right coronary artery and the right mammary are very close and the mobilization of the heart is minimal. PMID:25372923

  7. Non Heart-Beating Donors in England

    PubMed Central

    Chaib, Eleazar

    2008-01-01

    When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non-heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation. PMID:18297216

  8. Up-beat UK: a programme of research into the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression in primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Tylee, André; Ashworth, Mark; Barley, Elizabeth; Brown, June; Chambers, John; Farmer, Anne; Fortune, Zoe; Haddad, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; Mann, Anthony; Mehay, Anita; McCrone, Paul; Murray, Joanna; Leese, Morven; Pariante, Carmine M; Rose, Diana; Rowlands, Gill; Smith, Alison; Walters, Paul

    2011-05-23

    Coronary heart disease and depression are both common health problems and by 2020 will be the two leading causes of disability worldwide. Depression has been found to be more common in patients with coronary heart disease but the nature of this relationship is uncertain. In the United Kingdom general practitioners are now being remunerated for case-finding for depression in patients with coronary heart disease, however it is unclear how general practitioners should manage these patients. We aim to explore the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression in a primary care population and to develop an intervention for patients with coronary heart disease and depression. This programme of research will consist of 4 inter-related studies. A 4 year prospective cohort study of primary care patients with coronary heart disease will be conducted to explore the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression. Within this, a nested case-control biological study will investigate genetic and blood-biomarkers as predictors of depression in this sample. Two qualitative studies, one of patients' perspectives of treatments for coronary heart disease and co-morbid depression and one of primary care professionals' views on the management of patients with coronary heart disease and depression will inform the development of an intervention for this patient group. A feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial will then be conducted. This study will provide information on the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression that will allow health services to determine the efficiency of case-finding for depression in this patient group. The results of the cohort study will also provide information on risk factors for depression. The study will provide evidence on the efficacy and feasibility of a joint patient and professional led intervention and data necessary to plan a definitive randomised controlled trial of the intervention.

  9. Dynamic focusing in the zebrafish beating heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Delgado, L.; Peralta, M.; Mercader, N.; Ripoll, J.

    2016-03-01

    Of the large amount of the animal models available for cardiac research, the zebrafish is extremely valuable due to its transparency during early stages of development. In this work a dual illumination laser sheet microscope with simultaneous dual camera imaging is used to image the beating heart at 200 fps, dynamically and selectively focusing inside the beating heart through the use of a tunable lens. This dual color dynamic focusing enables imaging with cellular resolution at unprecedented high frame rates, allowing 3D imaging of the whole beating heart of embryonic zebrafish.

  10. Beating-heart Mitral Valve Chordal Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Genevieve; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2011-01-01

    Replacing open-heart surgical procedures with beating-heart interventions substantially decreases the trauma and risk of a procedure. One of the most challenging procedures to perform on the beating heart is valve repair. To address this need, this paper proposes a tool for replacing mitral valve chordae to correct regurgitation. The chordae is secured to the papillary muscle and leaflet using NiTi tissue anchors that also incorporate an internal adjustment mechanism to enable initial adjustment as well as subsequent readjustment of chordae length. Efficacy of the proposed tool for chordae replacement and reduction of regurgitation was demonstrated in an ex-vivo heart simulator. PMID:22254843

  11. Detection of heart beats in multimodal data: a robust beat-to-beat interval estimation approach.

    PubMed

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Brüser, Christoph; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-08-01

    The heart rate and its variability play a vital role in the continuous monitoring of patients, especially in the critical care unit. They are commonly derived automatically from the electrocardiogram as the interval between consecutive heart beat. While their identification by QRS-complexes is straightforward under ideal conditions, the exact localization can be a challenging task if the signal is severely contaminated with noise and artifacts. At the same time, other signals directly related to cardiac activity are often available. In this multi-sensor scenario, methods of multimodal sensor-fusion allow the exploitation of redundancies to increase the accuracy and robustness of beat detection.In this paper, an algorithm for the robust detection of heart beats in multimodal data is presented. Classic peak-detection is augmented by robust multi-channel, multimodal interval estimation to eliminate false detections and insert missing beats. This approach yielded a score of 90.70 and was thus ranked third place in the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014: Robust Detection of Heart Beats in Muthmodal Data follow-up analysis.In the future, the robust beat-to-beat interval estimator may directly be used for the automated processing of multimodal patient data for applications such as diagnosis support and intelligent alarming.

  12. Tracking local motion on the beating heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeger, Martin; Ortmaier, Tobias; Sepp, Wolfgang; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2002-05-01

    Local motion on the beating heart is investigated in the context of minimally invasive robotic surgery. The focus lies on the motion remaining in the mechanically stabilised field of surgery of the heart. Motion is detected by tracking natural landmarks on the heart surface in 2D video images. An appropriate motion model is presented with a discussion of its degrees of freedom and a trajectory analysis of its parameters.

  13. The coronary heart team.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Bobby; Puskas, John D; Bhatt, Deepak L; Verma, Subodh

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a Coronary Heart Team has generated increased interest, including support from major practice guidelines. Here, we review the rationale and the published experience of Coronary Heart Teams. A Coronary Heart Team should be led by both cardiology and cardiac surgery with a shared decision-making approach. The team should incorporate data from anatomic and clinical risk prediction models to offer individualized care. Most teams focus on management of complex patients and those with indications for both coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention. The potential benefits of a Coronary Heart Team include balanced decision-making, greater adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines, as well as promoting greater collegiality and exchange of knowledge between specialties. Single-center series have demonstrated consistency in decision-making by Coronary Heart Teams but prospective data demonstrating improved patient outcomes and/or cost effectiveness are necessary. The concept of a Coronary Heart Team is gaining traction for patients with complex coronary artery disease. There is a growing literature in support of Coronary Heart Teams but comparative and prospective data demonstrating improved patient outcomes are needed.

  14. Computer Simulation of the Beating Human Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskin, Charles S.; McQueen, David M.

    2001-06-01

    The mechanical function of the human heart couples together the fluid mechanics of blood and the soft tissue mechanics of the muscular heart walls and flexible heart valve leaflets. We discuss a unified mathematical formulation of this problem in which the soft tissue looks like a specialized part of the fluid in which additional forces are applied. This leads to a computational scheme known as the Immersed Boundary (IB) method for solving the coupled equations of motion of the whole system. The IB method is used to construct a three-dimensional Virtual Heart, including representations of all four chambers of the heart and all four valves, in addition to the large arteries and veins that connect the heart to the rest of the circulation. The chambers, valves, and vessels are all modeled as collections of elastic (and where appropriate, actively contractile) fibers immersed in viscous incompressible fluid. Results are shown as a computer-generated video animation of the beating heart.

  15. Optically gated beating-heart imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    The constant motion of the beating heart presents an obstacle to clear optical imaging, especially 3D imaging, in small animals where direct optical imaging would otherwise be possible. Gating techniques exploit the periodic motion of the heart to computationally “freeze” this movement and overcome motion artifacts. Optically gated imaging represents a recent development of this, where image analysis is used to synchronize acquisition with the heartbeat in a completely non-invasive manner. This article will explain the concept of optical gating, discuss a range of different implementation strategies and their strengths and weaknesses. Finally we will illustrate the usefulness of the technique by discussing applications where optical gating has facilitated novel biological findings by allowing 3D in vivo imaging of cardiac myocytes in their natural environment of the beating heart. PMID:25566083

  16. Motion estimation in beating heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Ortmaier, Tobias; Gröger, Martin; Boehm, Dieter H; Falk, Volkmar; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2005-10-01

    Minimally invasive beating-heart surgery offers substantial benefits for the patient, compared to conventional open surgery. Nevertheless, the motion of the heart poses increased requirements to the surgeon. To support the surgeon, algorithms for an advanced robotic surgery system are proposed, which offer motion compensation of the beating heart. This implies the measurement of heart motion, which can be achieved by tracking natural landmarks. In most cases, the investigated affine tracking scheme can be reduced to an efficient block matching algorithm allowing for realtime tracking of multiple landmarks. Fourier analysis of the motion parameters shows two dominant peaks, which correspond to the heart and respiration rates of the patient. The robustness in case of disturbance or occlusion can be improved by specially developed prediction schemes. Local prediction is well suited for the detection of single tracking outliers. A global prediction scheme takes several landmarks into account simultaneously and is able to bridge longer disturbances. As the heart motion is strongly correlated with the patient's electrocardiogram and respiration pressure signal, this information is included in a novel robust multisensor prediction scheme. Prediction results are compared to those of an artificial neural network and of a linear prediction approach, which shows the superior performance of the proposed algorithms.

  17. An anthropomorphic beating heart phantom for cardiac x-ray CT imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Thomas; Pavlicek, William; Paden, Robert; Renno, Markus; Jensen, Angela; Akay, Metin

    2010-01-28

    The current work describes an anthropomorphic beating heart phantom constructed as a tool for the assessment of technological advances in cardiac x-ray computed tomography (CT). The phantom is comprised of a thorax, a compressor system, an ECG system, a beating heart with tortuous coronary arteries, and the option to add or remove pathologies such as aberrant beats, stents, and plaques. Initial trials with the phantom have shown its utility to assess temporal resolution, spatial resolution, radiation dose, iodine contrast, stents, and plaques.

  18. Non-Heart-Beating Donor Heart Transplantation: Breaking the Taboo

    PubMed Central

    Fatullayev, Javid; Samak, Mostafa; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Mohite, Prashant N.; García-Sáez, Diana; Patil, Nikhil P.; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, André R.; Zeriouh, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 60% of hearts offered for transplantation are rejected because of organ dysfunction. Moreover, hearts from circulatory-dead patients have long been thought to be non-amenable for transplantation, unlike other organs. However, tentative surgical attempts inspired by the knowledge obtained from preclinical research to recover those hearts have been performed, finally culminating in clinically successful transplants. In this review we sought to address the major concerns in non-heart-beating donor heart transplantation and highlight recently introduced developments to overcome them. PMID:26174972

  19. Non-heart beating organ donation. A case study.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this case study is to discuss the clinical management of a non-heart beating organ donor. This case study will concentrate in particular on the clinical assessment of the potential donor patient undertaken by the donor transplant coordinator (DTC) and the donation process up to the time of transplantation. The author will also describe the differences between heart beating and non-heart beating donors and discuss how transplantation can benefit renal recipient patients.

  20. Findings from Project HeartBeat!

    PubMed Central

    Labarthe, Darwin R.; Dai, Shifan; Day, R. Sue; Fulton, Janet E.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    Project HeartBeat! was a longitudinal “growth” study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and body composition in childhood and adolescence. Its findings demonstrate patterns of change from ages 8 to 18 years in anthropometric indicators of adiposity, blood lipid components, and blood pressure measurements, as well as the varying inter-relations among these patterns. Especially noteworthy are differences among associations between the two components of BMI (kg/m2)—the lean or fat-free mass index, and the fat mass index—and each of several CVD risk factors. Policy development and public health recommendations for CVD prevention beginning in childhood have evolved over 30 years or more. A new impetus to action is the recognized increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Intervention to prevent obesity can have a major impact in preventing CVD risk factors more broadly. Opportunities to strengthen interventions for CVD prevention in childhood and adolescence include updated algorithms for monitoring body composition, blood lipids, and blood pressure throughout childhood and adolescence through use of the Project HeartBeat! study results. PMID:19524150

  1. Correlations in heart beat data as quantitative characterization of heart pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Ulbikas, J.; Cenys, A.; Zemaityte, D.; Varoneckas, G.

    1996-06-01

    Correlation between heart pathology and statistical properties of heart beat data has been studied. It is shown that heart beat data has different scaling behavior for healthy and disease cases. Possibilities to develop new monitoring technique based on the permanent control of the correlations in heart beat data are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Synchronization in autonomous mercury beating heart systems.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Singh, Harpartap; Contractor, A Q; Parmananda, P

    2014-07-03

    The ability of the mercury beating heart (MBH) system to exhibit sustained mechanical and electrochemical activities simultaneously without any external agent (fluctuating or constant), has attracted researchers for decades. The interplay of these activities could mimic the biological phenomena such as a pulsating heart that occurs due to the coupled tissues exhibiting mechanical as well as electrical dynamics. In the present work, we have studied experimentally the dynamics of electrically coupled two and three autonomous MBH systems. A dynamical triangular (heart) shape, in the traditional watch glass geometry, has been chosen for the experiments. It is found that the redox potentials (electrical behavior) of the quasi-identical (due to the inherent heterogeneities in the setup) MBH systems get synchronized at the intermediate coupling strengths whereas coherence in their mechanical activities occur only at large coupling strengths. To the best of our knowledge, this synchronization phenomenon involving two distinct activities (electrical and mechanical) and different coupling thresholds has not been reported, so far. The coherent mechanical activities means the simultaneous occurrence of compressions and expansions in the coupled Hg drops, which are shown using snapshots. In addition to this, the redox time series have also been provided to demonstrate the synchronization in the electrical behavior of MBH systems. Moreover, a mathematical framework considering only electrical and mechanical components of the MBH systems is presented to validate the experimental findings that the strong synchrony in the redox potentials of the MBH systems is a prerequisite for the synchrony in their mechanical activities.

  3. Influence of microwaves on the beating rate of isolated rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, K.C.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that microwave exposure can decrease the beating rate of isolated rat hearts. These experiments were conducted at room temperature and with the hearts exposed to air. We observed arrhythmia frequently at room temperature, and the variation of heart beat was so large that it makes the results difficult to reproduce. Therefore, we employed a double-circulating system to provide perfusion through the coronary artery and around the outside of the heart to maintain the rat hearts at 37.7 degrees C. No arrhythmias were observed in our experiments, and the hearts were beating for at least 1 h. The effects of 16-Hz modulated 2,450-MHz pulsed microwaves (10 microseconds, 100 pps) on the beating rate of 50 isolated rat hearts were studied. Results showed no statistically significant changes of heart rate in exposed groups at SARs of 2 and 10 W/kg compared with the control group. The effect seen at 200 W/kg was shown to be similar to that resulting from heating the heart.

  4. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass; OPCAB; Beating heart surgery; Bypass surgery - heart; CABG; Coronary artery bypass graft; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Coronary bypass surgery; Coronary artery disease - CABG; CAD - CABG; Angina - ...

  5. Clinical evaluation of new automatic coronary-specific best cardiac phase selection algorithm for single-beat coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Liang, Junfu; Yan, Zixu; Sun, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the workflow efficiency of a new automatic coronary-specific reconstruction technique (Smart Phase, GE Healthcare—SP) for selection of the best cardiac phase with least coronary motion when compared with expert manual selection (MS) of best phase in patients with high heart rate. A total of 46 patients with heart rates above 75 bpm who underwent single beat coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were enrolled in this study. CCTA of all subjects were performed on a 256-detector row CT scanner (Revolution CT, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, US). With the SP technique, the acquired phase range was automatically searched in 2% phase intervals during the reconstruction process to determine the optimal phase for coronary assessment, while for routine expert MS, reconstructions were performed at 5% intervals and a best phase was manually determined. The reconstruction and review times were recorded to measure the workflow efficiency for each method. Two reviewers subjectively assessed image quality for each coronary artery in the MS and SP reconstruction volumes using a 4-point grading scale. The average HR of the enrolled patients was 91.1±19.0bpm. A total of 204 vessels were assessed. The subjective image quality using SP was comparable to that of the MS, 1.45±0.85 vs 1.43±0.81 respectively (p = 0.88). The average time was 246 seconds for the manual best phase selection, and 98 seconds for the SP selection, resulting in average time saving of 148 seconds (60%) with use of the SP algorithm. The coronary specific automatic cardiac best phase selection technique (Smart Phase) improves clinical workflow in high heart rate patients and provides image quality comparable with manual cardiac best phase selection. Reconstruction of single-beat CCTA exams with SP can benefit the users with less experienced in CCTA image interpretation. PMID:28231322

  6. Clinical evaluation of new automatic coronary-specific best cardiac phase selection algorithm for single-beat coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Liang, Junfu; Yan, Zixu; Sun, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the workflow efficiency of a new automatic coronary-specific reconstruction technique (Smart Phase, GE Healthcare-SP) for selection of the best cardiac phase with least coronary motion when compared with expert manual selection (MS) of best phase in patients with high heart rate. A total of 46 patients with heart rates above 75 bpm who underwent single beat coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were enrolled in this study. CCTA of all subjects were performed on a 256-detector row CT scanner (Revolution CT, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, US). With the SP technique, the acquired phase range was automatically searched in 2% phase intervals during the reconstruction process to determine the optimal phase for coronary assessment, while for routine expert MS, reconstructions were performed at 5% intervals and a best phase was manually determined. The reconstruction and review times were recorded to measure the workflow efficiency for each method. Two reviewers subjectively assessed image quality for each coronary artery in the MS and SP reconstruction volumes using a 4-point grading scale. The average HR of the enrolled patients was 91.1±19.0bpm. A total of 204 vessels were assessed. The subjective image quality using SP was comparable to that of the MS, 1.45±0.85 vs 1.43±0.81 respectively (p = 0.88). The average time was 246 seconds for the manual best phase selection, and 98 seconds for the SP selection, resulting in average time saving of 148 seconds (60%) with use of the SP algorithm. The coronary specific automatic cardiac best phase selection technique (Smart Phase) improves clinical workflow in high heart rate patients and provides image quality comparable with manual cardiac best phase selection. Reconstruction of single-beat CCTA exams with SP can benefit the users with less experienced in CCTA image interpretation.

  7. Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease, Angina Basic Facts & Information What ... and oxygen supply; this is what causes a heart attack. If the damaged area is small, however, your ...

  8. Passive fetal heart rate monitoring apparatus and method with enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen A. (Inventor); Livingston, David L. (Inventor); Pretlow, Robert A., III (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for acquiring signals emitted by a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats and determining a fetal heart rate is presented. Multiple sensor signals are outputted by a passive fetal heart rate monitoring sensor. Multiple parallel nonlinear filters filter these multiple sensor signals to identify fetal heart beats in the signal data. A processor determines a fetal heart rate based on these identified fetal heart beats. The processor includes the use of a figure of merit weighting of heart rate estimates based on the identified heart beats from each filter for each signal. The fetal heart rate thus determined is outputted to a display, storage, or communications channel. A method for enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination includes acquiring signals from a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats from the signals by multiple parallel nonlinear filtering, and determining a fetal heart rate based on the identified fetal heart beats. A figure of merit operation in this method provides for weighting a plurality of fetal heart rate estimates based on the identified fetal heart beats and selecting the highest ranking fetal heart rate estimate.

  9. Passive fetal heart rate monitoring apparatus and method with enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahorian, Stephen A. (Inventor); Livingston, David L. (Inventor); Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for acquiring signals emitted by a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats and determining a fetal heart rate. Multiple sensor signals are outputted by a passive fetal heart rate monitoring sensor. Multiple parallel nonlinear filters filter these multiple sensor signals to identify fetal heart beats in the signal data. A processor determines a fetal heart rate based on these identified fetal heart beats. The processor includes the use of a figure of merit weighting of heart rate estimates based on the identified heart beats from each filter for each signal. The fetal heart rate thus determined is outputted to a display, storage, or communications channel. A method for enhanced fetal heart beat discrimination includes acquiring signals from a fetus, identifying fetal heart beats from the signals by multiple parallel nonlinear filtering, and determining a fetal heart rate based on the identified fetal heart beats. A figure of merit operation in this method provides for weighting a plurality of fetal heart rate estimates based on the identified fetal heart beats and selecting the highest ranking fetal heart rate estimate.

  10. Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani

    2007-01-01

    The mercury beating heart (MBH) is a commonly performed experiment, which is based on varying oxidizing agents and substituting other metals for iron. Various modified versions of the classical demonstration of the experiment are presented.

  11. Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani

    2007-01-01

    The mercury beating heart (MBH) is a commonly performed experiment, which is based on varying oxidizing agents and substituting other metals for iron. Various modified versions of the classical demonstration of the experiment are presented.

  12. Exercise Beats Weight Loss At Helping Seniors' Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163858.html Exercise Beats Weight Loss at Helping Seniors' Hearts Both ... a healthy boost may want to focus on exercise first, a new study suggests. The research found ...

  13. Beating heart versus conventional cardiopulmonary bypass: the octopus experience: a randomized comparison of 281 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Diederik; Diephuis, Jan C; Nierich, Arno P; Keizer, Annemieke M A; Kalkman, Cor J

    2006-06-01

    In the Octopus Study, 281 coronary artery bypass surgery patients were randomized to surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary objective was to compare cognitive outcome between off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Before and after surgery, psychologists administered a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests to the patients. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease in an individual's performance of at least 20% from baseline, in at least 20% of the main variables. According to this definition, cognitive decline was present in 21% in the off-pump group and 29% in the on-pump group, 3 months after the procedure (P = .15). At 12 months, cognitive decline was present in 31% in the off-pump group and 34% in the on-pump group (P = .69). These results indicated that patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass had improved cognitive outcomes 3 months after the procedure, but the effects were limited and became negligible at 12 months. The same definition of cognitive decline was also applied to 112 volunteers not undergoing surgery. The definition labeled 28% of the control subjects as suffering from cognitive decline, 3 months after their first assessment. This suggests that the natural fluctuations in performance during repeated neuropsychological testing should be included in the statistical analysis of cognitive decline. Using an alternative definition of cognitive decline that takes these natural fluctuations in performance into account, the proportions of coronary artery bypass surgery patients displaying cognitive decline were substantially lower. This indicates that the incidence of cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass surgery has been overestimated.

  14. Heart motion uncertainty compensation prediction method for robot assisted beating heart surgery - Master-slave Kalman Filters approach.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fan; Yu, Yang; Cui, Shigang; Zhao, Li; Wu, Xingli

    2014-05-01

    Robot Assisted Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) allows the heart keep beating in the surgery by actively eliminating the relative motion between point of interest (POI) on the heart surface and surgical tool. The inherited nonlinear and diverse nature of beating heart motion gives a huge obstacle for the robot to meet the demanding tracking control requirements. In this paper, we novelty propose a Master-slave Kalman Filter based on beating heart motion Nonlinear Adaptive Prediction (NAP) algorithm. In the study, we describe the beating heart motion as the combination of nonlinearity relating mathematics part and uncertainty relating non-mathematics part. Specifically, first, we model the nonlinearity of the heart motion via quadratic modulated sinusoids and estimate it by a Master Kalman Filter. Second, we involve the uncertainty heart motion by adaptively change the covariance of the process noise through the slave Kalman Filter. We conduct comparative experiments to evaluate the proposed approach with four distinguished datasets. The results indicate that the new approach reduces prediction errors by at least 30 μm. Moreover, the new approach performs well in robustness test, in which two kinds of arrhythmia datasets from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database are assessed.

  15. Effects of the Selective Stretch-Activated Channel Blocker GsMtx4 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Refractoriness in Isolated Rat Hearts and on Ventricular Premature Beats and Arrhythmias after Coronary Occlusion in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Barrabés, José A.; Inserte, Javier; Agulló, Luis; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J.; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 μg/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 μg/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma) or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001) that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure). Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842). There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696) or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361) or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323). Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes. PMID:25938516

  16. Effects of the Selective Stretch-Activated Channel Blocker GsMtx4 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Refractoriness in Isolated Rat Hearts and on Ventricular Premature Beats and Arrhythmias after Coronary Occlusion in Swine.

    PubMed

    Barrabés, José A; Inserte, Javier; Agulló, Luis; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 μg/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 μg/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma) or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001) that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure). Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842). There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696) or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361) or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323). Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes.

  17. Model for the heart beat-to-beat time series during meditation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, A.; Diambra, L.; Malta, C. P.

    2003-09-01

    We present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a pacemaker, that simulates the membrane potential of the sinoatrial node, modulated by a periodic input signal plus correlated noise that simulates the respiratory input. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce in the phase space the trajectory of experimental heart beat-to-beat interval data. The data sets were recorded during meditation practices of the Chi and Kundalini Yoga techniques. Our study indicates that in the first case the respiratory signal has the shape of a smoothed square wave, and in the second case it has the shape of a smoothed triangular wave.

  18. Model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat time interval series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, Alberto; Diambra, Luis; Malta, C. P.

    2005-09-01

    In this study we present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a set of differential equations used to simulate the membrane potential of a single rabbit sinoatrial node cell, excited with a periodic input signal with added correlated noise. This signal, which simulates the input from the autonomous nervous system to the sinoatrial node, was included in the pacemaker equations as a modulation of the iNaK current pump and the potassium current iK. We focus at modeling the heart beat-to-beat time interval series from normal subjects during meditation of the Kundalini Yoga and Chi techniques. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that while the embedding of pre-meditation and control cases have a roughly circular shape, it acquires a polygonal shape during meditation, triangular for the Kundalini Yoga data and quadrangular in the case of Chi data. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce the trajectory of the experimental data in the phase space. The embedding of the Chi data could be reproduced using a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a square wave. In the case of Kundalini Yoga data, the embedding was reproduced with a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a triangular wave having a rising branch of longer duration than the decreasing branch. Our study provides an estimation of the respiratory signal using only the heart beat-to-beat time interval series.

  19. Surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation: The efficacy of a novel bipolar pen device in the cardioplegically arrested and beating heart

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shun-ichiro; Voeller, Rochus K.; Melby, Spencer J.; Lall, Shelly C.; Chang, Nai-lun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The introduction of ablation technology has simplified surgical intervention for atrial fibrillation. However, most ablation devices cannot create focal transmural lesions on the beating heart and have difficulty ablating specific regions of the atria, such as the atrioventricular isthmus, coronary sinus, and ganglionated plexus. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a pen-type bipolar radiofrequency ablation device on both arrested and beating hearts. Methods Endocardial and epicardial atrial tissues in the free wall, left atrial roof, atrioventricular annuli, and coronary sinus were ablated for varying time intervals (2.5–15 seconds) in porcine cardioplegically arrested (n = 6) and beating (n = 9) hearts. The hearts were stained with 1%2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride solution and sectioned to determine lesion depth and width. In 5 animals epicardial fat pads containing ganglionated plexus were stimulated and ablated. Results Lesion depth increased with ablation time similarly in both arrested and beating hearts. Transmurality was fully achieved in the thin atrial tissue (<4 mm) at 10 seconds in the beating and arrested hearts. The device had a maximal penetration depth of 6.1 mm. Epicardial ablation of the coronary sinus showed complete penetration through the left posterior atrium only in the arrested heart. Seven of 17 fat pads demonstrated a vagal response. All vagal responses were eliminated after ablation. Conclusion The bipolar pen effectively ablated atrial tissue in both arrested and beating hearts. This device might allow the surgeon to ablate tissue in regions not accessible to other devices during atrial fibrillation surgery. PMID:19026819

  20. Successful ablation of frequent atrial premature beats from non-coronary aortic cusp with remote magnetic navigation.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahed, Ahmed Taha Hussein; Mäkynen, Heikki; Raatikainen, M J Pekka

    2015-01-01

    A 59-year-old female with structurally normal heart was admitted to our hospital for treatment of highly symptomatic, drug refractory atrial premature beats (APB). ECG revealed atrial parasystolic trigeminy. The arrhythmogenic focus was mapped and ablated using magnetic remote navigation and 3D electroanatomical mapping system. To our knowledge, this is the first report on successful ablation of frequent APBs in the non-coronary aortic cusp.

  1. Analysis of heart rate variability in the presence of ectopic beats using the heart timing signal.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Javier; Laguna, Pablo

    2003-03-01

    The time-domain signals representing the heart rate variability (HRV) in the presence of an ectopic beat exhibit a sharp transient at the position of the ectopic beat, which corrupts the signal, particularly the power spectral density (PSD) of the HRV. Consequently, there is a need for correction of this type of beat prior to any HRV analysis. This paper deals with the PSD estimation of the HRV by means of the heart timing (HT) signal when ectopic beats are present. These beat occurrence times are modeled from a generalized, continuous time integral pulse frequency modulation model and, from this point of view, a specific method for minimizing the effect of the presence of ectopic beats is presented to work together with the HT signal. By using both, a white noise driven autoregressive model of the HRV signal with artificially introduced ectopic beats and actual heart rate series including ectopic beats, the more usual methods of HRV spectral estimation are compared. Results of the PSD estimation error function of the number of ectopic beats are presented. These results demonstrate that the proposed method has one order of magnitude lower error than usual ectopic beats removal strategies in preserving PSD, thus, this strategy better recovers the original clinical indexes of interest.

  2. Keeping a Beat on the Heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liszka, Kathy J.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liehter, Michael J.; York, David W.; Pillai, Dilip; Rosenbaum, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Feel the relief of a patient suffering from heart arrhythmia, who is able to return home while having her heart monitored by health professionals 24 hours a day, without the fear that she will miss an important indicator and suffer a fatal heart attack - using technology originally developed to conduct experiments on the Space Shuttle. Approximately 400,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks . Medical research revealed that patterns of electrical activity in the heart can act as predictors of these lethal cardiac events known as arrhythmias. Fortunately, certain arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation (loss of regular heartbeat and subsequent loss of function) and ventricular tachycardia (rapid heartbeats), can be detected and appropriately treated. Today, patients at moderate risk of arrhythmias can benefit from technology that would permit long- term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment in the comfort of their own homes. Medical telemetry systems, also known as telemedicine, are evolving rapidly as wireless communication technology advances, evidenced by the commercial products and research prototypes for remote health monitoring that have appeared in recent years. Wireless systems allow patients to move freely in their home and work environment while being monitored remotely by health care professionals.

  3. Keeping a Beat on the Heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liszka, Kathy J.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liehter, Michael J.; York, David W.; Pillai, Dilip; Rosenbaum, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Feel the relief of a patient suffering from heart arrhythmia, who is able to return home while having her heart monitored by health professionals 24 hours a day, without the fear that she will miss an important indicator and suffer a fatal heart attack - using technology originally developed to conduct experiments on the Space Shuttle. Approximately 400,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks . Medical research revealed that patterns of electrical activity in the heart can act as predictors of these lethal cardiac events known as arrhythmias. Fortunately, certain arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation (loss of regular heartbeat and subsequent loss of function) and ventricular tachycardia (rapid heartbeats), can be detected and appropriately treated. Today, patients at moderate risk of arrhythmias can benefit from technology that would permit long- term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment in the comfort of their own homes. Medical telemetry systems, also known as telemedicine, are evolving rapidly as wireless communication technology advances, evidenced by the commercial products and research prototypes for remote health monitoring that have appeared in recent years. Wireless systems allow patients to move freely in their home and work environment while being monitored remotely by health care professionals.

  4. RNAs that make a heart beat

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Mithun

    2016-01-01

    An increase in stress-associated microRNAs has been observed in the heart after an induced myocardial infarction. Liu and colleagues now demonstrate that one of these stress-associated microRNAs, miR-223-3p, can regulate a component of the voltage-gated channel that mediates rapid outward efflux of potassium during an action potential. Aberrations in the potassium current have been associated with ventricular arrhythmia and heart disease. Strikingly, introducing a small RNA antagonist directed against miR-223-3p into rat hearts, while also inducing a myocardial infarction, resulted in a reduction in arrhythmias. We place these studies in the larger context of the field and discuss the potential of anti-miR-223-3p molecules as new therapeutics for myocardial infarction. PMID:28090525

  5. Image stabilisation of the beating heart by local linear interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Martin; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    The stabilisation of motion on the beating heart is investigated in the context of minimally invasive robotic surgery. Although reduced by mechanical stabilisers, residual tissue motion makes safe surgery still difficult and time consuming. Compensation for this movement is therefore highly desirable. Motion can be captured by tracking natural landmarks on the heart surface recorded by a video endoscope. Stabilisation is achieved by transforming the images using a motion field calculated from captured local motion. Since the surface of the beating heart is distorted nonlinearly, compensating the occurring motion with a constant image correction factor is not sufficient. Therefore, heart motion is captured by several landmarks, the motion between which is interpolated such that locally appropriate motion correction values are obtained. To estimate the motion between the landmark positions, a triangulation is built and motion information in each triangle is approximated by linear interpolation. Motion compensation is evaluated by calculating the optical flow remaining in the stabilised images. The proposed linear interpolation model is able to reduce motion significantly and can also be implemented efficiently to stabilise images of the beating heart in realtime.

  6. Pradaxa Beats Warfarin After Heart Rhythm Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with warfarin, it's actually a cost-effective alternative. With catheter ablation, a tiny wire, or catheter, is inserted into a vein in the groin or neck. It's then threaded to the heart, where it emits radiofrequency energy signals to stop abnormal electrical signals from moving ...

  7. Towards active tracking of beating heart motion in the presence of arrhythmia for robotic assisted beating heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Tuna, E Erdem; Karimov, Jamshid H; Liu, Taoming; Bebek, Özkan; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Çavuşoğlu, M Cenk

    2014-01-01

    In robotic assisted beating heart surgery, the control architecture for heart motion tracking has stringent requirements in terms of bandwidth of the motion that needs to be tracked. In order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy, feed-forward control algorithms, which rely on estimations of upcoming heart motion, have been proposed in the literature. However, performance of these feed-forward motion control algorithms under heart rhythm variations is an important concern. In their past work, the authors have demonstrated the effectiveness of a receding horizon model predictive control-based algorithm, which used generalized adaptive predictors, under constant and slowly varying heart rate conditions. This paper extends these studies to the case when the heart motion statistics change abruptly and significantly, such as during arrhythmias. A feasibility study is carried out to assess the motion tracking capabilities of the adaptive algorithms in the occurrence of arrhythmia during beating heart surgery. Specifically, the tracking performance of the algorithms is evaluated on prerecorded motion data, which is collected in vivo and includes heart rhythm irregularities. The algorithms are tested using both simulations and bench experiments on a three degree-of-freedom robotic test bed. They are also compared with a position-plus-derivative controller as well as a receding horizon model predictive controller that employs an extended Kalman filter algorithm for predicting future heart motion.

  8. Towards Active Tracking of Beating Heart Motion in the Presence of Arrhythmia for Robotic Assisted Beating Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, E. Erdem; Karimov, Jamshid H.; Liu, Taoming; Bebek, Özkan; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2014-01-01

    In robotic assisted beating heart surgery, the control architecture for heart motion tracking has stringent requirements in terms of bandwidth of the motion that needs to be tracked. In order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy, feed-forward control algorithms, which rely on estimations of upcoming heart motion, have been proposed in the literature. However, performance of these feed-forward motion control algorithms under heart rhythm variations is an important concern. In their past work, the authors have demonstrated the effectiveness of a receding horizon model predictive control-based algorithm, which used generalized adaptive predictors, under constant and slowly varying heart rate conditions. This paper extends these studies to the case when the heart motion statistics change abruptly and significantly, such as during arrhythmias. A feasibility study is carried out to assess the motion tracking capabilities of the adaptive algorithms in the occurrence of arrhythmia during beating heart surgery. Specifically, the tracking performance of the algorithms is evaluated on prerecorded motion data, which is collected in vivo and includes heart rhythm irregularities. The algorithms are tested using both simulations and bench experiments on a three degree-of-freedom robotic test bed. They are also compared with a position-plus-derivative controller as well as a receding horizon model predictive controller that employs an extended Kalman filter algorithm for predicting future heart motion. PMID:25048462

  9. Robust detection of heart beats in multimodal data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Behar, Joachim; Johnson, Alistair; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D; Moody, George B

    2015-08-01

    This editorial reviews the background issues, the design, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology (CinC) Challenge 2014, published in the concurrent focus issue of Physiological Measurement. Our major focus was to accelerate the development and facilitate the comparison of robust methods for locating heart beats in long-term multi-channel recordings. A public (training) database consisting of 151 032 annotated beats was compiled from records that contained ECGs as well as pulsatile signals that directly reflect cardiac activity, and other signals that may have few or no observable markers of heart beats. A separate hidden test data set (consisting of 152 478 beats) is permanently stored at PhysioNet, and a public framework has been developed to provide researchers with the ability to continue to automatically score and compare the performance of their algorithms. A scoring criteria based on the averaging of gross sensitivity, gross positive predictivity, average sensitivity, and average positive predictivity is proposed. The top three scores (as of March 2015) on the hidden test data set were 93.64%, 91.50%, and 90.70%.

  10. Editorial: Robust Detection of Heart Beats in Multimodal Data

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Behar, Joachim; Johnson, Alistair; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D.; Moody, George B.

    2015-01-01

    This editorial reviews the background issues, the design, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology (CinC) 2014 Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Our major focus was to accelerate the development and facilitate the comparison of robust methods for locating heart beats in long-term multi-channel recordings. A public (training) database consisting of 151,032 annotated beats was compiled from records that contained ECGs as well as pulsatile signals that directly reflect cardiac activity, and other signals that may have few or no observable markers of heart beats. A separate hidden test data set (consisting of 152,478 beats) is permanently stored at PhysioNet, and a public framework has been developed to provide researchers the ability to continue to automatically score and compare the performance of their algorithms. A scoring criteria based on the averaging of gross sensitivity, gross positive predictivity, average sensitivity, and average positive predictivity is proposed. The top three scores (as of March 2015) on the hidden test data set were 93.64%, 91.50%, and 90.70%. PMID:26217894

  11. Animal models of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiawei; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2015-08-20

    Cardiovascular disease, predominantly coronary heart disease and stroke, leads to high morbidity and mortality not only in developed worlds but also in underdeveloped regions. The dominant pathologic foundation for cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis and as to coronary heart disease, coronary atherosclerosis and resulting lumen stenosis, even total occlusions. In translational research, several animals, such as mice, rabbits and pigs, have been used as disease models of human atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular disorders. However, coronary lesions are either naturally rare or hard to be fast induced in these models, hence, coronary heart disease induction mostly relies on surgical or pharmaceutical interventions with no or limited primary coronary lesions, thus unrepresentative of human coronary heart disease progression and pathology. In this review, we will describe the progress of animal models of coronary heart disease following either spontaneous or diet-accelerated coronary lesions.

  12. Catheter ablation of arrhythmic storm triggered by monomorphic ectopic beats in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Peichl, Petr; Cihák, Robert; Kozeluhová, Markéta; Wichterle, Dan; Vancura, Vlastimil; Kautzner, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Frequent episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardias/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) in patients with coronary artery disease can be triggered by monomorphic ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and thus, amenable to catheter ablation. The goal of this study was to review single-center experience in catheter ablation of electrical storm caused by focally triggered polymorphic VT/VF. Catheter ablation of electrical storm due to focally triggered polymorphic VT/VF was performed in nine patients (mean age, 62+/-7 years; two females). All patients had previous myocardial infarction (interval of 3 days to 171 months). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 27+/-6 percent. All patients presented with repeated runs of polymorphic VT/VF triggered by monomorphic VPBs. Based on mapping data, the ectopic beats originated from scar border zone on interventricular septum (n=5), inferior wall (n=3), and lateral wall (n=1). Catheter ablation was performed to abolish the triggering ectopy and to modify the arrhythmogenic substrate by linear lesions within the infarct border zone. The ablation procedure was acutely successful in eight out of nine patients. During the follow-up of 13+/-7 months, two patients died due to progressive heart failure. One patient had late recurrence of electrical storm due to ectopic beats of different morphology and was successfully reablated. Electrical storm due to focally triggered polymorphic VT/VF may occur either in subacute phase of myocardial infarction or substantially later after index event. Catheter ablation of ectopic beats triggering these arrhythmias can successfully abolish electrical storm and become a life-saving procedure.

  13. Aortic and mitral valve surgery on the beating heart is lowering cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp time.

    PubMed

    Gersak, Borut; Sutlic, Zeljko

    2002-01-01

    The concept of cardiac surgery on the beating heart is acceptable rationale for the cardiac surgery in the next millenium. Beating heart (off-pump) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) techniques have led us to consider the possibility for performing the aortic and mitral valve surgery (mitral valve repairs and replacements - with or without CABG) on the beating heart with the technique of retrograde oxygenated coronary sinus perfusion. We used the technique of retrograde oxygenated blood coronary sinus perfusion in 78 patients (Group All) - (36 patients were with extremely low ejection fraction (Group X) - 62% of whom were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 4 and 34% of whom were in NYHA class 3). The procedures for the patients were: aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve surgery, in combination with CABG in ischemic patients. CABG was done in all the cases off-pump. In addition, we performed a case match study for 37 patients with good ejection fraction (51.65 +/- 11.88) (Beating Heart Group) operated on the beating heart with most appropriate group of patients (No. 37) operated in our institutions on arrested heart (ejection fraction 51.07 +/- 12.93) (Arrested Heart Group). The case match selection criteria were: gender, left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and diabetes. The selected beating heart group and selected arrested heart groups were without statistically significant differences for the mentioned criteria. There were statistically significant differences between Beating Heart Group and Arrested Heart Group in the duration of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Time (69.35 +/- 13.52 min. versus 93.59 +/- 28.54 min.), p<0.001, and statistically significant differences in Aortic Cross Clamp Time (46.5 +/- 8.95 min. versus 61.5 +/- 18.34 min.), p<0.001. The values for Creatinin Kinase (CK) and LDH were not statistically different, however the absolute values for Beating Heart Group were lower. There was no

  14. Ivabradine in stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Ferrari, Roberto

    2014-09-18

    An elevated heart rate is an established marker of cardiovascular risk. Previous analyses have suggested that ivabradine, a heart-rate-reducing agent, may improve outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and a heart rate of 70 beats per minute or more. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ivabradine, added to standard background therapy, in 19,102 patients who had both stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure and a heart rate of 70 beats per minute or more (including 12,049 patients with activity-limiting angina [class ≥II on the Canadian Cardiovascular Society scale, which ranges from I to IV, with higher classes indicating greater limitations on physical activity owing to angina]). We randomly assigned patients to placebo or ivabradine, at a dose of up to 10 mg twice daily, with the dose adjusted to achieve a target heart rate of 55 to 60 beats per minute. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or nonfatal myocardial infarction. At 3 months, the mean (±SD) heart rate of the patients was 60.7±9.0 beats per minute in the ivabradine group versus 70.6±10.1 beats per minute in the placebo group. After a median follow-up of 27.8 months, there was no significant difference between the ivabradine group and the placebo group in the incidence of the primary end point (6.8% and 6.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.20; P=0.20), nor were there significant differences in the incidences of death from cardiovascular causes and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Ivabradine was associated with an increase in the incidence of the primary end point among patients with activity-limiting angina but not among those without activity-limiting angina (P=0.02 for interaction). The incidence of bradycardia was higher with ivabradine than with placebo (18.0% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001). Among patients who had stable coronary

  15. Cardiac kinematic parameters computed from video of in situ beating heart

    PubMed Central

    Fassina, Lorenzo; Rozzi, Giacomo; Rossi, Stefano; Scacchi, Simone; Galetti, Maricla; Lo Muzio, Francesco Paolo; Del Bianco, Fabrizio; Colli Franzone, Piero; Petrilli, Giuseppe; Faggian, Giuseppe; Miragoli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical function of the heart during open-chest cardiac surgery is exclusively monitored by echocardiographic techniques. However, little is known about local kinematics, particularly for the reperfused regions after ischemic events. We report a novel imaging modality, which extracts local and global kinematic parameters from videos of in situ beating hearts, displaying live video cardiograms of the contraction events. A custom algorithm tracked the movement of a video marker positioned ad hoc onto a selected area and analyzed, during the entire recording, the contraction trajectory, displacement, velocity, acceleration, kinetic energy and force. Moreover, global epicardial velocity and vorticity were analyzed by means of Particle Image Velocimetry tool. We validated our new technique by i) computational modeling of cardiac ischemia, ii) video recordings of ischemic/reperfused rat hearts, iii) videos of beating human hearts before and after coronary artery bypass graft, and iv) local Frank-Starling effect. In rats, we observed a decrement of kinematic parameters during acute ischemia and a significant increment in the same region after reperfusion. We detected similar behavior in operated patients. This modality adds important functional values on cardiac outcomes and supports the intervention in a contact-free and non-invasive mode. Moreover, it does not require particular operator-dependent skills. PMID:28397830

  16. Intracoronary hypothermia for acute myocardial infarction in the isolated beating pig heart

    PubMed Central

    Otterspoor, Luuk C; van Nunen, Lokien X; Rosalina, Tilaï T; Veer, Marcel van’t; Tuijl, Sjoerd Van; Stijnen, Marco; Rutten, Marcel CM; van de Vosse, Frans N; Pijls, Nico HJ

    2017-01-01

    Hypothermia may attenuate reperfusion injury and thereby improve acute myocardial infarction therapy. Systemic cooling trials failed to reduce infarct size, perhaps because the target temperature was not reached fast enough. The use of selective intracoronary hypothermia combined with intracoronary temperature monitoring allows for titrating to target temperature and optimizing the cooling rate. We aimed to the test the feasibility of intracoronary cooling for controlled, selective myocardial hypothermia in an isolated beating pig heart. In five porcine hearts the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded by an over-the-wire balloon (OTWB). After occlusion, saline at 22°C was infused through the OTWB lumen for 5 minutes into the infarct area at a rate of 30 ml/min. Thereafter the balloon was deflated but infusion continued with saline at 4°C for 5 minutes. Distal coronary temperature was continuously monitored by a pressure/temperature guidewire. Myocardial temperature at several locations in the infarct and control areas was recorded using needle thermistors. In the occlusion phase, coronary temperature decreased by 11.4°C (range 9.4-12.5°C). Myocardial temperature throughout the infarct area decreased by 5.1°C (range 1.8-8.1°C) within three minutes. During the reperfusion phase, coronary temperature decreased by 6.2°C (range 4.1-10.3°C) and myocardial temperature decreased by 4.5°C (range 1.5-7.4°C). Myocardial temperature outside the infarct area was not affected. In the isolated beating pig heart with acute occlusion of the LAD, we were able to rapidly “induce, maintain, and control” a stable intracoronary and myocardial target temperature of at least 4°C below body temperature without side effects and using standard PCI equipment, justifying further studies of this technique in humans. PMID:28337283

  17. Metal MEMS Tools for Beating-heart Tissue Removal

    PubMed Central

    Gosline, Andrew H.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Veeramani, Arun; Wu, MingTing; Schmitz, Greg; Chen, Rich; Arabagi, Veaceslav; del Nido, Pedro J.; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel robotic tool is proposed to enable the surgical removal of tissue from inside the beating heart. The tool is manufactured using a unique metal MEMS process that provides the means to fabricate fully assembled devices that incorporate micron-scale features in a millimeter scale tool. The tool is integrated with a steerable curved concentric tube robot that can enter the heart through the vasculature. Incorporating both irrigation and aspiration, the tissue removal system is capable of extracting substantial amounts of tissue under teleoperated control by first morselizing it and then transporting the debris out of the heart through the lumen of the robot. Tool design and robotic integration are described and ex vivo experimental results are presented. PMID:24232076

  18. Metal MEMS Tools for Beating-heart Tissue Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Evan J.; Folk, Chris; Cohen, Adam; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Chen, Rich; del Nido, Pedro J.; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2011-01-01

    Achieving superior outcomes through the use of robots in medical applications requires an integrated approach to the design of the robot, tooling and the procedure itself. In this paper, this approach is applied to develop a robotic technique for closing abnormal communication between the atria of the heart. The goal is to achieve the efficacy of surgical closure as performed on a stopped, open heart with the reduced risk and trauma of a beating-heart catheter-based procedure. In the proposed approach, a concentric tube robot is used to percutaneously access the right atrium and deploy a tissue approximation device. The device is constructed using a metal MEMS fabrication process and is designed to both fit the manipulation capabilities of the robot as well as to reproduce the beneficial features of surgical closure by suture. Experimental results demonstrate device efficacy through manual in-vivo deployment and bench-top robotic deployment. PMID:22229109

  19. [Anxiety and coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Kamrowska, Anna

    2008-06-01

    A high proportion of diseases resulted from cardiologic reasons has arisen an interest in the problem of prevention against cardio-vascular diseases. According to the WHO reports, by 2020, a coronary heart disease and depression will have become the most frequent reason of disability in the world. The paper presents studies estimating the effect of fear on the possibility of coronary heart disease pathogenesis. The studies analyzed the problem how fear may affect sudden deaths for cardiologic reasons. There was emphasized the significance of factors coexisting with fear in women and men as well as a role of fear and depression occurring in ventricular arrhythmia in patients with ischemic heart disease. The paper describes possible mechanisms leading to sudden cardiac deaths. The author indicated the role of the central nervous system controlling the cardiovascular system and the significance of genetic background of conducive psychosocial factors, such as: nicotinism and type "A" behaviour. Results of the studies estimating heart rhythm irregularities and elevated fear level were included; it was noticed that disturbances in cardiac performance variability were a predictive factor of sudden deaths for cardiological reasons. The paper emphasizes a special role of physicians in cardiological mortality prophylaxis.

  20. Ca2+ flux and beating in leaky heart cells.

    PubMed

    Bloom, S

    1980-01-01

    Previous work has shown that beating heart muscle cells with leaky sarcolemmae take up Ca2+ from the medium at a rate of 5.4 nmol/min/mg of protein while beating at a rate of 44 b.p.m. In the present work, we have used fragments of myocardium (MF), composed of such cells, to measure Ca2+ effux velocity and to compare influx and efflux rates to contraction frequency. The MF were estimated to be three cells thick, five cells wide, and three cells long, on the average. With MF suspended in fresh Pi-buffered medium containing 8.7 mumol/liter total Ca2+, the initial velocity of Ca2+ uptake (Vi) was much greater than the initial velocity of efflux (Vo). Vi, but not Vo, covaried with beating as a function of temperature and also showed ATP dependence. Thus, uptake, but not efflux, is a controlled process coupled to beating under these conditions. When cells were preloaded with Ca2+ and resuspended in Ca2+-depleted medium (total Ca2+ about 1 mumol/liter), approximating the steady state condition, Vi was reduced while Vo increased proportionally. These data suggest that contraction-activating Ca2+ is derived from extracellular sources during the pre-steady state conditions used here. Derivation from intracellular sites could occur in the steady state. The pre-steady state results conflict with mechanical behavior studies by us and others and, with Ca2+ flux in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The steady state results suggest that this conflict may be due to differences in Ca2+ loading and [Ca2+]i/[Ca2+]o.

  1. Efficient heart beat detection using embedded system electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Oh, Sechang; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2014-04-01

    The present day bio-technical field concentrates on developing various types of innovative ambulatory and wearable devices to monitor several bio-physical, physio-pathological, bio-electrical and bio-potential factors to assess a human body's health condition without intruding quotidian activities. One of the most important aspects of this evolving technology is monitoring heart beat rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) from which many other subsidiary results can be derived. Conventionally, the devices and systems consumes a lot of power since the acquired signals are always processed on the receiver end. Because of this back end processing, the unprocessed raw data is transmitted resulting in usage of more power, memory and processing time. This paper proposes an innovative technique where the acquired signals are processed by a microcontroller in the front end of the module and just the processed signal is then transmitted wirelessly to the display unit. Therefore, power consumption is considerably reduced and clearer data analysis is performed within the module. This also avoids the need for the user to be educated about usage of the device and signal/system analysis, since only the number of heart beats will displayed at the user end. Additionally, the proposed concept also eradicates the other disadvantages like obtrusiveness, high power consumption and size. To demonstrate the above said factors, a commercial controller board was used to extend the monitoring method by using the saved ECG data from a computer.

  2. Epicardial radiofrequency ablation on a beating heart: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Susumu; Oki, Shigeru; Muraoka, Masato; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Kashiwabara, Kenji; Morishita, Yasuo

    2005-02-01

    The effect of epicardial radiofrequency ablation (RFA) during normal heart beating was experimentally studied in order to establish safe and effective procedures for RFA. Seven pigs weighing approximately 30 to 50 kg were used in this study. Fifty-one epicardial RFA lesions were created on both atria using a Cobra Cooled probe with continuous internal irrigation of a saline solution. The ablation temperature was fixed at 80 degrees C and the duration of the RFA in each case was 20, 30, 60 and 120 seconds. There was significant positive correlation between the right and left atria in wall thickness. Transmural coagulation was obtained in 69% of the total specimens, which decreased according to the increase of wall thickness especially over 3 mm. Transmural coagulation was seen in 64% of the specimens after RFA of less than 30 seconds, and 86% after ablation of >or=60 seconds. Occurence of 90% or deeper coagulation was higher in the right atrium than in the left one (97% vs. 78%). Right atrial rupture occurred in a region of 1 mm in thickness after ablation of 60 seconds. Further technical improvements associated with new instruments are indispensable to complete epicardial RFA procedures on a beating heart.

  3. Cardioscopically Guided Beating Heart Surgery: Paravalvular Leak Repair.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Benoit; Machaidze, Zurab; Mencattelli, Margherita; Manjila, Sunil; Shin, Borami; Price, Karl; Borger, Michael A; Thourani, Vinod; Del Nido, Pedro; Brown, David W; Baird, Christopher W; Mayer, John E; Dupont, Pierre E

    2017-09-01

    There remains a paucity of direct visualization techniques for beating-heart intracardiac procedures. To address this need, we evaluated a novel cardioscope in the context of aortic paravalvular leaks (PVLs) localization and closure. A porcine aortic PVL model was created using a custom-made bioprosthetic valve, and PVL presence was verified by epicardial echocardiography. Transapical delivery of occlusion devices guided solely by cardioscopy was attempted 13 times in a total of three pigs. Device retrieval after release was attempted six times. Echocardiography, morphologic evaluation, and delivery time were used to assess results. Cardioscopic imaging enabled localization of PVLs via visualization of regurgitant jet flow in a paravalvular channel at the base of the prosthetic aortic valve. Occluders were successfully placed in 11 of 13 attempts (84.6%), taking on average 3:03 ± 1:34 min. Devices were cardioscopically removed successfully in three of six attempts (50%), taking 3:41 ± 1:46 min. No damage to the ventricle or annulus was observed at necropsy. Cardioscopy can facilitate intracardiac interventions by providing direct visualization of anatomic structures inside the blood-filled, beating-heart model. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  5. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  6. The epidemiology of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-González, Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the societal impact and trends of coronary heart disease through basic epidemiological measures is essential to evaluate treatment effectiveness and organize resource distribution. In the following narrative review, data are presented on the prevalence, incidence, and prognosis of coronary heart disease in general and of acute coronary syndrome in particular. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. "Keep the Beat" Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...

  8. Preliminary Study of Prospective ECG-Gated 320-Detector CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with Ventricular Premature Beats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Dan; Shen, Baozhong

    2012-01-01

    Background To study the applicability of prospective ECG-gated 320-detector CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with ventricular premature beats(VPB), and determine the scanning mode that best maximizes image quality and reduces radiation dose. Methods: 110 patients were divided into a VPB group (60 cases) and a control group (50 cases) using CTCA.All the patients then underwent coronary angiography (CAG) within one month. CAG served as a reference standard through which the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CTCA in diagnosing significant coronary artery stenosis (luminal stenosis ≥50%) could be analyzed. The two radiologists with more than 3 years’ experience in cardiac CT each finished the image analysis after consultation. A personalized scanning mode was adopted to compare image quality and radiation dose between the two groups. Methodology/Principal Findings At the coronary artery segment level, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in the premature beat group were 92.55%, 98.21%, 88.51%, and 98.72% respectively. In the control group these values were found to be 95.79%, 98.42%, 90.11%, and 99.28% respectively. Between the two groups, specificity, sensitivity PPV, NPV was no significant difference. The two groups had no significant difference in image quality score (P>0.05). Heart rate (77.20±12.07 bpm) and radiation dose (14.62±1.37 mSv) in the premature beat group were higher than heart rate (58.72±4.73 bpm) and radiation dose (3.08±2.35 mSv) in the control group. In theVPB group, the radiation dose (34.55±7.12 mSv) for S-field scanning was significantly higher than the radiation dose (15.10±1.12 mSv) for M-field scanning. Conclusions/Significance With prospective ECG-gated scanning for VPB, the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery stenosis is very high. Scanning field adjustment can reduce radiation dose while maintaining good image quality. For patients with slow heart

  9. Scaling dependence and synchronization of forced mercury beating heart systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Animesh; Das, Dibyendu; Parmananda, P.

