Science.gov

Sample records for beauty physics elements

  1. Beauty Physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Franco Bedeschi

    2001-09-04

    The CDF experiment has performed several measurements in the area of beauty and charm physics with the data collected during the Run I of the Tevatron. The experiment is now ready to collect new data at higher luminosity with a substantially improved detector. We discuss these improvements and the future measurements in this area of physics accessible after the first few years of data taking. These include the measurement of the mixing frequency of B{sub s} mesons and that of CP violation effects in the B{sub 0} sector.

  2. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Garbincius, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs.

  3. Physical attractiveness biases in ratings of employment suitability: tracking down the "beauty is beastly" effect.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stefanie K; Podratz, Kenneth E; Dipboye, Robert L; Gibbons, Ellie

    2010-01-01

    The "what is beautiful is good" heuristic suggests that physically attractive persons benefit from their attractiveness in a large range of situations, including perceptions of employment suitability. Conversely, the "beauty is beastly" effect suggests that attractiveness can be detrimental to women in certain employment contexts, although these findings have been less consistent than those for the "what is beautiful is good" effect. The current research seeks to uncover situations in which beauty might be detrimental for female applicants. In two studies, we found that attractiveness can be detrimental for women applying for masculine sex-typed jobs for which physical appearance is perceived as unimportant.

  4. Beauty and charm physics at CDF, First results and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    S. De Cecco

    2003-02-27

    Among CDF physics opportunities, heavy flavour physics is one of the most prominent and promising for the Tevatron run2. Still in the run1 CDF demonstrated that high precision CP violation measurement in the beauty sector as well as B mixing are feasible at hadronic collider, we think here especially to the first measure of sin2{beta} with B{sup 0} {yields} J/PsiK{sub s}{sup 0} decays and that of {Delta}m{sub Bd}. Tevatron accelerator and CDF detector upgrades are extensively discussed in other papers to which we refer to. Here we just recall the new features relevant to heavy flavour physics: New muon detector coverage up to |{eta}| < 1.5 and lower p{sub T} threshold for single and dimuon triggers. New Time of Flight detector (TOF) placed at R = 1.4m, made of 216 scintillator bars. The TOF resolution is 100 ps allowing a K/{pi} separation at 2 {sigma} for p{sub T} (K) < 1.6GeV. With this upgrade the effective dilution {epsilon}D{sup 2} of flavour tagging algorithms will reach 11.3 % (5.7 % in run1). Completely new Silicon Vertex detector SVXII of 5 double layers, other 2 external silicon layer ISL and additional silicon layer L00 at 1.5 cm from the beam pipe; will enhance vertex resolution and acceptance. Trigger system based on L1 fast tracking XFT in the drift chamber and L2 secondary vertex selection through impact parameter measurement based on silicon hits (SVT) gives online rejection of prompt background and direct access to hadronic HF decays. Recent CDF results based on both the lepton and SVT hadronic trigger samples are presented in the following, together with highlights of heavy flavour physics prospects and plans for run2a.

  5. Africa adorned: body image and symbols of physical beauty.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Leah

    2010-01-01

    African concepts of beauty and adornments of the body reflect a celebration of life in the face of death. They are derived from ancient times and the sense of man as a biological animal, within the context of life with other beasts. Among these, man is the only one who is born naked without nature's protections and adornment, such as fur, stripes, or feathers. The body is therefore an asset which must be guarded and covered and yet be expressive of strength as well as sexual desire, so as to attract a mate. Beauty, as a source of self-regard in African cultures is also often achieved through empathic identification with animals. Primordial African attitudes to life and death and symbols of beauty apparently influenced Freud's fourth instinct theory conceptions of Eros and Thanotos, as well as Erich Fromm's ideas about life-loving and death-loving societies, as illustrated in selected quotations from their writings.

  6. Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations

    PubMed Central

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2015-01-01

    A ‘Sleeping Beauty in Science’ is a publication that goes unnoticed (‘sleeps’) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (‘is awakened by a prince’). The aim of this paper is to present a general methodology to investigate (1) important properties of Sleeping Beauties such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics, journals and fields, and (2) the cognitive environment of Sleeping Beauties. We are particularly interested to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. To study the cognitive environments of Sleeping Beauties we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based on the mapping of Sleeping Beauties using their citation links and conceptual relations, particularly co-citation mapping. In this way we investigate the research themes in which the SBs are ‘used’ and possible causes of why the premature work in the SBs becomes topical, i.e., the trigger of the awakening of the SBs. This approach is tested with a blue skies SB and an application-oriented SB. We think that the mapping procedures discussed in this paper are not only important for bibliometric analyses. They also provide researchers with useful, interactive tools to discover both relevant older work as well as new developments, for instance in themes related to Sleeping Beauties that are also Sleeping Innovations. PMID:26469987

  7. [Fitness symbols: the physical exercise programmes for health and beauty by famous actresses].

    PubMed

    del Díaz Montero, M

    1993-01-01

    In recent years we have seen the proliferation of books on some kinds of physical exercise whose supposed belief is that staying healthy is directly related to a socially acceptable physique. Health and beauty go hand in hand in these books, and they are presented as being a result of practising a technique which is advocted by some successful figure in society such as a film actress. Four different models are analysed, each one of which corresponds to a value set by western society--beauty, competitiveness ...--or other values such as --serenity and harmony--the perceived lack of which is both sought and taken from other cultures.

  8. Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.

  9. Physical Attractiveness Research. Toward a Developmental Social Psychology of Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)

  10. Beauty at the ballot box: disease threats predict preferences for physically attractive leaders.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Neuberg, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Why does beauty win out at the ballot box? Some researchers have posited that it occurs because people ascribe generally positive characteristics to physically attractive candidates. We propose an alternative explanation-that leadership preferences are related to functional disease-avoidance mechanisms. Because physical attractiveness is a cue to health, people concerned with disease should especially prefer physically attractive leaders. Using real-world voting data and laboratory-based experiments, we found support for this relationship. In congressional districts with elevated disease threats, physically attractive candidates are more likely to be elected (Study 1). Experimentally activating disease concerns leads people to especially value physical attractiveness in leaders (Study 2) and prefer more physically attractive political candidates (Study 3). In a final study, we demonstrated that these findings are related to leadership preferences, specifically, rather than preferences for physically attractive group members more generally (Study 4). Together, these findings highlight the nuanced and functional nature of leadership preferences.

  11. Beautiful equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).

  12. The beauty mystique.

    PubMed

    Synnott, Anthony

    2006-08-01

    Physical beauty is symbolic, and a highly valued and powerful attribute, of the self. Yet it is also controversial--its value negated as a myth by many proverbs, religious authorities, and feminists alike. Here we explore some of the practices of beauty, from beauty competitions to cosmetic surgery, and also some of the thinking about beauty from Homer and Plato through Darwin and Freud to PEOPLE magazine. The beauty mystique, defined here as the widespread equation of beauty with goodness, together with other virtues imputed to beauty, has the reverse application to ugliness. Both processes are evident in our literature, media, popular culture, and our attitudes and behaviors; both are applied primarily to the face--the principal locus of both beauty and character. The mystique and the myth have their value and their limits.

  13. Beauty and society.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Grossbart, Ted A; Didie, Elizabeth R

    2003-06-01

    Beauty is an abstract construct. We all have our own ideas about what is and is not beautiful--a particular song or painting, a man or woman. Accurately describing what exactly "it" is that makes the song, painting or person beautiful, however, is a daunting task. In this article, we attempt to make the case that beauty and physical attractiveness is a serious matter. We begin with a discussion of the role of beauty in evolutionary theory. Next, we turn to theories of the physiology of beauty, which focus on physical characteristics such as pathogen resistance, averageness, physical symmetry, body ratios, and youthfulness. We then describe changes in the societal standards of beauty through a discussion of the relatively recent history of mass media images of beauty. We then use the psychological construct of body image to begin to understand the nature of beauty on an individual level. The article concludes with a discussion of the things that we do to make ourselves more beautiful.

  14. Beauty in the Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Most human beings look at erosion as the destruction of a surface, but artists can see that erosion often creates indefinable beauty. Where do you see beauty in the breakdown? In this article, the author presents an innovative lesson that would allow students to observe both human and physical nature. In this activity students will create a work…

  15. Beauty and the Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeanette C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of literature in the television program "Beauty and the Beast." Suggests that, despite his inhuman appearance, the Beast has transcended the physical confinement of the tunnels and has traveled the universe of his imagination. (RS)

  16. [Physical and psychic elements in chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Callegari, Camilla; Salvaggio, Fabio; Gerlini, Anna; Vender, Simone

    2007-04-01

    Chronic pain is a widespread problem in general medicine and in psychiatry. It consists in physical and psychic elements. The pain has a specific role, a different frequency and a different intensity in each mental illness. Medical treatments can get benefit from psychiatric drugs.

  17. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized. Research topics include: Molar enthalpies of formation of BaCmO{sub 3} and BaCfO{sub 3}; luminescence of europium oxychloride at various pressures; and anti-stokes luminescence of selected actinide (III) compounds. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The beauty and the beast inside: the american beauty--does cosmetic surgery help?

    PubMed

    Lijtmaer, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    American society's feminine ideal has consistently emphasized youth as beauty and getting old as ugly. Feeling unattractive produces several intrapsychic conflicts leading to depression and anxiety. Summary of the literature on beauty and aging, beauty and culture, and theories of physical beauty will be presented. With a clinical example of a female patient, the writer investigates the conscious and unconscious fantasies, conflicts, and sense of self inside and outside that impelled a physically beautiful female patient to bring her own body closer to her perception of idealized beauty with the aid of plastic surgery.

  19. "Shades of beauty": examining the relationship of skin color to perceptions of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Frisby, Cynthia M

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this research project was to investigate the relationship between skin color and level of perceived physical attractiveness. Previous research suggested that skin color plays an important role in how we perceive an individual's physical attractiveness. The current study was conducted to determine how influential the role of race is on perceptions of physical attractiveness. In this study, 79 subjects were asked to evaluate images of potential endorsers to be used in an upcoming advertising campaign. The images were those of females of varying skin tones. Data were then collected and analyzed to determine whether skin tone and level of skin color can in fact influence the physical attractiveness stereotype.

  20. Beauty premium: Event-related potentials evidence of how physical attractiveness matters in online peer-to-peer lending.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia; Fan, Bonai; Dai, Shenyi; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-02-15

    Although it is well known that attractiveness-based impressions affect the labor market, election outcomes and many other social activities, little is known about the role physical attractiveness plays in financial transactions. With the development of online finance, peer-to-peer lending has become one of the most important ways in which businesses or individuals raise capital. However, because of information asymmetry, the lender must decide whether or not to lend money to a stranger based on limited information, resulting in their decision being influenced by many other factors. In the current study, we investigated how potential borrowers' facial attractiveness influenced lenders' attitudes toward borrowers' repayment behavior at the brain level by using event-related potentials. At the priming stage, photos of attractive borrowers induced smaller N200 amplitude than photos of unattractive borrowers. Meanwhile, at the feedback stage, compared with the condition of repaying on time, breach of repayment from unattractive borrowers induced larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, which was a frontal-central negative deflection and would be enhanced by the unexpected outcome. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitude was also elicited by the condition of not repaying on time. These differences in the FRN and P300 amplitudes were not observed between negative and positive feedback from attractive borrowers. Therefore, our findings suggest that the beauty premium phenomenon is present in online peer-to-peer lending and that lenders were more tolerant toward attractive borrowers' dishonest behavior.

  1. The True Bride: Perceptions of Beauty and Feminine Virtue in Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trousdale, Ann

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the quality of the heroines' beauty in several folktales from various cultures. Notes that, unlike Western cultures that equate physical beauty with virtue, in many cultures, beauty is viewed as spiritual and emotional as well as physical. (MM)

  2. "A Thing of Beauty Is a Joy Forever"? Returns to Physical Attractiveness over the Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Mads Meier

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of three aspects of physical attractiveness (facial attractiveness, Body Mass Index and height) on socio-economic and marital success over the life course. In a sample of high school graduates from Wisconsin followed from their late teens and until their mid-60s, I find that (1. taller men have higher earnings than…

  3. The Physics of a Gymnastics Flight Element

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contakos, Jonas; Carlton, Les G.; Thompson, Bruce; Suddaby, Rick

    2009-01-01

    From its inception, performance in the sport of gymnastics has relied on the laws of physics to create movement patterns and static postures that appear almost impossible. In general, gymnastics is physics in motion and can provide an ideal framework for studying basic human modeling techniques and physical principles. Using low-end technology and…

  4. The Physics of a Gymnastics Flight Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contakos, Jonas; Carlton, Les G.; Thompson, Bruce; Suddaby, Rick

    2009-09-01

    From its inception, performance in the sport of gymnastics has relied on the laws of physics to create movement patterns and static postures that appear almost impossible. In general, gymnastics is physics in motion and can provide an ideal framework for studying basic human modeling techniques and physical principles. Using low-end technology and basic principles of physics, we analyzed a high-end gymnastics skill competed in by both men and women. The comprehensive goal of the examination is to scientifically understand how a skill of this magnitude is actually physically possible and what must a gymnast do to successfully complete the skill. The examination is divided into three sections, each of which is comprehensive enough to be a separate assignment or small group project.

  5. Elements of the tsunami precursors' detection physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Ruzhin, Yuri; Ershov, Sergey; Volgin, Max; Smirnov, Fedor

    In accordance with the main physical principles and geophysical data, we formulated a nonlinear mathematical model of seismo-hydro-electromagnetic (EM) geophysical field interaction and calculated generation and propagation of elastic, EM, temperature and hydrodynamic seismically generated disturbances (i.e. signals) in the basin of a marginal sea. We show transferring of seismic and electromagnetic (EM) energy from the upper mantle beneath the sea into its depths and EM emission from the sea surface into the atmosphere. Basing on the calculated characteristics of the signals of different physical nature (computations correspond to measurements of other authors) we develop the project of a Lithosphere-Ocean-Atmosphere Monitoring System (LOAMS) including: a bottom complex, a moored ocean surface buoy complex, an observational balloon complex, and satellite complex. The underwater stations of the bottom complex of the LOAMS will record the earlier signals of seismic activation beneath a seafloor (the ULF EM signals outrun seismic ones, according to the above calculations) and localize the seafloor epicenter of an expected seaquake. These stations will be equipped, in particular, with: magnetometers, the lines for the electric field measurements, and magneto-telluric blocks to discover dynamics of physical parameters beneath a sea floor as signs of a seaquake and/or tsunami preparation process. The buoy and balloon complexes of the LOAMS will record the meteorological and oceanographic parameters' variations including changes of reflection from a sea surface (tsunami ‘shadows’) caused by a tsunami wave propagation. Cables of the balloon and moored buoy will be used as receiving antennas and for multidisciplinary measurements including gradients of the fields (we show the cases are possible when the first seismic EM signal will be registered by an antenna above a sea). Also, the project includes radio-tomography with satellite instrumentation and sounding of the

  6. The sense of beauty.

    PubMed

    Hagman, George

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes an integrative psychoanalytic model of the sense of beauty. The following definition is used: beauty is an aspect of the experience of idealisation in which an object(s), sound(s) or concept(s) is believed to possess qualities of formal perfection. The psychoanalytic literature regarding beauty is explored in depth and fundamental similarities are stressed. The author goes on to discuss the following topics: (1) beauty as sublimation: beauty reconciles the polarisation of self and world; (2) idealisation and beauty: the love of beauty is an indication of the importance of idealisation during development; (3) beauty as an interactive process: the sense of beauty is interactive and intersubjective; (4) the aesthetic and non-aesthetic emotions: specific aesthetic emotions are experienced in response to the formal design of the beautiful object; (5) surrendering to beauty: beauty provides us with an occasion for transcendence and self-renewal; (6) beauty's restorative function: the preservation or restoration of the relationship to the good object is of utmost importance; (7) the self-integrative function of beauty: the sense of beauty can also reconcile and integrate self-states of fragmentation and depletion; (8) beauty as a defence: in psychopathology, beauty can function defensively for the expression of unconscious impulses and fantasies, or as protection against self-crisis; (9) beauty and mortality: the sense of beauty can alleviate anxiety regarding death and feelings of vulnerability. In closing the paper, the author offers a new understanding of Freud'semphasis on love of beauty as a defining trait of civilisation. For a people not to value beauty would mean that they cannot hope and cannot assert life over the inevitable and ubiquitous forces of entropy and death.

  7. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains…

  8. Kalokagathia--beauty is more than just external appearance.

    PubMed

    Dürrigl, M-A

    2002-12-01

    Notions of beauty have evolved through history and are culture-specific. In the Western world one concept which has been linked to beauty is that of kalokagathía, an ideal that unites physical beauty and moral value in a human being. This notion was inherited from Antiquity and was modified during the Middle Ages, when much more attention was paid to the fate of the soul, and further modified during the Renaissance, when concepts of beauty and of moral responses, utility and good gradually became separated. A glance at an ancient notion, such as kalokagathía, has its value in trying to understand modern perceptions of beauty.

  9. Structural Determinants of Sleeping Beauty Transposase Activity.

    PubMed

    Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here, we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein coevolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, coevolving residues into elements called "sectors", which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that (i) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; (ii) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; (iii) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. (iv) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold.

  10. Structural determinants of Sleeping Beauty transposase activity

    PubMed Central

    Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R.; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A.; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein co-evolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, co-evolving residues into elements called ‘sectors’, which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that 1) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; 2) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; 3) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. 4) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold. PMID:27401040

  11. Free Beauty, Dependent Beauty, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecker, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Explains the difference between free and dependent beauty. States that these distinctions, formed by Immanuel Kant, have important implications for aesthetic education. Concludes with a defense of Kant's aesthetics. (JDH)

  12. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes. PMID:26930202

  13. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  14. Beautifully strange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    The list of famous Bristolians is an illustrious one. The Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, for example, is recognized everywhere in Bristol for his many iconic structures, even though he was not born, bred or even resident in the city. Another well-known son of the city is the Hollywood legend Cary Grant, born as Archie Leach in the suburb of Horfield and now commemorated with a striking bronze statue outside Bristol's hands-on science museum. The physicist Paul Dirac actually went to the same elementary school as Grant/Leach, and the abstract sculpture dedicated to him stands just a stone's throw away from Grant's bronze likeness. Dirac also has a building named after him: Dirac House, the headquarters of IOP Publishing (which publishes Physics World).

  15. Changing perceptions of beauty: a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Peter A; Zavod, Matthew B

    2006-08-01

    Beauty is a mystery that has been with us for ages. Scholars and scientists have investigated its roots and effects, and its presence is ubiquitous. Has the construct of beauty changed over time? Is our sense of beauty learned or innate? What IS beauty, and can we quantify it? A substantial amount of work supports a Darwinian theory of selection, which predicts a survival advantage based on physical attractiveness. However, there is evidence that certain perceptions of beauty change with time. Indeed, the recent globalization of modern society has wrought changes in our perceptions of beauty. Are patients electing cosmetic surgery procuring a survival advantage, or are they bypassing genetics and setting a new standard for beauty? As facial plastic surgeons, we must be poised to respond to this metamorphosis and understand its roots. Although there is some equivocation and debate about this elusive subject, it is our duty to stay abreast of the current dynamic to make sound judgments that are in the best interests of our patients.

  16. The Beauty of Counseling: Effects of Counselor Physical Attractiveness and Self-Disclosure on Perceptions of Counselor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Salzbach, Ronald F.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated influences of physical attractiveness and self-disclosures of nonprofessional counselors in initial counseling interviews. College females saw audiotaped interviews in which an unidentified male counselor revealed no self-information or expressed demographic or personal similarity self-disclosures. Nondisclosing, unattractive…

  17. News Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-11-01

    Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

  18. Musings about Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for…

  19. The "Beauty Myth" Is No Myth : Emphasis on Male-Female Attractiveness in World Folktales.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2008-06-01

    The phenomenon of apparently greater emphasis on human female physical attractiveness has spawned an array of explanatory responses, but the great majority can be broadly categorized as either evolutionary or social constructivist in nature. Both perspectives generate distinct and testable predictions. If, as Naomi Wolf (The beauty myth: How images of female beauty are used against women. New York: William Morrow, [originally published in 1991], 2002) and others have argued, greater emphasis on female attractiveness is part of a predominantly Western "beauty myth," then an analysis of a culturally diverse sample should reveal marked fluctuation in gendered attractiveness emphasis: there should be significant numbers of cultures in which male and female attractiveness are equally emphasized, and cultures in which male attractiveness receives more emphasis. On the other hand, an evolutionary perspective suggests that disproportionate emphasis on female attractiveness will be a universal or near-universal phenomenon. To test these hypotheses, we tallied references to male versus female attractiveness in 90 collections of traditional folktales from 13 diverse cultural areas. The results are consistent with the evolutionary predictions and inconsistent with the constructivist predictions. Across culture areas information on physical attractiveness was much more likely to be conveyed for female characters. Together with other recent studies, these results suggest that the main elements of the beauty myth are not myths: there are large areas of overlap in the attractiveness judgments of diverse populations, and cross-cultural emphasis on physical attractiveness appears to fall principally upon women.

  20. b Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Pascal

    1998-10-19

    A summary of the most recent and important measurements in b physics is presented. The production of beauty particles in Z decays, b quark couplings, lifetimes, B{sup 0}-B{sup 0} oscillations, semileptonic b decays and studies of the number of charm quarks produced in b decays are reviewed. Extraction of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements |V{sub td}|, |V{sub cb}|, |V{sub ub}| and implication for |V{sub ts}| are discussed.

  1. Why Beautiful People Are More Intelligent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kovar, Jody L.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that individuals perceive physically attractive others to be more intelligent than physically unattractive others. While most researchers dismiss this perception as a ''bias'' or ''stereotype,'' we contend that individuals have this perception because beautiful people indeed "are" more intelligent. The conclusion that…

  2. Conceptualizing Ideal Circuit Elements in the AP Physics C Syllabus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    Does it ever bother you that emfs, resistors, and inductors add in series, but capacitors add in parallel? Does it bother your students? The AP Physics C syllabus for electricity and magnetism specifies the mathematical models students are expected to not merely memorize but to understand. Over time, my students' questions have made me rethink my conceptual and mathematical understanding of this material to help them efficiently develop reasonable conceptual and mathematical models of E&M. In this paper I describe aspects of this pedagogical rethinking related to four ideal circuit elements. I specify the end state of understanding that I want students to develop, but do not attempt to detail the pedagogical path to that understanding.

  3. Beauty and Hope: A Moral Beauty Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Rust, Teri; Solom, Rebecca C.; Frost, Nellie; Parsons, Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical intervention regarding engagement with natural, artistic and moral beauty can lead to an increase in trait hope. In a quasi-experimental design with college students the intervention group showed significantly higher gain scores on trait hope than did the comparison group; the effect size was moderate. The experimental group also…

  4. Beauty and art.

    PubMed

    Chang, C W David

    2006-08-01

    Definitions of beauty and art have been turned upside down when trying to describe 20th century and postmodern art. The classical sense of beauty looks toward the replication of nature as its inspiration. The development of Impressionist art and modern art forced the rules of aesthetics to be rethought and revised. Old standards of aesthetics were brought into question with each successive artistic challenge. This article endeavors to explore the meaning of beauty and the aesthetic experience as it relates to defining art.

  5. Musings about beauty.

    PubMed

    Kintsch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for perfect form. What do these criteria imply for mental representations that are experienced as beautiful? Complexity theory can be used to specify constraints on mental representations abstractly formulated as vectors in a high-dimensional space. A central feature of the proposed model is that perfect form depends both on features of the objects or events perceived and on the nature of the encoding strategies or model of the observer. A simple example illustrates the proposed calculations. A number of interesting implications that arise as a consequence of reformulating beauty in this way are noted.

  6. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-03-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original books and manuscripts from the library's own collections. The sheer magnitude of human achievement represented here and the amount of effort and money that must have been required to amass these books boggles the mind.

  7. An improved ephemeris and physical elements of ER Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmanec, P.; Božić, H.; Thanjavur, K.; Robb, R. M.; Ruždjak, D.; Sudar, D.

    2004-02-01

    New photoelectric U B{V} and BV RI observations, secured during August-November of 2002 at two observatories distant in local time are analyzed together with two earlier photometric data sets and all available radial velocities to derive the most accurate ephemeris of the binary and to set limits on its basic physical elements. These observations were obtained as a support for a high-dispersion spectroscopic study, results of which will be published separately. It was found that radial velocities and photometric observations spanning 53 years can be reconciled with the linear ephemeris T_prim.min.=HJD 2 440 182.25628(46) + 0698095113(29)d × E, where the rms errors of the last digits are given in brackets. Masses of the stars are 1.02 \\fms and 0.97 \\fms and the binary separation is 4.170 R⊙. There is still a large uncertainty in the stellar radii. We also report the discovery of rapid light variations on a time scale of hours seen in the U band light curve and offer a few thoughts on the future investigation of this binary. This research is based on photoelectric observations from Hvar and University of Victoria Observatories. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/415/289

  8. Like Beauty, Complexity is Hard to Define

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    Like beauty, complexity is hard to define and rather easy to identify: nonlinear dynamics, strongly interconnected simple elements, some sort of divisoria aquorum between order and disorder. Before focusing on complexity, let us remember that the theoretical pillars of contemporary physics are mechanics (Newtonian, relativistic, quantum), Maxwell electromagnetism, and (Boltzmann-Gibbs, BG) statistical mechanics - obligatory basic disciplines in any advanced course in physics. The firstprinciple statistical-mechanical approach starts from (microscopic) electro-mechanics and theory of probabilities, and, through a variety of possible mesoscopic descriptions, arrives to (oscopic) thermodynamics. In the middle of this trip, we cross energy and entropy. Energy is related to the possible microscopic configurations of the system, whereas entropy is related to the corresponding probabilities. Therefore, in some sense, entropy represents a concept which, epistemologically speaking, is one step further with regard to energy. The fact that energy is not parameter-independent is very familiar: the kinetic energy of a truck is very different from that of a fly, and the relativistic energy of a fast electron is very different from its classical value, and so on. What about entropy? One hundred and forty years of tradition, and hundreds - we may even say thousands - of impressive theoretical successes of the parameter-free BG entropy have sedimented, in the mind of many scientists, the conviction that it is unique. However, it can be straightforwardly argued that, in general, this is not the case...

  9. The Role of Nuclear Physics in Understanding the Cosmos and the Origin of Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-05-06

    This popular lecture, given in the conference celebrating contributions of Akito Arima to physics on the occasion of his 80th anniversary, outlines the role of nuclear physics in understanding the origin of elements.

  10. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  11. "Soccer": The Beautiful Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Soccer, or football as it is called in the rest of the world, is the most popular and fastest-growing global sport, with an estimated 240 million people regularly playing what Brazilian star Pele called "the beautiful game." Millions, worldwide, watch it on television. In 2006, the average viewership for each match of the month-long World Cup was…

  12. The blind beautiful eye.

    PubMed

    Feinsod, M

    2000-03-01

    Master Jehan Yperman, a medieval surgeon, observed that when the optic nerve is injured, the eye becomes blind and beautiful. This is an attempt to trace the footsteps of this forgotten surgeon and to track the history of the cosmetic use of the belladonna herb, as well as the concept of amaurotic mydriasis.

  13. The Beauty of Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  14. On Disinterestedness and Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kant, Immanuel

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses disinterestedness and beauty. To apprehend a regular and appropriate building with one's cognitive faculties, be the mode of representation clear or confused, is quite a different thing from being conscious of this representation with an accompanying sensation of delight. Here the representation is referred wholly to the…

  15. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  16. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-02-26

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

  17. Implementing Elements of the Physics Suite at a Large Metropolitan Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiou, Costas; Maronde, Dan; McGreevy, Tim; del Barco, Enrique; McCole, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    A key question in physics education is the effectiveness of the teaching methods. A curriculum that has been investigated at the University of Central Florida (UCF) over the last two years is the use of particular elements of The Physics Suite. Select sections of the introductory physics classes at UCF have made use of Interactive Lecture…

  18. Application of physical parameter identification to finite-element models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronowicki, Allen J.; Lukich, Michael S.; Kuritz, Steven P.

    1987-01-01

    The time domain parameter identification method described previously is applied to TRW's Large Space Structure Truss Experiment. Only control sensors and actuators are employed in the test procedure. The fit of the linear structural model to the test data is improved by more than an order of magnitude using a physically reasonable parameter set. The electro-magnetic control actuators are found to contribute significant damping due to a combination of eddy current and back electro-motive force (EMF) effects. Uncertainties in both estimated physical parameters and modal behavior variables are given.

  19. The face, beauty, and symmetry: perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, D W; Cohen, J A

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of "beautiful" faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected. First, beauty ratings were obtained for these faces. Then, the authors created symmetrical left-left and right-right composites of the beautiful faces and asked a new group of subjects to choose the most attractive pair member. "Same" responses were allowed. No difference between the left-left and right-right composites was revealed but significant differences were obtained between "same" and the left-left or right-right. These results show that subjects detected asymmetry in beauty and suggest that very beautiful faces can be functionally asymmetrical.

  20. Beauty and charm production at fixed-target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erik E. Gottschalk

    2003-12-10

    Fixed-target experiments continue to provide insights into the physics of particle production in strong interactions. The experiments are performed with different types of beam particles of varying energies, and many different target materials. Studies of beauty and charm production are of particular interest, since experimental results can be compared to perturbative QCD calculations. It is in this context that recent results from fixed-target experiments on beauty and charm production will be reviewed.

  1. A locally refined rectangular grid finite element method - Application to computational fluid dynamics and computational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David P.; Melvin, Robin G.; Bieterman, Michael B.; Johnson, Forrester T.; Samant, Satish S.

    1991-01-01

    The present FEM technique addresses both linear and nonlinear boundary value problems encountered in computational physics by handling general three-dimensional regions, boundary conditions, and material properties. The box finite elements used are defined by a Cartesian grid independent of the boundary definition, and local refinements proceed by dividing a given box element into eight subelements. Discretization employs trilinear approximations on the box elements; special element stiffness matrices are included for boxes cut by any boundary surface. Illustrative results are presented for representative aerodynamics problems involving up to 400,000 elements.

  2. Physical Constraint Finite Element Model for Medical Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingya; Wang, Jiajun; Wang, Xiuying; Gao, Xin; Feng, Dagan

    2015-01-01

    Due to being derived from linear assumption, most elastic body based non-rigid image registration algorithms are facing challenges for soft tissues with complex nonlinear behavior and with large deformations. To take into account the geometric nonlinearity of soft tissues, we propose a registration algorithm on the basis of Newtonian differential equation. The material behavior of soft tissues is modeled as St. Venant-Kirchhoff elasticity, and the nonlinearity of the continuum represents the quadratic term of the deformation gradient under the Green- St.Venant strain. In our algorithm, the elastic force is formulated as the derivative of the deformation energy with respect to the nodal displacement vectors of the finite element; the external force is determined by the registration similarity gradient flow which drives the floating image deforming to the equilibrium condition. We compared our approach to three other models: 1) the conventional linear elastic finite element model (FEM); 2) the dynamic elastic FEM; 3) the robust block matching (RBM) method. The registration accuracy was measured using three similarities: MSD (Mean Square Difference), NC (Normalized Correlation) and NMI (Normalized Mutual Information), and was also measured using the mean and max distance between the ground seeds and corresponding ones after registration. We validated our method on 60 image pairs including 30 medical image pairs with artificial deformation and 30 clinical image pairs for both the chest chemotherapy treatment in different periods and brain MRI normalization. Our method achieved a distance error of 0.320±0.138 mm in x direction and 0.326±0.111 mm in y direction, MSD of 41.96±13.74, NC of 0.9958±0.0019, NMI of 1.2962±0.0114 for images with large artificial deformations; and average NC of 0.9622±0.008 and NMI of 1.2764±0.0089 for the real clinical cases. Student’s t-test demonstrated that our model statistically outperformed the other methods in comparison (p

  3. Perceptions of beauty in Renaissance art.

    PubMed

    Haughton, Neil

    2004-12-01

    The Renaissance was a cultural revolution that spread from Florence, in 1400, throughout Italy and into the rest of Europe. Its impetus was the philosophy of Humanism, which strove to resurrect and emulate the literature and art of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Artists had previously been limited to formulaic religious iconography. They now began to reproduce descriptions of classical paintings and copy the antique statues that were being newly rediscovered. The Renaissance artist's perception of beauty was therefore determined by his philosophical environment, his visual experience (the 'period eye'), the demands of his patrons and by attempts to enhance his professional status in society to equal that of poets and architects. The image of Venus portrayed by Botticelli as the idealization of beauty in Renaissance Florence is significantly different from the Venus portrayed by the German artist, Lucas Cranach. The northern European Venus is much less voluptuous than her Italian counterpart but is still inspired by humanist principals and retains considerable sexuality. Raphael's paintings epitomise the idealization of female beauty of this period but, by his own admission they were rarely based on real models. Often the same facial type was repeated in many different paintings. Indeed Renaissance portrait artists tended to avoid realistic interpretation, emphasizing instead the positive attributes of their subjects, both physical and political. Thus, Bronzino's Portrait of a Young Man not only depicts his subject's idealized appearance but also his scholarship, background and potential. The depiction of beauty in Renaissance art is shown to be more complex than a mere photograph-like representation of sexuality or of a person's physical appearance. Instead, Renaissance art created physically perfect images resulting from scholarly expectation, the artist's ambitions and his developing skills.

  4. Self-relevant beauty evaluation: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanchang; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Fan, Cuiying; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the electrophysiological correlates of beauty evaluation when participants performed the self-reference task. About 13 (7 men, 6 women) undergraduates participated in the experiment using event-related potentials. Results showed that the response to self-relevant information was faster compared to other-relevant information and no significant differences for self-relevant relative to mother-relevant information were observed. Both physical and interior beauty words for self-relevant information showed an enhanced late positive component as compared to other-relevant information. Physical beauty for self-relevant information yielded a larger late positive component in contrast to mother-relevant information but not for interior beauty. This study indicates that beauty is specific to the person who judges it though an individual and one's mother may hold similar views of interior beauty.

  5. A bibliography on finite element and related methods analysis in reactor physics computations (1971--1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography provides a list of references on finite element and related methods analysis in reactor physics computations. These references have been published in scientific journals, conference proceedings, technical reports, thesis/dissertations and as chapters in reference books from 1971 to the present. Both English and non-English references are included. All references contained in the bibliography are sorted alphabetically by the first author`s name and a subsort by date of publication. The majority of the references relate to reactor physics analysis using the finite element method. Related topics include the boundary element method, the boundary integral method, and the global element method. All aspects of reactor physics computations relating to these methods are included: diffusion theory, deterministic radiation and neutron transport theory, kinetics, fusion research, particle tracking in finite element grids, and applications. For user convenience, many of the listed references have been categorized. The list of references is not all inclusive. In general, nodal methods were purposely excluded, although a few references do demonstrate characteristics of finite element methodology using nodal methods (usually as a non-conforming element basis). This area could be expanded. The author is aware of several other references (conferences, thesis/dissertations, etc.) that were not able to be independently tracked using available resources and thus were not included in this listing.

  6. Is better beautiful or is beautiful better? Exploring the relationship between beauty and category structure.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Megan; Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2013-06-01

    We evaluate two competing accounts of the relationship between beauty and category structure. According to the similarity-based view, beauty arises from category structure such that central items are favored due to their increased fluency. In contrast, the theory-based view holds that people's theories of beauty shape their perceptions of categories. In the present study, subjects learned to categorize abstract paintings into meaningfully labeled categories and rated the paintings' beauty, value, and typicality. Inconsistent with the similarity-based view, beauty ratings were highly correlated across conditions despite differences in fluency and assigned category structure. Consistent with the theory-based view, beautiful paintings were treated as central members for categories expected to contain beautiful paintings (e.g., art museum pieces), but not in others (e.g., student show pieces). These results suggest that the beauty of complex, real-world stimuli is not determined by fluency within category structure but, instead, interacts with people's prior knowledge to structure categories.

  7. Sleeping beauties in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping beauties (SBs) in science have been known for few decades; however, it seems that only recently have they become popular. An SB is a publication that “sleeps” for a long time and then almost suddenly awakes and becomes highly cited. SBs present interesting findings in science. Pediatrics research literature has not yet been analyzed for their presence, and 5 pediatrics SBs were discovered in this research. Their prevalence was approximately 0.011%. Some environments or periods are more “SB fertile” than others: 3 of 5 SBs were published in the journal Pediatrics, 4 originated from the United States, and 4 were published in the period from 1992 to 1993. No institutions or authors published more than 1 SB. PMID:27822155

  8. Beauty and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, Michael S.

    2000-08-01

    Spectacular colour images have been made by combining CCD images in three different passbands using Adobe Photoshop. These beautiful images highlight a variety of astrophysical phenomena and should be a valuable resource for science education and public awareness of science. The wide field images were obtained at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) by mounting a Hasselblad or Nikkor telephoto lens in front of a 2K × 2K CCD. Options of more than 30 degrees or 6 degrees square coverage are produced in a single exposure in this way. Narrow band or broad band filters were placed between lens and CCD enabling deep, linear images in a variety of passbands to be obtained. We have mapped the LMC and SMC and are mapping the Galactic Plane for comparison with the Molonglo Radio Survey. Higher resolution images have also been made with the 40 inch telescope of galaxies and star forming regions in the Milky Way.

  9. Engagement with beauty: appreciating natural, artistic, and moral beauty.

    PubMed

    Diessner, Rhett; Solom, Rebecca C; Frost, Nellie K; Parsons, Lucas; Davidson, John

    2008-05-01

    The Engagement With Beauty Scale (EBS), designed from the aesthetics of I. Kant (1790/1987), G. W. F. Hegel (ca. 1835/1993), and T. Aquinas (ca. 1260/1947) and the psychological work of J. Haidt (J. Haidt & D. Keltner, 2004), measures engagement with natural, artistic, and moral beauty. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors describe scale construction, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, and temporal stability. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors also establish concurrent validity with the Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence subscale of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test (P. C. Watkins, K. Woodward, T. Stone, & R. L. Kolts, 2003), and the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (R. L. Piedmont, 2004). In Study 3, the authors used the EBS Artistic Beauty subscale to differentiate students engaged in the arts from those who were not.

  10. If the Shoe Fits: Virtue and Absolute Beauty in Fairy Tale Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Melissa C.

    2000-01-01

    Examines five versions of the Cinderella story. Argues that children's fairy tale drama presents female beauty as a moral absolute, not merely as a physical characteristic. Cites feminist theories of the female body to demonstrate ways in which fairy tale drama establishes female beauty as an unchanging, "universal" concept. Considers…

  11. Critical Elements in the Medical Evaluation of Suspected Child Physical Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Lenora M.; Keenan, Heather T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has described variability in medical evaluation of suspected abuse. The objective of this study was to identify, through expert consensus, required and highly recommended elements of a child abuse pediatrics (CAP) evaluation for 3 common presentations of suspected physical abuse in children aged 0 to 60 months. METHODS: Twenty-eight CAPs recruited from 2 national organizations formed the expert panel for this modified Delphi Process. An initial survey was developed for each presentation based on demographics, history of present illness, past medical, family and social history, laboratory, radiology, and consultation elements present in at least 10% of CAP consultations collected for a larger study. CAPs ranked each element on a 9-point scale then reviewed and discussed summary results through a project blog over 3 rounds. Required and highly recommended elements were defined as elements ranked as 9 and 8, respectively, by ≥75% of experts after the final round. RESULTS: From 96 elements in the initial surveys, experts identified 30 Required elements and 37 Highly Recommended elements for CAP evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage, 21 Required and 33 Highly Recommended elements for CAP evaluation of long bone fracture, and 18 Required and 16 Highly Recommended elements for CAP evaluation of isolated skull fracture. CONCLUSIONS: This guideline reflects expert consensus and provides a starting point for development of child abuse assessment protocols for quality improvement or research. Additional research is required to determine whether this guideline can reduce variability and/or improve reliability in the evaluation and diagnosis of child physical abuse. PMID:26101359

  12. The effects of atmospheric optical conditions on perceived scenic beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, Douglas A.; Hogo, Henry; Daniel, Terry C.

    This paper describes the results from the first year of a currently on-going study, the objective of which is to investigate the relationships between atmospheric optical conditions and human perceptions of scenic beauty. Color photographs and atmospheric optical measurements, using telephotometers and nephelometers, were taken in the western U.S.A. (Grand Canyon National Park and Mt. Lemmon near Tucson, Arizona) and in the eastern United States (Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah national parks). Over 1300 individual observers rated color slides for either visual air quality or scenic beauty using a 10-point rating scale. Ratings were transformed to indices using standard psychophysical techniques. Relationships between these perceptual indices and physical parameters characteristic of the given landscape represented in the color slides were investigated using scatter plots, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. Physical parameters included visual range, horizon sky chromaticity and luminance, solar zenith and scattering angles, and cloud conditions. Results show that observers' ratings of visual air quality and scenic beauty are sensitive to visual range, sky color, and scattering angle. However, in some of the areas investigated, scenic beauty ratings were not affected by changes in visual range. The sensitivity of the scenic beauty of a vista to changes in the extinction coefficient may be useful for establishing visibility goals and priorities.

  13. Perceived beauty of random texture patterns: A preference for complexity.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, Jay; Liby, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    We report two experiments on the perceived aesthetic quality of random density texture patterns. In each experiment a square grid was filled with a progressively larger number of elements. Grid size in Experiment 1 was 10×10 with elements added to create a variety of textures ranging from 10%-100% fill levels. Participants rated the beauty of the patterns. Average judgments across all observers showed an inverted U-shaped function that peaked near middle densities. In Experiment 2 grid size was increased to 15×15 to see if observers preferred patterns with a fixed density or a fixed number of elements. The results of the second experiment were nearly identical to that of the first showing a preference for density over fixed element number. Ratings in both studies correlated positively with a GIF compression metric of complexity and with edge length. Within the range of stimuli used, observers judge more complex patterns to be more beautiful.

  14. Beauty, charm and hyperon production at fixed-target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erik Gottschalk

    2002-12-11

    Over the years fixed-target experiments have performed numerous studies of particle production in strong interactions. The experiments have been performed with different types of beam particles of varying energies, and many different target materials. Since the physics of particle production is still not understood, ongoing research of phenomena that we observe as beauty, charm and strange-particle production is crucial if we are to gain an understanding of these fundamental processes. It is in this context that recent results from fixed-target experiments on beauty, charm, and hyperon production will be reviewed.

  15. Surgical enhancement of facial beauty and its psychological significance.

    PubMed

    Baig, Moghees A

    2004-10-01

    Facial beauty is easier to recognize than to define. It is widely agreed that beauty is an evolutionary adoption for ensuring the survival of the species, because physical attractiveness is rated as more vital in mate selection. It includes a combination of qualities, starting from the grace of form to the charm of the colours that delight the sight and other senses. It does not have any norms however individual or societal assessment of attractiveness is greatly influenced by cultural standards. Several soft and hard tissue surgical procedures are therefore performed around the world each year. In this 12 years study from 1992 to 2004 the types of orthognathic surgical procedures performed and their psychological impact on the patients' well-being have been evaluated. By carefully structured interviews and psychosomatic evaluations It has been clinically demonstrated that psychological analysis is as important as soft and hard tissue parameters for patients undergoing surgical procedures to enhance facial beauty.

  16. XMM flying beautifully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  17. Gamification: using elements of video games to improve engagement in an undergraduate physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. A.; O'Meara, J. M.; Gerhardt, T. C.; Williams, M.

    2016-09-01

    Gamification has been extensively implemented and studied in corporate settings and has proven to be more effective than traditional employee-training programs, however, few classroom studies of gamification have been reported in the literature. Our study explored the potential of gamified on-line undergraduate physics content as a mechanism to enhance student learning and motivation. Specifically, the main objective of this work was to determine whether extrinsic motivation indicators commonly used in video games could increase student engagement with course content outside of the classroom. Life Science students taking an introductory physics course were provided access to gamified multiple choice quizzes as part of their course assessment. The quizzes incorporated common gaming elements such as points, streaks, leaderboards and achievements, as well as some gamified graphical enhancements and feedback. Student attitudes and performance among those using the gamified quizzes were examined and compared to non-gamified control groups within the same course. Student engagement was quantified through examining student participation above and beyond the minimum course requirements. The results showed that gaming techniques are significantly correlated with increased engagement with course material outside of the classroom. These results may assist instructors in engaging and motivating students outside the classroom through carefully designed online and distance-delivered undergraduate physics content. Furthermore, the gaming elements incorporated in this study were not specifically tied to the physics content and can be easily translated to any educational setting.

  18. Reflections on beauty as it relates to health in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R J

    1984-01-01

    Because an attractive appearance is so essential to the feminine gender role, the search for beauty causes special adjustment problems for adolescent girls. Psychologically they suffer from negative body image, lowered self-esteem, and achievement conflicts. Physically their health is undermined by current beauty norms which foster eating disorders, cosmetic acne, and breast surgery. The effects of physical fitness programs, the role of the media, and the influence of changing gender roles are also discussed.

  19. Quantitative investigation of ligament strains during physical tests for sacroiliac joint pain using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Yao, Zhidong; Kim, Kyungsoo; Park, Won Man

    2014-06-01

    It may be assumed that the stability is affected when some ligaments are injured or loosened, and this joint instability causes sacroiliac joint pain. Several physical examinations have been used to diagnose sacroiliac pain and to isolate the source of the pain. However, more quantitative and objective information may be necessary to identify unstable or injured ligaments during these tests due to the lack of understanding of the quantitative relationship between the physical tests and the biomechanical parameters that may be related to pains in the sacroiliac joint and the surrounding ligaments. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the sacroiliac joint was developed and the biomechanical conditions for six typical physical tests such as the compression test, distraction test, sacral apex pressure test, thigh thrust test, Patrick's test, and Gaenslen's test were modelled. The sacroiliac joint contact pressure and ligament strain were investigated for each test. The values of contact pressure and the combination of most highly strained ligaments differed markedly among the tests. Therefore, these findings in combination with the physical tests would be helpful to identify the pain source and to understand the pain mechanism. Moreover, the technology provided in this study might be a useful tool to evaluate the physical tests, to improve the present test protocols, or to develop a new physical test protocol.

  20. Performance of Pain, Performance of Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James

    2006-01-01

    "Performance of pain, performance of beauty" explores performance projects in war zones using Elaine Scarry's definitions of "pain" and "beauty" as a starting point. The way in which pain constricts the body and the experience that beauty can take a person beyond the body become a contested framework for considering…

  1. Ugly Risks of Beauty Routines.

    PubMed

    Kloser

    1996-12-01

    Beauty products and practices may put women at risk for infection. Adverse events range in seriousness from the superficial to the systemic--from conjunctivitis caused by contaminated eye makeup, to fungal infections picked up from the locker room or manicurist, to more troubling soft-tissue infections caused by unsanitary body piercing or tattooing, practices that can also transmit hepatitis B and C.

  2. The Beauty of Henri Matisse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, David

    2004-01-01

    Because beauty has for a long time now been politically incorrect (at least among certain influential critics and academic historians) the art of Henri Matisse has recently suffered from a kind of benign neglect. His goals were luxury, calm, and voluptuousness, not social critique. Liberated from any vital connection with everyday life, they often…

  3. Beauty in a multicultural world.

    PubMed

    Weeks, David M; Thomas, J Regan

    2014-08-01

    The increased demand for facial cosmetic surgery has come from a more diverse, informed, and selective patient population from all walks of life. Virtually no two patients have the same background or cosmetic objectives. However, the classic tenets of beauty including phi, symmetry, averageness, youthfulness, and sexual dimorphism can be applied to persons of all ethnicities to assist in objectifying the abstract concept.

  4. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes.

  5. Modification of radiobiological effects of 171 MeV protons by elements of physical protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulinina, Taisia; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Ivanov, Alexander; Molokanov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation includes protons of various energies. Physical protection is effective in the case of low energy protons (50-100 MeV) and becomes insufficient for radiation with a high part of high-energy protons. In the experiment performed on outbred mice, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the radiobiological effect of 171 MeV protons and protons modified by elements of physical protection of the spacecraft, on a complex of indicators of the functional condition of the system hematopoiesis and the central nervous system in 24 hours after irradiation at 20 cGy dose. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a «protective curtain», and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Mass thickness of the " protective curtain" in terms of water equivalent was ̴ 6,2 g/cm2. Physical shielding along the path of 171 MeV protons increases their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, the two types of shielding together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. The effects observed in the experiment indicate the necessity to carry out comprehensive radiobiological researches (physical, biological and mathematical) in assessing the effects of physical protection, that are actual for ensuring radiation safety of crews in

  6. Beauty is in the soul of the beholder: psychological implications of beauty and African American women.

    PubMed

    Hall, C C

    1995-01-01

    The criteria for beauty in the United States are primarily based on Caucasian European American, middle-class standards. African American women tend to vary greatly from these criteria. Though very few studies have been conducted on the body image of Black women in the United States, historically, the physical images portrayed of African American women in the United States have not been positive. Mental health practitioners must understand how these negative images may affect the body image and self-esteem of African American women. Therapeutic and community interventions are discussed.

  7. Beauty and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    People often hold stereotypical notions about disability, assuming people with significant disabilities offer little in terms of friendship or contribution. Some are even repulsed by that person's physical appearance. Such responses, evident within the Christian community as well, fail to acknowledge the inherent worth of the person as created in…

  8. Application of the Finite Element Method in Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, Janine

    2007-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical algorithm for solving second order differential equations. It has been successfully used to solve many problems in atomic and molecular physics, including bound state and scattering calculations. To illustrate the diversity of the method, we present here details of two applications. First, we calculate the non-adiabatic dipole polarizability of Hi by directly solving the first and second order equations of perturbation theory with FEM. In the second application, we calculate the scattering amplitude for e-H scattering (without partial wave analysis) by reducing the Schrodinger equation to set of integro-differential equations, which are then solved with FEM.

  9. Seismic monitoring of heavy oil reservoirs: Rock physics and finite element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theune, Ulrich

    In the past decades, remote monitoring of subsurface processes has attracted increasing attention in geophysics. With repeated geophysical surveys one attempts to detect changes in the physical properties in the underground without directly accessing the earth. This technique has been proven to be very valuable for monitoring enhanced oil recovery programs. This thesis presents an modelling approach for the feasibility analysis for monitoring of a thermal enhanced oil recovery technique applied to heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to produce heavy oil from shallow reservoirs thermal oil recovery techniques such as the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are often employed. As these techniques are expensive and technically challenging, early detection of operational problems is without doubt of great value. However, the feasibility of geophysical monitoring depends on many factors such as the changes in the rock physical properties of the target reservoir. In order to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs, a fluid-substitutional rock physical study has been carried out to simulate the steam injection. The second modelling approach is based on a modified finite element algorithm to simulate the propagation of elastic waves in the earth, which has been developed independently in the framework of this thesis. The work summarized in this thesis shows a possibility to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs through an extensive rock-physical study. Seismic monitoring is a useful tool in reservoir management decision process. However, the work reported here suggests that seismic monitoring of SAGD processes in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is only feasible in shallow, unconsolidated deposits. For deeper, but otherwise geological similar reservoirs, the SAGD does not create a sufficient change in the rock physical properties to be

  10. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S.; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts ‘facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment’ and ‘scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment’ identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. PMID:25298010

  11. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts 'facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment' and 'scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment' identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty.

  12. Beauty and the beast: Psychobiologic and evolutionary perspectives on body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Carey, Paul D; Warwick, James

    2006-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with a defect in appearance. Concepts of beauty play a particularly crucial role in humans' mental and social life, and may have specific psychobiologic and evolutionary underpinnings. In particular, there is a growing literature on the neurocircuitry underpinning the body schema, body image and facial expression processing, and aesthetic and symmetry judgments. Speculatively, disruptions in cognitive-affective processes relevant to judgements about physical beauty lead to BDD.

  13. "You are so beautiful"*: behind women's attractiveness towards the biology of reproduction: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Buggio, Laura; Vercellini, Paolo; Somigliana, Edgardo; Viganò, Paola; Frattaruolo, Maria Pina; Fedele, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    Female beauty has always attracted human beings. In particular, beauty has been interpreted in terms of reproductive potential and advantage in selection of mates. We have reviewed the recent literature on female facial and physical beauty with the objective of defining which parameters could influence female attractiveness. Symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism with regards to facial beauty, as well as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), breast size, and body mass index (BMI) for physical beauty, have been assessed. In current societies, it appears that facial attractiveness results from a mixture of symmetry and averageness of traits, high forehead and cheekbones, small nose and chin, full lips, thin eyebrows, and thick hair. A low WHR reliably characterized physical attractiveness, whereas inconsistencies have been observed in the evaluation of breast size and BMI. The importance of breast size appears to vary with time and sex of evaluators, whereas the impact of BMI is related to socio-economic conditions. The various hypotheses behind beauty and the role of attractiveness in mate choice and sexual selection are here described in terms of continuation of human species. Intriguing associations are emerging between features of attractiveness and some reproductive disorders, as both are substantially influenced by sex steroid hormones.

  14. On charm and beauty decays: A theorist's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1987-10-01

    The present understanding of charm and bottom decays is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the theoretical uncertainties in view of the particularly rich harvest of new data from the last year. A semi-quantitative description of D decays has emerged enabling us to address rather detailed and relatively subtle questions there, like on once and twice Cabibbo suppressed decays. Beauty physics having left its infancy is now in its adolescence; its future development towards maturity is analyzed.

  15. Space-time finite-element objects: Efficiently modeling physically complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, G.A.

    1996-03-28

    Accurate modeling of high-explosive systems requires detailed consideration of many different physical properties and processes: These diverse processes generally occur in localized regions of the problem. Thus the very partial differential equations used to mathematically model the problem change from one region of space and time to another. The numerical algorithms generally used to solve these equations are frequently conceived in terms of data values for physical field variables u{sup i} defined at a number of spatial points indexed by multi-integer subscripts x{sub J}, resulting in a number of discrete state variables u{sup i}{sub J}. Instead of using as the fundamental object a physical field, which naturally maps to an array, the authors imagine a small piece of space modeled for a small amount of time, a space-time ``element``. Within it, various physical processes occur at various times. Self-contained, it gives account of what happens within its borders. It cooperates with a set of neighbors that organize into meshes, which organize into problems. The authors achieve in the software model a decoupling between the where and the how and the what, lack of which historically has been the source of a great deal of the software overhead of modelling continuum systems, and which is a necessary consequence of writing down u{sup i}{sub J}. An efficient implementation of this idea requires a reformulation of the discretization and solution of systems of conservation laws, and careful class design. A working prototype for systems in one space dimension using Mathematica and C++ is provided.

  16. BeautiPHIcation™: a global approach to facial beauty.

    PubMed

    Swift, Arthur; Remington, Kent

    2011-07-01

    The recent availability of safe volumizing fillers has provided cosmetic physicians with the tools necessary to contour facial features non-surgically and cost-effectively. This review focuses on outlining objective parameters necessary for creating a template to maximize each individual's facial beauty. Phi relationships can be approached for all facial features and rely on the establishment of smooth ogee curves in all dimensions. Once goals have been determined and a budget established, a logical syntax is used to create an algorithm for selecting products and procedures. The methodology leads to consistent and pleasing results with a high rate of patient satisfaction.

  17. Physical-chemical treatment of wastes: a way to close turnover of elements in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenko, Yu A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Zolotukhin, I. G.

    2000-05-01

    "Man-plants-physical-chemical unit" system designed for space stations or terrestrial ecohabitats to close steady-state mineral, water and gas exchange is proposed. The physical-chemical unit is to mineralize all inedible plant wastes and physiological human wastes (feces, urine, gray water) by electromagnetically activated hydrogen peroxide in an oxidation reactor. The final product is a mineralized solution containing all elements balanced for plants' requirements. The solution has been successfully used in experiments to grow wheat, beans and radish. The solution was reusable: the evaporated moisture was replenished by the phytotron condensate. Sodium salination of plants was precluded by evaporating reactor-mineralized urine to sodium saturation concentration to crystallize out NaCl which can be used as food for the crew. The remaining mineralized product was brought back for nutrition of plants. The gas composition of the reactor comprises O 2, N 2, CO 2, NH 3, H 2. At the reactor's output hydrogen and oxygen were catalyzed into water, NH 3 was converted in a water trap into NH 4 and used for nutrition of plants. A special accessory at the reactor's output may produce hydrogen peroxide from intrasystem water and gas which makes possible to close gas loops between LSS components.

  18. Sustained impact of community-based physical activity interventions: key elements for success

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence supports the cost effectiveness and potential impact of physical activity on chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Quality of evidence is one piece, but certainly not the sole determinant of whether public health interventions, physical activity focused or otherwise, achieve their full potential for impact. Health promotion at both population and community levels must progress beyond health intervention models that isolate individuals from social, environmental, and political systems of influence. We offer a critical evaluation of lessons learned from two successful research initiatives to provide insights as to how health promotion research contributes to sustained impact. We highlight factors key to success including the theoretical and methodological integration of: i) a social ecological approach; ii) participatory action research (PAR) methods; and iii) an interdisciplinary team. Methods To identify and illustrate the key elements of our success we layered an evaluation of steps taken atop a review of relevant literature. Results In the school-based case study (Action Schools! BC), the success of our approach included early and sustained engagement with a broad cross-section of stakeholders, establishing partnerships across sectors and at different levels of government, and team members across multiple disciplines. In the neighbourhood built environment case study, the three domains guided our approach through study design and team development, and the integration of older adults’ perspectives into greenway design plans. In each case study we describe how elements of the domains serve as a guide for our work. Conclusion To sustain and maximize the impact of community-based public health interventions we propose the integration of elements from three domains of research that acknowledge the interplay between social, environmental and poilitical systems of influence. We emphasize that a number of key factors determine

  19. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves.

  20. Is Beauty an Archaic Spirit in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannatella, Howard

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the unfashionable and taboo idea that beauty matters. The author's supposition is that beauty as a poetic force should be regarded as one of the defining characteristics central to pedagogic practice. In making this claim he draws upon a few of Charles Dickens' and William Wordsworth's ideas in support of the importance of…

  1. Mate choice decisions: the role of facial beauty.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Victor S

    2006-01-01

    For most people, facial beauty appears to play a prominent role in choosing a mate. Evidence from research on facial attractiveness indicates that physical beauty is a sexually selected trait mediated, in part, by pubertal facial hormone markers that signal important biological information about the displayer. Such signals would be ineffective if they did not elicit appropriate cognitive and/or emotional responses in members of the opposite sex. In this article, I argue that the effectiveness of these hormonal displays varies with perceivers' brains, which have been organized by the degree of steroid hormone exposure in the uterus, and activated by varying levels of circulating steroids following puberty. I further propose that the methodology used for examining mate choice decisions has general applicability for determining how cognitive and emotional evaluations enter into decision processes.

  2. [Content of mineral elements in the diet of students of physical education faculty].

    PubMed

    Novokshanova, A L; Nikitiyk, D B; Pozdniakov, A L

    2013-01-01

    Research of the diet of students of the Faculty of Physical Education found discrepancy of caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms accompanied by a deficiency of some mineral elements. Thus, this research found discrepancy of a diet in caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms. Calorie deficiency in both groups is caused for lack of all macro- and micronutrients, but mostly for lack of carbohydrates with an average glycemic index, fruit, and vegetables that have prebiotic properties and mineral-rich elements. Deficiency in the diet of young men 9.6% of the total protein and 23.5% of carbohydrates was accompanied for lack 15.5% of calcium. In the group of girls the results showed a decrease of the required amounts of calcium, magnesium and iron of 36.4; 7.5 and 1.5% respectively, which was displayed against a background of reducing the consumption of the total protein 25.1 and 36.0% of carbohydrates. As a result, basic nutrition of students practicing sports requires rationalization and adjustment. To improve the biological value of the diet it is advisable for students to use daily dairy products and other sources of animal protein in their diets. It is also necessary to introduce fruit and vegetables as a source of dietary fibers and mineral elements. Created in both groups deficiency of calcium and biologically high-grade proteins of animal origin can be eliminated by various dairy products in which calcium and phosphorus are in easily digestible form and in a balanced quantity. Despite the considerable amount of calcium in many foods (meat, bread, cereals, vegetables) calcium is assimilated with difficulty from these products. The exception is the calcium of milk, curd, cheese and other dairy products. The ration between calcium and phosphorus in milk is 1:1-1.4:1. For example, taking 0.5 liters of milk provides 600 mg of assimilable calcium intake.

  3. Better Spectrometers, Beautiful Spectra and Confusion for All

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Brauer, C. S.; Drouin, B. J.; Yu, S.

    2009-01-01

    The confluence of enormous improvements in submillimeter receivers and the development of powerful large scale observatories is about to force astrophysics and the sciences that support it to develop novel approaches for interpretation of data. The historical method of observing one or two lines and carefully analyzing them in the context of a simple model is now only applicable for distant objects where only a few lines are strong enough to be observable. Modern observatories collect many GHz of high signal-to-noise spectra in a single observation and in many cases, at sufficiently high spatial resolution to start resolving chemically distinct regions. The observatories planned for the near future and the inevitable upgrades of existing facilities will make large spectral data sets the rule rather than the exception in many areas of molecular astrophysics. The methodology and organization required to fully extract the available information and interpret these beautiful spectra represents a challenge to submillimeter astrophysics similar in magnitude to the last few decades of effort in improving receivers. The quality and abundance of spectra effectively prevents line-by-line analysis from being a time efficient proposition, however, global analysis of complex spectra is a science in its infancy. Spectroscopy at several other wavelengths have developed a number of techniques to analyze complex spectra, which can provide a great deal of guidance to the molecular astrophysics community on how to attack the complex spectrum problem. Ultimately, the challenge is one of organization, similar to building observatories, requiring teams of specialists combining their knowledge of dynamical, structural, chemical and radiative models with detailed knowledge in molecular physics and gas and grain surface chemistry to extract and exploit the enormous information content of complex spectra. This paper presents a spectroscopists view of the necessary elements in a tool for

  4. A flow physics study of flap-mounted vortex generators on a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausmeyer, Steven Michael

    Vortex generators are a commonly used aerodynamic "fix" for flow separation problems. They are typically used to remedy flow separation due to design shortcomings or changes in operating conditions that exceed the original design point. Flow separation is often encountered with high lift systems. Flaps and slats can be difficult to design due to complicated flow phenomena and large Reynolds number effects. Previous research has indicated the effectiveness of vortex generators in correcting flow separation over a flap. In fact, significant aerodynamic performance improvements were predicted for high-lift systems that incorporate vortex generators in the original design. Before this may be attempted, a better understanding of vortex generator flow physics must be obtained for the development of appropriate design tools and analysis methods. The research contained herein is focused on a detailed flow physics study of vortex generators mounted to the flap of a three-element high-lift airfoil. Detailed velocity measurements taken using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter were used to vortex/boundary layer interactions and global flowfield effects. The full Reynolds stress tensor and mean velocity field was measured in addition to surface pressures. Three basic vortex generator arrangements were studied: upflow, downflow, and corotating. Although not optimized, all three types of vortex generators were effective at eliminating boundary layer separation. The vortices demonstrated a tendency to rise from the flap surface regardless of orientation and decayed rapidly, with cross-stream vorticity dropping below measurable levels by 75% flap chord. However, the embedded vortices produced significant perturbations in the turbulence field and mean flow of the flap boundary layer that persisted to the flap trailing edge.

  5. Observational study in ten beauty salons: results informing development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Felicia M; Linnan, Laura A; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L; Yang, Jingzhen

    2004-12-01

    Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion interventions. Results revealed that the social environment of a salon is a place where cosmetologists and customers talk openly about many subjects, including health. Information, advice, appraisal, humor, and empathy are typically shared in these health conversations. Several features of the physical environment of the salon may be mobilized to support health--access to healthy foods, snacks, and beverages; smoking restrictions; and availability of print or video materials, signs, or displays that include healthy messages. Implications for planning salon-based health promotion interventions--including the training of licensed cosmetologists to deliver health messages--are discussed in light of these findings.

  6. How beauty works. Theoretical mechanisms and two empirical applications on students' evaluation of teaching.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Tobias; Riordan, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Plenty of studies show that the physical appearance of a person affects a variety of outcomes in everyday life. However, due to an incomplete theoretical explication and empirical problems in disentangling different beauty effects, it is unclear which mechanisms are at work. To clarify how beauty works we present explanations from evolutionary theory and expectation states theory and show where both perspectives differ and where interlinkage appears promising. Using students' evaluations of teaching we find observational and experimental evidence for the different causal pathways of physical attractiveness. First, independent raters strongly agree over the physical attractiveness of a person. Second, attractive instructors receive better student ratings. Third, students attend classes of attractive instructors more frequently - even after controlling for teaching quality. Fourth, we find no evidence that attractiveness effects become stronger if rater and ratee are of the opposite sex. Finally, the beauty premium turns into a penalty if an attractive instructor falls short of students' expectations.

  7. Beauty and healing: examining sociocultural expectations of the embodied goddess.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jin-Tsann; Lin, Chyong-Ling

    2013-03-01

    Studies indicate mental health improvement can occur via religious communities offering social support and other resources. Many people from many cultures regard medicine as a supernatural or magical treatment that can somehow lead to a better state of living. In medical advertising, female role portrayal involves the blending of beauty, ritual and attractiveness in combination with the best product image. A Chinese saying suggests that, "A girl will doll herself up for him who loves her." Female role attraction is a very important ethical subject in gender issues. Moving forward in time, female role visualization and consumption in medical advertising reveal depictions that encouraged women to do some self-searching and find, or develop, inner strength. This study is designed to examine female role portrayals in a restricted patriarchal society. The results indicate that the ideology of motherhood is an accepted social orientation that the public readily identifies with. Results further indicate that beautification through medical products incorporates an emotional element of religious healing and that the objectification of beauty in the media reveals a possible neglect of women's internal beauty.

  8. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  9. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  10. Elements, Compounds & Mixtures. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    The world contains a limited number of elements--the purest form of matter. But when these elements are combined, the possibilities are limitless! Water, carbon dioxide and salt are just a few examples of how elements can be combined to form entirely new substances. Many of these combinations occur naturally, while others are man-made. Students…

  11. Sleeping Beauty: Kleine–Levin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mudgal, Soumiya; Jiloha, R. C.; Kandpal, Manish; Das, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) alias sleeping beauty syndrome, is a rare sleep disorder. Clinically presenting as episodes of hypersomnolence, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, hyperphagia and hypersexuality. KLS may have an idiopathic onset or may be precipitated by neurological event or infection. Until date, no definite underlying cause is established and neither there are any definitive management guidelines. It remains a diagnosis of exclusion after other psychiatric and neurological causes have been ruled out. Coloring of presentation with behavioral and mood elements makes it important for a psychiatrist to be well-informed about the condition to avoid the erroneous diagnosis. KLS is a devastating illness, which robs the patient of time, experiences, and relationships. An early diagnosis and effective management can help patient escape from the morbidity caused by this disorder. Armodafinil and oxcarbamazepine have found to be effective in two of the case. The emphasis of this report is to add to the existing clinical knowledge of neurologists, psychiatrists and physicians. In the future, research is needed on genetic etiology and management of this disorder. PMID:25316944

  12. Identifying the Elements of Physics Courses that Impact Student Learning: Curriculum, Instructor, Peers, and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Emily Lincoln Ashbaugh

    2009-01-01

    Prior research across hundreds for introductory physics courses has demonstrated that traditional physics instruction does not generally lead to students learning physics concepts in a meaningful way, but that interactive-engagement physics courses do sometimes promote a great deal more student learning. In this work I analyze a reform effort in a…

  13. Bathing in Reeking Wounds: The Liberal Arts, Beauty, and War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    2014-01-01

    A historic dialectic exists between the beautiful and the bestial. The bestial destroys the beautiful, but in a bloody miracle, the beautiful emerges from the womb of the bestial, the "terrible beauty" of which the poet W. B. Yeats wrote. The liberal arts, so often thought to dwell in a remote ivory tower, embody this dialectic. Wars and…

  14. The History and Aim of LADY CATS —Simple and Beautiful Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Masako; Okiharu, Fumiko; Yokoe, Mika; Taniguchi, Masa-aki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kutome, Yuusuke; Kawakatsu, Hiroshi

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of science teachers. Our group includes a lot of female teachers. We have demonstrated "Simple and beautiful experiments" since ICPE 2005. We aim to encourage both students and teachers who are not interested in physics. Our concepts of experiments are as follows: the "simple" experiments which the teachers in the world can utilize in their classes easily, the "beautiful" experiments in which children get interested, and the "essential" experiments which can demonstrate the principles of physics. We demonstrate several educational experiments of our group.

  15. Facial attractiveness: beauty and the machine.

    PubMed

    Eisenthal, Yael; Dror, Gideon; Ruppin, Eytan

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a novel study of the notion of facial attractiveness in a machine learning context. To this end, we collected human beauty ratings for data sets of facial images and used various techniques for learning the attractiveness of a face. The trained predictor achieves a significant correlation of 0.65 with the average human ratings. The results clearly show that facial beauty is a universal concept that a machine can learn. Analysis of the accuracy of the beauty prediction machine as a function of the size of the training data indicates that a machine producing human-like attractiveness rating could be obtained given a moderately larger data set.

  16. Modulating the physical microenvironment to study regenerative processes in vitro using cells from mouse phalangeal elements.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kristen M; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2013-06-01

    Epimorphic regeneration in humans of complex multitissue structures is primarily limited to the digit tip. In a comparable mouse model, the response is level-specific in that regeneration occurs after amputation at the distal end of the terminal phalanx, but not more proximally. Recent isolation of stromal cells from CD1 murine phalangeal elements two and three (P2 and P3) allow for comparative studies of cells prevalent at the amputation plane of a more proximal region (considered nonregenerative) and a more distal region (considered regenerative), respectively. This study used adherent, suspension, and collagen gel cultures to investigate cellular processes relevant to the initial response to injury. Overall, P2 cells were both more migratory and able to compact collagen gels to a greater extent compared to P3 cells. This observed increased capacity of P2 cells to generate traction forces was likely related to the higher expression of key cytoskeletal proteins (e.g., microfilament, nonkeratin intermediate filaments, and microtubules) compared to P3 cells. In contrast, P3 cells were found to be more proliferative than P2 cells under all three culture conditions and to have higher expression of keratin proteins. In addition, when cultured in suspension rather than on adherent surfaces, P3 cells were both more proliferative and had greater gene expression for matrix proteins. Together these results add to the known inherent differences in these stromal cells by characterizing responses to the physical microenvironment. Further, while compaction by P2 cells confirm that collagen gels is a useful model to study wound healing, the response of P3 cells indicate that suspension culture, in which cell-cell interactions dominate like in the blastema, may be better suited to study regeneration. Therefore, this study can help develop clinical strategies for promoting regeneration through increased understanding in the properties of cells involved in endogenous repair as well

  17. LATTICE MATRIX ELEMENTS AND CP VIOLATION IN B AND KA PHYSICS: STATUS AND OUTLOOK.

    SciTech Connect

    SONI,A.

    2003-01-03

    Status of lattice calculations of hadron matrix elements along with CP violation in B and in K systems is reviewed. Lattice has provided useful input which, in conjunction with experimental data, leads to the conclusion that CP-odd phase in the CKM matrix plays the dominant role in the observed asymmetry in B {yields} {psi}K{sub s}. It is now quite likely that any beyond the SM, CP-odd, phase will cause only small deviations in B-physics. Search for the effects of the new phase(s) will consequently require very large data samples as well as very precise theoretical predictions. Clean determination of all the angles of the unitarity triangle therefore becomes essential. In this regard B {yields} KD{sup 0} processes play a unique role. Regarding K-decays, remarkable progress made by theory with regard to maintenance of chiral symmetry on the lattice is briefly discussed. First application already provide quantitative information on B{sub K} and the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule. The enhancement in ReA{sub 0} appears to arise solely from tree operators, esp. Q{sub 2}; penguin contribution to ReA{sub 0} appears to be very small. However, improved calculations are necessary for {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} as there the contributions of QCD penguins and electroweak penguins largely seem to cancel. There are good reasons, though, to believe that these cancellations will not survive improvements that are now underway. Importance of determining the unitarity triangle purely from K-decays is also emphasized.

  18. Did the perils of abdominal obesity affect depiction of feminine beauty in the sixteenth to eighteenth century British literature? Exploring the health and beauty link

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devendra; Renn, Peter; Singh, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    ‘Good gene’ mate selection theory proposes that all individuals share evolved mental mechanisms that identify specific parts of a woman's body as indicators of fertility and health. Depiction of feminine beauty, across time and culture, should therefore emphasize the physical traits indicative of health and fertility. Abdominal obesity, as measured by waist size, is reliably linked to decreased oestrogen, reduced fecundity and increased risk for major diseases. Systematic searches of British literature across the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reveal that a narrow waist is consistently described as beautiful. Works in ancient Indian and Chinese literature similarly associate feminine attractiveness with a narrow waist. Even without the benefit of modern medical knowledge, both British and Asian writers knew intuitively the biological link between health and beauty. PMID:17251110

  19. The effects of computer game elements in physics instruction software for middle schools: A study of cognitive and affective gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, David Alan

    Can the educational effectiveness of physics instruction software for middle schoolers be improved by employing "game elements" commonly found in recreational computer games? This study utilized a selected set of game elements to contextualize and embellish physics word problems with the aim of making such problems more engaging. Game elements used included: (1) a fantasy-story context with developed characters; and (2) high-end graphics and visual effects. The primary purpose of the study was to find out if the added production cost of using such game elements was justified by proportionate gains in physics learning. The theoretical framework for the study was a modified version of Lepper and Malone's "intrinsically-motivating game elements" model. A key design issue in this model is the concept of "endogeneity", or the degree to which the game elements used in educational software are integrated with its learning content. Two competing courseware treatments were custom-designed and produced for the study; both dealt with Newton's first law. The first treatment (T1) was a 45 minute interactive tutorial that featured cartoon characters, color animations, hypertext, audio narration, and realistic motion simulations using the Interactive PhysicsspTM software. The second treatment (T2) was similar to the first except for the addition of approximately three minutes of cinema-like sequences where characters, game objectives, and a science-fiction story premise were described and portrayed with high-end graphics and visual effects. The sample of 47 middle school students was evenly divided between eighth and ninth graders and between boys and girls. Using a pretest/posttest experimental design, the independent variables for the study were: (1) two levels of treatment; (2) gender; and (3) two schools. The dependent variables were scores on a written posttest for both: (1) physics learning, and (2) attitude toward physics learning. Findings indicated that, although

  20. Mathematics make microbes beautiful, beneficial, and bountiful.

    PubMed

    Jungck, John R

    2012-01-01

    biodiversity by using game theory, of epidemics with algebraic models, bacterial motion by using motion picture analysis and fluid mechanics of motility in multiple dimensions through the physics of "Life at Low Reynolds Numbers," and pattern formation of quorum sensing bacterial populations. Through a developmental model for preprofessional education that emphasizes the beauty, utility, and diversity of microbiological systems, we hope to foster creativity as well as mathematically rigorous reasoning.

  1. Neuromorphic elements and systems as the basis for the physical implementation of artificial intelligence technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. A.; Emelyanov, A. V.; Lapkin, D. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The instrumental realization of neuromorphic systems may form the basis of a radically new social and economic setup, redistributing roles between humans and complex technical aggregates. The basic elements of any neuromorphic system are neurons and synapses. New memristive elements based on both organic (polymer) and inorganic materials have been formed, and the possibilities of instrumental implementation of very simple neuromorphic systems with different architectures on the basis of these elements have been demonstrated.

  2. Charm, beauty and top at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, O.; Geiser, A.; Lisovyi, M.

    2015-09-01

    Results on open charm and beauty production and on the search for top production in high-energy electron-proton collisions at HERA are reviewed. This includes a discussion of relevant theoretical aspects, a summary of the available measurements and measurement techniques, and their impact on improved understanding of QCD and its parameters, such as parton density functions and charm- and beauty-quark masses. The impact of these results on measurements at the LHC and elsewhere is also addressed.

  3. The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, George

    2010-10-20

    "Science in the 21st century has become industrialized. The experiments so often celebrated in the newspapers - sequencing the genome, proving the existence of the top quark, discovering a new planet by analyzing the wobble of a distant start - cost millions of dollars. They generate terabytes of data to be analyzed by supercomputers, calculating factories that spew out so much heat that they are equipped with cooling stacks and consume the energy of a small town. The experiments are carried out by research teams that have grown to the size of small corporations. But until very recently the most earth-shaking science came from individual pairs of hands. From a single mind confronting the unknown. The great experiments that mark the edges of our understanding were most often performed by one or two scientists and usually on a tabletop. Computation, if there was any, was carried out on paper or later with a slide rule. These experiments were designed and conducted with such straightforward elegance that they deserve to be called beautiful." (excerpt from the slide presentation accompanying the video)

  4. The impact of baby schema on perceived attractiveness, beauty, and cuteness in female adults.

    PubMed

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Taniguchi, Kosuke; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Beauty and cuteness are considered to represent different aspects of attractiveness and to be distinguishable from each other by their respective reliance on neonate and sexually mature features found in attractive faces. In this study, we investigated whether baby schema features in adult faces affect not only cuteness, but also beauty and attractiveness. We also investigated possible differences among attractiveness, beauty, and cuteness, and possible effects of perceived youth on these judgments. Results showed that baby schema features affected judgments of attractiveness, beauty, and cuteness, but that perceived youth did not significantly influence these judgments. Furthermore, the effect of each facial feature differed across rating types with the participants' naïve interpretation of rating categories. This suggests that beauty predominantly refers to sexual attraction, while attractiveness refers to a non-sexual attraction regardless of participants' gender. However, gender differences may exist in judging cuteness. Therefore, expressions related to attractiveness may incorporate different elements and this distinction may not be fully shared across gender.

  5. Assessment of physical leaching processes of some elements in soil upon ingestion by continuous leaching and modeling.

    PubMed

    Beeston, Michael P; Pohar, Andrej; van Elteren, Johannes T; Plazl, Igor; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Veber, Marjan; Glass, Hylke J

    2010-08-15

    The physical processes controlling the desorption of some elements (B, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, and Sr) from soils in a continuous leaching system representing the human stomach are investigated here by fitting experimental leaching data to a mathematical particle diffusion model. Soil samples (50 mg) from Cornwall, UK, contained in a flow-through extraction chamber (ca. 6.5 mL) were intimately contacted with artificial gastric solution at various flow rates (0.42-1.42 mL min(-1)) for up to ca. 4 h, followed by analysis of the fractions collected with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The leaching profiles of the various elements were fitted to a mathematical model incorporating two mass transfer processes (liquid film diffusion and apparent solid phase diffusion) to determine the effective external mass transfer coefficient (beta) and the apparent intraparticle soil diffusion coefficient (D(a)). A system of partial differential equations was solved numerically with a finite difference discretization of the computational domain allowing the rate limiting physical desorption process(es) for each element to be determined. The (thermodynamic) driving force of the leaching process is defined by the distribution coefficient (K(d0)) between soil and leachant. Although the K(d0) values investigated are very similar (ca. 6-15 L kg(-1)) for the elements studied with the exception of B (ca. 2.7 L kg(-1)), the leaching profiles are very different due to diffusion-limited processes. The elements may be classified as limited by beta (B, Sr, and Cd), by D(a) (Co, and Mn) or by beta and D(a) (Ni). This results in quantifiable parameters for the liability of elements in soil upon ingestion which may be implemented in future risk assessment protocols.