    2017-04-01

    We perform experiments on a nonautonomous Mercury beating heart system, which is forced to pulsate using an external square wave potential. At suitable frequencies and volumes, the drop exhibits pulsation with polygonal shapes having n corners. We find the scaling dependence of the forcing frequency νn on the volume V of the drop and establish the relationship νn∝n/√{V } . It is shown that the geometrical shape of substrate is important for obtaining closer match to these scaling relationships. Furthermore, we study synchronization of two nonidentical drops driven by the same frequency and establish that synchrony happens when the relationship n2/n1=√{V2/V1 } is satisfied.

  10. Cardioscopic Tool-delivery Instrument for Beating-heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ataollahi, Asghar; Berra, Ignacio; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Machaidze, Zurab; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an instrument that provides solutions to two open challenges in beating-heart intracardiac surgery - providing high-fidelity imaging of tool-tissue contact and controlling tool penetration into tissue over the cardiac cycle. Tool delivery is illustrated in the context of tissue removal for which these challenges equate to visualization of the tissue as it is being removed and to control of cutting depth. Cardioscopic imaging is provided by a camera and illumination system encased in an optical window. When the optical window is pressed against tissue, it displaces the blood between the camera and tissue allowing clear visualization. Control of cutting depth is achieved via precise extension of the cutting tool from a port in the optical window. Successful tool use is demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo experiments. PMID:26951754

  11. Synchronization using environmental coupling in mercury beating heart oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Tanu; Montoya, Fernando; Rivera, M.; Tajima, Shunsuke; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Parmananda, P.

    2016-06-01

    We report synchronization of Mercury Beating Heart (MBH) oscillators using the environmental coupling mechanism. This mechanism involves interaction of the oscillators with a common medium/environment such that the oscillators do not interact among themselves. In the present work, we chose a modified MBH system as the common environment. In the absence of coupling, this modified system does not exhibit self sustained oscillations. It was observed that, as a result of the coupling of the MBH oscillators with this common environment, the electrical and the mechanical activities of both the oscillators synchronized simultaneously. Experimental results indicate the emergence of both lag and the complete synchronization in the MBH oscillators. Simulations of the phase oscillators were carried out in order to better understand the experimental observations.

  12. Beating heart mitral valve repair with integrated ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John T.; Peters, Terry M.

    2015-03-01

    Beating heart valve therapies rely extensively on image guidance to treat patients who would be considered inoperable with conventional surgery. Mitral valve repair techniques including the MitrClip, NeoChord, and emerging transcatheter mitral valve replacement techniques rely on transesophageal echocardiography for guidance. These images are often difficult to interpret as the tool will cause shadowing artifacts that occlude tissue near the target site. Here, we integrate ultrasound imaging directly into the NeoChord device. This provides an unobstructed imaging plane that can visualize the valve lea ets as they are engaged by the device and can aid in achieving both a proper bite and spacing between the neochordae implants. A proof of concept user study in a phantom environment is performed to provide a proof of concept for this device.

  13. Heart-Rate Variability-More than Heart Beats?

    PubMed

    Ernst, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Heart-rate variability (HRV) is frequently introduced as mirroring imbalances within the autonomous nerve system. Many investigations are based on the paradigm that increased sympathetic tone is associated with decreased parasympathetic tone and vice versa. But HRV is probably more than an indicator for probable disturbances in the autonomous system. Some perturbations trigger not reciprocal, but parallel changes of vagal and sympathetic nerve activity. HRV has also been considered as a surrogate parameter of the complex interaction between brain and cardiovascular system. Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary field of study focusing on complex interactions within biological systems like the cardiovascular system, with the help of computational models and time series analysis, beyond others. Time series are considered surrogates of the particular system, reflecting robustness or fragility. Increased variability is usually seen as associated with a good health condition, whereas lowered variability might signify pathological changes. This might explain why lower HRV parameters were related to decreased life expectancy in several studies. Newer integrating theories have been proposed. According to them, HRV reflects as much the state of the heart as the state of the brain. The polyvagal theory suggests that the physiological state dictates the range of behavior and psychological experience. Stressful events perpetuate the rhythms of autonomic states, and subsequently, behaviors. Reduced variability will according to this theory not only be a surrogate but represent a fundamental homeostasis mechanism in a pathological state. The neurovisceral integration model proposes that cardiac vagal tone, described in HRV beyond others as HF-index, can mirror the functional balance of the neural networks implicated in emotion-cognition interactions. Both recent models represent a more holistic approach to understanding the significance of HRV.

  14. Heart-Rate Variability—More than Heart Beats?

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Heart-rate variability (HRV) is frequently introduced as mirroring imbalances within the autonomous nerve system. Many investigations are based on the paradigm that increased sympathetic tone is associated with decreased parasympathetic tone and vice versa. But HRV is probably more than an indicator for probable disturbances in the autonomous system. Some perturbations trigger not reciprocal, but parallel changes of vagal and sympathetic nerve activity. HRV has also been considered as a surrogate parameter of the complex interaction between brain and cardiovascular system. Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary field of study focusing on complex interactions within biological systems like the cardiovascular system, with the help of computational models and time series analysis, beyond others. Time series are considered surrogates of the particular system, reflecting robustness or fragility. Increased variability is usually seen as associated with a good health condition, whereas lowered variability might signify pathological changes. This might explain why lower HRV parameters were related to decreased life expectancy in several studies. Newer integrating theories have been proposed. According to them, HRV reflects as much the state of the heart as the state of the brain. The polyvagal theory suggests that the physiological state dictates the range of behavior and psychological experience. Stressful events perpetuate the rhythms of autonomic states, and subsequently, behaviors. Reduced variability will according to this theory not only be a surrogate but represent a fundamental homeostasis mechanism in a pathological state. The neurovisceral integration model proposes that cardiac vagal tone, described in HRV beyond others as HF-index, can mirror the functional balance of the neural networks implicated in emotion–cognition interactions. Both recent models represent a more holistic approach to understanding the significance of HRV. PMID:28955705

  15. The NPL Doppler fetal heart beat detector test facility.

    PubMed

    Bond, A D; Preston, R C

    1998-03-01

    There are many thousands of Doppler fetal heart beat detectors in medical use and many different detector manufacturers but, until recently, there has been no well-defined quantitative method for measuring the sensitivity of these detectors and, therefore, no way of directly comparing their technical performance under standardised test conditions. At NPL, we have developed a reference test facility for measuring detector sensitivity to meet the needs of manufacturers, and to comply with the requirements of an international standard (IEC 1995) that defines methods of measurement of the sensitivity of fetal heart beat detectors. The test facility has primarily been developed for detectors operating at a transmitted frequency of 2 MHz and with Doppler shifts of up to 1 kHz. The detectors are tested by directing the ultrasound beam at a small moving target being driven at a constant velocity, and then monitoring the output signal from the detector, which will be at the Doppler shift frequency. To determine the sensitivity, attenuators are inserted into the beam until the output signal is reduced to 6 dB above the noise level. The sensitivity is calculated by adding the final signal level above the noise to the total insertion loss of the attenuators in the ultrasound path and the reflection loss of the target. A crucial aspect of this calculation is the knowledge of the target strengths and characteristics. This has already been extensively studied (Preston and Bond 1997) over the frequency range of interest. The NPL test facility developed for undertaking the sensitivity measurements is described, including an assessment of the uncertainties in such a measurement and solutions to problems encountered along the way.

  16. ECG-triggering of the laser Doppler signal: an approach for perfusion imaging on the beating calf heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Karin; Karlsson, Daniel M.; Loenn, Urban; Traff, Stefan; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik

    2001-06-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) has successfully been used to map the myocardial perfusion on patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery on the arrested heart. The need for intra-operative evaluation of graft function is obvious in routine surgery but even more imperative when adapting new surgical techniques where the procedure is performed on the beating heart. When using LDPI on the beating heart, artifacts originating from the movement of the heart are superimposed on the Doppler signal. We have investigated a method to reduce these artifacts by controlling the sampling sequence with ECG-triggering. The method has been assessed in an animal model on the beating calf heart. After sternotomy, an area covering 1 cm2 was imaged at the anterior wall of the left ventricle. In this area, six perfusion images were captured each of them recorded at fixed, but different time intervals in the cardiac cycle. In addition continuous measurements at one spot was done during 1 - 2 minutes. The signal recorded during pumping action was high compared to measurements performed in the same muscle area during infusion of blood with a syringe pump. Repeated measurements captured at a fixed delay time from the R-peak in the same areas at the same heart frequency showed reproducibility. ECG-triggering of the laser Doppler signal is the first step in our attempts to adapt LDPI to enabling assessment of myocardial perfusion on the beating heart. Further technical achievements and in-vivo investigations are, however, needed and will be performed by our research team in future studies.

  17. Diet and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Stamler, J

    1982-03-01

    This paper reviews key aspects of the relationship of diet to coronary heart disease, as demonstrated in epidemiologic and other research over the last 25 or more years. It summarizes the extensive findings that have demonstrated an etiologically significant association among dietary lipid, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease; between caloric imbalance and two of the major CHD risk factors, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia; on the relationship between habitual diet high in sodium and hypertension. It also reviews the data on the relationship of habitual dietary lipid intake of individuals within a population to the serum cholesterol and CHD risk of individuals, indicating that valid positive findings in this area are consistent with evidence from cross-population epidemiologic studies, controlled experiments on diet change in man, and findings from animal research. It delineates the controlled experiments on diet change in man, and findings from animal research. It delineates the methodological problems that have stood in the way of the sound elucidation of this matter, and of the similar ones making it difficult to fully resolve the issue of the relationship of habitual dietary sodium intake of individuals within a population to their blood pressure. It reviews recent findings on the relationship of diet, particularly dietary lipid and calorie balance, to fractions of plasma total cholesterol, i.e., LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, and summarizes the evidence indicating that recommendations for improved nutrition in the United States--emphasizing sizable reduction in saturated fat and cholesterol intake, moderate decrease in intake of total fat and of refined and processed sugars, and of calories for overweight persons--produce changes in plasma lipidlipoprotein levels that are favorable in all respects. Finally, it summarizes the findings with respect to the marked decline in mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, all

  18. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lowdown on: Total Cholesterol: Your total cholesterol score is calculated using the following equation: HDL + LDL + ... Pressure? 7 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 8 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 9 Tachycardia | Fast ...

  19. Force Control of Flexible Catheter Robots for Beating Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Samuel B.; Howe, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in cardiac catheter technology promise to allow physicians to perform most cardiac interventions without stopping the heart or opening the chest. However, current cardiac devices, including newly developed catheter robots, are unable to accurately track and interact with the fast moving cardiac tissue without applying potentially damaging forces. This paper examines the challenges of implementing force control on a flexible robotic catheter. In particular, catheter friction and backlash must be compensated when controlling tissue interaction forces. Force controller designs are introduced and evaluated experimentally in a number of configurations. The controllers are based on the inner position loop force control approach where the position trajectory is adjusted to achieve a desired force on the target. Friction and backlash compensation improved force tracking up to 86% with residual RMS errors of 0.11 N while following a prerecorded cardiac tissue trajectory with accelerations of up to 3800 mm/s2. This performance provides sufficient accuracy to enable a wide range of beating heart surgical procedures. PMID:21874164

  20. Force Control of Flexible Catheter Robots for Beating Heart Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Samuel B; Howe, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in cardiac catheter technology promise to allow physicians to perform most cardiac interventions without stopping the heart or opening the chest. However, current cardiac devices, including newly developed catheter robots, are unable to accurately track and interact with the fast moving cardiac tissue without applying potentially damaging forces. This paper examines the challenges of implementing force control on a flexible robotic catheter. In particular, catheter friction and backlash must be compensated when controlling tissue interaction forces. Force controller designs are introduced and evaluated experimentally in a number of configurations. The controllers are based on the inner position loop force control approach where the position trajectory is adjusted to achieve a desired force on the target. Friction and backlash compensation improved force tracking up to 86% with residual RMS errors of 0.11 N while following a prerecorded cardiac tissue trajectory with accelerations of up to 3800 mm/s(2). This performance provides sufficient accuracy to enable a wide range of beating heart surgical procedures.

  1. Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation Model in a Beating Heart Platform.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, Michal; Piola, Marco; Lucherini, Federico; Gelpi, Guido; Castagna, Marco; Lentini, Giuliana; Antona, Carlo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Vismara, Riccardo

    2017-01-03

    Currently, clinicians are seeking new, minimally invasive treatment options for functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR). Challenging tricuspid complexity requires the evaluation of the treatment techniques in adequate and realistic preclinical scenario. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and functional assessment of a novel passive beating heart model of the pulmonary circulation with the possibility to tightly control FTR.The model housed porcine hearts actuated by a volumetric pump that cyclically pressurized the right ventricle. The in-vitro FTR model exploited the tendency of the ventricle to dilate under pressure. The dilation entailed papillary muscles displacement and valve annulus enlargement, thus inducing tricuspid valve insufficiency. Employment of constraint bands allowed to restore valve competency.The system provided consistent replication of the main determinants of the pulmonary hemodynamics in a wide range of working conditions. The experimental model of FTR was reliable, easily controllable and showed good stability over time. Echocardiography and fiberscope imaging provided a unique opportunity to investigate valve dynamics. These features make the platform suitable for realistic training purposes and testing of the upcoming FTR therapies.

  2. Estimating 'lost heart beats' rather than reductions in heart rate during the intubation of critically-ill children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter; Ovenden, Nick; Dauger, Stéphane; Peters, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in heart rate occur frequently in children during critical care intubation and are currently considered the gold standard for haemodynamic instability. Our objective was to estimate loss of heart beats during intubation and compare this to reduction in heart rate alone whilst testing the impact of atropine pre-medication. Data were extracted from a prospective 2-year cohort study of intubation ECGs from critically ill children in PICU/Paediatric Transport. A three step algorithm was established to exclude variation in pre-intubation heart rate (using a 95%CI limit derived from pre-intubation heart rate variation of the children included), measure the heart rate over time and finally the estimate the numbers of lost beats. 333 intubations in children were eligible for inclusion of which 245 were available for analysis (74%). Intubations where the fall in heart rate was less than 50 bpm were accompanied almost exclusively by less than 25 lost beats (n = 175, median 0 [0-1]). When there was a reduction of >50 bpm there was a poor correlation with numbers of lost beats (n = 70, median 42 [15-83]). During intubation the median number of lost beats was 8 [1]-[32] when atropine was not used compared to 0 [0-0] when atropine was used (p<0.001). A reduction in heart rate during intubation of <50 bpm reliably predicted a minimal loss of beats. When the reduction in heart rate was >50 bpm the heart rate was poorly predictive of lost beats. A study looking at the relationship between lost beats and cardiac output needs to be performed. Atropine reduces both fall in heart rate and loss of beats. Similar area-under-the-curve methodology may be useful for estimating risk when biological parameters deviate outside normal range.

  3. Real-time optical gating for three-dimensional beating heart imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Love, Gordon D.; Girkin, John M.; Henderson, Deborah J.; Chaudhry, Bill

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate real-time microscope image gating to an arbitrary position in the cycle of the beating heart of a zebrafish embryo. We show how this can be used for high-precision prospective gating of fluorescence image slices of the moving heart. We also present initial results demonstrating the application of this technique to 3-D structural imaging of the beating embryonic heart.

  4. Heart Motion Prediction Based on Adaptive Estimation Algorithms for Robotic Assisted Beating Heart Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tuna, E Erdem; Franke, Timothy J; Bebek, Ozkan; Shiose, Akira; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk

    2013-02-01

    Robotic assisted beating heart surgery aims to allow surgeons to operate on a beating heart without stabilizers as if the heart is stationary. The robot actively cancels heart motion by closely following a point of interest (POI) on the heart surface-a process called Active Relative Motion Canceling (ARMC). Due to the high bandwidth of the POI motion, it is necessary to supply the controller with an estimate of the immediate future of the POI motion over a prediction horizon in order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy. In this paper, two least-square based prediction algorithms, using an adaptive filter to generate future position estimates, are implemented and studied. The first method assumes a linear system relation between the consecutive samples in the prediction horizon. On the contrary, the second method performs this parametrization independently for each point over the whole the horizon. The effects of predictor parameters and variations in heart rate on tracking performance are studied with constant and varying heart rate data. The predictors are evaluated using a 3 degrees of freedom test-bed and prerecorded in-vivo motion data. Then, the one-step prediction and tracking performances of the presented approaches are compared with an Extended Kalman Filter predictor. Finally, the essential features of the proposed prediction algorithms are summarized.

  5. Heart Motion Prediction Based on Adaptive Estimation Algorithms for Robotic Assisted Beating Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, E. Erdem; Franke, Timothy J.; Bebek, Özkan; Shiose, Akira; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Robotic assisted beating heart surgery aims to allow surgeons to operate on a beating heart without stabilizers as if the heart is stationary. The robot actively cancels heart motion by closely following a point of interest (POI) on the heart surface—a process called Active Relative Motion Canceling (ARMC). Due to the high bandwidth of the POI motion, it is necessary to supply the controller with an estimate of the immediate future of the POI motion over a prediction horizon in order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy. In this paper, two least-square based prediction algorithms, using an adaptive filter to generate future position estimates, are implemented and studied. The first method assumes a linear system relation between the consecutive samples in the prediction horizon. On the contrary, the second method performs this parametrization independently for each point over the whole the horizon. The effects of predictor parameters and variations in heart rate on tracking performance are studied with constant and varying heart rate data. The predictors are evaluated using a 3 degrees of freedom test-bed and prerecorded in-vivo motion data. Then, the one-step prediction and tracking performances of the presented approaches are compared with an Extended Kalman Filter predictor. Finally, the essential features of the proposed prediction algorithms are summarized. PMID:23976889

  6. Electric pulses augment reporter gene expression in the beating heart.

    PubMed

    Eigeldinger-Berthou, Sylvie; Buntschu, Patrick; Flück, Martin; Frobert, Aurélien; Ferrié, Céline; Carrel, Thierry P; Tevaearai, Hendrik T; Kadner, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Gene therapy of the heart has been attempted in a number of clinical trials with the injection of naked DNA, although quantitative information on myocellular transfection rates is not available. The present study aimed to quantify the efficacy of electropulsing protocols that differ in pulse duration and number to stimulate transfection of cardiomyocytes and to determine the impact on myocardial integrity. Reporter plasmid for constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into the left ventricle of beating hearts of adult, male Lewis rats. Four electrotransfer protocols consisting of repeated long pulses (8 × 20 ms), trains of short pulses (eight trains of either 60 or 80 × 100 µs) or their combination were compared with control procedures concerning the degree of GFP expression and the effect on infiltration, fibrosis and apoptosis. All tested protocols produced GFP expression at the site of plasmid injection. Continuous pulses were most effective and increased the number of GFP-positive cardiomyocytes by more than 300-fold compared to plasmid injection alone (p < 0.05). Concomitantly, the incidence of macrophage infiltration, fibrosis and cell death was increased. Trains of short pulses reduced macrophage infiltration and fibrosis by four- and two-fold, respectively, although they were 20-fold less efficient in stimulating cardiomyocyte transfection. GFP expression co-related to delivered electric energy, infiltration and fibrosis, although not apoptosis. The data imply that electropulsing of the myocardium promotes the overexpression of exogenous protein in mature cardiomyocytes in relation to an injury component. Fractionation of pulses is indicated as a option for sophisticated gene therapeutic approaches to the heart. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2007-02-01

    This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption, which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial. Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee.

  8. Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2007-11-01

    This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption, which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial. Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee.

  9. Effect of jaundiced sera and bile salts on cultured beating rat heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bogin, E.; Better, O.; Harary, I.

    1980-01-01

    Jaundiced serum, from common bile duct ligated rats, added to cultured heart cells decreased the beating rate and caused an early cessation of beating. Similarly it produced higher levels of lactate in the media. Deoxychloic acid but not cholic acid which are the main bile acids in jaundiced serum caused similar effects, thus suggesting that deoxychloic acid is the toxic substance responsible for heart function alterations seen in severe jaundiced patients.

  10. Psychosocial factors in coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R. P., Jr.; Chaplan, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    The relationship between job satisfaction and coronary heart disease is explored for blue and white collar groups, different personalities and physiological risk factors. Differences found among administrators, engineers and scientists with regard to variables associated with heart disease are in terms of physiology, personality, reported job stress, and smoking.

  11. Smoking, Stress, and Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Perkins, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on the interrelation between stressors and smoking, and on its potential impact on coronary heart disease risk beyond that due to stressors or to smoking alone. Reviews evidence supporting the stress-smoking interrelationship, its relevance to the risk of heart disease, and mechanisms explaining why smokers smoke more during stress and why…

  12. Smoking, Stress, and Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Perkins, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on the interrelation between stressors and smoking, and on its potential impact on coronary heart disease risk beyond that due to stressors or to smoking alone. Reviews evidence supporting the stress-smoking interrelationship, its relevance to the risk of heart disease, and mechanisms explaining why smokers smoke more during stress and why…

  13. Determinants of incubation period: do reptilian embryos hatch after a fixed total number of heart beats?

    PubMed

    Du, Wei-Guo; Radder, Rajkumar S; Sun, Bo; Shine, Richard

    2009-05-01

    The eggs of birds typically hatch after a fixed (but lineage-specific) cumulative number of heart beats since the initiation of incubation. Is the same true for non-avian reptiles, despite wide intraspecific variation in incubation period generated by variable nest temperatures? Non-invasive monitoring of embryo heart beat rates in one turtle species (Pelodiscus sinensis) and two lizards (Bassiana duperreyi and Takydromus septentrionalis) show that the total number of heart beats during embryogenesis is relatively constant over a wide range of warm incubation conditions. However, incubation at low temperatures increases the total number of heart beats required to complete embryogenesis, because the embryo spends much of its time at temperatures that require maintenance functions but that do not allow embryonic growth or differentiation. Thus, cool-incubated embryos allocate additional metabolic effort to maintenance costs. Under warm conditions, total number of heart beats thus predicts incubation period in non-avian reptiles as well as in birds (the total number of heart beats are also similar); however, under the colder nest conditions often experienced by non-avian reptiles, maintenance costs add significantly to total embryonic metabolic expenditure.

  14. Beat-to-beat heart rate estimation fusing multimodal video and sensor data

    PubMed Central

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Gao, Hanno; Brüser, Christoph; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Coverage and accuracy of unobtrusively measured biosignals are generally relatively low compared to clinical modalities. This can be improved by exploiting redundancies in multiple channels with methods of sensor fusion. In this paper, we demonstrate that two modalities, skin color variation and head motion, can be extracted from the video stream recorded with a webcam. Using a Bayesian approach, these signals are fused with a ballistocardiographic signal obtained from the seat of a chair with a mean absolute beat-to-beat estimation error below 25 milliseconds and an average coverage above 90% compared to an ECG reference. PMID:26309754

  15. Efficient physics-based tracking of heart surface motion for beating heart surgery robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Bogatyrenko, Evgeniya; Pompey, Pascal; Hanebeck, Uwe D

    2011-05-01

    Tracking of beating heart motion in a robotic surgery system is required for complex cardiovascular interventions. A heart surface motion tracking method is developed, including a stochastic physics-based heart surface model and an efficient reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm uses the constraints provided by the model that exploits the physical characteristics of the heart. The main advantage of the model is that it is more realistic than most standard heart models. Additionally, no explicit matching between the measurements and the model is required. The application of meshless methods significantly reduces the complexity of physics-based tracking. Based on the stochastic physical model of the heart surface, this approach considers the motion of the intervention area and is robust to occlusions and reflections. The tracking algorithm is evaluated in simulations and experiments on an artificial heart. Providing higher accuracy than the standard model-based methods, it successfully copes with occlusions and provides high performance even when all measurements are not available. Combining the physical and stochastic description of the heart surface motion ensures physically correct and accurate prediction. Automatic initialization of the physics-based cardiac motion tracking enables system evaluation in a clinical environment.

  16. Dual-source computed tomographic coronary angiography: image quality and stenosis diagnosis in patients with high heart rates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minwen; Li, Jiayi; Xu, Jian; Chen, Kang; Zhao, Hongliang; Huan, Yi

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate prospectively the effects of heart rate and heart-rate variability on dual-source computed tomographic coronary image quality in patients whose heart rates were high, and to determine retrospectively the accuracy of dual-source computed tomographic diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis in the same patients.We compared image quality and diagnostic accuracy in 40 patients whose heart rates exceeded 70 beats/min with the same data in 40 patients whose heart rates were 70 beats/min or slower. In both groups, we analyzed 1,133 coronary arterial segments. Five hundred forty-five segments (97.7%) in low-heart-rate patients and 539 segments (93.7%) in high-heart-rate patients were of diagnostic image quality. We considered P < 0.05 to be statistically significant. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found in diagnostic-image quality scores of total segments or of any coronary artery, nor were any significant differences found between the groups in the accurate diagnosis of angiographically significant stenosis.Calcification was the chief factor that affected diagnostic accuracy. In high-heart-rate patients, heart-rate variability was significantly related to the diagnostic image quality of all segments (P = 0.001) and of the left circumflex coronary artery (P = 0.016). Heart-rate variability of more than 5 beats/min most strongly contributed to an inability to evaluate segments in both groups. When heart rates rose, the optimal reconstruction window shifted from diastole to systole.The image quality of dual-source computed tomographic coronary angiography at high heart rates enables sufficient diagnosis of stenosis, although variability of heart rates significantly deteriorates image quality.

  17. Characterization of the respiratory and heart beat signal from an air pressure-based ballistocardiographic setup.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Tim; Van Deun, Dorien; Verhaert, Vincent; Van Huffel, Sabine; Haex, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Off-body detection of respiratory and cardiac activity presents an enormous opportunity for general health, stress and sleep quality monitoring. The presented setup detects the mechanical activity of both heart and lungs by measuring pressure difference fluctuations between two air volumes underneath the chest area of the subject. The registered signals were characterized over four different sleep postures, three different base air pressures within the air volumes and three different mattress top layer materials. Highest signal strength was detected in prone posture for both the respiratory and heart beat signal. Respiratory signal strength was the lowest in supine posture, while heart beat signal strength was lowest for right lateral. Heart beat cycle variability was highest in prone and lowest in supine posture. Increasing the base air pressure caused a reduction in signal amplitude for both the respiratory and the heart beat signal. A visco-elastic poly-urethane foam top layer had significantly higher respiration amplitude compared to high resilient poly-urethane foam and latex foam. For the heart beat signal, differences between the top layers were small. The authors conclude that, while the influence of the mattress top layer material is small, the base air pressure can be tuned for optimal mechanical transmission from heart and lungs towards the registration setup.

  18. NASA's Hubble Captures the Beating Heart of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Peering deep into the core of the Crab Nebula, this close-up image reveals the beating heart of one of the most historic and intensively studied remnants of a supernova, an exploding star. The inner region sends out clock-like pulses of radiation and tsunamis of charged particles embedded in magnetic fields. The neutron star at the very center of the Crab Nebula has about the same mass as the sun but compressed into an incredibly dense sphere that is only a few miles across. Spinning 30 times a second, the neutron star shoots out detectable beams of energy that make it look like it's pulsating. The NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshot is centered on the region around the neutron star (the rightmost of the two bright stars near the center of this image) and the expanding, tattered, filamentary debris surrounding it. Hubble's sharp view captures the intricate details of glowing gas, shown in red, that forms a swirling medley of cavities and filaments. Inside this shell is a ghostly blue glow that is radiation given off by electrons spiraling at nearly the speed of light in the powerful magnetic field around the crushed stellar core. The neutron star is a showcase for extreme physical processes and unimaginable cosmic violence. Bright wisps are moving outward from the neutron star at half the speed of light to form an expanding ring. It is thought that these wisps originate from a shock wave that turns the high-speed wind from the neutron star into extremely energetic particles. When this "heartbeat" radiation signature was first discovered in 1968, astronomers realized they had discovered a new type of astronomical object. Now astronomers know it's the archetype of a class of supernova remnants called pulsars - or rapidly spinning neutron stars. These interstellar "lighthouse beacons" are invaluable for doing observational experiments on a variety of astronomical phenomena, including measuring gravity waves. Observations of the Crab supernova were recorded by Chinese

  19. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Quilis, Carme; Leischik, Roman; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement. PMID:27500157

  20. Mechano-regulation of the beating heart at the cellular level--mechanosensitive channels in normal and diseased heart.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Oliver; Wagner, Soeren; Battle, Andrew R; Schürmann, Sebastian; Martinac, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The heart as a contractile hollow organ finely tunes mechanical parameters such as stroke volume, stroke pressure and cardiac output according to filling volumes, filling pressures via intrinsic and neuronal routes. At the cellular level, cardiomyocytes in beating hearts are exposed to large mechanical stress during successive heart beats. Although the mechanisms of excitation-contraction coupling are well established in mammalian heart cells, the putative contribution of mechanosensitive channels to Ca²⁺ homeostasis, Ca²⁺ signaling and force generation has been primarily investigated in relation to heart disease states. For instance, transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) are up-regulated in animal models of congestive heart failure or hypertension models and seem to play a vital role in pathological Ca²⁺ overload to cardiomyocytes, thus aggravating the pathology of disease at the cellular level. Apart from that, the contribution of mechanosensitive channels (MsC) in the normal beating heart to the downstream force activation cascade has not been addressed. We present an overview of the current literature and concepts of mechanosensitive channel involvement in failing hearts and cardiomyopathies and novel data showing a likely contribution of Ca²⁺ influx via mechanosensitive channels in beating normal cardiomyocytes during systolic shortening.

  1. Automatic computerized analysis of heart rate variability with digital filtering of ectopic beats.

    PubMed

    Storck, N; Ericson, M; Lindblad, L; Jensen-Urstad, M

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been used in studies of autonomic function and risk assessment in different patient groups such as in patients with diabetes mellitus, after myocardial infarction (MI) and other cardiovascular disease. Ectopic beats can, however, interfere with HRV analysis and give erroneous results. We have therefore studied the impact of ectopic beats on HRV analysis and the ability of a filter algorithm to correct this. Power spectral analysis of synthetic data with an increasing proportion of ectopic beats and 24-h Holter recordings from 98 healthy subjects and 93 post MI patients was done with and without digital filtering and interpolation of errors in the data stream. The analysis of HRV was seriously hampered by less than 1% of ectopic beats. A filter algorithm based on detection and linear interpolation of ectopic beats and other noise in the data stream corrected effectively for this in the synthetic data employed. In the healthy subjects and the post MI patients, filtering markedly reduced the extra variability related to non-normal beats. The software could automatically analyse over one hundred 24-h files in one batch. HRV analysis should include filtering for ectopic beats even with a small number of such beats. It is possible to make a fast analysis automatically even in huge clinical series, which makes it possible to use the method both clinically and in epidemiological studies.

  2. The natural cure of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Withnell, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Following the development of coronary heart disease in 1989 I was introduced to an alumnus of the Pritikin Longevity Center in California and I adopted the regimen of diet and exercise. Within five months I was able to abandon all medication and was symptom free. My medical colleagues maintained that, because I had recovered, the Consultant's diagnosis must have been wrong--there can be no cure of coronary heart disease by lifestyle changes alone. As a result of my experience I decided to review the literature to study the natural history of coronary heart disease. My findings strongly suggest that the increase in incidence in the last hundred years from virtually nil to epidemic proportions is due to lifestyle changes and that the disease can be reversed. I list a number of doctors who have influenced large numbers of people to change their lifestyles with great success. They have utilised mainly plant-based diets whose composition is the same or similar to that which Pritikin originally used and which is still extant at the Longevity Center. I conclude by suggesting that the possibility of reversal of coronary heart disease has profound implications for its treatment with enormous potential savings for the National Health Service.

  3. How revascularization on the beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass compares to off-pump? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Sepehripour, Amir H; Chaudhry, Umar A; Suliman, Amna; Kidher, Emaddin; Sayani, Nusrat; Ashrafian, Hutan; Harling, Leanne; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been a controversial area of debate and the outcome profile of the technique has been thoroughly investigated. Scepticism regarding the reported outcomes and the conduct of the randomized trials comparing this technique with conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been widely voiced, and the technique of off-pump surgery remains as an infrequently adopted approach to myocardial revascularization worldwide. Criticisms of the technique are related to lower rates of complete revascularization and its unknown long-term consequences, the significant detrimental effects on mortality and major adverse events when emergency conversion is required, and the significant lack of long-term survival and morbidity data. The hybrid technique of myocardial revascularization on the beating heart with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass may theoretically provide the beneficial effects of off-pump surgery in terms of myocardial protection and organ protection, while providing the safety and stability of on-pump surgery to allow complete revascularization. Large randomized comparison to support evidence-based choices is currently lacking. In this article, we have meta-analysed the outcomes of on-pump beating heart surgery in comparison with off-pump surgery focusing on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events (MACCE) including mortality, stroke and myocardial infarction and the degree of revascularization and number of bypass grafts performed. It was demonstrated that the beating heart on-pump technique allows a significantly higher number of bypass grafts to be performed, resulting in significantly higher degree of revascularization. We have also demonstrated a slightly higher rate of 30-day mortality and MACCE with the technique although not at a statistically significant level. These results should be considered alongside the population risk profile, where a significantly higher risk cohort had

  4. Low-cost, take-home, beating heart simulator for health-care education.

    PubMed

    Berg, Devin R; Carlson, Andrew; Durfee, William K; Sweet, Robert M; Reihsen, Troy

    2011-01-01

    Intended for medical students studying the evaluation and diagnosis of heart arrhythmias, the beating heart arrhythmia simulator combines visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli to enhance the student's retention of the subtle differences between various conditions of the heart necessary for diagnosis. Unlike existing heart arrhythmia simulators, our simulator is low cost and easily deployable in the classroom setting. A design consisting of solenoid actuators, a silicon heart model, and a graphical user interface has been developed and prototyped. Future design development and conceptual validation is necessary prior to deployment.

  5. Intravenous ivabradine for control of heart rate during coronary CT angiography: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Garot, Jerome; Tendera, Michal; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Low heart rates (HRs) are preferable for coronary CT angiography (CTA). We evaluated the use of an intravenous bolus of ivabradine, a selective sinus node inhibitor, to lower HR before coronary CTA in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. A total of 370 patients scheduled for CTA, with sinus rhythm ≥70 beats/min but ineligible for intravenous beta-blockers, were randomized to an intravenous bolus of 10 mg (HR, 70-79 beats/min) or 15 mg (HR ≥80 beats/min) ivabradine or placebo. Primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving HR ≤65 beats/min at the initiation of coronary CTA (Ta). Baseline HR was 79 ± 8.5 beats/min. At Ta, HR ≤65 beats/min was achieved in 55% of the ivabradine group vs. 23% for placebo (P < .0001) and in 68% vs. 16% 1-hour after bolus administration (P < .0001). Contrast-enhanced coronary CTA was performed in 87% of the ivabradine group vs. 65% for placebo (P < .0001). Mean HR at Ta was 67 ± 10 beats/min for ivabradine vs. 75 ± 10 beats/min for placebo (P < .0001). Procedural convenience was scored better with ivabradine ("good" or "very good" in 79% vs 63% for placebo; P = .0005). The effective radiation dose of contrast-enhanced CTA was 13 ± 7 mSv for ivabradine vs. 16 ± 7 mSv for placebo (P < .05). Ivabradine was well tolerated. An intravenous bolus of ivabradine achieves rapid, safe, and sustained HR lowering during coronary CTA, increasing procedural convenience and reducing radiation exposure vs placebo. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. To beat or not to beat: degradation of Cx43 imposes the heart rhythm.

    PubMed

    Martins-Marques, Tânia; Catarino, Steve; Marques, Carla; Pereira, Paulo; Girão, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    The main function of the heart is to pump blood to the different parts of the organism, a task that is efficiently accomplished through proper electric and metabolic coupling between cardiac cells, ensured by gap junctions (GJ). Cardiomyocytes are the major cell population in the heart, and as cells with low mitotic activity, are highly dependent upon mechanisms of protein degradation. In the heart, both the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy participate in the fine-tune regulation of cardiac remodelling and function, either in physiological or pathological conditions. Indeed, besides controlling cardiac signalling pathways, UPS and autophagy have been implicated in the turnover of several myocardial proteins. Degradation of Cx43, the major ventricular GJ protein, has been associated to up-regulation of autophagy at the onset of heart ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which can have profound implications upon cardiac function. In this review, we present recent studies devoted to the involvement of autophagy and UPS in heart homoeostasis, with a particular focus on GJ.

  7. A Miniature Mobile Robot for Navigation and Positioning on the Beating Heart

    PubMed Central

    Patronik, Nicholas A.; Ota, Takeyoshi; Zenati, Marco A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2010-01-01

    Robotic assistance enhances conventional endoscopy; yet, limitations have hindered its mainstream adoption for cardiac surgery. HeartLander is a miniature mobile robot that addresses several of these limitations by providing precise and stable access over the surface of the beating heart in a less-invasive manner. The robot adheres to the heart and navigates to any desired target in a semiautonomous fashion. The initial therapies considered for HeartLander generally require precise navigation to multiple surface targets for treatment. To balance speed and precision, we decompose any general target acquisition into navigation to the target region followed by fine positioning to each target. In closed-chest, beating-heart animal studies, we demonstrated navigation to targets located around the circumference of the heart, as well as acquisition of target patterns on the anterior and posterior surfaces with an average error of 1.7 mm. The average drift encountered during station-keeping was 0.7 mm. These preclinical results demonstrate the feasibility of precise semiautonomous delivery of therapy to the surface of the beating heart using HeartLander. PMID:20179783

  8. A Novel Cardioport for Beating-Heart Image-Guided Intracardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; DiBiasio, Christopher M.; Durand, Keith V.; Hopkins, Jonathan; Traina, Zachary J.; Slocum, Alexander H.; del Nido, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Intracardiac beating-heart procedures require the introduction and exchange of complex instruments and devices. In order to prevent potential complications such as air embolism and bleeding, a universal cardioport was designed and tested. Methods The design consists of port body and a series of interchangeable sleeves. The port uses a fluid purging system to remove air from the instrument prior to insertion into the heart, and a valve system minimizes blood loss during instrument changes. Results The cardioport was tested ex vivo and in vivo in pigs (n=5). Beating-heart procedures such as septal defect closure and mitral valve repair were modeled. Ex vivo trials (n=150) were performed, and no air emboli were introduced using the port. In comparison, air emboli were detected in 40–85% of the cases without use of the port based purging system. Port operation revealed excellent ergonomics, and minimal blood loss. Conclusions A novel cardioport system designed to prevent air entry and blood loss from transcardiac instrument introduction was shown to be an enabling platform for intracardiac beating-heart surgery. The port system improves safety and facilitates further development of complex instruments and devices for transcardiac beating-heart surgery. PMID:21855093

  9. Enhancing Heart-Beat-Based Security for mHealth Applications.

    PubMed

    Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Sourdis, Ioannis; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    In heart-beat-based security, a security key is derived from the time difference between consecutive heart beats (the inter-pulse interval, IPI), which may, subsequently, be used to enable secure communication. While heart-beat-based security holds promise in mobile health (mHealth) applications, there currently exists no work that provides a detailed characterization of the delivered security in a real system. In this paper, we evaluate the strength of IPI-based security keys in the context of entity authentication. We investigate several aspects that should be considered in practice, including subjects with reduced heart-rate variability (HRV), different sensor-sampling frequencies, intersensor variability (i.e., how accurate each entity may measure heart beats) as well as average and worst-case-authentication time. Contrary to the current state of the art, our evaluation demonstrates that authentication using multiple, less-entropic keys may actually increase the key strength by reducing the effects of intersensor variability. Moreover, we find that the maximal key strength of a 60-bit key varies between 29.2 bits and only 5.7 bits, depending on the subject's HRV. To improve security, we introduce the inter-multi-pulse interval (ImPI), a novel method of extracting entropy from the heart by considering the time difference between nonconsecutive heart beats. Given the same authentication time, using the ImPI for key generation increases key strength by up to 3.4 × (+19.2 bits) for subjects with limited HRV, at the cost of an extended key-generation time of 4.8 × (+45 s).

  10. Beat-to-beat heart rate and blood pressure variability and hypertensive disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Flood, Pamela; McKinley, Paula; Monk, Catherine; Muntner, Paul; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Goetzl, Laura; Hatch, Maureen; Sloan, Richard P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between heart rate and/or blood pressure variability, measured at 28 weeks' gestation, and the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia. Secondary analysis of data from a prospectively enrolled cohort of 385 active military women in whom spectral analysis of continuous heart rate and variability was measured at 28 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was the predictive value of spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure for hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. High-frequency heart rate variability was reduced and low-frequency variability of systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased in women who would develop pregnancy-induced hypertension but not preeclampsia. Low-frequency variability of diastolic blood pressure remained a significant predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension but not preeclampsia after adjustment for age, weight, and blood pressure in a multivariate model. Early identification of pregnancy-induced hypertension can facilitate treatment to avoid maternal morbidity. Understanding the physiological underpinnings of the two very different diseases may lead to improved treatment and prevention. If proven effective in a broader population, the ability to differentiate pregnancy-induced hypertension from preeclampsia may reduce unnecessary iatrogenic interventions or inappropriate preterm delivery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Detection and evaluation of ventricular repolarization alternans: an approach to combined ECG, thoracic impedance, and beat-to-beat heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Kriščiukaitis, Algimantas; Šimoliūnienė, Renata; Macas, Andrius; Petrolis, Robertas; Drėgūnas, Kęstutis; Bakšytė, Giedrė; Pieteris, Linas; Bertašienė, Zita; Žaliūnas, Remigijus

    2014-01-01

    Beat-to-beat alteration in ventricles repolarization reflected by alternans of amplitude and/or shape of ECG S-T,T segment (TWA) is known as phenomena related with risk of severe arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death. Technical difficulties have caused limited its usage in clinical diagnostics. Possibilities to register and analyze multimodal signals reflecting heart activity inspired search for new technical solutions. First objective of this study was to test whether thoracic impedance signal and beat-to-beat heart rate reflect repolarization alternans detected as TWA. The second objective was revelation of multimodal signal features more comprehensively representing the phenomena and increasing its prognostic usefulness. ECG, and thoracic impedance signal recordings made during 24h follow-up of the patients hospitalized in acute phase of myocardial infarction were used for investigation. Signal morphology variations reflecting estimates were obtained by the principal component analysis-based method. Clinical outcomes of patients (survival and/or rehospitalization in 6 and 12 months) were compared to repolarization alternans and heart rate variability estimates. Repolarization alternans detected as TWA was also reflected in estimates of thoracic impedance signal shape and variation in beat-to-beat heart rate. All these parameters showed correlation with clinical outcomes of patients. The strongest significant correlation showed magnitude of alternans in estimates of thoracic impedance signal shape. The features of ECG, thoracic impedance signal and beat-to-beat variability of heart rate, give comprehensive estimates of repolarization alternans, which correlate, with clinical outcomes of the patients and we recommend using them to improve diagnostic reliability. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Age, dental infections, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K J; Asikainen, S; Wolf, J; Jousimies-Somer, H; Valtonen, V; Nieminen, M

    2000-02-01

    Epidemiological and intervention studies have suggested that infections are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dental infections have appeared as cardiovascular risk factors in cross-sectional and in follow-up studies, and the association has been independent of the "classic" coronary risk factors. This case-control study aimed at detailed assessment of the dental pathology found in various CHD categories (including elderly patients). Altogether, 85 patients with proven coronary heart disease and 53 random controls, matched for sex, age, geographic area, and socio-economic status, were compared with regard to dental status, assessed blindly with four separate scores, and to the "classic" coronary risk factors (seven of the controls had CHD, and they were not included in the analyses). The dental indices were higher among CHD patients than in the controls, but, contrary to previous studies, the differences were not significant (between the CHD patients and their matched controls or among the different CHD categories). This result could not be explained by potential confounding factors. The participants in the present study were older and had more often undergone recent dental treatment in comparison with subjects in our earlier studies. Age correlated with the severity of dental infections only in the random controls but not in the coronary patients who, although young, already had high dental scores. We believe that the higher age of the participants in the present study is the most likely reason for the results. Other possible explanations include an age-related selection bias among older CHD patients, and the fact that those participating in studies like this may have better general health and thus also less severe dental infections. Thus, the role of dental infections as a coronary risk factor varies according to the characteristics of the population studied.

  13. Coronary Heart Disease and Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Vlachaki, Chrisanthy P.; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is associated with emotions, especially negative ones, namely anxiety and depression. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a psychological model that consists of a variety of emotional skills. Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between different dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and coronary heart disease. Methods: A total of 300 participants were studied during a 3-year period in an attempt to partially replicate and further expand a previous study conducted in Greece among CHD patients, which indicated a strong association between certain dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and the incidence of CHD. All participants completed a self-report questionnaire, assessing several aspects of Emotional Intelligence. Findings: The results showed that there is a link between the regulation of emotions and the occurrence of CHD. Conclusions: The evidence reported in the present study makes stronger the claim that EI plays a significant role in the occurrence of CHD. PMID:24171883

  14. Coronary Heart Disease and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Vlachaki, Chrisanthy; Maridaki Kassotaki, Katerina

    2013-09-23

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is associated with emotions, especially negative ones, namely anxiety and depression. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a psychological model that consists of a variety of emotional skills. The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between different dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and coronary heart disease. A total of 300 participants were studied during a 3-year period in an attempt to partially replicate and further expand a previous study conducted in Greece among CHD patients, which indicated a strong association between certain dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and the incidence of CHD. All participants completed a self-report questionnaire, assessing several aspects of Emotional Intelligence. The results showed that there is a link between the regulation of emotions and the occurrence of CHD. The evidence reported in the present study makes stronger the claim that EI plays a significant role in the occurrence of CHD.

  15. Atrioventricular conduction and arrhythmias at the initiation of beating in embryonic mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuhua; De Diego, Carlos; Chang, Marvin G; McHarg, Jennifer L; John, Scott; Klitzner, Thomas S; Weiss, James N

    2010-07-01

    To investigate cardiac physiology at the onset of heart beating in embryonic mouse hearts, we performed optical imaging of membrane potential (Vm) and/or intracellular calcium (Ca(i)). Action potentials and Ca(i) transients were detected in approximately 50% of mouse embryo hearts at E8.5, but in all hearts at E9.0, indicating that beating typically starts between E8-E9. Beating was eliminated by Ca channel blocker nifedipine and the I(f) blocker ZD7288, unaffected by tetrodotoxin and only mildly depressed by disabling sarcoplasmic (SR) and endoplasmic (ER) reticulum Ca cycling. From E8.5 to E10, conduction velocity increased from 0.2-1 mm/s to >5 mm/s in first ventricular and then atrial tissue, while remaining slow in other areas. Arrhythmias included atrioventricular reentry induced by adenosine. In summary, at the onset of beating, I(f)-dependent pacemaking drives both AP propagation and Ca(i) transient generation through activation of voltage-dependent Ca channels. Na channels and intracellular Ca cycling have minor roles.

  16. Peak misdetection in heart-beat-based security: Characterization and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Sourdis, Ioannis; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    The Inter-Pulse-Interval (IPI) of heart beats has previously been suggested for security in mobile health (mHealth) applications. In IPI-based security, secure communication is facilitated through a security key derived from the time difference between heart beats. However, there currently exists no work which considers the effect on security of imperfect heart-beat (peak) detection. This is a crucial aspect of IPI-based security and likely to happen in a real system. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of peak misdetection on the security performance of IPI-based security. It is shown that even with a high peak detection rate between 99.9% and 99.0%, a significant drop in security performance may be observed (between -70% and -303%) compared to having perfect peak detection. We show that authenticating using smaller keys yields both stronger keys as well as potentially faster authentication in case of imperfect heart beat detection. Finally, we present an algorithm which tolerates the effect of a single misdetected peak and increases the security performance by up to 155%.

  17. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  18. Extracting fetal heart beats from maternal abdominal recordings: selection of the optimal principal components.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Costanzo; Liu, Chengyu; Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan; Langley, Philip

    2014-08-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of different approaches to the automated selection of the principal components (PC) which optimise the detection of maternal and fetal heart beats from non-invasive maternal abdominal recordings.A public database of 75 4-channel non-invasive maternal abdominal recordings was used for training the algorithm. Four methods were developed and assessed to determine the optimal PC: (1) power spectral distribution, (2) root mean square, (3) sample entropy, and (4) QRS template. The sensitivity of the performance of the algorithm to large-amplitude noise removal (by wavelet de-noising) and maternal beat cancellation methods were also assessed. The accuracy of maternal and fetal beat detection was assessed against reference annotations and quantified using the detection accuracy score F1 [2*PPV*Se / (PPV + Se)], sensitivity (Se), and positive predictive value (PPV). The best performing implementation was assessed on a test dataset of 100 recordings and the agreement between the computed and the reference fetal heart rate (fHR) and fetal RR (fRR) time series quantified.The best performance for detecting maternal beats (F1 99.3%, Se 99.0%, PPV 99.7%) was obtained when using the QRS template method to select the optimal maternal PC and applying wavelet de-noising. The best performance for detecting fetal beats (F1 89.8%, Se 89.3%, PPV 90.5%) was obtained when the optimal fetal PC was selected using the sample entropy method and utilising a fixed-length time window for the cancellation of the maternal beats. The performance on the test dataset was 142.7 beats(2)/min(2) for fHR and 19.9 ms for fRR, ranking respectively 14 and 17 (out of 29) when compared to the other algorithms presented at the Physionet Challenge 2013.

  19. Beat-to-beat assessment of QT/RR interval ratio in severe heart failure and overt myocardial ischemia: a measure of electrical integrity in diseased hearts.

    PubMed

    Faber, Thomas S; Grom, Andreas; Schöpflin, Markus; Brunner, Michael; Bode, Christoph; Zehender, Manfred

    2003-04-01

    The study was designed to assess the beat-to-beat variation of ventricular repolarization in patients with myocardial ischemia, hear failure, and in normal subjects. Autonomic tone may alter the dynamic QT/RR interval relation and thus may be involved in ventricular arrhythmia development, especially in the diseased heart. The study included 145 patients (age 16-86 years) with CHF (LVEF < or = 0.30) or unstable angina pectoris (LVEF > 0.60). The control group consisted of healthy volunteers giving physiological baseline measures for the evaluated parameters: cycle length, QT interval, and QT/RR interval ratio during three time periods. In patients with myocardial ischemia (LVEF > 0.60) and healthy subjects the QT/RR interval ratio did not reveal significant differences between both groups (QT/RR(CAD) = 0.36 +/- 0.77 vs QT/RR(controls) = 0.28 +/- 0.83; NS). In sharp contrast, in patients with severe heart failure, RR dependent instantaneous variation of the QT interval was almost missing and regression line analysis disclosed a QT/RR interval slope substantially enhanced by 196% (compared to normal subjects) and 131% (compared to CAD patients; P < 0.05) with a complete loss of circadian modulation (QT/RR(CHF) = 0.83 +/- 0.71 vs QT/RR(CAD) = 0.36 +/- 0.77 vs QT/RR(controls) = 0.28 +/- 0.83; P < 0.05). Beat-to-beat QT interval assessment provides a dynamic parameter of physiological and altered repolarization in defined study groups. Compared to other groups (preserved LVEF), patients with left ventricular impairment exhibited a significantly increased sensitivity of repolarization to cycle length (enhanced QT/RR interval ratio) and a blunted circadian modulation of the QT interval. This is consistent with concept that increased repolarization disparity may be deleterious being a potential pathophysiological basis for enhanced arrhythmic risk.

  20. Reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury with isoproterenol in non-heart-beating donor lungs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Hoffmann, S C; Sellars, M; Egan, T M

    1997-05-01

    Transplantation of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors could expand the donor pool. Recent studies suggest that the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to the lung can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, as measured by Kfc, in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors and reperfused with or without isoproterenol (iso). Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats ventilated with O2 or not at varying intervals after death. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso (10 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured, and tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Iso-reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (P < 0.05) compared to non-iso-reperfused groups at all postmortem ischemic times, irrespective of preharvest ventilation status. Pulmonary arterial pressures and resistances increased and venous resistances decreased with iso-reperfusion. Total adenine nucleotide (TAN) levels correlated with Kfc in non-iso-reperfused (r = 0.65) and iso-perfused (r = 0.84) lungs. cAMP levels increased significantly with iso-reperfusion. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.87) in iso-reperfused lungs. Iso-reperfusion of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats results in decreased capillary permeability and increased lung tissue cAMP levels. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels may further ameliorate the increased capillary permeability seen in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors.

  1. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, C; Bejan, I; Ceck, C D

    2011-11-14

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information.

  2. Psychosocial work environment and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Danelia, M; Trapaidze, D

    2005-04-01

    In Georgia, like the other post Soviet republics, CHD morbidity is increasing, especially among young and middle aged people-- i.e. among those who should have the most working ability-- that points at both individual and social significance of the problem. CHD is becoming more and more common among rural inhabitants, different professional groups involved not only in mental but also in physical work. The longstanding observation that rates of coronary heart disease vary markedly among occupations more than can be accounted for by conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease has generated a quest for specific components of work that might be of etiological importance. Especially when according to structural changes in society the role of social and psychological factors increased. Case-control study was carried out based on Karasek model. Our results indicate that jobs characterized by low decision latitude, high job strain and low social support at work may be associated with an increased risk of acute coronary events.

  3. Efficacy of a novel bipolar radiofrequency ablation device on the beating heart for atrial fibrillation ablation: A chronic porcine study

    PubMed Central

    Voeller, Rochus K.; Zierer, Andreas; Lall, Shelly C.; Sakamoto, Shun-ichiro; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the recent years, a variety of energy sources have been used to replace the traditional incisions of the Cox-Maze procedure for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new bipolar radiofrequency ablation device for atrial ablation in a chronic porcine model. Methods Six pigs underwent a Cox-Maze IV procedure on a beating heart off cardiopulmonary bypass using the Atricure Isolator II™ bipolar ablation device. In addition, 6 pigs underwent median sternotomy and pericardiotomy alone to serve as a control group. All animals were survived for 30 days. Each pig underwent induction of atrial fibrillation, and was then sacrificed to remove the heart en bloc for histological assessment. MRI scan were also obtained preoperatively and postoperatively to assess atrial and ventricular function, pulmonary vein anatomy, valve function, and coronary artery patency. Results All animals survived the operation. Electrical isolation of the left atrial appendage and the pulmonary veins was documented by pacing acutely and at 30 days in all animals. No animal that underwent the Cox-Maze IV procedure was able to be induced into atrial fibrillation at 30 days postoperatively, compared to all the sham animals. All 257 ablations examined were discrete, linear and transmural, with a mean lesion width of 2.2±1.1 mm and a mean lesion depth of 5.3±3.0 mm. Conclusions The Atricure Isolator II™ was able to create reliable chronic transmural lesions of the modified Cox-Maze procedure on a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass 100% of the time. There were no discernible effects on ventricular or valvular function. PMID:20122702

  4. [Stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Lederbogen, F; Ströhle, A

    2012-11-01

    There are numerous associations between stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to an acute stressor leads to activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and sympathoadrenal systems and chronic stressors are associated with sustained functional changes of these systems. Experiencing acute and chronic stress is paralleled by an increased incidence of mental disorders with the most consistent evidence on the triggering of major depressive episodes. Various mental disorders, including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Furthermore, acute and chronic stressors have been identified as risk factors or triggers of acute coronary syndromes. Thus therapeutic strategies aim at reducing subjective stress experience, therapy of mental disorders and treatment of cardiac risk factors known to be more prevalent in increased stress states and mental disorders.