  6. Baby Beautiful: Adult Attributions of Infant Competence as a Function of Infant Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Cookie White; and Langlois, Judith

    1984-01-01

    Thirty Black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American undergraduates rated photographs of infants of each race on physical attractiveness and 12 bipolar adjectives. Results indicated that strong expectations that "beauty-is-good" are elicited soon after birth for Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Activity in babies appears to be a negative…

  7. Chemical and physical characterizations of spinel ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Takashi; Komorida, Yuki; Mito, Masaki; Takahara, Atsushi

    2010-05-15

    We first succeeded in synthesizing ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements by a chemical route using a polyol process. The lattice constants of the ferrite nanoparticles were equivalent to 8.39Å of the lattice constant for Fe(3)O(4) with the spinel structure in a bulk state independently of the size in diameter and composition (Fe:Nd:B). The size in diameter was actually dominated by the amount of ligands (oleic acid and oleylamine) coating the nanoparticles and easily tuned by changing refluxing-time under reaction. The spinel-structured ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements showed large coercivity as compared to Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with the spinel structure, which were prepared by the same chemical method. By doping Nd and B elements into the spinel structure of ferrite, magnetic anisotropy increased in comparison with Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. According to the analysis of magnetization curve using the modified Langevin function, the ferrite nanoparticles displayed the coexistence of superparamagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. The ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements exhibited magnetic core/shell structure on the basis of various magnetic properties. The interface effect between the superparamagnetic core and antiferromagnetic shell might enhance the effective magnetic anisotropy of the ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements.

  8. Physics Based Lumped Element Circuit Model for Nanosecond Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    system, the Dormand-Prince Runge - Kutta method was employed. This method provides an efficient way to incorporate an adaptive step size that is...1Applied Physics Research Group , Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA 2Vehicle...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Florida,Applied Physics Research Group

  9. The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    What makes a face attractive and why do we have the preferences we do? Emergence of preferences early in development and cross-cultural agreement on attractiveness challenge a long-held view that our preferences reflect arbitrary standards of beauty set by cultures. Averageness, symmetry, and sexual dimorphism are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A critical review and meta-analyses indicate that all three are attractive in both male and female faces and across cultures. Theorists have proposed that face preferences may be adaptations for mate choice because attractive traits signal important aspects of mate quality, such as health. Others have argued that they may simply be by-products of the way brains process information. Although often presented as alternatives, I argue that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped our perceptions of facial beauty.

  10. Hidden Beauty: Using a Poem by Jayne Cortez.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Reproduces a poem about an urban landscape by Jayne Cortez and reflects on how students are willing to tackle its complexities and its ideas about beauty. Finds that the poem is effective for a discussion of beauty among students. (PA)

  11. TV Beauty Ads and Role Expectations of Adolescent Female Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Alexis S.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the responses of 56 high school girls shows the cultivation effects of television beauty-related commercials on the girls' perceptions of the importance of sex appeal, youth, and beauty to women in four different roles. (GT)

  12. Explosions in Majestic Spiral Beauties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    Images of beautiful galaxies, and in particular of spiral brethren of our own Milky Way, leaves no-one unmoved. It is difficult indeed to resist the charm of these impressive grand structures. Astronomers at Paranal Observatory used the versatile VIMOS instrument on the Very Large Telescope to photograph two magnificent examples of such "island universes", both of which are seen in a southern constellation with an animal name. But more significantly, both galaxies harboured a particular type of supernova, the explosion of a massive star during a late and fatal evolutionary stage. The first image (PR Photo 33a/04) is of the impressive spiral galaxy NGC 6118 [1], located near the celestial equator, in the constellation Serpens (The Snake). It is a comparatively faint object of 13th magnitude with a rather low surface brightness, making it pretty hard to see in small telescopes. This shyness has prompted amateur astronomers to nickname NGC 6118 the "Blinking Galaxy" as it would appear to flick into existence when viewed through their telescopes in a certain orientation, and then suddenly disappear again as the eye position shifted. There is of course no such problem for the VLT's enormous light-collecting power and ability to produce sharp images, and this magnificent galaxy is here seen in unequalled detail. The colour photo is based on a series of exposures behind different optical filters, obtained with the VIMOS multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT Melipal telescope during several nights around August 21, 2004. About 80 million light-years away, NGC 6118 is a grand-design spiral seen at an angle, with a very small central bar and several rather tightly wound spiral arms (it is classified as of type "SA(s)cd" [2]) in which large numbers of bright bluish knots are visible. Most of them are active star-forming regions and in some, very luminous and young stars can be perceived. Of particular interest is the comparatively bright stellar-like object situated directly

  13. Introducing students to the culture of physics: Explicating elements of the hidden curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redish, Edward F.

    2010-10-01

    When we teach physics to prospective scientists and engineers we are teaching more than the "facts" of physics—more, even, than the methods and concepts of physics. We are introducing them to a complex culture—a mode of thinking and the cultural code of behavior of a community of practicing scientists. This culture has components that are often part of our hidden curriculum: epistemology—how we decide that we know something; ontology—how we parse the observable world into categories, objects, and concepts; and discourse—how we hold a conversation in order to generate new knowledge and understanding. Underlying all of this is intuition—a culturally created sense of meaning. To explicitly identify teach our hidden curriculum we must pay attention to students' intuition and perception of physics, not just to their reasoning.

  14. Physics and modeling of an ac-plasma display picture element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, William W., Jr.; Drallos, P. J.; Nagorny, V. P.

    1994-04-01

    A computer code which simulates the operation of a monochrome or color plasma display picture element is being jointly developed by a university, industrial partner, and a national laboratory under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The goals of the project, a description of a generic picture element and the plasma model are described. The role played by the wall in determining boundary values is presented. A brief discussion of the computer codes under development is given. The first year of progress by the University of Toledo group is summarized. Simulations of the voltage, electrode surface charge and current flow as a function of time for write, erase and sustain pulses for a pure helium discharge have been run.

  15. Physical and chemical analysis of elemental sulfur formation during galena surface oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Marc A; Plackowski, Chris; Nguyen, Anh V

    2011-04-05

    The surface oxidation of sulfide minerals, such as galena (PbS), in aqueous solutions is of critical importance in a number of applications. A comprehensive understanding of the formation of oxidation species at the galena surface is still lacking. Much controversy over the nature of these oxidation products exists. A number of oxidation pathways have been proposed, and experimental evidence for the formation of elemental sulfur, metal polysulfides, and metal-deficient lead sulfides in acidic conditions has been shown and argued. This paper provides further insight into the electrochemical behavior of galena at pH 4.5. Utilizing a novel experimental system that combines in situ electrochemical control and AC mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface imaging, the formation and growth of nanoscopic domains on the galena surface are detected and examined at anodic potentials. AFM phase images indicate that these domains have different material properties to the underlying galena. Continued oxidation results in nanoscopic pitting and the formation of microscopic surface domains, which are confirmed to be elemental sulfur by Raman spectroscopy. Further clarification of the presence of elemental sulfur is provided by Cryo-XPS. Polysulfide and metal-deficient sulfide could not be detected within this system.

  16. Examination of Trends and Evidence-Based Elements in State Physical Education Legislation: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Aytur, Semra A.; Cradock, Angie L.; Doescher, Mark; Evenson, Kelly R.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Maddock, Jay; Pluto, Delores L.; Steinman, Lesley; Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Troped, Philip; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a comprehensive inventory of state physical education (PE) legislation, examine trends in bill introduction, and compare bill factors. Methods: State PE legislation from January 2001 to July 2007 was identified using a legislative database. Analysis included components of evidence-based school PE from the Community Guide and…

  17. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  18. Elements of a Cognitive Model of Physics Problem Solving: Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuminaro, Jonathan; Redish, Edward F.

    2007-01-01

    Although much is known about the differences between expert and novice problem solvers, knowledge of those differences typically does not provide enough detail to help instructors understand why some students seem to learn physics while solving problems and others do not. A critical issue is how students access the knowledge they have in the…

  19. Elements of Warfare in the Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enokhovich, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical movement, pressure, floating bodies, heat phenomena, electrical phenomena, when applied to military problems "for the patriotic edification and military instruction of the children" excite interest and place theory on concrete foundations. Examples of applied physical concepts follow in this article. (Author/JH)

  20. 7 CFR 650.24 - Scenic beauty (visual resource).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scenic beauty (visual resource). 650.24 Section 650.24... Scenic beauty (visual resource). (a) Background. Contributions to scenic beauty are a normal product of... conservation districts. This is best accomplished by considering the landscape visual resource when...

  1. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  2. 7 CFR 650.24 - Scenic beauty (visual resource).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scenic beauty (visual resource). 650.24 Section 650.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... Scenic beauty (visual resource). (a) Background. Contributions to scenic beauty are a normal product...

  3. 7 CFR 650.24 - Scenic beauty (visual resource).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scenic beauty (visual resource). 650.24 Section 650.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... Scenic beauty (visual resource). (a) Background. Contributions to scenic beauty are a normal product...

  4. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and...

  5. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and cosmetics companies...

  6. The physical structure of Magellanic Cloud H II regions. II. Elemental abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeij, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2002-09-01

    Based on a new data set of optical and infrared spectra described in Vermeij et al. (\\cite{Ronald}), we analyse the gas-phase elemental abundances of a sample of H Ii regions in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud. The combined optical and infrared data set gives us access to all the ionization stages of astrophysically important elements such as sulfur and oxygen. We self-consistently determine the electron temperatures and densities for the \\elem{O}{+}, \\elem{S}{++} and \\elem{O}{++} ionization zones, and use these parameters in the derivation of the ionic fractions. We discuss the uncertainties on these ionic fractions. The different relations between the electron temperatures as proposed by Garnett (\\cite{Garnett}) and Thuan et al. (\\cite{Thuan}) are confronted with our results. We find our electron temperatures to be consistent with these relations, although the relation between Te,[S Iii] and Te, [O Iii] might be slightly steeper than predicted. We investigate the reliability of the Ionization Correction Factors (ICFs) used in the derivation of the full elemental abundances of sulfur and neon. We conclude that the prescription for the ICF used to derive the sulfur abundance as given by Stasińska (\\cite{Stas1}) for alpha = 3 is accurate for \\elem{O}{+}/O > 0.20. No conclusions could be drawn for neon. Avoiding the use of ICFs as much as possible, we then proceed to derive the full elemental abundances. We calculate a grid of general photoionization models to compare our results with the ``bright-line'' abundance diagnostics for oxygen (R23) and sulfur (S23(4)). The reliability of the newly proposed S234 parameter (Oey & Shields \\cite{oey}) which includes emission lines from \\elem{S}{+}, \\elem{S}{++} and \\elem{S}{+3} is checked. We find a very good agreement between the S234 models and our analysis results. Finally, we compare the heavy element-to-oxygen ratios of our sample objects to those of giant H Ii regions in a large sample of low

  7. Elements of a cognitive model of physics problem solving: Epistemic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuminaro, Jonathan; Redish, Edward F.

    2007-12-01

    Although much is known about the differences between expert and novice problem solvers, knowledge of those differences typically does not provide enough detail to help instructors understand why some students seem to learn physics while solving problems and others do not. A critical issue is how students access the knowledge they have in the context of solving a particular problem. In this paper, we discuss our observations of students solving physics problems in authentic situations in an algebra-based physics class at the University of Maryland. We find that when these students are working together and interacting effectively, they often use a limited set of locally coherent resources for blocks of time of a few minutes or more. This coherence appears to provide the student with guidance as to what knowledge and procedures to access and what to ignore. Often, this leads to the students failing to apply relevant knowledge they later show they possess. In this paper, we outline a theoretical phenomenology for describing these local coherences and identify six organizational structures that we refer to as epistemic games. The hypothesis that students tend to function within the narrow confines of a fairly limited set of games provides a good description of our observations. We demonstrate how students use these games in two case studies and discuss the implications for instruction.

  8. Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Recycling Project Successful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Victor R.

    1975-01-01

    Through the efforts of community groups, the support of local industries, and the state government, Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Inc. (KNMB) is now operating a large-scale recycling business. KNMB has been able to save tons of natural resources, provide local employment, and educate the public to this environmental concern. (MA)

  9. Beauty as Fit: A Metaphor in Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Beauty, which plays a central role in the practice of mathematics (Sinclair 2002), is almost absent in discussions of school mathematics (Dreyfus and Eisenberg 1986). This is problematic, because students will decide whether or not to continue their studies in mathematics without having an accurate picture of what the subject is about. In order to…

  10. Beauty baryon decays: a theoretical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2014-11-01

    I overview the theoretical status and recent progress on the calculations of beauty baryon decays focusing on the QCD aspects of the exclusive semi-leptonic Λb → plμ decay at large recoil and theoretical challenges of radiative and electro-weak penguin decays Λb → Λγ,Λl+l-.

  11. Post-human body and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria Teresa; Di Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The article calls into question the very possibility of a post-human aesthetics, starting from the following premise: rather than post-human, it is more correct to speak of post-natural, indicating by this expression a reality produced through a new type of evolution, which does not simply change human nature, but de-natures it, radically transforming it into an artefact. This post-nature which aspires to be perfect, immortal, invulnerable, is entirely devoid of beauty. In fact, while there may be an aesthetic of the artificial and of the artefact if it is in relation to objects, there is, however, no aesthetic of the post-human body. This is because is configured as a non-body and does not have the characteristics for what is commonly intended as beauty (harmony between matter and form, a reflection of inner life, uniqueness). Also in this case, it is more correct to speak of post-beauty, which in its properties appears to be the mirror image of beauty and ultimately, represents its complete dissolution.

  12. Mathematicians in Schools: Uncovering Maths' Beautiful Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics professionals are working with teachers revealing the reality and beauty that happens in the world of math and to show that this is essentially a "human endeavour," embedded in much of what people do and the ways in which they think. In this article, the author shares vignettes of primary classes working with mathematicians…

  13. A tevatron collider beauty factory. [Final report, 1980--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This document which is labeled a final report consists of several different items. The first is a proposal for a detector to be developed for beauty physics. The detector is proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron, and would be designed to measure mixing reactions, rare decay modes, and even CP violation in hadron collider beauty production. The general outline of the work proposed is given, and an estimate of the time to actually design the detector is presented, along with proposed changes to the Tevatron to accommodate the system. A preliminary report on an experiment to verify a reported observation of a 17 keV neutrino in tritium decay is presented. The present results in the decay spectra actually show a depression below expected levels, which is not consistent with a massive neutrino. Additional interest has been shown in finishing an electrostatic beta spectrometer which was started several years previously. The instrument uses hemispherical electrostatic electric fields to retard electrons emitted in tritium decay, allowing measurement of integral spectra. The design goal has a 5 eV energy resolution, which may be achievable. A new PhD student is pursuing this experiment. Also the report contains a proposal for additional work in the field of non-perturbative quantum field theory by the theoretical group at OU. The work which is proposed will be applied to electroweak and strong interactions, as well as to quantum gravitational phenomena.

  14. Why do we all want to be young and beautiful (and women especially)? From the evolutionary psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri

    2010-12-01

    Within social sciences, the standards of beauty were for a long time considered to be culturally determined, meaning that different people with different life experiences in different cultures acquire different standards of beauty, as captured in the famous sentence "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder". However, two groups of findings have challenged this common assumption: first, people in different cultures generally agree on which faces are attractive; second, preferences emerge early in life, before cultural standards of beauty are likely to be assimilated. Evolutionary psychology explores the psychological adaptations (evolved psychological mechanisms constructed by natural selection) that constitute human nature. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, beauty is not a cultural construct and appreciating beauty is not learned but is rather a biological adaptation, a part of universal human nature: the preferences for some physical characteristics reflect adaptations for mate choice because they signal aspects of mate quality. Theory of natural selection explains the adaptations, which help organisms in their tasks of survival. However, an organism can be adapted and survive for many years without passing its qualities to future generations--to pass them it must reproduce. The theory of sexual selection explains the adaptations that have arisen as a consequence of successful mating. In order to gain reproductive success, women and men adopt certain mate selection strategies--integrated sets of adaptations, not necessarily conscious, which organize and guide the individual's reproductive efforts.

  15. Beautiful eyes: characteristics and application to aesthetic surgery.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, John A

    2006-08-01

    All students of beauty agree upon the overwhelming contribution of the eyes to the beautiful face. It is not at all surprising, therefore, that since antiquity, the search for personal beauty has centered on enhancement and beautification of the eyes. The precise sources of the beauty of this region are ultimately intuitive, but various common features seem to span racial differences and can be loosely (but certainly not rigidly) defined. The anatomic characteristics that contribute to beautiful eyes are described, and application of this knowledge to multiracial aesthetic surgery of the periorbital region is discussed.

  16. Influence of alloying elements on structure and some physical properties of quenched Sn-Sb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, M.; El-Bediwi, A. B.; El-Shobaki, M. R.

    2006-09-01

    We study the influence of ternary and quaternary alloying elements (Pb, Cd, Cu or Cu-Pb and Cu-Cd) on structural, electrical, hardness and other mechanical properties of Sn-Sb alloys (using an X-ray diffractometer and optical microscope, the double bridge method, Vickers hardness tester and the dynamic resonance method) to produce the best alloy for bearing applications. Adding Cu or Pb to Sn-Sb alloys improves their bearing properties, such as the mechanical properties (elastic modulus, internal friction, hardness and fracture strain) and thermal conductivity. Also, adding Cu, Pb or Cu-Pb to Sn-Sb alloys makes them excellent in their bearing applications and environmental hazards when compared with the Pb88Sn10Cu2 alloy for automotive applications (FIAT Normalizzazione) and the lead-based Babbitt bearing alloy.

  17. Recent perspectives in solar physics - Elemental composition, coronal structure and magnetic fields, solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Elemental abundances in the solar corona are studied. Abundances in the corona, solar wind and solar cosmic rays are compared to those in the photosphere. The variation in silicon and iron abundance in the solar wind as compared to helium is studied. The coronal small and large scale structure is investigated, emphasizing magnetic field activity and examining cosmic ray generation mechanisms. The corona is observed in the X-ray and EUV regions. The nature of coronal transients is discussed with emphasis on solar-wind modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A schematic plan view of the interplanetary magnetic field during sunspot minimum is given showing the presence of magnetic bubbles and their concentration in the region around 4-5 AU by a fast solar wind stream.

  18. Comparisons of physical experiment and discrete element simulations of sheared granular materials in an annular shear cell

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, S.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report a direct comparison between a physical test and a computer simulation of rapidly sheared granular materials. An annular shear cell experiment was conducted. All parameters were kept the same between the physical and the computational systems to the extent possible. Artificially softened particles were used in the simulation to reduce the computational time to a manageable level. Sensitivity study on the particle stiffness ensured such artificial modification was acceptable. In the experiment, a range of normal stress was applied to a given amount of particles sheared in an annular trough with a range of controlled shear speed. Two types of particles, glass and Delrin, were used in the experiment. Qualitatively, the required torque to shear the materials under different rotational speed compared well with those in the physical experiments for both the glass and the Delrin particles. However, the quantitative discrepancies between the measured and simulated shear stresses were nearly a factor of two. Boundary conditions, particle size distribution, particle damping and friction, including a sliding and rolling, contact force model, were examined to determine their effects on the computational results. It was found that of the above, the rolling friction between particles had the most significant effect on the macro stress level. This study shows that discrete element simulation is a viable method for engineering design for granular material systems. Particle level information is needed to properly conduct these simulations. However, not all particle level information is equally important in the study regime. Rolling friction, which is not commonly considered in many discrete element models, appears to play an important role. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Method and Apparatus for Performance Optimization Through Physical Perturbation of Task Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor); Turner, Marsha J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of biofeedback training for attaining a physiological state optimally consistent with the successful performance of a task, wherein the probability of successfully completing the task is made is inversely proportional to a physiological difference value, computed as the absolute value of the difference between at least one physiological signal optimally consistent with the successful performance of the task and at least one corresponding measured physiological signal of a trainee performing the task. The probability of successfully completing the task is made inversely proportional to the physiological difference value by making one or more measurable physical attributes of the environment in which the task is performed, and upon which completion of the task depends, vary in inverse proportion to the physiological difference value.

  20. Three-dimensional finite element numerical simulation and physical experiment for magnetism-stress detecting in oil casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanshun; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Chaoqun; Yu, Weizhe; Chen, Yuxi

    2015-08-01

    The casing damage has been a big problem in oilfield production. The current detection methods mostly are used after casing damage, which is not very effective. With the rapid development of China's offshore oil industry, the number of offshore oil wells is becoming larger and larger. Because the cost of offshore oil well is very high, the casing damage will cause huge economic losses. What's more, it can also bring serious pollution to marine environment. So the effective methods of detecting casing damage are required badly. The accumulation of stress is the main reason for the casing damage. Magnetic anisotropy technique based on counter magnetostriction effect can detect the stress of casing in real time and help us to find out the hidden dangers in time. It is essential for us to prevent the casing damage from occurring. However, such technique is still in the development stage. Previous studies mostly got the relationship between stress and magnetic signals by physical experiment, and the study of physical mechanism in relative magnetic permeability connecting the stress and magnetic signals is rarely reported. The present paper uses the ANSYS to do the three-dimensional finite element numerical simulation to study how the relative magnetic permeability works for the oil casing model. We find that the quantitative relationship between the stress's variation and magnetic induction intensity's variation is: Δδ = K* Δ B, K = 8.04×109, which is proved correct by physical experiment.

  1. A study of sound transmission in an abstract middle ear using physical and finite element models

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Herrera, Antonio; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    The classical picture of middle ear (ME) transmission has the tympanic membrane (TM) as a piston and the ME cavity as a vacuum. In reality, the TM moves in a complex multiphasic pattern and substantial pressure is radiated into the ME cavity by the motion of the TM. This study explores ME transmission with a simple model, using a tube terminated with a plastic membrane. Membrane motion was measured with a laser interferometer and pressure on both sides of the membrane with micro-sensors that could be positioned close to the membrane without disturbance. A finite element model of the system explored the experimental results. Both experimental and theoretical results show resonances that are in some cases primarily acoustical or mechanical and sometimes produced by coupled acousto-mechanics. The largest membrane motions were a result of the membrane's mechanical resonances. At these resonant frequencies, sound transmission through the system was larger with the membrane in place than it was when the membrane was absent. PMID:26627771

  2. Finite-element modelling of physics-based hillslope hydrology, Keith Beven, and beyond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loague, Keith; Ebel, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Keith Beven is a voice of reason on the intelligent use of models and the subsequent acknowledgement/assessment of the uncertainties associated with environmental simula-tion. With several books and hundreds of papers, Keith’s work is widespread, well known, and highly referenced. Four of Keith’s most notable contributions are the iconic TOPMODEL (Beven and Kirkby, 1979), classic papers on macropores and preferential flow (Beven and Germann, 1982, 2013), two editions of the rainfall-runoff modelling bible (Beven, 2000a, 2012), and the selection/commentary for the first volume from the Benchmark Papers in Hydrology series (Beven, 2006b). Remarkably, the thirty-one papers in his benchmark volume, entitled Streamflow Generation Processes, are not tales of modelling wizardry but describe measurements designed to better understand the dynamics of near-surface systems (quintessential Keith). The impetus for this commentary is Keith’sPhD research (Beven, 1975), where he developed a new finite-element model and conducted concept-development simu-lations based upon the processes identified by, for example, Richards (1931), Horton (1933), Hubbert (1940), Hewlett and Hibbert (1963), and Dunne and Black (1970a,b). Readers not familiar with the different mechanisms of streamflow generation are referred to Dunne (1978).

  3. Physical validation of a patient-specific contact finite element model of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Li, Wendy; James Rudert, M; Tochigi, Yuki; Brown, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to determine the extent to which computational ankle contact finite element (FE) results agreed with experimentally measured tibio-talar contact stress. Two cadaver ankles were loaded in separate test sessions, during which ankle contact stresses were measured with a high-resolution (Tekscan) pressure sensor. Corresponding contact FE analyses were subsequently performed for comparison. The agreement was good between FE-computed and experimentally measured mean (3.2% discrepancy for one ankle, 19.3% for the other) and maximum (1.5% and 6.2%) contact stress, as well as for contact area (1.7% and 14.9%). There was also excellent agreement between histograms of fractional areas of cartilage experiencing specific ranges of contact stress. Finally, point-by-point comparisons between the computed and measured contact stress distributions over the articular surface showed substantial agreement, with correlation coefficients of 90% for one ankle and 86% for the other. In the past, general qualitative, but little direct quantitative agreement has been demonstrated with articular joint contact FE models. The methods used for this validation enable formal comparison of computational and experimental results, and open the way for objective statistical measures of regional correlation between FE-computed contact stress distributions from comparison articular joint surfaces (e.g., those from an intact versus those with residual intra-articular fracture incongruity).

  4. Physical examination of potential tissue donors: results of a risk management procedure to identify the critical elements of the physical examination.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Marja J; van Geyt, Caroline; Laven, Audrey B H; Beele, Hilde; Bokhorst, Arlinke G

    2012-12-01

    To identify critical elements of physical examination (PE) of potential tissue donors that could help to improve the safety of tissue transplantation. Physical signs were identified that can indicate the presence of a contraindication mentioned in EU Directive 2006/17/EC and that can theoretically be detected at PE. A risk assessment was designed, according to the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis model. Signs were scored on several aspects, taking into account various control measures, either required in the EU Directive or additional non-required measures. 106 signs associated with general and tissue-specific contraindications were identified. Signs of advanced infection with HIV, hepatitis B/C and syphilis (n = 13, 12.3%) can be omitted, since these contraindications will be detected by the required serological testing. With the required control measures, risk priorities are unacceptably "high" for 17.3% of the signs. For 64.5% of the signs, additional control measures are possible, which result in acceptable risk priorities for all signs. This risk management procedure identified the minimal necessary content of PE in potential tissue donors. Furthermore, risks associated with tissue donation were elucidated and possible risk control measures were identified as well as their impact on the safety of tissue transplantation.

  5. Identification of beauty and charm quark jets at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Identification of jets originating from beauty and charm quarks is important for measuring Standard Model processes and for searching for new physics. The performance of algorithms developed to select b- and c-quark jets is measured using data recorded by LHCb from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV in 2011 and at √s = 8 TeV in 2012. The efficiency for identifying a b(c) jet is about 65%(25%) with a probability for misidentifying a light-parton jet of 0.3% for jets with transverse momentum pT > 20GeV and pseudorapidity 2.2 < η < 4.2. The dependence of the performance on the pT and η of the jet is also measured.

  6. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  7. "Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder"? Aspects of beauty and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Claudia; Berneburg, Mirjam

    2010-05-01

    Discussing aesthetic issues and their management with patients is a growing area of dermatologic practice. Sometimes treatment options within one's own discipline are rapidly discussed, without a clear idea of the various aspects of the face which all combine to produce beauty and attractiveness. We review various features leading to the impression of beauty and attractiveness. Familiarity with these concepts should facilitate a broader discussion with the patient on the aspects of beauty and attractiveness beyond the borders of one's own discipline and also lead to multidisciplinary treatment options. We also examine the question how much the personality of the beholder himself is involved in the perception of attractiveness and beauty (of the person sitting opposite to him). The "ideal" face has an average profile with slightly protrusive and full lips. Attractiveness increases with average features and symmetry. Moreover, particular features such as the scheme of childlike characteristics combined with aspects of maturity and expression make a female face appear especially beautiful. Which attributes contribute to attractiveness of a man's face are controversial. Clear male signals such as a strong chin are likely not to increase attractiveness.

  8. The 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, John D.; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Tuthill, Peter G.; Wittkowski, Markus; Grellmann, Rebekka; Müller, André; Renganswany, Sridhar; Hummel, Christian; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Young, John; Buscher, David; Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel; Alberdi, Antxon; Schoedel, Rainer; Köhler, Rainer; Soulez, Ferréol; Thiébaut, Éric; Kluska, Jacques; Malbet, Fabien; Duvert, Gilles; Kraus, Stefan; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Baron, Fabien; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Rivinius, Thomas; Merand, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    Here we present the results of the 6th biennial optical interferometry imaging beauty contest. Taking advantage of a unique opportunity, the red supergiant VY CMa and the Mira variable R Car were observed in the astronomical H-band with three 4-telescope configurations of the VLTI-AT array using the PIONIER instrument. The community was invited to participate in the subsequent image reconstruction and interpretation phases of the project. Ten groups submitted entries to the beauty contest, and we found reasonable consistency between images obtained from independent workers using quite different algorithms. We also found that significant differences existed between the submitted images, much greater than in past beauty contests that were all based on simulated data. A novel crowd-sourcing" method allowed consensus median images to be constructed, filtering likely artifacts and retaining real features." We definitively detect strong spots on the surfaces of both stars as well as distinct circumstellar shells of emission (likely water/CO) around R Car. In a close contest, Joel Sanchez (IAA-CSIC/Spain) was named the winner of the 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest. This process has shown that new comers" can use publicly-available imaging software to interpret VLTI/PIONIER imaging data, as long as sufficient observations are taken to have complete uv coverage { a luxury that is often missing. We urge proposers to request adequate observing nights to collect sufficient data for imaging and for time allocation committees to recognise the importance of uv coverage for reliable interpretation of interferometric data. We believe that the result of the proposed broad international project will contribute to inspiring trust in the image reconstruction processes in optical interferometry.

  9. Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, John

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants. PMID:23072998

  10. Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, John

    2012-12-01

    The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants.

  11. Mechanical performance of physical-contact, multi-fiber optical connectors: Finite element analysis and semi-analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Esteban B.; Tran, Hieu V.; Kobyakov, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analysis of physical-contact, multi-fiber optical connector was used to characterize fiber-to-fiber contact and support the development and validation of a semi-analytical model (SAM) for the contact force. This contact behavior is determined by the elastic deformation of the system components (ferrule, fibers, and bonding adhesive) and the classical Hertzian contact at the fiber tips - effects that ultimately define the axial compliance of the system. Two 3-D finite element models for a 12-fiber connector are constructed to study the contact of two connectors, and the specific numerical simulations are carried out to generate input data to SAM, confirm the main assumptions made in its development, and numerically validate the predictions for the contact force. These simulations mainly consider non-uniform fiber height profiles and different end-face fiber tip geometries characterized by their radius of curvature. The numerically validated SAM is then used to study some performance aspects of multi-fiber connectors as related to the required contact force, namely, finding fiber height profiles that require minimum contact force and evaluating the throughput of polishing processes assuming a target contact force. Predictions are supported by Monte Carlo simulations and associated with current profile geometry metrics.

  12. Investigation of Chemical and Physical Changes to Bioapatite During Fossilization Using Trace Element Geochemistry, Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, C. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Bioapatite in the form of vertebrate bone can be used for a wide variety of paleo-proxies, from determination of ancient diet to the isotopic composition of meteoric water. Bioapatite alteration during diagenesis is a constant barrier to the use of fossil bone as a paleo-proxy. To elucidate the physical and chemical alteration of bone apatite during fossilization, we analyzed an assortment of fossil bones of different ages for trace elements, using LA-ICP-MS, stable isotopes, and reflected IR spectroscopy. One set of fossil bones from the Pleistocene of Idaho show a diffusion recrystallization profile, however, rare earth element (REE) profiles indicate diffusion adsorption. This suggests that REE diffusion is controlled by changing (namely decreasing) boundary conditions (i.e. decreasing concentration of REE in surrounding pore fluids). Reflected IR analysis along this concentration profile reveal that areas high in U have lost type A carbonate from the crystal structure in addition to water and organics. Stable isotopic analysis of carbon and oxygen will determine what, if any, change in the isotopic composition of the carbonate component of apatite has occurred do to the diffusion and recrystallization process. Analysis of much older bone from the Cretaceous of China reveal shallow REE and U concentration profiles and very uniform reflected IR spectra with a significant loss of type A carbonate throughout the entire bone cortex. Analysis of stable isotopes through the bone cortex will be compared to the stable isotopes collected from the Pleistocene of Idaho.

  13. Simulation of metal cutting using the particle finite-element method and a physically based plasticity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, J. M.; Jonsén, P.; Svoboda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Metal cutting is one of the most common metal-shaping processes. In this process, specified geometrical and surface properties are obtained through the break-up of material and removal by a cutting edge into a chip. The chip formation is associated with large strains, high strain rates and locally high temperatures due to adiabatic heating. These phenomena together with numerical complications make modeling of metal cutting difficult. Material models, which are crucial in metal-cutting simulations, are usually calibrated based on data from material testing. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of strains and strain rates involved in metal cutting are several orders of magnitude higher than those generated from conventional material testing. Therefore, a highly desirable feature is a material model that can be extrapolated outside the calibration range. In this study, a physically based plasticity model based on dislocation density and vacancy concentration is used to simulate orthogonal metal cutting of AISI 316L. The material model is implemented into an in-house particle finite-element method software. Numerical simulations are in agreement with experimental results, but also with previous results obtained with the finite-element method.

  14. ''Beauty of Wholeness and Beauty of Partiality.'' New Terms Defining the Concept of Beauty in Architecture in Terms of Sustainability and Computer Aided Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farid, Ayman A.; Zaghloul, Weaam M.; Dewidar, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    The great shift in sustainability and computer aided design in the field of architecture caused a remarkable change in the architecture philosophy, new aspects of beauty and aesthetic values are being introduced, and traditional definitions for beauty cannot fully cover this aspects, which causes a gap between; new architecture works criticism and…

  15. Big and beautiful? Evidence of racial differences in the perceived attractiveness of obese females.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A; Heiland, Frank W

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between body weight, race, and attractiveness in appearance and personality among adolescents. We study a sample of 5947 (non-Hispanic) white and black girls age 12 to 18 who were interviewed by a group of 338 interviewers. We find that overweight and obese white female adolescents are, respectively, 23% and 40% less likely, on average, to be perceived as physically attractive compared to normal-weight white girls. The physical appearance penalties are significantly smaller for overweight and obese black girls compared to white girls. These findings suggest that being overweight or obese is costly due to its negative impact on inner and outer perceived beauty, providing an explanation for the observed stigmatization of overweight and obesity among women in labor and relationship markets. The smaller beauty penalties for black girls above the normal-weight range suggest that the range of body sizes considered attractive may be wider for black females.

  16. First-Order Model Management With Variable-Fidelity Physics Applied to Multi-Element Airfoil Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, N. M.; Nielsen, E. J.; Lewis, R. M.; Anderson, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    First-order approximation and model management is a methodology for a systematic use of variable-fidelity models or approximations in optimization. The intent of model management is to attain convergence to high-fidelity solutions with minimal expense in high-fidelity computations. The savings in terms of computationally intensive evaluations depends on the ability of the available lower-fidelity model or a suite of models to predict the improvement trends for the high-fidelity problem, Variable-fidelity models can be represented by data-fitting approximations, variable-resolution models. variable-convergence models. or variable physical fidelity models. The present work considers the use of variable-fidelity physics models. We demonstrate the performance of model management on an aerodynamic optimization of a multi-element airfoil designed to operate in the transonic regime. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations represent the high-fidelity model, while the Euler equations represent the low-fidelity model. An unstructured mesh-based analysis code FUN2D evaluates functions and sensitivity derivatives for both models. Model management for the present demonstration problem yields fivefold savings in terms of high-fidelity evaluations compared to optimization done with high-fidelity computations alone.

  17. Beauty production cross section measurements at E(cm) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    D'Onofrio, Monica; /Geneva U.

    2005-05-01

    The RunII physics program at the Tevatron started in spring 2001 with protons and antiprotons colliding at an energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, and it is carrying on with more than 500 pb{sup -1} of data as collected by both the CDF and D0 experiments. Recent results on beauty production cross section measurements are here reported.

  18. Simple and Beautiful Experiments III by LADY CATS and Science Teachers' group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, M.; Okiharu, F.; Ishii, K.; Onishi, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Uchida, T.; Yasuda, J.; Hoshino, T.; Yoshimura, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Wada, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Ebata, T.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2010-07-01

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of science teachers. Our group includes a lot of female teachers, which is rather unusual in the field of physics. We would like to propose and exhibit beautiful and simple science experiments that can demonstrate the principles of physics to fascinate students' interest. These experiments are easily made and low-cost. It is also aimed to catch female and humanities students' eyes on physics from the view point of female teachers. Furthermore, we believe that these ideas help resolve gender problems and support non-specialist teachers in primary school.

  19. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  20. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  1. Reviews Book: Marie Curie: A Biography Book: Fast Car Physics Book: Beautiful Invisible Equipment: Fun Fly Stick Science Kit Book: Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You Book: Chaos: The Science of Predictable Random Motion Book: Seven Wonders of the Universe Book: Special Relativity Equipment: LabVIEWTM 2009 Education Edition Places to Visit: Edison and Ford Winter Estates Places to Visit: The Computer History Museum Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Fun Fly Stick Science Kit Fun fly stick introduces electrostatics to youngsters Special Relativity Text makes a useful addition to the study of relativity as an undergraduate LabVIEWTM 2009 Education Edition LabVIEW sets industry standard for gathering and analysing data, signal processing, instrumentation design and control, and automation and robotics Edison and Ford Winter Estates Thomas Edison's home is open to the public The Computer History Museum Take a walk through technology history at this computer museum WORTH A LOOK Fast Car Physics Book races through physics Beautiful Invisible The main subject of this book is theoretical physics Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You A guide to physics on the large and small scale Chaos: The Science of Predictable Random Motion Book explores the mathematics behind chaotic behaviour Seven Wonders of the Universe A textual trip through the wonderful universe HANDLE WITH CARE Marie Curie: A Biography Book fails to capture Curie's science WEB WATCH Web clips to liven up science lessons

  2. The abundance and relative volatility of refractory trace elements in Allende Ca,Al-rich inclusions - Implications for chemical and physical processes in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, Alan S.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The relative volatilities of lithophile refractory trace elements (LRTE) were determined using calculated 50-percent condensation temperatures. Then, the refractory trace-element abundances were measured in about 100 Allende inclusions. The abundance patterns found in Allende Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and ultrarefractory inclusions were used to empirically modify the calculated LRTE volatility sequence. In addition, the importance of crystal-chemical effects, diffusion constraints, and grain transport for the origin of the trace-element chemistry of Allende CAIs (which have important implications for chemical and physical processes in the solar nebula) is discussed.

  3. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  4. Cosmeceuticals: the new medicine of beauty.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katherine I; Glaser, Dee Anna

    2011-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals represent a new category of products placed between cosmetics and pharmaceuticals that are intended for the enhancement of both the health and beauty of skin. Encompassing an ever-increasing part of the skin care industry, cosmeceuticals are formulated from a multitude of ingredients, the main categories of which are discussed in this article. Given the growing interest in these products among patients and the strong claims made by manufacturers, it is important that physicians recognize these agents and understand their benefits, limitations, and potential adverse effects.

  5. Charm and beauty production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Bishai, M.; /Brookhaven

    2005-01-01

    Using the data samples collected with the CDF Run II detector during 2002 and early 2003, new measurements of the production cross sections of charm and beauty hadrons at {radical}s = 1960 GeV are presented. New measurements of the cross sections of centrally produced b-hadrons and J/{psi} mesons down to zero transverse momenta have been carried out. The large charm signals made available by the silicon vertex track trigger have enabled the measurement of the cross sections of D{sup 0}, D*, D{sup {+-}}, and D{sub s} mesons.

  6. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel

    2010-06-01

    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption.

  7. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-10-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper we review recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab.

  8. Preschoolers' Ideas of What Makes a Picture Book Illustration Beautiful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Carolyn A.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' reasons for ranking the beauty of 30 children's book illustrations were investigated through individual interviews. Most frequent response criteria for beauty were associated with familiar objects or surroundings, action, color, clothing or accessories, water or ice, body features, and babies or small things. Children's book…

  9. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  10. Beauty, Goodness and Education: The Arts beyond Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article takes its lead from Iris Murdoch's argument that an education in beauty can be a training in the love of virtue. Yet the word "beauty" is seldom used in contemporary educational discourse, even within the arts disciplines, where aesthetic considerations are integral to the learning process. I begin, therefore, with an…

  11. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

  12. Teaching the Psychology of Engagement with Beauty: State and Trait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Kirk, Cameron; Guenthner, Crystn; Pohling, Rico; Mobasher, Saman

    2017-01-01

    An undergraduate senior-level course, the psychology of beauty, taught within the positive psychology approach, was designed with the aim to increase state and trait levels of engagement with beauty among its students. The course was a service-learning course in which students were paired by the Area Agency on Aging with elders in the greater…

  13. [The ideal of facial beauty: a review].

    PubMed

    Hönn, Mirjam; Göz, Gernot

    2007-01-01

    In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental esthetics or gender specific characteristics. There is a shared concept of what constitutes an "ideal" face. Anthropometric methods are preferable to cephalometric methods in determining the "ideal" face's dimensions, since anthropometric methods are valid, three-dimensional, non-invasive, suitable for a great variety of purposes, and easy to implement. Symmetry and averageness play important roles in determining the attractiveness of a face; although distinguishing features make it extraordinarily beautiful. Such features make a female face appear both child like and mature as well as expressive. Women's preferences as to what constitutes a particularly attractive male face are controversial, since female observers are greatly influenced by their menstrual cycles or their environment when responding to male faces. Finally, allowance has to be made for the fact that the ideal of beauty is subject to certain fluctuations in fashion.

  14. The experience of mathematical beauty and its neural correlates

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir; Romaya, John Paul; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Many have written of the experience of mathematical beauty as being comparable to that derived from the greatest art. This makes it interesting to learn whether the experience of beauty derived from such a highly intellectual and abstract source as mathematics correlates with activity in the same part of the emotional brain as that derived from more sensory, perceptually based, sources. To determine this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to image the activity in the brains of 15 mathematicians when they viewed mathematical formulae which they had individually rated as beautiful, indifferent or ugly. Results showed that the experience of mathematical beauty correlates parametrically with activity in the same part of the emotional brain, namely field A1 of the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), as the experience of beauty derived from other sources. PMID:24592230

  15. The Richness and Beauty of the Physics of Cosmological Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunyaev, Rashid

    2009-01-01

    In our Universe the initial temperature of radiation was very high and hydrogen and helium were completely ionized. At redshifts z 1400 the temperature dropped to 3800 K and, according to the Saha equation, the recombination of hydrogen should occur. In reality this process is strongly delayed and some frozen amount of electrons should be present till the reionization of the Universe at z 10. Process of recombination defines the position and the width of the last scattering surface which is crucial for the formation of the observed angular fluctuations of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), acoustic peaks and barionic oscillations in the distribution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies in space. The recombination of hydrogen occurs under conditions of very low density and in the presence of black body radiation. As a result, usually insignificant atomic processes begin to play a role. They influence the shape of acoustic peaks at a level which will be detectable by the Planck Surveyor spacecraft and we should take them into account when estimating the key parameters of the Universe from CMB data. The recombination of hydrogen and helium leads to the appearance of recombinational lines in centimeter and decimeter spectral bands. Observations of these lines will make it possible to check the predictions of the big bang recombination theory and will open a possibility to measure directly the density of barions, the CMB monopole temperature and specific entropy of the Universe. Observations of helium recombination lines originated at redshifts 6000 and 2500 will open a way to measure the prestellar abundance of helium in the Universe.

  16. Correlates of Physical Beauty in Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Theodore

    1979-01-01

    Results indicated that for female stimuli, attractiveness correlated negatively with waist width and hip width, and directly with figure slenderness. For male stimuli, attractiveness correlated positively with shoulder width and upper body taper. (Author)

  17. B physics at CDF - the Beauty of hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tonelli, Diego

    2010-11-01

    The CDF experiment at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider established that extensive and detailed exploration of the b-quark dynamics is possible in hadron collisions, with results competitive and supplementary to those from e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. This provides an unique, rich, and highly rewarding program that is currently reaching full maturity. I report a few recent world-leading results on rare decays, CP-violation in B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing, and b {yields} s penguin decays.

  18. Elemental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)

  19. Superheavy Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)

  20. Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

    2004-01-01

    Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

  1. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  2. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  3. Literary aesthetics: beauty, the brain, and Mrs. Dalloway.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Patrick Colm

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research indicates that beauty is in part a matter of prototype approximation. Some research suggests that unanticipated pattern recognition is important as well. This essay begins by briefly outlining an account of beauty based on these factors. It goes on to consider complications. Minor complications include the partial incompatibility of these accounts and the importance of differentiating judgments of beauty from aesthetic response. More serious issues include the relative neglect of literature in neurologically-based discussions of beauty, which tend to focus on music or visual art. There is also a relative neglect of emotion, beyond the reward system. Finally, there is the almost complete absence of the sublime. After considering these problems broadly, the essay turns to Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway, examining its treatment of beauty and sublimity. The aim of this section is not merely to illuminate Woolf's novel by reference to neuroscientific research. It is equally, perhaps more fully, to expand our neuroscientifically grounded account of aesthetic response by drawing on Woolf's novel. In Mrs. Dalloway, there are gestures toward prototypes and patterns in beauty. But the key features are clearly emotional. Specifically, the emotions at issue in feelings of beauty and sublimity appear to be primarily attachment, on the one hand, and a profound sense of isolation, on the other. Woolf's novel also points us toward other features of aesthetic experience, crucially including the emotion-sharing that is a key function of the production and circulation of art.

  4. The 2012 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Fabien; Cotton, William D.; Lawson, Peter R.; Ridgway, Steve T.; Aarnio, Alicia; Monnier, John D.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Thiébaut, Eric; Soulez, Férréol; Mary, David; Millour, Florentin; Vannier, Martin; Young, John; Elias, Nicholas M.; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Rengaswamy, Sridharan

    2012-07-01

    We present the results of the fifth Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest. The contest consists in blind imaging of test data sets derived from model sources and distributed in the OIFITS format. Two scenarios of imaging with CHARA/MIRC-6T were offered for reconstruction: imaging a T Tauri disc and imaging a spotted red supergiant. There were eight different teams competing this time: Monnier with the software package MACIM; Hofmann, Schertl and Weigelt with IRS; Thiebaut and Soulez with MiRA ; Young with BSMEM; Mary and Vannier with MIROIRS; Millour and Vannier with independent BSMEM and MiRA entries; Rengaswamy with an original method; and Elias with the radio-astronomy package CASA. The contest model images, the data delivered to the contestants and the rules are described as well as the results of the image reconstruction obtained by each method. These results are discussed as well as the strengths and limitations of each algorithm.

  5. Sex, beauty and the orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ishai, Alumit

    2007-02-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed neural system in the human brain. Attention, memory and emotion modulate the neural activation evoked by faces, however the effects of gender and sexual orientation are currently unknown. To test whether subjects would respond more to their sexually-preferred faces, we scanned 40 hetero- and homosexual men and women whilst they assessed facial attractiveness. Behaviorally, regardless of their gender and sexual orientation, all subjects similarly rated the attractiveness of both male and female faces. Consistent with our hypothesis, a three-way interaction between stimulus gender, beauty and the sexual preference of the subject was found in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In heterosexual women and homosexual men, attractive male faces elicited stronger activation than attractive female faces, whereas in heterosexual men and homosexual women, attractive female faces evoked stronger activation than attractive male faces. These findings suggest that the OFC represents the value of salient sexually-relevant faces, irrespective of their reproductive fitness.

  6. 75 FR 10345 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set, etc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set; 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver... United States Mint Silver Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set will be priced at $14.95. The 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof...

  7. A beautiful sea: P. A. M. Dirac's epistemology and ontology of the vacuum.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aaron Sidney

    2016-07-01

    This paper charts P.A.M. Dirac's development of his theory of the electron, and its radical picture of empty space as an almost-full plenum. Dirac's Quantum Electrodynamics famously accomplished more than the unification of special relativity and quantum mechanics. It also accounted for the 'duplexity phenomena' of spectral line splitting that we now attribute to electron spin. But the extra mathematical terms that allowed for spin were not alone, and this paper charts Dirac's struggle to ignore or account for them as a sea of strange, negative-energy, particles with positive 'holes'. This work was not done in solitude, but rather in exchanges with Dirac's correspondence network. This social context for Dirac's work contests his image as a lone genius, and documents a community wrestling with the ontological consequences of their work. Unification, consistency, causality, and community are common factors in explanations in the history of physics. This paper argues on the basis of materials in Dirac's archive that --- in addition --- mathematical beauty was an epistemological factor in the development of the electron and hole theory. In fact, if we believe that Dirac's beautiful mathematics captures something of the world, then there is both an epistemology and an ontology of mathematical beauty.

  8. Conceptualization, Development and Validation of an Instrument for Investigating Elements of Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Learning Environments: The UPLLES (Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Learning Environment Survey)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory P; Meldrum, Al; Beamish, John

    2013-01-01

    First-year undergraduate physics laboratories are important physics learning environments. However, there is a lack of empirically informed literature regarding how students perceive their overall laboratory learning experiences. Recipe formats persist as the dominant form of instructional design in these sites, and these formats do not adequately…

  9. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  10. Toward A Brain-Based Theory of Beauty

    PubMed Central

    Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to learn whether activity in the same area(s) of the brain correlate with the experience of beauty derived from different sources. 21 subjects took part in a brain-scanning experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Prior to the experiment, they viewed pictures of paintings and listened to musical excerpts, both of which they rated on a scale of 1–9, with 9 being the most beautiful. This allowed us to select three sets of stimuli–beautiful, indifferent and ugly–which subjects viewed and heard in the scanner, and rated at the end of each presentation. The results of a conjunction analysis of brain activity showed that, of the several areas that were active with each type of stimulus, only one cortical area, located in the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), was active during the experience of musical and visual beauty, with the activity produced by the experience of beauty derived from either source overlapping almost completely within it. The strength of activation in this part of the mOFC was proportional to the strength of the declared intensity of the experience of beauty. We conclude that, as far as activity in the brain is concerned, there is a faculty of beauty that is not dependent on the modality through which it is conveyed but which can be activated by at least two sources–musical and visual–and probably by other sources as well. This has led us to formulate a brain-based theory of beauty. PMID:21755004

  11. The paradox of impossible beauty: body changes and beauty practices in aging women.

    PubMed

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Chevé, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and understand the experience of aesthetic body changes in women between 65 and 75 years old. To approach the issue, 29 in-depth interviews were conducted in Marseille in 2011. Following a brief review of contemporary Western aesthetics, we will examine the marks of time women perceive as stigmatizing and analyze beauty practices that aim to conceal or repair them. The last part of this article will be devoted to the experience of the aesthetic body and in particular show how aging can paradoxically have a beneficial effect on some women.

  12. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Jovana

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

  13. Sleeping Beauty transposition: from biology to applications.

    PubMed

    Narayanavari, Suneel A; Chilkunda, Shreevathsa S; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-02-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is the first synthetic DNA transposon that was shown to be active in a wide variety of species. Here, we review studies from the last two decades addressing both basic biology and applications of this transposon. We discuss how host-transposon interaction modulates transposition at different steps of the transposition reaction. We also discuss how the transposon was translated for gene delivery and gene discovery purposes. We critically review the system in clinical, pre-clinical and non-clinical settings as a non-viral gene delivery tool in comparison with viral technologies. We also discuss emerging SB-based hybrid vectors aimed at combining the attractive safety features of the transposon with effective viral delivery. The success of the SB-based technology can be fundamentally attributed to being able to insert fairly randomly into genomic regions that allow stable long-term expression of the delivered transgene cassette. SB has emerged as an efficient and economical toolkit for safe and efficient gene delivery for medical applications.

  14. The 2016 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Thiébaut, E.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Heininger, M.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Millour, F.; Schutz, A.; Ferrari, A.; Vannier, M.; Mary, D.; Young, J.

    2016-08-01

    Image reconstruction in optical interferometry has gained considerable importance for astrophysical studies during the last decade. This has been mainly due to improvements in the imaging capabilities of existing interferometers and the expectation of new facilities in the coming years. However, despite the advances made so far, image synthesis in optical interferometry is still an open field of research. Since 2004, the community has organized a biennial contest to formally test the different methods and algorithms for image reconstruction. In 2016, we celebrated the 7th edition of the "Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest". This initiative represented an open call to participate in the reconstruction of a selected set of simulated targets with a wavelength-dependent morphology as they could be observed by the 2nd generation of VLTI instruments. This contest represents a unique opportunity to benchmark, in a systematic way, the current advances and limitations in the field, as well as to discuss possible future approaches. In this contribution, we summarize: (a) the rules of the 2016 contest; (b) the different data sets used and the selection procedure; (c) the methods and results obtained by each one of the participants; and (d) the metric used to select the best reconstructed images. Finally, we named Karl-Heinz Hofmann and the group of the Max-Planck-Institut f ur Radioastronomie as winners of this edition of the contest.

  15. Elemental Modes of Occurrence in an Illinois #6 Coal and Fractions Prepared by Physical Separation Techniques at a Coal Preparation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, F.; Seidu, L; Shah, N; Huffman, G; Honaker, R; Kyger, J; Higgins, B; Robertson, J; Pal, S; Seehra, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois No.6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({approx} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser

  16. Research on Curriculum Plan and Learning Achievement for Aromatherapy with the Concept of the Chinese Five Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pei-Ching

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, people are getting more aware of beauty treatments and the concept of health care. This study hopes to bring all relevant concepts such as Aromatherapy, essential scented oils, medical foods, human meridians, Chinese five elements therapy, and beauty business management into the curriculum design, and seriously considered many factors…

  17. Cosmetic medical treatments: why are we so obsessed with beauty-is it nature or nurture?

    PubMed

    Jonzon, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become mainstream, and images of beauty surround us on television, in magazines, and in advertising. It is no wonder that the quest for beauty has become so prevalent. This paper explores why individuals choose to undergo cosmetic procedures, and looks at the nature versus nurture debate surrounding this phenomenon. It is important for nurses, physicians, nurse practitioners, or other healthcare professionals involved in the cosmetic surgery field to understand the underlying motivations for choosing to undergo elective cosmetic procedures in order to make appropriate choices about their patients' care. The first theory in this article is rooted in the "nature" school-of-thought and explores the evolutionary basis behind the quest for beauty. It shows that we may be 'hardwired' to think that our appearance signals our reproductive capability (D. B. Sarwer, L. Magee, & V. Clark, 2004) and that human physical attractiveness is merely a collection of physical traits that signal fecundity and health (V. Swami, C. Greven, & A. Furnham, 2007). The "nurture" concept focuses on the second theory, the sociocultural theory, which implies that people who choose to use cosmetic medical treatments to enhance their appearance may be attempting to increase their self-image or self-perception, improve their social relationships, and increase their probability of success across a variety of social situations. Other minor theories such as the estrogen theory and the psychological theory are discussed, along with implications for practice. All of these theories are valuable to the healthcare professional and allow a deeper understanding of the psyche of their patients.

  18. Quality of life assessment in cosmetics: specificity and interest of the international BeautyQol instrument.

    PubMed

    Beresniak, Ariel; Auray, Jean-Paul; Duru, Gérard; Aractingi, Selim; Krueger, Gerald G; Talarico, Sergio; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Dupont, Danielle; de Linares, Yolaine

    2015-09-01

    The wide use of cosmetics and their perceived benefits upon well-being imply objective descriptions of their effects upon the different dimensions contributing to the quality of life (QoL). Such a goal pleas for using relevant and validated scientific instruments with robust measurement methods. This paper discusses the interest of the new validated questionnaire BeautyQoL specifically designed to assess the effect of cosmetic products on physical appearance and QoL. After conducting a review of skin appearance and QoL, three phases of the international codevelopment have been carried out in the following sequence: semi-directed interviews (Phase 1), acceptability study (Phase 2), and validation study (Phase 3). Data collection and validation process have been carried out in 16 languages. This review confirms that QoL instruments developed in dermatology are not suitable to assess cosmetic products, mainly because of their lack of sensitivity. General acceptability of BeautyQol was very good. Forty-two questions have been structured in five dimensions that explained 76.7% of the total variance: Social Life, Self-confidence, Mood, Vitality, and Attractiveness. Cronbach's alpha coefficients are between 0.932 and 0.978, confirming the good internal consistency of the results. The BeautyQol questionnaire is the first international instrument specific to cosmetic products and physical appearance that has been validated in 16 languages and could be used in a number of clinical trials and descriptive studies to demonstrate the added value of these products on the QoL.

  19. General Relativity: The most beautiful of theories. Applications and trends after 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    Generalising Newton's law of gravitation, general relativity is one of the pillars of modern physics. While applications in the beginning were restricted to isolated effects such as a proper understanding of Mercury's orbit, the second half of the twentieth century saw a massive development of applications. These include cosmology, gravitational waves, and even very practical results for satellite based positioning systems as well as different approaches to unite general relativity with another very successful branch of physics - quantum theory. On the occassion of general relativity's centennial, leading scientists in the different branches of gravitational research review the history and recent advances in the main fields of applications of the theory, which was referred to by Lev Landau as "the most beautiful of the existing physical theories".

  20. Supreme court of Canada's "Beautiful Mind" case.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E; O'Reilly, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Canada's (SCC) first case involving capacity and the refusal of involuntary psychiatric treatment involved a self described "professor" who had been referred to as "Canada's Beautiful Mind". He had been found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder for uttering death threats. While considered incapable of making a treatment decision by psychiatrists and a review board, three levels of court, including the SCC, found him to be capable. "Professor" Starson therefore continued to refuse treatment for his psychosis and spent over seven years detained because he refused the treatment required to become well enough to be released. This refusal of treatment is permitted under Ontario law, although it is not permitted in some other Canadian provinces, and in many other countries. This article describes Starson's situation, Ontario's law with respect to consent to treatment and relevant Canadian constitutional and criminal law. It provides an analysis of the Consent and Capacity Board decision and the court appeals. Implications from Starson's case are analyzed in relation to what happened to Starson, human rights and comparative law pertaining to involuntary patients' refusal of treatment, especially their relevance to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and laws in some other countries. Many Canadian and foreign jurisdictions where laws apparently accord with human rights codes do not allow a person to refuse the treatment required to restore their liberty. We conclude that a law that allows a person with a mental illness to be incarcerated indefinitely in a "hospital" because needed psychiatric treatment cannot, by law, be provided is not justifiable in a caring democratic jurisdiction.

  1. Defining and identifying Sleeping Beauties in science

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Qing; Ferrara, Emilio; Radicchi, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A Sleeping Beauty (SB) in science refers to a paper whose importance is not recognized for several years after publication. Its citation history exhibits a long hibernation period followed by a sudden spike of popularity. Previous studies suggest a relative scarcity of SBs. The reliability of this conclusion is, however, heavily dependent on identification methods based on arbitrary threshold parameters for sleeping time and number of citations, applied to small or monodisciplinary bibliographic datasets. Here we present a systematic, large-scale, and multidisciplinary analysis of the SB phenomenon in science. We introduce a parameter-free measure that quantifies the extent to which a specific paper can be considered an SB. We apply our method to 22 million scientific papers published in all disciplines of natural and social sciences over a time span longer than a century. Our results reveal that the SB phenomenon is not exceptional. There is a continuous spectrum of delayed recognition where both the hibernation period and the awakening intensity are taken into account. Although many cases of SBs can be identified by looking at monodisciplinary bibliographic data, the SB phenomenon becomes much more apparent with the analysis of multidisciplinary datasets, where we can observe many examples of papers achieving delayed yet exceptional importance in disciplines different from those where they were originally published. Our analysis emphasizes a complex feature of citation dynamics that so far has received little attention, and also provides empirical evidence against the use of short-term citation metrics in the quantification of scientific impact. PMID:26015563

  2. Is beauty skin deep? The impact of "beautiful attributes" on life opportunities and interpersonal relationships: a tale of two sisters in South India.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is the impact of culturally perceived beauty and its attributes on identity formation and interpersonal relationships. In South India skin color is perhaps the most important aspect of beauty. Socialization starts from infancy, as people talk openly about a child's skin color and other "beautiful attributes" from the time of a child's birth. Women with the cultural designation of beautiful are more assertive than those women designated unattractive. Moreover, the increased self-confidence associated with their beauty allows them greater leeway to shape their lives according to their own desires. I will discuss culturally relevant "beautiful attributes" and the developmental impact on two sisters. The older sister was regarded as beautiful while her younger sister was considered less attractive. Cultural validation provides a theater for assertiveness while denigration enhances vulnerability to depression.

  3. Determination of the mechanical and physical properties of cartilage by coupling poroelastic-based finite element models of indentation with artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Campoli, Gianni; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-03-21

    One of the most widely used techniques to determine the mechanical properties of cartilage is based on indentation tests and interpretation of the obtained force-time or displacement-time data. In the current computational approaches, one needs to simulate the indentation test with finite element models and use an optimization algorithm to estimate the mechanical properties of cartilage. The modeling procedure is cumbersome, and the simulations need to be repeated for every new experiment. For the first time, we propose a method for fast and accurate estimation of the mechanical and physical properties of cartilage as a poroelastic material with the aid of artificial neural networks. In our study, we used finite element models to simulate the indentation for poroelastic materials with wide combinations of mechanical and physical properties. The obtained force-time curves are then divided into three parts: the first two parts of the data is used for training and validation of an artificial neural network, while the third part is used for testing the trained network. The trained neural network receives the force-time curves as the input and provides the properties of cartilage as the output. We observed that the trained network could accurately predict the properties of cartilage within the range of properties for which it was trained. The mechanical and physical properties of cartilage could therefore be estimated very fast, since no additional finite element modeling is required once the neural network is trained. The robustness of the trained artificial neural network in determining the properties of cartilage based on noisy force-time data was assessed by introducing noise to the simulated force-time data. We found that the training procedure could be optimized so as to maximize the robustness of the neural network against noisy force-time data.

  4. A Study of the Possible Harmful Effects of Cosmetic Beauty Products on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Kaličanin, Biljana; Velimirović, Dragan

    2016-04-01

    The origins of the usage of different substances in beauty, skin, body, hair, and nails care products can be found in ancient times. To achieve better quality and enhance their effects, some additives such as preservatives, stabilizers, mineral pigments, dye, and shine were added to these products. Some of these substances may also have allergic, irritating, and harmful effects on human health. The aim of this study was the optimization of the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for the purpose of determining the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc), in some commercial cosmetic beauty products (lipsticks, lip glosses, eye shadows, and henna hair dye). In addition, in order to monitor the potential adverse effects of henna dye on hair quality, as well as the total body burden of heavy metals (Pb, Cd), the paper analyzed hair samples before and after henna dye treatment. Beauty products used for cosmetic purposes can have adverse effects to human health due to the fact that they contain lead, a highly toxic metal. The lead content in the tested samples varied depending on the additives used along with the method of production. The cosmetic products that were analyzed in this study contained a certain amount of zinc, which is an essential element, although its content above the prescribed limit may lead to side effects. Highly toxic metal, cadmium, was not detected in the tested samples. The presence of these metals in cosmetic products certainly indicate that it is necessary to monitor and determinate the content of toxic heavy metals in these products, especially because they are in direct contact with skin or mucous membranes and are often used in daily life.

  5. Predicting beauty: fractal dimension and visual complexity in art.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, A; Nadal, M; Sheehy, N; Cela-Conde, C J; Sawey, M

    2011-02-01

    Visual complexity has been known to be a significant predictor of preference for artistic works for some time. The first study reported here examines the extent to which perceived visual complexity in art can be successfully predicted using automated measures of complexity. Contrary to previous findings the most successful predictor of visual complexity was Gif compression. The second study examined the extent to which fractal dimension could account for judgments of perceived beauty. The fractal dimension measure accounts for more of the variance in judgments of perceived beauty in visual art than measures of visual complexity alone, particularly for abstract and natural images. Results also suggest that when colour is removed from an artistic image observers are unable to make meaningful judgments as to its beauty.

  6. Beauty is as beauty does: body image and self-esteem of pageant contestants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S H; Hammond, K

    2003-09-01

    Self-esteem, dieting, and body image of 131 female beauty pageant contestants (mean age 26.0 years) from 43 states were examined by an anonymous survey. Most (89.6%) reported being a pageant finalist or winner and 55.2% had competed at the nationa/international level Over one-fourth (26%) of the women had been told or perceived they had an eating disorder which reportedly began at 16.25 years. Almost half (48.5%) reported wanting to be thinner and 57% were trying to lose weight. Higher self-esteem scores were significantly associated with increased level of competition (i.e.: from local to international pageants), but not with the number of times the women were pageant finalists or winners. Future study is warranted to determine how pageant participation influences self-esteem, body image, and the development of eating disorders.

  7. The enigma of facial beauty: esthetics, proportions, deformity, and controversy.

    PubMed

    Naini, Farhad B; Moss, James P; Gill, Daljit S

    2006-09-01

    The study of the face and the ability to alter its form have fascinated mankind for thousands of years. The clinical ability to alter dentofacial form, whether through orthodontics, facial growth modification, or surgery, requires an understanding of facial beauty, including the evaluation of facial esthetics, proportions, and symmetry. The purposes of this article were to give a brief contemporary overview of our concepts of facial beauty and esthetics and to consider a long-standing and controversial debate on the treatment of patients with dentofacial deformities.

  8. Dogs motivate obese children for physical activity: key elements of a motivational theory of animal-assisted interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfarth, Rainer; Mutschler, Bettina; Beetz, Andrea; Kreuser, Friederike; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is empirical evidence that the presence of a companion animal can have a positive impact on performance. The available evidence can be viewed in terms of differing hypotheses that attempt to explain the mechanisms behind the positive effects. Little attention has been given to motivation as a potential mode of action with regards to human-animal interactions. First we give an overview of evidence that animals might promote motivation. Second we present a study to examine the effect of a therapy dog on exercise performance in children with obesity. Methods: Twelve children, aged 8–12 years old, were randomly assigned to two groups in a crossover design: dog-group and human confederate group. Several types of physical activities via accelerometer and subjective ratings of wellbeing, satisfaction, and motivation were assessed. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures on one factor. Results: The main effect of condition was significant for all performance variables. There was less passive behavior and more physical activity for all performance variables in the presence of the dog than in that of the human confederate. Between dog- and human- condition there was no difference in the subjective rating of motivation, wellbeing, or satisfaction. Discussion: The results demonstrate that the presence of a therapy dog has the potential to increase physical activity in obese children. Task performance as a declarative measure was increased by the presence of the dog in comparison to a human confederate, but self-report measures of motivation, satisfaction or wellbeing did not differ between the two conditions. Therefore, it stands to reason that a dog could trigger implicit motives which enhance motivation for activity. The results of our study indicate the potentially beneficial effect of incorporating dogs into outpatient training for obese children. PMID:24194726

  9. I know you are beautiful even without looking at you: discrimination of facial beauty in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Liu, Chang Hong; Roebuck, Hettie

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research suggests that facial attractiveness may capture attention at parafovea. However, little is known about how well facial beauty can be detected at parafoveal and peripheral vision. Participants in this study judged relative attractiveness of a face pair presented simultaneously at several eccentricities from the central fixation. The results show that beauty is not only detectable at parafovea but also at periphery. The discrimination performance at parafovea was indistinguishable from the performance around the fovea. Moreover, performance was well above chance even at the periphery. The results show that the visual system is able to use the low-spatial-frequency information to appraise attractiveness. These findings not only provide an explanation why a beautiful face could capture attention when central vision is already engaged elsewhere, but also reveal the potential means by which a crowd of faces is quickly scanned for attractiveness.

  10. Beauty and Intelligence May--or May Not--Be Related

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, [Kanazawa S. & Kovar J.L. (2004). Why beautiful people are more intelligent, "Intelligence," 32, 227-243] assert that given certain empirical regularities about assortative mating and the heritability of intelligence and beauty, that it logically follows that more intelligent people are more beautiful. It is argued here that…

  11. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    PubMed

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  12. A Conceptual Overview of the Role of Beauty and Aesthetics in Science and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girod, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Conversations on the connection of art, beauty, and the aesthetic experience in science are gaining a voice in the science education community. This article provides a conceptual overview of the role of beauty and aesthetics in science and science education. It focuses on a discussion of four themes exploring beauty in scientific ideas and…

  13. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY... announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins will be lowered from $279.95 to $229.95....

  14. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY... announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins will be lowered from $229.95 to $204.95....

  15. Chemically immobilized and physically adsorbed PAN/acetylacetone modified mesoporous silica for the recovery of rare earth elements from the waste water-comparative and optimization study.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Deepika Lakshmi; Repo, Eveliina; Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of Rare Earth Element (REE) recovery from aqueous solution by silica gels with 1-(2-Pyridylazo) 2-naphthol (PAN) and acetyl acetone (Acac) modifications. The two different methods of silica gel chelation, such as chemical immobilization with the help of silane coupling agents (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) in this study) and direct physical adsorption onto the silica surface, is compared in terms of their REE removal efficiency. A comparative analysis between adsorption of different REEs for different silica gels is performed and the influence of parameters such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration has been reported. The effect of calcined adsorbents on the adsorption process is also investigated. Characterization studies on silica gels by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential analysis are performed to better understand the relation between physical/chemical attributes of the adsorbents and their impact on the adsorption process. The experimental results are evaluated and optimal conditions for REE adsorption are identified. Chemically immobilized gels demonstrated immense potential for all the REE under study except Sc, for which, physically loaded gels seemed to be more efficient. The removal of REEs could be achieved at lower pHs by chemically immobilized PAN/Acac gels, making it suitable for many practical applications. The amine functionalized gels before chemical immobilization step were compared with PAN/Acac chemically immobilized gels in single as well as multi element system and the significance of chemical immobilization after amine functionalization is also stated.

  16. Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

    2012-03-01

    Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution. This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation. These methods are previously setup with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate.

  17. Measurement of organic and elemental carbon in downtown Rome and background area: physical behavior and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Rosada, Alberto; Dodaro, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    A significant portion of the particulate matter is the total carbonaceous fraction (or total carbon, TC), composed of two main fractions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), which shows a large variety of organic compounds, e.g. aliphatic, aromatic compounds, alcohols, acids, etc. In this paper, TC, EC and OC concentrations determined in a downtown Rome urban area are discussed considering the influence of meteorological conditions on the temporal-spatial aerosol distribution. Similar measurements were performed at ENEA Casaccia, an area outside Rome, which is considered as the ome background. Since 2000, TC, EC and OC measurements have been performed by means of an Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor equipped with a NDIR detector. The EC and OC concentrations trends are compared with benzene and CO trends, which are specific indicators of autovehicular traffic, for identifying the primary EC and OC contributions and the secondary OC fraction origin. Further, a chemical investigation is reported for investigating how the main organic (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and inorganic (i.e., metals, ions) fractions vary their levels during the investigated period in relationship to new regulations and/or technological innovations.

  18. Neural Correlates of Visual Aesthetics – Beauty as the Coalescence of Stimulus and Internal State

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type. PMID:22384006

  19. Neural correlates of visual aesthetics--beauty as the coalescence of stimulus and internal state.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Richard H A H; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type.

  20. Beauty and the Beholder: A Survey of Aesthetic Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the nature of "aesthetic experience" in a sample of urban community college students (N=170). The majority of students claimed to have had experiences of beauty, and that these experiences were important to their quality of life (95% and 72%, respectively). Strongest "depth of experience" ratings were given…

  1. California: Pacoima Beautiful (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pacoima Beautiful (PB) is a bilingual, multi-cultural, resident-driven organization located in northeast San Fernando Valley in the city of Los Angeles. The group is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement, and a Level I CARE award

  2. Blond is Beautiful: Status and Preference by Hair Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayson, Dennis E.; Maughan, Micol R.

    Three studies were conducted to investigate stereotypes of men of various hair colors by middle-class Anglo college students. Study 1 found an increase of perceived blondness with status, while lack of status was associated with red hair. Study 2, using semantic differentials (after Osgood), found blonde males to be significantly more beautiful,…

  3. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  4. Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano

    2016-01-22

    We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.

  5. Beautiful Me! Celebrating Diversity through Literature and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Janis Koeppel

    2001-01-01

    Describes the "Beautiful Me!" kindergarten unit, which uses children's literature to help children develop a rich vocabulary to describe themselves, their friends, and family, and to avoid words placing people into categories and stereotypes. Activities include providing various skin-tone crayons for drawing and using craft materials to depict…

  6. Just My Imagination: Beauty premium and the evolved mental model.

    PubMed

    Oda, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Imagination, an important feature of the human mind, may be at the root of the beauty premium. The evolved human capacity for simulating the real world, developed as an adaptation to a complex social environment, may offer the key to understanding this and many other aspects of human behavior.

  7. Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.

  8. 7 CFR 650.24 - Scenic beauty (visual resource).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., May 28, 1970, “Protecting and Improving The Quality of the Environment,” includes scenic beauty as an..., and farmsteads; siting or positioning of structures and buildings to be in harmony with the landscape... practices without impairing basic soil and water conservation functions. (ii) Emphasize in plant...

  9. 7 CFR 650.24 - Scenic beauty (visual resource).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., May 28, 1970, “Protecting and Improving The Quality of the Environment,” includes scenic beauty as an..., and farmsteads; siting or positioning of structures and buildings to be in harmony with the landscape... practices without impairing basic soil and water conservation functions. (ii) Emphasize in plant...

  10. Cosmetology Curriculum and Training as Seen by Beauty Salons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo Coll., CA.

    To evaluate the effectiveness of its cosmetology program, the College of San Mateo sent a questionnaire to beauty salons in the college's service area. Of the 70 questionnaires sent, over half were returned. Eleven courses in the curriculum were ranked by the employer in order of importance to him, the first four being the 1,600 hours of…

  11. The "F" Word: Is Feminism Incompatible with Beauty and Romance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Laurie A.; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Three studies examined the predictive utility of heterosexual relationship concerns vis-a-vis support for feminism. Study 1 showed that beauty is perceived to be at odds with feminism, for both genders. The stereotype that feminists are unattractive was robust, but fully accounted for by romance-related attributions. Moreover, more attractive…

  12. Connla's well: An exploration of similar elements of ancient Celtic perspectives and David Bohm's theories in quantum physics from a Jungian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, Duan

    This dissertation addresses the common elements between ancient Celtic mystical doctrines and philosophy and David Bohm's unique theories in quantum physics through a Jungian lens, using research based in dialogical hermeneutics. The premise of this dissertation is that psi, or the probability wave function of quantum physics, and its world of potentia are the same entities as Jung's objective psyche (or collective unconscious) and its domain, the unus mundus. In addition, the study explores the remarkable similarity between the ancient Celts' Otherworld, quantum physics' world of potentia, and Jung's unus mundus. These similarities argue for an in-depth Jungian analysis of this important but largely neglected mythology. The study explores the supposition, based partially on physicist David Bohm's theories of the implicate and explicate orders, that the above world of potentia intertwines with our three-dimensional world in a reciprocal creativity, designed to enhance both worlds. The study further advocates a greater emphasis on the creative arts therapies in the therapeutic situation, based on the above reciprocity. It is argued that this emphasis on creativity in the temenos may activate a profound "quantum leap" of insight in the analysand, most likely due to the reciprocity in which the objective psyche responds uniquely to the particular and individual creativity offered in order to heal the personal psyche. As we creatively access the objective psyche, that entity responds in kind, giving us new understanding and allowing us to change our attitudes and to further individuation, which in turn enhances the objective psyche. In addition, a psyche of reality is postulated in which Jung's concept of the objective psyche is expanded from the collective unconscious of humankind to a collective unconscious of All That Is, reflecting the findings in quantum physics that our universe is self-aware, organic, and holistic rather than mechanical and fragmented.

  13. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Bokhonov, V.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dolinska, G.; Drugakov, V.; Dusini, S.; Ferrando, J.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Khein, L. A.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Martin, J. F.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mujkic, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nigro, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Samojlov, V.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Temiraliev, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2014-09-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q 2, Bjorken x, jet trans- verse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q 2. The running beauty-quark mass, m b at the scale m b , was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m b ( m b ) = 4.07 ± 0.14 (fit){-/0.07 + 0.01}(mod.){-/0.00 + 0.05}(param.){-/0.05 + 0.08}(theo.) GeV.

  14. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Bokhonov, V.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dolinska, G.; Drugakov, V.; Dusini, S.; Ferrando, J.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Khein, L. A.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Martin, J. F.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mujkic, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nigro, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Samojlov, V.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Temiraliev, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2014-10-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q 2, Bjorken x, jet trans- verse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q 2. The running beauty-quark mass, m b at the scale m b , was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m b ( m b ) = 4.07 ± 0.14 (fit){-/0.07 + 0.01}(mod.){-/0.00 + 0.05}(param.){-/0.05 + 0.08}(theo.) GeV.

  15. 'For Beauty is nothing but the barely endurable onset of Terror': Outline of a general psychoanalytic aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Leikert, Sebastian

    2017-03-23

    Even close to 80 years after Freud's words that psychoanalysis "has scarcely anything to say about beauty" (Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, SE 21, p. 82) the question of a specific psychoanalytic aesthetic is still faced with a deficit in theory. Since aesthetics is related to Aisthesis, the Greek word for 'perception', a psychoanalytic aesthetic can solely emerge from a psychoanalysis of perceptive structures. The term 'kinaesthetic semantic' is introduced in order to exemplify via music how perceptive experiences must be structured for them to be experienced as beautiful. The basic mechanisms - repetition of form (rhythm, unification) and seduction (deviation, surprise) - are defined. With the help of these mechanisms an intensive contact between perceiving object and kinetic subject, the physical self, is established. The intensive relatedness is a requirement for the creative process in art and also for psychic growth on the subject's level. The described basic mechanisms of the aesthetic process in music can also be encountered in painting and poetry. By the means of a self-portrait by Bacon it will be examined how, in art, terror and traumatization are represented via targeted disorganization of beauty endowing mechanisms, hence finding an enabling form of confrontation and integration of fended contents.

  16. Competing motivational discourses for weight loss: means to ends and the nexus of beauty and health.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Samantha

    2009-09-01

    Western cultural discourses generally deem fat unhealthy and unattractive, providing strong motivation for body nonconformists to lose weight. Semistructured interviews with 42 overweight and obese participants illuminate how individuals understand health and beauty weight-loss motivations and the relationship between the two. Interviews indicate that health and beauty motivate because they are seen as means to various ends. Specifically, participants aspire to health to fulfill various social roles and to live long, meaningful lives. Moreover, they aspire to conventional beauty ideals hoping that aesthetic conformity will elicit benefits, both psychological and social. Interviews also illustrate an intertwining of discourses in which participants conflate beauty and health in three ways: indicating that depictions of the beauty ideal are depictions of the health ideal; using beauty indicators as health indicators; and employing beauty as a motivator for health goals. This article concludes with a discussion of the health, social, and policy implications of these findings.