  5. Robust detection of heart beats in multimodal records using slope- and peak-sensitive band-pass filters.

    PubMed

    Pangerc, Urška; Jager, Franc

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we present the development, architecture and evaluation of a new and robust heart beat detector in multimodal records. The detector uses electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, and/or pulsatile (P) signals, such as: blood pressure, artery blood pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, if present. The base approach behind the architecture of the detector is collecting signal energy (differentiating and low-pass filtering, squaring, integrating). To calculate the detection and noise functions, simple and fast slope- and peak-sensitive band-pass digital filters were designed. By using morphological smoothing, the detection functions were further improved and noise intervals were estimated. The detector looks for possible pacemaker heart rate patterns and repairs the ECG signals and detection functions. Heart beats are detected in each of the ECG and P signals in two steps: a repetitive learning phase and a follow-up detecting phase. The detected heart beat positions from the ECG signals are merged into a single stream of detected ECG heart beat positions. The merged ECG heart beat positions and detected heart beat positions from the P signals are verified for their regularity regarding the expected heart rate. The detected heart beat positions of a P signal with the best match to the merged ECG heart beat positions are selected for mapping into the noise and no-signal intervals of the record. The overall evaluation scores in terms of average sensitivity and positive predictive values obtained on databases that are freely available on the Physionet website were as follows: the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database (99.91%), the MGH/MF Waveform database (95.14%), the augmented training set of the follow-up phase of the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 (97.67%), and the Challenge test set (93.64%).

  6. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery wall thickening with age in healthy subjects using high resolution MRI with beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction.

    PubMed

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Firmin, David N

    2011-10-01

    To demonstrate coronary artery wall thickening with age in a small healthy cohort using a highly efficient, reliable, and reproducible high-resolution MR technique. A 3D cross-sectional MR vessel wall images (0.7 × 0.7 × 3 mm resolution) with retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) were obtained in the proximal right coronary artery of 21 healthy subjects (age, 22-62 years) with no known cardiovascular disease. Lumen and outer wall (lumen + vessel wall) areas were measured in one central slice from each subject and average wall thickness and wall area/outer wall area ratio (W/OW) calculated. Imaging was successful in 18 (86%) subjects with average respiratory efficiency 99.3 ± 1.7%. Coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW significantly correlate with subject age, increasing by 0.088 mm and 0.031 per decade respectively (R = 0.53, P = 0.024 and R = 0.48, P = 0.046). No relationship was found between lumen area and vessel wall thickness (P = NS), but outer wall area increased significantly with vessel wall thickness at 19 mm(2) per mm (P = 0.046). This is consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Despite the small size of our healthy cohort, using high-resolution MR imaging and B2B-RMC, we have demonstrated increasing coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW with age. The results obtained are consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The tale of mind & heart: psychiatric disorders & coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Nusair, Maen; Al-dadah, Ashraf; Kumar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    The mind-body interaction has always intrigued humans. Most people, on the basis of either intuition or personal experience, believe that emotional stress can cause or alter the course of even major physical diseases. Sir William Osler described his typical patient with angina pectoris as 'a man whose engine is always set full speed ahead' and described his patients with cardiac disease as 'worriers'. In recent years there has been tangible evidence for the existence of this interaction however modern medicine is still trying to unravel its intricacies. In this article we review the current knowledge regarding the effect of depression, anxiety disorders and the detrimental effect it has on coronary heart disease. In addition we discuss some of the proven acute psychological triggers for acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Self-oscillating gels beating like a heart muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    So far stimuli-responsive polymer gels and their application to smart materials have been widely studied. On the other hand, as a novel biomimetic gel, we developed gels with an autonomous self-oscillating function like a heart muscle, which was firstly reported in 1996. We designed the self-oscillating polymers and gels by utilizing the oscillating reaction, called the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. The self-oscillating polymer is composed of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) network in which the catalyst for the BZ reaction is covalently immobilized. In the presence of the reactants, the polymer gel undergoes spontaneous cyclic swelling–deswelling changes without any on–off switching of external stimuli. Potential applications of the self-oscillating polymers and gels include several kinds of functional material systems, such as bio-mimetic actuators and mass transport surface. In this review, recent progress on the polymer gels is introduced. PMID:27493533

  9. Effects of adding P38 mitogen-activated protein-kinase inhibitor to celsior solution in canine heart transplantation from non-heart-beating donors.

    PubMed

    Koike, Norimasa; Takeyoshi, Izumi; Ohki, Shigeru; Tokumine, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Koshi; Morishita, Yasuo

    2004-01-27

    The activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study evaluated the effects of p38 MAPK inhibition using FR167653, a novel p38 MAPK inhibitor, as an additive to Celsior solution in canine heart transplantation from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs). Donor hearts were left in situ for 20 minutes after cardiac arrest, which was induced by rapid exsanguination. Twelve donor-recipient pairs of mongrel dogs were divided into two groups: the control and FR167653 (FR) groups (n=6 each). In both groups, the grafts were subjected to coronary flushing and immersed in Celsior solution for 4 hours with or without FR167653. Orthotopic heart transplantation was then performed. Cardiac output (CO), left ventricular pressure (LVP), and end-systolic maximal elastance (Emax) were measured 2 hours after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and the hearts were then harvested for histopathologic study. The activation of p38 MAPK was evaluated in another 20 mongrel dogs. In the FR group, CO, LVP recovery rate, and Emax were significantly (P<0.05) higher 2 hours after weaning from CPB, histopathologic damage was attenuated, and the activation of p38 MAPK was significantly (P<0.05) inhibited 10 minutes after reperfusion compared with the control group. The addition of FR167653 to Celsior solution improved heart-graft viability, probably by way of the inhibition of p38 MAPK activation, which may attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury in heart transplantation from NHBDs.

  10. Heart-specific stiffening in early embryos parallels matrix and myosin expression to optimize beating.

    PubMed

    Majkut, Stephanie; Idema, Timon; Swift, Joe; Krieger, Christine; Liu, Andrea; Discher, Dennis E

    2013-12-02

    In development and differentiation, morphological changes often accompany mechanical changes [1], but it is unclear whether or when cells in embryos sense tissue elasticity. The earliest embryo is uniformly pliable, while adult tissues vary widely in mechanics from soft brain and stiff heart to rigid bone [2]. However, cell sensitivity to microenvironment elasticity is debated based in part on results from complex three-dimensional culture models [3]. Regenerative cardiology provides strong motivation to clarify any cell-level sensitivities to tissue elasticity because rigid postinfarct regions limit pumping by the adult heart [4]. Here, we focus on the spontaneously beating embryonic heart and sparsely cultured cardiomyocytes, including cells derived from pluripotent stem cells. Tissue elasticity, Et, increases daily for heart to 1-2 kPa by embryonic day 4 (E4), and although this is ~10-fold softer than adult heart, the beating contractions of E4 cardiomyocytes prove optimal at ~Et,E4 both in vivo and in vitro. Proteomics reveals daily increases in a small subset of proteins, namely collagen plus cardiac-specific excitation-contraction proteins. Rapid softening of the heart's matrix with collagenase or stiffening it with enzymatic crosslinking suppresses beating. Sparsely cultured E4 cardiomyocytes on collagen-coated gels likewise show maximal contraction on matrices with native E4 stiffness, highlighting cell-intrinsic mechanosensitivity. While an optimal elasticity for striation proves consistent with the mathematics of force-driven sarcomere registration, contraction wave speed is linear in Et as theorized for excitation-contraction coupled to matrix elasticity. Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes also prove to be mechanosensitive to matrix and thus generalize the main observation that myosin II organization and contractile function are optimally matched to the load contributed by matrix elasticity.

  11. Poor oral health and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Joshipura, K J; Rimm, E B; Douglass, C W; Trichopoulos, D; Ascherio, A; Willett, W C

    1996-09-01

    A few recent studies have shown associations between poor oral health and coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of CHD in relation to number of teeth present and periodontal disease, and to explore potential mediators of this association, in a prospective cohort study. This study is a part of the ongoing Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Participants included a US national sample of 44,119 male health professionals (58% of whom were dentists), from 40 to 75 years of age, who reported no diagnosed CHD, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. We recorded 757 incident cases of CHD, including fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and sudden death, in six years of follow-up. Among men who reported pre-existing periodontal disease, those with 10 or fewer teeth were at increased risk of CHD compared with men with 25 or more teeth (relative risk = 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 2.71), after adjustment for standard CHD risk factors. Among men without pre-existing periodontal disease, no relationship was found (relative risk = 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.68). The associations were only slightly attenuated after we controlled for dietary factors. No overall associations were found between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease. Tooth loss may be associated with increased risk of CHD, primarily among those with a positive periodontal disease history; diet was only a small mediator of this association.

  12. Memory beyond memory in heart beating, a sign of a healthy physiological condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, P.; Grigolini, P.; Hamilton, P.; Palatella, L.; Raffaelli, G.

    2002-04-01

    We describe two types of memory and illustrate each using artificial and actual heartbeat data sets. The first type of memory, yielding anomalous diffusion, implies the inverse power-law nature of the waiting time distribution and the second the correlation among distinct times, and consequently also the occurrence of many pseudoevents, namely, not genuinely random events. Using the method of diffusion entropy analysis, we establish the scaling that would be determined by the real events alone. We prove that the heart beating of healthy patients reveals the existence of many more pseudoevents than in the patients with congestive heart failure.

  13. Memory beyond memory in heart beating, a sign of a healthy physiological condition.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, P; Grigolini, P; Hamilton, P; Palatella, L; Raffaelli, G

    2002-04-01

    We describe two types of memory and illustrate each using artificial and actual heartbeat data sets. The first type of memory, yielding anomalous diffusion, implies the inverse power-law nature of the waiting time distribution and the second the correlation among distinct times, and consequently also the occurrence of many pseudoevents, namely, not genuinely random events. Using the method of diffusion entropy analysis, we establish the scaling that would be determined by the real events alone. We prove that the heart beating of healthy patients reveals the existence of many more pseudoevents than in the patients with congestive heart failure.

  14. A new floating sensor array to detect electric near fields of beating heart preparations.

    PubMed

    Hofer, E; Keplinger, F; Thurner, T; Wiener, T; Sanchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Plank, G

    2006-06-15

    A new flexible sensor for in vitro experiments was developed to measure the surface potential, Phi, and its gradient, E (electric near field), at given sites of the heart. During depolarisation, E describes a vector loop from which direction and magnitude of local conduction velocity theta can be computed. Four recording silver electrodes (14 microm x 14 microm) separated by 50 microm, conducting leads, and solderable pads were patterned on a 50 microm thick polyimide film. The conductive structures, except the electrodes, were isolated with polyimide, and electrodes were chlorided. Spacer pillars mounted on the tip fulfil two functions: they keep the electrodes 70 microm from the tissue allowing non-contact recording of Phi and prevent lateral slipping. The low mass (9.1 mg) and flexibility (6.33 N/m) of the sensor let it easily follow the movement of the beating heart without notable displacement. We examined the electrodes on criteria like rms-noise of Phi, signal-to-noise ratio of Phi and E, maximum peak-slope recording dPhi/dt, and deviation of local activation time (LAT) from a common signal and obtained values of 24-28 microV, 46 and 41 dB, 497-561 V/s and no differences, respectively. With appropriate data acquisition (sampling rate 100 kHz, 24-bit), we were able to record Phi and to monitor E and theta on-line from beat-to-beat even at heart rates of 600 beats/min. Moreover, this technique can discriminate between uncoupled cardiac activations (as occur in fibrotic tissue) separated by less than 1 mm and 1 ms.

  15. Automated selection of the optimal cardiac phase for single-beat coronary CT angiography reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Stassi, D.; Ma, H.; Schmidt, T. G.; Dutta, S.; Soderman, A.; Pazzani, D.; Gros, E.; Okerlund, D.

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Reconstructing a low-motion cardiac phase is expected to improve coronary artery visualization in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) exams. This study developed an automated algorithm for selecting the optimal cardiac phase for CCTA reconstruction. The algorithm uses prospectively gated, single-beat, multiphase data made possible by wide cone-beam imaging. The proposed algorithm differs from previous approaches because the optimal phase is identified based on vessel image quality (IQ) directly, compared to previous approaches that included motion estimation and interphase processing. Because there is no processing of interphase information, the algorithm can be applied to any sampling of image phases, making it suited for prospectively gated studies where only a subset of phases are available. Methods: An automated algorithm was developed to select the optimal phase based on quantitative IQ metrics. For each reconstructed slice at each reconstructed phase, an image quality metric was calculated based on measures of circularity and edge strength of through-plane vessels. The image quality metric was aggregated across slices, while a metric of vessel-location consistency was used to ignore slices that did not contain through-plane vessels. The algorithm performance was evaluated using two observer studies. Fourteen single-beat cardiac CT exams (Revolution CT, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) reconstructed at 2% intervals were evaluated for best systolic (1), diastolic (6), or systolic and diastolic phases (7) by three readers and the algorithm. Pairwise inter-reader and reader-algorithm agreement was evaluated using the mean absolute difference (MAD) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between the reader and algorithm-selected phases. A reader-consensus best phase was determined and compared to the algorithm selected phase. In cases where the algorithm and consensus best phases differed by more than 2%, IQ was scored by three

  16. Managing Heart Failure Patients with Multivessel Disease - Coronary Artery Bypass Graft versus Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John

    2015-10-01

    The foundation of treatment for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is guideline-directed medical treatment. However, surgical revascularisation offers improved survival and quality of life for patients with more extensive coronary disease and the greatest degree of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and remodelling. The most commonly considered surgical interventions for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are coronary artery bypass surgery, sometimes combined with surgical ventricular reconstruction and surgery for mitral regurgitation. In this review, the author considers the risks and benefits of coronary artery bypass graft versus percutaneous coronary intervention in the management of heart failure patients with multivessel disease.

  17. Resting Heart Rate and Coronary Artery Calcium in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Aragaki, Aaron; Eaton, Charles B.; Hsai, Judith; Phillips, Lawrence; Kuller, Lewis; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis of a significant association between resting heart rate (RHR) and coronary artery calcium (CAC). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a subset of women enrolled in the estrogen-alone clinical trial of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We used a longitudinal study that enrolled 998 postmenopausal women with a history of hysterectomy between the ages of 50 and 59 at enrollment at 40 different clinical centers. RHR was measured at enrollment and throughout the study, and CAC was determined approximately 7 years after the baseline clinic visit. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 55 (2.8) years. With adjustment for age and ethnicity, a 10-unit increment in RHR was significantly associated with CAC (SD 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.38), but this was no longer significant after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), income, education, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and hypertension (SD 1.06, 95% CI 0.90-1.25). In a fully adjusted multivariable model, however, there was a significant interaction (p=0.03) between baseline RHR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) for the presence of any CAC. Compared to women with an RHR < 80 beats per minute (BPM) and an SBP < 140 mm Hg, those who had an RHR ≥ 80 BPM and an SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg had 2.66-fold higher odds (1.08-6.57) for the presence of any CAC. Conclusions Compared to those with normal BP and RHR, postmenopausal, hysterectomized women with an elevated SBP and RHR have a significantly higher odds for the presence of calcified coronary artery disease. PMID:21438696

  18. A supervised learning approach for the robust detection of heart beat in plethysmographic data.

    PubMed

    Grisan, Enrico; Cantisani, Giorgia; Tarroni, Giacomo; Seung Keun Yoon; Rossi, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Wearable devices equipped with photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors are gaining an increased interest in the context of biometric signal monitoring within clinical, e-health and fitness settings. When used in everyday life and during exercise, PPG traces are heavily affected by artifacts originating from motion and from a non constant positioning and contact of the PPG sensor with the skin. Many algorithms have been developed for the estimation of heart-rate from photoplethysmography signals. We remark that they were mainly conceived and tested in controlled settings and, in turn, do not provide robust performance, even during moderate exercise. Only a few of them have been designed for signals acquired at rest and during fitness. However, they provide the required resilience to motion artifacts at the cost of using computationally demanding signal processing tools. At variance with other methods from the literature, we propose a supervised learning approach, where a classifier is trained on a set of labelled data to detect the presence of heart beats at each position of a PPG signal, with only little preprocessing and postprocessing. We show that the results obtained on the TROIKA dataset using our approach are comparable with those shown in the original paper, providing a classification error of 14% in the detection of heart beat positions, that reduces to 2.86% on the heart-rate estimates after the postprocessing step.

  19. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan A; Del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2011-12-05

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described.

  20. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nathan A.; del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described. PMID:23066511

  1. An accurate heart beat detection method in the EKG recorded in fMRI system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Suk; Chung, Jun-Young; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Park, HyunWook

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) provides an efficient signal for the high spatiotemporal brain mapping because each modality provides complementary information. The peak detection in the EEG signal measured in the MR scanner is necessary for removal of the ballistocardiac artifact. Especially, it would be affected by the quality of the EKG signal and the variation of the heart beat rate. Therefore, we propose the peak detection method using a K-teager energy operator (K-TEO) as well as further refinement processes in order to detect precise peaks. We applied this technique to the analysis of simulation waves with random noise and abrupt heat beat changes.

  2. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease in women.

    PubMed

    Bello, Natalie; Mosca, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women and a major cause of morbidity. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for nearly half of all CVD deaths. Gender differences in CHD include a later age of onset for women, a greater prevalence of comorbid diseases, and differences in the initial manifestations of the disease. Traditional risk factors for CHD include tobacco use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and atherogenic diet. More recently identified risk factors in women include high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine, and lipoprotein (a). Appropriate management of risk factors is associated with a reduced incidence of CHD, yet poor implementation in women is widely documented. Barriers to optimal risk factor management in women should be identified and overcome in an effort to maximize the cardiovascular health of women.

  3. Stop inhaling smoke: prevent coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2003-02-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was rare a century ago and was diagnosed in few living patients prior to 1925. By 1950, it was the most common heart problem seen by clinicians. Thought at first to have been overlooked, there were many explanations offered for its neglect. Smoking, hypertension, and elevated cholesterol are associated with AMI, but of these only smoking should be considered a cause. Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may be co-effects, perhaps of inflammation stimulated in the lung and blood vessels by smoking and air pollution, thus affecting vessels and arteries subjected to systemic blood pressure. Air pollution--the 20th century's other "big smoke"--deserves consideration as a 2nd cause. Auto exhaust blankets the world's cities. It consists of smoke and other effluents of petroleum vaporization and combustion that emanate from the crankcases and exhaust pipes of trucks and automobiles. The major living spaces (conurbations) of the world now imitate and exceed Los Angeles in their levels of air pollution. Auto exhaust gases fit the timeline, and their increasing amounts parallel the worldwide rise in coronary heart disease. Increasing doses of these chemicals imitate cigarette smoke and stimulate inflammation in the lungs. They appear to be absorbed into the blood, where they cause inflammation in blood vessels, increased blood pressure, and clogged coronary arteries. Avoidance is the obvious solution. Quit inhaling cigarette smoke and motor vehicle exhaust. The benefits have been shown and can be proved by intervention. The quest for clean air is hygienic-like avoiding water contaminated with feces was 150 yr ago. Clear air must be made a moral right. Its attainment requires a major revolution in priorities for energy use and lifestyle. Two types of smoke must be avoided. The world's most lethal disease.

  4. Coronary haemodynamics in hypertensive heart disease.

    PubMed

    Vogt, M; Motz, W; Strauer, B E

    1992-09-01

    Cardiac constituents affected in arterial hypertension comprise the myocardium, interstitium and coronary circulation. With regard to coronary circulation, arterial hypertension is an important risk factor in coronary artery disease, but even in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertensive patients frequently have angina pectoris or reveal electrocardiographic abnormalities suggestive of myocardial ischaemia due to coronary insufficiency. Under clinical conditions, determination of coronary flow reserve (dipyridamole; Argon-method) allows for the evaluation of impairment of coronary regulatory reserve. In comparison to healthy normotensives, coronary haemodynamics in hypertensive patients with microvascular angina are characterized by a severely increased minimal coronary resistance and reduced maximal coronary blood flow to dipyridamole. Accordingly, coronary reserve is markedly reduced by about 40%, and metabolic, myocardial and vascular factors may be involved in this reduction. In the compensated stage of arterial hypertension, with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial factors, such as myocyte hypertrophy, extravascular compressing forces and functional implications of impaired relaxation, as well as metabolic factors, contribute to impairment in coronary reserve to a minor extent. The reduction in coronary flow reserve is not proportional to the elevation in left ventricular muscle mass and thus the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy does not seem to determine the reduction in vasodilator reserve directly. Thus the reduction in coronary reserve seems to be primarily the consequence of an impaired vasodilating capacity of the coronary resistance vessels, as indicated by a severely increased minimum coronary resistance to dipyridamole, i.e. a severely reduced overall coronary conductance capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Manifestation of severe coronary heart disease after anabolic drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Mewis, C; Spyridopoulos, I; Kühlkamp, V; Seipel, L

    1996-02-01

    Anabolic steroids are frequently abused, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, despite the known unfavorable influence on lipid profiles. We report on a young bodybuilder who presented with ventricular tachycardia as the first manifestation of severe underlying coronary heart disease. Coronary angiogram revealed severe stenotic lesions in the right coronary artery and the left descending coronary artery, and hypokinetic regions corresponded to posterolateral and anterior myocardial infarctions. This young patient had a history without any coronary risk factors, but with a 2-year abuse of the anabolic steroid stanazolol. No report published so far has shown possible atherogenic consequences of long-term abuse of stanazolol.

  6. The current status of primary prevention in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pater, Cornel

    2001-01-01

    During the second part of the twentieth century, research advances caused a substantial decline in the rate of coronary heart disease. The decline lasted from the mid-1960s until the early 1990s and occurred primarily in Western countries. However, an unfavourable trend in coronary heart disease related mortality has gradually developed during the 1990s, with cardiovascular diseases anticipated to remain the main cause of overall mortality for the foreseeable future. The present paper aims at analyzing the current status of the main determinants of population-wide coronary heart disease prevention.

  7. Percutaneous intracardiac beating-heart surgery using metal MEMS tissue approximation tools

    PubMed Central

    Gosline, Andrew H; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Butler, Evan J; Folk, Chris; Cohen, Adam; Chen, Rich; Lang, Nora; del Nido, Pedro J; Dupont, Pierre E

    2013-01-01

    Achieving superior outcomes through the use of robots in medical applications requires an integrated approach to the design of the robot, tooling and the procedure itself. In this paper, this approach is applied to develop a robotic technique for closing abnormal communication between the atria of the heart. The goal is to achieve the efficacy of surgical closure as performed on a stopped, open heart with the reduced risk and trauma of a beating-heart catheter-based procedure. In the proposed approach, a concentric tube robot is used to percutaneously access the right atrium and deploy a tissue approximation device. The device is constructed using a metal microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process and is designed to both fit the manipulation capabilities of the robot as well as to reproduce the beneficial features of surgical closure by suture. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through ex vivo and in vivo experiments. PMID:23750066

  8. Psychological Perspectives on the Development of Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.

    2005-01-01

    Psychological science has new opportunities to have major input into the understanding of the development of coronary heart disease. This article provides an overview of advances in understanding the etiology of heart disease, recently applied technologies for measuring early stages of heart disease, and an accumulating base of evidence on the…

  9. Psychological Perspectives on the Development of Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.

    2005-01-01

    Psychological science has new opportunities to have major input into the understanding of the development of coronary heart disease. This article provides an overview of advances in understanding the etiology of heart disease, recently applied technologies for measuring early stages of heart disease, and an accumulating base of evidence on the…

  10. Comparison of methods for editing of ectopic beats in measurements of short-term non-linear heart rate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tarkiainen, Tuula H; Kuusela, Tom A; Tahvanainen, Kari U O; Hartikainen, Juha E K; Tiittanen, Pekka; Timonen, Kirsi L; Vanninen, Esko J

    2007-03-01

    Non-linear heart rate (HR) dynamics characterizes the fractal properties and complexity of the variations in HR. Ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats might introduce a mathematical artefact to the analyses on sinus rhythm. We therefore evaluated the effects of different editing practices for ectopic beats such that 753 40-min ECG recordings were (i) not edited for the ectopic beats, or the ectopic beats were edited with (ii) an interpolation or with (iii) a deletion method before the analyses of non-linear HR dynamics. The non-linear HR dynamics analyses included detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), approximate entropy, symbolic dynamics (SymDyn), fractal dimension and return map (RM). We found that the short-term scaling exponent (alpha1) of DFA, forbidden words of SymDyn and RM were sensitive measurements to the ectopic beats and there were strong correlations between these measurements and the number of ectopic beats. In addition, the unedited ectopic beats significantly lowered the stability of these measurements. However, the editing either with interpolation or deletion method corrected the measurements for the bias caused by the ectopic beats. On the contrary, the entropy measurements were not as sensitive to the ectopic beats. In conclusion, the ectopic beats affect the non-linear HR dynamics of sinus rhythm differently, causing a more marked bias in fractal than in complexity measurements of non-linear HR dynamics. This erroneous effect of ectopic beats can be corrected with a proper editing of these measurements. Therefore, there is an obvious need for standardized editing practices for ectopic beats before the analysis of non-linear HR dynamics.

  11. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    SciTech Connect

    Umetani, K.; Fukushima, K.

    2013-03-15

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 {mu}m, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 {mu}m diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 {mu}m was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  12. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography.

    PubMed

    Umetani, K; Fukushima, K

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 μm, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 μm diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 μm was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  13. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, K.; Fukushima, K.

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 μm, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 μm diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 μm was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  14. Frank-Starling mechanism retains recirculation fraction of myocardial Ca(2+) in the beating heart.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, J; Araki, J; Mohri, S; Minami, H; Doi, Y; Fujinaka, W; Miyaji, K; Kiyooka, T; Oshima, Y; Iribe, G; Hirakawa, M; Suga, H

    2001-12-01

    Myocardial Ca(2+) handling in excitation-contraction coupling is the second primary determinant of energy or O(2) demand in a working heart. The intracellular and extracellular routes remove myocardial Ca(2+) that was released into the sarcoplasma with different Ca(2+): ATP stoichiometries. The intracellular route is twice as economical as the extracellular route. Therefore the fraction of total Ca(2+) removed via the sarcoplasmic reticulum, i.e., the recirculation fraction of intracellular Ca(2+) (RF), determines the economy of myocardial Ca(2+) handling. RF has conventionally been estimated as the exponential decay rate of postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP). However, we have found that PESP usually decays in alternans, but not exponentially in the canine left ventricle beating above 100 beats/min. We have succeeded in estimating RF from the exponential decay component of an alternans PESP. We previously found that the Frank-Starling mechanism or varied ventricular preload did not affect the economy of myocardial Ca(2+) handling. Then, to account for this important finding, we hypothesized that the Frank-Starling mechanism would not affect RF at a constant heart rate. We tested this hypothesis and found its supportive evidence in 11 canine left ventricles. We conclude that RF at a constant heart rate would remain constant, independent of the Frank-Starling mechanism.

  15. Studies on the Nervous Regulation of the Heart Beat in Decapod Crustacea

    PubMed Central

    Florey, Ernst

    1960-01-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation of cardioaccelerator and cardioinhibitor nerves on the mechanically recorded heart beat of crayfish was studied. Similar experiments were performed with the lobster, Homarus americanus. Quantitative relationships between uni- and bilateral accelerator and/or inhibitor nerve stimulation and the resulting change in frequency and amplitude of the heart beat were established. With increasing frequency of stimulation the accelerator nerves show a relative decrease in their action, while that of the inhibitor nerves increases. It appears that left and right regulator nerves have synaptic contacts at the same areas of the postsynaptic cells within the heart ganglion. Similar results are obtained whether all impulses arrive over one, or over the other, or over both accelerator (or inhibitor) nerves; the resulting acceleration or inhibition depends strictly on the number of accelerator, or inhibitor impulses arriving at the ganglion. The ganglion cells can adapt to the inhibitor action. This is shown to be a postsynaptic phenomenon. Adaptation to accelerator stimulation is virtually absent. Characteristic after-effects of the accelerator and inhibitor action were observed and quantitatively evaluated. The interpretation of the results is based on the assumption of chemical transmitter substances. It is concluded that the accelerating transmitter decays slowly while the inhibitory transmitter is inactivated relatively rapidly. PMID:13823571

  16. Effects of altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    de Vries, S T; Komdeur, P; Aalbersberg, S; van Enst, G C; Breeman, A; van 't Hof, A W J

    2010-03-01

    Background. To evaluate the safety and effects of high altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease compared with healthy controls.Methods. Eight patients with a history of an acute myocardial infarction (ejection fraction >5%) with a low-risk score were compared with seven healthy subjects during the Dutch Heart Expedition at the Aconcagua in Argentina in March 2007. All subjects underwent a maximum exercise test with a cycle ergometer at sea level and base camp, after ten days of acclimatisation, at an altitude of 4200 m. Exercise capacity and maximum heart rate were compared between groups and within subjects.Results. There was a significant decrease in maximum heart rate at high altitude compared with sea level in both the patient and the control group (166 vs. 139 beats/min, p<0.001 and 181 vs. 150 beats/min, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the decrease of the exercise level and maximum heart rate between patients and healthy controls (-31 vs. -30%, p=0.673).Conclusion. Both patients and healthy controls showed a similar decrease in exercise capacity and maximum heart rate at 4200 m compared with sea level, suggesting that patients with a history of coronary artery disease may tolerate stay and exercise at high altitude similarly to healthy controls. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:118-21.).

  17. Effects of altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, S.T.; Komdeur, P.; Aalbersberg, S.; van Enst, G.C.; Breeman, A.; van ’t Hof, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the safety and effects of high altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease compared with healthy controls. Methods. Eight patients with a history of an acute myocardial infarction (ejection fraction >5%) with a low-risk score were compared with seven healthy subjects during the Dutch Heart Expedition at the Aconcagua in Argentina in March 2007. All subjects underwent a maximum exercise test with a cycle ergometer at sea level and base camp, after ten days of acclimatisation, at an altitude of 4200 m. Exercise capacity and maximum heart rate were compared between groups and within subjects. Results. There was a significant decrease in maximum heart rate at high altitude compared with sea level in both the patient and the control group (166 vs. 139 beats/min, p<0.001 and 181 vs. 150 beats/min, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the decrease of the exercise level and maximum heart rate between patients and healthy controls (-31 vs. -30%, p=0.673). Conclusion. Both patients and healthy controls showed a similar decrease in exercise capacity and maximum heart rate at 4200 m compared with sea level, suggesting that patients with a history of coronary artery disease may tolerate stay and exercise at high altitude similarly to healthy controls. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:118–21.20390061) PMID:20390061

  18. The epidemic of the 20(th) century: coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S; Goldberg, Robert J; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2014-09-01

    Heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in the US at the beginning of the 20th century. By mid-century it had become the commonest cause. After peaking in the mid-1960s, the number of heart disease deaths began a marked decline that has persisted to the present. The increase in heart disease deaths from the early 20th century until the 1960s was due to an increase in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant coronary heart disease, as documented by autopsy studies. This increase was associated with an increase in smoking and dietary changes leading to an increase in serum cholesterol levels. In addition, the ability to diagnose acute myocardial infarction with the aid of the electrocardiogram increased the recognition of coronary heart disease before death. The substantial decrease in coronary heart disease deaths after the mid-1960s is best explained by the decreased incidence, and case fatality rate, of acute myocardial infarction and a decrease in out-of-hospital sudden coronary heart disease deaths. These decreases are very likely explained by a decrease in coronary atherosclerosis due to primary prevention, and a decrease in the progression of nonobstructive coronary atherosclerosis to obstructive coronary heart disease due to efforts of primary and secondary prevention. In addition, more effective treatment of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction has led to a substantial decrease in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction. It is very likely that the 20th century was the only century in which heart disease was the most common cause of death in America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. FFT averaging of multichannel BCG signals from bed mattress sensor to improve estimation of heart beat interval.

    PubMed

    Kortelainen, Juha M; Virkkala, Jussi

    2007-01-01

    A multichannel pressure sensing Emfit foil was integrated to a bed mattress for measuring ballistocardiograph signals during sleep. We calculated the heart beat interval with cepstrum method, by applying FFT for short time windows including pair of consequent heart beats. We decreased the variance of FFT by averaging the multichannel data in the frequency domain. Relative error of our method in reference to electrocardiograph RR interval was only 0.35% for 15 night recordings with six normal subjects, when 12% of data was automatically removed due to movement artifacts. Background motivation for this work is given from the studies applying heart rate variability for the sleep staging.

  20. Lung transplantation from donation after cardiac death (non-heart-beating) donors.

    PubMed

    Oto, Takahiro

    2008-11-01

    Although lung transplantation is a well-accepted treatment for advanced lung diseases, donor shortage remains a significant limiting factor resulting in an increasing number of deaths of people on waiting lists. Recently, some transplant centers have begun to use lungs retrieved from donors after circulatory arrest. This review outlines the relevant published experimental data and clinical experiences with lung transplantation from donation after cardiac-death donors (DCDs) or non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs). Techniques for lung preservation and ex vivo lung assessment of DCD (NHBD) lungs are reviewed, and aspects of primary graft dysfunction after DCD (NHBD) lung transplantation are discussed.

  1. Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-06-01

    Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.

  2. Longitudinal age-related changes in 24-hour total heart beats and premature beats and their relationship in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Hirofumi; Serita, Takumi; Ueyama, Chiaki; Kitano, Kouei; Seto, Shinji; Yano, Katsusuke; Camm, A John

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a longitudinal follow-up on age-related changes in 24-hour total heart beats (THBs) and total premature beats and their correlations in healthy elderly subjects. In 15 healthy elderly subjects (mean age, 70.0 +/- 4.1, age range at 1st recording, 64 to 80 years, 10 females, 5 males), we conducted Holter monitoring twice at an interval of 15 years and analysed age-related changes in THBs, atrial premature beats (APBs), and ventricular premature beats (VPBs), as well as their correlations. The results indicated that THBs, APBs, and VPBs all significantly increased with age in the healthy elderly subjects at a mean age of 70.0 +/- 4.1 (THB: 91074.1 +/- 11515.3 versus 99457.5 +/- 12131.0; P = 0.0004, APB:119.2 +/- 97.8 versus 884.4 +/- 1193.8; P = 0.0008, VPB: 15.2 +/- 53.6 versus 140.7 +/- 228.9; P = 0.0328). Moreover, we divided the subjects into increase and nonincrease groups based on the age-related changes in APB and VPB for 15 years ([n]; Inc-APB: Noninc-APB = 6 : 9, Inc-VPB: Noninc-VPB = 5 : 10). In the increase groups, premature beats tended to increase in proportion to changes in THBs with age (APB: Y = 207.488 + 0.136 X, r = 0.848, P = 0.0303; VPB: Y = -27.594 + 0.028 X, r = 0.727, P = 0.1921). In conclusion, this 15-year follow-up of Holter recordings in healthy elderly subjects revealed that THBs, APBs, and VPBs increased with age, and that the increases in premature beats, especially APBs, were in proportion to those in THBs.

  3. Absolute coronary risk analyser--a tool for managing coronary heart disease risk.

    PubMed

    Mitrabasu, P P B; Shahapurkar, J S; Sreekumar, T P; Vyawahare, M K; Sarma, C G S

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a coronary risk analyser which can calculate authentically the absolute coronary risk of an individual for coronary risk management. After extensive literature survey was done to derive the most appropriate method to calculate the absolute coronary risk. Joint British recommendations derived from Framingham's heart study were adopted for its supreme sensitivity and specificity. A windows based software is developed using Visual basic programming language. The software is easily installable in any pentium PC with windows operating system and requires entry of a detailed medical profile of an individual for the calculation of absolute coronary risk. Coronary risk analyser developed by DEBEL effectively calculates the absolute coronary risk of an individual over 2, 5 or 10 years and stores the patient's data properly. The software is a tool to manage the coronary risk of a patient in the field of preventive cardiology.

  4. Assessment of Autonomic Control and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Using Point Process Models of Human Heart Beat Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Brown, Emery N.; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Tracking the autonomic control and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from electrocardiogram and respiratory measurements is an important problem in cardiovascular control. We propose a point process adaptive filter algorithm based on an inverse Gaussian model to track heart beat intervals that incorporates respiratory measurements as a covariate and provides an analytic form for computing a dynamic estimate of RSA gain. We use Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and autocorrelation function analyses to assess model goodness-of-fit. We illustrate the properties of the new dynamic estimate of RSA in the analysis of simulated heart beat data and actual heart beat data recorded from subjects in a four-state postural study of heart beat dynamics: control, sympathetic blockade, parasympathetic blockade, and combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade. In addition to giving an accurate description of the heart beat data, our adaptive filter algorithm confirms established findings pointing at a vagally mediated RSA, and it provides a new dynamic RSA estimate that can be used to track cardiovascular control between and within a broad range of postural, pharmacological and age conditions. Our paradigm suggests a possible framework for designing a device for ambulatory monitoring and assessment of autonomic control in both laboratory research and clinical practice. PMID:19272971

  5. Heart rate turbulence after ventricular premature beats in healthy Doberman pinschers and those with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Harris, J D; Little, C J L; Dennis, J M; Patteson, M W

    2017-09-25

    To describe the measurement of heart rate turbulence (HRT) after ventricular premature beats and compare HRT in healthy Doberman pinschers and those with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), with and without congestive heart failure (CHF). Sixty-five client-owned Dobermans: 20 healthy (NORMAL), 31 with preclinical DCM and 14 with DCM and CHF (DCM + CHF). A retrospective study of data retrieved from clinical records and ambulatory ECG (Holter) archives, including data collected previously for a large-scale prospective study of Dobermans with preclinical DCM. Holter data were reanalysed quantitatively, including conventional time-domain heart rate variability and the HRT parameters turbulence onset and turbulence slope. Heart rate turbulence could be measured in 58/65 dogs. Six Holter recordings had inadequate ventricular premature contractions (VPCs) and one exhibited VPCs too similar to sinus morphology. Heart rate turbulence parameter, turbulence onset, was significantly reduced in DCM dogs, whereas conventional heart rate variability measures were not. Heart rate variability and HRT markers were reduced in DCM + CHF dogs as expected. Heart rate turbulence can be measured from the majority of good quality standard canine 24-hour Holter recordings with >5 VPCs. Turbulence onset is significantly reduced in Dobermans with preclinical DCM which indicates vagal withdrawal early in the course of disease. Heart rate turbulence is a powerful prognostic indicator in human cardiac disease which can be measured from standard 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) recordings using appropriate computer software. Further studies are warranted to assess whether HRT may be of prognostic value in dogs with preclinical DCM and in other canine cardiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction with near 100% efficiency: a quantitative assessment using high-resolution coronary artery imaging.

    PubMed

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David N

    2011-05-01

    This study quantitatively assesses the effectiveness of retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) at near 100% efficiency using high-resolution coronary artery imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) spiral images were obtained in a coronary respiratory motion phantom with B2B-RMC and navigator gating. In vivo, targeted 3D coronary imaging was performed in 10 healthy subjects using B2B-RMC spiral and navigator gated balanced steady-state free-precession (nav-bSSFP) techniques. Vessel diameter and sharpness in proximal and mid arteries were used as a measure of respiratory motion compensation effectiveness and compared between techniques. Phantom acquisitions with B2B-RMC were sharper than those acquired with navigator gating (B2B-RMC vs. navigator gating: 1.01±0.02 mm(-1) vs. 0.86±0.08 mm(-1), P<.05). In vivo B2B-RMC respiratory efficiency was significantly and substantially higher (99.7%±0.5%) than nav-bSSFP (44.0%±8.9%, P<.0001). Proximal and mid vessel sharpnesses were similar (B2B-RMC vs. nav-bSSFP, proximal: 1.00±0.14 mm(-1) vs. 1.08±0.11 mm(-1), mid: 1.01±0.11 mm(-1) vs. 1.05±0.12 mm(-1); both P=not significant [ns]). Mid vessel diameters were not significantly different (2.85±0.39 mm vs. 2.80±0.35 mm, P=ns), but proximal B2B-RMC diameters were slightly higher (2.85±0.38 mm vs. 2.70±0.34 mm, P<.05), possibly due to contrast differences. The respiratory efficiency of B2B-RMC is less variable and significantly higher than navigator gating. Phantom and in vivo vessel sharpness and diameter values suggest that respiratory motion compensation is equally effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction with near 100% efficiency: a quantitative assessment using high-resolution coronary artery imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Andrew D.; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David N.

    2011-01-01

    This study quantitatively assesses the effectiveness of retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) at near 100% efficiency using high-resolution coronary artery imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) spiral images were obtained in a coronary respiratory motion phantom with B2B-RMC and navigator gating. In vivo, targeted 3D coronary imaging was performed in 10 healthy subjects using B2B-RMC spiral and navigator gated balanced steady-state free-precession (nav-bSSFP) techniques. Vessel diameter and sharpness in proximal and mid arteries were used as a measure of respiratory motion compensation effectiveness and compared between techniques. Phantom acquisitions with B2B-RMC were sharper than those acquired with navigator gating (B2B-RMC vs. navigator gating: 1.01±0.02 mm−1 vs. 0.86±0.08 mm−1, P<.05). In vivo B2B-RMC respiratory efficiency was significantly and substantially higher (99.7%±0.5%) than nav-bSSFP (44.0%±8.9%, P<.0001). Proximal and mid vessel sharpnesses were similar (B2B-RMC vs. nav-bSSFP, proximal: 1.00±0.14 mm−1 vs. 1.08±0.11 mm−1, mid: 1.01±0.11 mm−1 vs. 1.05±0.12 mm−1; both P=not significant [ns]). Mid vessel diameters were not significantly different (2.85±0.39 mm vs. 2.80±0.35 mm, P=ns), but proximal B2B-RMC diameters were slightly higher (2.85±0.38 mm vs. 2.70±0.34 mm, P<.05), possibly due to contrast differences. The respiratory efficiency of B2B-RMC is less variable and significantly higher than navigator gating. Phantom and in vivo vessel sharpness and diameter values suggest that respiratory motion compensation is equally effective. PMID:21292418

  8. Target heart rate to determine the normal value of coronary flow reserve during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The determination of coronary flow reserve (CFR) is an essential concept at the moment of decision-making in ischemic heart disease. There are several direct and indirect tests to evaluate this parameter. In this sense, dobutamine stress echocardiography is one of the pharmacological method most commonly used worldwide. It has been previously demonstrated that CFR can be determined by this technique. Despite our wide experience with dobutamine stress echocardiography, we ignored the necessary heart rate to consider sufficient the test for the analysis of CFR. For this reason, our main goal was to determine the velocity of coronary flow in each stage of dobutamine stress echocardiography and the heart rate value necessary to double the baseline values of coronary flow velocity in the territory of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Methods A total of 33 consecutive patients were analyzed. The patients included had low risk for coronary artery disease. All the participants underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography and coronary artery flow velocity was evaluated in the distal segment of LAD coronary artery using transthoracic color-Doppler echocardiography. Results The feasibility of determining CFR in the territory of the LAD during dobutamine stress echocardiography was high: 31/33 patients (94%). Mean CFR was 2.67 at de end of dobutamine test. There was an excellent concordance between delta HR (difference between baseline HR and maximum HR) and the increase in the CFR (correlation coefficient 0.84). In this sense, we found that when HR increased by 50 beats, CFR was ≥ 2 (CI 93-99.2%). In addition, 96.4% of patients reached a CFR ≥ 2 (IC 91.1 - 99%) at 75% of their predicted maximum heart rate. Conclusions We found that the feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography to determine CFR in the territory of the LAD coronary artery was high. In this study, it was necessary to achieve a difference of 50 bpm from baseline HR or at

  9. Target heart rate to determine the normal value of coronary flow reserve during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Forte, Ezequiel H; Rousse, Maria G; Lowenstein, Jorge A

    2011-04-04

    The determination of coronary flow reserve (CFR) is an essential concept at the moment of decision-making in ischemic heart disease. There are several direct and indirect tests to evaluate this parameter. In this sense, dobutamine stress echocardiography is one of the pharmacological method most commonly used worldwide. It has been previously demonstrated that CFR can be determined by this technique. Despite our wide experience with dobutamine stress echocardiography, we ignored the necessary heart rate to consider sufficient the test for the analysis of CFR. For this reason, our main goal was to determine the velocity of coronary flow in each stage of dobutamine stress echocardiography and the heart rate value necessary to double the baseline values of coronary flow velocity in the territory of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. A total of 33 consecutive patients were analyzed. The patients included had low risk for coronary artery disease. All the participants underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography and coronary artery flow velocity was evaluated in the distal segment of LAD coronary artery using transthoracic color-Doppler echocardiography. The feasibility of determining CFR in the territory of the LAD during dobutamine stress echocardiography was high: 31/33 patients (94%). Mean CFR was 2.67 at de end of dobutamine test.There was an excellent concordance between delta HR (difference between baseline HR and maximum HR) and the increase in the CFR (correlation coefficient 0.84). In this sense, we found that when HR increased by 50 beats, CFR was ≥ 2 (CI 93-99.2%). In addition, 96.4% of patients reached a CFR ≥ 2 (IC 91.1 - 99%) at 75% of their predicted maximum heart rate. We found that the feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography to determine CFR in the territory of the LAD coronary artery was high. In this study, it was necessary to achieve a difference of 50 bpm from baseline HR or at least 75% of the maximum predicted heart

  10. [Expression of PTEN in Myocardial Tissue in Coronary Heart Disease].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-rong; He, Yong; Lei, Yu-jia; Qin, Xe-he; Wei, Qing-tao; Pan, Xin-min; Li, Li-juan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-04-01

    To observe the expression of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) in myocardial tissue in patients with coronary heart disease, and explore the relevance between the expression of PTEN and the occurrence and development of coronary heart disease. A total of 16 death cases with pathological diagnosis of coronary heart disease were collected as experimental group, and 19 cases without myocardial lesions were selected as control group. The expression of PTEN protein and its mRNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR respectively. The correlation between the expression of PTEN and the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease was analyzed. The expression of PTEN protein in myocardium in cases with coronary heart disease was significantly lower compared with the control group (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference of the expression of PTEN mRNA between experimental and control group (P > 0.05). PTEN may be involved in the occurrence and development of coronary heart disease.

  11. Robust algorithm to locate heart beats from multiple physiological waveforms by individual signal detector voting.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Loriano; Scully, Christopher G; Vicente, Jose; Johannesen, Lars; Strauss, David G

    2015-08-01

    Alarm fatigue is a top medical device hazard in patient monitoring that could be reduced by merging physiological information from multiple sensors, minimizing the impact of a single sensor failing. We developed a heart beat detection algorithm that utilizes multi-modal physiological signals (e.g. electrocardiogram, blood pressure, stroke volume, photoplethysmogram and electro-encephalogram) by merging the heart beats obtained from signal-specific detectors. We used the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 training set to develop the algorithm, and we refined it with a mix of signals from the multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care (MIMIC II) database and artificially disrupted waveforms. The algorithm had an average sensitivity of 95.67% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 92.28% when applied to the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 200 record training set. On a refined dataset obtained by removing 5 records with arrhythmias and inconsistent reference annotations we obtained an average sensitivity of 97.43% and PPV of 94.17%. Algorithm performance was assessed with the Physionet Challenge 2014 test set that consisted of 200 records (each up to 10 min length) containing multiple physiological signals and reference annotations verified by the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 organizers. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 92.74% and PPV of 87.37% computed over all annotated beats, and a record average sensitivity of 91.08%, PPV of 86.96% and an overall score (average of all 4 measures) of 89.53%. Our algorithm is an example of a data fusion approach that can improve patient monitoring and reduce false alarms by reducing the effect of individual signal failures.

  12. Design a Wearable Device for Blood Oxygen Concentration and Temporal Heart Beat Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myint, Cho Zin; Barsoum, Nader; Ing, Wong Kiing

    2010-06-01

    The wireless network technology is increasingly important in healthcare as a result of the aging population and the tendency to acquire chronic disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure amongst the elderly. A wireless sensor network system that has the capability to monitor physiological sign such as SpO2 (Saturation of Arterial Oxygen) and heart beat rate in real-time from the human's body is highlighted in this study. This research is to design a prototype sensor network hardware, which consists of microcontroller PIC18F series and transceiver unit. The sensor is corporate into a wearable body sensor network which is small in size and easy to use. The sensor allows a non invasive, real time method to provide information regarding the health of the body. This enables a more efficient and economical means for managing the health care of the population.

  13. Linear and nonlinear energy harvesters for powering pacemakers from heart beat vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M. Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric devices are introduced to continuously recharge the batteries of the pacemakers by converting the vibrations from the heartbeats to electrical energy. The power requirement of the pacemakers is very low. At the same time, after about 10 years from the original implantation of the pacemakers, patients have to go through another surgical operation just to replace the batteries of their pacemakers. We investigate using vibration energy harvesters to significantly increase the battery life of the pace makers. The major source of vibrations in chest area is due to heartbeats. Linear low frequency and nonlinear mono-stable and bi-stable energy harvesters are designed according to especial signature of heart vibrations. The proposed energy harvesters are robust to variations of heart beat frequency and can meet the power requirement of the pacemakers.

  14. Validation of four-dimensional ultrasound for targeting in minimally-invasive beating-heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Danielle F.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Gobbi, David G.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound is garnering significant interest as an imaging modality for surgical guidance, due to its affordability, real-time temporal resolution and ease of integration into the operating room. Minimally-invasive intracardiac surgery performed on the beating-heart prevents direct vision of the surgical target, and procedures such as mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure would benefit from intraoperative ultrasound imaging. We propose that placing 4D ultrasound within an augmented reality environment, along with a patient-specific cardiac model and virtual representations of tracked surgical tools, will create a visually intuitive platform with sufficient image information to safely and accurately repair tissue within the beating heart. However, the quality of the imaging parameters, spatial calibration, temporal calibration and ECG-gating must be well characterized before any 4D ultrasound system can be used clinically to guide the treatment of moving structures. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive accuracy assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the performance of 4D ultrasound systems while imaging moving targets. We image a dynamic phantom that is comprised of a simple robot and a tracked phantom to which point-source, distance and spherical objects of known construction can be attached. We also follow our protocol to evaluate 4D ultrasound images generated in real-time by reconstructing ECG-gated 2D ultrasound images acquired from a tracked multiplanar transesophageal probe. Likewise, our evaluation framework allows any type of 4D ultrasound to be quantitatively assessed.

  15. Dynamic 3D ultrasound and MR image registration of the beating heart.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xishi; Hill, Nicholas A; Ren, Jing; Guiraudon, Gerard; Boughner, Derek; Peters, Terry M

    2005-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound (RT3D US) is an ideal imaging modality for the diagnosis of cardiac disease. RT3D US is a flexible, inexpensive, non-invasive tool that provides important diagnostic information related to cardiac function. Unfortunately, RT3D US suffers from inherent shortcomings, such as low signal-to-noise ratio and limited field of view, producing images that are difficult to interpret. Multi-modal dynamic cardiac image registration is a well-recognized approach that compensates for these deficiencies while retaining the advantages of RT3D US imaging. The clinical application of multi-modal image registration methods is difficult, and there are a number of implementation issues to be resolved. In this work, we present a method for the rapid registration of RT3D US images of the beating heart to high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method was validated using a volunteer image set. Validation results demonstrate that this approach can achieve rapid registration of images of the beating heart with fiducial landmark and registration errors of 1.25 +/- 0.63 and 1.76 mm respectively. This technique can potentially be used to improve the diagnosis of cardiac disease by augmenting RT3D US images with high-resolution MR images and to facilitate intra-operative image fusion for minimally invasive cardio-thoracic surgical navigation.

  16. Myocardial revascularization by left ventricular assisted beating heart is associated with reduced systemic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Stassano, Paolo; Di Tommaso, Luigi; Monaco, Mario; Iesu, Severino; Brando, Giancarlo; Buonpane, Salvatore; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Di Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pepino, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether use of left ventricular assisted technique (LVA) in beating-heart myocardial revascularization would exert less impact on patients' inflammatory response, as compared with minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC). Seventy-three consecutive high-risk patients undergoing myocardial revascularization were randomly assigned either to LVA (group A) or to MECC (group B). Monocyte count and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein, inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and polymorphonuclear elastase were measured at baseline and at various time points postoperatively. Preoperative clinical and demographic data did not differ between the two groups. The two groups also were similar with respect to mortality, number of grafts performed, duration of extracorporeal circulation, and need for inotropes. However, LVA was associated with significantly less inflammatory response postoperatively compared with MECC, as indicated by a significant difference in interleukin-6 (p = 0.002), C-reactive protein (p = 0.002), monocyte percentage (p = 0.006), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p = 0.002), and polymorphonuclear elastase (p = 0.001). High-risk patients undergoing beating-heart myocardial revascularization with LVA show reduced inflammatory response compared with patients treated with the MECC.

  17. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation from controlled non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs).

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A M; Odorico, J S; Knechtle, S J; Becker, Y T; Hoffmann, R M; Kalayoglu, M; Sollinger, H W

    2000-01-01

    From January 1993 through June 1999, 18 simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (SPKs) were performed from controlled non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) and 339 SPKs were performed from heart-beating donors (HBDs). No difference in donor characteristics was noted except for warm ischemic time, which was 14.8 min (range 4-46 min) for NHBDs. Following transplantation, no difference in pancreatic function was noted; however, a higher rate of enteric conversions was seen in pancreas transplants from NHBDs (32% vs. 13%; p < 0.01). Hemodialysis for acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was higher in kidney transplants from NHBDs (22.2% vs. 4.1%; p = 0.009) as was discharge serum creatinine (1.7 mg/dl vs. 1.5 mg/dl; p < 0.05). Also, the number of patients remaining rejection free was lower for NHBDs and approached significance (33.3% vs. 50.1%; p = 0.07). However, no difference in patient survival (100% vs. 95.4%) or pancreatic (87.4% vs. 86.5%) and renal (86.3% vs. 86.3%) allograft survival was noted during the study period. Our results indicate that SPK transplantation from controlled NHBDs is a viable method for increasing the number of pancreas and kidney transplants available for transplantation.

  18. First in vivo traveling wave magnetic particle imaging of a beating mouse heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, P.; Rückert, M. A.; Klauer, P.; Kullmann, W. H.; Jakob, P. M.; Behr, V. C.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a non-invasive imaging modality for direct detection of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles based on the nonlinear magnetization response of magnetic materials to alternating magnetic fields. This highly sensitive and rapid method allows both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of the measured signal. Since the first publication of MPI in 2005 several different scanner concepts have been presented and in 2009 the first in vivo imaging results of a beating mouse heart were shown. However, since the field of view (FOV) of the first MPI-scanner only covers a small region several approaches and hardware enhancements were presented to overcome this issue and could increase the FOV on cost of acquisition speed. In 2014 an alternative scanner concept, the traveling wave MPI (TWMPI), was presented, which allows scanning an entire mouse-sized volume at once. In this paper the first in vivo imaging results using the TWMPI system are presented. By optimizing the trajectory the temporal resolution is sufficiently high to resolve the dynamic of a beating mouse heart.

  19. Smoking status, sports participation and mortality from coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Noda, H; Iso, H; Toyoshima, H; Date, C; Yamamoto, A; Kikuchi, S; Koizumi, A; Kondo, T; Watanabe, Y; Wada, Y; Inaba, Y; Tamakoshi, A

    2008-04-01

    Since smoking and exercise have opposite effects on coronary risk factors, the hypothesis was proposed that smoking might weaken the protective effect of exercise on prevention of coronary heart disease. To determine the effect of smoking on the relationship between sports participation and mortality from coronary heart disease. Population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. A total of 76 832 Japanese men and women, aged 40-79 years with no history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer, completed a self-administered questionnaire between 1988 and 1990. Systematic mortality surveillance was carried out through 2003, and 638 deaths from coronary heart disease (496 myocardial infarction) were identified. People who reported the longest time in sports participation (>or=5 hours/week) had an approximately 50-80% lower age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease compared with those in the second lowest category (1-2 hours/week) among never and ex-smokers, but no association was found among current smokers. Adjustment for known risk factors and exclusion of subjects who died within 2 years of the baseline inquiry did not substantially alter these associations. The multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of coronary heart disease for the >or=5 hours/week versus 1-2 hours/week of sports participation were 0.44 (0.23 to 0.86) among never smokers, 0.18 (0.05 to 0.60) among ex-smokers, and 0.82 (0.47 to 1.40) among current smokers. Similar associations were found for men and women. Smoking may reduce the beneficial effect of sports participation for reduction of fatal coronary heart disease.