  17. A Cruel Brown Land of Beauty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Geoff

    1984-01-01

    Australia is the world's driest continent. One-third of the country's area is unsuitable for any land use, while another third is suitable only for cattle and sheep grazing. Australia's physical geography, weather conditions, wildflowers, and wildlife are discussed. (RM)

  18. Beauty and the Boss: A Mixed Blessing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Maxine A.; Penner, Louis

    Although women continue to obtain full-time jobs at ever increasing rates, they remain dramatically underrepresented at the managerial level. To examine the impact of physical attractiveness and job type (traditional or nontraditional), and the interaction of these two factors on attributions about women's competence, 174 working adults (76 males…

  19. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  20. Teaching symmetry in the introductory physics curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C. T.; Lederman, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Modern physics is largely defined by fundamental symmetry principles and Noether's Theorem. Yet these are not taught, or rarely mentioned, to beginning students, thus missing an opportunity to reveal that the subject of physics is as lively and contemporary as molecular biology, and as beautiful as the arts. We prescribe a symmetry module to insert into the curriculum, of a week's length.

  1. 'Beautiful' unconventional synthesis and processing technologies of superconductors and some other materials.

    PubMed

    Badica, Petre; Crisan, Adrian; Aldica, Gheorghe; Endo, Kazuhiro; Borodianska, Hanna; Togano, Kazumasa; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2011-02-01

    Superconducting materials have contributed significantly to the development of modern materials science and engineering. Specific technological solutions for their synthesis and processing helped in understanding the principles and approaches to the design, fabrication and application of many other materials. In this review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between the general and particular synthesis concepts. The analysis is mostly based on our studies where some unconventional technologies were applied to different superconductors and some other materials. These technologies include spray-frozen freeze-drying, fast pyrolysis, field-assisted sintering (or spark plasma sintering), nanoblasting, processing in high magnetic fields, methods of control of supersaturation and migration during film growth, and mechanical treatments of composite wires. The analysis provides future research directions and some key elements to define the concept of 'beautiful' technology in materials science. It also reconfirms the key position and importance of superconductors in the development of new materials and unconventional synthesis approaches.

  2. Buried targets in layered media: A combined finite element/physical acoustics model and comparison to data on a half buried 2:1 cylinder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kevin L

    2016-12-01

    Previously, a combined finite element/physical acoustics model for proud targets [K. L. Williams, S. G. Kargl, E. I. Thorsos, D. S. Burnett, J. L. Lopes, M. Zampolli, and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 3356-3371 (2010)] was compared to both higher fidelity finite element models and to experimental data for a proud 2:1 aluminum cylinder. Here that expression is generalized to address the case of a target buried in a layered media. The result is compared to data acquired for the same 2:1 cylinder but half buried in a mud layer that covers the sand sediment (considered here as infinite in extent below the mud layer). The generalized expression reduces to both the previous proud result and to the result for a target buried in an infinite medium under the appropriate limiting conditions. The model/data comparisons shown include both the previous proud model and data results along with the ones for the half buried cylinder. The comparison quantifies the reduction in target strength as a function of frequency in the half buried case relative to the proud case.

  3. [Maybe the way to beauty is compulsion?].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Moś, Danuta; Marek, Luiza; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Placek, Waldemar

    2009-12-01

    In article was presented characteristic features of mental disorders from spectrum obsessive compulsive disorder, dysmorphic disorder and spectrum impulse control disorders. Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by imagined aesthetic defect in physical appearance in spite of visual changes. This paper is a review of the up-to-date knowledge on prevalence, diagnostic criteria and clinical picture of body dysmorphic disorder. The authors underline the connections between this disorder and other disorders, classified by some authors, as a part of the obsessive compulsive disorder spectrum. The problem with distinguishing the psychotic feature of body dysmorphic disorder is presented in this paper.

  4. Social justice, federal paternalism, and feminism: breast implants in the cultural context of female beauty.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lisa S

    1993-03-01

    In April 1992 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced it was restricting the availability of silicone gel-filled breast implants to women enrolled in clinical trials. All candidates for breast reconstruction, but only a "very limited" number of augmentation candidates, would have access to the implants. This policy has been criticized as paternalistic, sexist, and unjustified by scientific data. I examine these charges and conclude that controversy surrounding the scientific data weakens the FDA's paternalistic mandate and that its policy of treating reconstruction and augmentation candidates differently results in increased social injustice and perpetuates cultural biases concerning female beauty and women's rights to control their bodies. I also argue that these cultural biases shape women's subjective experience of their physical selves and should not, contrary to some feminist arguments, be viewed as precluding their giving informed consent to breast surgery.

  5. The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.

    PubMed

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother.

  6. Penta-Quark States with Strangeness, Hidden Charm and Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia-Jun; Zou, Bing-Song

    The classical quenched quark models with three constituent quarks provide a good description for the baryon spatial ground states, but fail to reproduce the spectrum of baryon excited states. More and more evidences suggest that unquenched effects with multi-quark dynamics are necessary ingredients to solve the problem. Several new hyperon resonances reported recently could fit in the picture of penta-quark states. Based on this picture, some new hyperon excited states were predicted to exist; meanwhile with extension from strangeness to charm and beauty, super-heavy narrow N* and Λ* resonances with hidden charm or beauty were predicted to be around 4.3 and 11 GeV, respectively. Recently, two of such N* with hidden charm might have been observed by the LHCb experiment. More of those states are expected to be observed in near future. This opens a new window in order to study hadronic dynamics for the multi-quark states.

  7. The beauty of knots at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Amabilino, David B

    2012-01-01

    What makes a given object look beautiful to the observer, be it in the macroscopic world or at the molecular level? This very general question will be briefly addressed at the beginning of this essay, in relation to contemporary molecular chemistry and biology, leading to the general statement that, most of the time, beauty is tightly connected to function as well as to the cultural background of the observer. The main topic of the present article will be that of topologically non-trivial molecules or molecular ensembles and the fascination that such species have exerted on molecular or solid state chemists. Molecules with a graph identical to Kuratowski's K₅ or K₃,₃ graphs are indeed highly attractive from an aesthetical viewpoint, but perhaps even more fascinating and beautiful are molecular knots. A general discussion will be devoted to these compounds, which are still considered as exotic species because of the very limited number of efficient synthetic strategies leading to their preparation. Particularly efficient are templated approaches based either on transition metals such as copper(I) or on organic groups able to form hydrogen bonds or acceptor-donor stacks. A particularly noteworthy property of knots, and in particular of the trefoil knot, is their topological chirality. The isolation of both enantiomers of the trefoil knot (3₁) could be achieved and showed that such species have fascinating chiroptical properties. Finally, various routes to more complex and beautiful knots than the trefoil knot, which is the simplest non-trivial knot, will be discussed in line with the remarkable ability of transition metals to gather and orient in a very precise fashion several organic components in their coordination spheres, thus leading to synthetic precursors displaying geometries which are perfectly well adapted to the preparation of the desired knots or links.

  8. Directed altruistic living donation: what is wrong with the beauty contest?

    PubMed Central

    Moorlock, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific criticism of directed altruistic living organ donation that it creates a ‘beauty contest’ between potential recipients of organs. The notion of the beauty contest in transplantation was recently used by Neidich et al who stated that ‘[a]ltruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it [is], there is no place for a beauty contest’. I examine this beauty contest objection from two perspectives. First, I argue that, when considered against the behaviour of donors, this objection cannot be consistently raised without also objecting to other common aspects of organ donation. I then explore the beauty contest objection from the perspective of recipients, and argue that if the beauty contest is objectionable, it is because of a tension between recipient behaviour and the altruism that supposedly underpins the donation system. I conclude by briefly questioning the importance of this tension in light of the organ shortage. PMID:26126975

  9. Directed altruistic living donation: what is wrong with the beauty contest?

    PubMed

    Moorlock, Greg

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the specific criticism of directed altruistic living organ donation that it creates a 'beauty contest' between potential recipients of organs. The notion of the beauty contest in transplantation was recently used by Neidich et al who stated that '[a]ltruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it [is], there is no place for a beauty contest'. I examine this beauty contest objection from two perspectives. First, I argue that, when considered against the behaviour of donors, this objection cannot be consistently raised without also objecting to other common aspects of organ donation. I then explore the beauty contest objection from the perspective of recipients, and argue that if the beauty contest is objectionable, it is because of a tension between recipient behaviour and the altruism that supposedly underpins the donation system. I conclude by briefly questioning the importance of this tension in light of the organ shortage.

  10. Atmospheric neutrinos can make beauty strange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnik, Roni; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2004-05-01

    The large observed mixing angle in atmospheric neutrinos, coupled with grand unification, motivates the search for large mixing between right-handed strange and bottom squarks. Such mixing does not appear in the standard Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phenomenology, but may induce significant b→s transitions through gluino diagrams. Working in the mass eigenbasis, we show quantitatively that an O(1) effect on CP violation in B0d→φKS is possible due to a large mixing between sR and bR, while still satisfying constraints from b→sγ. We also include the effect of bL-bR mixing proportional to mbμ tan β. In the case where mbμ tan β≪M2SUSY there may be a large effect in Bs mixing correlated with a large effect in B0d→φKS, typically yielding an unambiguous signal of new physics at Tevatron run II.

  11. Active galactic nuclei and their panchromatic beauty.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusso, Elisabeta

    2016-08-01

    The rapid development of new observational capabilities provides the ability to detect both the obscured (Type 2) and the unobscured (Type 1) flavours of active galaxies. In particular, the combination of sensitive observations from mid-IR to X-rays allows us to pierce through large columns of gas and dust hiding the Type 2 obscured AGN nuclear region. The study of the relative AGN/host-galaxy contribution over different portions of the broad-band Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is fundamental to constrain the physical evolution of AGN and how to place them into the context of galaxy evolution.I will discuss a study of the multi-wavelength properties of an X-ray selected sample of both obscured and unobscured AGN using the XMM-Newton wide field survey in the COSMOS field. I will focus on their SEDs, the morphology of the host-galaxies, the stellar masses, the bolometric luminosities and bolometric corrections. Finally, I will briefly discuss what are the perspectives of AGN in the context of observational cosmology.

  12. Atmospheric neutrinos can make beauty strange

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-12-01

    The large observed mixing angle in atmospheric neutrinos, coupled with Grand Unification, motivates the search for a large mixing between right-handed strange and bottom squarks. Such mixing does not appear in the standard CKM phenomenology, but may induce significant b {yields} s transitions through gluino diagrams. Working in the mass eigenbasis, we show quantitatively that an order one effect on CP violation in B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}K{sub S} is possible due to a large mixing between right-handed b and s squarks, while still satisfying constraints from b {yields} s {gamma}. We also include the effect of right- and left-handed bottom squark mixing proportional to m{sub b}{mu} tan{beta}. For small {mu}tan{beta} there may also be a large effect in B{sub s} mixing correlated with a large effect in B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}, typically yielding an unambiguous signal of new physics at Tevatron Run II.

  13. A 'beautiful death': mortality, death, and holidays in a Mexican municipality.

    PubMed

    Wilches-Gutiérrez, José L; Arenas-Monreal, Luz; Paulo-Maya, Alfredo; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2012-03-01

    Several studies have reported increased mortality during holidays. Using a cultural epidemiological, sequential mixed-methods approach, this study explored holiday-related trends using mortality data from Yautepec (Morelos, Mexico) collected between 1986 and 2008 (N=5027 deaths). This analysis found that mortality increased on Christmas Day and All Saints' Day. Mortality increased on Candlemas Day among women, and increased on New Year's Day among men. More deaths caused by cardiovascular disease among women and traumatic injuries among men occurred during holidays than in non-holiday periods. To ascertain the elements comprising the health/illness/death process in the context of a holiday in this municipality, we conducted semi-structured interviews in March and April 2009 with relatives of seven individuals who had died during holidays in the previous 4 years (N=11); data from these interviews were analyzed from a grounded theory perspective to ascertain common conceptual themes. The "beautiful death" emerged as the main concept in the interpretation of death; this concept was related to the expectation of a good death and the particularly special nature of death during a holiday because of the involvement of religious entities, such as God, the Virgin Mary, and/or a saint, at the moment of death. Quantitative and qualitative results provided information about the important effects of holidays, culture, and religious belief on mortality patterns within a Mexican context, and contributed to a better understanding of the relationships among mortality, the nature of death, and holidays. Our results suggest that, in the studied region, death can be interpreted as a "beautiful process". More research is needed to explore this process in other similar contexts and to address topics related to the care and attention given the dying person and the expectation of a good death.

  14. Aeroacoustic Characterization of the NASA Ames Experimental Aero-Physics Branch 32- by 48-Inch Subsonic Wind Tunnel with a 24-Element Phased Microphone Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costanza, Bryan T.; Horne, William C.; Schery, S. D.; Babb, Alex T.

    2011-01-01

    The Aero-Physics Branch at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes a 32- by 48-inch subsonic wind tunnel for aerodynamics research. The feasibility of acquiring acoustic measurements with a phased microphone array was recently explored. Acoustic characterization of the wind tunnel was carried out with a floor-mounted 24-element array and two ceiling-mounted speakers. The minimum speaker level for accurate level measurement was evaluated for various tunnel speeds up to a Mach number of 0.15 and streamwise speaker locations. A variety of post-processing procedures, including conventional beamforming and deconvolutional processing such as TIDY, were used. The speaker measurements, with and without flow, were used to compare actual versus simulated in-flow speaker calibrations. Data for wind-off speaker sound and wind-on tunnel background noise were found valuable for predicting sound levels for which the speakers were detectable when the wind was on. Speaker sources were detectable 2 - 10 dB below the peak background noise level with conventional data processing. The effectiveness of background noise cross-spectral matrix subtraction was assessed and found to improve the detectability of test sound sources by approximately 10 dB over a wide frequency range.

  15. Should We Genetically Select for the Beauty Norm of Fair Skin?

    PubMed

    Marway, Herjeet

    2017-03-21

    Fair skin is often regarded as a beauty ideal in many parts of the world. Genetic selection for non-disease traits may allow reproducers to select fair skin for the purposes of beauty, and may be justified under various procreative principles. In this paper I assess the ethics of genetic selection for fair skin as a beauty feature. In particular, I explore the discriminatory aspects and demands of such selection. Using race and colour hierarchies that many would find objectionable, I argue that selection for beauty that is underpinned by such hierarchies is not a trivial selection. Given this, I claim that we should not make such selections.

  16. The ratio of the beauty structure functions Rb=FLb/F2b at low x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroun, G. R.

    2014-07-01

    We study the structure functions Fkb(x,Q2) (k=2,L) and the reduced cross section σrb(x,Q2) for small values of Bjorken's x variable with respect to the hard (Lipatov) pomeron for the gluon distribution and provide a compact formula for the ratio Rb that is useful to extract the beauty structure function from the beauty reduced cross section, in particular at DESY HERA. Also we show that the effects of the nonlinear corrections to the gluon distribution tame the behavior of the beauty structure function and the beauty reduced cross section at low x.

  17. A comparison of physical properties, screening procedures and a human efficacy trial for predicting the bioavailability of commercial elemental iron powders used for food fortification.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Sean R; Bothwell, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify staple foods. Experimental evidence indicates that there is considerable variation in the bioavailability of different products. For some powders, it may be too low to permit a significant impact on iron status. This study was designed to evaluate possible approaches to screening commercial iron powders for predicted bioavailability, to identify products that have the potential to improve iron status, and to ascertain whether bioavailability is related to the method of manufacture. Nine commercial iron powders were allocated to one of five types based on the production process; carbonyl, electrolytic, hydrogen-reduced (H-reduced), carbon monoxide-reduced (CO-reduced), and other reduced. Structure by scanning electron microscopy and physical properties (pycnometric and apparent density, particle size distribution, Fisher subsieve size, and surface area) were determined on all samples. Selected samples (one or more of each type depending on the cost of the assay) were then subjected to five screening procedures that have previously been advocated for predicting bioavailability in humans--issolution rate in 0.1 mol/L HCl, dialyzability and Caco-2 cell iron uptake, both after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, relative bioavailability (RBV) with respect to ferrous sulfate by the AOAC rat hemoglobin repletion method, and plasma iron tolerance tests in human volunteers. The results for particle size distribution, surface area, Fisher subsieve size, dissolution rate in 0.1 mol/L HCl, and RBV in rats were significantly correlated and consistent for powders of the same type. However, values for different powder types were significantly different. There was no correlation between either dialyzability or Caco-2 cell uptake and the predicted bioavailability estimates based on the physical properties, dissolution rates, RBV in rats, or human efficacy data. Although human plasma iron tolerance tests were in general

  18. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  19. The orbital elements and physical properties of the eclipsing binary BD+36°3317, a probable member of δ Lyrae cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıran, E.; Harmanec, P.; Değirmenci, Ö. L.; Wolf, M.; Nemravová, J.; Šlechta, M.; Koubský, P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The fact that eclipsing binaries belong to a stellar group is useful, because the former can be used to estimate distance and additional properties of the latter, and vice versa. Aims: Our goal is to analyse new spectroscopic observations of BD+ 36°3317 along with the photometric observations from the literature and, for the first time, to derive all basic physical properties of this binary. We aim to find out whether the binary is indeed a member of the δ Lyr open cluster. Methods: The spectra were reduced using the IRAF program and the radial velocities were measured with the program SPEFO. The line spectra of both components were disentangled with the program KOREL and compared to a grid of synthetic spectra. The final combined radial-velocity and photometric solution was obtained with the program PHOEBE. Results: We obtained the following physical elements of BD+36°3317: M1 = 2.24 ± 0.07 M⊙, M2 = 1.52 ± 0.03 M⊙, R1 = 1.76 ± 0.01 R⊙, R2 = 1.46 ± 0.01 R⊙, log L1 = 1.52 ± 0.08 L⊙, log L2 = 0.81 ± 0.07 L⊙. We derived the effective temperatures Teff,1 = 10 450 ± 420 K, Teff,2 = 7623 ± 328 K. Both components are located close to zero age main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and their masses and radii are consistent with the predictions of stellar evolutionary models. Our results imply the average distance to the system d̅ = 330 ± 29 pc. We re-investigated the membership of BD+ 36°3317 in the δ Lyr cluster and confirmed it. The distance to BD+ 36°3317, given above, therefore represents an accurate estimate of the true distance for δ Lyr cluster. Conclusions: The reality of the δ Lyr cluster and the cluster membership of BD+ 36°3317 have been reinforced.

  20. The history of Botulinum toxin: from poison to beauty.

    PubMed

    França, Katlein; Kumar, Anagha; Fioranelli, Massimo; Lotti, Torello; Tirant, Michael; Roccia, Maria Grazia

    2017-03-15

    Botulinum toxin, also called the "miracle toxin," is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is known to block nerve signals that contract muscles resulting in a temporary paralysis of the muscles. Toxins type A and B have been extensively studied and utilized in the realm of beauty and cosmetology. Initially, the toxin gained popularity as a disease-causing "poison". It was only later that it found its way to becoming a must have in modern aesthetic practice. Today, this wonder toxin has proven to be an apt and convenient option in the field of anti-aging medicine.

  1. The Nazi cosmetic: medicine in the service of beauty.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, Sophia

    2012-09-01

    This paper examines how aesthetic ideals shaped the practice of Nazi medicine. It proposes that Nazi eugenics relied on the conflation of norms of health with norms of beauty determined and performed by Nazi cultures of action. Though theories of biological holism served as vehicles of Nazi ideology, they did so contingently. The anti-totalitarian thinking of biological holist Kurt Goldstein shows that the use of biological holism to promote Nazi ideology was not inevitable. This examination of aesthetic influences on Nazi medicine shows that traditionally speaking 'non-rational' factors shaped the Nazi biomedical program's aims and methods.

  2. Playing with Liquid Foams: Learning Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritacco, Hernan

    2008-01-01

    Who has never played with soap bubbles? They are so beautiful and amazing, they have a perfect spherical shape and surprising tints. Foams are structures of bubbles of an incredible complexity and they are a perfect system to stimulate students' interest in the chemistry and physics of surface phenomena. In this article I propose a simple…

  3. 77 FR 31069 - Pricing for the 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the... Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM . The coins will be offered for sale at a...

  4. The Contribution of Scenic Beauty Indicators in Estimating Environmental Welfare Measures: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanariotu, Ioanna; Skuras, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    Aesthetic indicators of landscapes, expressed as individual scenic beauty estimates, may be used as proxies of individuals' specific aesthetic values, and improve the properties of welfare estimates produced by contingent valuation models. This work presents results from an interdisciplinary study where forest scenic beauty indicators are utilized…

  5. Beauty Culture: A Teacher's Guide to an Employment Orientation Course for Special Needs Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Francine

    This teacher's guide on beauty culture is one of a series of six designed for the employment orientation program for special needs students at the Gloucester County Vocational-Technical School in Sewell, New Jersey. The series includes laundry, hospitality, sewing, basic business, food, and beauty culture. Each guide contains lesson plans…

  6. Creating a Beautiful Mess: Ten Essential Play Experiences for a Joyous Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzikowski, Ann

    2015-01-01

    When children play, they often create a mess, but what a beautiful mess it is! "Creating a Beautiful Mess" describes the ten most important play experiences all children enjoy and how these experiences support learning, creativity, and social connections. These broad categories of play include building with blocks, pretending and make…

  7. "An Option for Art But Not an Option for Life": Beauty as an Educational Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes that beauty deserves to become an area of key interest to educationalists. The article begins by examining the reasons for the neglect of beauty in educational discourse before proposing how it might regain its influence as an educational concept by re-addressing the Platonic tradition and, in particular, by finding its…

  8. 76 FR 17485 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case... is announcing the price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation...

  9. 77 FR 56251 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Body Beautiful in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Body Beautiful in Ancient Greece... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Body Beautiful in Ancient...

  10. Shaping the Female Student: An Analysis of Swedish Beauty School Recruitment Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredlöv, Eleonor

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the recruitment of adults to the beauty industry in Sweden. It is concerned with a move in (beauty) education away from state and towards private provision in a wider context where education is becoming more heavily marketised. Drawing on a poststructural approach inspired by the work of Foucault and feminist theory, the…

  11. Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes among Latina, Black, and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poran, Maya A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…

  12. A twentieth-century triangle trade: selling black beauty at home and abroad, 1945–1965.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Malia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the careers of African American beauty culturists as they worked in the United States, Europe, and Africa between 1945 and 1965. Facing push back at home, African American beauty entrepreneurs frequently sought out international venues that were hospitable and receptive to black Americans in the years following World War II. By strategically using European sites that white Americans regarded as the birthplace of Western fashion and beauty, African American entrepreneurs in the fields of modeling, fashion design, and hair care were able to win accolades and advance their careers. In gaining support abroad, particularly in Europe, these beauty culturists capitalized on their international success to establish, legitimize, and promote their business ventures in the United States. After importing a positive reputation for themselves from Europe to the United States, African American beauty entrepreneurs then exported an image of themselves as the world's premier authorities on black beauty to people of color around the globe as they sold their products and marketed their expertise on the African continent itself. This essay demonstrates the important role that these black female beauty culturists played, both as businesspeople and as race leaders, in their generation's struggle to gain greater respect and opportunity for African Americans both at home and abroad. In doing so it places African American beauty culturists within the framework of transatlantic trade networks, the Black Freedom Movement, Pan-Africanism, and America's Cold War struggle.

  13. The Beauty of the Psyche and Eros Myth: Integrating Aesthetics into Introduction to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Burke, Kayla

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1990s the authors became convinced that their undergraduate psychology students needed classroom experiences that set the conditions for them to become more engaged with beauty. They recognized the intrinsic importance of beauty to human psychological development, beyond any utilitarian concerns. But they also believed that…

  14. Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano

    2014-11-01

    Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i) For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the M̅S̅ scheme m̅b(m̅b) ≈ 4:18 GeV; the sum-rule result fB ≈ 210-220 MeV for the B meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding fB ≈ 190 MeV: Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of fB yields a significantly larger b-quark mass: m̅b(m̅b) = 4:247 GeV: (ii) Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants fD; fDs, fD* and fDs* are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constants—and especially for the ratio fB* / fB—prove to be very sensitive to the specific scale setting.

  15. Hidden-beauty charged tetraquarks and heavy quark spin conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Maiani, L.; Polosa, A. D.; Riquer, V.

    2015-01-01

    Assuming the dominance of the spin-spin interaction in a diquark, we point out that the mass difference in the beauty sector M (Zb')±-M (Zb)± scales with quark masses as expected in QCD, with respect to the corresponding mass difference M (Zc')±-M (Zc)± . Notably, we show that the decays ϒ (10890 )→ϒ (n S )π+π- and ϒ (10890 )→(hb(1 P ),hb(2 P ))π+π- are compatible with heavy quark spin conservation if the contributions of Zb,Zb' intermediate states are taken into account, ϒ (10890 ) being either a ϒ (5 S ) or the beauty analog of Yc(4260 ). Belle results on these decays support the quark spin wave function of the Z states as tetraquarks. We also consider the role of light quark spin nonconservaton in Zb,Zb' decays into B B* and B*B*. Indications of possible signatures of the still missing Xb resonance are proposed.

  16. Living donor kidney transplantation: "beauty and the beast"!

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.

  17. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  18. Beauty salons: a promising health promotion setting for reaching and promoting health among African American women.

    PubMed

    Linnan, Laura A; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens

    2007-06-01

    African American women suffer disproportionately from a wide range of health disparities. This article clarifies how beauty salons can be mobilized at all levels of the social-ecological framework to address disparities in health among African American women. The North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project is a randomized, controlled intervention trial that takes into account the unique and multilevel features of the beauty salon setting with interventions that address owners, customers, stylists; interactions between customers and stylists; and the salon environment. The authors make explicit the role of the political economy of health theoretical perspective for understanding important factors (social, political, historical, and economic) that should be considered if the goal is to create successful, beauty-salon-based interventions. Despite some important challenges, the authors contend that beauty salons represent a promising setting for maximizing reach, reinforcement, and the impact of public health interventions aimed at addressing health disparities among African American women.

  19. 76 FR 21802 - Notice Announcing the Price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... United States Mint Notice Announcing the Price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver... America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM . In accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5112(u) & 9701(b), the United States Mint 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM...

  20. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters® Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Products and American Eagle Silver... Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for America the Beautiful Quarters products and American Eagle Silver... Quarters Circulating Coin Set TM..... 5.95 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coin.....

  1. 76 FR 15047 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof SetTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set\\TM\\, etc. ACTION: Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set TM ; 2010 United States Mint Silver Proof Set TM ; 2011 United States Mint America the Beautiful...

  2. Strong, athletic and beautiful: Edmondo De Amicis and the ideal Italian woman.

    PubMed

    Chapman, David; Gori, Gigliola

    2010-01-01

    Edmondo De Amicis (1843-1908) was one of Italy's most popular writers, and perhaps more than any other figure in post-Risorgimento Italy, he reflected the common hopes, dreams and prejudices of his countrymen. De Amicis was particularly interested in gymnastics and physical education, and he wrote about them frequently. His most famous work on these subjects is his novella Amore e ginnastica [Love and Gymnastics] (1892) which explores female fitness, sexual stereotypes and gender roles in nineteenth-century Italy. This opus, along with two others (a lecture and a magazine article), can help modern readers understand the role of female sport and gender expectations in post-Risorgimento Italy. In addition to exploring women's gymnastics, De Amicis was also interested in female mountain climbing. By examining the activities and physical appearance of lady mountaineers, the author reveals his personal criteria for the perfect woman. When these are combined with the gymnasts in the earlier work, we can distill the writer's own particular attitudes toward gender and female perfection. For De Amicis a woman was required to be athletic, beautiful, modest, faithful, loving and with just a soupon of uncertainty about her sexuality to make her interesting.

  3. The Perceived Relationship between Physical Attractiveness and Social Influence Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Laura C.; Ashmore, Richard D.

    The power of beauty has been contemplated by writers, poets, and philosophers for centuries. The link between the target physical attractiveness and perceived social influence effectiveness has not been directly and systematically investigated. The goal of this study was to assess whether physically attractive (versus unattractive) individuals are…

  4. Sleeping beauties cited in patents: Is there also a dormitory of inventions?

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2017-01-01

    A 'Sleeping Beauty in Science' is a publication that goes unnoticed ('sleeps') for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention ('is awakened by a prince'). In our foregoing study we found that roughly half of the Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this paper we investigate a new topic: Sleeping Beauties that are cited in patents. In this way we explore the existence of a dormitory of inventions. To our knowledge this is the first study of this kind. We investigate the time lag between publication of the Sleeping Beauty and the first citation by a patent. We find that patent citation may occur before or after the awakening and that the depth of the sleep, i.e., citation rate during the sleeping period, is no predictor for later scientific or technological impact of the Sleeping Beauty. A surprising finding is that Sleeping Beauties are significantly more cited in patents than 'normal' papers. Inventor-author self-citations relations occur only in a small minority of the Sleeping Beauties that are cited in patents, but other types of inventor-author links occur more frequently. We develop an approach in different steps to explore the cognitive environment of Sleeping Beauties cited in patents. First, we analyze whether they deal with new topics by measuring the time-dependent evolution in the entire scientific literature of the number of papers related to both the precisely defined topics as well as the broader research theme of the Sleeping Beauty during and after the sleeping time. Second, we focus on the awakening by analyzing the first group of papers that cites the Sleeping Beauty. Third, we create concept maps of the topic-related and the citing papers for a time period immediately following the awakening and for the most recent period. Finally, we make an extensive assessment of the cited and citing relations of the Sleeping Beauty. We find that tunable co-citation analysis is a

  5. 'Are you a woman--or a flower?' The capacity to experience beauty.

    PubMed

    Sweetnam, Annie

    2007-12-01

    Being surprised by beauty, being drawn to and moved by it and surrendering to its sensory nature are all part of beauty's emotionally transformative power. And yet, psychoanalysis has had little to say about such an enriching dimension of psychological life. The author highlights how experiencing beauty is a capacity that is not isolated but is part of the lifelong experience of being changed by and changing the experience of the world we live in. She suggests that the capacity to experience beauty takes different forms at distinct points in development and in psychoanalytic treatments. The author describes two clinical occasions from a case where an analytic pair struggled to develop a greater capacity to experience beauty over time. She discusses how a theory of the aesthetic conflict was useful in helping to understand her patient's inner object world but was not sufficient when it came to understanding the experience of beauty. She shows how for both patient and analyst, experiencing beauty's full effect required responding to the call toward emotional life, surrendering to the surprise and the unknown, and letting go of the mind's struggle to find meaning and opening up to transforming and being transformed through sensory experience.

  6. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry.

  7. Modeling Regulatory Networks to Understand Plant Development: Small Is Beautiful

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Alistair M.; Farcot, Etienne; Owen, Markus R.; Vernoux, Teva

    2012-01-01

    We now have unprecedented capability to generate large data sets on the myriad genes and molecular players that regulate plant development. Networks of interactions between systems components can be derived from that data in various ways and can be used to develop mathematical models of various degrees of sophistication. Here, we discuss why, in many cases, it is productive to focus on small networks. We provide a brief and accessible introduction to relevant mathematical and computational approaches to model regulatory networks and discuss examples of small network models that have helped generate new insights into plant biology (where small is beautiful), such as in circadian rhythms, hormone signaling, and tissue patterning. We conclude by outlining some of the key technical and modeling challenges for the future. PMID:23110896

  8. CP violation in multibody decays of beauty baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durieux, Gauthier

    2016-10-01

    Beauty baryons are being observed in large numbers in the LHCb detector. The rich kinematic distributions of their multibody decays are therefore becoming accessible and provide us with new opportunities to search for CP violation. We analyse the angular distributions of some three- and four-body decays of spin-1/2 baryons using the Jacob-Wick helicity formalism. The asymmetries that provide access to small differences of CP-odd phases between decay amplitudes of identical CP-even phases are notably discussed. The understanding gained on processes featuring specific resonant intermediate states allows us to establish which asymmetries are relevant for what purpose. It is for instance shown that some CP-odd angular asymmetries measured by the LHCb collaboration in the Λ b → Λ φ → p π K + K - decay are expected to vanish identically.

  9. Sleeping Beauty transposon insertional mutagenesis based mouse models for cancer gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Moriarity, Branden S; Largaespada, David A

    2015-02-01

    Large-scale genomic efforts to study human cancer, such as the cancer gene atlas (TCGA), have identified numerous cancer drivers in a wide variety of tumor types. However, there are limitations to this approach, the mutations and expression or copy number changes that are identified are not always clearly functionally relevant, and only annotated genes and genetic elements are thoroughly queried. The use of complimentary, nonbiased, functional approaches to identify drivers of cancer development and progression is ideal to maximize the rate at which cancer discoveries are achieved. One such approach that has been successful is the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based mutagenesis system in mice. This system uses a conditionally expressed transposase and mutagenic transposon allele to target mutagenesis to somatic cells of a given tissue in mice to cause random mutations leading to tumor development. Analysis of tumors for transposon common insertion sites (CIS) identifies candidate cancer genes specific to that tumor type. While similar screens have been performed in mice with the PiggyBac (PB) transposon and viral approaches, we limit extensive discussion to SB. Here we discuss the basic structure of these screens, screens that have been performed, methods used to identify CIS.

  10. Beautiful Science: The Public and Private History of Astronomy at the Huntington Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    The history of astronomy has a long tradition within research libraries. The rare collections at the Huntington Library (encompassing American and British history from around 1000 CE to the present, in many different subject areas) are among the most heavily-used in the United States, The history of astronomy holdings are a cornerstone within the library's history of science holdings. This talk will present the two faces of the history of astronomy holdings at the Huntington Library. The first of these is the research end of operations: what the collections consist of, how the scholarly public uses the collections, and what the implications are for modern astronomical practice. The second element concerns the public exhibit face of the history of astronomy holdings at The Huntington. Of the 600,000 people who visit the Huntington each year, the majority visit public displays and rare book and manuscript exhibits. "Beautiful Science: Ideas That Changed the World” is a new permanent history of science exhibit. One quarter of the exhibit relates to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits require a particular kind of planning and bring a specific set of values to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits also have their own concerns, and this talk will cover a number of those issues as well as the research issues.

  11. Genomic Analysis of Sleeping Beauty Transposon Integration in Human Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turchiano, Giandomenico; Latella, Maria Carmela; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Cattoglio, Claudia; Mavilio, Fulvio; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Recchia, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a non-viral integrating vector system with proven efficacy for gene transfer and functional genomics. However, integration efficiency is negatively affected by the length of the transposon. To optimize the SB transposon machinery, the inverted repeats and the transposase gene underwent several modifications, resulting in the generation of the hyperactive SB100X transposase and of the high-capacity “sandwich” (SA) transposon. In this study, we report a side-by-side comparison of the SA and the widely used T2 arrangement of transposon vectors carrying increasing DNA cargoes, up to 18 kb. Clonal analysis of SA integrants in human epithelial cells and in immortalized keratinocytes demonstrates stability and integrity of the transposon independently from the cargo size and copy number-dependent expression of the cargo cassette. A genome-wide analysis of unambiguously mapped SA integrations in keratinocytes showed an almost random distribution, with an overrepresentation in repetitive elements (satellite, LINE and small RNAs) compared to a library representing insertions of the first-generation transposon vector and to gammaretroviral and lentiviral libraries. The SA transposon/SB100X integrating system therefore shows important features as a system for delivering large gene constructs for gene therapy applications. PMID:25390293

  12. Sleeping Beauty transposon insertional mutagenesis based mouse models for cancer gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Moriarity, Branden S; Largaespada, David A

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale genomic efforts to study human cancer, such as the cancer gene atlas (TCGA), have identified numerous cancer drivers in a wide variety of tumor types. However, there are limitations to this approach, the mutations and expression or copy number changes that are identified are not always clearly functionally relevant, and only annotated genes and genetic elements are thoroughly queried. The use of complimentary, nonbiased, functional approaches to identify drivers of cancer development and progression is ideal to maximize the rate at which cancer discoveries are achieved. One such approach that has been successful is the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based mutagenesis system in mice. This system uses a conditionally expressed transposase and mutagenic transposon allele to target mutagenesis to somatic cells of a given tissue in mice to cause random mutations leading to tumor development. Analysis of tumors for transposon common insertion sites (CIS) identifies candidate cancer genes specific to that tumor type. While similar screens have been performed in mice with the PiggyBac (PB) transposon and viral approaches, we limit extensive discussion to SB. Here we discuss the basic structure of these screens, screens that have been performed, methods used to identify CIS. PMID:26051241

  13. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education

    PubMed Central

    Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, NM. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers. PMID:24698810

  14. Eyes of beautiful women and femme fatales depicted in Western portraits.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Hong, Jung Ui; Park, Sung Jun; Hwang, Se Won

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the eyes of beautiful women and femme fatales depicted in Western portraits. A total of 37 samples were collected; 19 beautiful women and 18 femme fatales. Nine aspects were measured in reference to the corneal horizontal diameter. The estimated corneal vertical diameter was calculated by a corneal horizontal diameter multiply constant, 1.11.The double-fold was observed in 89% (17 of 19) of the beautiful women and 83% (15 of 18) of the femme fatales. The eye-width ratio was 2.42 (SD, 0.28) in the beautiful women and 2.31 (SD, 0.34) in the femme fatales. The eye-height ratio was 0.91 (SD, 0.18) in the beautiful women and 0.84 (SD, 0.10) in the femme fatales. Eyebrow-to-upper lid distance was 0.92 (SD, 0.35) in the beautiful women and 0.89 (SD, 0.23) in the femme fatales. The interpupillary distance was 5.00 (SD, 0.46) in the beautiful women and 5.00 (SD, 0.71) in the femme fatales. The intercanthal distance was 2.72 (SD, 0.42) in the beautiful women and 2.78 (SD, 0.73) in the femme fatales The outer canthal distance was 7.32 (SD, 0.64) in the beautiful women and 7.20 (SD, 1.01) in the femme fatales. The ptosis amount was -0.01 (SD, 0.18) in the beautiful women and 0.06 (SD, 0.01) in the femme fatales. For the above 7 measurements, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups (P > 0.05, t test).It is noteworthy that the beautiful women and femme fatales have the same interpupillary distance (5.00). Also, the ptosis ratio was almost zero in both groups (-0.01 [SD, 0.18] in the beautiful women and 0.06 [SD, 0.01] in the femme fatales). The results of this study might be of some reference in performing eyelid surgeries especially in brow lifts or canthoplasties.

  15. The culture of complexion: the impacts of society's role in shaping the definition of beauty.

    PubMed

    Carlock, Sarah; Russell, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The definition of beauty has evolved as the trends valued by the top of society change. For centuries, fair skin was a requirement of the Western definition of beauty; however, a shift in the 1920s made tanned skin the new standard. In this article, smoking and tanning are presented as risky behaviors that are perpetuated through industry advertising and exploitation of the authority of health professionals. The article further explores the culture of complexion in Western society before and after the 1920s as well as the consequences of tanning and efforts to rewrite society's definition of beauty.

  16. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers.

  17. PREFACE: XI Conference on Beauty, Charm, Hyperons in Hadronic Interactions BEACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 11th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm and Beauty Hadrons, currently known as the BEACH Conferences. The BEACH conferences cover a broad range of physics topics in the field of Hyperon and heavy-flavor physics. This conference continues the BEACH series, which began with a meeting in Strasbourg in 1995 and since then offers a biennial opportunity for both theorists and experimentalists from the high-energy physics community to discuss all aspects of flavour physics. The 11th Conference took place in the Lecture Theatre of the Physics West Building of the University of Birmingham (United Kingdom) from July 22nd to July 26th and was attended by 107 participants. All of the sessions were plenary sessions accommodating review talks and shorter contributions discussing both theory and recent experiments. At the end of the conference Valerie Gibson (Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK) and Sebastian Jaeger (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, UK) summarized and put in context all the presentations of the conference giving two very interesting Summary talks. These Conference Proceedings are particularly interesting since, due to the long shutdown of the LHC in Geneva (CH), most of the data presented were from the entire data set available. This volume in fact offers an interesting panorama of the present situation and allows a comparison of the experimental data and the theory in a field that is always in continuous evolution. The conference was impeccably organized by the Local Organizing Committee chaired by Cristina Lazzeroni (Birmingham Univeristy, Birmingham, UK) that I want to thank particularly here. Many from the University Staff have contributed to the smooth running of the conference. We would like to thank the Local Scientific Secretariat for their invaluable help in making the conference a truly enjoyable and unforgettable event; a special thanks

  18. [The improvement of the abilities to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system by introducing the elements of therapeutic physical training into the structure of academic schedule of physical education].

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Davlet'yarova, K V; Ovchinnikova, N A

    2017-01-01

    The problem of deterioration of the health status in the university students at present remains as topical as it was before being a major cause of impaired working capacity, disability and/or poor social adaptation of the large number of graduates. It has been proposed to introduce a class of therapeutic physical training (TPT) into the schedule of physical education for the students.

  19. Physics of the Mind.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into "hard" sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  20. Physics of the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into “hard science”? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into “hard” sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research. PMID:27895558

  1. Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

  2. The Realm of Fairy Story: J.R.R. Tolkien and Robin McKinley's "Beauty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolsey, Daniel P.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of a modern fairy tale with respect to J.R.R. Tolkien's mapping of its features, terrain, and emotional geography. Discusses Robin McKinley's "Beauty," an example of a modern fantasy. (PRA)

  3. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International...

  4. Automated classification of female facial beauty by image analysis and supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes, Hatice; Piccardi, Massimo; Jan, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The fact that perception of facial beauty may be a universal concept has long been debated amongst psychologists and anthropologists. In this paper, we performed experiments to evaluate the extent of beauty universality by asking a number of diverse human referees to grade a same collection of female facial images. Results obtained show that the different individuals gave similar votes, thus well supporting the concept of beauty universality. We then trained an automated classifier using the human votes as the ground truth and used it to classify an independent test set of facial images. The high accuracy achieved proves that this classifier can be used as a general, automated tool for objective classification of female facial beauty. Potential applications exist in the entertainment industry and plastic surgery.

  5. Altered Images: Understanding the Influence of Unrealistic Images and Beauty Aspirations.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, Fiona; Widdows, Heather

    2016-07-18

    In this paper we consider the impact of digitally altered images on individuals' body satisfaction and beauty aspirations. Drawing on current psychological literature we consider interventions designed to increase knowledge about the ubiquity and unreality of digital images and, in the form of labelling, provide information to the consumer. Such interventions are intended to address the negative consequences of unrealistic beauty ideals. However, contrary to expectations, such initiatives may not be effective, especially in the long-term, and may even be counter-productive. We seek to understand this phenomenon of our continued aspiration for beauty ideals we know to be unreal and even impossible. We draw on our respective disciplines to offer psychological and philosophical accounts for why this might be. We conclude that beauty ideals are deeply embedded in our aspirations, practices, and in our constructions of ourselves. Given this, it is not surprising that simply increasing knowledge, or providing information, will be insufficient to challenge them.

  6. Reconciling beauty and utility in early city planning: the contribution of John Nolen.

    PubMed

    Freestone, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In the history of city planning, the dichotomy between the aesthetic aspirations of the City Beautiful and City Practical movements is overstated. The aesthetic impulse did not disappear but persisted as an important thread through the development of comprehensive planning approaches into the 1920s. The nexus between beauty and utility was negotiated and expressed across four main discourses: broad social improvement, aesthetic functionality, economic rationality, and holistic design. Ultimately, beauty became wedded to utility within the very nature of the comprehensive city plan itself. The work of the leading city planner John Nolen is central to an understanding of these historic continuities and informed the early evolution of city planning theory and practice. Nolen’s challenge to the City Beautiful paradigm, while still retaining an artistic sensibility, reaestheticizes scholars’ appreciation of the City Practical.

  7. Stress and strategic decision-making in the beauty contest game.

    PubMed

    Leder, Johannes; Häusser, Jan Alexander; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Often, economic decisions do not only depend on one's own preferences, but also on the choices of others and therefore require strategizing (i.e., thinking about what others might think). In experimental economics, this has been modeled by the beauty contest game. Another typical feature of economic decisions is that they are often carried out under stress. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to examine the influence of stress on decision-making in the beauty contest game. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a placebo version of the TSST-G (control condition). Then, participants played four rounds of a standard beauty contest game. As a biomarker of stress, salivary cortisol was measured. As predicted, participants under stress chose higher numbers in the beauty contest game than non-stressed participants, indicating less strategizing. This effect was mediated by the stress-induced increase in cortisol.

  8. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bołd, T.; Bolilyi, O.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bołd, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Hüttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, I.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Y.; Łużniak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Y.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycień, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

    2011-02-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2>10 GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb-1. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 < pTe < 8 GeV and pseudorapidity | η e |<1.5. Cross sections for beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken- x and Q 2.

  9. Skeletal types: key to unraveling the mystery of facial beauty and its biologic significance.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Y

    1996-06-01

    In random studies, some faces will deviate toward Type II skeletal and some toward Type III. Some will deviate toward a skeletally short vertical while some toward long. In their study, Langlois and Roggman digitized individual faces through a computer. As more and more faces were entered, the composite of these faces became more and more attractive. From this, they concluded that attractive faces are only average. The "average" face may very well conform to the divine proportion. However, some faces are strikingly beautiful, and Alley and Cunningham in their study attempted to explain these attributes. Individuals who are blessed with attractive features are treated differently in our society. Ackerman states, "Attractive people do better: in school, where they receive more help, better grades and less punishment; at work, where they are rewarded with higher pay, more prestigious jobs and faster promotions; in finding mates, where they tend to be in control of the relationship and make most of the decisions; and among strangers, who assume them to be more interesting, honest, virtuous and successful." Many would find this special treatment objectionable and unfair. The irony is that beautiful individuals make up a very small percentage of the population; they have very little power to dictate how society should act and behave. Various disciplines have studied the nature of facial beauty. Individually, they provide partial answers; however, when viewed together, they begin to weave provocative insights as to its biologic significance. It is intricately related to divine proportion, and all living creatures have the genetic potential to develop toward it. The appreciation for this proportion is primitive and inborn; it is a biologic mechanism by which all living creatures are attracted to potential mates who conform to this strict proportion because they are biologically strong, healthy, and fertile. To date, there is no other profession other than ours that has the

  10. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    SciTech Connect

    Ogitsu, Tadashi; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

    2013-05-08

    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been known for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.

  11. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-09

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of certain nematode infections can save life and beauty, and preserve breeds of socially relevant and sporting animals.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato

    2007-11-30

    The recognition that the health and welfare of some humans are improved through contact and relationships with animals is now established. Two commonly recognized assistance animals are dogs and horses. Both provide therapeutic benefits to humans with some physical and mental illnesses and both assist people with disabilities. Moreover, the public and scientific attention to the health and conservation of many animal breeds is also increasing worldwide. In the past few years, two potentially life-threatening nematode infections that can induce tumours or tumour-like masses in canids and equids, spirocercosis and draschiosis/habronemosis, respectively, are emerging in several areas of the world. This article reviews and comments how recent insights into the molecular early diagnosis of these diseases can save and preserve life, beauty and breeds of socially relevant and sporting animals.

  13. [Comparison the phenomenon of smoking cigarettes among cosmetology students and personnel beauty salon from Podlaskie county].

    PubMed

    Jaszczuk, Agata; Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to learn the attitude towards tobacco smoking of cosmetology students and personnel of beauty salon. This study was one of the results of the Preventive Medicine Program implemented at the University of Cosmetology and Health Care in Bialystok. Data was collected through questionnaire which was filled individually and independently by each respondent and additionally anonymity was guaranteed. Research covered group of 98 students and 100 women working in beauty salons.

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  15. Nennu and Shunu: gender, body politics, and the beauty economy in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes recent discourse on two emerging representations of women in China, "tender" women (nennu) and "ripe" women (shunu), in order to examine the relationships among gender, body politics, and consumerism. The discourse of nennu and shunu suggests that older, ripe women become younger and more tender by consuming fashions, cosmetic surgery technologies, and beauty and health care products and services because tender women represent the ideal active consumership that celebrates beauty, sexuality, and individuality. This discourse serves to enhance consumers' desire for beauty and health and to ensure the continued growth of China's beauty economy and consumer capitalism. Highlighting the role of the female body, feminine beauty, and feminine youth in developing consumerism, this discourse downplays the contributions of millions of beauty and health care providers (predominantly laid-off female workers and rural migrant women) and new forms of gender exploitation. Such an overemphasis on gender masks intensified class division. This essay suggests that women and their bodies become new terrains from which post-Mao China can draw its power and enact consumerism. Gender constitutes both an economic multiplier to boost China's consumer capitalism and a biopolitical strategy to regulate and remold women and their bodies into subjects that are identified with the state's political and economic objectives. Since consumerism has been incorporated into China's nation-building project, gender thus becomes a vital resource for both consumer capitalist development and nation building. This essay shows that both gender and the body are useful analytic categories for the study of postsocialism.

  16. The realization of absolute beauty: an interpretation of the fairytale Snow White.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Nanae

    2016-09-01

    This paper interprets the fairytale Snow White (Bruder Grimm 1857) in terms of the realization of absolute beauty. Jung's understanding that 'in myths and fairytales, as in dreams, the soul speaks about itself' (Jung 1945, para. 400), underpins such an approach. From this perspective a fantasy image is not about us, not about our unconsciousness, but is essentially about itself. The idea of absolute beauty first arises in the Queen's mind as a wish. Despite the Queen's strong desire to be named as the most beautiful person in the world, her mirror reflects that it is actually her daughter Snow White who is the fairest. Snow White might be regarded in the language of Giegerich as her internal other. Effectively they are separated into the Real that conceives the idea of absolute beauty and the Ideal that embodies it. The exchange that takes place between the two - mediated by mirror and window - generates the corpse of surpassing beauty that never decays but lies inaccessible behind the glass coffin. However the loving and penetrating gaze of the Prince, representing masculinity, succeeds in reanimating Snow White. Thus the Prince as the Other that is completely external and unknown to both the Queen and Snow White, specifically to their femininity, facilitates the realization of absolute beauty as the Ideal in the Real.

  17. Neutral kaon mixing beyond the Standard Model with nf = 2 + 1 chiral fermions. Part 1: bare matrix elements and physical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garron, Nicolas; Hudspith, Renwick J.; Lytle, Andrew T.

    2016-11-01

    We compute the hadronic matrix elements of the four-quark operators relevant for {K}^0-{overline{K}}^0 mixing beyond the Standard Model. Our results are from lattice QCD simulations with n f = 2 + 1 flavours of domain-wall fermion, which exhibit continuum-like chiral-flavour symmetry. The simulations are performed at two different values of the lattice spacing ( a ˜ 0 .08 and a ˜ 0 .11 fm) and with lightest unitary pion mass ˜ 300 MeV. For the first time, the full set of relevant four-quark operators is renormalised non-perturbatively through RI-SMOM schemes; a detailed description of the renormalisation procedure is presented in a companion paper. We argue that the intermediate renormalisation scheme is responsible for the discrepancies found by different collaborations. We also study different normalisations and determine the matrix elements of the relevant four-quark operators with a precision of ˜ 5% or better.

  18. Psychosocial aspects of beauty: how and why to look good.

    PubMed

    Koblenzer, Caroline S

    2003-01-01

    It is difficult to pick up a paper or magazine today or turn on the television without being reminded that ours is a culture of youth and beauty. Bookstore shelves sag under the weight of enticing tomes devoted to the subject. We are bombarded with advertisements for any one of thousands of different products, both prescription and over-the-counter, that claim to be able to restore our youthful appearance, banish wrinkles, tone skin, and remove cellulite, among other promises that often sound, and probably are, too good to be true. Health food stores and sales catalogs are replete with myriad products, so that one wonders how the average person, in face of such bombardment, can either resist the temptation to buy or make an informed selection from the veritable feast of goodies put before them. Billions of dollars are expended each year, and false claims abound, but fortunately, there are many preparations and procedures that, in skilled hands, can really make a difference.

  19. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  20. Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Guibert, Marine; Foerschner, Anja; Co, Tim; Calhoun, Sandi; George, Emma; Hatay, Mark; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Felts, Ben; Dustan, Phillip; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters, neglecting changes in their aesthetic appearance. Here we introduce a standardized computational approach to assess coral reef environments based on 109 visual features designed to evaluate the aesthetic appearance of art. The main feature groups include color intensity and diversity of the image, relative size, color, and distribution of discernable objects within the image, and texture. Specific coral reef aesthetic values combining all 109 features were calibrated against an established biogeochemical assessment (NCEAS) using machine learning algorithms. These values were generated for ∼2,100 random photographic images collected from 9 coral reef locations exposed to varying levels of anthropogenic influence across 2 ocean systems. Aesthetic values proved accurate predictors of the NCEAS scores (root mean square error < 5 for N ≥ 3) and significantly correlated to microbial abundance at each site. This shows that mathematical approaches designed to assess the aesthetic appearance of photographic images can be used as an inexpensive monitoring tool for coral reef ecosystems. It further suggests that human perception of aesthetics is not purely subjective but influenced by inherent reactions towards measurable visual cues. By quantifying aesthetic features of coral reef systems this method provides a cost efficient monitoring tool that targets one of the most important socioeconomic values of coral reefs directly tied to revenue for its local population.

  1. Sleeping Beauty Mouse Models Identify Candidate Genes Involved in Gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vyazunova, Irina; Maklakova, Vilena I.; Berman, Samuel; De, Ishani; Steffen, Megan D.; Hong, Won; Lincoln, Hayley; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Taylor, Michael D.; Akagi, Keiko; Brennan, Cameron W.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Collier, Lara S.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of human high-grade gliomas have discovered known and candidate tumor drivers. Studies in both cell culture and mouse models have complemented these approaches and have identified additional genes and processes important for gliomagenesis. Previously, we found that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in mice ubiquitously throughout the body from the Rosa26 locus led to gliomagenesis with low penetrance. Here we report the characterization of mice in which transposons are mobilized in the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) compartment. Glioma formation in these mice did not occur on an otherwise wild-type genetic background, but rare gliomas were observed when mobilization occurred in a p19Arf heterozygous background. Through cloning insertions from additional gliomas generated by transposon mobilization in the Rosa26 compartment, several candidate glioma genes were identified. Comparisons to genetic, epigenetic and mRNA expression data from human gliomas implicates several of these genes as tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in human glioblastoma. PMID:25423036

  2. Regulated complex assembly safeguards the fidelity of Sleeping Beauty transposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongming; Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Diana; Nagy, Enikö Éva; Kaufman, Christopher D; Singh, Manvendra; Yant, Steve; Wang, Jichang; Dalda, Anna; Kay, Mark A; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-09

    The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end. This extra layer of regulation suppresses aberrant, potentially genotoxic recombination activities, and the mobilization of internally deleted copies in the IR/DR subgroup, including Sleeping Beauty (SB). In contrast, internally deleted sequences (MITEs) are preferred substrates of mariner transposition, and this process is associated with the emergence of Hsmar1-derived miRNA genes in the human genome. Translating IR/DR regulation to in vitro evolution yielded an SB transposon version with optimized substrate recognition (pT4). The ends of SB transposons excised by a K248A excision(+)/integration(-) transposase variant are processed by hairpin resolution, representing a link between phylogenetically, and mechanistically different recombination reactions, such as V(D)J recombination and transposition. Such variants generated by random mutation might stabilize transposon-host interactions or prepare the transposon for a horizontal transfer.

  3. Regulated complex assembly safeguards the fidelity of Sleeping Beauty transposition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongming; Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Diana; Nagy, Enikö Éva; Kaufman, Christopher D.; Singh, Manvendra; Yant, Steve; Wang, Jichang; Dalda, Anna; Kay, Mark A.; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end. This extra layer of regulation suppresses aberrant, potentially genotoxic recombination activities, and the mobilization of internally deleted copies in the IR/DR subgroup, including Sleeping Beauty (SB). In contrast, internally deleted sequences (MITEs) are preferred substrates of mariner transposition, and this process is associated with the emergence of Hsmar1-derived miRNA genes in the human genome. Translating IR/DR regulation to in vitro evolution yielded an SB transposon version with optimized substrate recognition (pT4). The ends of SB transposons excised by a K248A excision+/integration- transposase variant are processed by hairpin resolution, representing a link between phylogenetically, and mechanistically different recombination reactions, such as V(D)J recombination and transposition. Such variants generated by random mutation might stabilize transposon-host interactions or prepare the transposon for a horizontal transfer. PMID:27913727

  4. Hadronic decays of beauty and charm from CLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jorge L.

    1999-02-01

    A selection of recent results on hadronic charm and beauty decays from the CLEO experiment are presented. We report preliminary evidence for the existence of final state interactions in B decays and the first observation of the decay B0→D*+D*- with a branching fraction of (7.8-3.8+5.4±1.5)×10-4. We also present preliminary results on the first observation of the broad, JP=1+, charmed meson resonance with a mass of mD1(j=1/2)0=2.461-0.34+0.41±0.010±0.032 GeV and a width of Γ=290-79+101±26±36 MeV and branching fraction measurements of the B-→DJ0π-1 decay. Finally, we report on our search for the radial excitation of a spin 1 charmed meson, the D*'1, and on an improved measurement of the ratio of decay rates Γ(D0→K+π-)/Γ(D0→K-π+).

  5. The preparticipation physical examination.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Jaime; Jardeleza, Julie Ann

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews the components of the preparticipation physical examination. It looks at some of the key elements of the history and the physical examination that help determine whether an athlete can participate in an organized sport.

  6. Elemental ZOO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2003-04-01

    This puzzle uses the symbols of 39 elements to spell the names of 25 animals found in zoos. Underlined spaces and the names of the elements serve as clues. To solve the puzzle, students must find the symbols that correspond to the elemental names and rearrange them into the animals' names.

  7. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Analysis and finite element simulation of electromagnetic heating in the nitride MOCVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Ming; Hao, Yue; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xu, Sheng-Rui; Ni, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Wei

    2009-11-01

    Electromagnetic field distribution in the vertical metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) reactor is simulated by using the finite element method (FEM). The effects of alternating current frequency, intensity, coil turn number and the distance between the coil turns on the distribution of the Joule heat are analysed separately, and their relations to the value of Joule heat are also investigated. The temperature distribution on the susceptor is also obtained. It is observed that the results of the simulation are in good agreement with previous measurements.

  8. The biopower of beauty: humanitarian imperialisms and global feminisms in an age of terror.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mimi Thi

    2011-01-01

    As part of a feminist commitment to collaboration, this article, which appears as a companion essay to Minh-Ha T. Pham's "The Right to Fashion in the Age of Terror," offers a point of departure for thinking about fashion and beauty as processes that produce subjects recruited to, and aligned with, the national interests of the United States in the war on terror. The Muslim woman in the veil and her imagined opposite, the fashionably modern and implicitly Western woman, become convenient metaphors for articulating geopolitical contests of power as human rights concerns, as rescue missions, as beautifying mandates. This essay examines newer iterations of this opposition, after September 11, 2001, in order to demonstrate the critical resonance of a biopolitics of fashion and beauty. After the events of September 11, 2001, George W. Bush's administration launched a military and public relations campaign to promote U.S. national interests using the language of feminism and human rights. While these discourses in the United States helped to reinvigorate a declining economy, and specifically a flagging fashion industry (as Pham addresses in her companion essay), feminism abroad was deployed to very different ends. This article considers the establishment of the Kabul Beauty School by the nongovernmental organization Beauty without Borders, sponsored in large part by the U.S. fashion and beauty industries. Examining troubling histories of beauty's relation to morality, humanity, and security, as well as to neoliberal discourses of self-governance, the author teases out the biopower and biopolitics of beauty, enacted here through programs of empowerment that are inseparable from the geopolitical aims of the U.S. deployment in Afghanistan.

  9. Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.

  10. The Circle of Apollonius and Its Applications in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partensky, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    The circle of Apollonius is named after the ancient geometrician Apollonius of Perga. This beautiful geometric construct can be helpful when solving some general problems of geometry and mathematical physics, optics, and electricity. Here we discuss two of its applications: localizing an object in space and calculating electric fields. First, we…

  11. Prospecting for Diverse Igneous Rock Types on Mars: Pixl on "black Beauty" Nwa 7533

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Flannery, D.; Allwood, A.; Thompson, D. R.; Hodyss, R. P.; Clark, B. C.; Elam, W. T.; Hurowitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the evolution of the Martian crust and mantle, we need to acquire and analyze samples of igneous rocks other than the basaltic and ultramafic lithologies represented by the majority of Martian meteorites. Recent results from the Curiosity Rover demonstrate that diverse rock types exist in some Martian sedimentary environments in the form of conglomerate components or float, some of which shed light on the nature of early Martian crust (e.g., Sautter et al., 2015). We are developing investigation strategies for the in-situ instruments that will be flown on the Mars 2020 rover. These instruments will be used to inform the sampling campaigns required for future sample return missions. To achieve this, we applied PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry), an instrument for the Mars 2020 rover mission, to the meteorite NWA 7533. This meteorite is a pairing of NWA 7034, known informally as "Black Beauty", a new type of Martian meteorite that is broadly similar to the average composition of the Martian crust. This type of meteorite is essentially a 'conglomerate', with many diverse rock types, including mafic, feldspathic, and exotic rock fragments such as feldspar-ilmenite-phosphate clasts, as observed using higher-spatial resolution and higher sensitivity laboratory instruments (e.g., Agee et al., 2013; Humayun et al., 2014; Santos et al., 2015). Using PIXL, we analyzed a mm-scale cut and polished surface and applied algorithms developed by the PIXL team to semi-autonomously define and group regions containing similar lithological components (Thompson et al., 2015). PIXL data rapidly reveal distinctive zircon-bearing lithologies and feldspar-ilmenite-phosphate clasts similar to the detailed petrographic and mineralogical observations. Results suggest that PIXL readily identifies lithologies with minerals and elements (e.g., Rb and Sr) that are important for geochronology studies.

  12. RNA Interference Is Responsible for Reduction of Transgene Expression after Sleeping Beauty Transposase Mediated Somatic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Rauschhuber, Christina; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrating non-viral vectors based on transposable elements are widely used for genetically engineering mammalian cells in functional genomics and therapeutic gene transfer. For the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase system it was demonstrated that convergent transcription driven by the SB transposase inverted repeats (IRs) in eukaryotic cells occurs after somatic integration. This could lead to formation of double-stranded RNAs potentially presenting targets for the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and subsequently resulting into silencing of the transgene. Therefore, we aimed at investigating transgene expression upon transposition under RNA interference knockdown conditions. Principal Findings To establish RNAi knockdown cell lines we took advantage of the P19 protein, which is derived from the tomato bushy stunt virus. P19 binds and inhibits 21 nucleotides long, small-interfering RNAs and was shown to sufficiently suppress RNAi. We found that transgene expression upon SB mediated transposition was enhanced, resulting into a 3.2-fold increased amount of colony forming units (CFU) after transposition. In contrast, if the transgene cassette is insulated from the influence of chromosomal position effects by the chicken-derived cHS4 insulating sequences or when applying the Forg Prince transposon system, that displays only negligible transcriptional activity, similar numbers of CFUs were obtained. Conclusion In summary, we provide evidence for the first time that after somatic integration transposon derived transgene expression is regulated by the endogenous RNAi machinery. In the future this finding will help to further improve the molecular design of the SB transposase vector system. PMID:22570690

  13. Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Marine; Foerschner, Anja; Co, Tim; Calhoun, Sandi; George, Emma; Hatay, Mark; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Vermeij, Mark J.A.; Felts, Ben; Dustan, Phillip; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters, neglecting changes in their aesthetic appearance. Here we introduce a standardized computational approach to assess coral reef environments based on 109 visual features designed to evaluate the aesthetic appearance of art. The main feature groups include color intensity and diversity of the image, relative size, color, and distribution of discernable objects within the image, and texture. Specific coral reef aesthetic values combining all 109 features were calibrated against an established biogeochemical assessment (NCEAS) using machine learning algorithms. These values were generated for ∼2,100 random photographic images collected from 9 coral reef locations exposed to varying levels of anthropogenic influence across 2 ocean systems. Aesthetic values proved accurate predictors of the NCEAS scores (root mean square error < 5 for N ≥ 3) and significantly correlated to microbial abundance at each site. This shows that mathematical approaches designed to assess the aesthetic appearance of photographic images can be used as an inexpensive monitoring tool for coral reef ecosystems. It further suggests that human perception of aesthetics is not purely subjective but influenced by inherent reactions towards measurable visual cues. By quantifying aesthetic features of coral reef systems this method provides a cost efficient monitoring tool that targets one of the most important socioeconomic values of coral reefs directly tied to revenue for its local population. PMID:26587350

  14. Leg length, proportion, health and beauty: a review.

    PubMed

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2009-12-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (foot + tibia + femur), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions (for example the relative leg length in proportion to stature, and the sitting height ratio [sitting height/stature x 100], among others) are used as epidemiological markers of risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e. a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) is the first genomic region that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, in most cases research has been showing that environment is a more powerful force to shape leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. There are a variety of cosmetic, fashion, and surgical interventions to enhance perceived or actual leg length.

  15. Musical beauty and information compression: Complex to the ear but simple to the mind?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The biological origin of music, its universal appeal across human cultures and the cause of its beauty remain mysteries. For example, why is Ludwig Van Beethoven considered a musical genius but Kylie Minogue is not? Possible answers to these questions will be framed in the context of Information Theory. Presentation of the Hypothesis The entire life-long sensory data stream of a human is enormous. The adaptive solution to this problem of scale is information compression, thought to have evolved to better handle, interpret and store sensory data. In modern humans highly sophisticated information compression is clearly manifest in philosophical, mathematical and scientific insights. For example, the Laws of Physics explain apparently complex observations with simple rules. Deep cognitive insights are reported as intrinsically satisfying, implying that at some point in evolution, the practice of successful information compression became linked to the physiological reward system. I hypothesise that the establishment of this "compression and pleasure" connection paved the way for musical appreciation, which subsequently became free (perhaps even inevitable) to emerge once audio compression had become intrinsically pleasurable in its own right. Testing the Hypothesis For a range of compositions, empirically determine the relationship between the listener's pleasure and "lossless" audio compression. I hypothesise that enduring musical masterpieces will possess an interesting objective property: despite apparent complexity, they will also exhibit high compressibility. Implications of the Hypothesis Artistic masterpieces and deep Scientific insights share the common process of data compression. Musical appreciation is a parasite on a much deeper information processing capacity. The coalescence of mathematical and musical talent in exceptional individuals has a parsimonious explanation. Musical geniuses are skilled in composing music that appears highly complex to

  16. Heavy quarks and nuclei, or the charm & beauty of nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, D.

    1997-09-22

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following: why heavy quarks? Heavy quarkonium in QCD vacuum and in matter; Phenomenology of quarkonium production; Induced decay of QCD vacuum in heavy ion collisions? Implications for quarkonium production; and Outlook.

  17. Photography as a Means of Narrowing the Gap between Physics and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagno, Esther; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Levy, Smadar

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers would agree that not all their A-level students appreciate the beauty of physics or enjoy solving complex problems. In this article, we describe a photo-contest activity aimed at narrowing the gap between physics and students. The photo contest, involving both students and teachers, is guided by the National Center of Physics…

  18. Physical property analysis of C-doped GaAs as function of the carrier concentration grown by MOCVD using elemental arsenic as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Reyes, J.; Avendaño, M. A.; Galván-Arellano, M.; Peña-Sierra, R.

    2006-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of GaAs layers grown in a metallic-arsenic-based-MOCVD system. The gallium precursor was the compound trimethylgallium (TMG) and elemental arsenic as precursor of arsenic. The most important parameters of the growth process include the substrate temperature and the composition of the carrier gas; an N2+H2 gas mixture. The influence of carbon doping on the optical and electrical properties of GaAs layers have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Photoreflectance (PR) and Hall Effect measurements. To carry out doping with carbon in the range of around 1016 to 1020 cm-3, it was necessary to modifying the hydrogen activity in the reacting atmosphere with the control of the N{2}+H{2}, mixture which was used as carrier gas. The PL response of the samples is strongly dependent on the growth temperature and showed mainly two radiative transitions, band-to-band and band-to C-acceptor. PR spectra present transitions associated to GaAs. Besides, short period oscillations near the GaAs band-gap energy are observed, interpreted as Franz-Keldysh oscillations associated to the hole-ionized acceptor (h-A-) pair modulations. For investigating the chemical bonds of impurity-related species in the GaAs layers optical absorption was measured using a FT-IR spectrometer. Device quality GaAs layers have been grown in a broad range of growth temperatures.

  19. The general theory of relativity - Why 'It is probably the most beautiful of all existing theories'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to objectively evaluate the frequent judgment of Einstein's general theory of relativity, by such distinguished physicists as Pauli (1921), Dirac, Born, and Rutherford, as 'beautiful' and 'a work of art'. The criteria applied are that of Francis Bacon ('There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportions') and that of Heisenberg ('Beauty is the proper conformity of the parts to one another and to the whole'). The strangeness in the proportions of the theory of general relativity consists in its relating, through juxtaposition, the concepts of space and time and those of matter and motion; these had previously been considered entirely independent. The criterion of 'conformity' is illustrated through the directness with which the theory allows the description of black holes.

  20. Cognitive control and unusual decisions about beauty: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; de Miguel, Pedro; Nadal, Marcos; Munar, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Studies of visual esthetic preference have shown that people without art training generally prefer representational paintings to abstract paintings. This, however, is not always the case: preferences can sometimes go against this usual tendency. We aimed to explore this issue, investigating the relationship between “unusual responses” and reaction time in an esthetic appreciation task. Results of a behavioral experiment confirmed the trend for laypeople to consider as beautiful mostly representational stimuli and as not beautiful mostly abstract ones (“usual response”). Furthermore, when participants gave unusual responses, they needed longer time, especially when considering abstract stimuli as beautiful. We interpreted this longer time as greater involvement of cognitive mastering and evaluation processes during the unusual responses. Results of an fMRI experiment indicated that the anterior cingulate (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula were the main structures involved in this effect. We discuss the possible role of these areas in an esthetic appreciation task. PMID:25100970

  1. Differences in perceptions of beauty and cosmetic procedures performed in ethnic patients.

    PubMed

    Talakoub, Lily; Wesley, Naissan O

    2009-06-01

    The United States has become progressively more multicultural, with the ethnic population growing at record rates. The US Census Bureau projects that, by the year 2056, greater than 50% of the US population will be of non-Caucasian descent. Ethnic patients have different cosmetic concerns and natural features that are unique. The cosmetic concerns of ethnic patients also differ as the result of differences in skin pathophysiology, mechanisms of aging, and unique anatomic structure. There is no longer a single standard of beauty. We must now adapt to the more diverse population and understand how to accommodate the diversity of beauty in the United States. Ethnic patients do not necessarily want a Westernized look because what constitutes beauty is determined by racial, cultural, and environmental influences. We as leaders in skin care must understand these differences and adapt our practices accordingly. This article will focus on the differences in aging in different ethnic populations and highlight procedures unique to skin of color.

  2. Some thoughts on theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-12-01

    Some thoughts are presented on the inter-relation between beauty and truth in science in general and theoretical physics in particular. Some conjectural procedures that can be used to create new ideas, concepts and results are illustrated in both Boltzmann-Gibbs and nonextensive statistical mechanics. The sociological components of scientific progress and its unavoidable and benefic controversies are, mainly through existing literary texts, briefly addressed as well. Short essay based on the plenary talk given at the International Workshop on Trends and Perspectives in Extensive and Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics, held in November 19-21, 2003, in Angra dos Reis, Brazil.

  3. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience

    PubMed Central

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom–up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top–down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel (“aesthetics of perception”), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel (“aesthetics of cognition”). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of

  4. Role of beauty treatment in the spread of parenterally transmitted hepatitis viruses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Andrea; Mele, Alfonso; Tosti, Maria Elena; Parlato, Antonino; Gallo, Giovanni; Ragni, Pietro; Zotti, Carla; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Graziani, Grazia; Stroffolini, Tommaso

    2004-10-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the role of beauty treatments in the spread of acute viral hepatitis B (HBV) and acute viral hepatitis C (HCV) in Italy. Data from the surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA) during the period 1997-2002 were used. After exclusion of subjects <15 years or >55 years old and reporting intravenous drug use or blood transfusion, the association of acute HBV and HCV cases with beauty treatments (tattooing, piercing, manicure/chiropody, and barber shop shaving) was estimated comparing 2,964 hepatitis B and 598 hepatitis C cases with 7,221 hepatitis A cases, used as controls, by multiple logistic regression analysis. The population attributable risk (PAR) to beauty treatments was estimated according to Levin's formula. Beauty treatments were associated with acute HBV (OR = 1.8; CI 95% = 1.5-2.1) and acute HCV (OR = 1.7; CI 95% = 1.2-2.3). The strongest association was found with barber shop shaving for HBV (OR = 1.8; CI 95% = 1.5-2.2) and with tattooing for HCV cases (OR = 5.6; CI 95% = 2.8-11.0). The estimates of the population attributable risk (PAR) indicate that nearly 15% of all acute HBV (17.4% in males) and 11.5% of all acute HCV cases (16.4% in males) occurring in 15-55 year old subjects not exposed to intravenous drugs or blood transfusion in Italy are due to beauty treatments. It is concluded that certain beauty treatments play an important role in the spread of HBV and HCV infections in Italy.

  5. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience.

    PubMed

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel ("aesthetics of perception"), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel ("aesthetics of cognition"). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

  6. Sex as a Moderator of the Beauty-Good Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Paul A.; And Others

    The relationship between physical attractiveness and social competence is complex. A study was undertaken to assess the relationship between ratings of physical attractiveness and ratings of conversational skill. Sixty male and 60 female undergraduates viewed tapes depicting 18 heterosocial interactions. Subjects were asked to rate physical…

  7. 77 FR 2341 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Cult of Beauty: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Cult of Beauty: The Victorian... Beauty: The Victorian Avant- Garde, 1860-1900,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  8. Talking Back to the Media Ideal: The Development and Validation of the Critical Processing of Beauty Images Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee; Miller, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    This article details the development of the Critical Processing of Beauty Images Scale (CPBI) and studies demonstrating the psychometric soundness of this measure. The CPBI measures women's tendency to engage in critical processing of media images featuring idealized female beauty. Three subscales were identified using exploratory factor analysis…

  9. 78 FR 26116 - Pricing for the 2013 America the Beautiful Quarter Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 America the Beautiful Quarter Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated... States Mint is announcing the price of the 2013 America the Beautiful Quarter Five Ounce...

  10. Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era.

  11. Geological beauties and Landscape: new proposals to communicate the Geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugeri, Francesca; Farabollini, Piero; Amadio, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    The European Landscape Convention proposes a concept of the landscape itself as an expression of the diversity of the natural, cultural and economic development of the population and identifies society as responsible of such a heritage. The landscape has a concrete value as natural resource and basis of functional processes that support life; it also has an important symbolic value: the consequences of the loss of landscape have been and still are devastating, even on a social level. The Landscape is object of human perceptions and, at the same time, can be considered the result of the interaction of many natural and cultural components: therefore it could become a "medium" to communicate the Earth Sciences to the whole society: the geo-morphological sciences are a powerful tool in order to explain and share a "sense of natural identity". The consciousness of being part of an ecosystem, is achieved through the knowledge and the experience of the environment. In order to create effective and efficient sensitivity in individuals and in communities, it is essential to explain the importance of geodiversity, which - integrated to bio diversity- contributes to the concept of "environmental diversity" essential balance of the planet and resource for the economy. The difficulty for the scientific communicators in reaching the wider public, requires new integrated solutions. A very positive experience is related to the project "GeoloGiro" geology at the Giro d'Italia, (realized thanks to a cooperation between ISPRA Geological Survey and the Italian Council of Geologists) which provides a TV time dedicated to make comprehensible the reasons of the geological and environmental beauties of the territory crossed by cyclists during each stage. A further project development, includes the transmission of a short cartoon in which a strange character - a pink dinosaur named GiROSAuro, cycling fan, pink as the jersey worn by the winners of the "Giro d 'Italia"- explains to the

  12. Elemental health

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.

  13. Can beauty be ignored? Effects of facial attractiveness on covert attention.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jie; Liu, Chang Hong

    2009-04-01

    Facial beauty has important social and biological implications. Research has shown that people tend to look longer at attractive than at unattractive faces. However, little is known about whether an attractive face presented outside foveal vision can capture attention. The effect of facial attractiveness on covert attention was investigated in a spatial cuing task. Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a cued target presented to the left or right visual field while ignoring a task-irrelevant face image flashed in the opposite field. The presentation of attractive faces significantly lengthened task performance. The results suggest that facial beauty automatically competes with an ongoing cognitive task for spatial attention.

  14. Trappings of femininity: A test of the "beauty as currency" hypothesis in shaping college women's gender activism.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Rachel M; Tylka, Tracy L; Donnelly, Lois C; McGetrick, Amber; Leger, Andrea Medrano

    2017-03-17

    This study investigated whether believing beauty is a primary currency for women operates as an antecedent force in the relation between self-objectification and gender activism. Ninety-four ethnically diverse women attending a small liberal arts college in the southeastern United States completed the study questionnaires online for course credit. Preliminary results demonstrated beauty as currency belief, self-objectification, and support for the gender status quo were negatively associated with gender activism. A serial mediation analysis revealed support for the proposed model: Beauty as currency belief was indirectly and inversely linked to gender activism through self-objectification and support for the gender status quo, offering initial evidence for our beauty as currency hypothesis. These findings suggest belief in the notion women will reap more benefits from their bodies than other attributes or pursuits may be an important legitimizing feature of feminine beauty ideology that works through self-objectification against gender social change.