  20. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-05

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  1. Genomic prediction of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Gad; Havulinna, Aki S.; Bhalala, Oneil G.; Byars, Sean G.; De Livera, Alysha M.; Yetukuri, Laxman; Tikkanen, Emmi; Perola, Markus; Schunkert, Heribert; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Palotie, Aarno; Samani, Nilesh J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Inouye, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aims Genetics plays an important role in coronary heart disease (CHD) but the clinical utility of genomic risk scores (GRSs) relative to clinical risk scores, such as the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), is unclear. Our aim was to construct and externally validate a CHD GRS, in terms of lifetime CHD risk and relative to traditional clinical risk scores. Methods and results We generated a GRS of 49 310 SNPs based on a CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium meta-analysis of CHD, then independently tested it using five prospective population cohorts (three FINRISK cohorts, combined n = 12 676, 757 incident CHD events; two Framingham Heart Study cohorts (FHS), combined n = 3406, 587 incident CHD events). The GRS was associated with incident CHD (FINRISK HR = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–1.86 per S.D. of GRS; Framingham HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18–1.38), and was largely unchanged by adjustment for known risk factors, including family history. Integration of the GRS with the FRS or ACC/AHA13 scores improved the 10 years risk prediction (meta-analysis C-index: +1.5–1.6%, P < 0.001), particularly for individuals ≥60 years old (meta-analysis C-index: +4.6–5.1%, P < 0.001). Importantly, the GRS captured substantially different trajectories of absolute risk, with men in the top 20% of attaining 10% cumulative CHD risk 12–18 y earlier than those in the bottom 20%. High genomic risk was partially compensated for by low systolic blood pressure, low cholesterol level, and non-smoking. Conclusions A GRS based on a large number of SNPs improves CHD risk prediction and encodes different trajectories of lifetime risk not captured by traditional clinical risk scores. PMID:27655226

  2. A genetic future for coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kate; Martin, Paul

    2008-04-01

    This paper is concerned with changing conceptions of genetic disease. It is based on an analysis of biomedical literature and focuses on the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) in four published commentary papers. The aim of this analysis is to explore the ways in which CHD is constructed as genetic and the place of genetic discourses in the wider set of ideas that circulate about the disease. This analysis is then used to consider some of the claims of the geneticisation thesis (Lippman 1991, 1992). The analysis suggests that a genetic vision for understanding and managing CHD has emerged, which has many of the hallmarks of the geneticisation imagined by Lippman. However, a number of alternative and competing models of CHD are also supported within the biomedical discourse. These are related to the different disciplines with a stake in the field of CHD, and their struggles for authority. In conclusion, it is suggested that the geneticisation thesis, as a universal claim, is at odds with the diffuse and distributed nature of biomedical knowledge and practice. Rather than analysing geneticisation in a literal way, it may be more fruitful to see the thesis, itself, as a form of boundary work (Gieryn 1983).

  3. Erectile dysfunction and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Katsiki, Niki; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-07-01

    This narrative review discusses the associations of erectile dysfunction with coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality, all-cause death and CHD risk factors. Treatment strategies for erectile dysfunction are also mentioned. Erectile dysfunction shares common pathways and risk factors with vascular diseases. Erectile dysfunction has been reported to independently predict CHD events, thus highlighting its role as a marker of early atherosclerosis. Erectile dysfunction prevalence may be followed by the presentation of CHD symptoms in 2-3 years, and a CHD event may occur in 3-5 years. Furthermore, erectile dysfunction has been associated with stroke, peripheral artery disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease as well as with several CHD risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome, hyperuricaemia, arterial stiffness and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. On the basis of these data, erectile dysfunction may be regarded as a part of polyvascular disease. Patients with erectile dysfunction are at an increased risk for CHD morbidity and/or mortality as well as for all-cause death. Clinicians should monitor patients with erectile dysfunction by assessing their vascular risk and preventing or adequately treating CHD risk factors. In this context, lifestyle interventions should be recommended in addition to drug treatment to attain better outcomes.

  4. Coffee intake and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Klag, M J; Mead, L A; LaCroix, A Z; Wang, N Y; Coresh, J; Liang, K Y; Pearson, T A; Levine, D M

    1994-11-01

    We examined the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with coffee intake in 1040 male medical students followed for 28 to 44 years. During the follow-up, CHD developed in 111 men. The relative risks (95% confidence interval) associated with drinking 5 cups of coffee/d were 2.94 (1.27, 6.81) for baseline, 5.52 (1.31, 23.18) for average, and 1.95 (0.86, 4.40) for most recent intake after adjustment for baseline age, serum cholesterol levels, calendar time, and the time-dependent covariates number of cigarettes, body mass index, and incident hypertension and diabetes. Risks were elevated in both smokers and nonsmokers and were stronger for myocardial infarction. Most of the excess risk was associated with coffee drinking prior to 1975. The diagnosis of hypertension was associated with a subsequent reduction in coffee intake. Negative results in some studies may be due to the assessment of coffee intake later in life or to differences in methods of coffee preparation between study populations or over calendar time.

  5. Coronary heart disease: causes and drug treatment--spouses' conceptions.

    PubMed

    Kärner, Anita; Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt; Bergdahl, Björn

    2004-02-01

    Spouses are important in the rehabilitation process of their partner after coronary heart disease event. Their knowledge and attitudes have an impact on their support to the partner concerning lifestyle changes and drug treatment after an event. To explore spouses' conceptions concerning causes of coronary heart disease and drug treatment 1 year after the partner's cardiac event. Qualitative with an empirical and inductive approach. Semi-structured interviews with strategically selected spouses (17 women and eight men) were taped. The transcripts were analysed within the phenomenographic framework. Spouses' conceptions about causes of coronary heart disease and its treatment consisted of correct facts, as judged on a lay level, less elaborated conceptions and misconceptions. Among causes of coronary heart disease, the spouses were most knowledgeable about fat intake. They knew less about contributions from inactivity, stress and smoking. Ambivalent feelings were expressed about benefits vs. side effects of drugs. The treatment was conceived as necessary for the heart, but harmful for other organs. Men and women were evenly distributed in most of the derived categories. More women than men considered stress as a cause of coronary heart disease and also misconceived physical exercise to cause the disease. A variation of spouses' conceptions was revealed about causes of coronary heart disease and drug treatment. There was a lack of understanding concerning important parts of cardiac rehabilitation activities. These misconceptions may have implications by influencing their partner's co-operative behaviour. Spouses' pre-existing conceptions of coronary heart disease and its treatment should be considered in the rehabilitation process of their partner. Couples with misconceptions should be given the opportunity to increase qualitatively their knowledge starting from their point of view rather than from that of the professional perspective.

  6. Effect of Missing Inter-Beat Interval Data on Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Wrist-Worn Wearables.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Shin, JaeWook

    2017-08-15

    Most of the wrist-worn devices on the market provide a continuous heart rate measurement function using photoplethysmography, but have not yet provided a function to measure the continuous heart rate variability (HRV) using beat-to-beat pulse interval. The reason for such is the difficulty of measuring a continuous pulse interval during movement using a wearable device because of the nature of photoplethysmography, which is susceptible to motion noise. This study investigated the effect of missing heart beat interval data on the HRV analysis in cases where pulse interval cannot be measured because of movement noise. First, we performed simulations by randomly removing data from the RR interval of the electrocardiogram measured from 39 subjects and observed the changes of the relative and normalized errors for the HRV parameters according to the total length of the missing heart beat interval data. Second, we measured the pulse interval from 20 subjects using a wrist-worn device for 24 h and observed the error value for the missing pulse interval data caused by the movement during actual daily life. The experimental results showed that mean NN and RMSSD were the most robust for the missing heart beat interval data among all the parameters in the time and frequency domains. Most of the pulse interval data could not be obtained during daily life. In other words, the sample number was too small for spectral analysis because of the long missing duration. Therefore, the frequency domain parameters often could not be calculated, except for the sleep state with little motion. The errors of the HRV parameters were proportional to the missing data duration in the presence of missing heart beat interval data. Based on the results of this study, the maximum missing duration for acceptable errors for each parameter is recommended for use when the HRV analysis is performed on a wrist-worn device.

  7. Coronary heart disease among Pacific Island people in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tukuitonga, C F; Stewart, A; Beaglehole, R

    1990-09-26

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in New Zealand. Death rates are higher among the Maori than the European population but rates have been declining in both groups over recent years. The occurrence of coronary heart disease among the Pacific Island population in New Zealand is unknown. Data from the National Health Statistics Centre (NHSC) and the Auckland coronary or stroke (ARCOS) study were used to describe the occurrence of coronary heart diseases among Pacific Island people. Age standardised mortality rates show that coronary heart disease is an important cause of death among Pacific Island men. Death rates have declined between 1973-77 and 1978-82 but this trend did not continue among men in the 1983-86 period. Age standardised mortality rates from coronary heart disease from the ARCOS data are 175/100,000 and 52/100,000 for Pacific Island men and women compared with 325/100,000 and 141/100,000 for Maori men and women. Age standardised rates for European men and women are 154/100,000 and 36/100,000 respectively.

  8. Heart transplant coronary artery disease: Multimodality approach in percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Leite, Luís; Matos, Vítor; Gonçalves, Lino; Silva Marques, João; Jorge, Elisabete; Calisto, João; Antunes, Manuel; Pego, Mariano

    2016-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most important cause of late morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation. It is usually an immunologic phenomenon termed cardiac allograft vasculopathy, but can also be the result of donor-transmitted atherosclerosis. Routine surveillance by coronary angiography should be complemented by intracoronary imaging, in order to determine the nature of the coronary lesions, and also by assessment of their functional significance to guide the decision whether to perform percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a case of coronary angiography at five-year follow-up after transplantation, using optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve to assess and optimize treatment of coronary disease in this challenging population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of different strategies of ivabradine premedication for heart rate reduction before coronary computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Celik, Omer; Atasoy, Mehmet M; Erturk, Mehmet; Yalcin, Arif A; Aksu, Hale U; Diker, Mustafa; Akturk, Faruk I; Erkanli, Korhan; Atasoy, Isil; Kiris, Adem

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of different strategies of ivabradine therapy by comparing the effects on heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and image quality of coronary CT angiography (CTA). A total of 192 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups of oral premedication with ivabradine 15 mg (single dose), 10 mg (single dose), and 5 mg twice daily for 5 days, prospectively. Patients using HR-lowering drugs and patients with β-blockade contraindication were excluded. The target HR was 65 beats/min. In addition 5 to 10 mg of intravenous metoprolol was administered to the patients at the CT unit, if required. The systolic and diastolic blood BP values and the HRs were recorded. Image quality was assessed for 8 of 15 coronary segments with a 4-point grading scale. Results were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way ANOVA, and χ2 test. Reductions in mean HR after the treatment were 18 ± 6, 14 ± 4, and 17 ± 7 beats/min for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. With the total additional therapies, 81.3%, 67.2%, and 84.3% of the patients achieved HR < 65 beats/min in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean BP values before coronary CTA were not significantly changed except for patients in group 2. Unacceptable (score 0) image quality was obtained in only 4.5%, 10.2%, and 4.2% of all the coronary segments, in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Our study indicates that coronary CTA with premedication with oral ivabradine in all 3 strategies is safe and effective in reducing HR, in particular with a β-blockade combination. All 3 ivabradine regimes may be an alternative strategy for HR lowering in patients undergoing coronary CTA. Ivabradine 15 mg (single dose) and ivabradine 5 mg twice daily for 5 days are superior to the ivabradine 10-mg single-dose regime for HR lowering without adjunctive intravenous β-blocker usage. Copyright © 2014 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. Effect of heart rate on zonal tension and ischaemia following coronary occlusion: optimal rate for Treppe versus ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, M M; Banka, V S; Helfant, R H

    1976-05-01

    The optimal heart rate in the immediate period following acute coronary occlusion has been controversial from the standpoint of arrhythmias and the extent of ischaemic injury. In the present study we have examined the effect of heart rate on both local myocardial contractile ability and ischaemia in 10 open chested dogs using strain gauge arches and epicardial electrograms. After sinus node destruction, atrial pacing was instituted for rate control at 100/min and increased randomly to 150, 175, and 200/min. Before coronary occlusion, total tension and rate of tension rise progressively increased at higher rates while ST segments demonstrated no significant changes. After coronary artery occlusion, total tension and rate of tension rise in the ischaemic zone decreased markedly and showed no significant change with increments in pacing rate. In the border zone, after the initial decrease in tension, pacing at 150 beats/min improved tension without a change in ST segments. However, when the rate was increased to 175 and 200 beats/min, although border zone tension increased further, ST segments rose significantly. Thus, a heart rate between 100-150/min provides the optimal range for increasing contractile ability in the nonischaemic and border zones without adversely affecting the degree of ischaemic injury.

  11. Application of cluster analysis in prevention of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Vogelaere, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Coronary heart disease is one of the principal causes of death and morbidity in the western world, and particularly in Portugal. This study's aim was to investigate coronary disease risk factors, differentiating lifestyles and behavioral habits which are associated with onset of the disease. The experimental population was divided into two groups: an experimental group (n=30)--male subjects, aged 40-75 years, who suffered a first coronary event in the previous 20 days; and a control group (n=30)--male subjects, aged 40-75 years, who presented no coronary problems. Individuals with a clinical history of any other chronic disease were excluded from the sample. Data were obtained through questionnaires. Data analysis consisted of both traditional statistical analysis (Student's t test) and cluster analysis. The latter technique enables behavioral patterns that will or will not induce coronary heart disease to be distinguished. The Student's t test revealed significant differences (p < or = 0.05) between the experimental and control groups for the following variables: nutrition and dietary habits, smoking, stress and psychosocial factors, hereditary factors and total risk factors. The risk level of all these factors was higher in the experimental group. Cluster analysis applied to 19 variables enabled three behavioral patterns to be identified that may induce the disease, characterized by high risk indices in specific variables, and one behavioral pattern that tends to prevent development of coronary heart disease, which is characterized by low levels of risk factors. Coronary heart disease appears to be related to lifestyle and habits. Analysis of the three high-risk behavioral patterns enabled priority areas to be established for preventive measures against coronary heart disease. These are: stress, irritability and depression, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and nutrition (excessive consumption of salt, sugar and alcohol).

  12. Women, Loneliness, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a community sample of men and women. Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Methods Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among women, high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHD (high: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17â2.63; medium: hazard ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64â1.49; reference: low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Conclusions Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHD, controlling for multiple confounding factors. Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:19661189

  13. Endodontic variables and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Fredrik; Hakeberg, Magnus; Ahlqwist, Margareta; Bengtsson, Calle

    2003-10-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to explore a possible association between endodontic disease variables and coronary heart disease (CHD). Dental infections are hypothesized to be linked to atherosclerosis and could be a cause of vascular changes crucial for the development of CHD. Most studies have focused on periodontal disease. To our knowledge, no one has specifically studied endodontic variables as risk factors for the development of CHD. In 1992-93, a representative sample (n = 1056) of women in Göteborg, Sweden, aged between 38 and 84 years, took part in a combined dental and medical survey. The dependent variable was CHD, i.e. subjects with angina pectoris and/or a history of myocardial infarction (n = 106). The independent variables were number of root-filled teeth (RF), number of teeth with periapical radiolucencies (PA), tooth loss (TL), age, life situation, marital status, smoking, alcohol habits, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, hypertension and diabetes. The multivariate logistic regression analysis did not prove the endodontic variables to be predictive of CHD. Only age and tooth loss were significantly associated with CHD, with OR = 1.07 (CI = 1.03-1.12) and OR = 2.70 (CI = 1.49-4.87), respectively. The bivariate logistic regression analysis showed a positive significant association between subjects with RF = 2 and CHD, but for PA the bivariate analysis did not support an association with CHD. This cross-sectional study did not reveal a significant association between endodontically treated teeth and CHD nor between teeth with periapical disease and CHD.

  14. On Two Hearts and Other Coronary Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1998-01-01

    Speculates as to how understanding of heart disease has developed and provides insight into how medical science makes progress. Summarizes the state of knowledge on arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and exercising the heart. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  15. On Two Hearts and Other Coronary Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1998-01-01

    Speculates as to how understanding of heart disease has developed and provides insight into how medical science makes progress. Summarizes the state of knowledge on arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and exercising the heart. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  16. [Radiofrequency catheter ablation for ventricular premature beats of left coronary cusp under the guidance of 3-dimensional mapping system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Lang; Zhou, Yuan-feng; Lai, Heng-li; Chen, Zai-hua; Qiu, Yun

    2012-04-10

    To explore the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RCA) for ventricular premature beats originating from left coronary sinus under the guidance of 3-dimensional mapping system (CARTO). A total of 15 patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating from left coronary sinus underwent CARTO-guided RCA. Anatomical structures were constructed and three-dimension (3D) electrical activation sequence was plotted for left ventricle and aortic sinus. The distance of earliest activation point of PVCs and origin of left coronary artery were surveyed after left coronary arteriography. The electrocardiogram (ECG) results showed that R-wave was upward in leads II, III and avF, QRS waves in lead I was mainly of rS, rs and rsr types, QS type in lead avL, RS, Rs and rS type in lead V(1), RS type in lead V(3) and absence of S wave in lead V(5)/V(6). Intraoperative mapping detected the earliest activation point on the posterior-inferior origin of left coronary artery (LMCA) ostium (n = 7), on the anterio-inferior of LMCA ostium (n = 3) and on the inferior of LMCA ostium (n = 5). The earliest activation point (local activation time) was shorter 86 - 120 ms than surface electrocardiogram QRS wave, discharge melting on the earliest activation point and nearby succeeded. PVCs disappeared, PVCs failed to be induced under similar preoperative conditions (aleudrin intravenous) and no complication occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. The CARTO-guided RCA is a safe and effective in the treatment of PVCs originating from left coronary sinus.

  17. Beyond Pittsburgh: protocols for controlled non-heart-beating cadaver organ recovery.

    PubMed

    Spielman, B; McCarthy, C S

    1995-12-01

    Much of the ethical debate about controlled non-heart-beating cadaver (NHBC) organ recovery has focused on the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) protocol. Some commentators have voiced serious reservations about the ethical acceptability of that protocol; others have argued that the protocol contains sufficiently stringent ethical safeguards to warrant a limited and carefully monitored trial at UPMC. UPMC is not the only organization pursuing controlled NHBC organ procurement, however. The study of organ procurement organizations described in this article suggests that controlled NHBC organ procurement is a practice that, if not yet widespread, is certainly no longer isolated to a few organizations in which it is carefully monitored. Rather, it is being carried out under a variety of circumstances, many of which are less carefully constrained ethically than at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The next stage of the ethical debate should focus on issues that are arising in a variety of settings as the practice spreads.

  18. Imaging the beating heart in the mouse using intravital microscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Vinegoni, Claudio; Aguirre, Aaron D; Lee, Sungon; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Real-time microscopic imaging of moving organs at single-cell resolution represents a major challenge in studying complex biology in living systems. Motion of the tissue from the cardiac and respiratory cycles severely limits intravital microscopy by compromising ultimate spatial and temporal imaging resolution. However, significant recent advances have enabled single-cell resolution imaging to be achieved in vivo. In this protocol, we describe experimental procedures for intravital microscopy based on a combination of thoracic surgery, tissue stabilizers and acquisition gating methods, which enable imaging at the single-cell level in the beating heart in the mouse. Setup of the model is typically completed in 1 h, which allows 2 h or more of continuous cardiac imaging. This protocol can be readily adapted for the imaging of other moving organs, and it will therefore broadly facilitate in vivo high-resolution microscopy studies. PMID:26492138

  19. Beat-to-beat, ambulatory hour-to-hour, and home day-to-day variabilities in blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate in comparison with each other and with target-organ damage.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jouni K; Puukka, Pauli J; Virtanen, Raine; Jula, Antti M

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to compare beat-to-beat, ambulatory hour-to-hour, and home day-to-day variability in blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP), and heart rate (HR) with each other and with target-organ damage. We studied a population-based sample of Finnish adults including 150 healthy participants aged between 35 and 64 years. Variability in BP and HR was assessed using self-measured morning and evening recordings from seven consecutive days and 24-h ambulatory recordings. Frequency domain measures of beat-to-beat BP variability and baroreflex sensitivity were determined from 5-min time series. The study participants underwent clinical examination, a clinical interview, measurement of urine albumin levels, and echocardiographic examination. Home BP/PP variability parameters and low frequency (LF) power of beat-to-beat BP/PP variability were mainly associated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in models adjusted for age, sex, and BP/PP level. The associations of LVMI with PP variability parameters were stronger than the corresponding associations with BP parameters. The associations of PP variability parameters with LVMI were stronger in old than in young individuals. Home BP/PP variability parameters were mainly associated with the LF power of beat-to-beat BP/PP variability in models adjusted for age, sex, and beat-to-beat BP/PP level and the associations were stronger in old than in young individuals. Home HR variability parameters and 24-h hour-to-hour HR variability were mainly associated with LF/high-frequency powers of beat-to-beat HR variability. Reading-to-reading BP/PP variability parameters and their corresponding beat-to-beat variability parameters are partially connected, possibly to common regulatory mechanisms. Their prognostic significance in relation to cardiovascular outcome needs further investigation.

  20. Dynamic 3-D virtual fixtures for minimally invasive beating heart procedures.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Patel, Rajni V; McIsaac, Kenneth A; Guiraudon, Gerard; Peters, Terry M

    2008-08-01

    Two-dimensional or 3-D visual guidance is often used for minimally invasive cardiac surgery and diagnosis. This visual guidance suffers from several drawbacks such as limited field of view, loss of signal from time to time, and in some cases, difficulty of interpretation. These limitations become more evident in beating-heart procedures when the surgeon has to perform a surgical procedure in the presence of heart motion. In this paper, we propose dynamic 3-D virtual fixtures (DVFs) to augment the visual guidance system with haptic feedback, to provide the surgeon with more helpful guidance by constraining the surgeon's hand motions thereby protecting sensitive structures. DVFs can be generated from preoperative dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomograph (CT) images and then mapped to the patient during surgery. We have validated the feasibility of the proposed method on several simulated surgical tasks using a volunteer's cardiac image dataset. Validation results show that the integration of visual and haptic guidance can permit a user to perform surgical tasks more easily and with reduced error rate. We believe this is the first work presented in the field of virtual fixtures that explicitly considers heart motion.

  1. RF communication with implantable wireless device: effects of beating heart on performance of miniature antenna.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Olive H; Borghi, Alessandro; Bahmanyar, Mohammad Reza; McLeod, Christopher N; Navaratnarajah, Manoraj; Yacoub, Magdi; Toumazou, Christofer

    2014-06-01

    The frequency response of an implantable antenna is key to the performance of a wireless implantable sensor. If the antenna detunes significantly, there are substantial power losses resulting in loss of accuracy. One reason for detuning is because of a change in the surrounding environment of an antenna. The pulsating anatomy of the human heart constitutes such a changing environment, so detuning is expected but this has not been quantified dynamically before. Four miniature implantable antennas are presented (two different geometries) along with which are placed within the heart of living swine the dynamic reflection coefficients. These antennas are designed to operate in the short range devices frequency band (863-870 MHz) and are compatible with a deeply implanted cardiovascular pressure sensor. The measurements recorded over 27 seconds capture the effects of the beating heart on the frequency tuning of the implantable antennas. When looked at in the time domain, these effects are clearly physiological and a combination of numerical study and posthumous autopsy proves this to be the case, while retrospective simulation confirms this hypothesis. The impact of pulsating anatomy on antenna design and the need for wideband implantable antennas is highlighted.

  2. Reduced liver apoptosis after venous systemic oxygen persufflation in non-heart-beating donors.

    PubMed

    Tolba, R H; Schildberg, F A; Schnurr, C; Glatzel, U; Decker, D; Minor, T

    2006-01-01

    Graft injury caused by warm ischemia in livers from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) strongly affects posttransplantation outcome and is associated with liver apoptosis, which is mediated by death receptors, such as Fas, a surface receptor of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha family. The aim of this study was to test the ability of venous systemic oxygen persufflation (VSOP) to reduce apoptotic changes and Fas activation in the liver after warm ischemic insult in vivo. Livers of male Wistar rats were harvested 30 min after cardiac arrest from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) with (NHBD + O2) or without (NHBD) application of gaseous oxygen during the cold storage period via the suprahepatic caval vein. After 24 h of storage in University of Wisconsin solution at 4 degrees C, viability of the livers was assessed upon isolated reperfusion in vitro. Conventional signs of tissue damage like enzyme release and bile production showed a significantly elevated nonspecific cell injury in the NHBD group. TUNEL staining revealed increased DNA fragmentation of sinusoidal endothelial cells in the NHBD group and more apoptotic hepatocytes than in the control group. All these alterations could be almost abrogated by the use of VSOP in the NHBD + O2 group. The immunohistochemical staining of Fas antigen expression showed a significantly elevated Fas receptor expression in the NHBD and NHBD + O2 groups, in accord with an eightfold increase of Fas receptor mRNA detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results demonstrate that the postischemic apoptotic rate of sinusoidal endothelial cells in NHBD livers can be reduced by the use of VSOP. A significant improvement in liver integrity and viability was obtained with this technique, without influencing the expression of Fas expression.

  3. Innovative pulmonary preservation of non-heart-beating donor grafts in experimental lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, Thorsten; Franke, Ulrich F W; Fehrenbach, Antonia; Ochs, Matthias; Sandhaus, Tim; Dreyer, Niels; Richter, Joachim; Wahlers, Thorsten

    2004-07-01

    Lung transplantation is limited by scarcity of donor organs. Lung retrieval from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) might have the potential to extend the donor pool and has been reported recently. However, no studies in NHBD exist using the novel approach of retrograde preservation with Perfadex solution. Asystolic heparinized pigs (n = 5/group) were continuously ventilated for 90, 180 or 300 min of warm ischemia. Lungs were then retrogradely preserved with Perfadex and stored at 4 degrees C in inflation. After 3 h of additional cold ischemia, left lung transplantation was performed. Hemodynamics, pO(2)/F(i)O(2) and dynamic compliance were monitored for 5 h. Intrapulmonary lung water was determined by both global wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (W/D ratio) and standard stereological examination of relative volume fractions of intraalveolar edema. All results were compared to sham-operated controls and to lungs obtained from standard heart-beating donors after retrograde preservation with Perfadex and 27 h of cold ischemia. Statistics comprised ANOVA analysis with repeated measures and Mann-Whitney tests. No mortality was observed. During flush preservation of NHBD lungs, continuous elimination of blood clots via the pulmonary artery was observed. Oxygenation, compliance, intraalveolar edema fraction and W/D ratio were comparable between groups, whereas PVR was significantly lower in sham-controls. Use of NHBD lungs is feasible and results in similar postischemic outcome when compared to sham-controls and standard preservation procedures even after 5 h of pre-harvest warm ischemia. Especially, the NHBD with high-risk constellations for intravascular coagulation might benefit from retrograde preservation by elimination of thrombi from the pulmonary circulation. This innovative technique might also be considered in situations, where brain-dead organ donors become hemodynamically unstable prior to onset of organ harvest. Further trials with longer warm and cold ischemic

  4. Effect of age and methacholine on the rate and coronary flow of isolated hearts of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, X S; Tanz, R D; Chang, K S

    1989-08-01

    1. Isolated hearts perfused by the method of Langendorff from 6, 12 and 24 week streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats displayed a significant bradycardia following 60 min equilibration. The rate of hearts from 12-week diabetic rats (164 +/- 17) displayed the greatest bradycardia compared to age-matched controls (268 +/- 15; P less than 0.001), and diabetics treated with insulin (232 +/- 17; P less than 0.01), but by 52 weeks the heart rate of the 3 groups was similar. With advancing age the effect of STZ diabetes on the rate of rat isolated perfused hearts remained unchanged but the rate of the control and diabetic + insulin groups declined. 2. Hearts from 6-52 week STZ-treated rats were found to be more sensitive to the negative chronotropic effect of methacholine, the greatest difference occurring in hearts from the 12 week animals. Atropine (10(-7) M) did not affect the resting heart rate of age-matched controls or diabetics but blocked methacholine (2.6 x 10(-6) M)-induced bradycardia in both, suggesting that the site of action of diabetic bradycardia is not the muscarinic receptors. 3. At the end of equilibration there was a significant decrease in coronary flow in hearts from 12 week diabetic animals. In spontaneously beating diabetic rat hearts administration of methacholine (2.6 x 10(-6) M) produced a significantly greater decrease in coronary flow in the 12, 24 and 52 week diabetic hearts. When electrically paced (5 Hz) however, there was no difference in response to methacholine between the three groups except at 52 weeks between the age-matched control and diabetic groups. This suggests that the more pronounced reduction induced by methacholine on the coronary flow of diabetic hearts is secondary to its negative chronotropic effect. 4. In general, hearts from diabetic animals treated with insulin respond similarly to their agematched controls in the presence and absence of methacholine.

  5. Acquired noncompaction associated with coronary heart disease and myopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Bonner, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    In a 77-year-old man with a history of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, dilative cardiomyopathy, mitral and tricuspid insufficiency, arteriovenous block III, implantation of a pacemaker, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, left ventricular hypertrabeculation (LVHT) was detected on transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization for worsening heart failure. Revision of previous echocardiography did not show LVHT in any of the previous investigations why LVHT was interpreted as acquired. The additional presentation with bilateral ptosis, madarosis (absent eyelashes), bilateral hypoacusis, sore neck muscles, absent tendon reflexes, weakness for foot extension, ataxic stance, and recurrently elevated creatine kinase with normal troponin-T suggested a metabolic myopathy. Autopsy after death resulting from intractable heart failure, 17 months later, confirmed severe coronary heart disease and LVHT in the apex. The case confirms that LVHT may be acquired in single cases with neuromuscular disease and may represent an adaptive mechanism of an impaired myocardium. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Primary prevention of coronary heart disease with aspirin].

    PubMed

    Kübler, W; Darius, H

    2005-01-01

    According to meta-analysis and the results of the two studies with the highest power, aspirin is effective in primary prevention of coronary heart disease. These beneficial effects, however, are at least partially out-weight by unwanted effects-such as intense gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke. These side effects remain constant with increasing risk of coronary heart disease, whereas the protective effects increase. If an annual risk of coronary heart disease of < or =0.6% exists, aspirin is normally not indicated; for a risk of 0.7-1.4% the facts should be discussed with the patient. If a risk of > or =1.5% exists, aspirin should be given. Problems of aspirin therapy--such as "aspirin paradox" and "aspirin resistance"--have been documented for secondary prevention; they might, however, have likewise clinical implications in primary prevention.

  7. A novel robust index to assess beat-to-beat variability in heart rate time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    García-González, M A; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2001-06-01

    A new index is proposed to estimate the variance of the differentiated heart rate (RR) time series from its truncated histogram. The index is more robust to artifacts than the standard deviation of the differentiated RR time series (rMSDD) and, unlike the pNN50, does not saturate for very high or very low heart rate variability.

  8. An efficient method of addressing ectopic beats: new insight into data preprocessing of heart rate variability analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; He, Fang-tian

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is affected by ectopic beats. An efficient method was proposed to deal with the ectopic beats. The method was based on trend correlation of the heart timing signal. Predictor of R-R interval (RRI) value at ectopic beat time was constructed by the weight calculation and the slope estimation of preceding normal RRI. The type of ectopic beat was detected and replaced by the predictor of RRI. The performance of the simulated signal after ectopic correction was tested by the standard value using power spectrum density (PSD) estimation, whereas the results of clinical data with ectopic beats were compared with the adjacent ectopic-free data. The result showed the frequency indexes after ectopy corrected had less error than other methods with the test of simulated signal and clinical data. It indicated our method could improve the PSD estimation in HRV analysis. The method had advantages of high accuracy and real time properties to recover the sinus node modulation. PMID:22135146

  9. An efficient method of addressing ectopic beats: new insight into data preprocessing of heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; He, Fang-Tian

    2011-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is affected by ectopic beats. An efficient method was proposed to deal with the ectopic beats. The method was based on trend correlation of the heart timing signal. Predictor of R-R interval (RRI) value at ectopic beat time was constructed by the weight calculation and the slope estimation of preceding normal RRI. The type of ectopic beat was detected and replaced by the predictor of RRI. The performance of the simulated signal after ectopic correction was tested by the standard value using power spectrum density (PSD) estimation, whereas the results of clinical data with ectopic beats were compared with the adjacent ectopic-free data. The result showed the frequency indexes after ectopy corrected had less error than other methods with the test of simulated signal and clinical data. It indicated our method could improve the PSD estimation in HRV analysis. The method had advantages of high accuracy and real time properties to recover the sinus node modulation.

  10. Change in myocardial oxygen consumption employing continuous-flow LVAD with cardiac beat synchronizing system, in acute ischemic heart failure models.

    PubMed

    Umeki, Akihide; Nishimura, Takashi; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Ando, Masahiko; Arakawa, Mamoru; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2013-06-01

    Aiming the 'Bridge to Recovery' course, we have developed a novel left ventricular assist device (LVAD) controlling system. It can change the rotational speed of the continuous flow LVAD, EVAHEART, synchronized with the cardiac beat. Employing this system, we have already demonstrated that myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), which is considered to be equivalent to native heart load, changes in the hearts of normal goats. Herein, we examined changes in goats with acute ischemic heart failure. We studied 14 goats (56.1 ± 6.9 kg) with acute ischemic heart failure due to coronary microsphere embolization. We installed the EVAHEART and drive in four modes: "circuit-clamp", "continuous support", "counter-pulse", and "co-pulse", with 50 and 100 % bypass. In comparison to the circuit-clamp mode, MVO2 was reduced to 70.4 ± 17.9 % in the counter-pulse mode and increased to 90.3 ± 14.5 % in the co-pulse mode, whereas it was 80.0 ± 14.5 % in the continuous mode, with 100 % bypass (p < 0.05). The same difference was confirmed with 50 % bypass. This means that we may have a chance to change the native heart load by controlling the LVAD rotation in synchrony with the cardiac rhythm, so we named our controller as the Native Heart Load Control System (NHLCS). Employing changeable MVO2 with NHLCS according to the patient's condition may provide more opportunity for native heart recovery with LVAD, especially for patients with ischemic heart diseases.

  11. [The combined drug ascoril in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease concurrent with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, N Iu; Kuznetsov, A N; Koroleva, T V; Koroleva, M E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the combined drug ascoril (Glenmark, India) in patients with grade I-Ii chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) concurrent with coronary heart disease (CHD). Sixty patients, including 12 (20%) women and 48 (80%) men, aged 43 to 68 years (mean age 55.1 +9.9 years), with COPD were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 used the combined broncholytic and expectorant drug ascoril and Group 2 took mucolytic agent ambroxol. The follow-up period was 7 days. On day 2 of ascoril treatment, all the patients showed a significant reduction in the intensity of cough that was completely relieved in 26 (87%) patients by treatment day 7. Prior to ascoril treatment, heart rate (HR) was 64.4+/-5.5 beats/min. A significant increase in HR to 72.7+/-10.1 beats/min was observed 20 min after the first drug intake (p < 0.05) and a decrease to 68.6+/-10.5 beats/min was seen after 60 min. On treatment day 7, HR was 63.0+/-6.5 beats/min, which was similar to that before ascoril treatment (p = 0.6). In the patients with COPD concurrent with CHD, the combined drug ascoril exerts broncholytic and expectorant effects, with no pronounced negative action on HR.

  12. Multi-channel System for Beat to Beat QT Interval Variability and its Use in Screening for Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starc, V.; Schlegel, T. T.; Arenare, B.; Greco, E. C.; DePalma, J. L.; Nunez, T.; Medina, R.; Jugo, D.; Rahman, M. A.; Delgado, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the ability of beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) and related parameters to differentiate healthy individuals from patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CM). For this purpose we developed a PC-based ECG software program that in real time, acquires, analyzes and displays QTV in each of the eight independent channels that constitute the 12-lead conventional ECG. The system also analyzes and displays the QTV from QT interval signals that are derived from multiple channels and from singular value decomposition (SVD) to substantially reduce the effect of noise and other artifacts on the QTV results. It also provides other useful SVD-related parameters such as the normalized 3-dimensional volume of the T wave (nTV) = 100*(rho(sub 2)*rho(sub 3)rho(sub 1^2). Advanced high-fidelity 12-lead ECG tests (approx. 5-min supine) were first performed on a "training set" of 99 individuals: 33 with ischemic or dilated CM and low ejection fraction (EF less than 40%); 33 with catheterization-proven obstructive CAD but normal EF; and 33 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. All QTV parameters that were studied for their accuracy in detecting CM and CAD significantly differentiated both CM and CAD from controls (p less than 0.0001). Retrospective areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of SDNN-QTV, rmsSD-QTV, and QTV Index (QTVI) for CM vs. controls in the lead V5 were 0.85, 0.90, and 0.99, respectively, and those for CAD vs. controls in the lead II were 0.82, 0.82, and 0.89. Other advanced ECG parameters, such as HFQRS RAZ score, LF Lomb of RRV or QRS-T angle, differentiated both CM and CAD from controls less significantly, with the respective AUC values of 0.89, 0.88 and 0.98 for CM vs. controls, and 0.73, 0.71 and 0.80 for CAD vs. controls. QTV parameters (especially QTVI, which is QTV as indexed to RRV) were, diagnostically speaking, amongst the best performing of the advanced ECG techniques studied thus far.

  13. Multi-channel System for Beat to Beat QT Interval Variability and its Use in Screening for Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starc, V.; Schlegel, T. T.; Arenare, B.; Greco, E. C.; DePalma, J. L.; Nunez, T.; Medina, R.; Jugo, D.; Rahman, M. A.; Delgado, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the ability of beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) and related parameters to differentiate healthy individuals from patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CM). For this purpose we developed a PC-based ECG software program that in real time, acquires, analyzes and displays QTV in each of the eight independent channels that constitute the 12-lead conventional ECG. The system also analyzes and displays the QTV from QT interval signals that are derived from multiple channels and from singular value decomposition (SVD) to substantially reduce the effect of noise and other artifacts on the QTV results. It also provides other useful SVD-related parameters such as the normalized 3-dimensional volume of the T wave (nTV) = 100*(rho(sub 2)*rho(sub 3)rho(sub 1^2). Advanced high-fidelity 12-lead ECG tests (approx. 5-min supine) were first performed on a "training set" of 99 individuals: 33 with ischemic or dilated CM and low ejection fraction (EF less than 40%); 33 with catheterization-proven obstructive CAD but normal EF; and 33 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. All QTV parameters that were studied for their accuracy in detecting CM and CAD significantly differentiated both CM and CAD from controls (p less than 0.0001). Retrospective areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of SDNN-QTV, rmsSD-QTV, and QTV Index (QTVI) for CM vs. controls in the lead V5 were 0.85, 0.90, and 0.99, respectively, and those for CAD vs. controls in the lead II were 0.82, 0.82, and 0.89. Other advanced ECG parameters, such as HFQRS RAZ score, LF Lomb of RRV or QRS-T angle, differentiated both CM and CAD from controls less significantly, with the respective AUC values of 0.89, 0.88 and 0.98 for CM vs. controls, and 0.73, 0.71 and 0.80 for CAD vs. controls. QTV parameters (especially QTVI, which is QTV as indexed to RRV) were, diagnostically speaking, amongst the best performing of the advanced ECG techniques studied thus far.

  14. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... that existing CHD will worsen. CHD, also called coronary artery disease, is a condition in which a waxy substance ...

  15. The effect of heart rate reduction by ivabradine on collateral function in patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Stoller, Michael; Schild, Deborah; Steck, Hélène; Khattab, Ahmed; Vogel, Rolf; Seiler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of heart rate reduction by ivabradine on coronary collateral function in patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a prospective randomised placebo-controlled monocentre trial in a university hospital setting. 46 patients with chronic stable CAD received placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) for the duration of 6 months. The main outcome measure was collateral flow index (CFI) as obtained during a 1 min coronary artery balloon occlusion at study inclusion (baseline) and at the 6-month follow-up examination. CFI is the ratio between simultaneously recorded mean coronary occlusive pressure divided by mean aortic pressure both subtracted by mean central venous pressure. During follow-up, heart rate changed by +0.2±7.8 beats/min in the placebo group, and by -8.1±11.6 beats/min in the ivabradine group (p=0.0089). In the placebo group, CFI decreased from 0.140±0.097 at baseline to 0.109±0.067 at follow-up (p=0.12); it increased from 0.107±0.077 at baseline to 0.152±0.090 at follow-up in the ivabradine group (p=0.0461). The difference in CFI between the 6-month follow-up and baseline examination amounted to -0.031±0.090 in the placebo group and to +0.040±0.094 in the ivabradine group (p=0.0113). Heart rate reduction by ivabradine appears to have a positive effect on coronary collateral function in patients with chronic stable CAD. NCT01039389.

  16. The role of coronary artery disease in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; Desai, Akshay S

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced survival following acute myocardial infarction and the declining prevalence of hypertension and valvular heart disease as contributors to incident heart failure (HF) have fueled the emergence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as the primary risk factor for HF development. Despite the acknowledged role of CAD in the development of HF, the role of coronary revascularization in reducing HF-associated morbidity and mortality remains controversial. The authors review key features of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CAD in patients with HF as well as the emerging data from recent clinical trials that inform the modern approach to management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coronary vasodilator effects of endogenous cannabinoids in vasopressin-preconstricted unpaced rat isolated hearts.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jens A; Abesser, Marco; Karcher, Jan; Laser, Martin; Kunos, George

    2005-09-01

    The mechanisms by which cannabinoids alter coronary vascular tone and cardiac performance are controversial. We investigated the effects of various cannabinoids in spontaneously beating Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Bolus injections of anandamide (0.1-1 micromol) caused no change in coronary flow (CF) or left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP). In hearts preperfused with vasopressin to induce vasoconstrictor tone, anandamide or the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA (1-100 nmol) dose-dependently increased CF by up to 267% and LVSP by 20 mm Hg. The metabolically stable endocannabinoid derivatives, R-methanandamide and noladin ether, displayed similar effects. In contrast, Delta-THC (10-100 nmol), the major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, strongly decreased CF and LVSP. The CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 (10-100 nmol) elicited vasodilator and positive inotropic effects only at higher doses. The CB1 antagonists SR141716A and AM-251 as well as the potassium channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium and iberiotoxin blocked the anandamide-induced increases in CF and LVSP, whereas the CB2 antagonist SR144528 and the putative "CB3 antagonist" O-1918 did not have an inhibitory effect. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of cardiac CB1 but no CB2 receptors. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were detected in heart tissue. However, combined application of fatty acid amidohydrolase inhibitors and the transport inhibitor AM-404 to augment tissue levels of endocannabinoids was without effect on CF or LVSP. We conclude that in the rat isolated heart with reestablished vasoconstrictor tone, cannabinoids including anandamide elicit coronary vasodilation and a secondary increase in contractility via CB1 receptors and potassium channels.

  18. Effect of marine coral prostanoids, clavulones, on spontaneous beating rate of cultured myocardial cells from fetal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Honda, A; Hong, S; Yamada, Y; Mori, Y

    1991-06-01

    We examined effects of newly discovered marine coral prostanoids, clavulones, isolated from the Japanese stolonifer Clavularia viridis, on the spontaneous beating rate of cultured myocardial cells from fetal mouse hearts. Clavulone caused positive chronotropic action at 2-5 min after addition of clavulone (0.45 microM) to the reaction media of cardiac cells. This effect induced by clavulone was clearly different from the positive inotropic effects of ouabain (10 microM) and Bay K 8644 (0.1 microM) as judged by photoelectric recordings of beating. These results suggest a new biological action of clavulone that has positive chronotropic action on the cultured mouse myocyte preparation.

  19. Darapladib for preventing ischemic events in stable coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    White, Harvey D; Held, Claes; Stewart, Ralph; Tarka, Elizabeth; Brown, Rebekkah; Davies, Richard Y; Budaj, Andrzej; Harrington, Robert A; Steg, P Gabriel; Ardissino, Diego; Armstrong, Paul W; Avezum, Alvaro; Aylward, Philip E; Bryce, Alfonso; Chen, Hong; Chen, Ming-Fong; Corbalan, Ramon; Dalby, Anthony J; Danchin, Nicolas; De Winter, Robbert J; Denchev, Stefan; Diaz, Rafael; Elisaf, Moses; Flather, Marcus D; Goudev, Assen R; Granger, Christopher B; Grinfeld, Liliana; Hochman, Judith S; Husted, Steen; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Linhart, Ales; Lonn, Eva; López-Sendón, José; Manolis, Athanasios J; Mohler, Emile R; Nicolau, José C; Pais, Prem; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Pedersen, Terje R; Pella, Daniel; Ramos-Corrales, Marco A; Ruda, Mikhail; Sereg, Mátyás; Siddique, Saulat; Sinnaeve, Peter; Smith, Peter; Sritara, Piyamitr; Swart, Henk P; Sy, Rody G; Teramoto, Tamio; Tse, Hung-Fat; Watson, David; Weaver, W Douglas; Weiss, Robert; Viigimaa, Margus; Vinereanu, Dragos; Zhu, Junren; Cannon, Christopher P; Wallentin, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity promotes the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, and elevated plasma levels of this enzyme are associated with an increased risk of coronary events. Darapladib is a selective oral inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 15,828 patients with stable coronary heart disease to receive either once-daily darapladib (at a dose of 160 mg) or placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included the components of the primary end point as well as major coronary events (death from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or urgent coronary revascularization for myocardial ischemia) and total coronary events (death from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or any coronary revascularization). During a median follow-up period of 3.7 years, the primary end point occurred in 769 of 7924 patients (9.7%) in the darapladib group and 819 of 7904 patients (10.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the darapladib group, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.03; P=0.20). There were also no significant between-group differences in the rates of the individual components of the primary end point or in all-cause mortality. Darapladib, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of major coronary events (9.3% vs. 10.3%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.00; P=0.045) and total coronary events (14.6% vs. 16.1%; hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.98; P=0.02). In patients with stable coronary heart disease, darapladib did not significantly reduce the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; STABILITY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00799903.).

  20. 77 FR 9842 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification... phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), in a manner that is consistent with FDA's February 14... use of a health claim regarding reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) for...

  1. Simulation of the Beating Heart Based on Physically Modeling aDeformable Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-07-18

    The motion of the beating heart is complex and createsartifacts in SPECT and x-ray CT images. Phantoms such as the JaszczakDynamic Cardiac Phantom are used to simulate cardiac motion forevaluationof acquisition and data processing protocols used for cardiacimaging. Two concentric elastic membranes filled with water are connectedto tubing and pump apparatus for creating fluid flow in and out of theinner volume to simulate motion of the heart. In the present report, themovement of two concentric balloons is solved numerically in order tocreate a computer simulation of the motion of the moving membranes in theJaszczak Dynamic Cardiac Phantom. A system of differential equations,based on the physical properties, determine the motion. Two methods aretested for solving the system of differential equations. The results ofboth methods are similar providing a final shape that does not convergeto a trivial circular profile. Finally,a tomographic imaging simulationis performed by acquiring static projections of the moving shape andreconstructing the result to observe motion artifacts. Two cases aretaken into account: in one case each projection angle is sampled for ashort time interval and the other case is sampled for a longer timeinterval. The longer sampling acquisition shows a clear improvement indecreasing the tomographic streaking artifacts.

  2. Coronary heart disease mortality after irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Boivin, J.F.; Hutchison, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    The authors conducted a study designed to evaluate the hypothesis that irradiation to the heart in the treatment for Hodgkin's disease (HD) is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. This report describes 957 patients diagnosed with HD in 1942-75 and analyzes follow-up findings through December 1977. Twenty-five coronary heart disease deaths have been observed, and 4258.2 person-years of experience at risk have been accrued. The relative death rate (RDR), defined as the CHD mortality for heart-irradiated subjects divided by the mortality for nonirradiated subjects, was estimated. After adjustment for the effect of interval of observation, age, stage, and class, the RDR estimate is 1.5 but does not differ significantly from unit (95% confidence limits: 0.59, 3.7).

  3. Stress-strain behavior of mitral valve leaflets in the beating ovine heart.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Gaurav; Itoh, Akinobu; Bothe, Wolfgang; Swanson, Julia C; Kuhl, Ellen; Karlsson, Matts; Craig Miller, D; Ingels, Neil B

    2009-08-25

    Excised anterior mitral leaflets exhibit anisotropic, non-linear material behavior with pre-transitional stiffness ranging from 0.06 to 0.09 N/mm(2) and post-transitional stiffness from 2 to 9 N/mm(2). We used inverse finite element (FE) analysis to test, for the first time, whether the anterior mitral leaflet (AML), in vivo, exhibits similar non-linear behavior during isovolumic relaxation (IVR). Miniature radiopaque markers were sewn to the mitral annulus, AML, and papillary muscles in 8 sheep. Four-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopic imaging during three consecutive cardiac cycles. A FE model of the AML was developed using marker coordinates at the end of isovolumic relaxation (when pressure difference across the valve is approximately zero), as the reference state. AML displacements were simulated during IVR using measured left ventricular and atrial pressures. AML elastic moduli in the radial and circumferential directions were obtained for each heartbeat by inverse FEA, minimizing the difference between simulated and measured displacements. Stress-strain curves for each beat were obtained from the FE model at incrementally increasing transmitral pressure intervals during IVR. Linear regression of 24 individual stress-strain curves (8 hearts, 3 beats each) yielded a mean (+/-SD) linear correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.994+/-0.003 for the circumferential direction and 0.995+/-0.003 for the radial direction. Thus, unlike isolated leaflets, the AML, in vivo, operates linearly over a physiologic range of pressures in the closed mitral valve.

  4. Stress-Strain Behavior of Mitral Valve Leaflets in the Beating Ovine Heart

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Gaurav; Itoh, Akinobu; Bothe, Wolfgang; Swanson, Julia C.; Kuhl, Ellen; Karlsson, Matts; Miller, D. Craig; Ingels, Neil B.

    2009-01-01

    Excised anterior mitral leaflets exhibit anisotropic, nonlinear material behavior with pre-transitional stiffness ranging from 0.06-0.09 N/mm2 and post-transitional stiffness from 2-9 N/mm2. We used inverse finite element (FE) analysis to test, for the first time, whether the anterior mitral leaflet (AML), in vivo, exhibits similar non-linear behavior during isovolumic relaxation (IVR). Miniature radiopaque markers were sewn to the mitral annulus, AML, and papillary muscles in 8 sheep. 4-D marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopic imaging during three consecutive cardiac cycles. A FE model of the AML was developed using marker coordinates at the end of isovolumic relaxation (when pressure difference across the valve is approximately zero), as the reference state. AML displacements were simulated during IVR using measured left ventricular and atrial pressures. AML elastic moduli in the radial and circumferential directions were obtained for each heartbeat by inverse FEA, minimizing the difference between simulated and measured displacements. Stress-strain curves for each beat were obtained from the FE model at incrementally-increasing transmitral pressure intervals during IVR. Linear regression of 24 individual stress-strain curves (8 hearts, 3 beats each) yielded a mean (±SD) linear correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.994±0.003 for the circumferential direction and 0.995±0.003 for the radial direction. Thus, unlike isolated leaflets, the AML, in vivo, operates linearly over a physiologic range of pressures in the closed mitral valve. PMID:19535081

  5. Heart-Rate Dependent Improvement in Image Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography by Novel Intra-cycle Motion Correction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Iksung; Elmore, Kimberly; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Schulman-Marcus, Josh; Granser, Heidi; Valenti, Valentina; Xiong, Guanglei; Carrascosa, Patricia M; Min, James K

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of a novel intra-cycle motion correction algorithm (MCA) on diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) Methods Coronary artery phantom models were scanned at static and heart rates (HR) simulation of 60–100 beat/min and reconstructed with a conventional algorithm (CA) and MCA. Results Among 144 coronary segments, improvements in image interpretability, quality and diagnostic accuracy by MCA were observed for HRs of 80 and 100 (P<0.05 for all), but not for HR of 60. Conclusion Novel intra-cycle motion correction algorithm demonstrates improved heart-rate dependent image interpretability, and quality and accuracy, particularly at higher heart rates. PMID:25649255

  6. Diet and coronary heart disease. The National Heart Foundation of Australia.

    PubMed

    Shrapnel, W S; Calvert, G D; Nestel, P J; Truswell, A S

    1992-05-04

    Over the last four decades there has been extensive research into the links between diet and coronary heart disease. The most recent literature is reviewed in this position statement. The clinical and public health aspects of the National Heart Foundation's nutrition policy are based on this review. The key points are as follows: 1. Saturated fatty acids A high intake of saturated fatty acids is strongly associated with elevated serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and increased risk of coronary heart disease. 2. The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (principally linoleic acid) lower serum cholesterol levels when substituted for saturated fats and probably have an independent cholesterol-lowering effect. 3. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce serum triglyceride levels, decrease the tendency to thrombosis and may further reduce coronary risk through other mechanisms. 4. Monounsaturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids reduce serum cholesterol levels when substituted for saturated fatty acids. It is not clear whether this is an independent effect or simply the result of displacement of saturates. 5. Trans fatty acids Trans fatty acids may increase serum cholesterol levels and can be reckoned to be equivalent to saturated fatty acids. 6. Total fat Total fat intake, independent of fatty acid type, is not strongly associated with coronary heart disease but may contribute to obesity. Associations between total fat intake and coronary heart disease are primarily mediated through the saturated fatty acid component. 7. Dietary cholesterol Dietary cholesterol increases serum cholesterol levels in some people and may increase risk of coronary heart disease. 8. Alcohol A high intake of alcohol increases blood pressure and serum triglyceride levels and increases mortality from cardiovascular disease. Light alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. 9

  7. Atypical Double Right Coronary Artery Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome, Cardiogenic Shock and Complete Heart Block

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Shravan; Chaturvedi, Vikash; Agrawal, Puneet; Razi, Mahmadula; Mahrotra, Anupam; Mishra, Vikas; Kumar, Mukesh; Abdali, Nasar; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Thakur, Ramesh; Varma, Chandra Mohan; Pandey, Umeshwar

    2017-01-01

    Double right coronary artery (RCA) is an extremely rare coronary artery anomaly. We here report an atherosclerotic double RCA which appeared after primary percutaneous intervention performed to treat a 34-year-old male presenting with acute inferior myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock and complete heart block. This is an unusual case as double RCA had been hidden by total atherosclerotic occlusion of the proximal part of the RCA and complete restoration of patency led complete heart block back to normal sinus rhythm. PMID:28179971

  8. Preventing clinically evident coronary heart disease in the postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes data on the prevalent coronary heart disease risk factors of postmenopausal women and the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies available for preventing or treating them. Medline searches from 1966 on were used to identify manuscripts for coronary heart disease risk factor information, lipid levels as predictors of cardiovascular disease in women, non-pharmacologic therapies, side effects of statins, and lipid-lowering trials that included women and had myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease death as endpoints. Dyslipidemias that occur with menopause are particularly atherogenic and tend to cluster with other metabolic and nonmetabolic risk factors. Estrogen therapy, with or without progestogen, can no longer be recommended for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Statins have been effective in reducing cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality and should be first-line therapy for lipid-lowering. A considerable number of women look to obstetricians-gynecologists for primary care. For postmenopausal women especially, primary care must include management of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Estrogen or estrogen plus progestin should be used only for symptomatic hot flashes and at the lowest dose possible. Statins should be first-line therapy in preventive strategies for lipid-lowering.

  9. Dyslipidaemia and coronary heart disease: nature vs nurture.

    PubMed

    Hegele, R A

    In order to enhance health care for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), genetic markers of susceptibility could be incorporated into a formula for risk evaluation that includes traditional factors. Preventive measures could then be targeted towards 'high-risk' subjects. But can the genetic component be dissected from the environmental component in an intermediate CHD phenotype, such as plasma lipoproteins.

  10. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  11. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  12. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  13. Ivabradine, coronary artery disease, and heart failure: beyond rhythm control

    PubMed Central

    Scicchitano, Pietro; Cortese, Francesca; Ricci, Gabriella; Carbonara, Santa; Moncelli, Michele; Iacoviello, Massimo; Cecere, Annagrazia; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Caldarola, Pasquale; Scrutinio, Domenico; Lagioia, Rocco; Riccioni, Graziano; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Elevated heart rate could negatively influence cardiovascular risk in the general population. It can induce and promote the atherosclerotic process by means of several mechanisms involving endothelial shear stress and biochemical activities. Furthermore, elevated heart rate can directly increase heart ischemic conditions because of its skill in unbalancing demand/supply of oxygen and decreasing the diastolic period. Thus, many pharmacological treatments have been proposed in order to reduce heart rate and ameliorate the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals, especially those suffering from coronary artery diseases (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is the first pure heart rate reductive drug approved and currently used in humans, created in order to selectively reduce sinus node function and to overcome the many side effects of similar pharmacological tools (ie, β-blockers or calcium channel antagonists). The aim of our review is to evaluate the role and the safety of this molecule on CAD and CHF therapeutic strategies. PMID:24940047

  14. Low intensity physical conditioning: effects on patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, B A; Besseghini, I; Golden, L H

    1978-06-01

    The effects of 12 weeks of low intensity physical conditioning on serum lipid levels, body composition, and cardiorespiratory function were studied among patients with coronary heart disease. Twenty-three men, 45 to 59 years old, volunteered to participate. Three were excluded for medical reasons, and one voluntarily discontinued exercise. The conditioning program included a 10-minute warmup, 15 to 30 minutes of walking-jogging at an individually prescribed intensity corresponding to 70% to 75% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), and a 5-minute recovery period. The conditioning resulted in a decrease (p less than 0.05) in heart rate and blood pressure during standard submaximal work (200 kg/m/min). Maximal heart rate increased (p less than 0.05) by five beats per minute. Symptom-limited maximal oxygen uptake increased 12.8% (p less than 0.001) when expressed per unit body weight. Body weight remained essentially unchanged (-0.34 kg), while fat-free weight and fat weight increased (+0.68 kg, p less than 0.05) and decreased (-1.02 kg, p less than 0.05), respectively. Serum lipid levels remained unaffected by the conditioning regimen. Low intensity exercise is effective in cardiac reconditioning and should be favored at least during the initial stages of a training regimen in view of the decreased orthopedic problems, added safety, high adherence level and tolerable working rate.

  15. [The Roman coronary heart disease prevention program. Final results].

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    The Rome Project of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention (PPCC) is a primary prevention trial of coronary heart disease; it represents the Italian section of the WHO European Multifactor Preventive Trial of CHD. The study has been carried out in 4 working groups of male subjects aged 40-59 years at entry, two groups (a total of 3,131 men) being assigned to treatment and the other two (a total of 2,896 men) to control, with a 6-year follow-up. The preventive intervention aimed at reducing or modifying: mean levels of serum cholesterol (generally through dietary prescriptions and, in a smaller number of subjects, with drug treatment), smoking habits (subjects were advised to reduce or stop smoking); overweight (by means of diet); sedentary life-style (with increased physical activity). The intervention program has also involved other factors such as high levels of serum triglycerides, blood glucose and serum uric acid. The treatment was carried out through individual sessions on about one third of subjects belonging to the upper part of an estimated coronary risk score, while mass education was administered to the remaining two thirds. No intervention at all was offered to the control groups. Changes in the levels of risk factors were measured through periodical examinations of the whole population enrolled in the trial. Monitoring of both fatal and non fatal morbid events provided data on mortality and incidence trends. Over the 6 years of follow-up, the mean reduction in the mean levels of the main coronary risk factors in treated groups, as compared to controls, was as follows: serum cholesterol: 4.8%; systolic blood pressure: 4.6%; number of cigarettes per day: 8.7%; body weight: 2.4%; estimated coronary risk: 38.9%. At the end of the 6 years of observation, mortality for all causes was lower by 6.0% to 10.7% in treated groups than in controls; mortality for coronary heart disease was also lower (by 26.8% to 30.2%), as well as the incidence of fatal plus non

  16. Managing the lipid profile of coronary heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Drakopoulou, Maria; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Synetos, Andreas; Trantalis, George; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    Lipid profile management is even more critical in patients treated for secondary prevention, since patients with established coronary heart disease are at higher risk of developing events. Current guidelines encourage lifestyle modification and patient engagement in disease prevention. However, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines seem to differ considerably from their predecessors, having an impact on clinical practice of lipid management. Area covered: This review article discusses and provides a summary of the current recommendations for lipid profile management in patients with coronary heart disease, with a view to present lifestyle modification and novel treatment strategies, and to indicate areas of dispute among recent guidelines. Expert commentary: Existing controversies between current guidelines concerning treatment goals and therapeutic decisions may have potential implications on the clinical management of patients. In the meantime, we eagerly wait for the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating promising, potent, safe and prolonged drugs that are in progress.

  17. Ethical and legal issues in non-heart-beating organ donation.

    PubMed

    Bos, Michael A

    2005-05-15

    Procurement of kidneys and livers from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) raises ethical and legal issues that need to be considered before wider use of these donors is undertaken. Although NHBDs were used in kidney transplantation as early as the 1960s, retrieval of these organs is not universally accepted today. From a medical point of view, these organs were considered "marginal" because the majority showed delayed or impaired function early after implantation. Legal problems relate to determination of death on cardiopulmonary criteria, the issue of valid consent, and the use of preservation measures. Among ethical issues involved are observance of the dead-donor rule, decisions with respect to resuscitation and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, respect for the dying patient and the dead body, and proper guidance of the family. In The Netherlands NHB donation was pioneered by the Maastricht Centre as early as 1981. Today, all seven transplant centers procure and transplant these organs, and NHBDs have become an important source of transplantable kidneys and livers. Recent legislation in The Netherlands also supports NHB donation by allowing the use of organ-preserving measures, even in the absence of family consent. As a result, one of every three kidneys transplanted in The Netherlands in 2004 derives from a NHBD. This article explores Dutch NHBD practice, protocols, and results and compares these data internationally.

  18. Ultrasound based mitral valve annulus tracking for off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng P.; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve cannot close properly during systole. The NeoChordtool aims to repair MR by implanting artificial chordae tendineae on flail leaflets inside the beating heart, without a cardiopulmonary bypass. Image guidance is crucial for such a procedure due to the lack of direct vision of the targets or instruments. While this procedure is currently guided solely by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), our previous work has demonstrated that guidance safety and efficiency can be significantly improved by employing augmented virtuality to provide virtual presentation of mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tools integrated with real time ultrasound image data. However, real-time mitral annulus tracking remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe an image-based approach to rapidly track MVA points on 2D/biplane TEE images. This approach is composed of two components: an image-based phasing component identifying images at optimal cardiac phases for tracking, and a registration component updating the coordinates of MVA points. Preliminary validation has been performed on porcine data with an average difference between manually and automatically identified MVA points of 2.5mm. Using a parallelized implementation, this approach is able to track the mitral valve at up to 10 images per second.

  19. Safety and efficacy of oral ivabradine as a heart rate-reducing agent in patients undergoing CT coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Adile, K K; Kapoor, A; Jain, S K; Gupta, A; Kumar, S; Tewari, S; Garg, N; Goel, P K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of oral ivabradine as a heart rate reducing agent in patients undergoing CT coronary angiography (CTCA). Despite the routine use of β-blockers prior to CTCA studies, it is not uncommon to have patients with heart rates persistently above the target range of 65 bpm. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the If current, which primarily contributes to sinus node pacemaker activity, and has no significant direct cardiovascular effects such as reduction of blood pressure, cardiac contractility or impairment of cardiac conduction. Methods We investigated 100 consecutive patients who had been referred for CTCA for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomised to receive either of the following two pre-medication protocols: oral metorprolol or oral ivabradine. Results Ivabradine was significantly more effective than metorprolol in lowering the heart rate; the mean percentage reduction in heart rate with ivabradine vs metorpolol was 23.89+6.95% vs 15.20+4.50%, respectively (p=0.0001). Metoprolol significantly lowered both systolic and diastolic blood pressure while ivabradine did not. The requirement of additional doses to achieve a target heart rate of <65 beats per min was also significantly more frequent with metoprolol. Conclusion Ivabradine is a potentially attractive alternative to currently used drugs for reduction of heart rate in patients undergoing CTCA. PMID:22815422

  20. Beating heart on a chip: a novel microfluidic platform to generate functional 3D cardiac microtissues.

    PubMed

    Marsano, Anna; Conficconi, Chiara; Lemme, Marta; Occhetta, Paola; Gaudiello, Emanuele; Votta, Emiliano; Cerino, Giulia; Redaelli, Alberto; Rasponi, Marco

    2016-02-07

    In the past few years, microfluidic-based technology has developed microscale models recapitulating key physical and biological cues typical of the native myocardium. However, the application of controlled physiological uniaxial cyclic strains on a defined three-dimension cellular environment is not yet possible. Two-dimension mechanical stimulation was particularly investigated, neglecting the complex three-dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. For this purpose, we developed a heart-on-a-chip platform, which recapitulates the physiologic mechanical environment experienced by cells in the native myocardium. The device includes an array of hanging posts to confine cell-laden gels, and a pneumatic actuation system to induce homogeneous uniaxial cyclic strains to the 3D cell constructs during culture. The device was used to generate mature and highly functional micro-engineered cardiac tissues (μECTs), from both neonatal rat and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM), strongly suggesting the robustness of our engineered cardiac micro-niche. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic strain was effectively highly uniaxial and uniformly transferred to cells in culture. As compared to control, stimulated μECTs showed superior cardiac differentiation, as well as electrical and mechanical coupling, owing to a remarkable increase in junction complexes. Mechanical stimulation also promoted early spontaneous synchronous beating and better contractile capability in response to electric pacing. Pacing analyses of hiPSC-CM constructs upon controlled administration of isoprenaline showed further promising applications of our platform in drug discovery, delivery and toxicology fields. The proposed heart-on-a-chip device represents a relevant step forward in the field, providing a standard functional three-dimensional cardiac model to possibly predict signs of hypertrophic changes in cardiac phenotype by mechanical and biochemical co-stimulation.

  1. [Isovolemic hemodilution in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Kiesewetter, H; Erlenwein, S; Jung, F; Wenzel, E; Vogel, W; Dyckmans, J; Bach, R; Hahmann, H; Schieffer, H; Bette, L

    1988-01-01

    In the age of cellsavers patients suffering from coronary heart disease are diluted to a hematocrit of 20% or even less during a surgical intervention in the coronaries and they leave the operating room with a hematocrit of 30%. On the other hand, a hemodilution to a level of 30% in patients with coronary heart disease represents a contraindication due to the limited coronary reserve. On the occasion of the collection of autologue blood, before vascular surgery or for therapeutical hemodilution, the hematocrit was reduced from 45 to 35% by means of an isovolemic hemodilution with 500 ml of Haes 200/0.5 10% in 50 patients. In the load-ECG the pressure X frequency-product and the dyspnoe decreased significantly. The microcirculation in the nailfold and the systemical blood fluidity increased significantly. As in 22% of the patients a deterioration was stated, we propose to dilute all the patients who have to undergo a coronary vessel operation without exclusion criteria once isovolemically and to stress them before and afterwards. The patients having a clinical defict should be diluted intraoperatively only to 30% and postoperatively not under 35%.

  2. On-pump beating heart mitral valve repair in patients with patent bypass grafts and severe ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Atoui, Rony; Bittira, Bindu; Morin, Jean E; Cecere, Renzo

    2009-07-01

    Re-operative mitral valve surgery in patients with poor ventricular function can be challenging especially in the presence of patent bypass grafts. We report the case of 11 patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy who underwent reoperative mitral valve repair through a limited right thoracotomy approach, on a non-fibrillating beating heart. All patients had their valves successfully repaired with no operative mortality and minimal morbidity. The technical aspects of the procedure are discussed, and the pertinent literature reviewed.

  3. Job Dissatisfaction and Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Based on the psychosocial factor that life dissatisfactions may be associated with physical illnesses, this research examines the relationship between job dissatisfaction and its causal link to premature death from heart disease. (Author/RK)

  4. Coffee consumption and the incidence of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, A Z; Mead, L A; Liang, K Y; Thomas, C B; Pearson, T A

    1986-10-16

    We conducted a prospective investigation of the effect of coffee consumption on coronary heart disease in 1130 male medical students who were followed for 19 to 35 years. Changes in coffee consumption and cigarette smoking during follow-up were examined in relation to the incidence of clinically evident coronary disease in comparisons of three measures of coffee intake--base-line intake, average intake, and most recent intake reported before the manifestation of coronary disease. Clinical evidence of coronary disease included myocardial infarction, angina, and sudden cardiac death. In separate analyses for each measure of coffee intake, the relative risks for men drinking five or more cups of coffee per day, as compared with nondrinkers, were approximately 2.80 for all three measures in the univariate analyses (maximum width of 95 percent confidence intervals, 1.27 to 6.51). After adjustment for age, current smoking, hypertension status, and base-line level of serum cholesterol, the estimated relative risk for men drinking five or more cups of coffee per day (using the most recent coffee intake measure), as compared with those drinking none, was 2.49 (maximum width of 95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 5.77). The association between coffee and coronary disease was strongest when the time between the reports of coffee intake and the coronary event was shortest. These findings support an independent, dose-responsive association of coffee consumption with clinically evident coronary heart disease, which is consistent with a twofold to threefold elevation in risk among heavy coffee drinkers.

  5. Analysis of Coronary Vessels in Cleared Embryonic Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Ivins, Sarah; Roberts, Catherine; Vernay, Bertrand; Scambler, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Whole mount visualization of the embryonic coronary plexus from which the capillary and arterial networks will form is rendered problematic using standard microscopy techniques, due to the scattering of imaging light by the thick heart tissue, as these vessels are localized deep within the walls of the developing heart. As optical clearing of tissues using organic solvents such as BABB (1 part benzyl alcohol to 2 parts benzyl benzoate) has been shown to greatly improve the optical penetration depth that can be achieved, we combined clearance of whole, PECAM1-immunostained hearts, with laser-scanning confocal microscopy, in order to obtain high-resolution images of vessels throughout the entire heart. BABB clearance of embryonic hearts takes place rapidly and also acts to preserve the fluorescent signal for several weeks; in addition, samples can be imaged multiple times without loss of signal. This straightforward method is also applicable to imaging other types of blood vessels in whole embryos. PMID:28060348

  6. Analysis of Coronary Vessels in Cleared Embryonic Hearts.

    PubMed

    Ivins, Sarah; Roberts, Catherine; Vernay, Bertrand; Scambler, Peter J

    2016-12-07

    Whole mount visualization of the embryonic coronary plexus from which the capillary and arterial networks will form is rendered problematic using standard microscopy techniques, due to the scattering of imaging light by the thick heart tissue, as these vessels are localized deep within the walls of the developing heart. As optical clearing of tissues using organic solvents such as BABB (1 part benzyl alcohol to 2 parts benzyl benzoate) has been shown to greatly improve the optical penetration depth that can be achieved, we combined clearance of whole, PECAM1-immunostained hearts, with laser-scanning confocal microscopy, in order to obtain high-resolution images of vessels throughout the entire heart. BABB clearance of embryonic hearts takes place rapidly and also acts to preserve the fluorescent signal for several weeks; in addition, samples can be imaged multiple times without loss of signal. This straightforward method is also applicable to imaging other types of blood vessels in whole embryos.

  7. Pathophysiology, assessment and treatment of coronary heart disease in women.

    PubMed

    Malecki-Ketchell, Alison

    2017-05-31

    Despite improvements in mortality rates, coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to be a leading cause of death in the UK. It has a long-standing reputation as a 'male disease', and although there has been an increased interest in and awareness of the disease, CHD in women remains understudied, under-diagnosed and undertreated. This article discusses the apparent disparity in pathophysiology, symptom presentation, risk factor profile, assessment, management and outcomes between men and women in relation to CHD and acute coronary syndrome, which is an acute manifestation of CHD.

  8. A mitral annulus tracking approach for navigation of off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng P; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a real-time mitral valve annulus (MVA) tracking approach based on biplane transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data and magnetic tracking systems (MTS) to be used in minimally invasive off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair (MVR). The authors' guidance system consists of three major components: TEE, magnetic tracking system, and an image guidance software platform. TEE provides real-time intraoperative images to show the cardiac motion and intracardiac surgical tools. The magnetic tracking system tracks the TEE probe and the surgical tools. The software platform integrates the TEE image planes and the virtual model of the tools and the MVA model on the screen. The authors' MVA tracking approach, which aims to update the MVA model in near real-time, comprises of three steps: image based gating, predictive reinitialization, and registration based MVA tracking. The image based gating step uses a small patch centered at each MVA point in the TEE images to identify images at optimal cardiac phases for updating the position of the MVA. The predictive reinitialization step uses the position and orientation of the TEE probe provided by the magnetic tracking system to predict the position of the MVA points in the TEE images and uses them for the initialization of the registration component. The registration based MVA tracking step aims to locate the MVA points in the images selected by the image based gating component by performing image based registration. The validation of the MVA tracking approach was performed in a phantom study and a retrospective study on porcine data. In the phantom study, controlled translations were applied to the phantom and the tracked MVA was compared to its "true" position estimated based on a magnetic sensor attached to the phantom. The MVA tracking accuracy was 1.29 ± 0.58 mm when the translation distance is about 1 cm, and increased to 2.85 ± 1.19 mm when the translation distance is about 3 cm. In the study on

  9. Seasonality and Coronary Heart Disease Deaths in United States Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Mbanu, Ibeawuchi; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Peeples, Lynne; Stallings, Leonard A.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2013-01-01

    United States firefighters have a high on-duty fatality rate and coronary heart disease is the leading cause. Seasonality affects the incidence of cardiovascular events in the general population, but its effects on firefighters are unknown. We statistically examined the seasonal and annual variation of all on-duty coronary heart disease deaths among US firefighters between 1994 and 2004 using the chi-square distribution and Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts. We also examined the effect of ambient temperature (apparent as well as wind chill temperature) on coronary heart disease fatalities during the study span using a time-stratified, case-crossover study design. When grouped by season, we observed the distribution of the 449 coronary heart disease fatalities to show a relative peak in winter (32%) and relative nadir in spring (21%). This pattern was significantly different (p=0.005) from the expected distribution under the null hypothesis where season has no effect. The pattern persisted in additional analyses, stratifying the deaths by the type of duty in which the firefighters were engaged at the time of their deaths. In the Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts, the overall goodness-of-fit between the actual and predicted case counts was excellent ( χ42 = 16.63; p = 0.002). Two distinct peaks were detected, one in January-February and the other in August-September. Overall, temperature was not associated with increased risk of on-duty death. After allowing for different effects of temperature in mild/hot versus cold periods, a 1°C increase was not protective in cold weather, nor did it increase the risk of death in warmer weather. The findings of this study reveal statistical evidence for excess coronary heart disease deaths among firefighters during winter; however, the temporal pattern coronary heart disease deaths was not linked to temperature variation. We also found the seasonal pattern to be independent of duty

  10. Cannabinoids and atherosclerotic coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Singla, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2012-06-01

    Marijuana is the most abused recreational drug in the United States. Cannabinoids, the active ingredients of marijuana, affect multiple organ systems in the human body. The pharmacologic effects of marijuana, based on stimulation of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, which are widely distributed in the cardiovascular system, have been well described. Activation of these receptors modulates the function of various cellular elements of the vessel wall, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Clinically, there are reports linking marijuana smoking to the precipitation of angina and acute coronary syndromes. Recently, large published clinical trials with CB1 antagonist rimonabant did not show any significant benefit of this agent in preventing progression of atherosclerosis. In light of these findings and emerging data on multiple pathways linking cannabinoids to atherosclerosis, we discuss the literature on the role of cannabinoids in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. We also propose a marijuana paradox, which implies that inhalation of marijuana may be linked to precipitation of acute coronary syndromes, but modulation of the endocannabinoid system by a noninhalation route may have a salutary effect on the development of atherosclerosis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of percutaneous coronary intervention on heart rate recovery in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Aibin; Niu, Lili; Li, Junxia

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on heart rate recovery (HRR) in patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease, and to search for a noninvasive method for evaluating the effect of revascularization. From June 2012 to July 2013, 56 consecutive male patients with coronary artery disease were enrolled in the PCI group. Correspondingly, in the control group there were 56 consecutive male patients with chest pain but a normal coronary artery verified by angiography. The exercise treadmill test was performed 3 days before and 7 days after intervention in the PCI group, and 3 days before angiography in the control group. The peak heart rate, metabolic equivalents, and the Duke score were notably lower in the PCI group before intervention compared with the control group (P<0.01). In contrast, preintervention ST depression in the PCI group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). Preintervention HRR values from 1 to 6 min were much lower in the PCI group compared with the control group (P<0.01). HRR values from 1 to 6 min in the PCI group post intervention increased significantly compared with preintervention HRR values (P<0.01), especially at 3, 4, 5, and 6 min. HRR values at 1, 2, and 3 min increased sharply post intervention. Successful revascularization through PCI could improve HRR in patients with major coronary artery involvement. Moreover, HRR measurement may be used as a noninvasive method for evaluating the effect of revascularization.

  12. The Counselor and Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottens, Allen J.

    1977-01-01

    It is clear that steps can be taken for heart disease prevention and that counselors must give thought to adapting existing ideas and techniques and to developing and experimenting with new and innovative preventive tactics. Of utmost importance is the belief that behavioral intervention is both warranted and worthwhile. (Author)

  13. The Counselor and Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottens, Allen J.

    1977-01-01

    It is clear that steps can be taken for heart disease prevention and that counselors must give thought to adapting existing ideas and techniques and to developing and experimenting with new and innovative preventive tactics. Of utmost importance is the belief that behavioral intervention is both warranted and worthwhile. (Author)

  14. 21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of coronary heart disease. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease is the most common and serious form of cardiovascular disease and refers...

  15. 21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of coronary heart disease. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease is the most common and serious form of cardiovascular disease and refers...

  16. 21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of coronary heart disease. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease is the most common and serious form of cardiovascular disease and refers...

  17. Coronary flow reserve in hypertensive patients with hypercholesterolemia and without coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Maurizio; de Simone, Giovanni; Cicala, Silvana; Parisi, Michele; D'Errico, Arcangelo; Innelli, Pasquale; de Divitiis, Marcello; Mondillo, Sergio; de Divitiis, Oreste

    2007-02-01

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) may be reduced both in arterial hypertension and in hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the study was to assess an association between CFR and levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC) in untreated arterial hypertension. We studied 54 consecutive, untreated hypertensive outpatients free of coronary heart disease. Twenty of them had normal TC and 34 high TC (>/=200 mg/dL). Standard echocardiograms and transthoracic Doppler interrogation of the distal left anterior descending artery were obtained. Coronary diastolic peak velocities were measured both at rest and after low-dose dipyridamole. The CFR was calculated as dipyridamole/resting velocities ratio. The two groups had similar age, body mass index, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure (BP). Patients with high TC had higher systolic BP (P < .05), triglycerides (P < .02), LDL-cholesterol, and TC/HDL-cholesterol ratio (both P < .0001) than controls. Left ventricular (LV) mass index, relative wall thickness, and fractional shortening did not differ between the two groups. Coronary diastolic peak velocities were similar at rest but lower after dipyridamole in patients with high TC (P < .02). As a consequence, CFR was reduced (P < .002). In multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for age, heart rate, systolic BP, smoking, and relative wall thickness, TC (beta = -0.338) or high LDL-cholesterol (beta = -0.301) (both P < .001) were predictors of lower CFR independently of the concomitant effect of potential confounders. In hypertensive patients free of coronary artery disease, the degree of impairment in coronary vasodilator capacity is independently associated with plasma cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol.

  18. Coronary heart disease in women: triglycerides and lipoprotein biology.

    PubMed

    Dayspring, Thomas D

    2002-01-01

    An examination of coronary heart disease in women over the past two decades in the United States reveals a disturbing gender difference that points to more treatment success in men than in women, which raises the question as to whether women have been as aggressively evaluated and treated. It is only over the last several years that evidence from randomized clinical trials on coronary heart disease etiology and treatment in women has become available. In addition, the previous widely held viewpoint that estrogen is cardioprotective and should be an integral part of pharmacologic therapy has been abandoned. Triglycerides and their very important influence on lipoproteins have emerged as a critical part of the pathobiological forces related to atherothrombosis in women.

  19. The use of non-heart-beating donors for isolated pancreatic islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Markmann, James F; Deng, Shaoping; Desai, Niraj M; Huang, Xiaolun; Velidedeoglu, Ergun; Frank, Adam; Liu, Chengyang; Brayman, Kenneth L; Lian, Moh Moh; Wolf, Bryan; Bell, Ewan; Vitamaniuk, Marko; Doliba, Nicolai; Matschinsky, Franz; Markmann, Eileen; Barker, Clyde F; Naji, Ali

    2003-05-15

    Recent improvements in isolated islet transplantation indicate that this therapy may ultimately prove applicable to patients with type I diabetes. An obstacle preventing widespread application of islet transplantation is an insufficient supply of cadaveric pancreata. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) are generally not deemed suitable for whole-organ pancreas donation and could provide a significant source of pancreata for islet transplantation. Isolated pancreatic islets prepared from 10 NHBDs were compared with those procured from 10 brain-dead donors (BDDs). The success of the isolation for the two groups was analyzed for preparation purity, quality, and recovered islet mass. The function of NHBD and BDD islets was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo assays. On the basis of the results of this analysis, an NHBD isolated islet allograft was performed in a type I diabetic. The recovery of islets from NHBDs was comparable to that of control BDDs. In vitro assessment of NHBD islet function revealed function-equivalent BDD islets, and NHBD islets transplanted to non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice efficiently reversed diabetes. Transplantation of 446,320 islet equivalents (IEq) (8,500 IEq/kg of recipient body weight) from a single NHBD successfully reversed the diabetes of a type I diabetic recipient. Normally functioning pancreatic islets can be isolated successfully from NHBDs. A single donor transplant from an NHBD resulted in a state of stable insulin independence in a type I diabetic recipient. These results indicate that NHBDs may provide an as yet untapped source of pancreatic tissue for preparation of isolated islets for clinical transplantation.

  20. Canine bilateral lung transplantation after 18-hour preservation using non-heart-beating donors.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hideyuki; Date, Hiroshi; Aoe, Motoi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    We previously reported that lung inflation with oxygen, EPC-K1 (a diester alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid), urokinase and low-potassium dextran glucose (LPDG) solution can be beneficial in lung preservation. In the present study, a canine bilateral lung transplantation (BLT) model was used to evaluate long-term lung preservation of non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs). Animals were euthanized without heparinization and left at room temperature for 2 hours until lung extraction. After cardiac arrest, the lungs were kept inflated with 100% oxygen. After extraction, the donor lungs were flushed with LPDG solution containing EPC-K1 (1.0 mg/liter), followed by injection of urokinase (120,000 IU) into the pulmonary artery. Eighteen BLTs were performed after preservation at 4 degrees C. Total ischemic time was scheduled for 12 hours in Group 1 (n = 6), 18 hours in Group 2 (n = 6) and 24 hours in Group 3 (n = 6). After BLT, recipients were followed up for 6 hours. An additional 6 BLTs were performed as a chronic study in the same setting as for Group 2. All animals in Groups 1 and 2 showed excellent pulmonary function during the 6-hour post-transplant assessment time, in contrast to only 2 dogs from Group 3. In the chronic study, all 6 animals showed excellent pulmonary function for 24 hours (PaO2 = 528 +/- 8 mm Hg with 100% oxygen) and 2 of them survived for >1 week. Successful chronic lung preservation (18 hours) using NHBDs is achievable in a canine BLT model.

  1. Diabetes is a predictor of coronary artery stenosis in patients hospitalized with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kosuga, Tsuneharu; Komukai, Kimiaki; Miyanaga, Satoru; Kubota, Takeyuki; Nakata, Kotaro; Suzuki, Kenichiro; Yamada, Takayuki; Yoshida, Jun; Kimura, Haruka; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-05-01

    In patients with heart failure, coronary artery disease is the most common underlying heart disease, and is associated with increased mortality. However, estimating the presence or absence of coronary artery disease in patients with heart failure is sometimes difficult without coronary imaging. We reviewed 155 consecutive patients hospitalized with heart failure who underwent coronary angiography. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with (N = 59) and without (N = 96) coronary artery stenosis. The clinical characteristics and blood sampling data were compared between the two groups. The patients with coronary artery stenosis were older than those without. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and a history of revascularization was higher in the patients with coronary artery stenosis. Patients with coronary artery stenosis tended to have wall motion asynergy more frequently than those without. On the other hand, the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) was lower in patients with coronary artery stenosis. The serum hemoglobin level and estimated glomerular filtration rate were lower in patients with coronary artery stenosis than in those without. In the multivariate analysis, DM (odds ratio 3.517, 95 % CI 1.601-7.727) was found to be the only the predictor of the presence of coronary artery stenosis in patients with heart failure. In conclusion, coronary imaging is strongly recommended for heart failure patients with DM to confirm the presence of coronary artery stenosis.

  2. Physical activity and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Froelicher, V; Battler, A; McKirnan, M D

    1980-01-01

    This review deals with more recent investigations of the health benefit of regular aerobic exercise including studies in: epidemiology, echocardiography, animal research, and cardiac rehabilitation. Recent epidemiological studies support the preventative aspects of exercise in apparently healthy individuals. Echocardiographic studies suggest morphologic changes in young individuals. Recent animal research confirms previous results as well as documenting improvment in cardiac function even under hypoxic and ischemic conditions. Studies of cardiac rehabilitation suggest that medically supervised programs do not improve or worsen morbidity and mortality. The question of whether exercise training can cause cardiac effects in patients with coronary disease rather than just improve the response of the peripheral circulation to exercise may be answered using newer radionuclide techniques.

  3. Association between resting heart rate and coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongfeng; Wang, Weijing; Li, Fang

    2016-10-18

    Resting heart rate is linked to risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess these associations in general populations and in populations of patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus. We searched PubMed, Embase and MEDLINE from inception to Mar. 5, 2016. We used a random-effects model to combine study-specific relative risks (RRs). We used restricted cubic splines to assess the dose-response relation. We included 45 nonrandomized prospective cohort studies in the meta-analysis. The multivariable adjusted RR with an increment of 10 beats/min in resting heart rate was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.14) for coronary artery disease, 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.08) for stroke, 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.24) for sudden death, 1.16 (95% CI 1.12-1.21) for noncardiovascular diseases, 1.09 (95% CI 1.06-1.12) for all types of cancer and 1.25 (95% CI 1.17-1.34) for noncardiovascular diseases excluding cancer. All of these relations were linear. In an analysis by category of resting heart rate (< 60 [reference], 60-70, 70-80 and > 80 beats/min), the RRs were 0.99 (95% CI 0.93-1.04), 1.08 (95% CI 1.01-1.16) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.19-1.43), respectively, for coronary artery disease; 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.19), 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.93-1.25), respectively, for stroke; and 1.17 (95% CI 0.94-1.46), 1.31 (95% CI 1.12-1.54) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.39-1.77), respectively, for noncardiovascular diseases. After excluding studies involving patients with hypertension or diabetes, we obtained similar results for coronary artery disease, stroke and noncardiovascular diseases, but found no association with sudden death. Resting heart rate was an independent predictor of coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases over all of the studies combined. When the analysis included only studies concerning general populations, resting heart rate was not associated with sudden

  4. Kennedy Space Center Coronary Heart Disease Risk Screening Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.; Scarpa, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the number one cause of death in the U.S. It is a likely cause of death and disability in the lives of employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as well. The KSC Biomedical Office used a multifactorial formula developed by the Framingham Heart Study to calculate CHD risk probabilities for individuals in a segment of the KSC population who require medical evaluation for job certification. Those individuals assessed to have a high risk probability will be targeted for intervention.

  5. The paediatrician's responsibility for the prevention of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, O. H.

    1978-01-01

    A strong case exists in favour of encouraging children not to smoke, to be reasonably physically active and to eat in moderation to avoid obesity. The principal role of the paediatrician is in the education of health personnel who are in a position to influence children and their families to adopt these measures. Paediatricians will also be involved with children at special risk of ischaemic heart disease. They have a responsibility to promote reasearch to determine the efficacy of these measures in the prevention of coronary heart disease. PMID:652691

  6. The paediatrician's responsibility for the prevention of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, O H

    1978-03-01

    A strong case exists in favour of encouraging children not to smoke, to be reasonably physically active and to eat in moderation to avoid obesity. The principal role of the paediatrician is in the education of health personnel who are in a position to influence children and their families to adopt these measures. Paediatricians will also be involved with children at special risk of ischaemic heart disease. They have a responsibility to promote reasearch to determine the efficacy of these measures in the prevention of coronary heart disease.

  7. Kennedy Space Center Coronary Heart Disease Risk Screening Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.; Scarpa, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the number one cause of death in the U.S. It is a likely cause of death and disability in the lives of employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as well. The KSC Biomedical Office used a multifactorial formula developed by the Framingham Heart Study to calculate CHD risk probabilities for individuals in a segment of the KSC population who require medical evaluation for job certification. Those individuals assessed to have a high risk probability will be targeted for intervention.

  8. Cost effectiveness of statins in coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Franco, O.; Peeters, A.; Looman, C.; Bonneux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Statin therapy reduces the rate of coronary heart disease, but high costs in combination with a large population eligible for treatment ask for priority setting. Although trials agree on the size of the benefit, economic analyses of statins report contradictory results. This article reviewed cost effectiveness analyses of statins and sought to synthesise cost effectiveness ratios for categories of risk of coronary heart disease and age. Methods: The review searched for studies comparing statins with no treatment for the prevention of either cardiovascular or coronary heart disease in men and presenting cost per years of life saved as outcome. Estimates were extracted, standardised for calendar year and currency, and stratified by categories of risk, age, and funding source Results: 24 studies were included (from 50 retrieved), yielding 216 cost effectiveness ratios. Estimated ratios increase with decreasing risk. After stratification by risk, heterogeneity of ratios is large varying from savings to $59 000 per life year saved in the highest risk category and from $6500 to $490 000 in the lowest category. The pooled estimates show values of $21571 per life year saved for a 10 year coronary heart disease risk of 20% and $16862 per life year saved for 10 year risk of 30%. Conclusion: Statin therapy is cost effective for high levels of risk, but inconsistencies exist at lower levels. Although the cost effectiveness of statins depends mainly on absolute risk, important heterogeneity remains after adjusting for absolute risk. Economic analyses need to increase their transparency to reduce their vulnerability to bias and increase their reproducibility. PMID:16234419

  9. Cardiotachometer with linear beat-to-beat frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Pope, J. M.; Smith, D. B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cardiotachometer detects and displays the human heart rate during physiological studies. It provides linear response to the heart rate, records heart rate during rest and under heavy stress, provides a beat-to-beat indication of changes in heart rate, and is relatively free of interfering signals from activities other than the heart rate.

  10. Study of Anxiety/Depression in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, PeiYing

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to study the involvement of anxiety/depression in patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention. Inpatients in the Department of Cardiology of Xuzhou Center Hospital from December 2012 to July 2014 were divided into stent group (100 cases) and the non-stent group (50 cases). Fifty cases in the stent group were treated with psychological methods, called intervention group, and other 50 cases were untreated and called non-intervention group. All patients were assessed for anxiety and depression using self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale, 1 day after admission, 1 day after coronary angiography, and when they were discharged. No significant differences were observed on biochemical criterion, and anxiety scores or depression scores between the stent and the non-stent groups before percutaneous coronary intervention (P value >0.05 for all). After percutaneous coronary intervention, anxiety/depression scores in the intervention group and non-intervention group were significantly higher than those in the non-stent group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the intervention group and the non-intervention group on anxiety/depression scores (P > 0.05). On the day of discharge, the anxiety/depression scores were the lowest in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Coronary artery intervention can increase patients' anxiety/depression, but appropriate psychological intervention can reduce the negative emotions.

  11. Fibrocytes are associated with the fibrosis of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pu-Ping; Qu, Yong-Qiang; Shuai, Qun; Tao, Si-Ming; Bao, Yu-Xia; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shang-Wen; Wang, Dian-Hua

    2013-01-15

    Fibrocytes contribute significantly to fibrosis in many cardiac diseases. However, it is not clear whether fibrocytes are associated with the fibrosis in coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to determine whether fibrocytes are involved in cardiac fibrosis in CHD. We identified the presence of fibrocytes in CHD heart by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, examined the collagen volume fraction by Masson's Trichrome staining, and evaluated the correlation between fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis. In conjunction, we examined the location of CXCL12, a homing factor and specific ligand for CXCR4, by immunohistochemistry. Fibrocytes were identified in 26 out of 27 CHD hearts and in 10 out of 11 normal hearts. Combinations, including CD34/αSMA, CD34/procollagen-I, CD45/αSMA, CXCR4/procollagen-I and CXCR4/αSMA, stained significantly more fibrocytes in CHD hearts as compared with those in normal hearts (p<0.05). There were positive correlations between the collagen volume fraction and the amount of fibrocytes (r=0.558; p=0.003<0.01) and between the number of CXCR4(+) fibrocytes and the CXCL12(+) cells (r=0.741; p=0.000<0.01) in CHD hearts. Based upon these findings, we conclude that fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, may contribute to the increase in the fibroblast population in CHD heart.

  12. Ivabradine in acute coronary syndromes: Protection beyond heart rate lowering.

    PubMed

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Borovac, Josip Anđelo; Vetrugno, Vincenzo; Camici, Paolo G; Crea, Filippo

    2017-06-01

    Ivabradine is a heart rate reducing agent that exhibits anti-ischemic effects through the inhibition of funny electrical current in the sinus node resulting in heart rate reduction, thus enabling longer diastolic perfusion time, and reduced myocardial oxygen consumption without detrimental changes in arterial blood pressure, coronary vasomotion, and ventricular contractility. The current guideline-based clinical use of Ivabradine is reserved for patients with stable angina pectoris who cannot tolerate or whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with beta blockers. In patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, Ivabradine has demonstrated beneficial effects in improving clinical outcomes when added to conventional therapy. However, the role of Ivabradine in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Based on the results from some relevant preclinical studies and a limited amount of clinical data that were reported recently, the role of Ivabradine in acute ischemic events warrants further investigation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available literature on the potential role of Ivabradine in the clinical context of acute coronary syndromes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heart pump system in "heart-mural coronary artery-myocardial bridge" simulative device.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Chen, Z; Shen, L; Xu, M; Zhou, Y; Xu, S; Zeng, Y

    2009-06-01

    The myocardial tissue covering the artery is termed a myocardial bridge. But so far many researches on the myocardial bridge have been involved with clinical patients or animals, which have some limitations (e.g. lack of systematicness, difficulties in measuring the flow in the mural coronary artery and so on). Designing a "Heart-Mural coronary artery-Myocardial Bridge" Simulative Device provides a good approach to solve above problems; however, documents on this subject have seldom been reported until now. The heart pump as the key part of the whole simulative device should be able to simulate the waveform of blood pressure, adjust blood flow and regulate heart rate. Our experimental results basically met above requirements. The heart pump proposed in the paper presented an alternative experimental method to go further into other issues about the cardiovascular circulation system.

  14. 76 FR 9525 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Coronary Heart Disease AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Extension of enforcement... of coronary heart disease (CHD), in a manner that is consistent with FDA's February 14, 2003, letter... supplement products with claims regarding free phytosterols and heart disease that were marketed prior...

  15. Heart rate variability and heat sensation during CT coronary angiography: Low-osmolar versus iso-osmolar contrast media.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anders; Ripsweden, Jonaz; Rück, Andreas; Aspelin, Peter; Cederlund, Kerstin; Brismar, B Torkel

    2010-09-01

    During computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) unexpected changes in heart rate while scanning may affect image quality. To evaluate whether an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM, iodixanol) and a low-osmolar contrast medium (LOCM, iomeprol) affect heart rate and experienced heat sensation differently. One hundred patients scheduled for CTCA were randomized to receive either iodixanol 320 mgI/ml or iomeprol 400 mgI/ml. Depending on their heart rate, the patients were assigned to one of five scanning protocols, each optimized for different heart rate ranges. During scanning the time between each heart beat (hb) was recorded, and the corresponding heart rate was calculated. For each contrast medium (CM) the average heart rate, the variation in heart rate from individual mean heart rate, and the mean deviation from the predefined scanning protocol were calculated. Experience of heat was obtained immediately after scanning by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Examination quality was rated by two radiologists on a three-point scale. The mean variation in heart rate after IOCM was 1.4 hb/min and after LOCM it was 4.4 hb/min (NS). The mean deviations in heart rate from that in the predefined scanning protocol were 2.0 hb/min and 4.7 hb/min, respectively (NS). A greater number of arrhythmic hb were observed after LOCM compared with IOCM (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in image quality. The LOCM group reported a stronger heat sensation after CM injection than the IOCM group (VAS =36 mm and 18 mm, P<0.05). At clinically used concentrations the IOCM, iodixanol 320 mgI/ml, does not increase the heart rate during CTCA and causes less heart arrhythmia and less heat sensation than the LOCM, iomeprol 400 mgI/ml.

  16. Cardiac tamponade and para-aortic hematoma post elective surgical myocardial revascularization on a beating heart - a possible complication of the Lima-stitch and sequential venous anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Anna; Jaszewski, Ryszard; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Zwoliński, Radosław

    2014-06-04

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery can be associated with some intrinsic, but relatively rare complications. A pericardial effusion is a common finding after cardiac surgeries, but the prevalence of a cardiac tamponade does not exceed 2% and is less frequent after myocardial revascularization.Authors believe that in our patient an injury of a nutritional pericardial or descending aorta vessel caused by the Lima stitch resulted in oozing bleeding, which gradually leaded to cardiac tamponade. The bleeding increased after introduction of double antiplatelet therapy and caused life-threatening hemodynamic destabilization. According to our knowledge it is the first report of such a complication after OPCAB. We present a case of a 61-year old man, who underwent elective surgical myocardial revascularization on a beating heart. On the 11th postoperative day the patient was readmitted emergently to the intensive care unit for severe chest pain, dyspnoea and hypotension. Coronary angiographic control showed a patency of the bypass grafts and significant narrowing of circumflex artery, treated with angioplasty and stenting. The symptoms and hemodynamic instability exacerbated. A suspicion of dissection of the ascending aorta and para-aortic hematoma was stated on 16-slice cardiac computed tomography. The patient was referred to the Cardiovascular Surgery Clinic. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed cardiac tamponade. On transesophageal echocardiography there were no signs of the ascending aorta dissection, but a possible lesion of the descending aorta with para-aortic hematoma was visualized. Emergent rethoracotomy and cardiac tamponade decompression were performed. 12 days after intervention the control 64-slice computed tomography showed no lesions of the ascending or descending aorta. On one-year follow-up patient is in a good condition, the left ventricular function is preserved and there is no pathology in thoracic aorta on echocardiography. Mechanical

  17. Minimally Circulatory-Assisted On-Pump Beating Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Patients With Complex Conditions for Off-Pump Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Egi, Koso; Sakai, Kenji; Oi, Keiji; Hachimaru, Tsuyoshi; Makita, Tohru; Oishi, Kiyotoshi; Arai, Hirokuni

    2017-03-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is difficult because of circulatory deterioration during displacement of the heart. At our institution, we performed minimally circulatory-assisted on-pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting (MICAB) in these patients. During MICAB, support flow was controlled at a minimal level to maintain a systemic blood pressure of approximately 100 mm Hg and a pulmonary arterial systolic pressure of <30 mm Hg, providing optimal pulsatile circulation for end-organ perfusion and prevention of heart congestion. From September 2006 to March 2012, MICAB was performed in 37 patients. Either emergent or urgent MICAB was performed in 27 patients following AMI because of hemodynamic instability during reconstruction. Elective MICAB was performed in the remaining 10 patients because of dilated left ventricle (LV) or small target coronary arteries. The details of bypass grafts, perioperative renal function, and early and mid-term morbidity and mortality were compared between the patients who received MICAB and the 37 consecutive patients who underwent OPCAB during the study period at our hospital. The assist flow indices (actual support flow/body surface area) during anastomosis to the left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery, and right coronary artery were 0.95 ± 0.48 L/min/m(2) , 1.32 ± 0.53 L/min/m(2) , and 1.15 ± 0.47 L/min/m(2) , respectively, in the emergent and urgent patients following AMI, and 0.44 ± 0.39 L/min/m(2) , 1.25 ± 0.39 L/min/m(2) , and 1.14 ± 0.43 L/min/m(2) , respectively, in the elective patients with either dilated LVs or small target vessels. The lowest mixed venous oxygen saturation during pump support in the MICAB group was significantly higher than that in the OPCAB group (83.8 ± 10.8%, 71.6 ± 7.5%, P < 0.001). Comparing MICAB and OPCAB, the median number of distal bypass grafts for both groups was

  18. Multifractality in heartbeat dynamics in patients undergoing beating-heart myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ksela, Jus; Avbelj, Viktor; Kalisnik, Jurij Matija

    2015-05-01

    The multifractal approach of HRV analysis offers new insight into the mechanisms of autonomic modulation of the diseased hearts and has a potential to depict subtle changes in cardiac autonomic nervous control not revealed by conventional linear and non-linear analyses in various conditions like heart failure or stable angina pectoris. The aim of this study was to employ the multifractality approach in cardiac surgery patients and evaluate the multifractality before and after beating-heart myocardial revascularization (off-pump CABG). Twenty-four hour Holter recordings were performed pre- and postoperatively in 60 patients undergoing off-pump CABG. Selected conventional time- and frequency-domain linear HRV indices were calculated from the 24h and 5 min ECG segments, and preselected multifractal parameters τ(q=2), τ(q=3), h_top and Δh were determined for daytime (12:00-18:00) and nighttime (00:00-06:00) periods of the ECG recordings using Ivanov's method. Mean differences over time were tested using paired-samples t-test and exact Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. The results are reported as mean ± SD and median with interquartile range. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All selected conventional linear HRV parameters decreased significantly after off pump CABG (p from <0.001-0.015). Preoperatively, multifractal parameter τ(q=2) was -0.60 ± 0.12 and -0.54 ± 0.12, τ(q=3) -0.52 ± 0.18 and -0.49 ± 0.17, h_top 0.20 ± 0.07 and 0.15 ± 0.07 and Δh 0.31 ± 0.14 and 0.17 ± 0.14 for daytime and nighttime periods, respectively. Postoperatively, τ(q=2) and τ(q=3) were significantly higher for daytime (-0.49 ± 0.15, p<0.001 and -0.43 ± 0.23, p=0.015), whereas h_top and Δh were significantly higher for both daytime and nighttime (0.25 ± 0.07, p<0.001 and 0.19 ± 0.06, p=0.002 for h_top and 0.41 ± 0.20, p=0.003 and 0.31 ± 0.19, p < 0.001 for Δh, respectively). All pre- and postoperative parameters, except τ(q=2) and τ(q=3

  19. Cardiac rehabilitation vs. home exercise after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a comparison of heart rate recovery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shyi-Kuen; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Tsai, Sen-Wei

    2006-09-01

    The autonomic dysfunction is known to adversely affect clinical outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease, and exercise training has been shown to modify the sympathovagal control of heart rate. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on heart rate recovery in patients who received coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and compare the effect with that of a home-based exercise program. Fifty-four male patients having undergone CABG were randomly assigned to a cardiac rehabilitation exercise program (n = 18), a home-based exercise program (n = 18), and a control group (n = 18) for 12 wks to evaluate the differences in heart rate recovery among groups. Patients in the cardiac rehabilitation group had significant increases in heart rate recovery (19.1 +/- 6.2 vs. 14.0 +/- 5.4 beats/min, P = 0.022) compared with those in the control group. There were no significant differences in heart rate recovery between cardiac rehabilitation and home-based exercise groups (16.2 +/- 4.8 beats/min) or between home-based exercise and control groups. All three groups had significantly improved heart rate recovery compared with their baseline data (P < 0.001, < 0.001, and 0.007). Our results point out that a cardiac rehabilitation exercise program has a positive effect on heart rate recovery in patients having undergone CABG and is consistent with the autonomic improvement. Although the home-based exercise group did not reveal statistical significances over those in the control group, it had comparable efficacy to that demonstrated in the cardiac rehabilitation group.

  20. Dietary factors and coronary heart disease*

    PubMed Central

    Masironi, R.

    1970-01-01

    Mortality data from arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart disease (AHD) and per capita consumption of total fat, saturated fat, sucrose, simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and protein, and calorie intake for 37 countries were statistically evaluated to investigate possible relationships between dietary factors and incidence of AHD. On a geographical basis, consumption of total and saturated fats is strongly and positively correlated with the death rates, while consumption of complex carbohydrates is negatively correlated. No correlations were found with temporal changes in death rates or with differences within one country. These findings are discussed in the light of the works of many other investigators. It is concluded that the relation of diet to AHD is still controversial, and that the development and severity of the disease cannot be confidently attributed to any single dietary factor nor to blood cholesterol. The contributing effects of other factors, such as physical activity, mental stress, and affluence, are also discussed. PMID:5309508

  1. Prevention of coronary heart disease: a nonhormonal approach.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Vivian; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common and serious health problem facing women as they move beyond the reproductive years. Until recently, many postmenopausal women and their physicians relied heavily on hormone therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease, neglecting the well-recognized nonhormonal aspects of cardiovascular health. Simple lifestyle changes--exercise, diet, weight control, and avoidance of tobacco--can significantly reduce the chance of heart disease and its major risk factors, which are essentially the same for men and women. As with men, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are the major risk factors for heart disease in women. This review discusses the epidemiologic studies linking these risk factors to CHD in women, the guidelines for screening, and a brief overview of treatment recommendations.

  2. Effects of bileaflet mechanical heart valve orientation on coronary flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haya, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    The aortic sinus is approximately tri-radially symmetric, but bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs), which are commonly used to replace diseased aortic valves, are bilaterally symmetric. This mismatch in symmetry suggests that the orientation in which a BMHV is implanted within the aortic sinus affects the flow characteristics downstream of it. This study examines the effect of BMHV orientation on the flow in the coronary arteries, which originate in the aortic sinus and supply the heart tissue with blood. Planar particle image velocimetry measurements were made past a BMHV mounted at the inlet of an anatomical aorta model under physiological flow conditions. The complex interactions between the valve jets, the sinus vortex and the flow in the right coronary artery were elucidated for three valve orientations. The coronary flow rate was directly affected by the size, orientation, and time evolution of the vortex in the sinus, all of which were sensitive to the valve's orientation. The total flow through the artery was highest when the valve was oriented with its axis of symmetry intersecting the artery's opening. The findings of this research may assist surgeons in choosing the best orientation for BMHV implantation. The bileaflet valve was donated by St. Jude Medical. Financial support was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  3. 4D Reconstruction of the Beating Embryonic Heart From Two Orthogonal Sets of Parallel Optical Coherence Tomography Slice-Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sandeep; Larina, Irina V.; Larin, Kirill V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Liebling, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Current methods to build dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes of the beating embryonic heart involve synchronization of 2D+time slice-sequences acquired over separate heartbeats. Temporal registration of these sequences is performed either through gating or postprocessing. While synchronization algorithms that exclusively rely on image-intrinsic signals allow forgoing external gating hardware, they are prone to error accumulation, require operator-supervised correction, or lead to nonisotropic resolution. Here, we propose an image-based, retrospective reconstruction technique that uses two sets of parallel 2D+T slice-sequences, acquired perpendicularly to each other, to yield accurate and automatic reconstructions with isotropic resolution. The method utilizes the similarity of the data at the slice intersections to spatio-temporally register the two sets of slice sequences and fuse them into a high-resolution 4D volume. We characterize our method by using 1) simulated heart phantom datasets and 2) OCT datasets acquired from the beating heart of live cultured E9.5 mouse and E10.5 rat embryos. We demonstrate that while our method requires greater acquisition and reconstruction time compared to methods that use slices from a single direction, it produces more accurate and self-validating reconstructions since each set of reconstructed slices acts as a reference for the slices in the perpendicular set. PMID:23221816

  4. Switzerland: coronary and structural heart interventions from 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Fabio; Fahrni, Gregor; Maeder, Micha; Cook, Stéphane; Weilenmann, Daniel; Wenaweser, Peter; Röthlisberger, Christian; Corti, Roberto; Rickli, Hans; Kaiser, Christoph; Roffi, Marco

    2017-05-15

    In 2015, Switzerland had a population of 8.3 million inhabitants. Since the first coronary angioplasty performed by Andreas Grüntzig in Zurich in 1977, the number of percutaneous procedures has steadily increased. The aim of this report is to summarise the current state of catheter-based cardiac interventions in adults in the country and to detail trends between 2010 and 2015. Since 1987, the Working Group for Interventional Cardiology of the Swiss Society of Cardiology has collected annually aggregate data from all facilities with cardiac catheterisation laboratories in the country. In 2015, a total of 37 institutions covered 17 of the 26 Swiss cantons. Over the six-year period, there was a continuous increase in the number of coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) (median increase rate of 3.2%/year for coronary angiography and of 2.6%/year for PCI). Notable was the adoption of the transradial approach for PCI, going from a median rate of 17% in 2012 to 51.9% in 2015. With respect to structural heart interventions, the number of patent foramen ovale as well as atrial septal defect closures has remained stable, while the number of transcatheter aortic valve implantations and transcatheter mitral valve repairs has shown a fourfold increase.

  5. The independent relationship between triglycerides and coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Alan; Hokanson, John E

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to review epidemiologic studies to reassess whether serum levels of triglycerides should be considered independently of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as a predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results: We systematically reviewed population-based cohort studies in which baseline serum levels of triglycerides and HDL-C were included as explanatory variables in multivariate analyses with the development of CHD (coronary events or coronary death) as dependent variable. A total of 32 unique reports describing 38 cohorts were included. The independent association between elevated triglycerides and risk of CHD was statistically significant in 16 of 30 populations without pre-existing CHD. Among populations with diabetes mellitus or pre-existing CHD, or the elderly, triglycerides were not significantly independently associated with CHD in any of 8 cohorts. Triglycerides and HDL-C were mutually exclusive predictors of coronary events in 12 of 20 analyses of patients without pre-existing CHD. Conclusions: Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between triglycerides and the development of primary CHD independently of HDL-C. Evidence of an inverse relationship between triglycerides and HDL-C suggests that both should be considered in CHD risk estimation and as targets for intervention. PMID:19436658

  6. Coronary–Coronary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Erdil, Nevzat; Ates, Sanser; Demirkilic, Ufuk; Tatar, Harun; Sag, Cemal

    2002-01-01

    There is increased risk of systemic embolism during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with a severely atherosclerotic ascending aorta. We report a coronary–coronary bypass in a 74-year-old man with a porcelain aorta. He underwent a proximal right coronary–distal right coronary artery bypass with a saphenous vein graft, combined with a pedicled arterial graft (left internal mammary artery) to the left anterior descending artery, in the presence of a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient survived without evidence of perioperative myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. One year later, follow-up angiography showed graft patency with good distal runoff. Coronary–coronary bypass on a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass can be performed safely in a patient with porcelain aorta. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:54–5) PMID:11995853

  7. Relationship between ventricular ectopic beat frequency and heart rate: study in patients with severe arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Acanfora, D; De Caprio, L; Di Palma, A; Furgi, G; Ing, F M; Migaux, M L; Rengo, F

    1993-04-01

    To evaluate and quantify the relationship between premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and heart rate (HR), 57 patients (48 men and 8 women, mean age 59.8 +/- 7.9 years) with severe PVCs (Lown-Wolf grade > or = 3a) over 24 hours of Holter monitoring were studied. Twenty had no coronary artery disease (CAD), 25 had angiographically documented CAD, and 12 had acute myocardial infarction. All parameters of the 24-hour recordings from two ECG leads were measured by a Holter analyzer designed in our laboratory, based on fast microprocessors and controlled by a microcomputer. Scatter diagrams of the number of PVCs per minute as a function of HR and correlation coefficient were computed for various HR values corresponding to a total number of minutes greater than five. A positive correlation (r > or = 0.35) was found in most patients without CAD (85%); there was a complex relationship between the strength of the correlation and the presence of CAD or acute myocardial infarction because of a greater variability in the results of correlation coefficient analysis (coefficient of variation 62%, 208%, and 145% in patients without CAD, with CAD, and with acute myocardial infarction, respectively). The incidence of a positive correlation was similar in patients with Lown-Wolf grade III (63%), IVa (82%), or > or = IVb (67%) arrhythmias. The reproducibility of the correlation coefficient of the relationship between PVC frequency and HR was tested in 15 patients. The mean value of the correlation coefficient was 0.801 +/- 0.169 for the first test and 0.805 +/- 0.22 (p = NS) for the second test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Complications in Beating Coronary Artery Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is considered as an important risk factor in cardiovascular surgery. We designed a historical cohort study for the evaluation of perioperative complications related to BMI in patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We studied 1120 consecutive patients who underwent OPCAB between January 2008 and December 2011 in Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. Patients were divided into four groups according to BMI: underweight/low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m(2)), healthy weight (between 18.5 kg/m(2) and 24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight/high BMI (between 25 kg/m(2) and 30 kg/m(2)), and obese/very high BMI (> 30 kg/m(2)). In multivariable regression analysis, an important correlation between the underweight/low BMI group and mortality was observed (p=0.037). Postoperative stroke, postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) use were not associated with BMI. In linear regression analysis, significant correlations between low BMI, reintubation, ICU stay time and intubation time were found. Re-exploration for bleeding was significantly correlated with having a low or high BMI. Having a low BMI (which is association with malnutrition and respiratory muscles weakness) was significantly associated with reintubation, prolonged intubation time and ICU stay time. The obese group was also associated with postoperative atelectasia and fever.

  9. Coronary heart disease. The size and nature of the problem.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    In the U.K., coronary heart disease has reached epidemic proportions. It is the commonest cause of death after the age of 35 years and the fastest rate of increase is in early middle age. The epidemic is due mainly to our way of life. The most important factors are dietary, with smoking, physical inactivity and stress also contributing. Twenty independent working parties from different countries have reviewed the dietary evidence and reached a strong consensus on dietary recommendations. Little action has been taken in the U.K. The Coronary Prevention Group has been formed to consider the reasons for this inaction and also the implication for research, the government, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Department of Health and Social Security, the food and agriculture industries, caterers, nutrition education and for individuals, of the dietary recommendations. PMID:7465457

  10. Fate of Patients With Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Euro Heart Survey Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Boeder, Niklas; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2015-11-01

    Coronary perforation (CP) is a life-threatening complication that can occur during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Little is known, however, about the incidence and clinical outcome of CP. We sought to investigate the occurrence of CP and its determinants and risk profile in a large-scale, prospective registry. From 2005 to 2008, unselected patients (n = 42,068) from 175 centers in 33 countries who underwent a PCI procedure were prospectively enrolled in the PCI registry of the Euro Heart Survey program. For the present analysis, patients experiencing CP during PCI (n = 124, 0.3%) were compared with those who underwent PCI without CP. Patients with CP were older, more often women, had more severe coronary disease, and underwent more complex types of coronary intervention. Independent factors associated with CP were the use of rotablation, intravascular ultrasound-guided PCI, bypass PCI, a totally occluded vessel, a type C lesion, peripheral arterial disease, and body mass index <25. More than 10% of the patients developed cardiac tamponade. In a small minority (3.3%), emergency bypass surgery had to be performed. The inhospital death rate was markedly elevated in patients with CP (7.3% vs 1.5%, p <0.001). After adjustment for the EuroHeart score, CP remained a strong predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval 2.34 to 11.60). In conclusion, in this real world, all-comers registry, the incidence of CP was low, occurred more often in patients who underwent more complex coronary interventions, and was associated with a fivefold higher hospital mortality.

  11. Preservation of Myocardial Perfusion and Function by Keeping Hypertrophied Heart Empty and Beating for Valve Surgery: An In Vivo MR Study of Pig Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Bo; Deng, Jixian; Lin, Hung-Yu; Freed, Darren H.; Arora, Rakesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Normothermic hyperkalemic cardioplegia arrest (NHCA) may not effectively preserve hypertrophied myocardium during open-heart surgery. Normothermic normokalemic beating perfusion (NNBP), keeping hearts empty-beating, was utilized as an alternative to evaluate its cardioprotective role. Materials and Methods. Twelve hypertrophied pig hearts at 58.6 ± 7.2 days after ascending aorta banding underwent NNBP and NHCA, respectively. Near infrared myocardial perfusion imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) was conducted to assess myocardial perfusion. Left ventricular (LV) contractile function was assessed by cine MRI. TUNEL staining and western blotting for caspase-3 cleavage and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) degradation were conducted in LV tissue samples. Results. Ascending aortic diameter was reduced by 52.7% ± 0.4% at approximately fifty-eight days after banding. LV wall thickness was significantly higher in aorta banding than in sham operation. Myocardial blood flow reflected by maximum ICG absorbance value was markedly higher in NNBP than in NHCA. The amount of apoptotic cardiomyocyte was significantly lower in NNBP than in NHCA. NNBP alleviated caspase-3 cleavage and cTnI degradation associated with NHCA. NNBP displayed a substantially increased postoperative ejection fraction relative to NHCA. Conclusions. NNBP was better than NHCA in enhancing myocardial perfusion, inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and preserving LV contractile function for hypertrophied hearts. PMID:28409155

  12. Supraventricular premature beats and risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nortamo, Santeri; Kenttä, Tuomas V; Ukkola, Olavi; Huikuri, Heikki V; Perkiömäki, Juha S

    2017-07-26

    The significance of premature atrial contraction (PAC) count and supraventricular runs (SVR) for the risk of development of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well established. The Innovation to Reduce Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes at the Intersection (ARTEMIS) study cohort consisted of 1,946 patients with CAD who underwent clinical and echocardiographic examinations, 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and laboratory tests. After excluding patients who were not in sinus rhythm at baseline or were lost from the follow-up, the present study included 1,710 patients. SVR was defined as at least four PACs in a row with a duration <30 seconds. During a follow-up for an average 5.6 ± 1.5 years, new-onset AF was identified in 143 (8.4%) patients. In the univariate analysis, both SVR and PAC count were associated with the development of new-onset AF. When SVR and PAC count were adjusted with the established AF risk markers of the modified CHARGE-AF model in the Cox multivariate regression analysis, both parameters remained significant predictors of the occurrence of new-onset AF (HR = 2.529, 95 % CI = 1.763-3.628, P ˂ 0.001 and HR = 8.139 for ≥1,409 PACs [the fourth quartile] vs. ≤507 PACs [the first quartile], 95 % CI = 3.967-16.696, P ˂ 0.001, respectively). Together these parameters improved the C-index of the established AF risk model from 0.649 to 0.718, P < 0.001. Including SVR and PAC count to the established AF risk model improves the discrimination accuracy in predicting AF in patients with CAD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Shaving, coronary heart disease, and stroke: the Caerphilly Study.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey; May, Margaret; Yarnell, John

    2003-02-01

    The relation between frequency of shaving and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, coronary heart disease, and stroke events was investigated in a cohort of 2,438 men aged 45-59 years. The one fifth (n = 521, 21.4%) of men who shaved less frequently than daily were shorter, were less likely to be married, had a lower frequency of orgasm, and were more likely to smoke, to have angina, and to work in manual occupations than other men. Over the 20-year follow-up period from 1979-1983 to December 31, 2000, 835 men (34.3%) died. Of those who shaved less frequently than daily, 45.1% died, as compared with 31.3% among those who shaved at least daily. Men who shaved less frequently had fully adjusted hazard ratios (adjusted for testosterone, markers of insulin resistance, social factors, lifestyle, and baseline coronary heart disease) of 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.50) for all-cause mortality, 1.30 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.71) for cardiovascular disease mortality, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.92) for lung cancer mortality, 1.16 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.48) for coronary heart disease events, and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.44) for stroke events. The association between infrequent shaving and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality is probably due to confounding by smoking and social factors, but a small hormonal effect may exist. The relation with stroke events remains unexplained by smoking or social factors.

  14. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... a Heart Attack • Treatment of a Heart Attack • Life After a Heart Attack Lifestyle Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart ...

  15. Education and coronary heart disease: mendelian randomisation study.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Taavi; Vaucher, Julien; Okbay, Aysu; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Malyutina, Sofia; Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Fischer, Krista; Veronesi, Giovanni; Palmer, Tom; Bowden, Jack; Davey Smith, George; Bobak, Martin; Holmes, Michael V

    2017-08-30

    Objective To determine whether educational attainment is a causal risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease.Design Mendelian randomisation study, using genetic data as proxies for education to minimise confounding.Setting The main analysis used genetic data from two large consortia (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D and SSGAC), comprising 112 studies from predominantly high income countries. Findings from mendelian randomisation analyses were then compared against results from traditional observational studies (164 170 participants). Finally, genetic data from six additional consortia were analysed to investigate whether longer education can causally alter the common cardiovascular risk factors.Participants The main analysis was of 543 733 men and women (from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D and SSGAC), predominantly of European origin.Exposure A one standard deviation increase in the genetic predisposition towards higher education (3.6 years of additional schooling), measured by 162 genetic variants that have been previously associated with education.Main outcome measure Combined fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease (63 746 events in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D).Results Genetic predisposition towards 3.6 years of additional education was associated with a one third lower risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.77; P=3×10(-8)). This was comparable to findings from traditional observational studies (prevalence odds ratio 0.73, 0.68 to 0.78; incidence odds ratio 0.80, 0.76 to 0.83). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with a causal interpretation in which major bias from genetic pleiotropy was unlikely, although this remains an untestable possibility. Genetic predisposition towards longer education was additionally associated with less smoking, lower body mass index, and a favourable blood lipid profile.Conclusions This mendelian randomisation study found support for the hypothesis that low education is a causal risk factor in the

  16. The Myers-Briggs type indicator and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Thorne, B M; Fyfe, J H; Carskadon, T G

    1987-01-01

    Researchers have for many years attempted to establish a relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and personality type. In our study, 103 subjects completed Form G of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Comparisons were made between 93 CHD patients and an age-appropriate control group (Group C) on each of the four MBTI dimensions: Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, and Judging-Perceiving. The comparison between CHD patients and Group C showed that CHD patients were significantly more likely to prefer sensing and feeling.

  17. Hear the beat: decellularized mouse heart regenerated with human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo; Lu, Tung-Ying; Yang, Lei

    2014-02-01

    Heart tissue engineering holds a great potential for human heart disease therapy. Regeneration of whole biofunctional human heart is the ultimate goal of tissue engineering. Recent advances take the first step towards whole heart regeneration. However, a substantial amount of challenges have to be overcome.

  18. Performance of a Novel Bipolar/Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation Device on the Beating Heart in an Acute Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Lindsey L.; Lawrance, Christopher P.; Okada, Shoichi; Kazui, Toshinobu; Robertson, Jason O.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Although the advent of ablation technology has simplified and shortened surgery for atrial fibrillation, only bipolar clamps have reliably been able to create transmural lesions on the beating heart. Currently there are no devices capable of reproducibly creating the long linear lesions in the right and left atria needed to perform a Cox-Maze procedure. This study evaluated the performance of a novel suction-assisted radiofrequency device that uses both bipolar and monopolar energy to create lesions from an epicardial approach on the beating heart. Methods Six domestic pigs underwent median sternotomy. A dual bipolar/monopolar radiofrequency ablation device was used to create epicardial linear lesions on the superior and inferior vena cavae, right and left atrial free walls, and right and left atrial appendages. The heart was stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride and each lesion was cross-sectioned at 5mm intervals. Lesion depth and transmurality were determined. Results Transmurality was documented in 94% of all cross-sections, and 68% of all ablation lines were transmural along their entire length. Tissue thickness was not different between transmural and non-transmural cross-sections (3.1 ± 1.3 and 3.4 ± 2.1, p=0.57, respectively), nor was the anatomic location on the heart (p=0.45 for the distribution). Of the cross-sections located at the end of the ablation line, 11% (8/75) were found to be non-transmural, whereas only 4% (8/195) of cross-sections located within the line of ablation were found to be non-transmural (p=0.04). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that failure of the device to create transmural lesions was associated with low body temperature (p=0.006), but not with cardiac output (p=0.54). Conclusions This novel device was able to consistently create transmural epicardial lesions on the beating heart, regardless of anatomic location, cardiac output or tissue thickness. The performance of this device was

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of 320-slice computed-tomography for detection of significant coronary artery stenosis in patients with various heart rates and heart rhythms compared with conventional coronary-angiography.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Masae; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Funabashi, Nobusada

    2013-08-10

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 320-slice CT for detection of significant coronary artery stenosis in patients with various heart rates (HR) and heart rhythms, including tachycardia and chronic atrial-fibrillation (CAF) compared with conventional-coronary-angiography (CAG). One-hundred-six consecutive patients underwent both 320-slice CT and CAG within 3 months (normal-sinus-rhythm [NSR] 91.5%, CAF 8.5%, mean HR 65 ± 15 beats/min). There were no cardiac events between the 2 procedures. Patients were divided in 2 groups: Group 1 (HR <65 with NSR at CT scan, n=62), and Group 2 (HR >64 with NSR or heart rhythm irregularities at CT scan, n=44). Patients with >50% or >75% luminal stenosis on CT were compared with those with >50% or >75% stenosis on CAG, respectively. In a segment-by-segment analysis, in all patients, sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of >50% stenosis on CT for predicting >50% stenosis on CAG were 69, 98, 78, and 97%, respectively, and those of >75% stenosis on CT for predicting >75% stenosis on CAG were 78, 98, 64, and 99%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of >50% and 75% stenosis on CT for predicting >50% and >75% stenosis, respectively, on CAG were comparable. Diagnostic accuracy was essentially the same in both groups. 320-slice CT had high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis compared with CAG. Even though the numbers were small, patients with high HR or heart rhythm irregularities might have essentially equivalent results to those with low HR with NSR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transapical Beating-Heart Mitral Valve Repair With an Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Cordal Implantation Device: Initial Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Gammie, James S; Wilson, Peter; Bartus, Krzysztof; Gackowski, Andrzej; Hung, Judy; D'Ambra, Michael N; Kolsut, Piotr; Bittle, Gregory J; Szymanski, Piotr; Sadowski, Jerzy; Kapelak, Boguslaw; Bilewska, Agata; Kusmierczyk, Mariusz; Ghoreishi, Mehrdad

    2016-07-19

    Degenerative mitral valve (MV) disease is a common cause of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and accounts for the majority of MV operations. Conventional MV surgery requires cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamping, cardioplegia, and a thoracotomy or sternotomy and, therefore, is associated with significant disability, risks, and unpredictable rates of MV repair. Transesophageal echocardiography-guided beating-heart MV repair with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene cordal insertion has the potential to significantly reduce surgical morbidity. We report the first-in-human clinical experience with a novel preformed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene knot implantation device (Harpoon TSD-5) designed to treat degenerative MR. Through a small left thoracotomy, the device was inserted into the heart and guided by transesophageal echocardiography to the ventricular surface of the prolapsed leaflet. Multiple expanded polytetrafluoroethylene cords were anchored in the leaflet and then adjusted to the correct length to restore MV leaflet coaptation and secured at the epicardium. Eleven patients with posterior leaflet prolapse and severe MR, with mean±SD age of 65±13 years and mean ejection fraction of 69±7%, were treated with 100% procedural success. Immediate postprocedural mean MR grade was trace. At 1 month, the mean MR grade was mild with significant decreases in end-diastolic volume (139 to 107 mL; P=0.03) and left atrial volume (118 to 85 mL; P=0.04). A novel device used for beating-heart image-guided MV repair demonstrates a significant reduction in MR with favorable left ventricular and left atrial reverse remodeling. This approach has the potential to decrease invasiveness and surgical morbidity. Further follow-up is necessary to assess long-term efficacy. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02432196. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Effects of exogenous surfactant on the non-heart-beating donor lung graft in experimental lung transplantation - a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Gudrun; Knudsen, Lars; Madershahian, Navid; Mühlfeld, Christian; Frank, Konrad; Rahmanian, Parwis; Wahlers, Thorsten; Wittwer, Thorsten; Ochs, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    The use of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) lungs may help to overcome the shortage of lung grafts in clinical lung transplantation, but warm ischaemia and ischaemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) resulting in primary graft dysfunction represent a considerable threat. Thus, better strategies for optimized preservation of lung grafts are urgently needed. Surfactant dysfunction has been shown to contribute to I/R injury, and surfactant replacement therapy is effective in enhancing lung function and structural integrity in related rat models. In the present study we hypothesize that surfactant replacement therapy reduces oedema formation in a pig model of NHBD lung transplantation. Oedema formation was quantified with (SF) and without (non-SF) surfactant replacement therapy in interstitial and alveolar compartments by means of design-based stereology in NHBD lungs 7 h after cardiac arrest, reperfusion and transplantation. A sham-operated group served as control. In both NHBD groups, nearly all animals died within the first hours after transplantation due to right heart failure. Both SF and non-SF developed an interstitial oedema of similar degree, as shown by an increase in septal wall volume and arithmetic mean thickness as well as an increase in the volume of peribron-chovascular connective tissue. Regarding intra-alveolar oedema, no statistically significant difference could be found between SF and non-SF. In conclusion, surfactant replacement therapy cannot prevent poor outcome after prolonged warm ischaemia of 7 h in this model. While the beneficial effects of surfactant replacement therapy have been observed in several experimental and clinical studies related to heart-beating donor lungs and cold ischaemia, it is unlikely that surfactant replacement therapy will overcome the shortage of organs in the context of prolonged warm ischaemia, for example, 7 h. Moreover, our data demonstrate that right heart function and dysfunctions of the pulmonary vascular bed are

  2. Tissue Doppler Imaging in Coronary Artery Diseases and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Michele; Totaro, Antonio; Ieva, Riccardo; Ferraretti, Armando; Musaico, Francesco; Biase, Matteo Di

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have explored the prognostic role of TDI-derived parameters in major cardiac diseases, such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). In these conditions, myocardial mitral annular systolic (S’) and early diastolic (E’) velocities have been shown to predict mortality or cardiovascular events. In heart failure non invasive assessment of LV diastolic pressure by transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio (E/E’) is a strong prognosticator, especially when E/E’ is > or =15. Moreover, other parameters derived by TDI, as cardiac time intervals and Myocardial Performance Index, might play a role in the prognostic stratification in CAD and HF. Recently, a three-dimensional (3-D) TDI imaging modality, triplane TDI, has become available, and this allows calculation of 3-Dvolumes and LV ejection fraction. We present a brief update of TDI. PMID:22845815

  3. Continuous ECG Monitoring in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome or Heart Failure: EASI Versus Gold Standard.

    PubMed

    Lancia, Loreto; Toccaceli, Andrea; Petrucci, Cristina; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the EASI system with the standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) for the accuracy in detecting the main electrocardiographic parameters (J point, PR, QT, and QRS) commonly monitored in patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure. In this observational comparative study, 253 patients who were consecutively admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were evaluated. In all patients, two complete 12-lead ECGs were acquired simultaneously. A total of 6,072 electrocardiographic leads were compared (3,036 standard and 3,036 EASI). No significant differences were found between the investigate parameters of the two measurement methods, either in patients with acute coronary syndrome or in those with heart failure. This study confirmed the accuracy of the EASI system in monitoring the main ECG parameters in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure.

  4. Observer variability in the assessment of CT coronary angiography and coronary artery calcium score: substudy of the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle C; Golay, Saroj K; Hunter, Amanda; Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Mlynska, Lucja; Dweck, Marc R; Uren, Neal G; Reid, John H; Lewis, Steff C; Berry, Colin; van Beek, Edwin J R; Roditi, Giles; Newby, David E; Mirsadraee, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Observer variability can influence the assessment of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and the subsequent diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease. We assessed 210 CTCAs from the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial for intraobserver and interobserver variability. Calcium score, coronary angiography and image quality were evaluated. Coronary artery disease was defined as none (<10%), mild (10-49%), moderate (50-70%) and severe (>70%) luminal stenosis and classified as no (<10%), non-obstructive (10-70%) or obstructive (>70%) coronary artery disease. Post-CTCA diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease was classified as yes, probable, unlikely or no. Patients had a mean body mass index of 29 (28, 30) kg/m(2), heart rate of 58 (57, 60)/min and 62% were men. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for the presence or absence of coronary artery disease were excellent (95% agreement, κ 0.884 (0.817 to 0.951) and good (91%, 0.791 (0.703 to 0.879)). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for the presence or absence of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease were excellent (93%, 0.842 (0.918 to 0.755) and good (86%, 0.701 (0.799 to 0.603)), respectively. Observer variability of calcium score was excellent for calcium scores below 1000. More segments were categorised as uninterpretable with 64-multidetector compared to 320-multidetector CTCA (10.1% vs 2.6%, p<0.001) but there was no difference in observer variability. Multicentre multidetector CTCA has excellent agreement in patients under investigation for suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. NCT01149590.

  5. Observer variability in the assessment of CT coronary angiography and coronary artery calcium score: substudy of the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle C; Golay, Saroj K; Hunter, Amanda; Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Mlynska, Lucja; Dweck, Marc R; Uren, Neal G; Reid, John H; Lewis, Steff C; Berry, Colin; van Beek, Edwin J R; Roditi, Giles; Newby, David E; Mirsadraee, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observer variability can influence the assessment of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and the subsequent diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease. Methods We assessed 210 CTCAs from the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial for intraobserver and interobserver variability. Calcium score, coronary angiography and image quality were evaluated. Coronary artery disease was defined as none (<10%), mild (10–49%), moderate (50–70%) and severe (>70%) luminal stenosis and classified as no (<10%), non-obstructive (10–70%) or obstructive (>70%) coronary artery disease. Post-CTCA diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease was classified as yes, probable, unlikely or no. Results Patients had a mean body mass index of 29 (28, 30) kg/m2, heart rate of 58 (57, 60)/min and 62% were men. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for the presence or absence of coronary artery disease were excellent (95% agreement, κ 0.884 (0.817 to 0.951) and good (91%, 0.791 (0.703 to 0.879)). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for the presence or absence of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease were excellent (93%, 0.842 (0.918 to 0.755) and good (86%, 0.701 (0.799 to 0.603)), respectively. Observer variability of calcium score was excellent for calcium scores below 1000. More segments were categorised as uninterpretable with 64-multidetector compared to 320-multidetector CTCA (10.1% vs 2.6%, p<0.001) but there was no difference in observer variability. Conclusions Multicentre multidetector CTCA has excellent agreement in patients under investigation for suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. Trial registration number NCT01149590. PMID:26019881

  6. Alteration of LV end-diastolic volume by controlling the power of the continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with cardiac beat: development of a native heart load control system (NHLCS).

    PubMed

    Umeki, Akihide; Nishimura, Takashi; Ando, Masahiko; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2012-06-01

    There are many reports comparing pulsatile and continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). But continuous-flow LVAD with the pulsatile driving technique had not been tried or discussed before our group's report. We have previously developed and introduced a power-control unit for a centrifugal LVAD (EVAHEART®; Sun Medical), which can change the speed of rotation so it is synchronized with the heart beat. By use of this unit we analyzed the end-diastolic volume (EDV) to determine whether it is possible to change the native heart load. We studied 5 goats with normal hearts and 5 goats with acute LV dysfunction because of micro-embolization of the coronary artery. We used 4 modes, "circuit-clamp", "continuous", "counter-pulse", and "co-pulse", with the bypass rate (BR) 100%. We raised the speed of rotation of the LVAD in the diastolic phase with the counter-pulse mode, and raised it in the systolic phase with the co-pulse mode. As a result, the EDV decreased in the counter-pulse mode and increased in the co-pulse mode, compared with the continuous mode (p < 0.05), in both the normal and acute-heart-failure models. This result means it may be possible to achieve favorable EDV and native heart load by controlling the rotation of continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with the cardiac beat. This novel driving system may be of great benefit to patients with end-stage heart failure, especially those with ischemic etiology.

  7. Coronary CT Angiography as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool: Perspectives from the SCOT-HEART Trial.

    PubMed

    Doris, Mhairi; Newby, David E

    2016-02-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many trials to date have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) when compared to the gold standard diagnostic test, invasive coronary angiography. However, whether the use of a non-invasive anatomical test, such as CCTA, can translate into improved patient risk stratification, management and outcome has yet to be established. The Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial sought to address these questions and determined whether CCTA, when used in addition to standard care, could aid the diagnosis, further investigation and treatment of patients referred to the cardiology clinic with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. In this trial, CCTA clarified the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease in a quarter of patients and this led to major alterations in treatment and management that appeared to reduce the risk of subsequent coronary heart disease death or non-fatal myocardial infarction. The SCOT-Heart trial has established that CCTA is a valuable diagnostic test in patients with suspected angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease and leads to greater clarity, more focused appropriate treatments and better coronary heart disease outcomes.

  8. Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction associated with coronary heart disease and myopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Bonner, Elisabeth

    2011-05-05

    The association of left ventricular hypertrabeculation (LVHT), also known as noncompaction, coronary heart disease, and metabolic myopathy, as presented in the following report, is rare. In a 77-yo male with a history of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, dilative cardiomyopathy, mitral and tricuspid insufficiency, AV-block III, implantation of a pacemaker, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, LVHT was detected on transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization for worsening heart failure. Clinical neurologic investigation, revealing bilateral ptosis, madarosis, absent eyelashes, bilateral hypacusis, sore neck muscles, generally absent deep tendon reflexes, weakness for foot extension, and ataxic stance, and recurrently elevated creatine-kinase with normal troponine, suggested a metabolic myopathy. Autopsy after death from intractable heart failure. 17 months later confirmed severe coronary heart disease and LVHT in the apex. LVHT may be associated with coronary heart disease and myopathy and may be exclusively located in the left ventricular apex. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants.

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, M G; Rose, G; Shipley, M; Hamilton, P J

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between grade of employment, coronary risk factors, and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been investigated in a longitudinal study of 17 530 civil servants working in London. After seven and a half years of follow-up there was a clear inverse relationship between grade of employment and CHD mortality. Men in the lowest grade (messengers) had 3.6 times the CHD mortality of men in the highest employment grade (administrators). Men in the lower employment grades were shorter, heavier for their height, had higher blood pressure, higher plasma glucose, smoked more, and reported less leisure-time physical activity than men in the higher grades. Yet when allowance was made for the influence on mortality of all of these factors plus plasma cholesterol, the inverse association between grade of employment and CHD mortality was still strong. It is concluded that the higher CHD mortality experienced by working class men, which is present also in national statistics, can be only partly explained by the established coronary risk factors. PMID:744814

  10. Relationship between serum neopterin levels and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Y; Li, Y D

    2013-10-07

    The relationship between serum neopterin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) was investigated. Eighty-six CHD patients were divided into an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group (N = 21), an unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group (N = 35), and a stable angina pectoris (SAP) group (N = 30), based on coronary angiography (CAG), 30 subjects without CHD served as the control group. Serum neopterin levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and relationships between neopterin and the severity of stenosis, stenosis number, and the stability of coronary artery were analyzed. Serum neopterin levels were higher in the AMI and UAP groups than in the SAP and control groups (P < 0.01), but no significant differences were observed between the AMI and UAP groups or between the SAP and control groups (P > 0.05). Mean serum neopterin levels were higher in the single, double, and three vessel lesion groups than in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among the lesion groups (P > 0.05). Serum levels of neopterin were significantly higher in the type II than in the type I or type III, plaque groups (P < 0.01), the incidence of type II plaque was significantly higher in the AMI and UAP groups compared to the SAP group (P < 0.01). Neopterin likely plays a role in the occurrence and development of athermanous plaque and can serve as a useful biomarker of vulnerable plaques. Immunoreaction may be involved in the pathophysiological process of CHD.

  11. A Critique of the Evidence Relating Diet and Coronary Heart Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014624 TITLE: A Critique of the Evidence Relating Diet and Coronary...comprise the compilation report: ADP014598 thru ADP014630 UNCLASSIFIED A CRITIQUE OF THE EVIDENCE RELATING DIET AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE George V...association of diet with CHD and the widespread lay interest in the pro- * blem. Coronary heart disease may seem to have risen like an epidemic among us. It

  12. [Coronary blood outflow along parasinoidal pathways in the left heart (possible pathogenesis of angina attacks with normal coronary circulation)].

    PubMed

    Kositskiĭ, G I; D'iakonova, I N; Tverskaia, M S

    1984-04-01

    Acute experiments on isolated cat hearts were made to study the involvement of the parasinus pathways of the left heart in the blood outflow from the myocardium. The magnitude of the blood outflow to the left heart via the parasinus pathways may vary within a wide range, depending on heart function conditions. During heart work normalization, the specific values of the outflow to the left heart are minimal, amounting on an average to 10%, those under heart perfusion with venous blood to 39%, reaching 64% after 30 minutes of ischemia. The data obtained indicate that the assessment of myocardial supply by the blood inflow to the coronary arteries cannot be regarded as adequate and that angina pectoris attacks may occur because of the shunt drainage of the coronary blood, by-passing the myocardial capillaries.

  13. [The EMEA CHMP guidelines in coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, Marina

    2004-01-01

    The official regulatory recommendations for drug development and the granting of marketing authorisations are intended for use by pharmaceutical companies and the regulatory agencies. These recommendations are particularly useful in Europe, and allow harmonisation of the regulatory requirements between the different member states, thus facilitating further evaluation of the submission file and the registration process. The European guidelines are issued by the Committee for Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Products (EMEA). The key points of the current guidelines regarding applications for phase III trials in coronary heart disease (stable angina, acute coronary syndromes) and chronic heart failure are presented. They are as follows: the definition of selected populations, the choice of criteria for evaluating efficacy and safety, the choice of comparators, and study duration etc.

  14. Heart-Rate Reduction With Adjusted-Dose Ivabradine in Patients Undergoing Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Kacijan, Blaž; Novak, Zala; Jug, Borut; Dolenc Novak, Maja; Vrtovec, Matjaž; Gužič Salobir, Barbara

    Our prospective, randomized, open-label study assessed the efficacy of a heart rate-lowering, adjusted-dose protocol with ivabradine prior to coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Patients undergoing CCTA were randomized to 7 days of adjusted-dose ivabradine or standard care (ie, no additional medication). Heart rate and β-blocker and antianxiety medication use on the day of the CCTA were recorded. One hundred one patients were randomized (mean age, 60 [SD, 13] years; 66% women). Significantly more patients on ivabradine had heart rates of 60 beats per minute or less at the time of the CCTA scan (48% vs 8%, P < 0.01); accordingly, fewer patients on ivabradine needed additional heart rate lowering with β-blockers (40% vs 86%, P < 0.01), as well as antianxiety medication (18% vs 39%, P < 0.05), and also required lower doses of intravenous β-blockers (4 [SD, 2] vs 7 [SD, 5] mg, P < 0.05). A 7-day premedication protocol with ivabradine effectively lowers heart rate in patients undergoing CCTA.

  15. Simulation of Ectopic Pacemakers in the Heart: Multiple Ectopic Beats Generated by Reentry inside Fibrotic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa de Barros, Bruno; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lobosco, Marcelo; Alonso, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nonconducting media, mimicking cardiac fibrosis, in two models of cardiac tissue produces the formation of ectopic beats. The fraction of nonconducting media in comparison with the fraction of healthy myocytes and the topological distribution of cells determines the probability of ectopic beat generation. First, a detailed subcellular microscopic model that accounts for the microstructure of the cardiac tissue is constructed and employed for the numerical simulation of action potential propagation. Next, an equivalent discrete model is implemented, which permits a faster integration of the equations. This discrete model is a simplified version of the microscopic model that maintains the distribution of connections between cells. Both models produce similar results when describing action potential propagation in homogeneous tissue; however, they slightly differ in the generation of ectopic beats in heterogeneous tissue. Nevertheless, both models present the generation of reentry inside fibrotic tissues. This kind of reentry restricted to microfibrosis regions can result in the formation of ectopic pacemakers, that is, regions that will generate a series of ectopic stimulus at a fast pacing rate. In turn, such activity has been related to trigger fibrillation in the atria and in the ventricles in clinical and animal studies. PMID:26583127

  16. Simulation of Ectopic Pacemakers in the Heart: Multiple Ectopic Beats Generated by Reentry inside Fibrotic Regions.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa de Barros, Bruno; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lobosco, Marcelo; Alonso, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nonconducting media, mimicking cardiac fibrosis, in two models of cardiac tissue produces the formation of ectopic beats. The fraction of nonconducting media in comparison with the fraction of healthy myocytes and the topological distribution of cells determines the probability of ectopic beat generation. First, a detailed subcellular microscopic model that accounts for the microstructure of the cardiac tissue is constructed and employed for the numerical simulation of action potential propagation. Next, an equivalent discrete model is implemented, which permits a faster integration of the equations. This discrete model is a simplified version of the microscopic model that maintains the distribution of connections between cells. Both models produce similar results when describing action potential propagation in homogeneous tissue; however, they slightly differ in the generation of ectopic beats in heterogeneous tissue. Nevertheless, both models present the generation of reentry inside fibrotic tissues. This kind of reentry restricted to microfibrosis regions can result in the formation of ectopic pacemakers, that is, regions that will generate a series of ectopic stimulus at a fast pacing rate. In turn, such activity has been related to trigger fibrillation in the atria and in the ventricles in clinical and animal studies.

  17. 76 FR 49707 - Food Labeling; Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Reopening of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... reconsider its proposed amendments to the phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease health ] claim. The... December 8, 2010, proposing to amend regulations on plant sterol/ stanol esters and risk of coronary heart...

  18. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease: the Puerto Rico heart health program revisted.

    PubMed

    García-Palmieri, Mario R

    2013-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains as the main cause of death in most countries of the world including Puerto Rico. Due to the importance of gathering knowledge regarding the harmful effects and risk factors associated with the development of CHD some basic information is reviewed to stimulate the institution of measures for reduction of the prevalence of clinical CHD and its ultimate consequences. Special attention is given in the manuscript of the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program conducted in men aged 45-64 residing in four rural and three urban areas. The Puerto Rico and the Honolulu Study confirmed the initial publication on the epidemiology of coronary heart disease by the Framingham study. The presentation of some data collected among the three studies strengthen the message of avoiding the development of CHD by installing preventive measures for control and reduction of the risk factors. Concurrent data obtained in the three studies is presented. Although the degree of the involvement of the populations is higher in Framingham than in Puerto Rico and Honolulu, the deleterious effects of specific risk factors are harmful in all the three populations. Difference in the prevalence of risk factors among the urban and rural males in Puerto Rico is also illustrated. It is our hope that more intense measures be instituted in Puerto Rico at all levels in order to control risk factors and reduce the incidence of coronary disease in Puerto Rico.

  19. Perceived social support following percutaneous coronary intervention is a crucial factor in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Outi; Kankkunen, Päivi; Miettinen, Heikki; Lamidi, Marja-Leena; Saaranen, Terhi

    2017-05-01

    To describe perceived social support among patients with coronary heart disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. A low level of social support is considered a risk factor for coronary heart disease in healthy individuals and reduces the likelihood that people diagnosed with coronary heart disease will have a good prognosis. A descriptive cross-sectional study. A survey of 416 patients was conducted in 2013. A self-report instrument, Social Support of People with Coronary Heart Disease, was used. The instrument comprises three dimensions of social support: informational, emotional, functional supports and 16 background variables. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, mean sum variables and multivariate logistic regression. Perceived informational support was primarily high, but respondents' risk factors were not at the target level. The weakest items of informational support were advice on physical activity, continuum of care and rehabilitation. Regarding the items of emotional support, support from other cardiac patients was the weakest. The weakest item of functional support was respondents' sense of the healthcare professionals' care of patients coping with their disease. Background variables associated with perceived social support were gender, marital status, level of formal education, profession, physical activity, duration of coronary heart disease and previous myocardial infarction. Healthcare professionals should pay extra attention to women, single patients, physically inactive patients, those demonstrating a lower level of education, those with a longer duration of CHD, and respondents without previous acute myocardial infarction. Continuum of care and counselling are important to ensure especially among them. This study provides evidence that healthcare professionals should be more aware of the individual needs for social support among patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention

  20. Effects of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Serum Angiopoietin-2 in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhi-Yu; Gui, Chun; Li, Lang; Wei, Xiao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) plays a crucial role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and is expressed only in sites of vascular remodeling. Ang-2 expression can be regulated by hypoxia inducible factors and other regulators with exposure to hypoxia. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on serum Ang-2 concentrations, and analyze the correlation between serum Ang-2 and the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: Sixty-four patients with CHD were selected as the study group, each undergone PCI. Thirty-two healthy subjects were selected as the control group. Pre-PCI and post-PCI serum Ang-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of coronary artery stenosis was evaluated using angiographic Gensini scores, and the coronary collateral vessels were scored according to Rentrop's classification. Results: Concentrations of pre-PCI serum Ang-2 in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group (4625.06 ± 1838.06 vs. 1945.74 ± 1588.17 pg/ml, P < 0.01); however, concentrations of post-PCI serum Ang-2 were significantly lower than those of pre-PCI (3042.63 ± 1845.33 pg/ml vs. 4625.06 ± 1838.06 pg/ml, P < 0.01). Concentrations of pre-PCI serum Ang-2 were significantly correlated with Gensini scores (r = 0.488, P < 0.01); however, the decrease in serum Ang-2 after PCI was not correlated with Gensini scores, coronary collateral vessel grading, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions: Serum Ang-2 concentrations significantly increased in patients with CHD, and PCI treatment significantly decreased these concentrations. Serum Ang-2 concentrations, but not the decrease in serum Ang-2 concentrations, were significantly correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis. These results suggested that Ang-2 may be a biomarker of myocardial ischemia and vessel remodeling. PMID:26960364

  1. [THE INFLUENCE OF MONO- AND MULTIVASCULAR LESIONS OF CORONARY ARTERIES ON THE COURSE OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2].

    PubMed

    Sypalo, A; Kravchun, P; Kadykova, O

    2017-03-01

    The article assesses the influence of mono- and multivascular lesions of coronary arteries on the course of coronary heart disease at patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey of 75 patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 was arranged. Depending on the number of vascular lesions of the coronary arteries, according to the data of coronary arteries computer tomography, all patients were divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup included 27 patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with monovascular lesions of coronary arteries. To the second subgroup were included 48 patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries. During the analysis of carbohydrate metabolism in cases of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 the HOMA index increase by 25.40% and insulin level increase by 17.05% were revealed at patients with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries in comparison with patients with monovascular lesions of coronary arteries, respectively. The combination of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries was associated with an increase of sortilin level (233,47±47,85 ng/l). A significant increase in triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol of very low density influences greatly on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis with lesions of greater number of coronary arteries at patients surveyed. At patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 with multivascular lesions of coronary arteries the left ventricle myocardial re-modeling occurred through the increase of left ventricle's size and cavity.

  2. Postmortem and ex vivo carbon monoxide ventilation reduces injury in rat lungs transplanted from non-heart-beating donors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Boming; Stewart, Paul W; Egan, Thomas M

    2013-08-01

    We sought to determine whether ventilation of lungs after death in non-heart-beating donors with carbon monoxide during warm ischemia and ex vivo lung perfusion and after transplant would reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury and improve lung function. One hour after death, Sprague-Dawley rats were ventilated for another hour with 60% oxygen (control group) or 500 ppm carbon monoxide in 60% oxygen (CO-vent group; n=6/group). Then, lungs were flushed with 20 mL cold Perfadex, stored cold for 1 hour, then warmed to 37 °C in an ex vivo lung perfusion circuit perfused with Steen solution. At 37 °C, lungs were ventilated for 15 minutes with alveolar gas with or without 500 ppm carbon monoxide, then perfusion-cooled to 20 °C, flushed with cold Perfadex and stored cold for 2 hours. The left lung was transplanted using a modified cuff technique. Recipients were ventilated with 60% oxygen with or without carbon monoxide. One hour after transplant, we measured blood gases from the left pulmonary vein and aorta, and wet-to-dry ratio of both lungs. The RNA and protein extracted from graft lungs underwent real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, and measurement of cyclic guanosine monophosphate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carbon monoxide ventilation begun 1 hour after death reduced wet/dry ratio after ex vivo lung perfusion. After transplantation, the carbon monoxide-ventilation group had better oxygenation; higher levels of tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate, heme oxidase-1 expression, and p38 phosphorylation; reduced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation; and reduced expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β messenger RNA. Administration of carbon monoxide to the deceased donor and non-heart-beating donor lungs reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat lungs transplanted from non-heart-beating donors. Therapy to the deceased donor via the airway may improve post-transplant lung function. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for

  3. Phospholamban and troponin I are substrates for protein kinase C in vitro but not in intact beating guinea pig hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Edes, I.; Kranias, E.G. )

    1990-08-01

    The incorporation of (32P)inorganic phosphate into membranous, myofibrillar, and cytosolic proteins was studied in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (D8G), which are potent activators of protein kinase C. Control hearts were perfused with an inactive phorbol ester (4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate), which does not cause activation of protein kinase C. To ensure the blockade of different receptor systems, the perfusions were carried out in the presence of prazosin, propranolol, and atropine. Perfusion of hearts with either PMA (4 microM) or D8G (200 microM) was associated with a negative effect on left ventricular inotropy and relaxation. Examination of the 32P incorporation into various fractions revealed that there were no increases in the degree of phosphorylation of phospholamban in sarcoplasmic reticulum, and troponin I and C protein in the myofibrils, although these proteins were found to be substrates for protein kinase C in vitro. However, in the same hearts, there were significant changes in the 32P incorporation into a 28-kDa cytosolic-protein. Examination of the activity levels of protein kinase C in hearts perfused with PMA indicated a redistribution of this activity from the cytosolic to the membrane fraction, suggesting the activation of the enzyme in vivo. These findings indicate that cardiac regulatory phosphoproteins, which may be phosphorylated by protein kinase C in vitro, are not substrates for protein kinase C in beating hearts perfused with phorbol esters or diacylglycerol analogues.

  4. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Heran, Balraj S; Chen, Jenny Mh; Ebrahim, Shah; Moxham, Tiffany; Oldridge, Neil; Rees, Karen; Thompson, David R; Taylor, Rod S

    2011-07-06

    The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) worldwide is one of great concern to patients and healthcare agencies alike. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation aims to restore patients with heart disease to health. To determine the effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (exercise training alone or in combination with psychosocial or educational interventions) on mortality, morbidity and health-related quality of life of patients with CHD. RCTs have been identified by searching CENTRAL, HTA, and DARE (using The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2009), as well as MEDLINE (1950 to December 2009), EMBASE (1980 to December 2009), CINAHL (1982 to December 2009), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to December 2009). Men and women of all ages who have had myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or who have angina pectoris or coronary artery disease defined by angiography. Studies were selected and data extracted independently by two reviewers. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. This systematic review has allowed analysis of 47 studies randomising 10,794 patients to exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation or usual care. In medium to longer term (i.e. 12 or more months follow-up) exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduced overall and cardiovascular mortality [RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.75, 0.99) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.87), respectively], and hospital admissions [RR 0.69 (95% CI 0.51, 0.93)] in the shorter term (< 12 months follow-up) with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect across trials. Cardiac rehabilitation did not reduce the risk of total MI, CABG or PTCA. Given both the heterogeneity in outcome measures and methods of reporting findings, a meta-analysis was not undertaken for health-related quality of life. In seven out of 10 trials reporting health-related quality of life using validated measures was there evidence of a significantly higher

  5. Correlation between mimecan expression and coronary artery stenosis in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youdong; Liu, Junying; Zhao, Qingna; Xu, Peijing; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Hualan; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between coronary artery stenosis and Mimecan expression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Seventy eight patients with CHD and 80 controls without vascular lesions were recruited into present study. CHD patients were divided into one-vessel CHD subgroup, 2-vessel CHD subgroup and multivessel CHD subgroup. ELISA was performed to detect the expressions of serum Mimecan and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). When compared with control group, the expressions of serum mimecan gene and NF-κB significantly increased in CHD groups (P < 0.05); When compared with one-vessel and two-vessel CHD subgroups, the expressions of serum mimecan and NF-κB significantly increased in multivessel CHD subgroup (P < 0.05), significant difference was observed among three subgroups (P < 0.05). The expressions of serum mimecan and NF-κB were positively related to the severity of coronary lesions (rmimecan=0.79, rNF-κB=0.83, P < 0.05). Increased expressions of serum mimecan and NF-κB in CHD patients are related to cardiac insufficiency, which may be ascribed to the binding of NF-κB to mimecan gene.

  6. [The influence of bilirubin on the mechanogram of isolated, spontaneously beating frog heart].

    PubMed

    Mittelstädt, U; Biester, J; Sandhage, K

    1976-06-08

    It was shown that bilirubin in its unconjugated form does not only harm the central nervous system. Clinical observations indicate that the toxic effect under certain conditions affects also the heart. In a simple experimental model the influence of free bilirubin on the activity of the heart was investigated. In 69 adult frogs the heart was isolated and exposed sequentially to solutions of different bilirubin concentrations while the heart actions were registered. There was no significant change in the activity of the heart under the influence of bilirubin although concentrations were reached which according to the results of other authors harm cell cultures or evoke in the newborn disturbances in various organs. As a possible explanation, the nonsusceptibility of the heart muscle to bilirubin, the short duration of exposure, and the different behavior of newborn and adult organs is discussed.

  7. Using additional information on working hours to predict coronary heart disease: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Long hours are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Adding information on long hours to traditional risk factors could potentially help improve risk prediction. Objective To examine whether information on long working hours improves the ability of the Framingham risk model to predict coronary heart disease in a low-risk employed population. Design Prospective cohort study; baseline medical examination (1991-1993) and coronary heart disease follow-up to 2004. Settings Civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II study). Participants 7095 adults (2109 women) aged 39 to 62, working full time, and free of coronary heart disease at baseline. Measurements Working hours and the Framingham risk score were measured at baseline. Coronary death and non-fatal myocardial infarction were ascertained from three sources: medical screenings every 5 years, hospital data and register linkage. Results 192 persons had incident coronary heart disease during a median 12.3 year follow-up. After adjustment for the Framingham score, participants working ≥11 hours per day had a 1.67-fold (95% CI: 1.10-2.55) increased risk of coronary heart disease relative to those working 7-8 hours. The addition of working hours to the Framingham score led to a net reclassification improvement of 4.7% (p=0.034), resulting from a better identification of individuals who later developed coronary heart disease (sensitivity gain). Limitations The findings may not be generalizable to populations with a larger proportion of high-risk individuals. Furthermore, the predictive utility of working hours was not validated in an independent cohort. Conclusion Information on working hours may improve prediction of coronary heart disease risk based on the Framingham risk score in low-risk working populations. Primary Funding Source Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, BUPA Foundation, UK; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and National Institute on Aging, NIH

  8. Triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein, and Coronary Heart Disease brought together experts in lipid metabolism, epidemiologists, and clinicians as well as other health care professionals and the public to address the following questions: (1) is the relationship of high triglyceride and/or low HDL cholesterol with coronary heart disease causal? (2) Will reduction of high triglyceride and/or elevation of HDL cholesterol help prevent coronary heart disease? (3) Under what circumstances should triglycerides and HDL cholesterol be measured? (4) Under what circumstances should active intervention to lower triglyceride and/or raise HDL cholesterol be considered in high risk individuals and the general population? (5) What can be accomplished by dietary, other hygienic, and drug treatments? (6) What are the significant questions for future research? Following two days of presentations by experts and discussion by the audience, a consensus panel weighed the evidence and prepared their consensus statement. Among their findings, the panel concluded that (1) existing data provide considerable support for a causal relationship between low HDL and CHD; however, with respect to TG data are mixed and the evidence on a causal relationship is incomplete; (2) initial TG and/or HDL levels modify benefit achieved by lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); however, evidence from clinical trials is insufficient to draw conclusions about specific benefits of TG and/or HDL altering therapy; (3) HDL-C measurement should be added to total cholesterol measurement when evaluating CHD risk in healthy individuals provided accuracy of measurement, appropriate counseling, and followup can be assured; (4) there is general agreement with the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) guidelines that LDL-C is essential in cardiovascular risk assessment, as well as that persons with elevations of LDL-C greater than 150 mg

  9. Muscle metaboreflex-induced coronary vasoconstriction limits ventricular contractility during dynamic exercise in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Coutsos, Matthew; Sala-Mercado, Javier A.; Ichinose, Masashi; Li, ZhenHua; Dawe, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during dynamic exercise increases cardiac work and myocardial O2 demand via increases in heart rate, ventricular contractility, and afterload. This increase in cardiac work should lead to metabolic coronary vasodilation; however, no change in coronary vascular conductance occurs. This indicates that the MMA-induced increase in sympathetic activity to the heart, which raises heart rate, ventricular contractility, and cardiac output, also elicits coronary vasoconstriction. In heart failure, cardiac output does not increase with MMA presumably due to impaired ability to improve left ventricular contractility. In this setting actual coronary vasoconstriction is observed. We tested whether this coronary vasoconstriction could explain, in part, the reduced ability to increase cardiac performance during MMA. In conscious, chronically instrumented dogs before and after pacing-induced heart failure, MMA responses during mild exercise were observed before and after α1-adrenergic blockade (prazosin 20–50 μg/kg). During MMA, the increases in coronary vascular conductance, coronary blood flow, maximal rate of left ventricular pressure change, and cardiac output were significantly greater after α1-adrenergic blockade. We conclude that in subjects with heart failure, coronary vasoconstriction during MMA limits the ability to increase left ventricular contractility. PMID:23355344

  10. Muscle metaboreflex-induced coronary vasoconstriction limits ventricular contractility during dynamic exercise in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Coutsos, Matthew; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Ichinose, Masashi; Li, Zhenhua; Dawe, Elizabeth J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2013-04-01

    Muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during dynamic exercise increases cardiac work and myocardial O2 demand via increases in heart rate, ventricular contractility, and afterload. This increase in cardiac work should lead to metabolic coronary vasodilation; however, no change in coronary vascular conductance occurs. This indicates that the MMA-induced increase in sympathetic activity to the heart, which raises heart rate, ventricular contractility, and cardiac output, also elicits coronary vasoconstriction. In heart failure, cardiac output does not increase with MMA presumably due to impaired ability to improve left ventricular contractility. In this setting actual coronary vasoconstriction is observed. We tested whether this coronary vasoconstriction could explain, in part, the reduced ability to increase cardiac performance during MMA. In conscious, chronically instrumented dogs before and after pacing-induced heart failure, MMA responses during mild exercise were observed before and after α1-adrenergic blockade (prazosin 20-50 μg/kg). During MMA, the increases in coronary vascular conductance, coronary blood flow, maximal rate of left ventricular pressure change, and cardiac output were significantly greater after α1-adrenergic blockade. We conclude that in subjects with heart failure, coronary vasoconstriction during MMA limits the ability to increase left ventricular contractility.

  11. Coronary anatomy in children with bicuspid aortic valves and associated congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, Wilke M C; Bartelings, Margot M; Bökenkamp, Regina; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; DeRuiter, Marco C; Schalij, Martin J; Jongbloed, Monique Rm

    2017-07-27

    In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), coronary anatomy is variable. High take-off coronary arteries have been described, but data are scarce, especially when associated with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to describe coronary patterns in these patients. In 84 postmortem heart specimens with BAV and associated CHD, position and height of the coronary ostia were studied and related to BAV morphology. High take-off right (RCA) and left coronary arteries (LCA) were observed in 23% and 37% of hearts, respectively, most frequently in hearts with hypoplastic left ventricle (HLV) and outflow tract anomalies. In HLV, high take-off was observed in 18/40 (45%) more frequently of LCA (n=14) than RCA (n=6). In hearts with aortic hypoplasia, 8/13 (62%) had high take-off LCA and 6/13 (46%) high take-off RCA. High take-off was seen 19 times in 22 specimens with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (RCA 8, LCA 11). High take-off was associated with type 1A BAV (raphe between right and left coronary leaflets), more outspoken for the RCA. Separate ostia of left anterior descending coronary artery and left circumflex coronary artery were seen in four hearts (5%), not related to specific BAV morphology. High take-off coronary arteries, especially the LCA, occur more frequently in BAV with associated CHD than reported in normal hearts and isolated BAV. Outflow tract defects and HLV are associated with type 1A BAV and high take-off coronary arteries. Although it is unclear whether these findings in infants with detrimental outcome can be related to surviving adults, clinical awareness of variations in coronary anatomy is warranted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C.; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L.; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O’Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia. Background Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Methods Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Results Mental stress–induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress–induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with married men or men living with someone, unmarried men (OR: 2.57) and married women (OR: 3.18), or living alone (male OR: 2.25 and female OR: 2.72, respectively) had higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847) PMID:23410543

  13. Preservation of non-heart-beating donor livers in extracorporeal liver perfusion and histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate solution

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jin; Lao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xi-Mo; Long, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Shi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the preservation of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) livers in cold histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and extracorporeal liver perfusion (ECLP). METHODS: Livers harvested from health pigs were stored for 10 h in cold HTK solution (group A, n = 4) or perfused with oxygenated autologous blood at body temperature (group B, n = 4). Both groups were then tested on the circuit for 4 h. Bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of extracorporeal livers were tested in each group. Liver tissues from each group were examined at the end of reperfusion. RESULTS: At 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after reperfusion, bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of livers in group A were statistically different from those in group B (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: ECLP is better than HTK solution to preserve NHBD livers. ECLP can assess the graft viability before liver transplantation. PMID:18416459

  14. Preservation of non-heart-beating donor livers in extracorporeal liver perfusion and histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate solution.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jin; Lao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xi-Mo; Long, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Shi

    2008-04-21

    To compare the preservation of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) livers in cold histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and extracorporeal liver perfusion (ECLP). Livers harvested from healthy pigs were stored for 10 h in cold HTK solution (group A, n = 4) or perfused with oxygenated autologous blood at body temperature (group B, n = 4). Both groups were then tested on the circuit for 4 h. Bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of extracorporeal livers were tested in each group. Liver tissues from each group were examined at the end of reperfusion. At 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after reperfusion, bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of livers in group A were statistically different from those in group B (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). ECLP is better than HTK solution to preserve NHBD livers. ECLP can assess the graft viability before liver transplantation.

  15. Kyoto islet isolation method: the optimized one for non-heart-beating donors with highly efficient islet retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Iwanaga, Y; Noguchi, H; Nagata, H; Yonekawa, Y; Maekawa, T; Tanaka, K

    2005-10-01

    The availability of pancreata for clinical cadaveric islet transplantation is restricted to non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) in Japan. This forced us to modify the current standard islet isolation protocol that was made up for brain-dead donors and make it suitable for NHBDs. The Kyoto islet isolation method is the one with induction of several steps based on the ideas both already reported literally and invented originally by ourselves. Using this islet isolation method, we isolated islets from 13 human pancreata of NHBDs and transplanted 11 preparations to six type-1 diabetic patients. The rate to meet release criteria of Edmonton protocol was 84.6%. Establishment of this method allowed us to begin a clinical islet transplantation program in Japan and to continue to perform the preparation of islets from NHBDs with high rate to meet the release criteria of the Edmonton protocol.

  16. Early feasibility testing and engineering development of a sutureless beating heart connector for left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Steven C; Jimenez, Jorge H; West, Seth D; Sobieski, Michael A; Choi, Young; Monreal, Gretel; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Soucy, Kevin G; Slaughter, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    APK Advanced Medical Technologies (Atlanta, GA) is developing a sutureless beating heart (SBH) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) connector system consisting of anchoring titanium coil, titanium cannula with integrated silicone hemostatic valve, coring and delivery tool, and LVAD locking mechanism to facilitate LVAD inflow surgical procedures. Feasibility testing was completed in human cadavers (n = 4) under simulated normal and hypertensive conditions using saline to observe seal quality in degraded human tissue and assess anatomic fit; acutely in ischemic heart failure bovine model (n = 2) to investigate short-term performance and ease of use; and chronically for 30 days in healthy calves (n = 2) implanted with HeartWare HVAD to evaluate performance and biocompatibility. Complete hemostasis was achieved in human cadavers and animals at LV pressures up to 170 mm Hg. In animals, off-pump (no cardiopulmonary bypass) anchoring of the connector was accomplished in less than 1 minute with no residual bleeding after full delivery and locking of the LVAD; and implant of connector and LVAD were successfully completed in under 10 minutes with total procedure blood loss less than 100 ml. In chronic animals before necropsy, no signs of leakage or disruption at the attachment site were observed at systolic LV pressures >200 mm Hg.

  17. Early Feasibility Testing and Engineering Development of a Sutureless Beating Heart (SBH) Connector for Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVAD)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Steven C; Jimenez, Jorge H; West, Seth D; Sobieski, Michael A; Choi, Young; Monreal, Gretel; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Soucy, Kevin G; Slaughter, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    APK Advanced Medical Technologies (Atlanta, GA) is developing a sutureless beating heart (SBH) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) connector system consisting of anchoring titanium coil, titanium cannula with integrated silicone hemostatic valve, coring and delivery tool, and LVAD locking mechanism to facilitate LVAD inflow surgical procedures. Feasibility testing was completed in human cadavers (n=4) under simulated normal and hypertensive conditions using saline to observe seal quality in degraded human tissue and assess anatomic fit; acutely in ischemic heart failure (IHF) bovine model (n=2) to investigate short-term performance and ease of use; and chronically for 30-days in healthy calves (n=2) implanted with HeartWare HVAD to evaluate performance and biocompatibility. Complete hemostasis was achieved in human cadavers and animals at LV pressures up to 170 mmHg. In animals, off pump (no cardiopulmonary bypass) anchoring of the connector was accomplished in less than 1 minute with no residual bleeding after full delivery and locking of the LVAD; and implant of connector and LVAD were successfully completed in under 10 minutes with total procedure blood loss less than 100mL. In chronic animals prior to necropsy, no signs of leakage or disruption at the attachment site were observed at systolic LV pressures >200 mmHg. PMID:25238500

  18. "And the Beat Goes Ona... Building Artificial Hearts in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Among the many ideas and theories in anatomy and physiology, one particular topic provides all the potential benefits of learning about the human body: the circulatory system, specifically the heart. Describes a distinctive way to study circulation and the heart that allows students to explore the basic principles of vertebrate anatomy and…

  19. Sleep and wake phase of heart beat dynamics by artificial insymmetrised patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.

    2004-05-01

    In order to determine differences between healthy patients and patients with congestive heart failure we apply the artificial insymmetrised pattern (AIP) method. The AIP method by exploring a human eye ability to extract regularities and read symmetries in a dot pattern, serves a tool for qualitative discrimination of heart rate states.

  20. "And the Beat Goes Ona... Building Artificial Hearts in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Among the many ideas and theories in anatomy and physiology, one particular topic provides all the potential benefits of learning about the human body: the circulatory system, specifically the heart. Describes a distinctive way to study circulation and the heart that allows students to explore the basic principles of vertebrate anatomy and…

  1. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Liu, A-H; Jia, Z-W; Pu, K; Chen, K-Y; Guo, H

    2017-09-07

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis, we conducted a comparative analysis of DNA methylation patterns in right coronary arteries in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques (CAP), great saphenous vein (GSV), and internal mammary artery (IMA) of patients affected by coronary heart disease. DNA methylation data (accession number E‑GEOD-62867) were divided into three paired groups: CAP vs. IMA, CAP vs. GSV, and IMA vs. GSV. Differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were extracted to analyze the changes in the DMGs in the three different tissues. The gplots package was used for the clustering and heatmap analysis of DMGs. Subsequently, DMG-related pathways were identified using DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) and transcription factors (TFs) were predicted. Based on the filtering criterion of p < 0.05, and a mean beta value difference of ≥0.2, there were 252, 373, and 259 DMGs, respectively, in the CAP vs. IMA, CAP vs. GSV, and IMA vs. GSV groups. Interestingly, the S100A10 gene was hypomethylated in CAP compared with IMA and GSV. Clustering and heatmap analyses suggested that DMGs were segregated into two distinct clusters. Hypermethylated genes in CAP as compared with GSV were only involved in the pathway of fat digestion and absorption, while hypomethylated genes in CAP compared with GSV mainly participated in immune response-associated pathways (cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, MAPK signaling pathway). The DNA methylation differences in vascular tissues of patients with coronary artery disease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of atherosclerosis. The functions identified here-cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, MAPK signaling pathway, DMG (S100A10), and TF (NF-kB)-may serve as potential targets in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  2. Dietary quality 1 year after diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Chiriboga, David E; Griffith, Jennifer A; Bodenlos, Jamie; Wang, Yanli; Ockene, Ira S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this ancillary study is to determine the quality of diets in patients with documented coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary data were originally collected using a 24-hour dietary recall in 555 patients with CHD, 1 year after a diagnostic coronary angiography. Data used for this investigation were collected between March 2001 and November 2003. Patients were participants in a clinical trial to improve adherence to lipid-lowering medications. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index, an instrument designed to evaluate the degree to which a diet has the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease, measured dietary quality. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of dietary quality with patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Mean age of participants was 61 years, with an average body mass index of 30 (calculated as kg/m(2)). Sixty percent were men. Average daily caloric intake was 1,775 kcal, with 50% of calories derived from carbohydrates, 18% from protein, and 32% from total fat. Average Alternate Healthy Eating Index score was 30.8 out of a possible maximum score of 80. Only 12.4% of subjects met the recommended consumption of vegetables, 7.8% for fruit, 8% for cereal fiber, and 5.2% for trans-fat intake. Lower dietary quality was associated with lower total caloric intake, as well as with smoking, obesity, and lower educational level. A high proportion of patients reported poor dietary quality 1 year after experiencing a coronary event. Our data support continued efforts to enhance healthful dietary changes over time for secondary prevention of CHD. Dietary change should be emphasized with CHD patients who are less educated, smokers, or obese.

  3. Beating-heart implantation of adjustable length mitral valve chordae: acute and chronic experience in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Francesco; Cioni, Micaela; Seeburger, Joerg; Falk, Volkmar; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Mack, Michael J; Alfieri, Ottavio; Vanermen, Hugo

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the acute and chronic performance of a new system designed to conduct beating-heart implantation and off-pump adjustment of neochordal length. In 14 adult sheep (group A) selected to undergo beating-heart cardiopulmonary bypass, the left atrium was opened through a left thoracotomy. Two or more primary chordae in the A2 region were severed to produce a model of a flail leaflet. A chordal adjustment mechanism (V-Chordal, Valtech Cardio Ltd., Or-Yehuda, Israel) was affixed to the head of the papillary muscle. The system includes two adjustable neochordae. The distal end of the neochordae was sutured to the flail segment without estimating the appropriate length. The neochordal length was adjusted off-pump under real-time echo-guidance. The adjustment tool was removed and the atriotomy was closed with a purse-string suture. Control animals (group B, n=4) were implanted with the conventional neochordae. Animals in both groups were sacrificed 3 months after the procedure. In both groups, prior to repair, mitral regurgitation (MR) was severe in all animals. In group A, following adjustment of neochordae, MR was absent in all animals, with the exception of two animals that had residual 2+ MR irresponsive to neochordae adjustments. In group B, MR was 2+ in two of the four animals following repair. At 3 months, mitral competence was stable in all animals. At necropsy, normal healing of the papillary head and leaflet was observed in both the groups. The V-Chordal system simplifies the process of neochordal implantation and precise off-pump adjustment of the neochordal length to correct MR occurring due to a flail leaflet. This technology may improve the technical feasibility for adoption of chordal repair during open or minimally invasive surgical procedures. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Heart Rate Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi Anari, Leila; Ghanbari-Firoozabadi, Mahdieh; Ansari, Zahra; Emami, Mahmoud; Vafaii Nasab, Mohammadreza; Nemaiande, Mahdieh; Boostany, Fatemeh; Neishaboury, Mohamadreza

    2015-10-27

    It has been suggested that the autonomic system function and the metabolic syndrome can significantly affect patients' survival. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of the cardiac rehabilitation program on the autonomic system balance in patients with coronary artery disease. Patients with a previous diagnosis of coronary artery disease who were referred to the Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Center of Afshar Hospital (Yazd, Iran) between March and November 2011 were enrolled. All the patients participated in rehabilitation sessions 3 times a week for 12 weeks. Heart rate recovery (HRR) was measured as an indicator of the autonomic system balance. In order to calculate HRR, the maximum heart rate during the exercise test was recorded. At the end of the exercise test, the patients were asked to sit down without having a cooldown period and their heart rate was recorded again after 1 minute. The difference between these 2 measurements was considered as HRR. A total of 108 patients, including 86 (79.6%) men and 22 (20.4%) women, completed the rehabilitation course. The mean age of the study participants was 58.25 ± 9.83 years. A statistically significant improvement was observed in HRR (p value = 0.040). Significant declines were also observed in the patients' waist circumference (p value < 0.001) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p value = 0.018 and 0.003, respectively). A decreasing trend was observed in the patients' body mass index, but it failed to reach statistical significance (p value = 0.063). No statistically meaningful changes were noted in fasting blood glucose (p value = 0.171), high-density lipoprotein (p value = 0.070), or triglyceride concentrations (p value = 0.149). The cardiac rehabilitation program may help to improve HRR and several components of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease.

  5. Dissecting the causal genetic mechanisms of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clint L.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 46 loci that are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Additionally, 104 independent candidate variants (false discovery rate of 5%) have been identified.1–3 A majority of the causal genes in these loci function independently of conventional risk factors, and it is postulated that a number of the CHD associated genes regulate basic processes in the vascular cells involved in atherosclerosis, and that study of the signaling pathways that are modulated in this cell type by causal regulatory variation will provide critical new insights for targeting the initiation and progression of disease. In this review we will discuss the types of experimental approaches and data that are critical for understanding of molecular processes that underlie the disease risk at 9p21.3, TCF21, SORT1, and other CHD associated loci. PMID:24623178

  6. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women.

    PubMed

    Rees, Margaret; Stevenson, John

    2008-03-01

    The British Menopause Society Council is committed to provide up-to-date authoritative reviews to aid health professionals to inform and advise women about key issues in postreproductive health. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death in women. Observational studies have consistently shown estrogen to help prevent CHD in postmenopausal women. The large randomized controlled Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial did not confirm these observational findings. However, further analyses of the WHI study as well as the observational Nurses' Health Study have now found that the timing of onset of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use is important and that estrogen may have a protective role in CHD in women aged 50-59 years. This consensus statement will examine the evidence regarding HRT and non-estrogen therapies (lipid lowering agents, aspirin, antihypertensives, antidiabetic medications, selective estrogen receptor modulators [SERMs]) as well as diet, lifestyle and smoking cessation in the primary prevention of CHD in women.

  7. Coronary heart disease index based on longitudinal electrocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    A coronary heart disease index was developed from longitudinal ECG (LCG) tracings to serve as a cardiac health measure in studies of working and, essentially, asymptomatic populations, such as pilots and executives. For a given subject, the index consisted of a composite score based on the presence of LCG aberrations and weighted values previously assigned to them. The index was validated by correlating it with the known presence or absence of CHD as determined by a complete physical examination, including treadmill, resting ECG, and risk factor information. The validating sample consisted of 111 subjects drawn by a stratified-random procedure from 5000 available case histories. The CHD index was found to be significantly more valid as a sole indicator of CHD than the LCG without the use of the index. The index consistently produced higher validity coefficients in identifying CHD than did treadmill testing, resting ECG, or risk factor analysis.

  8. Coronary heart disease index based on longitudinal electrocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    A coronary heart disease index was developed from longitudinal ECG (LCG) tracings to serve as a cardiac health measure in studies of working and, essentially, asymptomatic populations, such as pilots and executives. For a given subject, the index consisted of a composite score based on the presence of LCG aberrations and weighted values previously assigned to them. The index was validated by correlating it with the known presence or absence of CHD as determined by a complete physical examination, including treadmill, resting ECG, and risk factor information. The validating sample consisted of 111 subjects drawn by a stratified-random procedure from 5000 available case histories. The CHD index was found to be significantly more valid as a sole indicator of CHD than the LCG without the use of the index. The index consistently produced higher validity coefficients in identifying CHD than did treadmill testing, resting ECG, or risk factor analysis.

  9. Reductionism and holism in coronary heart disease and cardiac nursing.

    PubMed

    Chummun, Harry

    Reductionism and holism are two contrasting philosophies which provide scientific knowledge of disease processes, health dynamics and care interventions. While reductionism focuses on specific and perhaps narrow concepts, it enhances our in-depth knowledge of key health issues. Holism focuses on understanding how all the significant factors affecting the particular health issue are involved, so a more informed decision can be made about health intervention. This article explores the contribution each makes to our understanding of coronary heart disease (CHD) and to the preparation of nurses working in cardiac nursing. It proposes that pre- and post-registration nursing curricula reflect both reductionist and holistic approaches and therefore cardiac nurses are suitably trained to manage reductionist as well as holistic care for clients with CHD.

  10. Pulpal inflammation and incidence of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Joshipura, Kaumudi J; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A; Douglass, Chester W

    2006-02-01

    Pulpal inflammation is primarily caused by coronal caries, and leads to root canal therapy (RCT). Chronic inflammation has been associated with various cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluates the association between pulpal inflammation (using RCT as a surrogate) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD). We report results among males from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), excluding participants with prior cardiovascular disease or diabetes. We obtained RCT data from the HPFS cohort (n = 34,683). Compared to men without RCT, those with >/=1 RCT had a multivariate RR of 1.21 (95% CI 1.05-1.40) for CHD. The association was limited to dentists (RR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.67). There was no association among nondentists (RR = 1.03). Dental caries was not associated with CHD. The results suggest a possible modest association between pulpal inflammation and CHD.

  11. Oral health indicators poorly predict coronary heart disease deaths.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, R; Reunanen, A; Paunio, M; Paunio, I; Aromaa, A

    2003-09-01

    Several earlier studies have suggested that development of coronary heart disease (CHD) is causally related to oral infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between oral health indicators and CHD deaths. Out of a nationally representative sample, 6527 men and women aged 30-69 years participated in the health examination with a dental check. Detailed oral health data included caries, periodontal and dental plaque status, presence of remaining teeth, and various types of dentures. Over a mean 12-year follow-up, persons dying of CHD were older and more often smoked, had hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and only a basic education compared with other persons. In univariate analyses, several oral health indicators were associated with CHD deaths. Adjustment for the established CHD risk factors reduced all these associations to statistical non-significance. The associations between oral health indicators and CHD are mostly explained by confounding factors, particularly those relating to health behavior.

  12. Lesions of endodontic origin and risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Caplan, D J; Chasen, J B; Krall, E A; Cai, J; Kang, S; Garcia, R I; Offenbacher, S; Beck, J D

    2006-11-01

    A paucity of epidemiologic research exists regarding systemic health consequences of endodontic disease. This study evaluated whether incident radiographically evident lesions of endodontic origin were related to development of coronary heart disease (CHD) among 708 male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. At baseline and every three years for up to 32 years, participants (who were not VA patients) received complete medical and dental examinations, including full-mouth radiographs. Cox regression models estimated the relationship between incident lesions of endodontic origin and time to CHD diagnosis. Among those < or = 40 years old, incident lesions of endodontic origin were significantly associated with time to CHD diagnosis (p < 0.05), after adjustment for covariates of interest, with hazard ratios decreasing as age increased. Among those > 40 years old, no statistically significant association was observed. These findings are consistent with research that suggests relationships between chronic periodontal inflammation and the development of CHD, especially among younger men.

  13. Blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Volumetric blood flow velocity was supporting on constant level (1 ml/h). Silicone tube of diameter comparable with coronary arteries diameter was used as vessel model. Cell-cell interactions were studied under glucose and anticoagulants influence. Increased adhesiveness of blood cells to tube walls was revealed in patient with coronary heart disease (CHD) compare to practically healthy persons (PHP). In patients with stable angina pectoris of high functional class and patients with AMI shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were predominating in blood flow structure up to microclots formation. Clotting and erythrocytes aggregation increase as response to glucose solution injection, sharply defined in patients with CHD. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with CHD and PHP. After compare our results with other author's data we can consider that method used in our study is sensible enough to investigate blood flow structure violations in patients with CHD and PHP. Several differences of cell-cell interaction in flow under glucose and anticoagulant influence were found out in patients with CHD and PHP.

  14. [Helicobacter pylori and coronary heart diseases--hypotheses and facts].

    PubMed

    Menge, H; Lang, A; Brosius, B; Hopert, R; Löllgen, H

    2000-04-01

    In 1994 Mendall et al. (9) have suggested that there might be a correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and coronary heart disease (CHD), mediated by a chronic low-grade acute phase reaction with mildly raised serum or plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. According to this hypothesis, a gastric HP colonization might be an additional risk factor for CHD. In the meantime, 35 studies have examined whether HP seropositivity is associated with CHD occurrence. However, in 8 publications only CHD was definitively proven (in CHD+ patients) or excluded (in the corresponding control groups) by coronary artery angiography, and in only 2 of them (1 abstract, 1 full-length publication) a significant association between HP positivity (serologically proven) and CHD was ascertained. Additionally, a metaanalysis of 18 studies including 10,000 patients could not demonstrate any correlations between HP seropositivity and different acute phase proteins (66). Thus, a positive correlation between gastric HP colonization and CHD is far from being proven. Further proposed links between HP infection and CHD such as hyperhomocysteinemia (67) or autoimmune mechanisms (71) due to cross-reacting antibodies to HP HSP60/65 (heat shock protein) with human endothel-derived HSP60/65 need further confirmation.

  15. National prevalence of coronary heart disease and its relationship with human development index: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ke-Fu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Zhou, Qin-Yi; Wang, Ning-Fu

    2016-03-01

    Coronary heart disease has become a major health concern over the past several decades. Several reviews have assessed the effects of socioeconomic status on the coronary heart disease epidemic in communities and countries, but only a few reviews have been performed at a global level. This study was to explore the relationship between the prevalence of coronary heart disease and socioeconomic development worldwide using the Human Development Index. Systematic review. The data in this study were collected from the MEDLINE database. Cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of coronary heart disease until November 2014 were collected. The Human Development Index was sourced from the United Nations Development Programme Database and was used to measure the socioeconomic achievements of countries. Each country was classified as a developing or developed country based on its level of development according to the Human Development Index value. Based on the data analysis on the global level, coronary heart disease prevalence had no association with the national Human Development Index (rho = 0.07). However, there was a positive association between coronary heart disease prevalence and the national Human Development Index in developing countries, although a negative association existed in developed countries (rho = 0.47 and -0.34, respectively). In addition, the past decades have witnessed a growing coronary heart disease epidemic in developing countries, with reverse trends observed in developed countries (P = 0.021 and 0.002, respectively). With the development of socioeconomic status, as measured by the Human Development Index, the prevalence of coronary heart disease is growing in developing countries, while declining in developed countries. Future research needs to pay more attention to the reasonable allocation of medical resources and control of coronary heart disease risk factors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  16. Ethnic Differences in Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a Large Contemporary Population.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jamal S; Liu, Jennifer Y; Moffet, Howard H; Jaffe, Marc G; Sidney, Stephen; Karter, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in diabetes and cardiovascular disease are well documented, but disease estimates are often confounded by differences in access to quality health care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethnic differences in risk of future coronary heart disease in patient populations stratified by status of diabetes mellitus and prior coronary heart disease among those with uniform access to care in an integrated healthcare delivery system in Northern California. A cohort was constructed consisting of 1,344,899 members with self-reported race/ethnicity, aged 30-90 years, and followed from 2002 through 2012. Cox proportional hazard regression models were specified to estimate race/ethnicity-specific hazard ratios for coronary heart disease (with whites as the reference category) separately in four clinical risk categories: (1) no diabetes with no prior coronary heart disease; (2) no diabetes with prior coronary heart disease; (3) diabetes with no prior coronary heart disease; and (4) diabetes with prior coronary heart disease. Analyses were performed in 2015. The median follow-up was 10 years (10,980,800 person-years). Compared with whites, blacks, Latinos, and Asians generally had lower risk of coronary heart disease across all clinical risk categories, with the exception of blacks with prior coronary heart disease and no diabetes having higher risk than whites. Findings were not substantively altered after multivariate adjustments. Identification of health outcomes in a system with uniform access to care reveals residual racial/ethnic differences and point to opportunities to improve health in specific subgroups and to improve health equity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of the Aging Population on Coronary Heart Disease in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Michelle C.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Moran, Andrew; Lightwood, James M.; Goldman, Lee; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Background The demographic shift toward an older population in the U.S. will result in a higher burden of coronary heart disease, but the increase has not been quantified in detail. We sought to estimate the impact of the aging U.S. population on coronary heart disease. Methods We used the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model, a Markov model of the U.S. population aged 35–84 years, and U.S. Census projections to model the age structure of the population from 2010–2040. Results Assuming no substantive changes in risks factors or treatments, incident coronary heart disease is projected to increase by approximately 26%, from 981,000 in 2010 to 1,234,000 in 2040, and prevalent coronary heart disease by 47%, from 11.7 million to 17.3 million. Mortality will be affected strongly by the aging population; annual coronary heart disease deaths are projected to increase by 56% over the next 30 years, from 392,000 to 610,000. Coronary heart disease-related health care costs are projected to rise by 41% from $126.2 billion in 2010 to $177.5 billion in 2040 in the U.S. It may be possible to offset the increase in disease burden through achievement of Healthy People 2010/2020 objectives or interventions that substantially reduce obesity, blood pressure, or cholesterol levels in the population. Conclusions Without considerable changes in risk factors or treatments, the aging of the U.S. population will result in a sizeable increase in coronary heart disease incidence, prevalence, mortality, and costs. Health care stakeholders need to plan for future age-related health care demands of coronary heart disease. PMID:21722862

  18. Aspirin use for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rodondi, Nicolas; Vittinghoff, Eric; Cornuz, Jacques; Butler, Javed; Ding, Jingzhong; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Hulley, Stephen B; Bauer, Douglas C

    2005-11-01

    Aspirin for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (has a more favorable risk/benefit profile among adults with high coronary heart disease risk than among low-risk adults, but there is little information on the current patterns of aspirin use for primary prevention. We determined the prevalence of aspirin use in relation to coronary heart disease risk and changes over time. We measured regular aspirin use in 2163 black and white older adults without cardiovascular disease in a population-based cohort from 1997 to 1998 and 2002 to 2003. We determined the 10-year coronary heart disease risk by using the Framingham risk score. In 1997-1998, 17% of the cohort were regular aspirin users. Aspirin use increased with coronary heart disease risk from 13% in persons with a 10-year risk less than 6% (low risk) to 23% in those with a 10-year risk greater than 20% (highest risk) (P for trend < .001). Blacks were less likely to use aspirin (13%) than whites (20%). In multivariate analysis, black race was still associated with lower aspirin use (odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.89). In 1997-1998 and 2002 to 2003, aspirin use increased from 17% to 32% among those still free of coronary heart disease (P < .001), and the association with coronary heart disease risk continued (P for trend < .001). Despite their high coronary heart disease risk, diabetic persons were not more likely to use aspirin than nondiabetic persons, even in 2002 and 2003 (odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.56-1.40). Regular use of aspirin by older adults with no history of cardiovascular disease has increased in recent years. Individuals at higher coronary heart disease risk are more likely to take aspirin, but there is room for considerable improvement in targeting those at high risk, particularly diabetic persons and blacks.

  19. From Cardiac Tissue Engineering to Heart-on-a-Chip: Beating Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Aleman, Julio; Arneri, Andrea; Bersini, Simone; Piraino, Francesco; Shin, Su Ryon; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The heart is one of the most vital organs in the human body, which actively pumps the blood through the vascular network to supply nutrients to as well as to extract wastes from all other organs, maintaining the homeostasis of the biological system. Over the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been exerted in engineering functional cardiac tissues for heart regeneration via biomimetic approaches. More recently, progresses have been achieved towards the transformation of knowledge obtained from cardiac tissue engineering to building physiologically relevant microfluidic human heart models (i.e. heart-on-chips) for applications in drug discovery. The advancement in the stem cell technologies further provides the opportunity to create personalized in vitro models from cells derived from patients. Here starting from the heart biology, we review recent advances in engineering cardiac tissues and heart-on-a-chip platforms for their use in heart regeneration and cardiotoxic/cardiotherapeutic drug screening, and then briefly conclude with characterization techniques and personalization potential of the cardiac models. PMID:26065674

  20. From cardiac tissue engineering to heart-on-a-chip: beating challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Aleman, Julio; Arneri, Andrea; Bersini, Simone; Piraino, Francesco; Shin, Su Ryon; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-06-11

    The heart is one of the most vital organs in the human body, which actively pumps the blood through the vascular network to supply nutrients to as well as to extract wastes from all other organs, maintaining the homeostasis of the biological system. Over the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been exerted in engineering functional cardiac tissues for heart regeneration via biomimetic approaches. More recently, progress has been made toward the transformation of knowledge obtained from cardiac tissue engineering to building physiologically relevant microfluidic human heart models (i.e. heart-on-chips) for applications in drug discovery. The advancement in stem cell technologies further provides the opportunity to create personalized in vitro models from cells derived from patients. Here, starting from heart biology, we review recent advances in engineering cardiac tissues and heart-on-a-chip platforms for their use in heart regeneration and cardiotoxic/cardiotherapeutic drug screening, and then briefly conclude with characterization techniques and personalization potential of the cardiac models.

  1. Aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease depending on different glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2002-07-01

    The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.

  2. Main tributaries of the coronary sinus in the adult human heart.

    PubMed

    Duda, B; Grzybiak, M

    1998-01-01

    The coronary sinus collects blood from the heart walls. It is a structure which presently plays a very important clinical role in invasive cardology. In this study, the occurrence of the main tributaries of the coronary sinus was examined as wall as the topography of their outlet portions. Material consistied of 150 adult human hearts of both sexes from aged 18 to 85 years. In the examined material, the graet and middle cardiac veins as well as the posterior vein of the left ventricle were always obserwed. The remaining tributaries of the coronary sinus were less stable. The outlet portions of the main veins of the heart were characterized by significant variability.

  3. Heart failure with silent coronary artery spasm exhibiting microscopic focal myocardial necrosis and amyloid-deposition.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru; Sugiyama, Seigo; Usuku, Hiroki; Hirai, Nobutaka; Kaikita, Koichi; Sakashita, Naomi; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Michihiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2004-03-01

    We report a 67-year-old Japanese man who presented with worsening heart failure with asymptomatically transient ischemic ST-segment depression. Left ventriculography showed diffuse hypokinesis; asymptomatic coronary artery spasm was evoked by the acetylcholine provocation test. Endomyocardial biopsy exhibited hypertrophic cardiomyocytes and scattered microscopic focal myocardial necrosis with amyloid-deposition. Transient ST-segment depression improved after treatment with a calcium antagonist, but cardiac contraction was still impaired. We hypothesize that asymptomatic coronary spasm may cause irreversible cardiac damage and heart failure with amyloid-deposition; the presence or absence of coronary spasm in heart failure patients should be clarified in order to determine therapeutic strategy.

  4. The relationship of myocardial bridges to coronary artery dominance in the adult human heart.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Curry, Brian; Bowers, Maggi; Louis, Robert G; Bartczak, Artur; Kiedrowski, Miroslaw; Kamionek, Michal; Fudalej, Martin; Wagner, Teresa

    2006-07-01

    Myocardial bridging is recognized as an anatomical variation of the human coronary circulation in which an epicardial artery lies in the myocardium for part of its course. Thus, the vessel is 'bridged' by myocardium. The anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery has been reported as the most common site of myocardial bridges but other locations have been reported. The purpose of this study was to provide more definitive information on the vessels with myocardial bridges, the length and depth of the bridged segment, and the relationship between the presence of bridges and coronary dominance. Two hundred formalin-fixed human hearts were examined. Myocardial bridges were found in 69 (34.5%) of the hearts with a total of 81 bridges. One bridge was found in 59 of these hearts and multiple bridges were observed in ten (eight with double bridges and two with triple bridges). Bridges were most often found over the anterior interventricular artery (35 hearts). Bridges were also found over the diagonal branch of the left coronary artery (14), over the left marginal branch (five) and over the inferior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery (six). Bridges were also found over the right coronary artery (15 hearts), over the right marginal branch (four) and over the inferior interventricular branch of the right coronary artery (two). The presence of bridges appeared to be related to coronary dominance, especially in the left coronary circulation. Forty-six (66.6%) of the hearts with bridges were left dominant. Forty-two of these had bridges over the left coronary circulation and four over the right coronary circulation. Seventeen hearts (24.6%) were right dominant. Eleven of these had bridges over the right coronary circulation and six over the left coronary circulation. The remaining six hearts were co-dominant with four having bridges over the left coronary circulation and two over the right coronary circulation. The mean length of the bridges

  5. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  6. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  7. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is...

  8. Effect of microwave radiation on the beating rate of isolated frog hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, K.C.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and two isolated frog hearts were divided into ten groups and placed individually in a waveguide filled with Ringer's solution and exposed to 2,450-MHz CW radiation at 2 and 8.55 W/kg. Heart rate was recorded using one of the following methods: 3-M KCl glass electrode, ultrasound probe, tension transducer, Ringer's solution glass electrode, and a metal wire inserted in the Ringer's solution electrode. An accelerated decrease of heart rate was observed only in those groups recorded using the 3-M KCl electrode and the metal wire Ringer's solution electrode. No effect was found in the other groups. These results indicate that bradycardia in isolated hearts could be caused by electrode artifacts resulting from the intensification of electromagnetic fields.

  9. Effect of microwave radiation on the beating rate of isolated frog hearts.

    PubMed

    Yee, K C; Chou, C K; Guy, A W

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and two isolated frog hearts were divided into ten groups and placed individually in a waveguide filled with Ringer's solution and exposed to 2,450-MHz CW radiation at 2 and 8.55 W/kg. Heart rate was recorded using one of the following methods: 3-M KCl glass electrode, ultrasound probe, tension transducer, Ringer's solution glass electrode, and a metal wire inserted in the Ringer's solution electrode. An accelerated decrease of heart rate was observed only in those groups recorded using the 3-M KCl electrode and the metal wire Ringer's solution electrode. No effect was found in the other groups. These results indicate that bradycardia in isolated hearts could be caused by electrode artifacts resulting from the intensification of electromagnetic fields.

  10. Association between Six Minute Walk Test and All-Cause Mortality, Coronary Heart Disease-Specific Mortality, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanyar, Ali; Aziz, Michael M; Enright, Paul L; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Boudreau, Robert; Sutton-Tyrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis; Newman, Anne B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between six-minute walk test (6 MWT) performance and all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, and incident coronary heart disease in older adults. Methods We conducted a time-to-event analysis of 1,665 Cardiovascular Health Study participants with a 6 MWT and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Results During a mean follow-up of 8 years, there were 305 incident coronary heart disease events, 504 deaths of which 100 were coronary heart disease-related deaths. The 6 MWT performance in the shortest two distance quintiles was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (290-338 meters: HR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5; <290 meters: HR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0). The adjusted risk of coronary heart disease mortality incident events among those with a 6 MWT <290 meters was not significant. Discussion Performance on the 6 MWT is independently associated with all-cause mortality and is of prognostic utility in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24695552

  11. Clinical implications of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation versus beating-heart technique during cardiopulmonary bypass for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Jungho; Song, In-Kyung; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Chong-Sung; Kim, Woong-Han; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation and beating-heart techniques during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on postoperative outcomes after simple pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We retrospectively reviewed the data of 47 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot at a single institution, who received pulmonary valve replacement under the ventricular fibrillation or beating-heart technique without cardioplegic cardiac arrest during CPB between January 2005 and April 2015. The patients were divided into fibrillation (n = 32) and beating-heart (n = 15) groups. On comparing these groups, the fibrillation group had a larger sinotubular junction (27.1 ± 4.6 vs 22.1 ± 2.4 mm), had a longer operation duration (396 ± 108 vs 345 ± 57 min), required more postoperative transfusions (2.1 ± 2.6 vs 5.0 ± 6.3 units) and had a higher vasoactive-inotropic score at intensive care unit admission (8.0 vs 10, all P < 0.05). Echocardiographic data indicated that the systolic internal diameter of the left ventricle was larger in the fibrillation group than in the beating-heart group immediately after surgery and at the 1-year follow-up. Major adverse cardiac events occurred in 3 cases, all from the fibrillation group. Among 7 patients from the fibrillation group with transoesophageal echocardiography data during CPB, 6 had fully opened aortic valves during fibrillation, causing flooding into the left ventricle and left ventricle distension. The postoperative outcomes are worse with the ventricular fibrillation technique than with the beating-heart technique during CPB for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

  12. The "Moving Heart Program": an intervention to improve physical activity among patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; João, Thaís Moreira São; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa

    2013-01-01

    this paper reports the results of a nursing-administered theory-based intervention, the "Moving Heart Program", based on the implementation intention theory and pointed at improving physical activity adherence among coronary heart disease outpatients in Brazil. this experimental study applied assessments at baseline, 1 and 2 months after baseline. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement was followed. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention, comprising action and coping plans on how to deal with anticipated barriers (n=69), or a standard-care control group (n=67). participants submitted to the intervention showed significant higher levels of physical activity 2 months after baseline and were significantly more active than the control group. the results indicate that the intervention is feasible for patients with coronary heart disease and can be a useful tool to facilitate intended lifestyle changes. This study brings relevant contributions to the Nursing field and other health-related areas, once the intervention presents low cost to health services and can be applied in cardiac rehabilitation programs, showing significant benefits to participants.

  13. [Physical exercise and sport activities in patients with and without coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Francavilla, Giuseppe; Abrignani, Maurizio Giuseppe; Braschi, Annabella; Sciacca, Rosalba; Francavilla, Vincenzo Christian; Caracciolo, Marco Malvezzi; Renda, Nicola; Riccio, Carmine; Scaglione, Anna; Braschi, Giambattista

    2007-06-01

    The quantity and intensity of physical activity required for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between physical activity and coronary risk. We studied 100 patients with chest pain, 78 men and 22 women, not older than 65 years, admitted to a coronary care unit. Patients were subdivided in 3 groups: the first group included patients with acute myocardial infarction, the second group included patients with chronic heart disease, the third included patients with non-ischemic chest-pain. A questionnaire on daily physical activity was filled by each patient. A significantly higher percentage of patients with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease had a sedentary life style compared to patients of the third group. Compared with subjects without heart disease, a significantly higher percentage of patients of the first and second group covered a daily average distance shorter than 500 meters, while a significantly inferior percentage covered a distance longer than 1 Km every day. A significantly lower percentage of patients with coronary heart disease practised sport compared with the third group. At the time of hospitalization a very small percentage of coronary heart disease patients still practised sport. The association between physical activity and reduced coronary risk is clear; in order to obtain benefits it is sufficient just walking every day. Regarding physical activity, continuity is important: patients, who practised sport only in juvenile age, breaking off when older, may lose the obtained advantages.

  14. Coronary Arteries in Childhood Heart Disease: Implications for Management of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baraona, Fernando; Valente, Anne Marie; Porayette, Prashob; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Sanders, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of patients with congenital heart defects has improved dramatically. Many will undergo interventional catheter or surgical procedures later in life. Others will develop atherosclerotic or post-surgical coronary heart disease. The coronary artery anatomy in patients with congenital heart disease differs substantially from that seen in the structurally normal heart. This has implications for diagnostic procedures as well as interventions. The unique epicardial course seen in some defects could impair interpretation of coronary angiograms. Interventional procedures, especially at the base of the heart, risk injuring unusually placed coronary arteries so that coronary artery anatomy must be delineated thoroughly prior to the procedure. In this review, we will describe the variants of coronary artery anatomy and their implications for interventional and surgical treatment and for sudden death during late follow-up in several types of congenital heart defects including: tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries and defects with functionally one ventricle. We will also discuss the coronary abnormalities seen in Kawasaki disease. PMID:24294539

  15. Correlation study on waist circumference-triglyceride (WT) index and coronary artery scores in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, R-F; Liu, X-Y; Lin, Z; Zhang, G

    2015-01-01

    Coronary disease is analyzed through common lipid profiles, but these analyses fail to account for residual risk due to abdominal weight and elevated TG levels. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the waist circumference × triglyceride index (WT index) and the Coronary Artery Score (CAS) in patients with coronary heart disease. 346 patients in our Cardiology Department were recruited from September 2007 to August 2011 and divided into two groups according to whether the patients presented with metabolic syndrome. We performed coronary angiography using the standard Judkins method. The severity of coronary artery stenosis and the CAS were calculated and analyzed with a computerized quantitative analysis system. The signs index, which includes the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip-ratio, and waist-height-ratio, the blood glucose and blood lipid index of all the patients were collected and used to calculate the WT index (waist circumference x triglyceride index. We performed a correlative analysis with age, gender, body mass index, blood glucose and blood lipid, blood pressure and other risk indicators of all patients as the dependent variables and the CAS as the independent variable. We show that the CAS is positively correlated to the WT index. Several lipid profiles and waist circumference were significantly associated with the CAS. The WT index is correlated to the CAS and is a good predictor for the development of coronary artery disease; it can be applied in the clinic for early intervention in populations at risk for coronary heart disease.

  16. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in College Students12

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    More than one-half of young adults aged 18–24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction. PMID:24618758

  17. Coronary heart disease risk factors in college students.

    PubMed

    Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E

    2014-03-01

    More than one-half of young adults aged 18-24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction.

  18. Milk and other dietary influences on coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    While dietary links to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality have been studied for many years, the correlation has not clearly been resolved, especially for older populations. In this paper, a multi-country statistical approach involving 32 countries is used to find dietary links to IHD and CHD for various age groups aged 35+. For IHD, milk carbohydrates were found to have the highest statistical association for males aged 35+ and females aged 65+, while for females aged 35-64, sugar was found to have the highest association. In the case of CHD, non-fat milk was found to have the highest association for males aged 45+ and females aged 75+, while for females 65-74, milk carbohydrates and sugar had the highest associations, and for females aged 45-64, sugar had the highest association. A number of mechanisms have been proposed in the literature that might explain the milk carbohydrate or non-fat milk association. One of the most prominent theories is that animal proteins contribute to homocysteine (Hcy) production; however, milk more than meat lacks adequate B vitamins to convert Hcy to useful products. Lactose and calcium in conjunction with Hcy from consumption of non-fat milk may also contribute to calcification of the arteries.

  19. Asymptotic dental score and prevalent coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Janket, Sok-Ja; Qvarnström, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H; Baird, Alison E; Nuutinen, Pekka; Jones, Judith A

    2004-03-09

    Oral infections have been postulated to produce cytokines that may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that by estimating the combined production of inflammatory mediators attributable to several oral pathologies, we might be able to explain CHD with better precision. A total of 256 consecutive Finnish cardiac patients from Kuopio University Hospital with angiographically confirmed CHD and 250 age-, gender-, and residence-matched noncardiac patients (controls) were recruited. All dental factors expected to generate inflammatory mediators, including pericoronitis, dental caries, dentate status, root remnants, and gingivitis, were examined, and an asymptotic dental score (ADS) was developed by logistic regression analyses with an appropriate weighting scheme according to the likelihood ratio. We validated the explanatory ability of ADS by comparing it to that of the Total Dental Index and examining whether the ADS was associated with known predictors of CHD. A model that included ADS, C-reactive protein, HDL, and fibrinogen offered an explanatory ability that equaled or exceeded that of the Framingham heart score (C statistic=0.82 versus 0.80). When ADS was removed from this model, the C-statistic decreased to 0.77, which indicates that the ADS was a significant contributor to the explanatory ability of a logistic model. ADS may be useful as a prescreening tool to promote proactive cardiac evaluation among individuals without overt symptoms of CHD. However, additional prospective study is needed to validate the use of an oral health score as a predictor of incident CHD.

  20. Milk and other dietary influences on coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    While dietary links to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality have been studied for many years, the correlation has not clearly been resolved, especially for older populations. In this paper, a multi-country statistical approach involving 32 countries is used to find dietary links to IHD and CHD for various age groups aged 35+. For IHD, milk carbohydrates were found to have the highest statistical association for males aged 35+ and females aged 65+, while for females aged 35-64, sugar was found to have the highest association. In the case of CHD, non-fat milk was found to have the highest association for males aged 45+ and females aged 75+, while for females 65-74, milk carbohydrates and sugar had the highest associations, and for females aged 45-64, sugar had the highest association. A number of mechanisms have been proposed in the literature that might explain the milk carbohydrate or non-fat milk association. One of the most prominent theories is that animal proteins contribute to homocysteine (Hcy) production; however, milk more than meat lacks adequate B vitamins to convert Hcy to useful products. Lactose and calcium in conjunction with Hcy from consumption of non-fat milk may also contribute to calcification of the arteries.

  1. Enkephalin inhibits vagal control of heart rate, contractile force and coronary blood flow in the canine heart in vivo.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, J L

    1999-05-28

    The following studies were conducted to determine if the ability of the intrinsic cardiac opioid, met-enkephalin-arg-phe to interrupt vagal bradycardia can be generalized to include the disruption of vagal effects on atrial contraction and coronary blood flow. Anesthetized dogs were instrumented to measure heart rate and left atrial contractile force or heart rate and coronary blood flow. The response of each variable was recorded at rest and during vagal stimulation. During the evaluation of vagal effects on contractile activity and coronary blood flow, heart rate was maintained constant by electrically pacing the hearts above their resting heart rate. In the first protocol, vagal stimulation reduced both heart rate and atrial contractile force in a frequency dependent fashion. When met-enkephalin-arg-phe (MEAP) was infused systemically for three min at 3 nmol min(-1) kg(-1), there were no observed changes in resting heart rate or atrial contraction. However, when the vagal stimuli were reapplied during the peptide infusion, the previously observed vagal effects on rate and contractile force were reduced in magnitude by one-half to two-thirds. The ability of MEAP to interrupt the vagal control of heart rate and contractile activity involves opiate receptors since the effect was eliminated in both cases by prior opiate receptor blockade with the high affinity antagonist, diprenorphine. In the second protocol, vagal stimulation produced a transient increase in coronary blood flow and an accompanying increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. These effects were reduced by approximately 80% during the systemic infusion of MEAP. A similar increase in coronary blood flow mediated by the direct acting muscarinic agonist, methacholine, was unaltered by the infusion of peptide. In summary, these data suggest that the intrinsic cardiac enkephalin, MEAP, is capable of inhibiting the vagal control of heart rate, contractile force and coronary blood flow and probably does so

  2. Heart transplant for anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Kiron K S; Zisman, Lawrence S; Lader, Ellis; Dimova, Aneta; Canver, Charles C

    2003-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a congenital coronary artery malformation most commonly present in infancy. A variety of surgical procedures have been described to achieve physiological correction of the coronary flow abnormalities. These techniques are effective as long as there is potential for myocardial recovery. However the sequelae of chronic myocardial ischemia that characterize this entity often irreversibly damage the heart and preclude correction and palliation of the native anomaly. In this type of setting, heart transplantation is a realistic option. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) occasionally presents in adulthood. Anatomic repair with a two coronary artery system may not be optimal in patients presenting with ischemic cardiomyopathy. We report an adult patient with platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for ALCAPA.

  3. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  4. Procedure for decellularization of porcine heart by retrograde coronary perfusion.

    PubMed

    Remlinger, Nathaniel T; Wearden, Peter D; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2012-12-06

    Perfusion-based whole organ decellularization has recently gained interest in the field of tissue engineering as a means to create site-specific extracellular matrix scaffolds, while largely preserving the native architecture of the scaffold. To date, this approach has been utilized in a variety of organ systems, including the heart, lung, and liver (1-5). Previous decellularization methods for tissues without an easily accessible vascular network have relied upon prolonged exposure of tissue to solutions of detergents, acids, or enzymatic treatments as a means to remove the cellular and nuclear components from the surrounding extracellular environment(6-8). However, the effectiveness of these methods hinged upon the ability of the solutions to permeate the tissue via diffusion. In contrast, perfusion of organs through the natural vascular system effectively reduced the diffusion distance and facilitated transport of decellularization agents into the tissue and cellular components out of the tissue. Herein, we describe a method to fully decellularize an intact porcine heart through coronary retrograde perfusion. The protocol yielded a fully decellularized cardiac extracellular matrix (c-ECM) scaffold with the three-dimensional structure of the heart intact. Our method used a series of enzymes, detergents, and acids coupled with hypertonic and hypotonic rinses to aid in the lysis and removal of cells. The protocol used a Trypsin solution to detach cells from the matrix followed by Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate solutions to aid in removal of cellular material. The described protocol also uses perfusion speeds of greater than 2 L/min for extended periods of time. The high flow rate, coupled with solution changes allowed transport of agents to the tissue without contamination of cellular debris and ensured effective rinsing of the tissue. The described method removed all nuclear material from native porcine cardiac tissue, creating a site-specific cardiac ECM

  5. The heart beat does not make us tick: the impacts of heart rate and arousal on time perception.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Marcus A; Winkler, Isabell; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    According to popular models of human time perception, variations in prospective timing are caused by two factors: the pulse rate of an internal pacemaker and the amount of attention directed to the passage of time. The results concerning the effect of attention on subjective timing have been conclusive, but the mechanisms that drive the pacemaker are still far from being understood. In two experiments, we examined the impact of two factors that in the existing literature on human time perception have been argued to affect such a pacemaker: arousal and heart rate. Experienced arousal and heart rate were varied independently by means of specific physical exercises: (a) A muscle exercise increased arousal and heart rate; (b) a breath-holding exercise increased arousal but decreased heart rate; and (c) in the control condition, arousal and heart rate were held constant. The results indicate that increased subjective arousal leads to higher time estimates, whereas heart rate itself has no relevant impact on time perception. The results are discussed with respect to the underlying mechanisms of prospective time perception.

  6. CT coronary angiography in patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease (SCOT-HEART): an open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    2015-06-13

    The benefit of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients presenting with stable chest pain has not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess the effect of CTCA on the diagnosis, management, and outcome of patients referred to the cardiology clinic with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. In this prospective open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years referred for the assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease from 12 cardiology chest pain clinics across Scotland. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to standard care plus CTCA or standard care alone. Randomisation was done with a web-based service to ensure allocation concealment. The primary endpoint was certainty of the diagnosis of angina secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. All analyses were intention to treat, and patients were analysed in the group they were allocated to, irrespective of compliance with scanning. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01149590. Between Nov 18, 2010, and Sept 24, 2014, we randomly assigned 4146 (42%) of 9849 patients who had been referred for assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. 47% of participants had a baseline clinic diagnosis of coronary heart disease and 36% had angina due to coronary heart disease. At 6 weeks, CTCA reclassified the diagnosis of coronary heart disease in 558 (27%) patients and the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease in 481 (23%) patients (standard care 22 [1%] and 23 [1%]; p<0·0001). Although both the certainty (relative risk [RR] 2·56, 95% CI 2·33-2·79; p<0·0001) and frequency of coronary heart disease increased (1·09, 1·02-1·17; p=0·0172), the certainty increased (1·79, 1·62-1·96; p<0·0001) and frequency seemed to decrease (0·93, 0·85-1·02; p=0·1289) for the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease. This changed planned investigations (15% vs 1%; p<0·0001) and treatments (23

  7. Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study.

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, H.; Marmot, M. G.; Hemingway, H.; Nicholson, A. C.; Brunner, E.; Stansfeld, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers at baseline. Mean length of follow up was 5.3 years. SETTING: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. SUBJECTS: 10,308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases of angina (Rose questionnaire), severe pain across the chest, diagnosed ischaemic heart disease, and any coronary event. RESULTS: Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, had a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during follow up. Job control assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects on newly reported disease. Subjects with low job control on both occasions had an odds ratio for any subsequent coronary event of 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.34 to 2.77) compared with subjects with high job control at both occasions. This association could not be explained by employment grade, negative affectivity, or classic coronary risk factors. Job demands and social support at work were not related to the risk of coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Low control in the work environment is associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease among men and women employed in government offices. The cumulative effect of low job control assessed on two occasions indicates that giving employees more variety in tasks and a stronger say in decisions about work may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:9055714

  8. Moving with the beat: heart rate and visceral temperature of free-swimming and feeding bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Taylor, B D; Seymour, R S; Ellis, D; Buchanan, J; Fitzgibbon, Q P; Frappell, P B

    2008-12-22

    Owing to the inherent difficulties of studying bluefin tuna, nothing is known of the cardiovascular function of free-swimming fish. Here, we surgically implanted newly designed data loggers into the visceral cavity of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) to measure changes in the heart rate (fH) and visceral temperature (TV) during a two-week feeding regime in sea pens at Port Lincoln, Australia. Fish ranged in body mass from 10 to 21 kg, and water temperature remained at 18-19 degrees C. Pre-feeding fH typically ranged from 20 to 50 beats min(-1). Each feeding bout (meal sizes 2-7% of tuna body mass) was characterized by increased levels of activity and fH (up to 130 beats min(-1)), and a decrease in TV from approximately 20 to 18 degrees C as cold sardines were consumed. The feeding bout was promptly followed by a rapid increase in TV, which signified the beginning of the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The time interval between meal consumption and the completion of HIF ranged from 10 to 24 hours and was strongly correlated with ration size. Although fH generally decreased after its peak during the feeding bout, it remained elevated during the digestive period and returned to routine levels on a similar, but slightly earlier, temporal scale to TV. These data imply a large contribution of fH to the increase in circulatory oxygen transport that is required for digestion. Furthermore, these data oppose the contention that maximum fH is exceptional in bluefin tuna compared with other fishes, and so it is likely that enhanced cardiac stroke volume and blood oxygen carrying capacity are the principal factors allowing superior rates of circulatory oxygen transport in tuna.

  9. Moving with the beat: heart rate and visceral temperature of free-swimming and feeding bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Clark, T.D; Taylor, B.D; Seymour, R.S; Ellis, D; Buchanan, J; Fitzgibbon, Q.P; Frappell, P.B

    2008-01-01

    Owing to the inherent difficulties of studying bluefin tuna, nothing is known of the cardiovascular function of free-swimming fish. Here, we surgically implanted newly designed data loggers into the visceral cavity of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) to measure changes in the heart rate (fH) and visceral temperature (TV) during a two-week feeding regime in sea pens at Port Lincoln, Australia. Fish ranged in body mass from 10 to 21 kg, and water temperature remained at 18–19°C. Pre-feeding fH typically ranged from 20 to 50 beats min−1. Each feeding bout (meal sizes 2–7% of tuna body mass) was characterized by increased levels of activity and fH (up to 130 beats min−1), and a decrease in TV from approximately 20 to 18°C as cold sardines were consumed. The feeding bout was promptly followed by a rapid increase in TV, which signified the beginning of the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The time interval between meal consumption and the completion of HIF ranged from 10 to 24 hours and was strongly correlated with ration size. Although fH generally decreased after its peak during the feeding bout, it remained elevated during the digestive period and returned to routine levels on a similar, but slightly earlier, temporal scale to TV. These data imply a large contribution of fH to the increase in circulatory oxygen transport that is required for digestion. Furthermore, these data oppose the contention that maximum fH is exceptional in bluefin tuna compared with other fishes, and so it is likely that enhanced cardiac stroke volume and blood oxygen carrying capacity are the principal factors allowing superior rates of circulatory oxygen transport in tuna. PMID:18755679

  10. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Heran, Balraj S; Chen, Jenny MH; Ebrahim, Shah; Moxham, Tiffany; Oldridge, Neil; Rees, Karen; Thompson, David R; Taylor, Rod S

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) worldwide is one of great concern to patients and healthcare agencies alike. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation aims to restore patients with heart disease to health. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (exercise training alone or in combination with psychosocial or educational interventions) on mortality, morbidity and health-related quality of life of patients with CHD. Search methods RCTs have been identified by searching CENTRAL, HTA, and DARE (using The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2009), as well as MEDLINE (1950 to December 2009), EMBASE (1980 to December 2009), CINAHL (1982 to December 2009), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to December 2009). Selection criteria Men and women of all ages who have had myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or who have angina pectoris or coronary artery disease defined by angiography. Data collection and analysis Studies were selected and data extracted independently by two reviewers. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Main results This systematic review has allowed analysis of 47 studies randomising 10,794 patients to exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation or usual care. In medium to longer term (i.e. 12 or more months follow-up) exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduced overall and cardiovascular mortality [RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.75, 0.99) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.87), respectively], and hospital admissions [RR 0.69 (95% CI 0.51, 0.93)] in the shorter term (< 12 months follow-up) with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect across trials. Cardiac rehabilitation did not reduce the risk of total MI, CABG or PTCA. Given both the heterogeneity in outcome measures and methods of reporting findings, a meta-analysis was not undertaken for health-related quality of life. In seven out of 10 trials reporting health

  11. Nonspecific electrocardiographic abnormality as a predictor of coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B; Anderson, K; McGee, D L; Degatano, L S; Stampfer, M J

    1987-02-01

    The risk of developing overt coronary heart disease is examined in relation to occurrence of non-specific electrocardiographic S-T and T-wave abnormalities (NSA-ECG) in the Framingham Study. In the course of follow-up, 14% of the 5127 men and women had or developed NSA-ECG without clinically apparent intervening coronary heart disease. During 30 years of surveillance, 760 men and 578 women developed a first overt clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease. NSA-ECG appears to be a hallmark of a compromised coronary circulation which predicted the occurrence of every clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease independently of known risk factors including hypertension, its chief determinant. Coronary morbidity and mortality was increased twofold in each sex. The more common T-wave abnormality alone carried a significant increased risk, although the combination of S-T and T-wave seemed most hazardous. Persons who develop NSA-ECG without other explanation warrant vigorous preventive management against coronary heart disease.

  12. Heart rate at discharge and long-term prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in stable and acute coronary syndromes--results from the BASKET PROVE trial.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Kaiser, Christoph; Sandsten, Karl Erik; Alber, Hannes; Wanitschek, Maria; Iversen, Allan; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune; Soerensen, Rikke; Rickli, Hans; Zurek, Marzena; Fahrni, Gregor; Bertel, Osmund; De Servi, Stefano; Erne, Paul; Pfisterer, Matthias; Galatius, Søren

    2013-10-09

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with mortality in a number of heart diseases. We examined the long-term prognostic significance of HR at discharge in a contemporary population of patients with stable angina (SAP), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) revascularized with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients from the BASKET-PROVE trial, an 11-center randomized all-comers trial comparing bare-metal and drug-eluting stenting in large coronary vessels, were included. Discharge HR was determined from a resting ECG. Long-term outcomes (7 days to 2 years) were evaluated for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. A total of 2029 patients with sinus rhythm were included, 722 (35.6%) SAP, 647 (31.9%) NSTE-ACS, and 660 (32.5%) STEMI. Elevated discharge HR was associated significantly with all-cause mortality: when compared to a reference of <60 beats per minute (bpm), the adjusted hazard ratios were (95% CI) 4.5 (1.5-13.5, p=0.006) for 60-69 bpm, 3.8 (1.2-11.9, p=0.022) for 70-79 bpm, 4.3 (1.2-15.6, p=0.025) for 80-89 bpm, and 16.9 (5.2-55.0, p<0.001) for >90 bpm. For cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction, a discharge HR >90 bpm was associated with a hazard ratio of 6.2 (2.5-15.5, p<0.001) compared to a HR <60 bpm. No interaction was found for disease presentation, diabetes or betablocker use. In patients revascularized with PCI for stable angina or acute coronary syndromes an elevated discharge HR was independently associated with poor prognosis. Conversely, a HR <60 bpm at discharge was associated with a good long-term prognosis irrespective of indication for PCI. © 2013.

  13. Current Role of Ivabradine in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Without Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Muñoz, Oscar C; Abbas, Aamer

    2016-02-01

    Increase in heart rate represents a significant contribution in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and heart failure, by promoting atherosclerotic process and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, it negatively influences cardiovascular risk in the general population. The aim of this review is to analyze the current, controversial, and future role of ivabradine as an anti-anginal agent in the setting of coronary artery disease without heart failure. Ivabradine represents a selective heart rate-lowering agent that increased diastolic perfusion time and improving energetics in the ischemic myocardium.

  14. Number of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors and Mortality in Patients With First Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Canto, John G.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Rogers, William J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Frederick, Paul D.; French, William J.; Gibson, C. Michael; Pollack, Charles V.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Zalenski, Robert J.; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J.; Greenland, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Context Few studies have examined the association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in community practice. Objective To determine the association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors in patients with first myocardial infarction and hospital mortality. Design Observational study from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction, 1994-2006. Patients We examined the presence and absence of 5 major traditional coronary heart disease risk factors (hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and family history of coronary heart disease) and hospital mortality among 542 008 patients with first myocardial infarction and without prior cardiovascular disease. Main Outcome Measure All-cause in-hospital mortality. Results A majority (85.6%) of patients who presented with initial myocardial infarction had at least 1 of the 5 coronary heart disease risk factors, and 14.4% had none of the 5 risk factors. Age varied inversely with the number of coronary heart disease risk factors, from a mean age of 71.5 years with 0 risk factors to 56.7 years with 5 risk factors (P for trend <.001). The total number of in-hospital deaths for all causes was 50 788. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were 14.9%, 10.9%, 7.9%, 5.3%, 4.2%, and 3.6% for patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 risk factors, respectively. After adjusting for age and other clinical factors, there was an inverse association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors and hospital mortality adjusted odds ratio (1.54; 95% CI, 1.23-1.94) among individuals with 0 vs 5 risk factors. This association was consistent among several age strata and important patient subgroups. Conclusion Among patients with incident acute myocardial infarction without prior cardiovascular disease, in-hospital mortality was inversely related to the number of coronary heart disease risk factors. PMID:22089719

  15. Natural selection to sports, later physical activity habits, and coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, U.; Sarna, S.; Kaprio, J.; Tikkanen, H.; Koskenvuo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the associations between natural selection to sports at a young age, continuity of physical activity, and occurrence of coronary heart disease. Design—Prospective cohort study. Setting—Finland. Participants—Former top level male athletes participating at a young age (1920–1965) in different types of sport (endurance (n = 166), power speed (n = 235), "other" (n = 834)) and controls healthy at the age of 20 years (n = 743). Main outcome measures—Data on the occurrence of coronary heart disease were obtained from death certificates, three nationwide registers, and questionnaire studies in 1985 and 1995, and data on later physical activity were obtained from the questionnaires. Results—In 1985 all groups of former athletes were more physically active than controls (p<0.001). Despite similar total volumes of physical activity, compared with power speed athletes, former endurance athletes participated more often in vigorous activity (p = 0.006) and had less coronary heart disease (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.73; p = 0.004). In 1985 and 1995, both endurance and other athletes had less coronary heart disease than controls. From 1986 to 1995, the incidence of new coronary heart disease was lower among those who participated in vigorous physical activity in 1985. Conclusions—Both a previous aptitude for endurance athletic events and continuity of vigorous physical activity seem to be associated with protection against coronary heart disease, but an aptitude for power speed events does not give protection against coronary heart disease. Key Words: coronary heart disease; fitness; genetic selection; physical activity PMID:11131233

  16. Relation between heart beat fluctuations and cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in insomnia patients.

    PubMed

    de Leon-Lomeli, R; Murguia, J S; Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Gonzalez-Galvan, E; Alba, A; Milioli, G; Grassi, A; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a condition that affects the nervous and muscular system. Thirty percent of the population between 18 and 60 years suffers from insomnia. The effects of this disorder involve problems such as poor school or job performance and traffic accidents. In addition, patients with insomnia present changes in the cardiac function during sleep. Furthermore, the structure of electroencephalographic A-phases, which builds up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern during sleep, is related to the insomnia events. Therefore, the relationship between these brain activations (A-phases) and the autonomic nervous system would be of interest, revealing the interplay of central and autonomic activity during insomnia. With this goal, a study of the relationship between A-phases and heart rate fluctuations is presented. Polysomnography recording of five healthy subjects, five sleep misperception patients and five patients with psychophysiological insomnia were used in the study. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) was used in order to evaluate the heart rate dynamics and this was correlated with the number of A-phases. The results suggest that pathological patients present changes in the dynamics of the heart rate. This is reflected in the modification of A-phases dynamics, which seems to modify of heart rate dynamics.

  17. Hearts beating through decellularized scaffolds: whole-organ engineering for cardiac regeneration and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Sonia; Mozafari, Masoud; Natasha, G; Tan, Aaron; Cui, Zhanfeng; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-08-01

    Whole-organ decellularization and tissue engineering approaches have made significant inroads during recent years. If proven to be successful and clinically viable, it is highly likely that this field would be poised to revolutionize organ transplantation surgery. In particular, whole-heart decellularization has captured the attention and imagination of the scientific community. This technique allows for the generation of a complex three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix scaffold, with the preservation of the intrinsic 3D basket-weave macroarchitecture of the heart itself. The decellularized scaffold can then be recellularized by seeding it with cells and incubating it in perfusion bioreactors in order to create functional organ constructs for transplantation. Indeed, research into this strategy of whole-heart tissue engineering has consequently emerged from the pages of science fiction into a proof-of-concept laboratory undertaking. This review presents current trends and advances, and critically appraises the concepts involved in various approaches to whole-heart decellularization and tissue engineering.

  18. Systemic chemokine levels, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke events

    PubMed Central

    Canouï-Poitrine, F.; Luc, G.; Mallat, Z.; Machez, E.; Bingham, A.; Ferrieres, J.; Ruidavets, J.-B.; Montaye, M.; Yarnell, J.; Haas, B.; Arveiler, D.; Morange, P.; Kee, F.; Evans, A.; Amouyel, P.; Ducimetiere, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the association between systemic levels of the chemokine regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), and eotaxin-1 (CCL11) with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke events and to assess their usefulness for CHD and ischemic stroke risk prediction in the PRIME Study. Methods: After 10 years of follow-up of 9,771 men, 2 nested case-control studies were built including 621 first CHD events and 1,242 matched controls and 95 first ischemic stroke events and 190 matched controls. Standardized hazard ratios (HRs) for each log-transformed chemokine were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Results: None of the 4 chemokines were independent predictors of CHD, either with respect to stable angina or to acute coronary syndrome. Conversely, RANTES (HR = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.74), IP-10 (HR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.06–2.20), and eotaxin-1 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.02–2.46), but not MCP-1 (HR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.68–1.46), were associated with ischemic stroke independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, hs-CRP, and fibrinogen. When the first 3 chemokines were included in the same multivariate model, RANTES and IP-10 remained predictive of ischemic stroke. Their addition to a traditional risk factor model predicting ischemic stroke substantially improved the C-statistic from 0.6756 to 0.7425 (p = 0.004). Conclusions: In asymptomatic men, higher systemic levels of RANTES and IP-10 are independent predictors of ischemic stroke but not of CHD events. RANTES and IP-10 may improve the accuracy of ischemic stroke risk prediction over traditional risk factors. PMID:21849651

  19. Multiple capture locations for 3D ultrasound-guided robotic retrieval of moving bodies from a beating heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienphrapa, Paul; Ramachandran, Bharat; Elhawary, Haytham; Taylor, Russell H.; Popovic, Aleksandra

    2012-02-01

    Free moving bodies in the heart pose a serious health risk as they may be released in the arteries causing blood flow disruption. These bodies may be the result of various medical conditions and trauma. The conventional approach to removing these objects involves open surgery with sternotomy, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, and a wide resection of the heart muscle. We advocate a minimally invasive surgical approach using a flexible robotic end effector guided by 3D transesophageal echocardiography. In a phantom study, we track a moving body in a beating heart using a modified normalized cross-correlation method, with mean RMS errors of 2.3 mm. We previously found the foreign body motion to be fast and abrupt, rendering infeasible a retrieval method based on direct tracking. We proposed a strategy based on guiding a robot to the most spatially probable location of the fragment and securing it upon its reentry to said location. To improve efficacy in the context of a robotic retrieval system, we extend this approach by exploring multiple candidate capture locations. Salient locations are identified based on spatial probability, dwell time, and visit frequency; secondary locations are also examined. Aggregate results indicate that the location of highest spatial probability (50% occupancy) is distinct from the longest-dwelled location (0.84 seconds). Such metrics are vital in informing the design of a retrieval system and capture strategies, and they can be computed intraoperatively to select the best capture location based on constraints such as workspace, time, and device manipulability. Given the complex nature of fragment motion, the ability to analyze multiple capture locations is a desirable capability in an interventional system.

  20. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce coronary heart disease risk.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, O O; Oyakhire, G K; Saeed, A K; Ghamdi, A I

    2011-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, and its incidence is increasing in the developing world. The effectiveness of interventions in developing countries has been questioned in view of the overwhelming burden of other health problems in such environments. To determine the effectiveness of coronary heart disease risk reduction interventions. The effects of lipid lowering interventions as well as dietary and lifestyle modifications on some risk factors of CHD were studied retrospectively in 47 males and 53 female patients [aged 33 to 61 years; mean age 47.20 ±14.17 years] attending a lipid clinic in Saudi Arabia. The main outcome measures were reductions in the values of the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as absolute reductions of risk category. The interventions were associated with reduced BMI by 2.75 percent (p<0.05), systolic pressure by 3.05% (p=0.12), diastolic pressure by 5.13% (p<0.05), blood glucose by 6.51% (p<0.05), total cholesterol by 16.35% (p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol by 4.81% (p<0.05) and triglyceride by 35.01% (p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol remained within the normal range before and after the interventions in all patients. Following the interventions, the absolute risk reductions in category 1 were 45.51% and 53.35%, for males and females, respectively. In category 2, the absolute risk reductions were 30.05% and 45.67%, for males and females, respectively. In category 3, the absolute risk reductions were 100% for both sexes. For the entire study population, the absolute risk reductions were 48.65% in category 1 and 38.10% in category 2, while the percentage of patients with one or no risk factor (category 3) increased by 62%. Lipid-lowering interventions appear to be as effective in reducing CHD risk in Bisha patients as in other populations. Appreciable absolute risk reductions can be achieved within a short period of time in all patients

  1. Endoscopic exposure and stabilization of posterior and inferior branches using the endo-starfish cardiac positioner and the endo-octopus stabilizer for closed-chest beating heart multivessel CABG: hemodynamic changes in the pig.

    PubMed

    Gründeman, Paul F; Budde, Ricardo; Beck, Hendricus Mansvelt; van Boven, Wim-Jan; Borst, Cornelius

    2003-09-09

    Closed-chest, off-pump, multivessel CABG requires modified instruments to expose and stabilize posterior and inferior coronary branches. Using three new prototype devices, we explored the feasibility of endoscopic bypass grafting on these branches and assessed cardiac function during cardiac displacement. Eight pigs (75 to 85 kg) were instrumented for hemodynamics and paced at 80 to 100 bpm. After closure of the sternotomy wound, the Da Vinci endoscope was inserted subxiphoidally. A sternal hook was used to hoist the sternum ventrally by 5 cm. The articulating EndoStarfish cardiac positioner was placed through a trocar (Ø12 mm). The positioner was fixed to the apex using -400 mm Hg suction and the heart was displaced anteriorly to 90 degrees. In 12 other pigs (75 to 85 kg), both internal mammary arteries (IMA) were harvested and the sternal wound was closed. Five trocar ports were placed for instrumentation (Ø12 mm, two in left chest, two in right chest, and one subxiphoidally). For coronary stabilization, a novel deployable EndoOctopus cardiac stabilizer was employed (suction -400 mm Hg). The Da Vinci robot-telemanipulator system was used for endoscopic grafting of the left and right IMA on posterior and inferior branches (16 anastomoses). When circumflex arteries were fully exposed and accessible for coronary surgery, stroke volume decreased by 18%+/-3 versus baseline (P=0.02) and mean arterial pressure decreased by 27%+/-6 (P=0.001). Additional 10 degrees Trendelenburg head-down positioning normalized stroke volume and arterial pressure. In the displaced heart, obtuse marginal branches (OM) and the ramus descending posterior (RDP) of the right coronary artery became fully exposed with a mean arterial pressure >70 mm Hg during grafting. No accidental detachment occurred. Coronary target motion was restrained to approximately 1x1 mm. In two test cases, five sham distal anastomoses were created (grafts sewn to epicardium, left IMA to OM2 jump to OM3, right IMA to

  2. Linc-ing the Noncoding Genome to Heart Function: Beating Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shambhabi; Bär, Christian; Thum, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The principal event of aberrant gene expression occurs in numerous disorders and syndromes, including heart failure. LncRNAs may constitute powerful treatment targets because they intensively interact with their genetic environment, as they are important regulators of genetic networks. Recent advances on the functional roles of lncRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy are expected to usher improved therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heart beat dynamics during sleep and wake phases: a feedback control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Carlos Echeverria, Juan; de Luca, Adriano; Velasco, Alejandra

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we study some aspects of the heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects with normal sinus rhythm (NSR) during wake and sleep phases. To this end, a structure function is employed to quantify the fluctuations of the heart rhythm, which is subsequently used to interpret the HRV from a feedback control framework. As made in classical control theory, a frequency-domain methodology is used to gain some insights on the main mechanisms controlling the dynamics of the cardio-respiratory system. In this way, it is shown that the HRV of young NSR subjects reflects a cardio-respiratory system with the same robust frequency response during sleep and wake conditions. On the contrary, for a significant percentage of old NSR subjects one finds a different response performance during the wake phase, which, according to a feedback control framework, could indicate a reduced capacity of the cardio-respiratory system to respond to daily activity. The HRV of subjects with congestive heart failure (CHF) was used to compare the results. It is found that the HRV of CHF subjects reflects a cardio-respiratory system with a decreased sensitivity in a wide frequency range during both sleep and wake phases. These results seem to indicate that discrimination between NSR and anomalous states can be made on the basis of HRV measurements of both sleep and wake phases.

  4. [Anatomy and physiology of the heart and coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The myocardium assures the supply of oxygen to the body. The provision of oxygen to the myocardium by the coronary arteries is dependent on two key parameters: the coronary blood flow and the ability to extract oxygen from the arterial blood. Coronary artery disease is almost always the consequence of atherosclerosis and can lead to myocardial infarction.

  5. Acute myocardial infarction in a patient with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery: depiction at whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography and delayed-enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Mitsuru; Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kunimasa, Taeko; Tani, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Eizo; Kikushima, Kimio; Nagao, Ken; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2008-12-17

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of anterior chest pain. His electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and cardiac enzymes were normal. Non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction was suspected and whole-heart magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva and delayed-enhanced imaging showed transmural hyperenhancement of the inferior wall. Coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left sinus of Valsalva and occlusion in the proximal portion of the RCA. Coronary revascularization was achieved by intracoronary thrombolysis followed by stent implantation. Whole-heart coronary MRA and delayed-enhanced imaging allows simultaneous assessment of coronary artery anomaly and extent of myocardial infarction.

  6. [Mechanisms of coronary flow recovery in the isolated heart during reperfusion with cardioprotective liposomal emoxipin form].

    PubMed

    Toropova, Ia G; Antonova, L V; Mukhamadiiarov, R A; Bogdanov, M V; Golovkin, A S

    2013-06-01

    In the experiments on the isolated perfused rat heart the effects of liposomes, containing different concentrations (0.25 and 0.1 mg/mL) of emoxipine, on coronary flow restoration after total normothermic ischemia and reperfusion were studied. The coronary flow, levels of nitrates and nitrites in the outflowing perfusate from heart and level of free radical processes were assessed, The obtained results showed that 0.1 mg/mL liposomal emoxipine provide with stronger increase coronary flow during reperfusion mostly due to the increase concentration of endothelial nitric oxide compare with treatments at 0.25 mg/mL.

  7. Fatigue in the presence of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Ann L; Devon, Holli A; Piano, Mariann R; Ryan, Catherine J; Zerwic, Julie J

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is a prevalent and disabling symptom associated with many acute and chronic conditions, including acute myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. Fatigue has not been explored in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this partially mixed sequential dominant status study was to (a) describe fatigue in patients with stable CHD; (b) determine if specific demographic (gender, age, education, income), physiological (hypertension, hyperlipidemia), or psychological (depressive symptoms) variables were correlated with fatigue; and (c) determine if fatigue was associated with health-related quality of life. The theory of unpleasant symptoms was used as a conceptual framework. Patients (N = 102) attending two cardiology clinics completed the Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 to measure fatigue, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Thirteen patients whose interference from fatigue was low, moderate, or high participated in qualitative interviews. Forty percent of the sample reported fatigue more than 3 days of the week lasting more than one half of the day. Lower interference from fatigue was reported on standardized measures compared with qualitative interviews. Compared with men, women reported a higher fatigue intensity (p = .003) and more interference from fatigue (p = .007). In regression analyses, depressive symptoms were the sole predictor of fatigue intensity and interference. Patients with stable CHD reported clinically relevant levels of fatigue. Patients with stable CHD may discount fatigue as they adapt to their symptoms. Relying solely on standardized measures may provide an incomplete picture of fatigue burden in patients with stable CHD.

  8. Potential benefits of cell therapy in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Mancini, Francesco Paolo; Casamassimi, Amelia; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Zullo, Alberto; Infante, Teresa; Napoli, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest both in basic and clinical research regarding the field of cell therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several preclinical models of CHD have suggested that regenerative properties of stem and progenitor cells might help restoring myocardial functions in the event of cardiac diseases. Here, we summarize different types of stem/progenitor cells that have been tested in experimental and clinical settings of cardiac regeneration, from embryonic stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells. Then, we provide a comprehensive description of the most common cell delivery strategies with their major pros and cons and underline the potential of tissue engineering and injectable matrices to address the crucial issue of restoring the three-dimensional structure of the injured myocardial region. Due to the encouraging results from preclinical models, the number of clinical trials with cell therapy is continuously increasing and includes patients with CHD and congestive heart failure. Most of the already published trials have demonstrated safety and feasibility of cell therapies in these clinical conditions. Several studies have also suggested that cell therapy results in improved clinical outcomes. Numerous ongoing clinical trials utilizing this therapy for CHD will address fundamental issues concerning cell source and population utilized, as well as the use of imaging techniques to assess cell homing and survival, all factors that affect the efficacy of different cell therapy strategies. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetes and coronary heart disease risk in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, B D; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P; Patterson, J K; Stern, M P

    1992-01-01

    Mexican Americans have a high prevalence of diabetes relative to non-Hispanic whites, but paradoxically experience a lower prevalence of myocardial infarction and lower cardiovascular mortality (at least in men). To determine whether Mexican Americans might be more resistant to the atherogenic effects of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites, we examined the associations between diabetes and myocardial infarction and selected coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in these two ethnic groups. The study population consisted of 5149 Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites who were 25 to 64 years old and recruited from the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes conducted between 1979 and 1988. Diabetic men were more than twice as likely to have an electrocardiography (ECG)-documented myocardial infarction than were nondiabetic men, while diabetic women were more than three times as likely to have a myocardial infarction than were nondiabetic women. In both sexes the association between myocardial infarction and diabetes was nearly identical between the two ethnic groups. In both ethnic groups diabetes was also more strongly associated with conventional CHD risk factors (e.g., triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol) in women than in men. Furthermore, these associations were at least as strong, if not stronger, in Mexican Americans as in non-Hispanic whites. Thus, these data provide no evidence to suggest that Mexican Americans are resistant to the lipid-altering effects of diabetes. We conclude that the protective effect against CHD conferred by Mexican American ethnicity may be obscured in part by the high prevalence of diabetes in this ethnic group.

  10. Mind and heart: heart rate variability in major depressive disorder and coronary heart disease - a review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Stapelberg, Nicolas J; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; McConnell, Harry

    2012-10-01

    There is a reciprocal association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are linked by a causal network of mechanisms. This causal network should be quantitatively studied and it is hypothesised that the investigation of vagal function represents a promising starting point. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used to investigate cardiac vagal control in the context of MDD and CHD. This review aims to examine the relationship of HRV to both MDD and CHD in the context of vagal function and to make recommendations for clinical practice and research. The search terms 'heart rate variability', 'depression' and 'heart disease' were entered into an electronic multiple database search engine. Abstracts were screened for their relevance and articles were individually selected and collated. Decreased HRV is found in both MDD and CHD. Both diseases are theorized to disrupt autonomic control feedback loops on the heart and are linked to vagal function. Existing theories link vagal function to both mood and emotion as well as cardiac function. However, several factors can potentially confound HRV measures and would thus impact on a complete understanding of vagal mechanisms in the link between MDD and CHD. The quantitative investigation of vagal function using HRV represents a reasonable starting point in the study of the relationship between MDD and CHD. Many psychotropic and cardiac medications have effects on HRV, which may have clinical importance. Future studies of HRV in MDD and CHD should consider antidepressant medication, as well as anxiety, as potential confounders.

  11. Coronary heart disease multiple risk factor reduction. Providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rosal, Milagros C; Ockene, Judith K; Luckmann, Roger; Zapka, Jane; Goins, Karin Valentine; Saperia, Gordon; Mason, Theresa; Donnelly, Gary

    2004-08-01

    Although primary care physicians understand the importance of preventive services for patients with multiple risk factors (MRF) for coronary heart disease, physician intervention is limited. This study investigated (1) physicians' views of challenges faced in managing patients with MRF; (2) the counseling and management methods they utilize; and (3) possible strategies to enhance MRF intervention in the primary care setting. Two focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians from varying settings to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by a physician and a behavioral scientist using a previously developed semistructured interview guide. The group discussions were tape recorded and subsequently transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method for analysis. Physicians are challenged by knowledge limitations (contribution of individual risk factors to overall risk); limited support (guidelines, materials, and staff); and logistic difficulties (organizational issues, time limitations). Their approach to MRF management tends to be highly individualized with an initial preference for lifestyle change interventions rather than prescription of medications with some qualifying circumstances. Physicians favored a serial rather than a parallel approach to MRF intervention, starting with behaviors that the patient perceives as a priority. Proposed solutions to current challenges emphasize physician education and the development of innovative approaches that include physician assistance and a team approach. Physicians are aware of and sensitive to the complexity of MRF management for their patients and themselves. However, future MRF interventions will require nonphysician staff involvement and increased systems support.

  12. Overview of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Initiatives in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ankur; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Suri, Kunal; Mishra, Sundeep; Iqbal, Romaina; Virani, Salim S

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Industrialization and economic growth have led to an unprecedented increment in the burden of CVD and their risk factors in less industrialized regions of the world. While there are abundant data on CVD and their risk factors from longitudinal cohort studies done in the West, good-quality data from South Asia are lacking. Several multi-institutional, observational, prospective registries, and epidemiologic cohorts in South Asia have been established to systematically evaluate the burden of CVD and their risk factors. The PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP), the Kerala Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), and Trivandrum Heart Failure registries have focused on secondary prevention of CVD and performance measurement in both outpatient and inpatient settings, respectively. The Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE), Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS), and other epidemiologic and genetic studies have focused on primary prevention of CVD and evaluated variables such as environment, smoking, physical activity, health systems, food and nutrition policy, dietary consumption patterns, socioeconomic factors, and healthy neighborhoods. The international cardiovascular community has been responsive to a burgeoning cardiovascular disease burden in South Asia. Several collaborations have formed between the West (North America in particular) and South Asia to catalyze evidence-based and data-driven changes in the federal health policy in this part of the world to promote cardiovascular health and mitigate cardiovascular risk.

  13. Inherited dyslipidaemic disorders contributing to coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Attaullah, Salma; Bangash, Rahim; Amanullah; Ahmed, Zahoor; Rehman, Jamilur

    2008-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is an established independent risk factor for premature myocardial infarction (MI)/coronary artery disease (CAD). The study was conducted to determine the value of Lp (a) in prediction of CAD or MI in the offspring at risk. A total of 160 subjects were investigated. Serum Lp (a) was measured by ELISA, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL-Cholesterol by enzymatic colorimetric methods using standard kits. Differences in levels of total Lp (a) and cholesterol were observed between patients and controls. Both Lp (a) (16.23 +/-1.95 mg/dL) and cholesterol (175.00 +/- 7.60 mg/dL) of group A (patients) were higher than the corresponding controls. However an opposite trend in results was noted for serum HDL-Cholesterol in patients vs. controls. Persons found to have elevated levels of Lp (a) should focus on controlling the known modifiable risk factor for heart disease, especially smoking, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hypertension and sedentary life style.

  14. The Socioeconomic Burden of Coronary Heart Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hoo-Sun; Kim, Han-Joong; Nam, Chung-Mo; Lim, Seung-Ji; Jang, Young-Hwa; Kim, Sera

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the annual socioeconomic burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Korea in 2005, using the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. Methods A prevalence-based, top-down, cost-of-treatment method was used to assess the direct and indirect costs of CHD (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes of I20-I25), angina pectoris (I20), and myocardial infarction (MI, I21-I23) from a societal perspective. Results Estimated national spending on CHD in 2005 was $2.52 billion. The majority of the spending was attributable to medical costs (53.3%), followed by productivity loss due to morbidity and premature death (33.6%), transportation (8.1%), and informal caregiver costs (4.9%). While medical cost was the predominant cost attribute in treating angina (74.3% of the total cost), premature death was the largest cost attribute for patients with MI (66.9%). Annual per-capita cost of treating MI, excluding premature death cost, was $3183, which is about 2 times higher than the cost for angina ($1556). Conclusions The total insurance-covered medical cost ($1.13 billion) of CHD accounted for approximately 6.02% of the total annual NHI expenditure. These findings suggest that the current burden of CHD on society is tremendous and that more effective prevention strategies are required in Korea. PMID:23091654

  15. Study on cholesteryl ester transfer activity in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Y; Tanaka, A; Maezawa, H

    1991-09-01

    The net cholesterol transfer activity from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to low density lipoprotein (LDL) was determined in the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) to examine its effect on the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, in the CHD patients with high HDL cholesterolemia (more than 60 mg/dl), the HDL particle size was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. A significant cholesteryl ester transfer activity (P less than 0.02) was noted in the CHD patients with low HDL cholesterolemia (less than 60 mg/dl). The rate of cholesteryl ester transfer activity (cholesteryl ester transfer activity/hour) inversely correlated with the serum HDL cholesterol value (r = -0.483, P = 0.096) in the patients with CHD. These results suggest that an increase of CETA caused a low HDL cholesterol value in the CHD patients with low HDL cholesterolemia and it may have the risk of causing CHD. However, an increase of the CETA was not found in the CHD patients with high HDL cholesterolemia compared to the normal subjects, the HDL particle size being significantly greater than that in the normal subjects. In the CHD patients with high HDL cholesterolemia, the large size of HDL may have the risk of causing CHD.

  16. [Is hypertriglyceridaemia a risk factor for coronary heart disease?].

    PubMed

    Reiner, Zeljko; Muacević-Katanec, Diana; Katanec, Davor; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Although it is still not clear whether elevated serum triglycerides are directly atherogenic or not, the results of many studies indicate that they are undoubtedly an important risk factor/biomarker for coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, targeting hypertriglyceridaemia should be beneficial for subjects at high risk for CHD. Elevated triglycerides are often accompanied with low HDL cholesterol, particularly in high risk patients with diabetes type 2 and/or metabolic syndrome. Such a disturbance is called atherogenic dyslipidaemia and has an increasing prevalence. The treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia has to be focused primarily on intensive lifestyle changes (weight reduction in obesity, reduction of alcohol consumption as well as reduction of added sugars, fructose and trans-fatty acids, regular aerobic physical activity) by which reduction of up to 50% in triglycerides can be achieved. Subjects with high CHD risk who cannot lower hypertriglyceridaemia by lifestyle measures should be treated with pharmacological therapy. The available medications include fibrates, niacin and prescription omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. If LDL cholesterol is elevated too, combination therapy is needed. Based upon recent studies in such patients a combination of a statin with fenofibrate and/or omega-3 fatty acids can be recommended.

  17. Epidemiological basis for the prevention of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, M. G.

    1979-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have laid the basis for a preventive approach to coronary heart disease (CHD). On balance, present evidence indicates that the following should form the basis of a preventive programme: low-fat diet, cessation of smoking, and control of blood pressure. Other factors likely to produce a beneficial effect on CHD occurrence include reduction of obesity and increased physical activity. Although psychosocial factors are most likely to be causally related to CHD, it is not possible at present to provide clear guidelines as to their role in a preventive programme. Trials are being conducted to investigate the possibility of preventing CHD by a variety of approaches: a doctor-centred approach or health education in certain sectors of a community or in whole communities. These trials have shown that it is possible to achieve behavioural changes and a reduction in the levels of risk factors in a proportion of the participants. It is not yet clear to what extent these changes in levels of risk factors in middle-aged people will lead to a reduction in the incidence of CHD. It can be calculated, however, that the greatest benefit is likely to come from approaches to prevention that involve the whole community, rather than only high-risk groups. PMID:314348

  18. Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, J A; Rees, K; Taylor, R S; Thompson, D; Oldridge, N; Ebrahim, S

    2000-01-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease world-wide is one of great concern to patients and health care agencies alike. Circulatory diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, kill more people than any other disease. Cardiac rehabilitation aims to restore patients who have suffered myocardial infarction to optimal health through exercise only based rehabilitation or comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (eg. smoking cessation advice, diet and counselling as well as exercise). Data from two published and widely cited meta-analyses (Oldridge 1988, O'Connor 1989) of over 4,000 patients each have demonstrated that patients randomised to exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation after MI have a statistically significant reduction in all-cause and cardiac mortality of about 20 to 25% compared to patients receiving conventional care. However, the trials included were small and often of poor methodological quality. Incomplete literature review methods may have resulted in publication bias thereby resulting in an over-estimate of the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation. The randomised controlled trials used in the reviews have focused almost exclusively on low-risk, middle-aged males post MI, thereby excluding women and the elderly. To determine the effectiveness of exercise only rehabilitation and exercise in addition to other rehabilitation interventions (termed comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation) compared with usual care on the mortality, morbidity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and modifiable cardiac risk factors of patients with coronary heart disease. Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, using standardised trial filters, from the earliest date available to December 31st 1998. Men and women of all ages, in both hospital-based and community-based settings, who have had myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or who have angina pectoris or coronary artery disease

  19. Effects of whole grains on coronary heart disease risk.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kristina A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2010-11-01

    Characterizing which types of carbohydrates, including whole grains, reduce the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is challenging. Whole grains are characterized as being high in resistant carbohydrates as compared with refined grains, meaning they typically are high in fiber, nutrients, and bound antioxidants. Whole grain intake consistently has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease outcomes, but also with healthy lifestyles, in large observational studies. Intervention studies that assess the effects of whole grains on biomarkers for CHD have mixed results. Due to the varying nutrient compositions of different whole grains, each could potentially affect CHD risk via different mechanisms. Whole grains high in viscous fiber (oats, barley) decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure and improve glucose and insulin responses. Grains high in insoluble fiber (wheat) moderately lower glucose and blood pressure but also have a prebiotic effect. Obesity is inversely related to whole grain intake, but intervention studies with whole grains have not produced weight loss. Visceral fat, however, may be affected favorably. Grain processing improves palatability and can have varying effects on nutrition (e.g., the process of milling and grinding flour increases glucose availability and decreases phytochemical content whereas thermal processing increases available antioxidants). Understanding how individual grains, in both natural and processed states, affect CHD risk can inform nutrition recommendations and policies and ultimately benefit public health.

  20. Spirituality and Negative Emotions in Individuals With Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Ginting, Henndy; Näring, Gérard; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Becker, Eni S

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) experience disease-related anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anger. Spirituality may be helpful to cope with these negative emotions. Research findings on the role of spirituality in dealing with negative emotions are inconsistent. In this study, we examined the associations between 7 dimensions of spirituality (ie, meaningfulness, trust, acceptance, caring for others, connectedness with nature, transcendent experiences, and spiritual activities) and negative emotions among individuals with CHD in Indonesia, controlling for perceived social support as well as demographic and clinical characteristics. In total, 293 individuals with CHD were recruited from the 3 largest hospitals in Bandung, Indonesia. They completed the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Trait Anxiety Scale of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that a higher overall level of spirituality was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, less anxiety, and less anger. Specifically, a higher level of trust was significantly associated with both less depressive symptoms and less anxiety. Higher levels of caring for others and spiritual activities were associated with less anxiety, and a higher level of connectedness with nature was associated with less anger. These findings underscore the importance of specific dimensions of spirituality as a potentially independent buffer against negative emotions in individuals with CHD.

  1. Recent evidence linking coronary heart disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François

    2006-10-01

    To review the recent literature on the relation between depression and coronary heart disease (CHD), including both etiologic studies (that is, depression preceding development of CHD) and prognostic studies (that is, depression predicting prognosis in established CHD), and to assess the degree to which the literature supports a causal interpretation of the link between depression and CHD. We searched the MEDLINE, Current Contents, and PsycINFO databases for articles published between December 15, 2003, and December 15, 2005, containing combinations of several key words related to CHD, prognosis, and depression. We reviewed papers for evidence of 6 rule-of-thumb criteria for making causal inferences: objective CHD outcome measures, prospective designs, results showing consistent and strong dose-response relations, adequate covariate adjustment, biological plausibility, and evidence from clinical trials that changing depression alters CHD risk. We found 8 recent etiologic studies, 16 prognostic studies, 2 publications with both types of data, and 23 review papers. Although there was much methodological variability concerning measurement of depression and assessment of cardiac outcomes, the recent etiologic studies increase the evidence of a role for depression. Recent prognostic data are less consistent. Small studies showing no link between depression and CHD prognosis continue to appear, despite lack of adequate statistical power. The recent literature continues to support both an etiologic and a prognostic role for depression in CHD. Despite this evidence, there have been few clinical trials of depression treatment in CHD patients and no clinical trials of depression prevention. Additional trials are needed.

  2. Coronary heart disease in women: why the disproportionate risk?

    PubMed

    Colhoun, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Women with diabetes experience much greater relative risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with the nondiabetic population than do men with diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, much of the greater elevation in risk in women is explained by a more adverse pattern of known CHD risk factors. In type 1 diabetes the picture is less clear, but current evidence suggests that a cardioprotective lipid profile is found in type 1 diabetic men, thus reducing the effect of diabetes on CHD, but that in women this is not the case. Also, in type 1 diabetic women there is some evidence of altered body fat distribution and a greater elevation in blood pressure. Whether these reflect a greater degree of insulin resistance in type 1 women, and what the origin of this might be, remains controversial. The practical consequence is that clinicians need to be aware that the usual cardioprotective effect of sex does not apply in diabetic women and that risk factor intervention is needed at an early age.

  3. Is Knowledge Level of Coronary Heart Disease and Risk Factors Among Post-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Patients Adequate?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Mary T; McKee, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is now commonly used in the treatment of coronary heart disease. However, shorter hospital stays after intervention may affect patients' knowledge and subsequent required lifestyle changes. The aim of this study is to investigate participants' risk factor profile, knowledge of coronary heart disease, and the influence of demographic and risk factors on this knowledge. This prospective, cross-sectional 1-site study recruited both elective and emergency PCI patients postdischarge. The questionnaire collected data on demographics, risk factor profile, and coronary heart disease knowledge as measured on the Bergman Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the influence of 11 risk and sociodemographic factors on knowledge. The response rate was 67% (n = 84). The sample was mostly male and aged 65.79 ± 9.9 years, and 59% had an elective PCI. Risk factor burden was high; 2 or more risk factors were seen in 66% of participants. Mean knowledge score overall was 51%, with the highest score achieved in the risk factor domain (61%). Lowest scores were in the medical and symptoms domains (both 46%). Neither the bivariate nor the multivariate analyses were significant. A large proportion of patients believed that coronary heart disease was no longer a concern for them after PCI. As expected, the risk factor profile of post-PCI patients was high. However, their knowledge levels and awareness were unrelated to risk factor profile and poor in comparison with studies in other cardiac patients. This, in addition to the short stay in hospital and the low attendance of this cohort at cardiac rehabilitation, identifies this group of patients as a priority for further targeted education. Innovations are needed to increase knowledge and begin behavioral change predischarge after PCI. This should include target and goal setting for lifestyle change to avail of this critical education

  4. Quantitative evaluation of capillaroscopic microvascular changes in patients with established coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Garcia, M Esther; Ramirez-Lara, Irene; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Leon-Acuña, Ana; Marin, Carmen; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Camargo, Antonio; Lopez-Moreno, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Tinahones, Francisco José; Ordovas, Jose M; Caballero, Javier; Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Delgado-Lista, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Microcirculation disturbances have been associated to most of the cardiovascular risk factors as well as to multiple inflammatory diseases. However, whether these abnormalities are specifically augmented in patients with coronary heart disease is still unknown. We aimed to evaluate if there is a relationship between the presence of coronary heart disease and the existence of functional and structural capillary abnormalities evaluated in the cutaneous microcirculation by videocapillaroscopy. Two matched samples of 30 participants with and without coronary heart disease but with similar clinical and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated by videocapillaroscopy at the dorsal skin of the third finger of the non-dominant hand. We calculated basal capillary density as well as capillary density after a period of arterial and venous occlusion in order to evaluate functionality and maximum capillary density. We also measured capillary recruitment. Microvascular capillary density at rest was significantly lower in patients suffering from coronary heart disease than in controls. This fact was also found after dynamic tests (arterial and venous occlusion), suggesting functional impairments. Capillary recruitment of the samples was not different in our sample. In our study, patients with coronary heart disease exhibit functional and structural microvascular disturbances. Although this is a very preliminary study, these findings open the door for further studying the microvascular functionality in coronary patients and how it relates to the response to treatment and/or the prognosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypercholesterolemia increases coronary endothelial dysfunction, lipid content, and accelerated atherosclerosis after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perrault, L P; Mahlberg, F; Breugnot, C; Bidouard, J P; Villeneuve, N; Vilaine, J P; Vanhoutte, P M

    2000-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia may increase endothelial damage and promote accelerated atherogenesis in graft coronary vasculopathy. To study the effects of hypercholesterolemia on coronary endothelial dysfunction, intimal hyperplasia, and lipid content, a porcine model of heterotopic heart transplantation, allowing nonacute rejection without immunosuppressive drugs, was used. A high cholesterol diet was fed to donor and recipient swine 1 month before and after transplantation. The endothelial function of coronary arteries of native and transplanted hearts from cholesterol-fed animals was studied in organ chambers 30 days after implantation and compared with endothelial function in arteries from animals fed a normal diet. The total serum cholesterol increased 3-fold in donors and recipients. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to serotonin, to the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK14,304, and to the direct G-protein activator sodium fluoride were decreased significantly in allografted hearts compared with native hearts from both groups. Relaxations to the calcium ionophore A23187 and bradykinin were decreased significantly in allografts from animals fed the high cholesterol diet. The prevalence of intimal hyperplasia was significantly increased in coronary arteries from hypercholesterolemic swine. There was a significant increase in the lipid content of allograft arteries of hypercholesterolemic recipients. Hypercholesterolemia causes a general coronary endothelial dysfunction, increases the prevalence of intimal hyperplasia, and augments the incorporation of lipids in the vascular wall after heart transplantation. Hyperlipidemia accelerates graft coronary atherosclerosis through its effects on the endothelium.

  6. Incidence of coronary artery disease in patients with valvular heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, G W; Thomas, R D; Grimmer, S F; Silverton, P N; Smith, D R

    1980-01-01

    The case notes, cardiac catheterisation data, and coronary arteriograms of 239 patients investigated for valvular heart disease during a five year period were reviewed. Angina present in 13 of 95 patients with isolated mitral valve disease, 43 of 90 patients with isolated aortic valve disease, and 18 of 54 patients with combined mitral and aortic valve disease. Significant coronary artery disease was present in 85 per cent of patients with mitral valve disease and angina, but in only 33 per cent of patients with aortic valve disease and angina. Patients with no chest pain still had a high incidence of coronary artery disease, significant coronary obstruction being present in 22 per cent with mitral valve disease, 22 per cent with aortic valve disease, and 11 per cent with combine mitral and aortic valve disease. Several possible clinical markers of coronary artery disease were examined but none was found to be of practical help. There was, however, a significant inverse relation between severity of coronary artery disease and severity of valve disease in patients with aortic valve disease. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease is not uncommon in patients with valvular heart disease and if it is policy to perform coronary artery bypass grafting in such patients, routine coronary arteriography must be part of the preoperative investigation. PMID:7459146

  7. Detection of coronary artery disease by thallium scintigraphy in patients with valvar heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Huikuri, H V; Korhonen, U R; Heikkilä, J; Takkunen, J T

    1986-01-01

    In patients with valvar heart disease detection of coronary artery disease by conventional non-invasive methods may be difficult. The usefulness of thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy for detecting coronary artery disease was evaluated in 16 patients with aortic stenosis, 17 with aortic regurgitation, nine with mitral stenosis, and six with mitral regurgitation who were investigated by coronary angiography. Only two of 21 patients with greater than or equal to 50% coronary artery obstruction had normal thallium images. Three patients without angiographic evidence of coronary artery stenoses had perfusion defects demonstrated by thallium scintigraphy. Only one patient with greater than or equal to 75% coronary stenosis had a normal thallium scan. Angina pectoris or ST segment depression evoked by exercise test were not useful in distinguishing patients with coronary artery disease from those with normal coronary vessels. These data suggest that thallium exercise scintigraphy may be a useful non-invasive test for detecting coronary artery disease in patients with valvar heart disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3730215

  8. Abnormalities of capillary microarchitecture in a rat model of coronary ischemic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiqiu; Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Kagan, Heather J; Liang, Lifan; Hekmaty, Saboor; Giannarelli, Chiara; Hajjar, Roger

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the present study is to explore the role of capillary disorder in coronary ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was induced in rats by aortic banding plus ischemia-reperfusion followed by aortic debanding. Coronary arteries were perfused with plastic polymer containing fluorescent dye. Multiple fluorescent images of casted heart sections and scanning electric microscope of coronary vessels were obtained to characterize changes in the heart. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamics. Stenosis was found in all levels of the coronary arteries in CHF. Coronary vasculature volume and capillary density in remote myocardium were significantly increased in CHF compared with control. This occurred largely in microvessels with a diameter of ≤3 μm. Capillaries in CHF had a tortuous structure, while normal capillaries were linear. Capillaries in CHF had inconsistent diameters, with assortments of narrowed and bulged segments. Their surfaces appeared rough, potentially indicating endothelial dysfunction in CHF. Segments of main capillaries between bifurcations were significantly shorter in length in CHF than in control. Transiently increasing preload by injecting 50 μl of 30% NaCl demonstrated that the CHF heart had lower functional reserve; this may be associated with congestion in coronary microcirculation. Ischemic coronary vascular disorder is not limited to the main coronary arteries, as it occurs in arterioles and capillaries. Capillary disorder in CHF included stenosis, deformed structure, proliferation, and roughened surfaces. This disorder in the coronary artery architecture may contribute to the reduction in myocyte contractility in the setting of heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Abnormalities of capillary microarchitecture in a rat model of coronary ischemic congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiqiu; Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Kagan, Heather J.; Liang, Lifan; Hekmaty, Saboor; Giannarelli, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the role of capillary disorder in coronary ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was induced in rats by aortic banding plus ischemia-reperfusion followed by aortic debanding. Coronary arteries were perfused with plastic polymer containing fluorescent dye. Multiple fluorescent images of casted heart sections and scanning electric microscope of coronary vessels were obtained to characterize changes in the heart. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamics. Stenosis was found in all levels of the coronary arteries in CHF. Coronary vasculature volume and capillary density in remote myocardium were significantly increased in CHF compared with control. This occurred largely in microvessels with a diameter of ≤3 μm. Capillaries in CHF had a tortuous structure, while normal capillaries were linear. Capillaries in CHF had inconsistent diameters, with assortments of narrowed and bulged segments. Their surfaces appeared rough, potentially indicating endothelial dysfunction in CHF. Segments of main capillaries between bifurcations were significantly shorter in length in CHF than in control. Transiently increasing preload by injecting 50 μl of 30% NaCl demonstrated that the CHF heart had lower functional reserve; this may be associated with congestion in coronary microcirculation. Ischemic coronary vascular disorder is not limited to the main coronary arteries, as it occurs in arterioles and capillaries. Capillary disorder in CHF included stenosis, deformed structure, proliferation, and roughened surfaces. This disorder in the coronary artery architecture may contribute to the reduction in myocyte contractility in the setting of heart failure. PMID:25659485

  10. Self-management of coronary heart disease in older patients after elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dawkes, Susan; Smith, Graeme D; Elliott, Lawrie; Raeside, Robert; Donaldson, Jayne H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore how older patients self-manage their coronary heart disease (CHD) after undergoing elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Methods This mixed methods study used a sequential, explanatory design and recruited a convenience sample of patients (n = 93) approximately three months after elective PTCA. The study was conducted in two phases. Quantitative data collected in Phase 1 by means of a self-administered survey were subject to univariate and bivariate analysis. Phase 1 findings informed the purposive sampling for Phase 2 where ten participants were selected from the original sample for an in-depth interview. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. This paper will primarily report the findings from a sub-group of older participants (n = 47) classified as 65 years of age or older. Results 78.7% (n = 37) of participants indicated that they would manage recurring angina symptoms by taking glyceryl trinitrate and 34% (n = 16) thought that resting would help. Regardless of the duration or severity of the symptoms 40.5% (n = 19) would call their general practitioner or an emergency ambulance for assistance during any recurrence of angina symptoms. Older participants weighed less (P = 0.02) and smoked less (P = 0.01) than their younger counterparts in the study. Age did not seem to affect PTCA patients' likelihood of altering dietary factors such as fruit, vegetable and saturated fat consumption (P = 0.237). Conclusions The findings suggest that older people in the study were less likely to know how to correctly manage any recurring angina symptoms than their younger counterparts but they had fewer risk factors for CHD. Age was not a factor that influenced participants' likelihood to alter lifestyle factors. PMID:27594866

  11. Kennedy Space Center Coronary Heart Disease Risk Screening Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.; Scarpa, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    The number one cause of death in the U.S. is coronary heart disease (CHD). It is probably a major cause of death and disability in the lives of employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as well. The KSC Biomedical Office used a multifactorial mathematical formula from the Framingham Heart Study to calculate CHD risk probabilities for individuals in a segment of the KSC population that required medical evaluation for job certification. Those assessed to be high-risk probabilities will be targeted for intervention. Every year, several thousand KSC employees require medical evaluations for job related certifications. Most medical information for these evaluations is gathered on-site at one of the KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) medical clinics. The formula used in the Framingham Heart Study allows calculation of a person's probability of acquiring CHD within 10 years. The formula contains the following variables: Age, Diabetes, Smoking, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Blood Pressure (Systolic or Diastolic), Cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. The formula is also gender specific. It was used to calculate the 10-year probabilities of CHD in KSC employees who required medical evaluations for job certifications during a one-year time frame. This KSC population was profiled and CHD risk reduction interventions could be targeted to those at high risk. Population risk could also be periodically reevaluated to determine the effectiveness of intervention. A 10-year CHD risk probability can be calculated for an individual quite easily while gathering routine medical information. An employee population's CHD risk probability can be profiled graphically revealing high risk segments of the population which can be targeted for risk reduction intervention. The small audience of NASA/contractor physicians, nurses and exercise/fitness professionals at the breakout session received the lecture very well. Approximately one third indicated by a show of hands that they would be

  12. Kennedy Space Center Coronary Heart Disease Risk Screening Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.; Scarpa, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    The number one cause of death in the U.S. is coronary heart disease (CHD). It is probably a major cause of death and disability in the lives of employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as well. The KSC Biomedical Office used a multifactorial mathematical formula from the Framingham Heart Study to calculate CHD risk probabilities for individuals in a segment of the KSC population that required medical evaluation for job certification. Those assessed to be high-risk probabilities will be targeted for intervention. Every year, several thousand KSC employees require medical evaluations for job related certifications. Most medical information for these evaluations is gathered on-site at one of the KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) medical clinics. The formula used in the Framingham Heart Study allows calculation of a person's probability of acquiring CHD within 10 years. The formula contains the following variables: Age, Diabetes, Smoking, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Blood Pressure (Systolic or Diastolic), Cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. The formula is also gender specific. It was used to calculate the 10-year probabilities of CHD in KSC employees who required medical evaluations for job certifications during a one-year time frame. This KSC population was profiled and CHD risk reduction interventions could be targeted to those at high risk. Population risk could also be periodically reevaluated to determine the effectiveness of intervention. A 10-year CHD risk probability can be calculated for an individual quite easily while gathering routine medical information. An employee population's CHD risk probability can be profiled graphically revealing high risk segments of the population which can be targeted for risk reduction intervention. The small audience of NASA/contractor physicians, nurses and exercise/fitness professionals at the breakout session received the lecture very well. Approximately one third indicated by a show of hands that they would be

  13. [THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF FINDING ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTATION AMONG NON-HEART BEATING DONORS UNDER UNSUCCESSFUL EXTRACORPOREAL RESUSCITATION (LITERATURE REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Khodeli, N; Chkhaidze, Z; Partsakhashvili, D; Pilishvili, O; Kordzaia, D

    2016-05-01

    The number of patients who are in the "Transplant Waiting List" is increasing each year. At the same time, as a result of the significant shortage of donor organs, part of the patients dies without waiting till surgery. According to the Maastricht classification for non-heart beating donors, the patients, who had cardiac arrest outside the hospital (in the uncontrolled by medical staff conditions) should be considered as a potential donors of category II. For these patients, the most effective resuscitation is recommended. The extracorporeal life support (ECLS) considers the connection to a special artificial perfusion system for the restoration of blood circulation out-of-hospital with further transportation to the hospital. If restoration of independent cardiac activity does not occur, in spite of the full range of resuscitative measures, these patients may be regarded as potential donors. The final decision should be received in the hospital, by the council of physicians, lawyers and patient's family members. Until the final decision, the prolongation of ECLS and maintaining adequate systemic and organic circulation is recommended.

  14. Maintenance of cAMP in non-heart-beating donor lungs reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S C; Bleiweis, M S; Jones, D R; Paik, H C; Ciriaco, P; Egan, T M

    2001-06-01

    Studies suggest that pulmonary vascular ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, assessed by capillary filtration coeficient (Kfc), in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) and reperfused with the addition of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (iso), and rolipram (roli), a phosphodiesterase (type IV) inhibitor. Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from NHBD rats at varying intervals after death and either ventilated with O(2) or not ventilated. The lungs were reperfused with Earle's solution with or without a combination of iso (10 microM) and roli (2 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured. Lung tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Combined iso and roli (iso/roli) reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (p < 0.05) compared with non-iso/roli-reperfused groups after 2 h of postmortem ischemia. Total adenine nucleotide (TAN) levels correlated with Kfc in non-iso/roli-reperfused (r = 0.89) and iso/roli-reperfused (r = 0.97) lungs. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.93) in iso/roli-reperfused lungs. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels might ameliorate the increased capillary permeability observed in lungs retrieved from NHBDs.

  15. Detection of inflating balloon in optical coherence tomography images of a porcine artery in a beating heart experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Vergnole, Sébastien; Hewko, Mark; Boulet, Benoit; Sowa, Mike; Lamouche, Guy

    2011-03-01

    Suboptimal results of angioplasty procedures have been correlated to arterial damage during balloon inflation. We propose to monitor balloon inflation during the angioplasty procedure by detecting the balloon contours with intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT). This will shed more light on the interaction between the balloon and the artery and to assess the artery's mechanical response. An automatic edge detection algorithm is applied for detection of the outer surface of an inflating balloon in a porcine artery in a beating heart experiment. A compliant balloon is inflated to deform the artery. IVOCT monitoring of balloon inflation is performed at a rate of 30 frames per second. During inflation, the balloon engages the arterial wall. Therefore, the characterization of the diameter of the inflated balloon leads to a characterization of the luminal diameter of the vessel. This provides precise information about the artery response to a simulated angioplasty procedure, information currently not provided by any other existing technique. In the current experiment, balloon inflation characterization is based on 356 IVOCT frames during which the estimated balloon diameter increases approximately from 1.8 mm to 2.9 mm.

  16. Exponential distribution of long heart beat intervals during atrial fibrillation and their relevance for white noise behaviour in power spectrum.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Thomas; Maass, Philipp; Hayano, Junichiro; Heinrichs, Stefan

    2006-11-01

    The statistical properties of heart beat intervals of 130 long-term surface electrocardiogram recordings during atrial fibrillation (AF) are investigated. We find that the distribution of interbeat intervals exhibits a characteristic exponential tail, which is absent during sinus rhythm, as tested in a corresponding control study with 72 healthy persons. The rate gamma of the exponential decay lies in the range 3-12 Hz and shows diurnal variations. It equals, up to statistical uncertainties, the level of the previously uncovered white noise part of the power spectrum, which is also characteristic for AF. The overall statistical features can be described by decomposing the intervals into two statistically independent times, where the first one is associated with a correlated process with 1/f noise characteristics, while the second one belongs to an uncorrelated process and is responsible for the exponential tail. It is suggested to use gamma as a further parameter for a better classification of AF and for the medical diagnosis. The relevance of the findings with respect to a general understanding of AF is discussed.

  17. Hypothermic machine perfusion versus cold storage in the rescuing of livers from non-heart-beating donor rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Matías E; Balaban, Cecilia L; Guibert, Edgardo E; Bottai, Hebe; Rodriguez, Joaquin V

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the efficiency of cold storage (CS) and hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) methods of preserving grafts excised from non-heart-beating donors that had suffered 45 minutes of warm ischemia. We developed a new solution for HMP to use in liver transplantation, based on BES, gluconate, and polyethylene glycol (BGP-HMP solution). After 24 h of HMP or CS, livers were reperfused at 37°C with Krebs-Henseleit solution with added dextran. For both procedures, portal pressure and flow were measured and the intrahepatic resistance (IR) was calculated. The pH oscillations and enzyme activities (LDH, AST, and ALT) were evaluated for the perfusion buffer during normothermic reperfusion. O2 consumption of the liver, glycogen production, and bile flow were also measured during the normothermic reperfusion period. Portal flow and IR showed statistical differences (P < 0.05) between the two groups (n = 5). HMP with BGP-HMP solution resulted in higher values of portal flow and lower IR than CS with HTK solution. Enzyme release after 90 min of reperfusion did not show statistical differences between groups. With regard to bile flow and O2 consumption, livers preserved by both processes were able to produce bile, but livers preserved with HMP were able to take up more O2 than livers preserved by CS.

  18. Whole Heart Coronary Imaging with Flexible Acquisition Window and Trigger Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible sel