  15. T-gate geometric (solution for submicrometer gate length) HEMT: Physical analysis, modeling and implementation as parasitic elements and its usage as dual gate for variable gain amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ritesh; Rathi, Servin; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2009-03-01

    In order to achieve superior RF performance, short gate length is required for the compound semiconductor field effect transistors, but the limitation in lithography for submicrometer gate lengths leads to the formation of various metal-insulator geometries like T-gate [Sandeep R. Bahl, Jesus A. del Alamo, Physics of breakdown in InAlAs/ n +-InGaAs heterostructure field-effect transistors, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41 (12) (1994) 2268-2275]. These geometries are the combination of various Metal-Semiconductor (MS)/Metal-Air-Semiconductor (MAS) contacts. Moreover, field plates [S. Karmalkar, M.S. Shur, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, Field-plate engineering for HFETs, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52 (2005) 2534-2540] are also being fabricated these days, mainly at the drain end ( Γ-gate) having Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) instead of MAS contact with the intention of increasing the breakdown voltage of the device. To realize the effect of upper gate electrode in the T-gate structure and field plates, an analytical model has been proposed in the present article by dividing the whole structure into MS/MIS contact regions, applying current continuity among them and solving iteratively. The model proposed for Metal-Insulator Semiconductor High Electron Mobility Transistor (MISHEMT) [R. Gupta, S.K. Aggarwal, M. Gupta, R.S. Gupta, Analytical model for metal insulator semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MISHEMT) for its high frequency and high power applications, J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 6 (3) (2006) 189-198], is equally applicable to High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT) and has been used to formulate this model. In this paper, various structures and geometries have been compared to anticipate the need of T-gate modeling. The effect of MIS contacts has been implemented as parasitic resistance and capacitance and has also been studied to control the middle conventional gate as in dual gate technology by applying separate voltages across it. The results

  16. Element 117

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-09-30

    An international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, including two Department of Energy national laboratories and two universities, has discovered the newest superheavy element, element 117. The team included scientists from the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia), the Research Institute for Advanced Reactors (Dimitrovgrad), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

  17. Element 117

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-08

    An international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, including two Department of Energy national laboratories and two universities, has discovered the newest superheavy element, element 117. The team included scientists from the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia), the Research Institute for Advanced Reactors (Dimitrovgrad), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

  18. Light, Wind and Fire - Beautiful Image of a Cosmic Sculpture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    Today ESO has released a dramatic new image of NGC 346, the brightest star-forming region in our neighbouring galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud, 210 000 light-years away towards the constellation of Tucana (the Toucan). The light, wind and heat given off by massive stars have dispersed the glowing gas within and around this star cluster, forming a surrounding wispy nebular structure that looks like a cobweb. NGC 346, like other beautiful astronomical scenes, is a work in progress, and changes as the aeons pass. As yet more stars form from loose matter in the area, they will ignite, scattering leftover dust and gas, carving out great ripples and altering the face of this lustrous object. NGC 346 spans approximately 200 light-years, a region of space about fifty times the distance between the Sun and its nearest stellar neighbours. Astronomers classify NGC 346 as an open cluster of stars, indicating that this stellar brood all originated from the same collapsed cloud of matter. The associated nebula containing this clutch of bright stars is known as an emission nebula, meaning that gas within it has been heated up by stars until the gas emits its own light, just like the neon gas used in electric store signs. Many stars in NGC 346 are relatively young in cosmic terms with their births dating back only a few million years or so (eso0834). Powerful winds thrown off by a massive star set off this recent round of star birth by compressing large amounts of matter, the first critical step towards igniting new stars. This cloud of material then collapses under its own gravity, until some regions become dense and hot enough to roar forth as a brilliantly shining, nuclear fusion-powered furnace - a star, illuminating the residual debris of gas and dust. In sufficiently congested regions like NGC 346, with high levels of recent star birth, the result is a glorious, glowing vista for our telescopes to capture. NGC 346 is in the Small Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy some 210

  19. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Park, Chang W; Steer, Clifford J

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  20. Learn in Beauty: A Professional Development Project for Navajo Bilingual Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Louise; de Groat, Jennie; Bedonie, Clara

    The Learn in Beauty Project at Northern Arizona University worked with a consortium of seven Navajo Nation school districts seeking to implement the Dine Language and Culture teaching perspective. This perspective is based on the premises that education is best when it reflects a sense of place; education should be based on the philosophy and…

  1. Indoor air in beauty salons and occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to chemical substances.

    PubMed

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2010-01-01

    The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100-1,450 microg m(-3)) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 microg m(-3)) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor.

  2. A neurobiological enquiry into the origins of our experience of the sublime and beautiful

    PubMed Central

    Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir

    2014-01-01

    Philosophies of aesthetics have posited that experience of the sublime—commonly but not exclusively derived from scenes of natural grandeur—is distinct from that of beauty and is a counterpoint to it. We wanted to chart the pattern of brain activity which correlates with the declared intensity of experience of the sublime, and to learn whether it differs from the pattern that correlates with the experience of beauty, reported in our previous studies (e.g., Ishizu and Zeki, 2011). 21 subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Prior to the experiment, they viewed pictures of landscapes, which they rated on a scale of 1–5, with 5 being the most sublime and 1 being the least. This allowed us to select, for each subject, five sets of stimuli—from ones experienced as very sublime to those experienced as not at all sublime—which subjects viewed and re-rated in the scanner while their brain activity was imaged. The results revealed a distinctly different pattern of brain activity from that obtained with the experience of beauty, with none of the areas active with the latter experience also active during experience of the sublime. Sublime and beautiful experiences thus appear to engage separate and distinct brain systems. PMID:25426046

  3. A Case Study in Jewish Moral Education: (Non-)Rape of the Beautiful Captive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of teaching classic religious texts with flawed moral messages from a contemporary point of view is examined in the case of the Beautiful Captive of War (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). A moral dilemma is generated by contradictory ethical stands within the Jewish tradition, between which students have to choose. This dilemma is explored in…

  4. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a…

  5. Reading and Writing the World Using Beautiful Books: Language Experience Re-Envisioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V.; Roser, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Through this article, we describe an instructional strategy termed "Beautiful Books." This strategy involves the creation of images and texts to be used in the development of oral and literacy skills. We explore the historical roots of the strategy in Language Experience Approach (LEA) and Whole language and consider how dictation and early…

  6. American Beauty: The Seduction of the Visual Image in the Culture of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudreau, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The critical examination of the film "American Beauty" reveals characteristics illustrative of the form of culture coextensive with modern technological societies. This form of culture creates an imbalance favoring the aesthetical over the ethical dimensions of human orientation. Absorption into the aesthetical dimension of the electronic or…

  7. 75 FR 10561 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful QuartersTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Two-Roll Sets, featuring Hot Springs National Park... Mint facilities at Philadelphia and Denver. The first set, featuring Hot Springs National Park, will be... featuring Hot Springs National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Yosemite National Park, Grand...

  8. Courses on the Beauty of Mathematics: Our Version of General Education Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Agnes M.; Fillebrown, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article describes various courses designed to incorporate mathematical proofs into courses for non-math and non-science majors. These courses, nicknamed "math beauty" courses, are designed to discuss one topic in-depth rather than to introduce many topics at a superficial level. A variety of courses, each requiring students to…

  9. New hidden beauty molecules predicted by the local hidden gauge approach and heavy quark spin symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C. W.; Ozpineci, A.; Oset, E.

    2015-10-01

    Using a coupled channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-meson interaction with hidden beauty. We obtain several new states of isospin I = 0: six bound states, and weakly bound six more possible states which depend on the influence of the coupled channel effects.

  10. The "Beauty Is Good" for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, D. Da; Santos, A.; Rosset, D.; Deruelle, C.

    2011-01-01

    The "beauty is good" (BIG) stereotype is a robust and extensively documented social stereotype. While one may think that children with autism are impervious to the BIG stereotype, given their remarkable difficulties in the social sphere, this issue has not yet been addressed. We have asked 18 children with autism to judge how friendly and…

  11. An assessment of the mating motive explanation of the beauty premium in market-based settings.

    PubMed

    Ravina, Enrichetta

    2017-01-01

    Labor market and real-life studies were not designed to discriminate between evolutionary and taste-based and stereotype explanations for the beauty premium, have too many confounding effects, and lack crucial information. Smaller-stake and experimental studies provide more compelling evidence in favor of mating motives and suggest the direction of future research for the economists' field studies.

  12. From the Matterhorn to Molecules: The Beauty of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.

    2015-05-01

    Our generation is opening humanity's eyes to the electromagnetic spectrum, revealing the interstellar medium's stunning beauty and profound role in star and planet formation and cosmic evolution. The enabling technologies of this revolution also have huge impacts on the world's economy.

  13. Cosmetic Medicine: Innovative Beauty Care as Popular Medicine in Days Gone By.

    PubMed

    Locher, Wolfgang G

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the ages, people yearned for beauty and longevity. This article examines how European physicians began to engage with the field of cosmetics over a century ago, thus introducing the category of aesthetics into medical practice. This historical phenomenon is currently repeating itself.

  14. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

  15. From the Matterhorn to Molecules: The Beauty of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.

    2016-05-01

    Our generation is opening humanity's eyes to the electromagnetic spectrum, revealing the interstellar medium's stunning beauty and profound role in star and planet formation and cosmic evolution. The enabling technologies of this revolution also have huge impacts on the world's economy.

  16. Discrete cortical regions associated with the musical beauty of major and minor chords.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kawachi, Yousuke; Tashiro, Manabu; Arao, Hiroshi; Hoshishiba, Takayuki; Gyoba, Jiro; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2008-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the degree of aesthetic pleasure a person experiences correlates with the activation of reward functions in the brain. However, it is unclear whether different affective qualities and the perceptions of beauty that they evoke correspond to specific areas of brain activation. Major and minor musical keys induce two types of affective qualities--bright/happy and dark/sad--that both evoke aesthetic pleasure. In the present study, we used positron emission tomography to demonstrate that the two musical keys (major and minor) activate distinct brain areas. Minor consonant chords perceived as beautiful strongly activated the right striatum, which has been assumed to play an important role in reward and emotion processing, whereas major consonant chords perceived as beautiful induced significant activity in the left middle temporal gyrus, which is believed to be related to coherent and orderly information processing. These results suggest that major and minor keys, both of which are perceived as beautiful, are processed differently in the brain.

  17. Mothers and Daughters in the Fiction of Joyce Carol Oates: The Terror and Beauty of Doubling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattes, Eleanor

    Joyce Carol Oates is unique in American fiction for her portrayals of the terror and the beauty in the mother-daughter relationship--the tensions and the bonds created by this particular form of doubling. Her more interesting explorations portraying some deeply pathological and some positive aspects of this form of doubling include the following:…

  18. Buying a Beauty Standard or Dreaming of a New Life? Expectations Associated with Media Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study explored college women's ideas regarding how their lives would change if their appearance were consistent with a media-supported female beauty ideal. Participants rated self-generated life changes they associated with looking like a media ideal in terms of likelihood and positivity. Women's tendency to link positive and likely life…

  19. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-07-19

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose.

  20. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose.

  1. Deep Secrets of the Neutrino: Physics Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, P.C.

    2010-03-23

    Among the many beautiful, unexpected and sometimes revolutionary discoveries to emerge from subatomic physics, probably none is more bizarre than an elementary particle known as the 'neutrino'. More than a trillion of these microscopic phantoms pass unnoticed through our bodies every second, and indeed, through the entire Earth - but their properties remain poorly understood. In recent years, exquisitely sensitive experiments, often conducted deep below ground, have brought neutrino physics to the forefront. In this talk, we will explore the neutrino - what we know, what we want to know, and how one experiment in a New Mexico mine is trying to get there.

  2. Beauty and Dating Choice--Objective and Subjective Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Gay H.; Dabbs, James M.

    Experimenters photographed 105 couples at a high school dance and obtained detailed self-report measures from each partner. A panel of judges rated each partner's physical attractiveness from the photographs. Partners were found to be similar in attractiveness, and feelings of "love" expressed by the two members of each pair were highly…

  3. The beauty of Enceladus: a possible life origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    variations. One can consider that the rate state of biogeochemical evolution is directly related to the production of energy inside a planetary body with liquid water. The present state of this cold moon possibly can be analogue to that on Earth 4 Gyrs ago. So, I also propose that harmonious reactions between organic species, including mono-saccharides, can have formed replicant catalytic proteins and other biomolecules within warm water deep inside those possible subsurface lakes and ponds, leading to a hypothetical future biogeochemical evolution inside this beautiful moon Enceladus, which is interesting to the field of astrobiology.

  4. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  5. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  6. Anthropometric comparison of painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Yong; Hwang, Se Won; Hwang, Kun

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers using anthropometry.Portraits of each theme were selected in modern novels, essays and picture books, and categorized portraits. A total of 52 samples were collected, including 20 beautiful women, 20 femme fatales, and 12 artists' mothers. In 5 persons, 17 anthropometric ratios including the alae-alae/zygion-zygion ratio were compared in a 15-degree oblique view and in anteroposterior view photographs, and they were proved to not differ significantly. To distinguish oblique portraits less than 15 degrees, we measured the exocanthion-stomion-exocanthion (ESE) angle in photographs of 5 volunteers. The mean ± SD of the ESE angle was 64.52 ± 4.87 in the 15-degree angle view and 57.68 ± 54.09 in the 30-degree angle view. Thereafter, if the ESE angle was greater than 65 degrees, we considered the portrait to have less than a 15-degree angle and included it in the samples.The ratio did not differ significantly in 11 anthropometric proportions. However, the remaining 5 proportions were statistically significant. Beautiful women had wider noses (85% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the femme fatale group (77%). Lips in the beautiful woman group are nicer and thicker (36% of lip's width) compared with the artists' mother group (27%). Femme fatales were relatively similar to beautiful women such as those women with nice and thick lips. However, the femme fatale group had an attractive midface ratio (36% of the total face height) that has been mentioned in the older literature, and the noses of the femme fatale group were narrower and sharper (77% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the beautiful women (85%). The artists' mother group has a relatively narrower upper face (29% of the total face height) and thinner lips (27% of the lip width) compared with the other 2 groups (36%).Proportions from works of art are more

  7. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  8. Teaching physics as a service subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, T. L.; Hayes, M.

    1986-07-01

    At South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education physics is taught over a wide range of courses. In addition to the more conventional courses found in science, technology and education faculties there is a physics input into areas such as beauty therapy, applied biology, catering, chiropody, dental technology, environmental health, food technology, hairdressing, human-movement studies, industrial design, applied life sciences, marine technology, medical laboratory science, physiological measurement, nursing and speech therapy. Due to the fundamental differences in emphasis required when teaching physics as a 'minor' subject on these types of courses, and since the authors have no courses which lead to a 'major' physics qualification, it is necessary to develop a rational strategy for teaching physics as a 'service' subject. If this is not achieved then staff satisfaction and student interest are likely to suffer. They describe their strategy.

  9. Report of the intermediate-)ital p)/sub perpendicular/ detector group: A beauty spectrometer for the SSC (superconducting super collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.J.; Buchanan, C.D.; Morrison, R.J.; McHugh, S.W.; Witherell, M.S.; Atac, M.; Cox, B.; Purohit, M.V.; Stefanski, R.; Wagoner, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A ''Beauty Spectrometer'' has been designed for studies of B physics at the SSC. The ultimate goal is a definitive measurement of CP violation in the B system. The spectrometer consists of two stages and occupies one side of an intermediate-luminosity interaction region. An upstream, or intermediate, stage extends from the interaction point to 14 m and covers the angular region from 57 mrad (3.3 degree) to 350 mrad (20 degree). The forward stage extends to 77 m and to angles down to 5.7 mrad. The design includes silicon microstrip detectors, conventional tracking, momentum analysis, and hadron and lepton identification. While no fundamental problems have been found, the detector must deal with unprecedented particles fluxes, trigger rates, and data rates. 11 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. That is Cool: the Nature Of Aesthetics in Fluid Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean

    2013-11-01

    Aesthetics has historically been defined as the study of beauty and thus as a metric of art. More recently, psychologists are using the term to describe a spectrum of responses from ``I hate it'' to ``I love it.'' In the context of fluid physics, what is beautiful? What elicits a ``Wow! Awesome! Cool!'' response versus a snore? Can we use aesthetics to deepen or change students' or the public's perceptions of physics and/or the world around them? For example, students seem to appreciate the aesthetics of destruction: environmental fluid dynamics such as storms, tornadoes, floods and wildfires are often responsible for massive destruction, yet humans draw pleasure from watching such physics and the attendant destruction from a safe distance. Can this voyeurism be turned to our advantage in communicating science? Observations of student and Facebook Flow Visualization group choices for fluid physics that draw a positive aesthetic response are sorted into empirical categories; the aesthetics of beauty, power, destruction, and oddness. Each aesthetic will be illustrated with examples drawn from flow visualizations from both the Flow Visualization course (MCEN 4151) taught at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and sources on the web. This work is supported by NSF: EEC 1240294.

  11. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  12. Ravishing or ravaged: women's relationships with women in the context of aging and Western beauty culture.

    PubMed

    Gosselink, Carol A; Cox, Deborah L; McClure, Sarissa J; De Jong, Mary L G

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories within and across group sessions. We discuss four of the six key themes discovered in response to the primary research question: How does beauty culture shape women's experiences of aging and their relationships with women of all ages? We conclude that Western idealized beauty standards exert a divisive impact on women's relationships with each other across the life span, negatively affecting their socioemotional well-being, especially in old age.

  13. Kinematic parameters that influence the aesthetic perception of beauty in contemporary dance.

    PubMed

    Torrents, Carlota; Castañer, Marta; Jofre, Toni; Morey, Gaspar; Reverter, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Some experiments have stablished that certain kinematic parameters can influence the subjective aesthetic perception of the dance audience. Neave, McCarty, Freynik, Caplan, Hönekopp, and Fink (2010, Biology Letters 7 221-224) reported eleven movement parameters in non-expert male dancers, showing a significant positive correlation with perceived dance quality. We aim to identify some of the kinematic parameters of expert dancers' movements that influence the subjective aesthetic perception of observers in relation to specific skills of contemporary dance. Four experienced contemporary dancers performed three repetitions of four dance-related motor skills. Motion was captured by a VICON-MX system. The resulting 48 animations were viewed by 108 observers. The observers judged beauty using a semantic differential. The data were then subjected to multiple factor analysis. The results suggested that there were strong associations between higher beauty scores and certain kinematic parameters, especially those related to amplitude of movement.

  14. [Health instead of gallantry: a paradigm shift in physician's beauty advice in the century of enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Sander, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    The views of femininity and the attempts to standardise it, developed in the 18th century in philosophy, education, literature, theology, anthropology and medicine, have led to intense research in the last years. Such research normally starts with the Enlightenment debates in the second half of the 18th century, but there are interesting sources which allow the tracing of a development over a longer period and which had a wider contemporary readership than any scholarly treatise. These are the popular beauty manuals, which in the German-speaking area started to appear more frequently from the late 17th century on, composed chiefly by physicians who thereby hoped to profit from the growing book and healthcare market. The present article considers the approaches of physicians to female beauty, with special reference to the discontinuities caused by the Enlightenment.

  15. The ethical complexities of online organ solicitation via donor-patient websites: avoiding the "beauty contest".

    PubMed

    Neidich, E M; Neidich, A B; Cooper, J T; Bramstedt, K A

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of the Internet has spurred the creation of websites dedicated to facilitating living directed organ donations. We argue that such sites potentially devolve into "beauty contests" where patients in need are evaluated on the basis of their personal appearance and biography-variables which should have no relevance to organ allocation. Altruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it does, there is no place for a beauty contest. The power of the Internet is optimally used when it facilitates Good Samaritan donations-donations to any stranger, rather than handpicked ones. Social networking sites which aim to match potential donors and patients should mask personal identifying information, allowing the ethical principles of altruism and justice to guide organ allocation.

  16. Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2005-01-01

    Dion, Berscheid, and Walster (1972), in their seminal article, labeled the attribution of positive characteristics to attractive people the “beauty-is-good” stereotype. The stereotyping literature since then provides extensive evidence for the differential judgment and treatment of attractive versus unattractive people, but does not indicate whether it is an advantage to be attractive or a disadvantage to be unattractive. Two studies investigated the direction of attractiveness stereotyping by comparing judgments of positive and negative attributes for medium vs. low and medium vs. high attractive faces. Taken together, results for adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2) suggest that most often, unattractiveness is a disadvantage, consistent with negativity bias (e.g., Rozin & Royzman, 2001) but contrary to the “beauty-is-good” aphorism. PMID:17016544

  17. Sleeping Beauty transposon system for genetic etiological research and gene therapy of cancers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Deng, Yang; Wu, Jianfeng; Cao, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is etiologically associated with somatic mutations of critical genes. Recently, a number of somatic mutations and key molecules have been found to be involved in functional networks affecting cancer progression. Suitable animal models are required to validate cancer-promoting or -inhibiting capacities of these mutants and molecules. Sleeping Beauty transposon system consists of a transposon that carries gene(s) of interest and a transposase that recognizes, excises, and reinserts genes in given location of the genome. It can create both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations, thus being frequently chosen to investigate the etiological mechanisms and gene therapy for cancers in animal models. In this review, we summarized current advances of Sleeping Beauty transposon system in revealing molecular mechanism of cancers and improving gene therapy. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which driver mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and metastasis may pave the way for the development of innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against malignant diseases.

  18. Sleeping Beauty transposon system for genetic etiological research and gene therapy of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Deng, Yang; Wu, Jianfeng; Cao, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is etiologically associated with somatic mutations of critical genes. Recently, a number of somatic mutations and key molecules have been found to be involved in functional networks affecting cancer progression. Suitable animal models are required to validate cancer-promoting or -inhibiting capacities of these mutants and molecules. Sleeping Beauty transposon system consists of a transposon that carries gene(s) of interest and a transposase that recognizes, excises, and reinserts genes in given location of the genome. It can create both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations, thus being frequently chosen to investigate the etiological mechanisms and gene therapy for cancers in animal models. In this review, we summarized current advances of Sleeping Beauty transposon system in revealing molecular mechanism of cancers and improving gene therapy. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which driver mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and metastasis may pave the way for the development of innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against malignant diseases. PMID:25455252

  19. Beauty-quark and charm-quark pair production asymmetries at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Haisch, Ulrich; Pecjak, Ben D.; Re, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The LHCb Collaboration has recently performed a first measurement of the angular production asymmetry in the distribution of beauty quarks and antiquarks at a hadron collider. We calculate the corresponding standard model prediction for this asymmetry at fixed order in perturbation theory. Our results show good agreement with the data, which are provided differentially for three bins in the invariant mass of the b b ¯ system. We also present similar predictions for both beauty-quark and charm-quark final states within the LHCb acceptance for a collision energy of √{s }=13 TeV . We finally point out that a measurement of the ratio of the b b ¯ and c c ¯ cross sections may be useful for experimentally validating charm-tagging efficiencies.

  20. Revisiting Rossion and Pourtois with new ratings for automated complexity, familiarity, beauty, and encounter.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Alex; Street, Nichola; Helmy, Mai

    2016-10-03

    Differences between norm ratings collected when participants are asked to consider more than one picture characteristic are contrasted with the traditional methodological approaches of collecting ratings separately for image constructs. We present data that suggest that reporting normative data, based on methodological procedures that ask participants to consider multiple image constructs simultaneously, could potentially confounded norm data. We provide data for two new image constructs, beauty and the extent to which participants encountered the stimuli in their everyday lives. Analysis of this data suggests that familiarity and encounter are tapping different image constructs. The extent to which an observer encounters an object predicts human judgments of visual complexity. Encountering an image was also found to be an important predictor of beauty, but familiarity with that image was not. Taken together, these results suggest that continuing to collect complexity measures from human judgments is a pointless exercise. Automated measures are more reliable and valid measures, which are demonstrated here as predicting human preferences.

  1. Beauty, body size and wages: Evidence from a unique data set.

    PubMed

    Oreffice, Sonia; Quintana-Domeque, Climent

    2016-09-01

    We analyze how attractiveness rated at the start of the interview in the German General Social Survey is related to weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), separately by gender and accounting for interviewers' characteristics or fixed effects. We show that height, weight, and BMI all strongly contribute to male and female attractiveness when attractiveness is rated by opposite-sex interviewers, and that anthropometric characteristics are irrelevant to male interviewers when assessing male attractiveness. We also estimate whether, controlling for beauty, body size measures are related to hourly wages. We find that anthropometric attributes play a significant role in wage regressions in addition to attractiveness, showing that body size cannot be dismissed as a simple component of beauty. Our findings are robust to controlling for health status and accounting for selection into working.

  2. Dedication to Degradation: The Beauty of Materials Designed to Lay in Ruin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nychka, John A.; Kruzic, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Degradation of materials is typically perceived to be a negative response in service. Many designs, and materials, have been and are ruined due to corrosion, fatigue, weathering, ultraviolet light, fungal attack, bacterial attack, erosion, wear, electromigration… and on the list goes. However, the carefully controlled and purposeful degradation of materials is a prerequisite for success for some designs—and such ability is a beautiful necessity when it comes to many regenerative biomaterials. In other instances, we must seek first to understand the degradation mechanisms before we can achieve degradation prevention—and the resistance of some materials to degradation is also beautiful. Regardless of whether we try to prevent or elicit degradation, our dedication to degradation of materials is ever present in materials design.

  3. Boosting beauty in an economic decline: mating, spending, and the lipstick effect.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Griskevicius, Vladas; Durante, Kristina; White, Andrew Edward

    2012-08-01

    Although consumer spending typically declines in economic recessions, some observers have noted that recessions appear to increase women's spending on beauty products--the so-called lipstick effect. Using both historical spending data and rigorous experiments, the authors examine how and why economic recessions influence women's consumer behavior. Findings revealed that recessionary cues--whether naturally occurring or experimentally primed--decreased desire for most products (e.g., electronics, household items). However, these cues consistently increased women's desire for products that increase attractiveness to mates--the first experimental demonstration of the lipstick effect. Additional studies show that this effect is driven by women's desire to attract mates with resources and depends on the perceived mate attraction function served by these products. In addition to showing how and why economic recessions influence women's desire for beauty products, this research provides novel insights into women's mating psychology, consumer behavior, and the relationship between the two.

  4. The world can look better: enhancing beauty experience with brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Flexas, Albert; Nadal, Marcos; Munar, Enric; Cela-Conde, Camilo J

    2014-11-01

    Aesthetic appreciation is part of our everyday life: it is a subjective judgment we make when looking at a painting, a landscape, or--in fact--at another person. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence suggests that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a critical role in aesthetic judgments. Here, we show that the experience of beauty can be artificially enhanced with brain stimulation. Specifically, we show that aesthetic appreciation of representational paintings and photographs can be increased by applying anodal (excitatory) transcranial direct current stimulation on the left DLPFC. Our results thus show that beauty is in the brain of the beholder, and offer a novel view on the neural networks underlying aesthetic appreciation.

  5. Beauty and ugliness in the bodies and faces of others: an fMRI study of person esthetic judgement.

    PubMed

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hernández-Tamames, J A; Martín, A; Urrutia, M

    2014-09-26

    Whether beauty and ugliness represent two independent judgement categories or, instead, opposite extremes of a single dimension is a matter of debate. In the present 3T-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, 20 participants were scanned while judging faces and nude bodies of people classified as extremely ugly, extremely beautiful, or indifferent. Certain areas, such as the caudate/nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), exhibited a linear relationship across esthetic judgments supporting ugliness as the lowest extreme of a beauty continuum. Other regions, such as basal occipital areas, displayed an inverse pattern, with the highest activations for ugly and the lowest for beautiful ones. Further, several areas were involved alike by both the very beautiful and the very ugly stimuli. Among these, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), as well as the posterior and medial portions of the cingulate gyrus. This is interpreted as the activation of neural circuits related to self- vs. other-assessment. Beauty and ugliness in the brain, at least in relation to natural and biologically and socially relevant stimuli (faces and bodies), appear tightly related and non-independent. Finally, neutral stimuli elicited strong and wide activations of the somatosensory and somatomotor systems together with longer reaction times and higher error rates, probably reflecting the difficulty of the human brain to classify someone as indifferent.

  6. "The Corn People Have a Song Too. It Is Very Good": On Beauty, Truth, and Goodness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, J. Edward

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-first-century skeptics would say that there are really no such things as beauty and truth and certainly not goodness. A Pueblo poet seemed to think there was--"the corn people have a song / it is very good"--and unless people think they know better, they'd better listen up. This article begins with a short piece, set down by the…

  7. Beauty matters: social preferences in a three-person ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Preference for beauty is human nature, as previous behavior studies have supported the notion of "beauty premium" in which attractive people were more easily to get promoted and receive higher salaries. In the present study, 29 males were recruited to participate in a three-person ultimatum game (UG) including a proposer, a responder and a powerless third player. Each subject, playing as the responder, had to decide whether to accept an offer from the allocator both for himself and a female third person. We aimed to elucidate how the facial attractiveness of the female subject affected the male subjects' fairness and decision-making in social exchanges. Frontal feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to four offers in an attractive-face condition revealed no significant differences between offers; however, when the companion was an unattractive female, an "unfair/fair" offer, which assigned a lower share to the responder and a fair share to the third player, elicited the largest FRN. Furthermore, when the third player was offered the smallest amount ("fair/unfair" offer), a larger FRN was generated in an attractive-face condition than unattractive-face condition. In the "unfair/fair" offer condition in which subjects received a smaller allocation than the third person, the beauty of their female counterparts attenuated subjects' aversion to inequality, resulting in a less negative FRN in the frontal region and an increased acceptance ratio. However, the influence of the third player's facial attractiveness only affected the early evaluation stage: late P300 was found to be immune to the "beauty premium". Under the two face conditions, P300 was smallest following an "unfair/fair" offer, whereas the amplitudes in the other three offer conditions exhibited no significant differences. In addition, the differentiated neural features of processing facial attractiveness were also determined and indexed by four event-related potentials (ERP) components: N170, frontal

  8. Research in elementary particle physics. Annual report, January 1--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.

  9. First measurement of the charge asymmetry in beauty-quark pair production.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-08-22

    The difference in the angular distributions between beauty quarks and antiquarks, referred to as the charge asymmetry, is measured for the first time in bb pair production at a hadron collider. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1) collected at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector. The measurement is performed in three regions of the invariant mass of the bb system. The results obtained are A(C)(bb))(40 105 GeV/c(2)) = 1.6 ± 1.7 ± 0.6%, where A(C)(bb)) is defined as the asymmetry in the difference in rapidity between jets formed from the beauty quark and antiquark, where in each case the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The beauty jets are required to satisfy 2 < η < 4, E(T) >20 GeV, and have an opening angle in the transverse plane Δ ϕ > 2.6 rad. These measurements are consistent with the predictions of the standard model.

  10. Preliminary geologic map of the Beautiful Mountain anticline, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaumont, E.C.

    1954-01-01

    The Beautiful Mountain anticline is on the Navajo Indian Reservation in western San Juan County, N. Mex., near the Arizona-New Mexico State line; it lies along tbe western side of the Chuska Valley at the foot of the Chuska Mountains. Most of the area of this report is characterized by low, sharp relief. Beautiful Mountain, a buttelike outlier of the Chuska Mountains, contrasts strikingly with the otherwise low relief of the area--it rises above the western flank of the anticline to an alutude of nearly 9,000 feet. The general form of the partly breached anticlinal structure is expressed in the topography sharply delineated cuestas, mesas, buttes, and promontories, all capped by the resistant sandstone beds of the Tocito sandstone lentil of rhe Mancos shale. This report shows the distribution and thickness of the sedimentary rocks exposed in the area of the Beautiful Mountain anticline and the conformation of the anticline as represented by structure contours drawn on the top of the Dakota sandstone.

  11. Sex-related similarities and differences in the neural correlates of beauty

    PubMed Central

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Ayala, Francisco J.; Munar, Enric; Maestú, Fernando; Nadal, Marcos; Capó, Miguel A.; del Río, David; López-Ibor, Juan J.; Ortiz, Tomás; Mirasso, Claudio; Marty, Gisèle

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to appreciate beauty is one of our species' most remarkable traits. Although knowledge about its neural correlates is growing, little is known about any gender-related differences. We have explored possible differences between men and women's neural correlates of aesthetic preference. We have used magnetoencephalography to record the brain activity of 10 male and 10 female participants while they decided whether or not they considered examples of artistic and natural visual stimuli to be beautiful. Our results reveal significantly different activity between the sexes in parietal regions when participants judged the stimuli as beautiful. Activity in this region was bilateral in women, whereas it was lateralized to the right hemisphere in men. It is known that the dorsal visual processing stream, which encompasses the superior parietal areas, has been significantly modified throughout human evolution. We posit that the observed gender-related differences are the result of evolutionary processes that occurred after the splitting of the human and chimpanzee lineages. In view of previous results on gender differences with respect to the neural correlates of coordinate and categorical spatial strategies, we infer that the different strategies used by men and women in assessing aesthetic preference may reflect differences in the strategies associated with the division of labor between our male and female hunter-gatherer hominin ancestors. PMID:19237562

  12. The Accelerating Universe: Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2000-12-01

    Advance Praise for The Accelerating Universe "The Accelerating Universe is not only an informative book about modern cosmology. It is rich storytelling and, above all, a celebration of the human mind in its quest for beauty in all things." -Alan Lightman, author of Einstein's Dreams "This is a wonderfully lucid account of the extraordinary discoveries that have made the last years a golden period for observational cosmology. But Mario Livio has not only given the reader one clear explanation after another of what astronomers are up to, he has used them to construct a provocative argument for the importance of aesthetics in the development of science and for the inseparability of science, art, and culture." -Lee Smolin, author of The Life of the Cosmos "What a pleasure to read! An exciting, simple account of the universe revealed by modern astronomy. Beautifully written, clearly presented, informed by scientific and philosophical insights." -John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study "A book with charm, beauty, elegance, and importance. As authoritative a journey as can be taken through modern cosmology." -Allan Sandage, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

  13. Genetic Signature of Histiocytic Sarcoma Revealed by a Sleeping Beauty Transposon Genetic Screen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Been, Raha A.; Linden, Michael A.; Hager, Courtney J.; DeCoursin, Krista J.; Abrahante, Juan E.; Landman, Sean R.; Steinbach, Michael; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Starr, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. Histiocytic sarcoma is thought to arise from macrophage precursor cells via genetic changes that are largely undefined. To improve our understanding of the etiology of histiocytic sarcoma we conducted a forward genetic screen in mice using the Sleeping Beauty transposon as a mutagen to identify genetic drivers of histiocytic sarcoma. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis was targeted to myeloid lineage cells using the Lysozyme2 promoter. Mice with activated Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis had significantly shortened lifespan and the majority of these mice developed tumors resembling human histiocytic sarcoma. Analysis of transposon insertions identified 27 common insertion sites containing 28 candidate cancer genes. Several of these genes are known drivers of hematological neoplasms, like Raf1, Fli1, and Mitf, while others are well-known cancer genes, including Nf1, Myc, Jak2, and Pten. Importantly, several new potential drivers of histiocytic sarcoma were identified and could serve as targets for therapy for histiocytic sarcoma patients. PMID:24827933

  14. First Measurement of the Charge Asymmetry in Beauty-Quark Pair Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.

    2014-08-01

    The difference in the angular distributions between beauty quarks and antiquarks, referred to as the charge asymmetry, is measured for the first time in bb¯ pair production at a hadron collider. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1 collected at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector. The measurement is performed in three regions of the invariant mass of the bb¯ system. The results obtained are ACbb¯(40105 GeV /c2)=1.6±1.7±0.6%, where ACbb¯ is defined as the asymmetry in the difference in rapidity between jets formed from the beauty quark and antiquark, where in each case the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The beauty jets are required to satisfy 2<η <4, ET>20 GeV, and have an opening angle in the transverse plane Δϕ >2.6 rad. These measurements are consistent with the predictions of the standard model.

  15. Mirror, mirror on the wall…: self-perception of facial beauty versus judgement by others.

    PubMed

    Springer, I N; Wiltfang, J; Kowalski, J T; Russo, P A J; Schulze, M; Becker, S; Wolfart, S

    2012-12-01

    In 1878, Margaret Wolfe Hungerford published a simple but insightful phrase in her novel 'Molly Bawn' that was to be quoted so often it has almost become cliché: "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder". While many questions regarding the perception and neural processing of facial attractiveness have been resolved, it became obvious to us that study designs have been principally based on either facial self-perception or perception by others. The relationship between these however, remains both crucial and unknown. Standardized images were taken of 141 subjects. These 141 subjects were asked to complete the adjective mood scale (AMS) and to rank specific issues related to their looks on a visual analogue scale. The images were then shown to independent judges to rank specific issues related to their looks on a visual analogue scale. Our results show proof for a strikingly simple observation: that individuals perceive their own beauty to be greater than that expressed in the opinions of others (p < 0.001). This observation provides insight into our basic behavioural patterns and suggests that there are strong psychological mechanisms in humans supporting self-identification and thereby encouraging the self-confidence and resilience necessary to maintain one's social standing. While the psychological basis of self-confidence is multifactorial, our finding provides critical objective insight. We prove here for the first time that nothing more than the beauty of the beholder is in the eyes of the latter.

  16. The Beauty and Limitations of 10 Micron Heterodyne Interferometry (ISI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, heterodyne interferometry at 10 microns has been the only successful technique for stellar interferometry in the very difficult atmospheric window from 9-12 microns. For most of its operational lifetime the U.C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer was a single-baseline two telescope (1.65 m aperture) system using CO2 lasers as local oscillators. This instrument was designed and constructed from 1983-1988, and first fringes were obtained at Mt. Wilson in June 1988. During the past few years, a third telescope was constructed and just recently the first closure phases were obtained at 11.15 microns. We discuss the history, physics and technology of heterodyne interferometry in the mid-infrared, and some key astronomical results that have come from this unique instrument.

  17. The Quest for Unity - The Adventure of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Etienne; Lachièze-Rey, Marc

    1999-05-01

    What could quantum mechanics have in common with the philosophical musings of the ancient Greeks? In our age of multimillion-dollar supercolliders, it's hard to imagine that modern physics owes anything to thinkers who predate Descartes. But French physicists Etienne Klein and March Lachieze-Rey see an unbroken thread running from antiquity to the present--an ongoing search, throughout the history of science, for unity. In The Search for Unity the authors reveal how the quest for the One has driven all the great breakthroughs in science. They show how the Greeks searched for the fundamental element in all things; how Galileo unified the earth with the heavens, by discovering valleys and mountains on the moon; and how Newton created a single theory to describe the motion of the celestial bodies. With unequaled clarity, they explore the work of the most famous unifier of all, Albert Einstein, who melded space and time into a combined space-time concept, and then embarked on an unsuccessful search for a single theory to explain all the physical laws of the universe. Throughout the book, the authors stress the esthetic motives of scientists, how they recognize truth through apprehension of mathematical beauty. And in tracing the quest for unity up to the present day, they illuminate the bizarre workings of quantum mechanics and the sticky definition of reality itself at the subatomic level. A grand unification of all interactions still awaits discovery--but as Klein and Lachieze-Rey show, the search itself is as fascinating as the end result may ever be.

  18. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  19. Beautiful mirrors for a pNGB Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, Eduardo C.; Da Rold, Leandro; Davidovich, Iván A.

    2016-03-01

    We consider one of the most significant deviations from the Standard Model: the forward-backward asymmetry of the b-quark measured at leptonic colliders. We investigate the possibility to solve this discrepancy by introducing new physics at the TeV scale. We focus on models where the Higgs is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of a new strongly coupled sector with a global SO(5) symmetry broken spontaneously to SO(4). Besides the usual top partners, we introduce bottom partners in the representations 16 and 4 of SO(5) and show that they can improve significantly the fit by correcting the Zboverline{b} couplings. We also estimate the corrections to the couplings at one-loop and obtain that the tree-level ones dominate and can give a reliable estimation. We find that the large shift required for Z{b}_R{overline{b}}_R leads to light custodians associated to the b-quark, similar to the top partners, as well as a rich phenomenology involving neutral interactions in the bottom-sector.

  20. Age and beauty are in the eye of the beholder.

    PubMed

    Kwart, Dylan G; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-01-01

    How "old" and "attractive" an individual appears has increasingly become an individual concern leading to the utilisation of various cosmetic surgical procedures aimed at enhancing appearance. Using eyetracking, in the present study we aimed to investigate how individuals perceive age and attractiveness of younger and older faces and what "bottom-up" facial cues are used in this process. One hundred and twenty eight digital images of neutral faces of ages ranging from 20 to 89 years were paired and presented to subjects who judged age and attractiveness levels while having their eye movements recorded. There was an effect of face attractiveness on age-rating accuracy, with attractive faces being rated younger than their true age. Similarly, stimulus age affected attractiveness ratings, with younger faces being perceived as more attractive. Judgments of age and attractiveness were tightly linked to fixations on the eye region, along with the nose and mouth. It is thus likely that cosmetic surgical procedures targeted at the eyes, nose, and mouth may be most efficacious at enhancing one's physical appearance.

  1. Is Beauty in the Face of the Beholder?

    PubMed Central

    Laeng, Bruno; Vermeer, Oddrun; Sulutvedt, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Opposing forces influence assortative mating so that one seeks a similar mate while at the same time avoiding inbreeding with close relatives. Thus, mate choice may be a balancing of phenotypic similarity and dissimilarity between partners. In the present study, we assessed the role of resemblance to Self’s facial traits in judgments of physical attractiveness. Participants chose the most attractive face image of their romantic partner among several variants, where the faces were morphed so as to include only 22% of another face. Participants distinctly preferred a “Self-based morph” (i.e., their partner’s face with a small amount of Self’s face blended into it) to other morphed images. The Self-based morph was also preferred to the morph of their partner’s face blended with the partner’s same-sex “prototype”, although the latter face was (“objectively”) judged more attractive by other individuals. When ranking morphs differing in level of amalgamation (i.e., 11% vs. 22% vs. 33%) of another face, the 22% was chosen consistently as the preferred morph and, in particular, when Self was blended in the partner’s face. A forced-choice signal-detection paradigm showed that the effect of self-resemblance operated at an unconscious level, since the same participants were unable to detect the presence of their own faces in the above morphs. We concluded that individuals, if given the opportunity, seek to promote “positive assortment” for Self’s phenotype, especially when the level of similarity approaches an optimal point that is similar to Self without causing a conscious acknowledgment of the similarity. PMID:23874608

  2. Is beauty in the face of the beholder?

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Vermeer, Oddrun; Sulutvedt, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Opposing forces influence assortative mating so that one seeks a similar mate while at the same time avoiding inbreeding with close relatives. Thus, mate choice may be a balancing of phenotypic similarity and dissimilarity between partners. In the present study, we assessed the role of resemblance to Self's facial traits in judgments of physical attractiveness. Participants chose the most attractive face image of their romantic partner among several variants, where the faces were morphed so as to include only 22% of another face. Participants distinctly preferred a "Self-based morph" (i.e., their partner's face with a small amount of Self's face blended into it) to other morphed images. The Self-based morph was also preferred to the morph of their partner's face blended with the partner's same-sex "prototype", although the latter face was ("objectively") judged more attractive by other individuals. When ranking morphs differing in level of amalgamation (i.e., 11% vs. 22% vs. 33%) of another face, the 22% was chosen consistently as the preferred morph and, in particular, when Self was blended in the partner's face. A forced-choice signal-detection paradigm showed that the effect of self-resemblance operated at an unconscious level, since the same participants were unable to detect the presence of their own faces in the above morphs. We concluded that individuals, if given the opportunity, seek to promote "positive assortment" for Self's phenotype, especially when the level of similarity approaches an optimal point that is similar to Self without causing a conscious acknowledgment of the similarity.

  3. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery by Sleeping Beauty inhibits vascular stasis in a murine model of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John D.; Vineyard, Julie V.; Bruzzone, Carol M.; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D.; Nguyen, Julia; Steer, Clifford J.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and administration of heme degradation products CO and biliverdin inhibit vascular inflammation and vasoocclusion in mouse models of sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, an albumin (alb) promoter-driven Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase plasmid with a wild-type rat hmox-1 (wt-HO-1) transposable element was delivered by hydrodynamic tail vein injections to SCD mice. Eight weeks after injection, SCD mice had three- to five-fold increases in HO-1 activity and protein expression in liver, similar to hemin-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased perinuclear HO-1 staining in hepatocytes. Messenger RNA transcription of the hmox-1 transgene in liver was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (qRT-PCR RFLP) with no detectible transgene expression in other organs. The livers of all HO-1 overexpressing mice had activation of nuclear phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-Akt, decreased nuclear expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and decreased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in serum. Hypoxia-induced stasis, a characteristic of SCD, but not normal mice, was inhibited in dorsal skin fold chambers in wt-HO-1 SCD mice despite the absence of hmox-1 transgene expression in the skin suggesting distal effects of HO activity on the vasculature. No protective effects were seen in SCD mice injected with nonsense (ns-) rat hmox-1 that encodes carboxy-truncated HO-1 with little or no enzyme activity. We speculate that HO-1 gene delivery to the liver is beneficial in SCD mice by degrading pro-oxidative heme, releasing anti-inflammatory heme degradation products CO and biliverdin/bilirubin into circulation, activating cytoprotective pathways and inhibiting vascular stasis at sites distal to transgene expression. PMID:20306336

  6. "That's not just beautiful--that's incredibly beautiful!": the adverse impact of inflated praise on children with low self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-03-01

    In current Western society, children are often lavished with inflated praise (e.g., "You made an incredibly beautiful drawing!"). Inflated praise is often given in an attempt to raise children's self-esteem. An experiment (Study 1) and naturalistic study (Study 2) found that adults are especially inclined to give inflated praise to children with low self-esteem. This inclination may backfire, however. Inflated praise might convey to children that they should continue to meet very high standards-a message that might discourage children with low self-esteem from taking on challenges. Another experiment (Study 3) found that inflated praise decreases challenge seeking in children with low self-esteem and has the opposite effect on children with high self-esteem. These findings show that inflated praise, although well intended, may cause children with low self-esteem to avoid crucial learning experiences.

  7. Beauty product-related exposures and childhood brain tumors in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumor Study.

    PubMed

    Efird, J T; Holly, E A; Cordier, S; Mueller, B A; Lubin, F; Filippini, G; Peris-Bonet, R; McCredie, M; Arslan, A; Bracci, P; Preston-Martin, S

    2005-04-01

    Data from 1218 cases of childhood brain tumors (CBT) diagnosed between 1976 and 1994 and 2223 matched controls from the general population were included in an analysis of maternal beauty product exposure and beauty-related employment in 9 centers in 7 countries. A 50% increased odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.1] for CBT was observed among children of mothers who were exposed via personal use of and/or possible ambient contact with beauty products during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with children of mothers never exposed to beauty products during this time period. Overall maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents in the month before or during the pregnancy of the index child's birth was not associated with CBT (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.83-1.3) or with astroglial (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.85-1.4), PNET (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.71-1.5) and other glial subtypes (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.62-1.0). Similarly, no statistically increased ORs or discernable pattern of risk estimates were observed for period of use or for number of applications per year for maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents overall or by histologic type. Among children born on or after 1980, increased ORs for CBT were associated with maternal non-work-related exposure to any beauty products (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.2-5.9), hair-dyes (OR = 11, CI = 1.2-90), and hair sprays (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.0-11). No overall increased OR for CBT was observed among children of mothers employed in beauty-related jobs during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with those who reported no beauty-related employment. In general, other specific beauty product-related exposures were not associated with increased ORs for CBT. Data from our study provide little evidence of an increased risk for CBT with mothers' exposures to beauty products.

  8. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  9. ‘For me… it’s a miracle’: injecting beauty among kathoeis in a provincial Thai city

    PubMed Central

    Poompruek, Panoopat; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Thai term kathoei refers to non-gender-normative females, males and intersexual individuals at different stages of the transitional spectrum with recognized social and cultural roles in society. Nevertheless, kathoeis are only tolerated in Thai society. Many kathoeis seek social acceptance through beauty and turn to the off-label injection of various ‘beauty drugs’. Methods The first author conducted an ethnographic study of injection parties at a wedding studio in a Central Thai provincial city between April and September 2011. Data were gathered through participant observation, focus group discussions and narrative interviews with six participants. All data were collected and analyzed in Thai, and later translated. Findings While injection parties provide opportunities for kathoeis to socialize, bond, and share experiential knowledge on chemically-assisted transformation, they also reproduce ideologies of gender, beauty and sexuality that reinforce the notion that if a kathoei is to maintain her beauty, she must use medicines more frequently and in higher doses. Conclusion Injection parties among Thai kathoeis feature drug use that is entirely reasonable in terms of their own lay knowledge. Empowering kathoeis, by providing accessible information on chemicals and health in a way that reflects the complexity and diversity of their practices, would be one way to reduce health risks. Society must give more long-term options to kathoeis to build their sense of self, based on things besides being beautiful. PMID:25047007

  10. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty.

    PubMed

    Hůla, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  11. A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches. PMID:24647932

  12. The GTTP Movement: Engaging young minds to the beauty of science and space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) is a living legacy of IYA2009. As a cornerstone of this important moment in the history of Astronomy, GTTP has managed to name representatives in over 100 nations and reached over 15000 teachers at a global level. The model used so far ensures sustainability and a fast growing support network. The task at hand is to engage educators in the use of modern tools for science teaching. Building the classroom of tomorrow is a promising path to engage young minds to the beauty of science and space exploration.

  13. Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feelings of gratitude and awe facilitate perceptions and cognitions that go beyond the focus of illness and include positive aspects of one’s personal and interpersonal reality, even in the face of disease. We intended to measure feelings of gratitude, awe, and experiences of beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders, particularly with respect to their engagement in specific spiritual/religious practices and their life satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with standardized questionnaires to measure engagement in various spiritual practices (SpREUK-P) and their relation to experiences of Gratitude, Awe and Beauty in Life and life satisfaction (BMLSS-10). In total, 461 individuals (41 ± 13 years; 68% women) with multiple sclerosis (46%) and depressive (22%) or other psychiatric disorders (32%) participated. Results Among participants, 23% never, 43% rarely, 24% often, and 10% frequently experienced Gratitude. In contrast, 41% never, 37% rarely, 17% often, and 6% frequently experienced Awe. Beauty in Life was never experienced by 8% of the sample, and 28% rarely, 46% often, and 18% frequently experienced it. Gratitude (F = 9.2; p = .003) and Beauty in Life (F = 6.0; p = .015) were experienced significantly more often by women than men. However, the experience of Awe did not differ between women and men (F = 2.2; n.s.). In contrast to our hypothesis, Gratitude/Awe cannot explain any relevant variance in patients’ life satisfaction (R2 = .04). Regression analyses (R2 = .42) revealed that Gratitude/Awe can be predicted best by a person’s engagement in religious practices, followed by other forms of spiritual practices and life satisfaction. Female gender was a weak predictor and underlying disease showed no effect. Conclusions Gratitude/Awe could be regarded as a life orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positive in life - despite the symptoms of

  14. How Beauty Determines Gaze! Facial Attractiveness and Gaze Duration in Images of Real World Scenes.

    PubMed

    Leder, Helmut; Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Goller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We showed that the looking time spent on faces is a valid covariate of beauty by testing the relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior. We presented natural scenes which always pictured two people, encompassing a wide range of facial attractiveness. Employing measurements of eye movements in a free viewing paradigm, we found a linear relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior: The more attractive the face, the longer and the more often it was looked at. In line with evolutionary approaches, the positive relation was particularly pronounced when participants viewed other sex faces.

  15. Production of exotic and conventional quarkonia and open beauty/open charm at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, C.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC is carrying on a wide programme to study the production properties of conventional and exotic quarkonium, beauty, and charm bound states. The latest results on J/ψ, ψ(2s) and X(3872) production at 7, 8, and 13 TeV, together with D meson production with Run-1 are presented. Studies of associated production of charmonium with vector bosons, searches for exotic states in the bottomonium sector and a new measurement of the ratio of b-quark fragmentation functions are also briefly presented.

  16. Beauty Matters: Social Preferences in a Three-Person Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Preference for beauty is human nature, as previous behavior studies have supported the notion of “beauty premium” in which attractive people were more easily to get promoted and receive higher salaries. In the present study, 29 males were recruited to participate in a three-person ultimatum game (UG) including a proposer, a responder and a powerless third player. Each subject, playing as the responder, had to decide whether to accept an offer from the allocator both for himself and a female third person. We aimed to elucidate how the facial attractiveness of the female subject affected the male subjects’ fairness and decision-making in social exchanges. Frontal feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to four offers in an attractive-face condition revealed no significant differences between offers; however, when the companion was an unattractive female, an “unfair/fair” offer, which assigned a lower share to the responder and a fair share to the third player, elicited the largest FRN. Furthermore, when the third player was offered the smallest amount (“fair/unfair” offer), a larger FRN was generated in an attractive-face condition than unattractive-face condition. In the “unfair/fair” offer condition in which subjects received a smaller allocation than the third person, the beauty of their female counterparts attenuated subjects’ aversion to inequality, resulting in a less negative FRN in the frontal region and an increased acceptance ratio. However, the influence of the third player’s facial attractiveness only affected the early evaluation stage: late P300 was found to be immune to the “beauty premium”. Under the two face conditions, P300 was smallest following an “unfair/fair” offer, whereas the amplitudes in the other three offer conditions exhibited no significant differences. In addition, the differentiated neural features of processing facial attractiveness were also determined and indexed by four event-related potentials

  17. How Beauty Determines Gaze! Facial Attractiveness and Gaze Duration in Images of Real World Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Goller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We showed that the looking time spent on faces is a valid covariate of beauty by testing the relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior. We presented natural scenes which always pictured two people, encompassing a wide range of facial attractiveness. Employing measurements of eye movements in a free viewing paradigm, we found a linear relation between facial attractiveness and gaze behavior: The more attractive the face, the longer and the more often it was looked at. In line with evolutionary approaches, the positive relation was particularly pronounced when participants viewed other sex faces. PMID:27698984

  18. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  19. Earth From Space: "Beautiful Earth's" Integration of Media Arts, Earth Science, and Native Wisdom in Informal Learning Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasanto, V.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Rock, J.; Markus, T.

    2015-12-01

    "Beautiful Earth: Experiencing and Learning Science in an Engaging Way" was a 3-year project funded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science. An outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA performance, Beautiful Earth fostered a new approach to teaching by combining live music, data visualizations and Earth science with indigenous perspectives, and hands-on workshops for K-12 students at 5 science centers. Inspired by the "Overview Effect," described by many astronauts who were awestruck by seeing the Earth from space and their realization of the profound interconnectedness of Earth's life systems, Beautiful Earth leveraged the power of multimedia performance to serve as a springboard to engage K-12 students in hands-on Earth science and Native wisdom workshops. Results will be presented regarding student perceptions of Earth science, environmental issues, and indigenous ways of knowing from 3 years of evaluation data.

  20. Red, White and Black: Colors of Beauty, Tints of Health and Cosmetic Materials in Early Modern English Art Writing.

    PubMed

    Sammern, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Alongside Richard Haydocke's translation of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo's treatise on painting (1598), the article examines concepts of color concerning cosmetics, painting and complexion as they relate to aesthetics, artistic and medical practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Beginning with white and red as ideal colors of beauty in Agnolo Firenzuola's Discourse on the beauty of women (1541), the essay places color in relation to major issues in art, medicine and empiricism by discussing beauty as a quality of humoral theory and its colors as visual results of physiological processes. Challenging the relation of art and nature, gender and production, Lomazzo's account of complexion and Haydocke's additions on cosmetic practices and face-painting provide key passages that shed light on the relation of cosmetics colors, art writing and artistic practices at the convergence of the body, art and medicine in the context of the emerging English virtuosi around 1600.

  1. Beauty and simplicity: the power of fine art and moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland.

    PubMed

    Dekker, J J H

    2009-04-01

    Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising paintings and drawings on education and domestic virtues, so contributing to the reconciliation of the existing tensions, or, in the words of Simon Schama, embarrassment between beauty and the promoted virtues of frugality and simplicity. A broad middle class created its own private surrounding in which morality and enjoying the beauty of moralising on the family and parenting went together, as is made clear by the analysis of a series of representative images. Dutch parents, moralists, and painters knew the power of beauty in moralising on the family.

  2. Is Physical Fitness Raising Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The fields of academics and physical education used to exist in two separate universes. However, these days, the demarcation between mind and body, between academic education and physical education, is wavering. Physical educators in school such as North Laurel Elementary School in Laurel, Delaware are adding academic elements to their lessons. In…

  3. How Students Understand Physics Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce L.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed a corpus of videotapes in which university students solved physics problems to determine how students learn to understand a physics equation. Found that students learn to understand physics equations in terms of a vocabulary of elements called symbolic forms, each associating a simple conceptual schema with a pattern of symbols. Findings…

  4. BEAUTY: an enhanced BLAST-based search tool that integrates multiple biological information resources into sequence similarity search results.

    PubMed

    Worley, K C; Wiese, B A; Smith, R F

    1995-09-01

    BEAUTY (BLAST enhanced alignment utility) is an enhanced version of the NCBI's BLAST data base search tool that facilitates identification of the functions of matched sequences. We have created new data bases of conserved regions and functional domains for protein sequences in NCBI's Entrez data base, and BEAUTY allows this information to be incorporated directly into BLAST search results. A Conserved Regions Data Base, containing the locations of conserved regions within Entrez protein sequences, was constructed by (1) clustering the entire data base into families, (2) aligning each family using our PIMA multiple sequence alignment program, and (3) scanning the multiple alignments to locate the conserved regions within each aligned sequence. A separate Annotated Domains Data Base was constructed by extracting the locations of all annotated domains and sites from sequences represented in the Entrez, PROSITE, BLOCKS, and PRINTS data bases. BEAUTY performs a BLAST search of those Entrez sequences with conserved regions and/or annotated domains. BEAUTY then uses the information from the Conserved Regions and Annotated Domains data bases to generate, for each matched sequence, a schematic display that allows one to directly compare the relative locations of (1) the conserved regions, (2) annotated domains and sites, and (3) the locally aligned regions matched in the BLAST search. In addition, BEAUTY search results include World-Wide Web hypertext links to a number of external data bases that provide a variety of additional types of information on the function of matched sequences. This convenient integration of protein families, conserved regions, annotated domains, alignment displays, and World-Wide Web resources greatly enhances the biological informativeness of sequence similarity searches. BEAUTY searches can be performed remotely on our system using the "BCM Search Launcher" World-Wide Web pages (URL is < http:/ /gc.bcm.tmc.edu:8088/ search-launcher/launcher.html > ).

  5. Discovery announced of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) have announced the discovery of four new elements: 113, 115, 117 and 118 - completing the periodic table's seventh row.

  6. Shared brain activity for aesthetic and moral judgments: implications for the Beauty-is-Good stereotype.

    PubMed

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The Beauty-is-Good stereotype refers to the assumption that attractive people possess sociably desirable personalities and higher moral standards. The existence of this bias suggests that the neural mechanisms for judging facial attractiveness and moral goodness overlap. To investigate this idea, we scanned participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they made attractiveness judgments about faces and goodness judgments about hypothetical actions. Activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex increased as a function of both attractiveness and goodness ratings, whereas activity in the insular cortex decreased with both attractiveness and goodness ratings. Within each of these regions, the activations elicited by attractiveness and goodness judgments were strongly correlated with each other, supporting the idea of similar contributions of each region to both judgments. Moreover, activations in orbitofrontal and insular cortices were negatively correlated with each other, suggesting an opposing relationship between these regions during attractiveness and goodness judgments. These findings have implications for understanding the neural mechanisms of the Beauty-is-Good stereotype.

  7. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower penetration and high compound instability of various cosmetic products for sustained and enhanced compound delivery to the beauty-based skin therapy. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in cosmeceutical sectors and products. Nanosizing of phytocompounds enhances the aseptic feel in various cosmeceutical products with sustained delivery and enhanced skin protecting activities. Solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes are some of the emerging nanotechnologies currently in use for their enhanced delivery of phytocompounds in skin care. Aloe vera, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, vitamins C and E, genistein, and green tea catechins were successfully nanosized using various delivery technologies and incorporated in various gels, lotions, and creams for skin, lip, and hair care for their sustained effects. However, certain delivery agents such as carbon nanotubes need to be studied for their roles in toxicity. This review broadly focuses on the usage of phytocompounds in various cosmeceutical products, nanodelivery technologies used in the delivery of phytocompounds to various cosmeceuticals, and various nanosized phytocompounds used in the development of novel nanocosmeceuticals to enhance skin-based therapy. PMID:27274231

  8. Flavor SU(3) properties of beauty tetraquark states with three different light quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Ko, Pyungwon

    2016-10-01

    Beauty tetraquark states X (b bar q‧q″ q bar) composed of b bar su d bar , b bar ds u bar , and b bar ud s bar , are unique that all the four valence quarks are different. Although the claim of existence of the first two states by D0 was not confirmed by data from LHCb, the possibility of such states still generated a lot of interests and should be pursued further. Non-observation of X (b bar q‧q″ q bar) states by LHCb may be just due to a still lower production rate than the limit of LHCb or at some different mass ranges. In this work we use light quark SU (3) flavor symmetry as guideline to classify symmetry properties of beauty tetraquark states. The multiplets which contain states with three different light quarks must be one of 6 bar or 15 of SU (3) representations. We study possible decays of such a tetraquark state into a B meson and a light pseudoscalar octet meson by constructing a leading order chiral Lagrangian, and also provide search strategies to determine whether a given tetraquark state of this type belongs to 6 bar or 15. If X (b bar q‧q″ q bar) belongs to 15, there are new doubly charged tetraquark states b bar uu d bar and b bar uu s bar .

  9. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    PubMed Central

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  10. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Phytocompounds have been used in cosmeceuticals for decades and have shown potential for beauty applications, including sunscreen, moisturizing and antiaging, and skin-based therapy. The major concerns in the usage of phyto-based cosmeceuticals are lower penetration and high compound instability of various cosmetic products for sustained and enhanced compound delivery to the beauty-based skin therapy. To overcome these disadvantages, nanosized delivery technologies are currently in use for sustained and enhanced delivery of phyto-derived bioactive compounds in cosmeceutical sectors and products. Nanosizing of phytocompounds enhances the aseptic feel in various cosmeceutical products with sustained delivery and enhanced skin protecting activities. Solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes, ethosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes are some of the emerging nanotechnologies currently in use for their enhanced delivery of phytocompounds in skin care. Aloe vera, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, vitamins C and E, genistein, and green tea catechins were successfully nanosized using various delivery technologies and incorporated in various gels, lotions, and creams for skin, lip, and hair care for their sustained effects. However, certain delivery agents such as carbon nanotubes need to be studied for their roles in toxicity. This review broadly focuses on the usage of phytocompounds in various cosmeceutical products, nanodelivery technologies used in the delivery of phytocompounds to various cosmeceuticals, and various nanosized phytocompounds used in the development of novel nanocosmeceuticals to enhance skin-based therapy.

  11. Simple estimates of the masses of pentaquarks with hidden beauty or strangeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir; Potashnikova, Irina

    2016-04-01

    The masses of cryptoexotic pentaquarks with hidden beauty are estimated phenomenologically using the results by the LHCb Collaboration which discovered recently the cryptoexotic pentaquarks with hidden charm. The expected masses of the hidden beauty pentaquarks are about 10.8 GeV and 10.7 GeV in the limit of some kind of heavy quark symmetry. The states with hidden strangeness considered in a similar way have masses of about 2.37 GeV and 2.30 GeV, several hundred MeV higher than states discussed previously in connection with the relatively light positive strangeness pentaquark θ+. Empirical data on the spectra of pentaquarks can be used to get information about quarkonia interaction with nucleons. The results obtained for the case of heavy flavors are in fair agreement with the model of isospin (pion) exchange between flavored baryons and antiflavored vector mesons proposed by Karliner and Rosner, and in qualitative agreement with the bound-state version of the chiral soliton model.

  12. Complete mitogenomes of Guinean angelfish (Holacanthus africanus) and Rock beauty (Holacanthus tricolor) (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to deduce two complete mitogenomes of Guinean angelfish (Holacanthus africanus) and Rock beauty (Holacanthus tricolor) for the first time. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 16,819 bp and 16,625 bp in length, shows 87% similarity with each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. The D-loop contains 1107 bp in H. africanus and 905 bp in H. tricolor and is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 46.2% for H. africanus and 45.6% for H. tricolor. The complete mitogenome of Guinean angelfish and Rock beauty deduced in this study provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish.

  13. Compositeness of the strange, charm, and beauty odd parity Λ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2015-08-01

    We study the dependence on the quark mass of the compositeness of the lowest-lying odd parity hyperon states. Thus, we pay attention to Λ -like states in the strange, charm, and beauty sectors which are dynamically generated using a unitarized meson-baryon model. In the strange sector we use a SU(6) extension of the Weinberg-Tomozawa meson-baryon interaction, and we further implement the heavy-quark spin symmetry to construct the meson-baryon interaction when charmed or beauty hadrons are involved. In the three examined flavor sectors, we obtain two JP=1 /2- and one JP=3 /2- Λ states. We find that the Λ states which are bound states (the three Λb) or narrow resonances [one Λ (1405 ) and one Λc(2595 )] are well described as molecular states composed of s -wave meson-baryon pairs. The 1/2- wide Λ (1405 ) and Λc(2595 ) as well as the 3/2- Λ (1520 ) and Λc(2625 ) states display smaller compositeness so they would require new mechanisms, such as d -wave interactions.

  14. Gene insertion and long-term expression in lung mediated by the Sleeping Beauty transposon system.

    PubMed

    Belur, Lalitha R; Frandsen, Joel L; Dupuy, Adam J; Ingbar, David H; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Scott McIvor, R

    2003-09-01

    Gene transfer to the lung could provide important new treatments for chronic and acquired lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, emphysema, and cancer. DNA-mediated gene transfer to the lung has been previously demonstrated, but anticipated effectiveness has been limited by low gene transfer efficiencies and by transient expression of the transgene. Here, we combine plasmid-based gene transfer with the integrating capacity of the nonviral Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vector system to mediate gene insertion and long-term gene expression in mouse lung. We observed transgene expression after 24 h in lungs of all animals injected with the luciferase transposon (pT/L), but expression for up to 3 months required codelivery of a plasmid encoding the Sleeping Beauty transposase. We also observed long-term expression in pT/L-injected animals transgenic for SB transposase. Transgene expression was localized to the alveolar region of the lung, with transfection including mainly type II pneumocytes. We used a linker-mediated PCR technique to recover transposon flanking sequences, demonstrating transposition of pT/L into mouse chromosomal DNA of the lung.

  15. Adaptive implicit-explicit and parallel element-by-element iteration schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezduyar, T. E.; Liou, J.; Nguyen, T.; Poole, S.

    Adaptive implicit-explicit (AIE) and grouped element-by-element (GEBE) iteration schemes are presented for the finite element solution of large-scale problems in computational mechanics and physics. The AIE approach is based on the dynamic arrangement of the elements into differently treated groups. The GEBE procedure, which is a way of rewriting the EBE formulation to make its parallel processing potential and implementation more clear, is based on the static arrangement of the elements into groups with no inter-element coupling within each group. Various numerical tests performed demonstrate the savings in the CPU time and memory.

  16. Adaptive implicit-explicit and parallel element-by-element iteration schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezduyar, T. E.; Liou, J.; Nguyen, T.; Poole, S.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive implicit-explicit (AIE) and grouped element-by-element (GEBE) iteration schemes are presented for the finite element solution of large-scale problems in computational mechanics and physics. The AIE approach is based on the dynamic arrangement of the elements into differently treated groups. The GEBE procedure, which is a way of rewriting the EBE formulation to make its parallel processing potential and implementation more clear, is based on the static arrangement of the elements into groups with no inter-element coupling within each group. Various numerical tests performed demonstrate the savings in the CPU time and memory.

  17. Natural Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

  18. Folding Beauties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Leah Wrenn

    2006-01-01

    This article has its genesis in an MAA mini-course on origami, where a way to get a parabola by folding paper was presented. This article discusses the methods and mathematics of other curves obtained by paper-folding.

  19. 16th International Conference on B-Physics at Frontier Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 16th International Conference on B-Physics at Frontier Machines, "Beauty 2016, will be held in the Hôtel Mercure Vieux-Port, Marseille, France from 2nd to 6th May 2016. It will be the 16th edition of the cycle “International Conference on B-Physics at Frontier Machines", initiated in Prague (Czech Republic) in 1993. The last edition took place in Edinburgh in 2014. The aim of this conference is to review the latest theoretical and experimental results in heavy flavor physics. The scientific program covers a wide range of researches including study of CP violation and rare decays properties of beauty and charm hadrons. This edition will be particularly interesting since the first results from the LHC are expected to be presented, following the LHC re-start in 2015 at an unprecedented colliding energy of 13TeV.

  20. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject-very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like-differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  1. Photography & Physics: A Way to Enhance Student Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Fred

    2007-10-01

    A teaching/learning strategy that I have developed over the years for high school students involves the use of photographic images of ordinary objects or scenes to help engage students in the intrigue and beauty of physics. The images help focus classroom discussions, raise curiosity levels among students, and promote creativity of thinking. The photographs can be used in a variety of ways, including assessment, framing discussions, homework assignment, and constructive classroom games. This presentation will describe the various ways photography can be used and will model some techniques. Dozens of ``physics images'' will be shown.

  2. The ‘Physics Cup’: interesting problems are difficult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalda, J.

    2013-07-01

    An overview of the online competition, Physics Cup—IPhO2012 is given. This preceded the 43rd International Physics Olympiad and included ten problems, published monthly. Three problems, the most popular among the contestants, are discussed in detail. These problems deal with laser speckle patterns, geometrical optics and LC circuits with four degrees of freedom. The results of the competition and of the poll carried out among the contestants are used to discuss the relationship between the properties of the problems: difficulty, closeness to reality and beauty (as perceived by the contestants).

  3. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    satisfactorily model and predict the behavior of most of the trace elements in hydrosystems?An impressive literature has dealt with experimental works on aqueous complexation, uptake of trace elements by surface complexation (inorganic and organic), uptake by living organisms (bioaccumulation) that we have not reported here, except when the results of such studies directly explain natural data. As continental waters encompass a greater range of physical and chemical conditions, we focus on river waters and do not discuss trace elements in groundwaters, lakes, and the ocean. In lakes and in the ocean, the great importance of life processes in regulating trace elements is probably the major difference from rivers.Section 5.09.2 of this chapter reports data. We will review the present-day literature on trace elements in rivers to show that our knowledge is still poor. By comparing with the continental abundances, a global mobility index is calculated for each trace element. The spatial and temporal variability of trace-element concentrations in rivers will be shown to be important. In Section 5.09.3, sources of trace elements in river waters are indicated. We will point out the great diversity of sources and the importance of global anthropogenic contamination for a number of elements. The question of inorganic and organic speciation of trace elements in river water will then be addressed in Section 5.09.4, considering some general relationships between speciation and placement in the periodic table. In Section 5.09.5, we will show that studies on organic-rich rivers have led to an exploration of the "colloidal world" in rivers. Colloids are small particles, passing through the conventional filters used to separate dissolved and suspended loads in rivers. They appear as major carriers of trace elements in rivers and considerably complicate aqueous-speciation calculation. Finally, in Section 5.09.6, the significance of interactions between solutes and solid surfaces in river waters

  4. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  5. The occurrence of phi in dento-facial beauty of fine art from antiquity through the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Wiener Pla, Regina M

    2012-01-01

    External beauty is a complex construct that influences lives and may be impacted by dentists. Beauty is not easily quantified, but one cited anthropometric of beauty is the ratio phi, the number 1.618033(...). This study examined phi as a measure of female frontal facial beauty in classic Western art, using pre- Renaissance (N = 30), and Renaissance (N = 30) artwork. Four horizontal and five vertical ratios were determined in the works of art, which were then compared with the phi ratio. All horizontal ratios for both pre-Renaissance and Renaissance artwork were similar to each other, but did not contain the phi ratio (P < 0.001). Nevertheless, all vertical ratios for pre-Renaissance and Renaissance art-work did contain the phi ratio within their confidence intervals with the exception of the vertical ratio, "intereye point to soft tissue menton/ intereye point to stomion", that was found to be less than phi in the Renaissance group. The study provides evidence of the presence of the phi ratio in vertical aspect of females in artwork from pre-Renaissance through the Renaissance demonstrating consistent temporal preferences. Therefore, the phi ratio seems to be an important consideration in altering vertical facial dimensions in full mouth rehabilitation and reconstructive orthognathic surgery involving females.

  6. Behind the Curtain of the Beauty Pageant: An Investigation of U.S. News Undergraduate Business Program Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The undergraduate business program rankings in USNWR are based solely on peer assessments from deans and associate deans of AACSB accredited U.S. business schools. Often these reputation-based rankings are discounted and likened to a beauty pageant because the process lacks transparent input data. In this study, ten deans and ten associate…

  7. 78 FR 5245 - Pricing for New Product-America the Beautiful Quarters® Three-Roll Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... United States Mint Pricing for New Product--America the Beautiful Quarters Three-Roll Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing... Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20220; or call 202-354-7500. Authority:...

  8. 77 FR 3035 - Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters® Bags & Rolls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters Bags & Rolls AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is... table below. Retail Product Price 2012 United States Mint Proof Set $31.95 2012 United States...

  9. When We like What We Know--A Parametric fMRI Analysis of Beauty and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohrn, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neuroscientific study of aesthetic judgments on written texts. In an fMRI experiment participants read a number of proverbs without explicitly evaluating them. In a post-scan rating they rated each item for familiarity and beauty. These individual ratings were correlated with the functional data to investigate the neural…

  10. 77 FR 61661 - Price for the American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins and the America the Beautiful...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... United States Mint Price for the American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins and the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins\\TM\\ AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Because of the recent increase in the market price of silver, the United...

  11. 78 FR 30398 - Re-pricing of the 2012 and 2013 United States America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... United States Mint Re-pricing of the 2012 and 2013 United States America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set , 2013 United States Mint Silver Proof Set , and 2013 United States Mint Congratulations Set... Silver Proof Set, the 2013 United States Mint Silver Proof Set, and the 2013 United States...

  12. Collaborating with Extreme Beauty: A Partnership Project between the Heritage School and the Metropolitan Museum of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Lane, Kimberly; Price, Shannon Bell

    2004-01-01

    This article chronicles the development and implementation of a lesson sequence in a high school art course that utilized "Extreme Beauty: The Body Transformed," a special exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute from December 6, 2001-March 17, 2002. This project took place over a 3-week period in the spring…

  13. Beautiful Earth: Inspiring Native American students in Earth Science through Music, Art and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasanto, V.; Rock, J.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Angell, D.; Beautiful Earth

    2011-12-01

    The Beautiful Earth program, awarded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), is a live multi-media performance at partner science centers linked with hands-on workshops featuring Earth scientists and Native American experts. It aims to inspire, engage and educate diverse students in Earth science through an experience of viewing the Earth from space as one interconnected whole, as seen through the eyes of astronauts. The informal education program is an outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA Living Atlas Experience (www.bellagaia.com) performed across the globe since 2008 and following the successful Earth Day education events in 2009 and 2010 with NASA's DLN (Digital Learning Network) http://tinyurl.com/2ckg2rh. Beautiful Earth takes a new approach to teaching, by combining live music and data visualizations, Earth Science with indigenous perspectives of the Earth, and hands-on interactive workshops. The program will utilize the emotionally inspiring multi-media show as a springboard to inspire participants to learn more about Earth systems and science. Native Earth Ways (NEW) will be the first module in a series of three "Beautiful Earth" experiences, that will launch the national tour at a presentation in October 2011 at the MOST science museum in collaboration with the Onandaga Nation School in Syracuse, New York. The NEW Module will include Native American experts to explain how they study and conserve the Earth in their own unique ways along with hands-on activities to convey the science which was seen in the show. In this first pilot run of the module, 110 K-12 students with faculty and family members of the Onandaga Nations School will take part. The goal of the program is to introduce Native American students to Earth Sciences and STEM careers, and encourage them to study these sciences and become responsible stewards of the Earth. The second workshop presented to participants will be the

  14. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  15. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    students are allowed to use any method they like, are coached by teachers, and are encouraged to ask for help from experts at research centres or universities. Finally, they must prepare a 12-minute presentation. A tournament consists of different contests. In each contest, three teams are involved: the reporting team is challenged by an opponent team to present a task. This presentation is then criticized by the opponent, pointing out merits and possible weak parts. The discussion between the two representatives of the teams is a central element of a contest. The third team acts as reviewer, giving final comments on the performances of the contesting teams. At the end, a jury grades the performances of all three teams. Then, the different roles of the teams rotate, and the students also rotate roles within the teams. The competition started in the former Soviet Union in 1988 and became international for the first time in 1994 when it was organized in Groningen, The Netherlands. In the 2008 tournament in Trogir, Croatia, teams from 24 countries participated [5]. Since this tournament is younger and less known, the national pre-selections are not as well established and numerous as for the Olympiad. Also, the training is different: in addition to developing experimental skills and physical understanding of the problems, the students must organize their performances, share work and responsibilities, and must train in the techniques of presentation and debate (in English). The winner of the tournament in Croatia was the team from Germany. Their presentation in the finals was an experimental and theoretical investigation into the Kaye effect. The students wrote up their presentation, and it is reproduced here as the second paper in this special section. Again, different in spirit and aim is 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics' [6]. This competition started in 1991 in Poland and encourages students to take their first steps in physics research. Students of 20 years old or

  16. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis.

    PubMed

    Harland-Lang, L A; Martin, A D; Motylinski, P; Thorne, R S

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the [Formula: see text] definition.

  17. The pursuit of beauty: the enforcement of aesthetics or a freely adopted lifestyle?

    PubMed Central

    Wijsbek, H.

    2000-01-01

    Facelifts, tummy tucks and breast enlargements are no longer the privilege of the rich and the famous. Any woman can have all these and many more cosmetic surgical treatments, and an increasing number of women do. Are they having cosmetic surgery because they are duped by a male-dominated beauty system, or do they genuinely choose these operations themselves? Feminists (and others) give diametrically opposed answers to this question. At the heart of the controversy, or so I claim in this article, lies a conceptual problem about free choice; therefore, the only thing that can settle it is a conceptual analysis of "freedom". After having briefly outlined the views of both sides of the debate, I offer such an analysis. Key Words: Cosmetic surgery • lifestyle • free choice • coercion PMID:11129847

  18. The pursuit of beauty: the enforcement of aesthetics or a freely adopted lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Wijsbek, H

    2000-12-01

    Facelifts, tummy tucks and breast enlargements are no longer the privilege of the rich and the famous. Any woman can have all these and many more cosmetic surgical treatments, and an increasing number of women do. Are they having cosmetic surgery because they are duped by a male-dominated beauty system, or do they genuinely choose these operations themselves? Feminists (and others) give diametrically opposed answers to this question. At the heart of the controversy, or so I claim in this article, lies a conceptual problem about free choice; therefore, the only thing that can settle it is a conceptual analysis of "freedom". After having briefly outlined the views of both sides of the debate, I offer such an analysis.

  19. Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Human aesthetic processing entails the sensation-based evaluation of an entity with respect to concepts like beauty, harmony or well-formedness. Aesthetic appreciation has many determinants ranging from evolutionary, anatomical or physiological constraints to influences of culture, history and individual differences. There are a vast number of dynamically configured neural networks underlying these multifaceted processes of aesthetic appreciation. In the current challenge of successfully bridging art and science, aesthetics and neuroanatomy, the neuro-cognitive psychology of aesthetics can approach this complex topic using a framework that postulates several perspectives, which are not mutually exclusive. In this empirical approach, objective physiological data from event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging are combined with subjective, individual self-reports. PMID:19929909

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-03-30

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases.