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Sample records for bec-bcs crossover experiments

  1. Motion of a Solitonic Vortex in the BEC-BCS Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Mark J. H.; Ji, Wenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2014-08-01

    We observe a long-lived solitary wave in a superfluid Fermi gas of Li6 atoms after phase imprinting. Tomographic imaging reveals the excitation to be a solitonic vortex, oriented transverse to the long axis of the cigar-shaped atom cloud. The precessional motion of the vortex is directly observed, and its period is measured as a function of the chemical potential in the BEC-BCS crossover. The long period and the correspondingly large ratio of the inertial to the bare mass of the vortex are in good agreement with estimates based on superfluid hydrodynamics that we derive here using the known equation of state in the BEC-BCS crossover.

  2. Critical Velocity in the BEC-BCS Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, Wolf; Morgener, Kai; Singh, Vijay Pal; Siegl, Jonas; Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Mathey, Ludwig; Moritz, Henning

    2015-03-01

    We map out the critical velocity in the crossover from Bose-Einstein condensation to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluidity with ultracold 6Li gases. A small attractive potential is dragged along lines of constant column density. The rate of the induced heating increases steeply above a critical velocity vc. In the same samples, we measure the speed of sound vs by exciting density waves and compare the results to the measured values of vc. We perform numerical simulations in the Bose-Einstein condensation regime and find very good agreement, validating the approach. In the strongly correlated regime our measurements of vc provide a testing ground for theoretical approaches.

  3. Core structure of two-dimensional Fermi gas vortices in the BEC-BCS crossover region

    DOE PAGES

    Madeira, Lucas; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2017-05-02

    We report T = 0 diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground-state and vortex excitation of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a two-dimensional disk. We investigate how vortex core structure properties behave over the BEC-BCS crossover. We calculate the vortex excitation energy, density pro les, and vortex core properties related to the current. We nd a density suppression at the vortex core on the BCS side of the crossover and a depleted core on the BEC limit. Size-effect dependencies in the disk geometry were carefully studied.

  4. Snake instability of dark solitons across the BEC-BCS crossover: An effective-field-theory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, G.; Van Alphen, W.; Klimin, S. N.; Tempere, J.

    2017-09-01

    In the present article the snake instability mechanism for dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases is studied in the context of a recently developed effective field theory [S. N. Klimin et al., Eur. Phys. J. B 88, 122 (2015), 10.1140/epjb/e2015-60213-4]. This theoretical treatment has proven to be suitable to study stable dark solitons in quasi-one-dimensional setups across the BEC-BCS crossover. In this paper the nodal plane of the stable soliton solution is perturbed by adding a transverse modulation. The numerical solution of the system of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the amplitude of the perturbation leads to an estimate of the growth rate and characteristic length scale of the instability, which are calculated for a wide range of interaction regimes and compared to other theoretical predictions. The behavior of the maximum transverse size that the atomic cloud can have in order to preserve the stability is described across the BEC-BCS crossover. The analysis of the effects of spin imbalance on this critical length reveals a stabilization of the soliton with increasing imbalance and therefore provides the experimental community with a method to achieve the realization of stable solitons in real three-dimensional configurations, without reducing the system dimensionality.

  5. Derivation of hydrodynamics for the gapless mode in the BEC-BCS crossover from the exact one-loop effective action.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Shin; Lin, Chi-Yong; Rivers, Ray J

    2007-01-12

    We derive generalized two-superfluid continuity equations for the BEC-BCS crossover in the presence of a Feshbach resonance at T=0. In addition, we calculate the velocity of sound throughout both BCS and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regimes.

  6. Visualizing the BEC-BCS crossover in a two-dimensional Fermi gas: Pairing gaps and dynamical response functions from ab initio computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-12-01

    Experiments with ultracold atoms provide a highly controllable laboratory setting with many unique opportunities for precision exploration of quantum many-body phenomena. The nature of such systems, with strong interaction and quantum entanglement, makes reliable theoretical calculations challenging. Especially difficult are excitation and dynamical properties, which are often the most directly relevant to experiment. We carry out exact numerical calculations, by Monte Carlo sampling of imaginary-time propagation of Slater determinants, to compute the pairing gap in the two-dimensional Fermi gas from first principles. Applying state-of-the-art analytic continuation techniques, we obtain the spectral function and the density and spin structure factors providing unique tools to visualize the BEC-BCS crossover. These quantities will allow for a direct comparison with experiments.

  7. Optical pump - nuclear resonance probe experiments on spin crossover complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakshath, S.; Jenni, K.; Scherthan, L.; Würtz, P.; Herlitschke, M.; Sergeev, I.; Strohm, C.; Wille, H.-C.; Röhlsberger, R.; Wolny, J. A.; Schünemann, V.

    2017-11-01

    A novel sample environment enabling optical pump - nuclear resonance probe experiments has been installed at the beamline P01, Petra III, DESY Hamburg. This set-up has been used to investigate optically induced spin state changes of spin crossover (SCO) complexes by nuclear resonant scattering immediately after excitation by an optical laser pulse. Here, we report the technical details as well as first results of the experiments performed at 290 K and 80 K on the SCO complexes [Fe (NH2trz)3]Cl2 and [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2], respectively. The 57Fe-enriched SCO complexes were excited by a 531 nm laser with a pulse length < 100 ps. Evaluation of the nuclear forward scattering data clearly indicate the presence of high spin (HS) states when the complexes are excited by laser pulses and a pure low spin (LS) state in the absence of any laser pulse. Furthermore, the dependence of the optically excited HS-fraction has been determined as a function of the average optical power.

  8. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P., E-mail: gallop@fis.uniroma3.it

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show howmore » different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.« less

  9. Explicit Bias Toward High-Income-Country Research: A Randomized, Blinded, Crossover Experiment Of English Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Harris, Matthew; Marti, Joachim; Watt, Hillary; Bhatti, Yasser; Macinko, James; Darzi, Ara W

    2017-11-01

    Unconscious bias may interfere with the interpretation of research from some settings, particularly from lower-income countries. Most studies of this phenomenon have relied on indirect outcomes such as article citation counts and publication rates; few have addressed or proven the effect of unconscious bias in evidence interpretation. In this randomized, blinded crossover experiment in a sample of 347 English clinicians, we demonstrate that changing the source of a research abstract from a low- to a high-income country significantly improves how it is viewed, all else being equal. Using fixed-effects models, we measured differences in ratings for strength of evidence, relevance, and likelihood of referral to a peer. Having a high-income-country source had a significant overall impact on respondents' ratings of relevance and recommendation to a peer. Unconscious bias can have far-reaching implications for the diffusion of knowledge and innovations from low-income countries.

  10. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. How job demands affect partners' experience of exhaustion: integrating work-family conflict and crossover theory.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Dollard, Maureen F

    2008-07-01

    This study among 168 couples of dual-earner parents uses insights from previous work-family conflict and crossover research to propose an integrative model delineating how job demands experienced by men and women carry over to the home domain. The authors hypothesized that for both men and women, job demands foster their own work-family conflict (WFC), which in turn contributes to their partners' home demands, family-work conflict (FWC), and exhaustion. In addition, they hypothesized that social undermining mediates the relationship between individuals' WFC and their partners' home demands. The results of structural equation modeling analyses provided strong support for the proposed model. The hypothesis that gender would moderate the model relationships was rejected. These findings integrate previous findings on work-family conflict and crossover theories and suggest fluid boundaries between the work and home domains.

  12. Peer Assessment Enhances Student Learning: The Results of a Matched Randomized Crossover Experiment in a College Statistics Class.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dennis L; Harris, Naftali; Walther, Guenther; Baiocchi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Feedback has a powerful influence on learning, but it is also expensive to provide. In large classes it may even be impossible for instructors to provide individualized feedback. Peer assessment is one way to provide personalized feedback that scales to large classes. Besides these obvious logistical benefits, it has been conjectured that students also learn from the practice of peer assessment. However, this has never been conclusively demonstrated. Using an online educational platform that we developed, we conducted an in-class matched-set, randomized crossover experiment with high power to detect small effects. We establish that peer assessment causes a small but significant gain in student achievement. Our study also demonstrates the potential of web-based platforms to facilitate the design of high-quality experiments to identify small effects that were previously not detectable.

  13. An Example Crossover Experiment for Testing New Vicarious Calibration Techniques for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Kenneth J.; McLean, Scott; Lewis, Marlon; Johnson, Carol; Flora, Stephanie; Feinholz, Michael; Yarbrough, Mark; Trees, Charles; Twardowski, Mike; Clark, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites involves the use of accurate surface measurements of water-leaving radiance to update and improve the system calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. An experiment was performed to compare a free-fall technique with the established MOBY measurement. We found in the laboratory that the radiance and irradiance instruments compared well within their estimated uncertainties for various spectral sources. The spectrally averaged differences between the NIST values for the sources and the instruments were less than 2.5% for the radiance sensors and less than 1.5% for the irradiance sensors. In the field, the sensors measuring the above-surface downwelling irradiance performed nearly as well as they had in the laboratory, with an average difference of less than 2%. While the water-leaving radiance, L(sub w) calculated from each instrument agreed in almost all cases within the combined instrument uncertainties (approximately 7%), there was a relative bias between the two instrument classes/techniques that varied spectrally. The spectrally averaged (400 nm to 600 nm) difference between the two instrument classes/techniques was 3.1 %. However the spectral variation resulted in the free fall instruments being 0.2% lower at 450 nm and 5.9% higher at 550 nm. Based on the analysis of one matchup, the bias in the L(sub w), was similar to that observed for L(sub u)(1 m) with both systems, indicating the difference did not come from propagating L(sub u)(1 m) to L(sub w).

  14. Composite-boson approach to molecular Bose-Einstein condensates in mixtures of ultracold Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvrie, P. Alexander; Tichy, Malte C.; Roditi, Itzhak

    2017-02-01

    We show that an ansatz based on independent composite bosons [Phys. Rep. 463, 215 (2008), 10.1016/j.physrep.2007.11.003] accurately describes the condensate fraction of molecular Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold Fermi gases. The entanglement between the fermionic constituents of a single Feshbach molecule then governs the many-particle statistics of the condensate, from the limit of strong interaction to close to unitarity. This result strengthens the role of entanglement as the indispensable driver of composite-boson behavior. The condensate fraction of fermion pairs at zero temperature that we compute matches excellently previous results obtained by means of fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo methods and the Bogoliubov depletion approximation. This paves the way towards the exploration of the BEC-BCS crossover physics in mixtures of cold Fermi gases with an arbitrary number of fermion pairs as well as the implementation of Hong-Ou-Mandel-like interference experiments proposed within coboson theory.

  15. Polaritons and Pairing Phenomena in Bose-Hubbard Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaseen, M. J.; Hohenadler, M.; Silver, A. O.

    2009-04-03

    Motivated by recent experiments on cold atomic gases in ultrahigh finesse optical cavities, we consider the two-band Bose-Hubbard model coupled to quantum light. Photoexcitation promotes carriers between the bands, and we study the interplay between Mott insulating behavior and superfluidity. The model displays a U(1)xU(1) symmetry which supports the coexistence of Mott insulating and superfluid phases and yields a rich phase diagram with multicritical points. This symmetry is shared by several other problems of current experimental interest, including two-component Bose gases in optical lattices and the bosonic BEC-BCS crossover for atom-molecule mixtures induced by a Feshbach resonance. We corroborate ourmore » findings by numerical simulations.« less

  16. Studies on crossover-specific mutants and the distribution of crossing over in Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, R; Manheim, E A; Sherizen, D E; McKim, K S

    2004-01-01

    In Drosophila females, the majority of recombination events do not become crossovers and those that do occur are nonrandomly distributed. Furthermore, a group of Drosophila mutants specifically reduce crossing over, suggesting that crossovers depend on different gene products than noncrossovers. In mei-218 mutants, crossing over is reduced by approximately 90% while noncrossovers and the initiation of recombination remain unchanged. Importantly, the residual crossovers have a more random distribution than wild-type. It has been proposed that mei-218 has a role in establishing the crossover distribution by determining which recombination sites become crossovers. Surprisingly, a diverse group of genes, including those required for double strand break (DSB) formation or repair, have an effect on crossover distribution. Not all of these mutants, however, have a crossover-specific defect like mei-218 and it is not understood why some crossover-defective mutants alter the distribution of crossovers. Intragenic recombination experiments suggest that mei-218 is required for a molecular transition of the recombination intermediate late in the DSB repair pathway. We propose that the changes in crossover distribution in some crossover-defective mutants are a secondary consequence of the crossover reductions. This may be the activation of a regulatory system that ensures at least one crossover per chromosome, and which compensates for an absence of crossovers by attempting to generate them at random locations. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Decomposing Multifractal Crossovers

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zoltan; Mukli, Peter; Herman, Peter; Eke, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Physiological processes—such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations—exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF). The first approach (moment-wise scaling range adaptivity) allows for a breakpoint-based adaptive treatment that analyzes segregated scale-invariant ranges. The second method (scaling function decomposition method, SFD) is a crossover-based design aimed at decomposing signal constituents from multimodal scaling functions resulting from signal addition or co-sampling, such as, contamination by uncorrelated fractals. We demonstrated that these methods could handle multimodal, mono- or multifractal, and exact or empirical signals alike. Their precision was numerically characterized on ideal signals, and a robust performance was demonstrated on exemplary empirical signals capturing resting-state brain dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalography (EEG), and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BOLD). The NIRS and fMRI-BOLD low-frequency fluctuations were dominated by a multifractal component over an underlying biologically relevant random noise, thus forming a bimodal signal. The crossover between the EEG signal components was found at the boundary between the δ and θ bands, suggesting an independent generator for the multifractal δ rhythm. The robust implementation of the SFD method should be regarded as essential in the seamless processing of large volumes of bimodal fMRI-BOLD imaging data for

  18. Patient participation in postoperative care activities in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery: Multimedia Intervention for Managing patient Experience (MIME). Study protocol for a cluster randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    McDonall, Jo; de Steiger, Richard; Reynolds, John; Redley, Bernice; Livingston, Patricia; Botti, Mari

    2016-07-18

    Patient participation is an important indicator of quality care. Currently, there is little evidence to support the belief that participation in care is possible for patients during the acute postoperative period. Previous work indicates that there is very little opportunity for patients to participate in care in the acute context. Patients require both capability, in terms of having the required knowledge and understanding of how they can be involved in their care, and the opportunity, facilitated by clinicians, to engage in their acute postoperative care. This cluster randomised crossover trial aims to test whether a multimedia intervention improves patient participation in the acute postoperative context, as determined by pain intensity and recovery outcomes. A total of 240 patients admitted for primary total knee replacement surgery will be invited to participate in a cluster randomised, crossover trial and concurrent process evaluation in at least two wards at a major non-profit private hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Patients admitted to the intervention ward will receive the multimedia intervention daily from Day 1 to Day 5 (or day of discharge, if prior). The intervention will be delivered by nurses via an iPad™, comprising information on the goals of care for each day following surgery. Patients admitted to the control ward will receive usual care as determined by care pathways currently in use across the organization. The primary endpoint is the "worst pain experienced in the past 24 h" on Day 3 following TKR surgery. Pain intensity will be measured using the numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes are interference of pain on activities of daily living, length of stay in hospital, function and pain following TKR surgery, overall satisfaction with hospitalisation, postoperative complications and hospital readmission. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of the effectiveness of interventions that provide knowledge and

  19. Experience and challenges presented by a multicenter crossover study of combination analgesic therapy for the treatment of painful HIV-associated polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Taylor; Miyahara, Sachiko; Lee, Anthony; Evans, Scott; Bastow, Barbara; Simpson, David; Gilron, Ian; Dworkin, Robert; Daar, Eric S.; Wieclaw, Linda; Clifford, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is limited evidence for efficacy of analgesics as monotherapy for neuropathic pain associated with HIV-associated polyneuropathies, in spite of demonstrated efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. We evaluated the tolerability and analgesic efficacy of duloxetine, methadone, and the combination of duloxetine-methadone compared to placebo. Design This study was a phase II, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover multi-center study of analgesic therapy for patients with at least moderate neuropathic pain due to HIV-associated polyneuropathy. Duloxetine, methadone, combination duloxetine-methadone, and placebo were administered in four different possible sequences. The primary outcome measure was mean pain intensity (MPI) measured daily in a study-supplied pain diary. Results A total of 15 patients were enrolled from 8 study sites and 8 patients completed the entire trial. Study treatments failed to show statistically significant change in MPI compared to placebo. Adverse events were frequent and associated with high rates of drug discontinuation and study drop-out. Conclusions Challenges with participant recruitment and poor retention precluded trial completion to its planned targets, limiting our evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of the study treatments. Challenges to successful completion of this study and lessons learned are discussed. PMID:23565581

  20. Crossover sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    Heil, Peggy; Ahlmeyer, Sean; Simons, Dominique

    2003-10-01

    Crossover sexual offenses are defined as those in which victims are from multiple age, gender, and relationship categories. This study investigates admissions of crossover sexual offending from sex offenders participating in treatment who received polygraph testing. For 223 incarcerated and 266 paroled sexual offenders, sexual offenses were recorded from criminal history records and admissions during treatment coupled with polygraph testing. The majority of incarcerated offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both children and adults from multiple relationship types. In addition, there was a substantial increase in offenders admitting to sexually assaulting victims from both genders. In a group of incarcerated offenders who sexually assaulted children, the majority of offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both relatives and nonrelatives, and there was a substantial increase in the offenders admitting to assaulting both male and female children. Although similar trends were observed for the sample of parolees, the rates were far less dramatic. Parolees appeared to have greater levels of denial, had participated in fewer treatment sessions, and perceived greater supervision restrictions as a result of admitting additional offenses. These findings support previous research indicating that many sexual offenders do not exclusively offend against a preferred victim type.

  1. The impact of intranasal oxytocin on attention to social emotional stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa: a double blind within-subject cross-over experiment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Park, Jin Hong; Pyo, Jimin; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Social factors may be of importance causally and act as maintenance factors in patients with anorexia nervosa. Oxytocin is a neuromodulatory hormone involved in social emotional processing associated with attentional processes. This study aimed to examine the impact of oxytocin on attentional processes to social faces representing anger, disgust, and happiness in patients with anorexia nervosa. A double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design was used. Intranasal oxytocin or placebo followed by a visual probe detection task with faces depicting anger, disgust, and happiness was administered to 64 female subjects: 31 patients with anorexia nervosa and 33 control students. Attentional bias to the disgust stimuli was observed in both groups under the placebo condition. The attentional bias to disgust was reduced under the oxytocin condition (a moderate effect in the patient group). Avoidance of angry faces was observed in the patient group under the placebo condition and vigilance was observed in the healthy comparison group; both of these information processing responses were moderated by oxytocin producing an increase in vigilance in the patients. Happy/smiling faces did not elicit an attentional response in controls or the patients under either the placebo or oxytocin conditions. Oxytocin attenuated attentional vigilance to disgust in patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls. On the other hand, oxytocin changed the response to angry faces from avoidance to vigilance in patients but reduced vigilance to anger in healthy controls. We conclude that patients with anorexia nervosa appear to use different strategies/circuits to emotionally process anger from their healthy counterparts.

  2. Effects of culinary spices and psychological stress on postprandial lipemia and lipase activity: results of a randomized crossover study and in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Cindy E; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lambert, Joshua D; Gaugler, Trent L; Teeter, Danette L; Sauder, Katherine A; Gu, Yeyi; Glisan, Shannon L; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-16

    Data suggest that culinary spices are a potent, low-calorie modality for improving physiological responses to high fat meals. In a pilot study (N = 6 healthy adults), we showed that a meal containing a high antioxidant spice blend attenuated postprandial lipemia by 30% compared to a low spice meal. Our goal was to confirm this effect in a larger sample and to consider the influence of acute psychological stress on fat metabolism. Further, we used in vitro methods to evaluate the inhibitory effect of spices on digestive enzymes. In a 2 x 2, randomized, 4-period crossover design, we compared the effects of 14.5 g spices (black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, rosemary, and turmeric) vs. placebo incorporated into a high fat meal (1000 kcal, 45 g fat), followed by psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test) vs. rest on postprandial metabolism in 20 healthy but overweight adults. Blood was sampled at baseline and at 105, 140, 180, and 210 minutes for analysis of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. Additional in vitro analyses examined the effect of the spice blend and constituent spices on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂). Mixed models were used to model the effects of spices and stress (SAS v9.3). Serum triglycerides, glucose and insulin were elevated following the meal (p < 0.01). Spices reduced post-meal triglycerides by 31% when the meal was followed by the rest condition (p = 0.048), but this effect was not present during stress. There was no effect of the spice blend on glucose or insulin; however, acute stress significantly increased both of these measures (p < 0.01; mean increase of 47% and 19%, respectively). The spice blend and several of the individual spices dose-dependently inhibited PL and PLA2 activity in vitro. Inclusion of spices may attenuate postprandial lipemia via inhibition of PL and PLA₂. However, the impact of psychological stress negates any

  3. The BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Meera M.

    2015-09-01

    This chapter presents the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of weakly correlated pairs of fermions to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of diatomic molecules in the atomic Fermi gas. Our aim is to provide a pedagogical review of the BCS-BEC crossover, with an emphasis on the basic concepts, particularly those that are not generally known or are difficult to find in the literature. We shall not attempt to give an exhaustive survey of current research in the limited space here; where possible, we will direct the reader to more extensive reviews.

  4. Microelectronic superconducting crossover and coil

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, Frederick C.; Kingston, John J.; Clarke, John

    1994-01-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T.sub.c superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO.sub.3 ; and a third high T.sub.c superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions.

  5. Sensitivity to Crossover Constraints during Native and Non-Native Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felser, Claudia; Drummer, Janna-Deborah

    2017-01-01

    We report the results from two experiments examining native and non-native German speakers' sensitivity to crossover constraints on pronoun resolution. Our critical stimuli sentences contained personal pronouns in either strong (SCO) or weak crossover (WCO) configurations. Using eye-movement monitoring during reading and a gender-mismatch…

  6. Modulating Crossover Frequency and Interference for Obligate Crossovers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Parijat; Pankajam, Ajith V.; Lin, Gen; Dutta, Abhishek; Krishnaprasad, G. Nandanan; Tekkedil, Manu M.; Shinohara, Akira; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Nishant, K. Thazath

    2017-01-01

    Meiotic crossover frequencies show wide variation among organisms. But most organisms maintain at least one crossover per homolog pair (obligate crossover). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous studies have shown crossover frequencies are reduced in the mismatch repair related mutant mlh3Δ and enhanced in a meiotic checkpoint mutant pch2Δ by up to twofold at specific chromosomal loci, but both mutants maintain high spore viability. We analyzed meiotic recombination events genome-wide in mlh3Δ, pch2Δ, and mlh3Δ pch2Δ mutants to test the effect of variation in crossover frequency on obligate crossovers. mlh3Δ showed ∼30% genome-wide reduction in crossovers (64 crossovers per meiosis) and loss of the obligate crossover, but nonexchange chromosomes were efficiently segregated. pch2Δ showed ∼50% genome-wide increase in crossover frequency (137 crossovers per meiosis), elevated noncrossovers as well as loss of chromosome size dependent double-strand break formation. Meiotic defects associated with pch2∆ did not cause significant increase in nonexchange chromosome frequency. Crossovers were restored to wild-type frequency in the double mutant mlh3Δ pch2Δ (100 crossovers per meiosis), but obligate crossovers were compromised. Genetic interference was reduced in mlh3Δ, pch2Δ, and mlh3Δ pch2Δ. Triple mutant analysis of mlh3Δ pch2Δ with other resolvase mutants showed that most of the crossovers in mlh3Δ pch2Δ are made through the Mus81-Mms4 pathway. These results are consistent with a requirement for increased crossover frequencies in the absence of genetic interference for obligate crossovers. In conclusion, these data suggest crossover frequencies and the strength of genetic interference in an organism are mutually optimized to ensure obligate crossovers. PMID:28315832

  7. Experimental realization of BCS-BEC crossover physics with a Fermi gas of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regal, Cindy

    This thesis presents experiments probing physics in the crossover between Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and BCS superconductivity using an ultracold gas of atomic fermions. Scattering resonances in these ultracold gases (known as Feshbach resonances) provide the unique ability to tune the fermion-fermion interactions. The work presented here pioneered the use of fermionic Feshbach resonances as a highly controllable and tunable system ideal for studying the BCS-BEC crossover problem. Here pairs of fermionic atoms have some properties of diatomic molecules and some properties of Cooper pairs. I present studies of a normal Fermi gas at a Feshbach resonance and the work required to cool the gas to temperatures where superfluidity in the crossover could be observed. These studies culminated in our observation of a phase transition at the cusp of the BCS-BEC crossover through condensation of fermionic atom pairs. I also discuss subsequent work that confirmed the crossover nature of the pairs in these condensates.

  8. Crossover Designs in Nutrition and Dietetics Research.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Raynor, Hollie A

    2017-07-01

    This article is the 12th installment in a statistical series exploring the importance of research design, epidemiologic methods, and statistical analysis as applied to nutrition and dietetics research. The purpose of this series is to assist registered dietitian nutritionists in interpreting nutrition research and aid nutrition researchers in applying scientific principles to produce high-quality nutrition research. This article focuses on the use of crossover designs in nutrition and dietetics research. The purpose is to distinguish the crossover design from the randomized clinical trial, define important terms, illustrate a 2×2 crossover design, discuss potential confounding variables in the crossover design, describe the analysis and interpretation of crossover data, present sample size considerations, provide examples of the use of the crossover design in nutrition and dietetics, and discuss additional considerations when the independent variable has more than two levels. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require...

  14. How Crossover Speeds up Building Block Assembly in Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sudholt, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    We reinvestigate a fundamental question: How effective is crossover in genetic algorithms in combining building blocks of good solutions? Although this has been discussed controversially for decades, we are still lacking a rigorous and intuitive answer. We provide such answers for royal road functions and OneMax, where every bit is a building block. For the latter, we show that using crossover makes every ([Formula: see text]+[Formula: see text]) genetic algorithm at least twice as fast as the fastest evolutionary algorithm using only standard bit mutation, up to small-order terms and for moderate [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Crossover is beneficial because it can capitalize on mutations that have both beneficial and disruptive effects on building blocks: crossover is able to repair the disruptive effects of mutation in later generations. Compared to mutation-based evolutionary algorithms, this makes multibit mutations more useful. Introducing crossover changes the optimal mutation rate on OneMax from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. This holds both for uniform crossover and k-point crossover. Experiments and statistical tests confirm that our findings apply to a broad class of building block functions.

  15. Time-dependent couplings and crossover length scales in nonequilibrium surface roughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradas, Marc; López, Juan M.; Hernández-Machado, A.

    2007-07-01

    We show that time-dependent couplings may lead to nontrivial scaling properties of the surface fluctuations of the asymptotic regime in nonequilibrium kinetic roughening models. Three typical situations are studied. In the case of a crossover between two different rough regimes, the time-dependent coupling may result in anomalous scaling for scales above the crossover length. In a different setting, for a crossover from a rough to either a flat or damping regime, the time-dependent crossover length may conspire to produce a rough surface, although the most relevant term tends to flatten the surface. In addition, our analysis sheds light into an existing debate in the problem of spontaneous imbibition, where time-dependent couplings naturally arise in theoretical models and experiments.

  16. Microelectromechanical systems integrating molecular spin crossover actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Manrique-Juarez, Maria D.; LAAS, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse; Rat, Sylvain

    2016-08-08

    Silicon MEMS cantilevers coated with a 200 nm thin layer of the molecular spin crossover complex [Fe(H{sub 2}B(pz){sub 2}){sub 2}(phen)] (H{sub 2}B(pz){sub 2} = dihydrobis(pyrazolyl)borate and phen = 1,10-phenantroline) were actuated using an external magnetic field and their resonance frequency was tracked by means of integrated piezoresistive detection. The light-induced spin-state switching of the molecules from the ground low spin to the metastable high spin state at 10 K led to a well-reproducible shift of the cantilever's resonance frequency (Δf{sub r} = −0.52 Hz). Control experiments at different temperatures using coated as well as uncoated devices along with simple calculations support the assignment of this effect to the spinmore » transition. This latter translates into changes in mechanical behavior of the cantilever due to the strong spin-state/lattice coupling. A guideline for the optimization of device parameters is proposed so as to efficiently harness molecular scale movements for large-scale mechanical work, thus paving the road for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) actuators based on molecular materials.« less

  17. Standard Model thermodynamics across the electroweak crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, M.; Meyer, M.

    2015-07-22

    Even though the Standard Model with a Higgs mass m{sub \\tiny H}=125 GeV possesses no bulk phase transition, its thermodynamics still experiences a “soft point” at temperatures around T=160 GeV, with a deviation from ideal gas thermodynamics. Such a deviation may have an effect on precision computations of weakly interacting dark matter relic abundances if their mass is in the few TeV range, or on leptogenesis scenarios operating in this temperature range. By making use of results from lattice simulations based on a dimensionally reduced effective field theory, we estimate the relevant thermodynamic functions across the crossover. The results are tabulatedmore » in a numerical form permitting for their insertion as a background equation of state into cosmological particle production/decoupling codes. We find that Higgs dynamics induces a non-trivial “structure” visible e.g. in the heat capacity, but that in general the largest radiative corrections originate from QCD effects, reducing the energy density by a couple of percent from the free value even at T>160 GeV.« less

  18. Standard Model thermodynamics across the electroweak crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, M.; Meyer, M., E-mail: laine@itp.unibe.ch, E-mail: meyer@itp.unibe.ch

    2015-07-01

    Even though the Standard Model with a Higgs mass m{sub H} = 125GeV possesses no bulk phase transition, its thermodynamics still experiences a 'soft point' at temperatures around T = 160GeV, with a deviation from ideal gas thermodynamics. Such a deviation may have an effect on precision computations of weakly interacting dark matter relic abundances if their mass is in the few TeV range, or on leptogenesis scenarios operating in this temperature range. By making use of results from lattice simulations based on a dimensionally reduced effective field theory, we estimate the relevant thermodynamic functions across the crossover. The resultsmore » are tabulated in a numerical form permitting for their insertion as a background equation of state into cosmological particle production/decoupling codes. We find that Higgs dynamics induces a non-trivial 'structure' visible e.g. in the heat capacity, but that in general the largest radiative corrections originate from QCD effects, reducing the energy density by a couple of percent from the free value even at T > 160GeV.« less

  19. Microelectromechanical systems integrating molecular spin crossover actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique-Juarez, Maria D.; Rat, Sylvain; Mathieu, Fabrice; Saya, Daisuke; Séguy, Isabelle; Leïchlé, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2016-08-01

    Silicon MEMS cantilevers coated with a 200 nm thin layer of the molecular spin crossover complex [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(phen)] (H2B(pz)2 = dihydrobis(pyrazolyl)borate and phen = 1,10-phenantroline) were actuated using an external magnetic field and their resonance frequency was tracked by means of integrated piezoresistive detection. The light-induced spin-state switching of the molecules from the ground low spin to the metastable high spin state at 10 K led to a well-reproducible shift of the cantilever's resonance frequency (Δfr = -0.52 Hz). Control experiments at different temperatures using coated as well as uncoated devices along with simple calculations support the assignment of this effect to the spin transition. This latter translates into changes in mechanical behavior of the cantilever due to the strong spin-state/lattice coupling. A guideline for the optimization of device parameters is proposed so as to efficiently harness molecular scale movements for large-scale mechanical work, thus paving the road for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) actuators based on molecular materials.

  20. Looking forwards and backwards: The real-time processing of Strong and Weak Crossover

    PubMed Central

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Phillips, Colin

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the processing of pronouns in Strong and Weak Crossover constructions as a means of probing the extent to which the incremental parser can use syntactic information to guide antecedent retrieval. In Experiment 1 we show that the parser accesses a displaced wh-phrase as an antecedent for a pronoun when no grammatical constraints prohibit binding, but the parser ignores the same wh-phrase when it stands in a Strong Crossover relation to the pronoun. These results are consistent with two possibilities. First, the parser could apply Principle C at antecedent retrieval to exclude the wh-phrase on the basis of the c-command relation between its gap and the pronoun. Alternatively, retrieval might ignore any phrases that do not occupy an Argument position. Experiment 2 distinguished between these two possibilities by testing antecedent retrieval under Weak Crossover. In Weak Crossover binding of the pronoun is ruled out by the argument condition, but not Principle C. The results of Experiment 2 indicate that antecedent retrieval accesses matching wh-phrases in Weak Crossover configurations. On the basis of these findings we conclude that the parser can make rapid use of Principle C and c-command information to constrain retrieval. We discuss how our results support a view of antecedent retrieval that integrates inferences made over unseen syntactic structure into constraints on backward-looking processes like memory retrieval. PMID:28936483

  1. Crossover behavior in turbulent velocity fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Jens; Wang, Z. Jane

    1998-04-01

    We develop a simple model of the evolution of turbulence velocity differences from inertial scales to dissipative scales by taking into account the effect of the viscosity. Our model suggests that the fluctuations of the viscous scales in turbulence result in a nontrivial crossover region in the velocity structure functions. We also discuss the importance of recognizing this crossover region when interpreting the experimental results. Assuming a finite and fixed spatial resolution, the model predicts a transition in the flatness at finite Reynolds number. We relate this observation with the reported transition by Tabeling et al. [Phys. Rev. E 53, 1613 (1996)], which is analyzed in detail and compared with our model.

  2. Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases In Two Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 150402 [7] Bartenstein M, Altmeyer A, Riedl S, Jochim S, Chin C, Hecker-Denschlag J and Grimm R 2004 Collective excitations of a...degenerate gas at the BEC-BCS crossover Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 203201 [8] Altmeyer A, Riedl S, Kohstall C, Wright M J, Geursen R, Bartenstein M, Chin C...Rev. A 82 053621 [43] Ku M, Schirotzek A, Sommer A, Zwierlein M, Van K Houcke, Werner F, Kozik E, Prokofev N and Svistunov B 2010 equation of state of

  3. High-temperature atomic superfluidity in lattice Bose-Fermi mixtures.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Fabrizio; Albus, Alexander

    2004-08-27

    We consider atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices and study the superfluidity of fermionic atoms due to s-wave pairing induced by boson-fermion interactions. We prove that the induced fermion-fermion coupling is always attractive if the boson-boson on-site interaction is repulsive, and predict the existence of an enhanced BEC-BCS crossover as the strength of the lattice potential is varied. We show that for direct on-site fermion-fermion repulsion, the induced attraction can give rise to superfluidity via s-wave pairing at striking variance with the case of pure systems of fermionic atoms with direct repulsive interactions.

  4. Optimal design of work zone median crossovers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The use of temporary median crossovers in work zones allows for the closure of one side of a multi-lane roadway while : maintaining two-way traffic on the opposite side. This process provides the ability for construction and maintenance crews : to co...

  5. 30 CFR 56.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 56.11013 Section 56.11013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11013...

  6. The Design of Cluster Randomized Crossover Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietbergen, Charlotte; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    The inefficiency induced by between-cluster variation in cluster randomized (CR) trials can be reduced by implementing a crossover (CO) design. In a simple CO trial, each subject receives each treatment in random order. A powerful characteristic of this design is that each subject serves as its own control. In a CR CO trial, clusters of subjects…

  7. Unleashing meiotic crossovers in hybrid plants.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joiselle Blanche; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Larchevêque, Cécile; Lloyd, Andrew H; Mercier, Raphael

    2018-03-06

    Meiotic crossovers shuffle parental genetic information, providing novel combinations of alleles on which natural or artificial selection can act. However, crossover events are relatively rare, typically one to three exchange points per chromosome pair. Recent work has identified three pathways limiting meiotic crossovers in Arabidopsis thaliana that rely on the activity of FANCM [Crismani W, et al. (2012) Science 336:1588-1590], RECQ4 [Séguéla-Arnaud M, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:4713-4718], and FIGL1 [Girard C, et al. (2015) PLoS Genet 11:e1005369]. Here we analyzed recombination in plants in which one, two, or all three of these pathways were disrupted in both pure line and hybrid contexts. The greatest effect was observed when combining recq4 and figl1 mutations, which increased the hybrid genetic map length from 389 to 3,037 cM. This corresponds to an unprecedented 7.8-fold increase in crossover frequency. Disrupting the three pathways did not further increase recombination, suggesting that some upper limit had been reached. The increase in crossovers is not uniform along chromosomes and rises from centromere to telomere. Finally, although in wild type recombination is much higher in male meiosis than in female meiosis (490 cM vs. 290 cM), female recombination is higher than male recombination in recq4 figl1 (3,200 cM vs. 2,720 cM), suggesting that the factors that make wild-type female meiosis less recombinogenic than male wild-type meiosis do not apply in the mutant context. The massive increase in recombination observed in recq4 figl1 hybrids opens the possibility of manipulating recombination to enhance plant breeding efficiency.

  8. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. Methods We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981–2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India’s 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. Findings India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). Conclusions For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1–59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early. PMID:26683617

  9. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Manisha; Ram, Usha; Ram, Faujdar

    2015-01-01

    Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  10. Dimensional crossover in fluids under nanometer-scale confinement.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit; Chakrabarti, J

    2012-05-01

    Several earlier studies have shown signatures of crossover in various static and dynamics properties of a confined fluid when the confining dimension decreases to about a nanometer. The density fluctuations govern the majority of such properties of a fluid. Here, we illustrate the crossover in density fluctuation in a confined fluid, to provide a generic understanding of confinement-induced crossover of fluid properties, using computer simulations. The crossover can be understood as a manifestation of changes in the long-wavelength behavior of fluctuation in density due to geometrical constraints. We further show that the confining potential significantly affects the crossover behavior.

  11. Universal entanglement crossover of coupled quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Romain; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2014-03-14

    We consider the entanglement between two one-dimensional quantum wires (Luttinger liquids) coupled by tunneling through a quantum impurity. The physics of the system involves a crossover between weak and strong coupling regimes characterized by an energy scale TB, and methods of conformal field theory therefore cannot be applied. The evolution of the entanglement in this crossover has led to many numerical studies, but has remained little understood, analytically or even qualitatively. We argue in this Letter that the correct universal scaling form of the entanglement entropy S (for an arbitrary interval of length L containing the impurity) is ∂S/∂ ln L=f(LTB). In the special case where the coupling to the impurity can be refermionized, we show how the universal function f(LTB) can be obtained analytically using recent results on form factors of twist fields and a defect massless-scattering formalism. Our results are carefully checked against numerical simulations.

  12. Chiral crossover transition in a finite volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Wenbao; Sun, An; Zhang, Liping; Zong, Hongshi

    2018-02-01

    Finite volume effects on the chiral crossover transition of strong interactions at finite temperature are studied by solving the quark gap equation within a cubic volume of finite size L. With the anti-periodic boundary condition, our calculation shows the chiral quark condensate, which characterizes the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, decreases as L decreases below 2.5 fm. We further study the finite volume effects on the pseudo-transition temperature {T}{{c}} of the crossover, showing a significant decrease in {T}{{c}} as L decreases below 3 fm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475085, 11535005, 11690030, 51405027), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591808) and Open Research Foundation of State Key Lab. of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology in Huazhong University of Science & Technology (DMETKF2015015)

  13. Scaling and Crossovers in Diffusion Limited Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Somfai, E.; Sander, L. M.; Ball, R. C.

    1999-12-27

    We discuss the scaling of characteristic lengths in diffusion limited aggregation clusters in light of recent developments using conformal maps. We are led to the conjecture that the apparently anomalous scaling of lengths is due to one slow crossover. This is supported by an analytical argument for the scaling of the penetration depth of newly arrived random walkers, and by numerical evidence on the Laurent coefficients which uniquely determine each cluster. We find common crossover behavior for the squares of the characteristic lengths and the penetration depth of the form N{sup 2/D}({alpha}+{beta}N{sup -{phi}} ) with {phi} in the range -0.3{+-}0.1more » suggesting that there is a single dominant correction to scaling. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.« less

  14. JavaGenes: Evolving Graphs with Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Atsatt, Sean; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms usually use string or tree representations. We have developed a novel crossover operator for a directed and undirected graph representation, and used this operator to evolve molecules and circuits. Unlike strings or trees, a single point in the representation cannot divide every possible graph into two parts, because graphs may contain cycles. Thus, the crossover operator is non-trivial. A steady-state, tournament selection genetic algorithm code (JavaGenes) was written to implement and test the graph crossover operator. All runs were executed by cycle-scavagging on networked workstations using the Condor batch processing system. The JavaGenes code has evolved pharmaceutical drug molecules and simple digital circuits. Results to date suggest that JavaGenes can evolve moderate sized drug molecules and very small circuits in reasonable time. The algorithm has greater difficulty with somewhat larger circuits, suggesting that directed graphs (circuits) are more difficult to evolve than undirected graphs (molecules), although necessary differences in the crossover operator may also explain the results. In principle, JavaGenes should be able to evolve other graph-representable systems, such as transportation networks, metabolic pathways, and computer networks. However, large graphs evolve significantly slower than smaller graphs, presumably because the space-of-all-graphs explodes combinatorially with graph size. Since the representation strongly affects genetic algorithm performance, adding graphs to the evolutionary programmer's bag-of-tricks should be beneficial. Also, since graph evolution operates directly on the phenotype, the genotype-phenotype translation step, common in genetic algorithm work, is eliminated.

  15. From Geo-Modelling to Lecture Demonstrations to Poster Carnivals to Science-Art Crossovers to Children's Museum Exhibits to Sports Science Education to some Skateboarding Experiments for good measure (plus some other stuff)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenardic, A.

    2011-12-01

    If an untenured faculty member, hired under the title of looking at mantle processes, told his/her department chair that they wanted to get involved in the projects of this abstract title, with an education/outreach focus, the department chair would likely wish them a happy career elsewhere after their tenure case was rejected. University higher-ups would echo that I suspect. I know from a bit of direct experience as I was told by one of my universities most prominent outreach advocates that if I wanted to blend outreach with my research then I should only do it after tenure. Reality is reality. The reality of a CAREER grant is that it can change this reality. Being able to show that NSF was behind the blend of research and outreach I had in mind provided the 'money were your mouth is' needed to allow a junior faculty to do scientific research and to use scientific knowledge for outreach beyond the university walls. I will review how the CAREER program allowed me to branch out beyond the traditional role junior faculty can fall into. Along the way I will highlight some of the eduction/outreach projects explored and discuss successes as well as areas that could be improved in the future.

  16. Crossover behavior in a communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brajendra K.; Gupte, Neelima

    2003-12-01

    We address the problem of message transfer in a communication network. The network consists of nodes and links, with the nodes lying on a two-dimensional lattice. Each node has connections with its nearest neighbors, whereas some special nodes, which are designated as hubs, have connections to all the sites within a certain area of influence. The degree distribution for this network is bimodal in nature and has finite variance. The distribution of travel times between two sites situated at a fixed distance on this lattice shows fat-fractal behavior as a function of hub density. If extra assortative connections are now introduced between the hubs so that each hub is connected to two or three other hubs, the distribution crosses over to power-law behavior. Crossover behavior is also seen if end-to-end short cuts are introduced between hubs whose areas of influence overlap, but this is much milder in nature. In yet another information transmission process, namely, the spread of infection on the network with assortative connections, we again observed crossover behavior of another type, viz., from one power law to another for the threshold values of disease transmission probability. Our results are relevant for the understanding of the role of network topology in information spread processes.

  17. Crossover assessment of cardiolocomotor synchronization during running.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Lucenildo Silva; D'Affonsêca Netto, Aluizio; Mello, Roger Gomes Tavares; Nadal, Jurandir

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that positive cardiolocomotor coordination (CLC) measure occurs by chance during a running task where the heart rate (HR) is approximated to the step frequency (StepF). The electrocardiogram and electromyogram from the right gastrocnemius lateralis muscle were continuously recorded from ten healthy young men running at a paced rhythm of 152 step/min, to monitor HR and StepF. CLC was evaluated by phase synchrograms and the index of conditional probability (iCP). Results were validated with surrogate data and a crossover approach, where the HR of one subject was related to the StepF of another one, and comparisons were made combining subjects two by two. Six subjects showed synchrogram structures and high iCP values (≥0.8), suggesting the occurrence of physiological entrainment, when the HR reached the SF range. In crossover analysis, phase synchrograms and iCP presented similar behavior of original data when the HR from one subject was close enough to the SF from another one. Significant iCP values in 46 of 90 comparisons (51%) were observed, including all cases crossing signals among the six positive cases. Synchrogram and iCP tools currently employed for measuring CLC are not appropriate because they indicate the occurrence of this phenomenon even among subjects who ran on different days and times of each other.

  18. FANCM Limits Meiotic Crossovers in Brassica Crops.

    PubMed

    Blary, Aurélien; Gonzalo, Adrián; Eber, Frédérique; Bérard, Aurélie; Bergès, Hélène; Bessoltane, Nadia; Charif, Delphine; Charpentier, Catherine; Cromer, Laurence; Fourment, Joelle; Genevriez, Camille; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Lodé, Maryse; Lucas, Marie-Odile; Nesi, Nathalie; Lloyd, Andrew; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Jenczewski, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Meiotic crossovers (COs) are essential for proper chromosome segregation and the reshuffling of alleles during meiosis. In WT plants, the number of COs is usually small, which limits the genetic variation that can be captured by plant breeding programs. Part of this limitation is imposed by proteins like FANCM, the inactivation of which results in a 3-fold increase in COs in Arabidopsis thaliana . Whether the same holds true in crops needed to be established. In this study, we identified EMS induced mutations in FANCM in two species of economic relevance within the genus Brassica . We showed that CO frequencies were increased in fancm mutants in both diploid and tetraploid Brassicas, Brassica rapa and Brassica napus respectively. In B. rapa , we observed a 3-fold increase in the number of COs, equal to the increase observed previously in Arabidopsis . In B. napus we observed a lesser but consistent increase (1.3-fold) in both euploid (AACC) and allohaploid (AC) plants. Complementation tests in A. thaliana suggest that the smaller increase in crossover frequency observed in B. napus reflects residual activity of the mutant C copy of FANCM. Altogether our results indicate that the anti-CO activity of FANCM is conserved across the Brassica , opening new avenues to make a wider range of genetic diversity accessible to crop improvement.

  19. Iron Spin Crossover in the New Hexagonal Aluminous (NAL) Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The new hexagonal aluminous (NAL) phase, chemical formula AB2C6O12 (A = Na+, K+, Ca2+; B = Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+; C = Al3+, Si4+, Fe3+), is considered a major component ( 20 vol%) of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) at lower-mantle conditions. Given that MORB can be transported back into the Earth's lower mantle via subduction, a thorough knowledge of the NAL phase is essential to fully understand the fate of subducted MORB and its role in mantle dynamics and heterogeneity. In this presentation, the complicated spin crossover of the Fe-bearing NAL phase will be discussed based on a series of first-principles calculations [1], in which the local density approximation + self-consistent Hubbard U (LDA+Usc) method was adopted. As revealed by these calculations, only the ferric iron (Fe3+) substituting Al/Si in the octahedral (C) site undergoes a crossover from the high-spin (HS) to the low-spin (LS) state at 40 GPa, while iron substituting Mg in the trigonal-prismatic (B) site remains in the HS state, regardless of its oxidation state (Fe2+ or Fe3+). The volume/elastic anomalies, iron nuclear quadrupole splittings, and crystal field spltting determined by calculations are in great agreement with experiments [2,3]. The calculations further predict that the HS-LS transition pressure of the NAL phase barely increases with temperature due to the three nearly degenerate LS states of Fe3+, suggesting that the elastic anomalies of this mineral can occur at the top lower mantle. [1] H. Hsu, Phys. Rev. B 95, 020406(R) (2017). [2] Y. Wu et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 434, 91-100 (2016). [3] S. S. Lobanov et al., J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 122, 3565 (2017).

  20. Numerical simulation of bromine crossover behavior in flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yaobin; Cheng, Shijian; Chu, Dandan; Li, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Br2 and HBr has its own series of advantages as the positive electrolyte solution, so some batteries select the Br2/Br- as the positive electrolyte solution, such as sodium polysulfide/bromine flow battery, zinc/bromine flow battery, vanadium/ bromine flow batteries and hydrogen/bromine flow batteries. But the crossover benavior of bromine occurs in these batteries too, resulting in cross-contamination, capacity loss and affecting battery's performance. In this work, we build numerical models to study the influence of bromine crossover phenomenon on the three forms of bromine crossover, the concentration of electrolyte on the cathode side and the flow rate of the negative side in the quinone bromine flow battery, to find the main models affecting the bromine crossover and the impact of bromine crossover on battery performance. It was found that the three ways of crossover through the membranes was mainly by diffusion. By reducing the concentration of positive electrolyte solution, the bromine crossover can be reduced and Coulomb Efficiency can be improved. Rising the flow rate of the electrolyte solution on the negative side and reducing the differential between positive side's pressure and negative side's pressure can also reduce the amount of bromine crossover to improve Coulomb efficiency in the battery.

  1. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; York, Cynthia A [Newington, CT; Waszczuk, Piotr [White Bear Lake, MN; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  2. Universality of quadratic to linear magnetoresistance crossover in disordered conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Silvia; Ramakrishnan, Navneeth; Lai, Ying Tong; Adam, Shaffique

    Many experiments measuring Magnetoresistance (MR) showed unsaturating linear behavior at high magnetic fields and quadratic behavior at low fields. In the literature, two very different theoretical models have been used to explain this classical MR as a consequence of sample disorder. The phenomenological Random Resistor Network (RRN) model constructs a grid of four-terminal resistors each with a varying random resistance. The Effective Medium Theory (EMT) model imagines a smoothly varying disorder potential that causes a continuous variation of the local conductivity. In this theoretical work, we demonstrate numerically that both the RRN and EMT models belong to the same universality class, and that a single parameter (the ratio of the fluctuations in the carrier density to the average carrier density) completely determines both the magnitude of the MR and the B-field scale for the crossover from quadratic to linear MR. By considering several experimental data sets in the literature, ranging from thin films of InSb to graphene to Weyl semimetals like Na3Bi, we show that this disorder-induced mechanism for MR is in good agreement with the experiments, and that this comparison of MR with theory reveals information about the spatial carrier density inhomogeneity. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Singapore (NRF-NRFF2012-01).

  3. Qualitative determination of H2S crossover rates in nation membranes using ion-probe techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Rockward, Tommy; Uribe, Francisco A

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H2S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. The H2S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion PEMFC membranes was studied using ion probe techniques. A sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H2S that permeated through 50 cm2samples of Nafion 117 and 212 membranes using a partial pressure difference up to I030ppm at room temperature. Experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order tomore » achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(N03)2. The rate of H2S crossover for dry 117 and 212 were identical at 1.2e-7 g/min. Humidification increased the crossover rate to 5.ge-7 glmin and 1.8e-6 glmin for 117 and 212 respectively. Although the data collected in this work show that the rate of H2S crossover increases with water content and reduced membrane thickness, an accurate determination of permeation constants from this work was not possible because the H2S partial pressure was not constant throughout the experiment.« less

  4. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter. PMID:27212938

  5. Inequity in work and intimate relationships: a Spillover-Crossover model.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Petrou, Paraskevas; Tsaousis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    This study among 267 Greek teachers and their partners tested and expanded the recently proposed Spillover-Crossover model (SCM) of well-being. Accordingly, experiences built up at work spill over to the home domain, and then influence the partner. The authors integrated equity theory in the model by formulating hypotheses about exchange in interpersonal relationships. Structural equation modeling analyses supported the spillover hypothesis that teachers who lose their work engagement as a result of an inequitable relationship with their students invest less in the relationship with their partner. In addition, the results supported the crossover hypothesis that teachers' relationship investments, in turn, show a negative relationship with inequity in the intimate relationship as perceived by the partner; and inequity in the intimate relationship contributed to partner depression. The findings are discussed in light of the SCM of well-being.

  6. A crossover in the mechanical response of nanocrystalline ceramics.

    PubMed

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2005-08-05

    Multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulation of indentation of nanocrystalline silicon carbide reveals unusual deformation mechanisms in brittle nanophase materials, resulting from the coexistence of brittle grains and soft amorphous grain boundary phases. Simulations predict a crossover from intergranular continuous deformation to intragrain discrete deformation at a critical indentation depth. The crossover arises from the interplay between cooperative grain sliding, grain rotations, and intergranular dislocation formation similar to stick-slip behavior. The crossover is also manifested in switching from deformation dominated by indentation-induced crystallization to deformation dominated by disordering, leading to amorphization. This interplay between deformation mechanisms is critical for the design of ceramics with superior mechanical properties.

  7. Laser frequency stabilization using bichromatic crossover spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Taek; Seb Moon, Han, E-mail: hsmoon@pusan.ac.kr

    2015-03-07

    We propose a Doppler-free spectroscopic method named bichromatic crossover spectroscopy (BCS), which we then use for the frequency stabilization of an off-resonant frequency that does not correspond to an atomic transition. The observed BCS in the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition of {sup 87}Rb is related to the hyperfine structure of the conventional saturated absorption spectrum of this transition. Furthermore, the Doppler-free BCS is numerically calculated by considering all of the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition in an atomic vapor cell, and is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.more » Finally, we successfully achieve modulation-free off-resonant locking at the center frequency between the two 5S{sub 1/2}(F = 1 and 2) → 5P{sub 1/2}(F′ = 1) transitions using a polarization rotation of the BCS. The laser frequency stability was estimated to be the Allan variance of 2.1 × 10{sup −10} at 1 s.« less

  8. Crossover ensembles of random matrices and skew-orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Santosh, E-mail: skumar.physics@gmail.com; Pandey, Akhilesh, E-mail: ap0700@mail.jnu.ac.in

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We study crossover ensembles of Jacobi family of random matrices. > We consider correlations for orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers. > We use the method of skew-orthogonal polynomials and quaternion determinants. > We prove universality of spectral correlations in crossover ensembles. > We discuss applications to quantum conductance and communication theory problems. - Abstract: In a recent paper (S. Kumar, A. Pandey, Phys. Rev. E, 79, 2009, p. 026211) we considered Jacobi family (including Laguerre and Gaussian cases) of random matrix ensembles and reported exact solutions of crossover problems involving time-reversal symmetry breaking. In the present paper we givemore » details of the work. We start with Dyson's Brownian motion description of random matrix ensembles and obtain universal hierarchic relations among the unfolded correlation functions. For arbitrary dimensions we derive the joint probability density (jpd) of eigenvalues for all transitions leading to unitary ensembles as equilibrium ensembles. We focus on the orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers and give generic expressions for jpd of eigenvalues, two-point kernels and n-level correlation functions. This involves generalization of the theory of skew-orthogonal polynomials to crossover ensembles. We also consider crossovers in the circular ensembles to show the generality of our method. In the large dimensionality limit, correlations in spectra with arbitrary initial density are shown to be universal when expressed in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter. Applications of our crossover results to communication theory and quantum conductance problems are also briefly discussed.« less

  9. Implementation of spin crossover compounds into electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, B.; Natke, D.; Klimke, S.; Baskas, S.; Sindelar, R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.

    2018-12-01

    We synthesised a series of Iron(II)-triazole compounds and used the electrospinning procedure to incorporate spin crossover compounds (SCO) into polylactic acid polymer fibers. Composite fiber/SCO compounds of [Fe(NH2-trz)3](BF4)2 as well as [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4 were investigated via Mössbauer spectroscopy at 293 K and 77 K. The Mössbauer studies show that the spin crossover behavior is maintained in the polymer matrix.

  10. Mapping alternating current electroosmotic flow at the dielectrophoresis crossover frequency of a colloidal probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Cohen, Joel A; Ou-Yang, H Daniel

    2013-07-01

    AC electroosmotic (ACEO) flow above the gap between coplanar electrodes is mapped by the measurement of Stokes forces on an optically trapped polystyrene colloidal particle. E²-dependent forces on the probe particle are selected by amplitude modulation (AM) of the ACEO electric field (E) and lock-in detection at twice the AM frequency. E²-dependent DEP of the probe is eliminated by driving the ACEO at the probe's DEP crossover frequency. The location-independent DEP crossover frequency is determined, in a separate experiment, as the limiting frequency of zero horizontal force as the probe is moved toward the midpoint between the electrodes. The ACEO velocity field, uncoupled from probe DEP effects, was mapped in the region 1-9 μm above a 28 μm gap between the electrodes. By use of variously sized probes, each at its DEP crossover frequency, the frequency dependence of the ACEO flow was determined at a point 3 μm above the electrode gap and 4 μm from an electrode tip. At this location the ACEO flow was maximal at ∼117 kHz for a low salt solution. This optical trapping method, by eliminating DEP forces on the probe, provides unambiguous mapping of the ACEO velocity field. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The commerce and crossover of resources: resource conservation in the service of resilience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shoshi; Westman, Mina; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-04-01

    Conservation of resources (COR) theory was originally introduced as a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of major and traumatic stress, but following the work of Hobfoll and Shirom (1993), COR theory has been adopted to understanding and predicting work-related stress and both the stress and resilience that occur within work settings and work culture. COR theory underscores the critical role of resource possession, lack, loss and gain and depicts personal, social and material resources co-travelling in resource caravans, rather than piecemeal. We briefly review the principles of COR theory and integrate it in the crossover model, which provides a key mechanism for multi-person exchange of emotions, experiences and resources. Understanding the impact of resource reservoirs, resource passageways and crossover provides a framework for research and intervention promoting resilience to employees as well as to organizations. It emphasizes that the creation and maintenance of resource caravan passageways promote resource gain climates through resource crossover processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-01

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T - ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  13. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-07

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (φ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T - φ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and φ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of φ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  14. Orbital Transfer Vehicle Engine Technology High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    High speed, high efficiency head rise multistage pumps require continuous passage diffusing crossovers to effectively convey the pumped fluid from the exit of one impeller to the inlet of the next impeller. On Rocketdyne's Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), the MK49-F, a three stage high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump, utilizes a 6.23 velocity ratio diffusing crossover. This velocity ratio approaches the diffusion limits for stable and efficient flow over the operating conditions required by the OTV system. The design of the high velocity ratio diffusing crossover was based on advanced analytical techniques anchored by previous tests of stationary two-dimensional diffusers with steady flow. To secure the design and the analytical techniques, tests were required with the unsteady whirling characteristics produced by an impeller. A tester was designed and fabricated using a 2.85 times scale model of the MK49-F turbopumps first stage, including the inducer, impeller, and the diffusing crossover. Water and air tests were completed to evaluate the large scale turbulence, non-uniform velocity, and non-steady velocity on the pump and crossover head and efficiency. Suction performance tests from 80 percent to 124 percent of design flow were completed in water to assess these pump characteristics. Pump and diffuser performance from the water and air tests were compared with the actual MK49-F test data in liquid hydrogen.

  15. A Link between Meiotic Prophase Progression and CrossoverControl

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Peter M.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-07-06

    During meiosis, most organisms ensure that homologous chromosomes undergo at least one exchange of DNA, or crossover, to link chromosomes together and accomplish proper segregation. How each chromosome receives a minimum of one crossover is unknown. During early meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans and many other species, chromosomes adopt a polarized organization within the nucleus, which normally disappears upon completion of homolog synapsis. Mutations that impair synapsis even between a single pair of chromosomes in C. elegans delay this nuclear reorganization. We quantified this delay by developing a classification scheme for discrete stages of meiosis. Immunofluorescence localization of RAD-51 protein revealedmore » that delayed meiotic cells also contained persistent recombination intermediates. Through genetic analysis, we found that this cytological delay in meiotic progression requires double-strand breaks and the function of the crossover-promoting heteroduplex HIM-14 (Msh4) and MSH-5. Failure of X chromosome synapsis also resulted in impaired crossover control on autosomes, which may result from greater numbers and persistence of recombination intermediates in the delayed nuclei. We conclude that maturation of recombination events on chromosomes promotes meiotic progression, and is coupled to the regulation of crossover number and placement. Our results have broad implications for the interpretation of meiotic mutants, as we have shown that asynapsis of a single chromosome pair can exert global effects on meiotic progression and recombination frequency.« less

  16. QCD phase diagram for nonzero isospin-asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, B. B.; Endrődi, G.; Schmalzbauer, S.

    2018-03-01

    The QCD phase diagram is studied in the presence of an isospin asymmetry using continuum extrapolated staggered quarks with physical masses. In particular, we investigate the phase boundary between the normal and the pion condensation phases and the chiral/deconfinement transition. The simulations are performed with a small explicit breaking parameter in order to avoid the accumulation of zero modes and thereby stabilize the algorithm. The limit of vanishing explicit breaking is obtained by means of an extrapolation, which is facilitated by a novel improvement program employing the singular value representation of the Dirac operator. Our findings indicate that no pion condensation takes place above T ≈160 MeV and also suggest that the deconfinement crossover continuously connects to the BEC-BCS crossover at high isospin asymmetries. The results may be directly compared to effective theories and model approaches to QCD.

  17. Eating marshmallows reduces ileostomy output: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Clarebrough, E; Guest, G; Stupart, D

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotally, many ostomates believe that eating marshmallows can reduce ileostomy effluent. There is a plausible mechanism for this, as the gelatine contained in marshmallows may thicken small bowel fluid, but there is currently no evidence that this is effective. This was a randomized crossover trial. Adult patients with well-established ileostomies were included. Ileostomy output was measured for 1 week during which three marshmallows were consumed three times daily, and for one control week where marshmallows were not eaten. There was a 2-day washout period. Patients were randomly allocated to whether the control or intervention week occurred first. In addition, a questionnaire was administered regarding patient's subjective experience of their ileostomy function. Thirty-one participants were recruited; 28 completed the study. There was a median reduction in ileostomy output volume of 75 ml per day during the study period (P = 0.0054, 95% confidence interval 23.4-678.3) compared with the control week. Twenty of 28 subjects (71%) experienced a reduction in their ileostomy output, two had no change and six reported an increase. During the study period, participants reported fewer ileostomy bag changes (median five per day vs six in the control period, P = 0.0255). Twenty of 28 (71%) reported that the ileostomy effluent was thicker during the study week (P = 0.023). Overall 19 (68%) participants stated they would use marshmallows in the future if they wanted to reduce or thicken their ileostomy output. Eating marshmallows leads to a small but statistically significant reduction in ileostomy output. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Evolution of repeated DNA sequences by unequal crossover.

    PubMed

    Smith, G P

    1976-02-13

    It is often supposed that highly repetitious DNA's arise only as a result of unusual mechanisms or in response to selective pressure. My arguments and simulations suggest, by contrast, that a pattern of tandem repeats is the natural state of DNA whose sequence is not maintained by selection. The simulations show that periodicities can develop readily from nonreptitious DNA as a result of the random accumulation of random mutations and random homology-dependent unequal crossovers. The lengths of these periodicities, and the patterns of subrepeats within them, would fluctuate in evolution, with the probability of a given pattern being dependent on the unknown exact nature of the crossover mechanism. Qualitatively, then, unequal crossover provides a reasonable and uncontrived explanation for the prevalence of highly repeated sequences in DNA and for the patterns of periodicity they evince.

  19. Superconducting Vacuum-Gap Crossovers for High Performance Microwave Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Kevin L.; Brown, Ari D.; Chang, Meng-Ping; Hu, Ron; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low-loss wide-bandwidth superconducting vacuum-gap crossovers for high performance millimeter wave applications are described. In order to reduce ohmic and parasitic losses at millimeter wavelengths a vacuum gap is preferred relative to dielectric spacer. Here, vacuum-gap crossovers were realized by using a sacrificial polymer layer followed by niobium sputter deposition optimized for coating coverage over an underlying niobium signal layer. Both coplanar waveguide and microstrip crossover topologies have been explored in detail. The resulting fabrication process is compatible with a bulk micro-machining process for realizing waveguide coupled detectors, which includes sacrificial wax bonding, and wafer backside deep reactive ion etching for creation of leg isolated silicon membrane structures. Release of the vacuum gap structures along with the wax bonded wafer after DRIE is implemented in the same process step used to complete the detector fabrication. ?

  20. Crossover from equilibration to aging: Nonequilibrium theory versus simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Méndez, P.; Lázaro-Lázaro, E.; Sánchez-Díaz, L. E.; Ramírez-González, P. E.; Pérez-Ángel, G.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding glasses and the glass transition requires comprehending the nature of the crossover from the ergodic (or equilibrium) regime, in which the stationary properties of the system have no history dependence, to the mysterious glass transition region, where the measured properties are nonstationary and depend on the protocol of preparation. In this work we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to test the main features of the crossover predicted by the molecular version of the recently developed multicomponent nonequilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory. According to this theory, the glass transition involves the abrupt passage from the ordinary pattern of full equilibration to the aging scenario characteristic of glass-forming liquids. The same theory explains that this abrupt transition will always be observed as a blurred crossover due to the unavoidable finiteness of the time window of any experimental observation. We find that within their finite waiting-time window, the simulations confirm the general trends predicted by the theory.

  1. Crossover behavior in a mixed-mode fiber bundle model

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, Srutarshi; Hansen, Alex; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a mixed-mode load sharing scheme in a fiber bundle model. This model reduces exactly to equal-load-sharing (ELS) and local-load-sharing (LLS) models at the two extreme limits of a single-load-sharing parameter. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) the mean-field regime where the ELS mode dominates and (b) the short-range regime dominated by the LLS mode. The crossover behavior is explored through a numerical study of the strength variation, the avalanche statistics, susceptibility and relaxation time variations, the correlations among the broken fibers, and their cluster analysis. Analyzing the moments of the cluster size distributions we locate the crossover pointmore » of these regimes. We thus conclude that even in one dimension, the fiber bundle model shows crossover behavior from mean-field to short-range interactions.« less

  2. Probing Spin Crossover in a Solution by Paramagnetic NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Alexander A; Denisov, Gleb L; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Novikov, Valentin V

    2017-12-18

    Spin transitions in spin-crossover compounds are now routinely studied in the solid state by magnetometry; however, only a few methods exist for studies in solution. The currently used Evans method, which relies on NMR spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility, requires the availability of a very pure sample of the paramagnetic compound and its exact concentration. To overcome these limitations, we propose an alternative NMR-based technique for evaluating spin-state populations by only using the chemical shifts of a spin-crossover compound; those can be routinely obtained for a solution that contains unknown impurities and paramagnetic admixtures or is contaminated otherwise.

  3. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast...

  4. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast...

  5. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provisions listed at § 660.60(h)(7), apply to vessels fishing in the limited entry trawl fishery. [76 FR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  6. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provisions listed at § 660.60(h)(7), apply to vessels fishing in the limited entry trawl fishery. [76 FR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  7. Crossover Improvement for the Genetic Algorithm in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    1998-01-01

    In information retrieval (IR), the aim of genetic algorithms (GA) is to help a system to find, in a huge documents collection, a good reply to a query expressed by the user. Analysis of phenomena seen during the implementation of a GA for IR has led to a new crossover operation, which is introduced and compared to other learning methods.…

  8. Evidence for structural crossover in the supercritical state

    SciTech Connect

    Bolmatov, Dima, E-mail: d.bolmatov@gmail.com, E-mail: db663@cornell.edu; Brazhkin, V. V.; Ryzhov, V. N.

    2013-12-21

    The state of matter above the critical point is terra incognita, and is loosely discussed as a physically homogeneous flowing state where no differences can be made between a liquid and a gas and where properties undergo no marked or distinct changes with pressure and temperature. In particular, the structure of supercritical state is currently viewed to be the same everywhere on the phase diagram, and to change only gradually and in a featureless way while moving along any temperature and pressure path above the critical point. Here, we demonstrate that this is not the case, but that there ismore » a well-defined structural crossover instead. Evidenced by the qualitative changes of distribution functions of interatomic distances and angles, the crossover demarcates liquid-like and gas-like configurations and the presence of medium-range structural correlations. Importantly, the discovered structural crossover is closely related to both dynamic and thermodynamic crossovers operating in the supercritical state, providing new unexpected fundamental interlinks between the supercritical structure, dynamics, and thermodynamics.« less

  9. All in the family: Work-family enrichment and crossover among farm couples.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Justin M; Jex, Steve M

    2017-04-01

    This study expands upon the contextualization of the work-family interface by examining positive work-family experiences within the farming industry. Both individual and crossover effects were examined among a sample of 217 married farm couples. Results demonstrated multiple significant relationships between self-reported attitudes, work-family enrichment, and health outcomes. In addition, crossover effects reveal the importance of individual attitudes (husband work engagement and wife farm satisfaction) for spousal work-family enrichment and health outcomes. Furthermore, individual work-family enrichment was positively related to spousal psychological health and negatively related to spousal physical symptoms. Many of these findings remained significant after controlling for work-family conflict. Overall, our results suggest the potential beneficial impact of the integrated work-family dynamic associated with the farming profession for positive work-family experiences. Implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. 50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. The crossover provisions listed at § 660.60(h)(7), apply to vessels fishing in the open access fishery. [76 FR...

  11. 50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. The crossover provisions listed at § 660.60(h)(7), apply to vessels fishing in the open access fishery. [76 FR...

  12. 50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. The crossover provisions listed at § 660.60(h)(7), apply to vessels fishing in the open access fishery. [76 FR...

  13. What's Mine Is Yours: The Crossover of Day-Specific Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Angela; Sonnentag, Sabine; Niessen, Cornelia; Unger, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This diary study examines the daily crossover of self-esteem within working couples. By integrating self-esteem research into the crossover framework, we hypothesized that the day-specific self-esteem experienced by one partner after work crosses over to the other partner. Furthermore, we proposed that this daily crossover process is moderated by…

  14. Using scratch card technology for random allocation concealment in a clinical trial with a crossover design.

    PubMed

    Beksinska, Mags E; Joanis, Carol; Smit, Jenni A; Pienaar, Jacqueline; Piaggio, Gilda

    2013-02-01

    To avoid selection bias in clinical trials, random allocation concealment is crucial to ensure that participants and or researchers remain unaware of assignments. We aimed to design an allocation concealment method that reduced the possibility of selection bias for a randomized, open-label, crossover trial to evaluate device function of four female condom (FC) types. Using scratch card technology, we devised a simple method of concealment, whereby the treatment sequence was printed on a single card for each participant, and the codes for each treatment in the sequence were concealed beneath foil squares on a stiff A6-sized card. On the first and subsequent follow-up visits, the foil corresponding to that visit was scratched from the square to reveal the condom type allocation for the next condom-use period. Staff in the South African and Chinese trial sites were trained in use and care of the card, and on completion of the study completed a questionnaire on their experience of use. Research staff in both countries found the card easy to use and those who had previously used the sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes (SNOSE) system for random allocation reported the scratch card easier to use. Research staff most commonly used a coin to remove the foil square and some used their fingernails. In both South Africa and China, no errors in allocation sequence were found during study monitoring. Scratch card system of allocation cannot be printed in-house. This novel, effective method of concealment for a crossover random allocation was well liked by study staff. The most important advantage of this method is the ability to conceal consecutive allocations of a crossover design using a single card, thus eliminating the need for multiple envelopes per participant. While we used this method in a clinical trial of FCs, it could be employed in a range of other clinical trials and other randomized studies.

  15. Skating crossovers on a motorized flywheel: a preliminary experimental design to test effect on speed and on crossovers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aynsley M; Krause, David A; Stuart, Michael J; Montelpare, William J; Sorenson, Matthew C; Link, Andrew A; Gaz, Daniel V; Twardowski, Casey P; Larson, Dirk R; Stuart, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    Ice hockey requires frequent skater crossovers to execute turns. Our investigation aimed to determine the effectiveness of training crossovers on a motorized, polyethylene high-resistance flywheel. We hypothesized that high school hockey players training on the flywheel would perform as well as their peers training on ice. Participants were 23 male high-school hockey players (age 15-19 years). The study used an experimental prospective design to compare players who trained for 9 sessions on the 22-foot flywheel with players who trained for 9 sessions on a similarly sized on-ice circle. Both groups were compared with control subjects who were randomly selected from the same participant pool as those training on ice. All players were tested before and after their 3-week training regimens, and control subjects were asked to not practice crossovers between testing. Group 1 trained in a hockey training facility housing the flywheel, and group 2 trained in the ice hockey arena where testing occurred. Primary outcome measures tested in both directions were: (a) speed (time in seconds) required to skate crossovers for 3 laps of a marked face-off circle, (b) cadence of skating crossovers on the similarly sized circles, and (c) a repeat interval speed test, which measures anaerobic power. No significant changes were found between groups in on-ice testing before and after training. Among the group 1 players, 7 of 8 believed they benefited from flywheel training. Group 2 players, who trained on ice, did not improve performance significantly over group 1 players. Despite the fact that no significant on-ice changes in performance were observed in objective measures, players who trained on the flywheel subjectively reported that the flywheel is an effective cost-effective alternative to training on ice. This is a relevant finding when placed in context with limited availability of on-ice training.

  16. Signatures of Fermion Pairing with Unconventional Symmetry Around the BCS-BEC Crossover in a Quasi-2D Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volčko, Dušan; Quader, Khandker F.

    2012-12-01

    We consider fermions on a 2D square lattice with a finite-range pairing interaction, and obtain signatures for unconventional pair-symmetry states, dx2-y2 and extended-s (s*), in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein Condensation crossover region. We find that the fermion momentum distribution function, vk2, the ratio of the Bogoliubov coefficients, vk/uk, and the Fourier transform of vk2 are strikingly different for d and s* symmetries in the crossover region. The chemical potential and the gap functions for both pairing symmetries show several interesting features as a function of interaction. Fermionic atoms in 2D optical lattices may provide a way to test these signatures. We discuss current generation cold atom experiments that may be utilized.

  17. The absence of crossovers on chromosome 4 in Drosophila melanogaster: Imperfection or interesting exception?

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Michaelyn A; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-10-02

    Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 4 is an anomaly because of its small size, chromatin structure, and most notably its lack of crossing over during meiosis. Earlier ideas about the absence of crossovers on 4 hypothesize that these unique characteristics function to prevent crossovers. Here, we explore hypotheses about the absence of crossovers on 4, how these have been addressed, and new insights into the mechanism behind this suppression. We review recently published results that indicate that global crossover patterning, in particular the centromere effect, make a major contribution to the prevention of crossovers on 4.

  18. Sudden changes in the shelf flow as a triggering mechanism for baroclinic gap-leaping plumes in application to the Scotian Shelf Water crossover events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, J.; Sheremet, V. A.

    2006-12-01

    Georges Bank is separated from the Scotian Shelf by the Northeast Channel. This channel is over 200 m deep, about 50 km wide, and connects the upper continental slope to the deep Gulf of Maine. Scotian Shelf Water (SSW) generally flows into the Gulf of Maine, however, episodic "crossovers" can occur (mostly in spring), with SSW being carried directly from the Scotian Shelf across Northeast Channel to Georges Bank. Little is known about the primary physical mechanisms which trigger and sustain the SSW crossovers. In a numerical study of crossover events we found that, for realistic parameters, it is possible to reproduce SSW crossovers by varying the density difference between the shelf and slope waters or the strength of the shelf-break front jet. The change of the flow pattern is very abrupt: a slight increase of slope water temperatures by only 1.5C may significantly increase the frequency of crossover events and potentially allow continuous flow of SSW onto the Georges Bank. We also conducted a series of laboratory experiments on a rotating platform modeling the flow in the Northeast Channel using an idealized configuration. The barotropic laboratory experiments revealed that, as the flow started to leap across the channel, the onset of separation occurred at point located farther toward the Gulf of Maine rather than near Browns Bank, which bears a striking resemblance to many satellite images. Introducing the baroclinicity causes the displacement of the separation point toward Browns Bank in agreement with numerical results. Also found is a new mechanism for the generation of crossovers. When the upstream shelf flow is suddenly decreased this causes a backflow near the coast and stronger jet over the shelfbreak promoting a gap-leaping plume.

  19. Effect of sex, age and genetics on crossover interference in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Li, Jinquan; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Crossovers generated by homologous recombination ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. Crossover interference results in chiasmata being more evenly distributed along chromosomes, but the mechanism underlying crossover interference remains elusive. Based on large pedigrees of Holstein and Jersey cattle with genotype data, we extracted three-generation families, including 147,327 male and 71,687 female meioses in Holstein, and 108,163 male and 37,008 female meioses in Jersey, respectively. We identified crossovers in these meioses and fitted the Housworth-Stahl “interference-escape” model to study crossover interference patterns in the cattle genome. Our result reveals that the degree of crossover interference is stronger in females than in males. We found evidence for inter-chromosomal variation in the level of crossover interference, with smaller chromosomes exhibiting stronger interference. In addition, crossover interference levels decreased with maternal age. Finally, sex-specific GWAS analyses identified one locus near the NEK9 gene on chromosome 10 to have a significant effect on crossover interference levels. This locus has been previously associated with recombination rate in cattle. Collectively, this large-scale analysis provided a comprehensive description of crossover interference across chromosome, sex and age groups, identified associated candidate genes, and produced useful insights into the mechanism of crossover interference. PMID:27892966

  20. Dynamic heterogeneity in crossover spin facilitated model of supercooled liquid and fractional Stokes-Einstein relation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seo-Woo; Kim, Soree; Jung, YounJoon, E-mail: yjjung@snu.ac.kr

    2015-06-28

    Kinetically constrained models have gained much interest as models that assign the origins of interesting dynamic properties of supercooled liquids to dynamical facilitation mechanisms that have been revealed in many experiments and numerical simulations. In this work, we investigate the dynamic heterogeneity in the fragile-to-strong liquid via Monte Carlo method using the model that linearly interpolates between the strong liquid-like behavior and the fragile liquid-like behavior by an asymmetry parameter b. When the asymmetry parameter is sufficiently small, smooth fragile-to-strong transition is observed both in the relaxation time and the diffusion constant. Using these physical quantities, we investigate fractional Stokes-Einsteinmore » relations observed in this model. When b is fixed, the system shows constant power law exponent under the temperature change, and the exponent has the value between that of the Frederickson-Andersen model and the East model. Furthermore, we investigate the dynamic length scale of our systems and also find the crossover relation between the relaxation time. We ascribe the competition between energetically favored symmetric relaxation mechanism and entropically favored asymmetric relaxation mechanism to the fragile-to-strong crossover behavior.« less

  1. Enhanced nonlinear optical characteristics of copper-ion-doped double crossover DNAs.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeongho; Lee, Byung Jic; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Cho, Youngho; Kim, Chulki; Seo, Minah; Lee, Taikjin; Jhon, Young Min; Choi, Jaebin; Lee, Seok; Park, Sung Ha; Jun, Seong Chan; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jae Hun

    2015-11-21

    The modification of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples by sequencing the order of bases and doping copper ions opens the possibility for the design of novel nanomaterials exhibiting large optical nonlinearity. We investigated the nonlinear characteristics of copper-ion doped double crossover DNA samples for the first time to the best of our knowledge by using Z-scan and four-wave mixing methods. To accelerate the nonlinear characteristics, we prepared two types of unique DNA nanostructures composed of 148 base pairs doped with copper ions with a facile annealing method. The outstanding third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the copper-ion-doped DNA solution, 1.19 × 10(-12) esu, was estimated by the conventional Z-scan measurement, whereas the four-wave mixing experiment was also investigated. In the visible spectral range, the copper-ion-doped DNA solution samples provided competent four-wave mixing signals with a remarkable conversion efficiency of -4.15 dB for the converted signal at 627 nm. The interactions between DNA and copper ions contribute to the enhancement of nonlinearity due to structural and functional changes. The present study signifies that the copper-ion-doped double crossover DNA is a potential candidate as a highly efficient novel material for further nonlinear optical applications.

  2. Diffusion of Sticky Nanoparticles in a Polymer Melt: Crossover from Suppressed to Enhanced Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Bobby; Bocharova, Vera; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.

    2018-03-09

    The self-diffusion of a single large particle in a fluid is usually described by the classic Stokes–Einstein (SE) hydrodynamic relation. However, there are many fluids where the SE prediction for nanoparticles diffusion fails. These systems include diffusion of nanoparticles in porous media, in entangled and unentangled polymer melts and solutions, and protein diffusion in biological environments. A fundamental understanding of the microscopic parameters that govern nanoparticle diffusion is relevant to a wide range of applications. Here in this work, we present experimental measurements of the tracer diffusion coefficient of small and large nanoparticles that experience strong attractions with unentangled andmore » entangled polymer melt matrices. For the small nanoparticle system, a crossover from suppressed to enhanced diffusion is observed with increasing polymer molecular weight. We interpret these observations based on our theoretical and simulation insights of the preceding article (paper 1) as a result of a crossover from an effective hydrodynamic core–shell to a nonhydrodynamic vehicle mechanism of transport, with the latter strongly dependent on polymer–nanoparticle desorption time. In conclusion, a general zeroth-order qualitative picture for small sticky nanoparticle diffusion in polymer melts is proposed.« less

  3. Control of Meiotic Crossovers: From Double-Strand Break Formation to Designation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis, the mechanism of creating haploid gametes, is a complex cellular process observed across sexually reproducing organisms. Fundamental to meiosis is the process of homologous recombination, whereby DNA double-strand breaks are introduced into the genome and are subsequently repaired to generate either noncrossovers or crossovers. Although homologous recombination is essential for chromosome pairing during prophase I, the resulting crossovers are critical for maintaining homolog interactions and enabling accurate segregation at the first meiotic division. Thus, the placement, timing, and frequency of crossover formation must be exquisitely controlled. In this review, we discuss the proteins involved in crossover formation, the process of their formation and designation, and the rules governing crossovers, all within the context of the important landmarks of prophase I. We draw together crossover designation data across organisms, analyze their evolutionary divergence, and propose a universal model for crossover regulation. PMID:27648641

  4. Investigation of iron spin crossover pressure in Fe-bearing MgO using hybrid functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ya; Wang, Xianlong; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Kaishuai; Zhang, Chuanguo; Zeng, Zhi; Lin, Haiqin

    2018-04-01

    Pressure-induced spin crossover behaviors of Fe-bearing MgO were widely investigated by using an LDA  +  U functional for describing the strongly correlated Fe–O bonding. Moreover, the simulated spin crossover pressures depend on the applied U values, which are sensitive to environments and parameters. In this work, the spin crossover pressures of (Mg1‑x ,Fe x )O are investigated by using the hybrid functional with a uniform parameter. Our results indicate that the spin crossover pressures increase with increasing iron concentration. For example, the spin crossover pressure of (Mg0.03125,Fe0.96875)O and FeO was 56 GPa and 127 GPa, respectively. The calculated crossover pressures agreed well with the experimental observations. Therefore, the hybrid functional should be an effective method for describing the pressure-induced spin crossover behaviors in transition metal oxides.

  5. Excitonic correlation in the Mott crossover regime in Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Shimano, Ryo

    2015-04-01

    Exciton Mott transition (EMT) in Ge was investigated by using optical-pump and terahertz-probe spectroscopy. From the quantitative analysis of optical conductivity and dielectric function, we evaluated the densities of unbound electron-hole pairs and excitons after the photoexcitation, from which we determined the ionization ratio of excitons α. The Mott crossover density region in Ge was elucidated from the density dependence of α in the temperature range above the critical temperature of electron-hole droplets. The 1 s -2 p excitonic transition energy hardly shifted with increasing density toward the EMT. Combined with the similar results recently observed in bulk Si, we suggest that the robustness of excitonic correlation against the Coulomb screening is a universal feature in bulk semiconductors in the Mott crossover regime.

  6. Spin crossover of spiro-biphenalenyl neutral radical molecular conductors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingsong; Kertesz, Miklos

    2003-11-05

    We present ab initio molecular and solid-state calculations at the level of density functional theory (DFT) for the ethyl-substituted spiro-biphenalenyl neutral radical organic conductor. We find that the phase transition of this material is accompanied by a spin crossover (low-spin, LS, to high-spin, HS), and consequently a different band becomes the conduction band. The energy gap (Eg) increases from 0.12 eV of the low-temperature polymorph to 0.23 eV of the high-temperature polymorph corresponding to a different occupancy causing a change in the number of the available charge carriers, explaining the change of conductivity by 2 orders of magnitude at the phase transition. These gap values are also consistent with structural, IR, electrical conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility data of Itkis et al. The proximity of the monomers in the stacking dimers is closely related to the spin crossover in this material.

  7. Orbital Transfer Rocket Engine Technology High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Geometry . . 9 Figure 57 - Diffusing Crossover System .................. . 3 Figure 58 - Boundary Layer Bulid Up In Diffuser Inlet...flow conditions attempted. The stall was caused by Increased boundary layer blockage due to the low Reynolds number resulting In the Impeller discharge...Inward diffuser called the "downcomer*. A low turning loss szctlon, called the transition, connects the two diffuser sections. To develop the 4600

  8. Intrinsic DNA curvature of double-crossover tiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjae; Kim, Junghoon; Qian, Pengfei; Shin, Jihoon; Amin, Rashid; Ahn, Sang Jung; LaBean, Thomas H; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

    2011-06-17

    A theoretical model which takes into account the structural distortion of double-crossover DNA tiles has been studied to investigate its effect on lattice formation sizes. It has been found that a single vector appropriately describes the curvature of the tiles, of which a higher magnitude hinders lattice growth. In conjunction with these calculations, normal mode analysis reveals that tiles with relative higher frequencies have an analogous effect. All the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Ternary and senary representations using DNA double-crossover tiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeonghoon; Jo, Soojin; Son, Junyoung; Kim, Junghoon; Kim, Min Hyeok; Hwang, Si Un; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Byung-Dong; Liu, Wing Kam; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

    2014-03-14

    The information capacity of DNA double-crossover (DX) tiles was successfully increased beyond a binary representation to higher base representations. By controlling the length and the position of DNA hairpins on the DX tile, ternary and senary (base-3 and base-6) digit representations were realized and verified by atomic force microscopy. Also, normal mode analysis was carried out to study the mechanical characteristics of each structure.

  10. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.

  11. Modulating crossover positioning by introducing large structural changes in chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ederveen, Antoine; Lai, Yuching; van Driel, Marc A; Gerats, Tom; Peters, Janny L

    2015-02-15

    Crossing over assures the correct segregation of the homologous chromosomes to both poles of the dividing meiocyte. This exchange of DNA creates new allelic combinations thus increasing the genetic variation present in offspring. Crossovers are not uniformly distributed along chromosomes; rather there are preferred locations where they may take place. The positioning of crossovers is known to be influenced by both exogenous and endogenous factors as well as structural features inherent to the chromosome itself. We have introduced large structural changes into Arabidopsis chromosomes and report their effects on crossover positioning. The introduction of large deletions and putative inversions silenced recombination over the length of the structural change. In the majority of cases analyzed, the total recombination frequency over the chromosomes was unchanged. The loss of crossovers at the sites of structural change was compensated for by increases in recombination frequencies elsewhere on the chromosomes, mostly in single intervals of one to three megabases in size. Interestingly, two independent cases of induced structural changes in the same chromosomal interval were found on both chromosomes 1 and 2. In both cases, compensatory increases in recombination frequencies were of similar strength and took place in the same chromosome region. In contrast, deletions in chromosome arms carrying the nucleolar organizing region did not change recombination frequencies in the remainder of those chromosomes. When taken together, these observations show that changes in the physical structure of the chromosome can have large effects on the positioning of COs within that chromosome. Moreover, different reactions to induced structural changes are observed between and within chromosomes. However, the similarity in reaction observed when looking at chromosomes carrying similar changes suggests a direct causal relation between induced change and observed reaction.

  12. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and some consequences for mantle velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The spin crossover in ferropericlase ((Mg,Fe)O) introduces anomalies in its thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties [1] with impactful consequences on lower mantle velocities. These anomalies fundamentally change the interpretation of the origin of lateral heterogeneities in the mid lower mantle. In particular, SCF reduces the sensitivity of longitudinal velocity (VP) to lateral temperature variations around 1700 km [2]. It also dramatically impacts the manifestation of two important types of compositional heterogeneities, i.e., change in iron concentration in Fp or in molar fraction of Fp in the aggregate. It enhances the sensitivity of Vϕ and VP to these compositional variations by several-fold. In addition, it affects the mantle adiabatic geotherm, altering the radial velocity profile. Here I will review these effects and relate them to some potential features observed in seismic tomography models. [1] Wu, Z.Q., Justo, J. F., & Wentzcovitch, R.M. (2013). Elastic anomalies in a spin-crossover system: ferropericlase at lower mantle conditions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 228501 (2013). [2] Wu, Z.Q., & Wentzcovitch, R.M. (2014). Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111: 10468-10472.

  13. Crossover phenomena in the critical range near magnetic ordering transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köbler, U.

    2018-05-01

    Among the most important issues of Renormalization Group (RG) theory are crossover events and relevant (or non-relevant) interactions. These terms are unknown to atomistic theories but they will be decisive for future field theories of magnetism. In this experimental study the importance of these terms for the critical dynamics above and below magnetic ordering transition is demonstrated on account of new analyses of published data. When crossover events are overlooked and critical data are fitted by a single power function of temperature over a temperature range including a crossover event, imprecise critical exponents result. The rather unsystematic and floating critical exponents reported in literature seem largely to be due to this problem. It is shown that for appropriate data analyses critical exponents are obtained that are to a good approximation rational numbers. In fact, rational critical exponents can be expected when spin dynamics is controlled by the bosons of the continuous magnetic medium (Goldstone bosons). The bosons are essentially magnetic dipole radiation generated by the precessing spins. As a result of the here performed data analyses, critical exponents for the magnetic order parameter of β = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/6 are obtained. For the critical paramagnetic susceptibility the exponents are γ = 1 and γ = 4/3.

  14. Magnetic-Order Crossover in Coupled Spin Ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M.; Mayaffre, H.; Berthier, C.; Schmidiger, D.; Zheludev, A.; Horvatić, M.

    2017-04-01

    We report a novel crossover behavior in the long-range-ordered phase of a prototypical spin-1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder compound (C7H10N )2CuBr4 . The staggered order was previously evidenced from a continuous and symmetric splitting of 14N NMR spectral lines on lowering the temperature below Tc≃330 mK , with a saturation towards ≃150 mK . Unexpectedly, the split lines begin to further separate away below T*˜100 mK , while the linewidth and the line shape remain completely invariable. This crossover behavior is further corroborated by the NMR relaxation rate T1-1 measurements. A very strong suppression reflecting the ordering, T1-1˜T5.5, observed above T*, is replaced by T1-1˜T below T*. These original NMR features are indicative of the unconventional nature of the crossover, which may arise from a unique arrangement of the ladders into a spatially anisotropic and frustrated coupling network.

  15. Decay of Josephson Superflow via Vortex-Ring Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proukakis, Nick; Xhani, Klejdja; Lee, Kean Loon; Galantucci, Luca; Trombettoni, Andrea; Valtolina, Giacomo; Scazza, Francesco; Amico, Andrea; Fort, Chiara; Zaccanti, Matteo; Burchianti, Alessia; Roati, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Josephson oscillations in fermionic superfluids across the BEC-BCS crossover have been recently experimentally observed to decay through the emission of vortical excitations at the barrier connecting the two parts of the superfluid in a double-well trap. By performing full 3D numerical simulations in the molecular BEC regime at both zero and finite temperatures, we explicitly demonstrate the generated structures to be excited vortex rings, and study their propagation, dynamical instability and subsequent decay, shedding more light into this nonlinear process, the role of interactions of vortex rings with other rings and background sound, and the effect of gradually removing the barrier (experimental step undertaken before time-of-flight imaging). By self-consistently coupling the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to a quantum Boltzmann equation (``ZNG'' model) we also discuss the role of finite temperature in damping both Josephson oscillations and macroscopic quantum self-trapping. EPSRC; ERC: EU H2020.

  16. Expansion of a Fermi cloud in the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diana, G.; Manini, N.; Salasnich, L.

    2006-06-01

    We study the free expansion of a dilute two-component Fermi gas with attractive interspecies interaction in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover. We apply a time-dependent parameter-free density-functional theory by using two choices of the equation of state: an analytic formula based on Monte Carlo data and the mean-field equation of state resulting from the extended BCS equations. The calculated axial and transverse radii and the aspect ratio of the expanding cloud are compared to experimental data on vapors of Li6 atoms. Remarkably, the mean-field theory shows a better agreement with the experiments than the theory based on the Monte Carlo equation of state. Both theories predict a measurable dependence of the aspect ratio on expansion time and on scattering length.

  17. Multiple crossovers and coherent states in a Mott-Peierls insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nájera, O.; Civelli, M.; Dobrosavljević, V.; Rozenberg, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the dimer Hubbard model within dynamical mean-field theory to study the interplay and competition between Mott and Peierls physics. We describe the various metal-insulator transition lines of the phase diagram and the breakdown of the different solutions that occur along them. We focus on the specific issue of the debated Mott-Peierls insulator crossover and describe the systematic evolution of the electronic structure across the phase diagram. We found that at low intradimer hopping, the emerging local magnetic moments can unbind above a characteristic singlet temperature T*. Upon increasing the interdimer hopping, subtle changes occur in the electronic structure. Notably, we find Hubbard bands of a mix character with coherent and incoherent excitations. We argue that this state might be relevant for materials such as VO2 and its signatures may be observed in spectroscopic studies, and possibly through pump-probe experiments.

  18. Quantification and Sequencing of Crossover Recombinant Molecules from Arabidopsis Pollen DNA.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Yelina, Nataliya E; Serra, Heïdi; Henderson, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo recombination, which can result in formation of reciprocal crossover molecules. Crossover frequency is highly variable across the genome, typically occurring in narrow hotspots, which has a significant effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Here we describe methods to measure crossover frequency in plants at the hotspot scale (bp-kb), using allele-specific PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from the pollen of F 1 heterozygous plants. We describe (1) titration methods that allow amplification, quantification and sequencing of single crossover molecules, (2) quantitative PCR methods to more rapidly measure crossover frequency, and (3) application of high-throughput sequencing for study of crossover distributions within hotspots. We provide detailed descriptions of key steps including pollen DNA extraction, prior identification of hotspot locations, allele-specific oligonucleotide design, and sequence analysis approaches. Together, these methods allow the rate and recombination topology of plant hotspots to be robustly measured and compared between varied genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions.

  19. Single water entropy: hydrophobic crossover and application to drug binding.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2014-09-11

    Entropy of water plays an important role in both chemical and biological processes e.g. hydrophobic effect, molecular recognition etc. Here we use a new approach to calculate translational and rotational entropy of the individual water molecules around different hydrophobic and charged solutes. We show that for small hydrophobic solutes, the translational and rotational entropies of each water molecule increase as a function of its distance from the solute reaching finally to a constant bulk value. As the size of the solute increases (0.746 nm), the behavior of the translational entropy is opposite; water molecules closest to the solute have higher entropy that reduces with distance from the solute. This indicates that there is a crossover in translational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes from negative to positive values as the size of the solute is increased. Rotational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes for all sizes increases with distance from the solute, indicating the absence of crossover in rotational entropy. This makes the crossover in total entropy (translation + rotation) of water molecule happen at much larger size (>1.5 nm) for hydrophobic solutes. Translational entropy of single water molecule scales logarithmically (Str(QH) = C + kB ln V), with the volume V obtained from the ellipsoid of inertia. We further discuss the origin of higher entropy of water around water and show the possibility of recovering the entropy loss of some hypothetical solutes. The results obtained are helpful to understand water entropy behavior around various hydrophobic and charged environments within biomolecules. Finally, we show how our approach can be used to calculate the entropy of the individual water molecules in a protein cavity that may be replaced during ligand binding.

  20. PREFACE: Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2012-02-01

    dynamics of the water molecules in the solution is observed in the single-particle relaxational dynamics in the μeV (nanosecond) time scale, but not in the collective dynamics on the meV (picosecond) time scale. Mallamace et al discuss the dynamic crossover phenomenon in both bulk water and protein hydration water. They collect previous and new experimental data from different experimental techniques and molecular dynamic simulations, and are able to develop a unified picture for the different dynamical findings. Gallo et al present a MD study of confined water in MCM-41S-15 in order to test the applicability of Mode Coupling Theory (MCT) to the dynamics of the hydration water confined in the cylindrical pores of nominal diameter 15 Å. They find that the self dynamics of the hydration water is well described by MCT down to the crossover temperature TC. However, below TC the predictions of idealized MCT no longer apply, since hopping processes intervene and water turns into a strong liquid. Soper raises some questions as to the validity of the analysis method employed to determine the density of water confined in porous silica material MCM-41-S15 from recent neutron scattering experiments. Professors Stanley, Franzese and his collaborators describe an efficient Monte Carlo simulation of a coarse-grained model of water to study the phase diagram of a water monolayer confined in a fixed disordered matrix of hydrophobic nanoparticles between two hydrophobic plates. They find a drastic change of phase behavior of the confined water, such as shortening of the liquid-liquid phase transition line, upon increasing the concentration of the hydrophobic nano-particles. Sciortino and collaborators compute the equilibrium phase diagram of two simple models for patchy particles with three and five patches in a very broad range of pressure and temperature. The three-patch model produces a stable gas-liquid critical point. Yun Liu et al investigate, via small angle neutron scattering and

  1. Meige syndrome: double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate.

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, J W; van Weerden, T W; Teelken, A W; van den Burg, W; Lakke, J P

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate and placebo was conducted in five patients with Meige syndrome. CSF neurotransmitter studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. GABA levels were not influenced by the administration of sodium valproate. An increase in HVA levels was observed in every patient, which may reflect an increase in central dopaminergic activity. This finding may explain the trend towards clinical deterioration which was observed during treatment with sodium valproate. Sodium valproate appears to be ineffective in Meige syndrome. PMID:3121795

  2. Crossover from Incoherent to Coherent Phonon Scattering in Epitaxial Oxide Superlattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-08

    on macroscopic thermal properties , particularly the wave–particle crossover. Ther- mal transport in superlattices has been the subject of several...W., Zurbuchen, M. A., Clarke, D. R. & Phillpot, S. R. Crossover in thermal transport properties of natural, perovskite-structured superlattices...collective excitations such as phonons. The demonstration of wave–particle crossover, in terms of macroscopic properties , is crucial to the understanding and

  3. High-Resolution Mapping of Crossover and Non-crossover Recombination Events by Whole-Genome Re-sequencing of an Avian Pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recombination is an engine of genetic diversity and therefore constitutes a key process in evolutionary biology and genetics. While the outcome of crossover recombination can readily be detected as shuffled alleles by following the inheritance of markers in pedigreed families, the more precise location of both crossover and non-crossover recombination events has been difficult to pinpoint. As a consequence, we lack a detailed portrait of the recombination landscape for most organisms and knowledge on how this landscape impacts on sequence evolution at a local scale. To localize recombination events with high resolution in an avian system, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing at high coverage of a complete three-generation collared flycatcher pedigree. We identified 325 crossovers at a median resolution of 1.4 kb, with 86% of the events localized to <10 kb intervals. Observed crossover rates were in excellent agreement with data from linkage mapping, were 52% higher in male (3.56 cM/Mb) than in female meiosis (2.28 cM/Mb), and increased towards chromosome ends in male but not female meiosis. Crossover events were non-randomly distributed in the genome with several distinct hot-spots and a concentration to genic regions, with the highest density in promoters and CpG islands. We further identified 267 non-crossovers, whose location was significantly associated with crossover locations. We detected a significant transmission bias (0.18) in favour of ‘strong’ (G, C) over ‘weak’ (A, T) alleles at non-crossover events, providing direct evidence for the process of GC-biased gene conversion in an avian system. The approach taken in this study should be applicable to any species and would thereby help to provide a more comprehensive portray of the recombination landscape across organism groups. PMID:27219623

  4. Structural crossover in dense irreversibly aggregating particulate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, D.; Chakrabarti, A.; Kim, W.; Sorensen, C. M.

    2004-06-01

    Cluster-cluster aggregation has been simulated by off-lattice Monte Carlo methods for diffusion-limited (DLCA), ballistic-limited, and reaction-limited cluster aggregation classes. We find that as the system evolves and becomes dense, the largest cluster develops a hybrid structure with mass fractal dimension Df ≃2.6 over large length scales, while at smaller length scales, the early time dilute-limit fractal structure is frozen in. The largest cluster is thus an aggregate of smaller aggregates with a different fractal dimension, and we call it a “superaggregate.” The crossover length separating the two morphologies, which we call the critical radius of gyration, can be calculated based on a simple theory that assumes a monodisperse cluster size distribution. This agrees well with simulation results for DLCA. However, for other classes we find that the increasing polydispersity in cluster size pushes the simulated crossover length radius of gyration to values systematically larger than the predicted value.

  5. Spin-Crossover Materials towards Microwave Radiation Switches

    PubMed Central

    Kucheriv, Olesia I.; Oliynyk, Viktor V.; Zagorodnii, Volodymyr V.; Launets, Vilen L.; Gural’skiy, Il’ya A.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave electromagnetic radiation that ranges from one meter to one millimetre wavelengths is finding numerous applications for wireless communication, navigation and detection, which makes materials able to tune microwave radiation getting widespread interest. Here we offer a new way to tune GHz frequency radiation by using spin-crossover complexes that are known to change their various physical properties under the influence of diverse external stimuli. As a result of electronic re-configuration process, microwave absorption properties differ for high spin and low spin forms of the complex. The evolution of a microwave absorption spectrum for the switchable compound within the region of thermal transition indicates that the high-spin and the low-spin forms are characterized by a different attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Absorption and reflection coefficients were found to be higher in the high-spin state comparing to the low-spin state. These results reveal a considerable potential for the implementation of spin-crossover materials into different elements of microwave signal switching and wireless communication. PMID:27910956

  6. Spin-Crossover Materials towards Microwave Radiation Switches.

    PubMed

    Kucheriv, Olesia I; Oliynyk, Viktor V; Zagorodnii, Volodymyr V; Launets, Vilen L; Gural'skiy, Il'ya A

    2016-12-02

    Microwave electromagnetic radiation that ranges from one meter to one millimetre wavelengths is finding numerous applications for wireless communication, navigation and detection, which makes materials able to tune microwave radiation getting widespread interest. Here we offer a new way to tune GHz frequency radiation by using spin-crossover complexes that are known to change their various physical properties under the influence of diverse external stimuli. As a result of electronic re-configuration process, microwave absorption properties differ for high spin and low spin forms of the complex. The evolution of a microwave absorption spectrum for the switchable compound within the region of thermal transition indicates that the high-spin and the low-spin forms are characterized by a different attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Absorption and reflection coefficients were found to be higher in the high-spin state comparing to the low-spin state. These results reveal a considerable potential for the implementation of spin-crossover materials into different elements of microwave signal switching and wireless communication.

  7. Tricritical crossover in earthquake preparation by analyzing preseismic electromagnetic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoyiannis, Y.; Potirakis, S. M.; Eftaxias, K.; Contoyianni, L.

    2015-03-01

    Fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EME) have been observed from the laboratory to the geophysical scale permitting the monitoring of damage evolution. It has been shown that the first appearing MHz EME presents second-order phase transition characteristics and has been attributed to the fracture process of the heterogeneous medium surrounding the family of strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault sustaining the system. The finally, abruptly, emerged strong avalanche-like kHz EME do not present any footprint of a second-order transition in equilibrium, while they have been attributed to the fracture of the family of the, relatively homogeneous, asperities themselves. In the present work we show that between these two stages of the fracture process, an intermediate stage exists. This is reflected to the tricritical behavior which is revealed for the kHz EME just before the emergence of the strong avalanche-like kHz emission. The identification of this tricritical behavior is performed using the method of critical fluctuations (MCF). The results obtained for the kHz time-series are compatible with the results obtained for an introduced model map which describes the tricritical crossover. A Hurst exponent analysis shows that this crossover indicates the limit of an antipersistence dynamics. It is finally shown, by the MCF, that first-order phase transition characterizes the final rupture of the asperities.

  8. Analysis of Poisson frequency data under a simple crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2016-02-01

    When the frequency of occurrence for an event of interest follows a Poisson distribution, we develop asymptotic and exact procedures for testing non-equality, non-inferiority and equivalence, as well as asymptotic and exact interval estimators for the ratio of mean frequencies between two treatments under a simple crossover design. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate the performance of these test procedures and interval estimators in a variety of situations. We note that all asymptotic test procedures developed here can generally perform well with respect to Type I error and can be preferable to the exact test procedure with respect to power if the number of patients per group is moderate or large. We further find that in these cases the asymptotic interval estimator with the logarithmic transformation can be more precise than the exact interval estimator without sacrificing the accuracy with respect to the coverage probability. However, the exact test procedure and exact interval estimator can be of use when the number of patients per group is small. We use a double-blind randomized crossover trial comparing salmeterol with a placebo in exacerbations of asthma to illustrate the practical use of these estimators. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Low Crossover Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Smart, Marshall; Atti, Anthony R.; Olah, George A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T.; Surampudi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC's) using polymer electrolyte membranes are promising power sources for portable and vehicular applications. State of the art technology using Nafion(R) 117 membranes (Dupont) are limited by high methanol permeability and cost, resulting in reduced fuel cell efficiencies and impractical commercialization. Therefore, much research in the fuel cell field is focused on the preparation and testing of low crossover and cost efficient polymer electrolyte membranes. The University of Southern California in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is focused on development of such materials. Interpenetrating polymer networks are an effective method used to blend polymer systems without forming chemical links. They provide the ability to modify physical and chemical properties of polymers by optimizing blend compositions. We have developed a novel interpenetrating polymer network based on poly (vinyl - difluoride)/cross-linked polystyrenesulfonic acid polymer composites (PVDF PSSA). Sulfonation of polystyrene accounts for protonic conductivity while the non-polar, PVDF backbone provides structural integrity in addition to methanol rejection. Precursor materials were prepared and analyzed to characterize membrane crystallinity, stability and degree of interpenetration. USC JPL PVDF-PSSA membranes were also characterized to determine methanol permeability, protonic conductivity and sulfur distribution. Membranes were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) and tested for single cell performance. Tests include cell performance over a wide range of temperatures (20 C - 90 C) and cathode conditions (ambient Air/O2). Methanol crossover values are measured in situ using an in-line CO2 analyzer.

  10. Superconductor-insulator transition and Fermi-Bose crossovers

    DOE PAGES

    Loh, Yen Lee; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini; ...

    2016-05-31

    The direct transition from an insulator to a superconductor (SC) in Fermi systems is a problem of long-standing interest, which necessarily goes beyond the standard BCS paradigm of superconductivity as a Fermi surface instability. We introduce here a simple, translationally invariant lattice fermion model that undergoes a SC-insulator transition (SIT) and elucidate its properties using analytical methods and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We show that there is a fermionic band insulator to bosonic insulator crossover in the insulating phase and a BCS-to-BEC crossover in the SC. The SIT is always found to be from a bosonic insulator to a BEC-likemore » SC, with an energy gap for fermions that remains finite across the SIT. Hence, the energy scales that go critical at the SIT are the gap to pair excitations in the insulator and the superfluid stiffness in the SC. In addition to giving insight into important questions about the SIT in solid-state systems, our model should be experimentally realizable using ultracold fermions in optical lattices.« less

  11. Coupling Mechanical and Electrical Properties in Spin Crossover Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Rat, Sylvain; Piedrahita-Bello, Mario; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Demont, Philippe; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2018-02-01

    Spin crossover particles of formula [Fe{(Htrz) 2 (trz)} 0.9 (NH 2 -trz) 0.3 ](BF 4 ) 1.1 and average size of 20 nm ± 8 nm are homogeneously dispersed in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoro-ethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrices to form macroscopic (cm-scale), freestanding, and flexible nanocomposite materials. The composites exhibit concomitant thermal expansion and discharge current peaks on cycling around the spin transition temperatures, i.e., new "product properties" resulting from the synergy between the particles and the matrix. Poling the P(VDF-TrFE) (70-30 mol%) samples loaded with 25 wt% of particles in 18 MV m -1 electric field results in a piezoelectric coefficient d 33 = -3.3 pC N -1 . The poled samples display substantially amplified discharges and altered spin transition properties. Analysis of mechanical and dielectric properties reveals that both strain (1%) and permittivity (40%) changes in the composite accompany the spin transition in the particles, giving direct evidence for strong electromechanical couplings between the components. These results provide a novel route for the deployment of molecular spin crossover materials as actuators in artificial muscles and generators in thermal energy harvesting devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Experimental study of crossover from capillary to viscous fingering for supercritical CO2-water displacement in a homogeneous pore network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Changyong; Wei, Ning; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W; Li, Xiaochun; Bonneville, Alain

    2013-01-02

    Carbon sequestration in saline aquifers involves displacing brine from the pore space by supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)). The displacement process is considered unstable due to the unfavorable viscosity ratio between the invading scCO(2) and the resident brine. The mechanisms that affect scCO(2)-water displacement under reservoir conditions (41 °C, 9 MPa) were investigated in a homogeneous micromodel. A large range of injection rates, expressed as the dimensionless capillary number (Ca), was studied in two sets of experiments: discontinuous-rate injection, where the micromodel was saturated with water before each injection rate was imposed, and continuous-rate injection, where the rate was increased after quasi-steady conditions were reached for a certain rate. For the discontinuous-rate experiments, capillary fingering and viscous fingering are the dominant mechanisms for low (logCa ≤ -6.61) and high injection rates (logCa ≥ -5.21), respectively. Crossover from capillary to viscous fingering was observed for logCa = -5.91 to -5.21, resulting in a large decrease in scCO(2) saturation. The discontinuous-rate experimental results confirmed the decrease in nonwetting fluid saturation during crossover from capillary to viscous fingering predicted by numerical simulations by Lenormand et al. (J. Fluid Mech.1988, 189, 165-187). Capillary fingering was the dominant mechanism for all injection rates in the continuous-rate experiment, resulting in monotonic increase in scCO(2) saturation.

  13. Systematics of high spin to low spin crossovers across the RCoO3 family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topsakal, M.; Shukla, G.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Using density functional theory plus self-consistent Hubbard U (DFT+Usc ) calculations, we have investigated the spin crossover phenomenon observed in rare-earth cobaltites RCoO3 (R = Pr - Lu). Previous DFT studies of this series focused on structural and electronic structure variations across the RCoO3 series in which all Co3+ ions are kept in low-spin (LS) state (S=0). Here we manage to stabilize Co3+ ions in the high-spin (HS) state and perform thermodynamics calculations to predict their HS to LS phase diagrams. We show that the early stage of thermally induced spin crossover in RCoO 3 can be successfully described by introducing a carefully and legitimately chosen Hubbard U for the HS Co3+. The spin excitation energy (ΔE), as the energy difference of HS and LS states, is calculated across the series. Our calculations show that ΔE increases from PrCoO3 to LuCoO3 in agreement with the increase of spin-state transition temperature observed in experiments. We also observed that the Co3+ octahedral volume (or Co-O bond lengths) significantly increases upon excitation into the HS state and we also relate this volume change to ΔE. The octahedral volume expansion (ΔV) increases from PrCoO3 to LuCoO3 : the larger the volume expansion to accommodate HS, the larger the energy required to excite from LS to HS. Furthermore, the Hubbard U parameters presented in this work allow more accurate predictive DFT+U studies on RCoO3 perovskites, especially their magnetic properties.

  14. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same, eight, consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers’ positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of two-level models showed that mothers’ positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics. PMID:25243577

  15. Daily positive spillover and crossover from mothers' work to youth health.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Hammer, Leslie B; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-12-01

    Prior research shows that employees' work experiences can "spill over" into their family lives and "cross over" to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same 8 consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers' positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of 2-level models showed that mothers' positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics.

  16. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main...) Facing point locks on both switches of the crossover, with both locks operated by a single lever, or (c... matter on the rail prevents effective shunting; (2) Where facing point locks with a single lever are...

  17. 50 CFR 660.220 - Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.220 Fixed gear fishery—crossover... fixed gear fishery. ...

  18. 50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. (a) Operating in both limited entry and open access fisheries. See provisions at § 660.60, subpart C. (b...

  19. 50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. (a) Operating in both limited entry and open access fisheries. See provisions at § 660.60, subpart C. (b...

  20. Spillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earner Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2005-01-01

    This study integrates spillover research of stress transferring from work to home and crossover research of strains transferring from one spouse to another. A spillover and crossover model was tested among 191 (couples of) dual-earner parents. For both males and females, it was hypothesized that (self-reported and partners' rating of)…

  1. Symmetry Preservation and Critical Fluctuations in a Pseudospin Crossover Perovskite LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Takuya; Yamada, Syunpei; Shimokata, Ayako; Jin-no, Takaaki; Itoh, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    Spin-state crossover beyond a conventional ligand-field theory has been a fundamental issue in condensed matter physics. Here, we report microscopic observations of spin states and low-energy dynamics through orbital-resolved NMR spectroscopy in the prototype compound LaCoO3. The Co 59 NMR spectrum shows the preserved crystal symmetry across the crossover, inconsistent with d orbital ordering due to the Jahn-Teller distortion. The orbital degeneracy results in a pseudospin (J ˜=1 ) excited state with an orbital moment observed as Co 59 hyperfine coupling tensors. We found that the population of the excited state evolves above the heart crossover temperature. The crossover involves critical spin-state fluctuations emerging under the magnetic field. These results suggest that the spin-state crossover can be mapped into a statistical problem, analogous to the supercritical liquid in liquid-gas transition.

  2. Spin crossover in an elastic chain of exchange clusters beyond mean field approximation.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Vitaly; Lukzen, Nikita; Ovcharenko, Victor

    2010-11-07

    Exact analysis of spin crossover in infinite elastic chain of two-spin exchange clusters was performed theoretically beyond mean-field approximation. Statistical mechanics of the system was exactly calculated by means of the transfer matrix technique. A possibility of spin-Peierls-like magneto-structural transition in a one-dimensional chain was shown as a result of interrelation of spin and elastic subsystems of the chain. The importance of the boundary conditions for spin crossover to occur was shown. The smoothness of spin crossover depends on the parameters of chain elasticity and the crossover position on the temperature scale is defined by the dependence of exchange integral on the cluster deformation. The proposed model qualitatively describes the main scenario of spin crossover effect in the chain polymer heterospin complex of copper(ii) hexafluoroacetylacetonate with methyl pyrazol-substituted nitronyl nitroxide containing two-spin exchange clusters.

  3. Conjugate schema and basis representation of crossover and mutation operators.

    PubMed

    Kazadi, S T

    1998-01-01

    In genetic search algorithms and optimization routines, the representation of the mutation and crossover operators are typically defaulted to the canonical basis. We show that this can be influential in the usefulness of the search algorithm. We then pose the question of how to find a basis for which the search algorithm is most useful. The conjugate schema is introduced as a general mathematical construct and is shown to separate a function into smaller dimensional functions whose sum is the original function. It is shown that conjugate schema, when used on a test suite of functions, improves the performance of the search algorithm on 10 out of 12 of these functions. Finally, a rigorous but abbreviated mathematical derivation is given in the appendices.

  4. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya

    2015-12-01

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10-13 s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO2 via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10-12 s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H2O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.

  5. NMR studies of artificial double-crossover DNA tiles.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Kim, Byeonghoon; Amin, Rashid; Lee, Junwye; Yun, Kyusik; Park, Sung Ha

    2012-03-01

    This report documents the design and characterization of DNA molecular nanoarchitectures consisting of artificial double crossover DNA tiles with different geometry and chemistry. The Structural characterization of the unit tiles, including normal, biotinylated and hairpin loop structures, are morphologically studied by atomic force microscopy. The specific proton resonance of the individual tiles and their intra/inter nucleotide relationships are verified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 2-dimensional correlation spectral studies, respectively. Significant up-field and down-field shifts in the resonance signals of the individual residues at various temperatures are discussed. The results suggest that with artificially designed DNA tiles it is feasible to obtain structural information of the relative base sequences. These tiles were later fabricated into 2D DNA lattice structures for specific applications such as protein arrangement by biotinylated bulged loops or pattern generation using a hairpin structure.

  6. Crossover Phenomena in Detrended Fluctuation Analysis Used in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shi-Hao

    2009-02-01

    A systematic analysis of Shanghai and Japan stock indices for the period of Jan. 1984 to Dec. 2005 is performed. After stationarity is verified by ADF (Augmented Dickey-Fuller) test, the power spectrum of the data exhibits a power law decay as a whole characterized by 1/fβ processes with possible long range correlations. Subsequently, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of the general volatility in the stock markets, we find that the long-range correlations are occurred among the return series and the crossover phenomena exhibit in the results obviously. Further, Shanghai stock market shows long-range correlations in short time scale and shows short-range correlations in long time scale. Whereas, for Japan stock market, the data behaves oppositely absolutely. Last, we compare the varying of scale exponent in large volatility between two stock markets. All results obtained may indicate the possibility of characteristic of multifractal scaling behavior of the financial markets.

  7. Hydrodynamic-to-ballistic crossover in Dirac materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svintsov, D.

    2018-03-01

    We develop an analytically solvable classical kinetic model of spatially dispersive transport in Dirac materials accounting for strong electron-electron (e-e) and electron-hole (e-h) collisions. We use this model to track the evolution of graphene conductivity and properties of its collective excitations across the hydrodynamic-to-ballistic crossover. We find the relaxation rate of electric current by e-e collisions that is possible due to the lack of Galilean invariance and introduce a universal numerical measure of this noninvariance. We find the two branches of collective excitations in the Dirac fluid: plasmons and electron-hole sound. The sound waves persist at frequencies exceeding the e-e collision frequency, have a small viscous damping at the neutrality point, but acquire large damping due to e-h friction even at slight doping. On the contrary, plasmons acquire strong frictional damping at the neutrality point and become well defined in doped samples.

  8. Crossover from β to α Relaxation in Cooperative Facilitation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    β and α relaxation processes are dynamical scaling regimes of glassy systems occurring on two separate time scales which both diverge as the glass state is approached. We study here the crossover scaling from β to α relaxation in the cooperative facilitation scenario (CFS) and show that it is quantitatively described, with no adjustable parameter, by the leading order asymptotic formulas for scaling predicted by the mode-coupling theory (MCT). These results establish (i) the mutual universality of the MCT and CFS, and (ii) the existence of a purely dynamic realization of MCT, which is distinct from the well-established random first order transition scenario for disordered systems. Some implications of the emerging kinetic-static duality are discussed.

  9. Rod-Cone Crossover Connectome of Mammalian Bipolar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, J. Scott; Sigulinsky, Crystal L.; Anderson, James R.; Kalloniatis, Michael; Nelson, Noah T.; Emrich, Daniel P.; Rapp, Christopher; McCarthy, Nicholas; Kerzner, Ethan; Meyer, Miriah; Jones, Bryan W.; Marc, Robert E.

    2018-01-01

    The basis of cross-suppression between rod and cone channels has long been an enigma. Using rabbit retinal connectome RC1, we show that all cone bipolar cell (BC) classes inhibit rod BCs via amacrine cell (AC) motifs (C1–6); that all cone BC classes are themselves inhibited by AC motifs (R1–5, R25) driven by rod BCs. A sparse symmetric AC motif (CR) is presynaptic and postsynaptic to both rod and cone BCs. ON cone BCs of all classes drive inhibition of rod BCs via motif C1 wide-field GABAergic ACs (γACs) and motif C2 narrow field glycinergic ON ACs (GACs). Each rod BC receives ≈ 10 crossover AC synapses and each ON cone BC can target ≈10 or more rod BCs via separate AC processes. OFF cone BCs mediate monosynaptic inhibition of rod BCs via motif C3 driven by OFF γACs and GACs and disynaptic inhibition via motifs C4 and C5 driven by OFF wide-field γACs and narrow-field GACs, respectively. Motifs C4 and C5 form halos of 60–100 inhibitory synapses on proximal dendrites of AI γACs. Rod BCs inhibit surrounding arrays of cone BCs through AII GAC networks that access ON and OFF cone BC patches via motifs R1, R2, R4, R5 and a unique ON AC motif R3 that collects rod BC inputs and targets ON cone BCs. Crossover synapses for motifs C1, C4, C5, and R3 are 3–4× larger than typical feedback synapses, which may be a signature for synaptic winner-take-all switches. PMID:27447117

  10. A luminescent Pt2Fe spin crossover complex.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Bernhard; Bauer, Thomas; Faus, Isabelle; Wolny, Juliusz A; Dahms, Fabian; Fuhr, Olaf; Lebedkin, Sergei; Wille, Hans-Christian; Schlage, Kai; Chevalier, Katharina; Rupp, Fabian; Diller, Rolf; Schünemann, Volker; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario

    2017-02-14

    A heterotrinuclear [Pt 2 Fe] spin crossover (SCO) complex was developed and synthesized employing a ditopic bridging bpp-alkynyl ligand L and alkynyl coordinated Pt II terpy units: [Fe II (L-Pt II ) 2 ] 2 (BF 4 ) 2 (1). We identified two different types of crystals of 1 which differ in their molecular packing and the number of co-crystallized solvent molecules: 1H (1·3.5CH 2 Cl 2 in P1[combining macron]) and 1L (1·10CH 2 Cl 2 in C2/c); while 1L shows a reversible SCO with a transition temperature of 268 K, the analogous compound 1H does not show any SCO and remains blocked in the HS state. The temperature-dependent magnetic properties of 1H and 1L were complementarily studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It has been shown that 1L performs thermal spin crossover and that 1L can be excited to a LIESST state. The vibrational properties of 1 were investigated by experimental nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy. The experimentally determined partial density of vibrational states (pDOS) was compared to a DFT-based simulation of the pDOS. The vibrational modes of the different components were assigned and visualized. In addition, the photophysical properties of 1 and L-Pt were investigated in the solid state and in solution. The ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy of 1 in solution was carried out to study the PL quenching channel via energy transfer from photoexcited Pt II terpy units to the Fe II -moiety.

  11. MISTE flight experiment status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Zhong, F.; Hahn, I.; Weilert, M.

    2002-01-01

    The MISTE flight experiment has made significant scientific and technical progress in preparing for a future microgravity flight. We are collaborating with several theoretical modeling groups that have developed crossover (equation-of-state) models for predicting thermodynamic behavior near the liquid-gas critical point. Several of these models have already been used to test experimental measurements of the heat capacity at constant volume, isothermal susceptibility, and coexistence curve in the crossover region near the 3He liquid-gas critical point. A brief description of these models and a representative fit to experimental data will be presented. In collaboration with Mission Research Corporation, MISTE has been testing a new small pneumatic valve for use at low temperatures. The results of recent successful low temperature actuation tests will also be discussed.

  12. The crossover conformational shift of the GTPase atlastin provides the energy driving ER fusion.

    PubMed

    Winsor, James; Hackney, David D; Lee, Tina H

    2017-05-01

    The homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum membranes is catalyzed by the atlastin GTPase. The mechanism involves trans-dimerization between GTPase heads and a favorable crossover conformational shift, catalyzed by GTP hydrolysis, that converts the dimer from a "prefusion" to "postfusion" state. However, whether crossover formation actually energizes fusion remains unclear, as do the sequence of events surrounding it. Here, we made mutations in atlastin to selectively destabilize the crossover conformation and used fluorescence-based kinetic assays to analyze the variants. All variants underwent dimerization and crossover concurrently, and at wild-type rates. However, certain variants were unstable once in the crossover dimer conformation, and crossover dimer stability closely paralleled lipid-mixing activity. Tethering, however, appeared to be unimpaired in all mutant variants. The results suggest that tethering and lipid mixing are catalyzed concurrently by GTP hydrolysis but that the energy requirement for lipid mixing exceeds that for tethering, and the full energy released through crossover formation is necessary for fusion. © 2017 Winsor et al.

  13. A framework for assessing patient crossover and health information exchange value.

    PubMed

    Laborde, David V; Griffin, Jacqueline A; Smalley, Hannah K; Keskinocak, Pinar; Mathew, George

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the benefit of a health information exchange (HIE) between hospitals, we examine the rate of crossover among neurosurgical inpatients treated at Emory University Hospital (EUH) and Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH) in Atlanta, Georgia. To inform decisions regarding investment in HIE, we develop a methodology analyzing crossover behavior for application to larger more general patient populations. Using neurosurgery inpatient visit data from EUH and GMH, unique patients who visited both hospitals were identified through classification by name and age at time of visit. The frequency of flow patterns, including time between visits, and the statistical significance of crossover rates for patients with particular diagnoses were determined. The time between visits, flow patterns, and proportion of patients exhibiting crossover behavior were calculated for the total population studied as well as subpopulations. 5.25% of patients having multiple visits over the study period visited the neurosurgical departments at both hospitals. 77% of crossover patients visited the level 1 trauma center (GMH) before visiting EUH. The true patient crossover may be under-estimated because the study population only consists of neurosurgical inpatients at EUH and GMH. We demonstrate that detailed analysis of crossover behavior provides a deeper understanding of the potential value of HIE.

  14. Reversible Photoswitching of a Spin-Crossover Molecular Complex in the Solid State at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Rösner, Benedikt; Milek, Magdalena; Witt, Alexander; Gobaut, Benoît; Torelli, Piero; Fink, Rainer H; Khusniyarov, Marat M

    2015-10-26

    Spin-crossover metal complexes are highly promising magnetic molecular switches for prospective molecule-based devices. The spin-crossover molecular photoswitches developed so far operate either at very low temperatures or in the liquid phase, which hinders practical applications. Herein, we present a molecular spin-crossover iron(II) complex that can be switched between paramagnetic high-spin and diamagnetic low-spin states with light at room temperature in the solid state. The reversible photoswitching is induced by alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light and proceeds at the molecular level. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  16. /μSR study of organic systems: ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, the spin-crossover effect, and fluctuations in magnetic nanodiscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, S. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Lancaster, T.; Marshall, I. M.; Steer, C. A.; Hayes, W.; Sugano, T.; Letard, J.-F.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Heath, S. L.

    2003-02-01

    We present the results of recent μSR experiments on a variety of novel organic and molecular magnetic systems. Muons are sensitive to local static fields and magnetic fluctuations, but can probe much more than just the onset of long-range magnetic order. We review our work on nitronyl nitroxide organic ferromagnets and antiferromagnets. We describe a muon study of the spin-crossover phenomenon which has been studied in Fe(PM-PEA) 2(NCS) 2, and which shows Gaussian and root-exponential muon relaxation in the high-spin and low-spin phases, respectively. Experiments on a disc-shaped molecular complex containing Fe 19 (with spin {31}/{2}) reveal the effects of quantum tunneling of magnetization and allow an estimate of the quantum tunneling rate.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana FANCD2 Promotes Meiotic Crossover Formation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kurzbauer, Marie-Therese; Kerzendorfer, Claudia; Sims, Jason; Oliver, Cecilia; Mosiolek, Magdalena; Schweizer, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chromosomal instability, developmental pathologies, predisposition to cancer, and reduced fertility. So far, 19 genes have been implicated in FA, most of them involved in DNA repair. Some are conserved across higher eukaryotes, including plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes a homolog of the Fanconi anemia D2 gene (FANCD2) whose function in DNA repair is not yet fully understood. Here, we provide evidence that AtFANCD2 is required for meiotic homologous recombination. Meiosis is a specialized cell division that ensures reduction of genomic content by half and DNA exchange between homologous chromosomes via crossovers (COs) prior to gamete formation. In plants, a mutation in AtFANCD2 results in a 14% reduction of CO numbers. Genetic analysis demonstrated that AtFANCD2 acts in parallel to both MUTS HOMOLOG4 (AtMSH4), known for its role in promoting interfering COs and MMS AND UV SENSITIVE81 (AtMUS81), known for its role in the formation of noninterfering COs. AtFANCD2 promotes noninterfering COs in a MUS81-independent manner and is therefore part of an uncharted meiotic CO-promoting mechanism, in addition to those described previously. PMID:29352063

  18. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transitionmore » from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d+zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T)ε[0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T=0) = 1 and Λ(T →∞) = 0. Lastly, our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.« less

  19. Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon-Sook; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Won, Jun Yeon; Lee, Kang Uk; Chun, Wanjoo; Choi, Hyun Kyung; Levine, Robert Aaron

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effect of Ginkgo biloba and clonazepam, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor agonist, upon tinnitus. This was an open-label, randomised, crossover study. 27 men and 11 women (aged 16-80 (mean 58)) with tinnitus for more than 2 months were enrolled. Participants were randomised to either clonazepam or G biloba for the first 3 weeks. For the next 2 weeks of washout no medication was taken. For the final 3 weeks, subjects were given the other drug. The initial dose of clonazepam and G biloba was one tablet daily (clonazepam 0.5 mg; G biloba 40 mg). Subjects were instructed to increase the dose by one tablet every 3 days to a maximum of four tablets daily until they perceived a satisfactory decrease in tinnitus loudness or intolerable side effects. Tinnitus was assessed with pitch and loudness matching, tinnitus handicap inventory, and visual analogue scales of loudness, duration and annoyance. Comparing before and after each drug, clonazepam significantly improved tinnitus loudness (74% of subjects), duration (63%), annoyance (79%), and tinnitus handicap inventory score (61%), whereas the G biloba showed no significant differences on any of these measures. Clonazepam is effective in treating tinnitus; G biloba is ineffective.

  20. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cynthia J.; Wade, Timothy J.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0–6 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, and 21–27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19–64 years), ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7–13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37). This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01–10.19). Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05). Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change. PMID:26090609

  1. Hysteresis, nucleation and growth phenomena in spin-crossover solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridier, Karl; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2017-12-01

    The observation and the study of first-order phase transitions in cooperative spin-crossover (SCO) solids exhibiting hysteresis behaviours are of particular interest and currently constitute a burgeoning area in the field of bistable molecular materials. The understanding and the control of the transition mechanisms (nucleation and growth processes) and their dynamics within the hysteresis region appear to be a general and appealing problem from a fundamental point of view and for technological applications as well. This review reports on the recent progresses and most important findings made on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition in SCO solids, particularly through the universal nucleation and growth process. Both thermally induced and light-induced spin transitions are discussed. We open up this review to the central question of the evolution of the transition mechanisms and dynamics in SCO nano-objects, which constitute promising systems to reach ultra-fast switching, and the experimental issues inherent to such studies at the micro- and nanometric scale.

  2. At grade optical crossover for monolithic optial circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Planar optical circuits may be made to cross through each other, (thus eliminating extra steps required to fabricate elevated, nonintersecting crossovers) by control of the dimensions of the crossing light conductors (10, 12) to be significantly greater than d=0.89.lambda. and the angle of crossing as nearly 90.degree. as conveniently possible. A light trap may be provided just ahead of the intersection to trap any light being reflected in the source conductor at angles greater than about 45.degree.. The light trap may take the form of triangular shaped portions (16a, 16b) on each side of the source conductor with the far side of the triangular portion receiving incident light at an angle so that incident light will be reflected to the other side, or it may take the form of windows (18a, 18b) in place of the triangular portions. Planar optical circuit boards (21-23) may be fabricated and stacked to form a keyboard (20) with intersecting conductors (26-29) and keyholes (0-9) where conductors merge at the broad side of the circuit boards. These keyholes may be prearranged to form an array or matrix of keyholes.

  3. Bio-Inspired Genetic Algorithms with Formalized Crossover Operators for Robotic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Kang, Man; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Geng-yang

    2017-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are widely adopted to solve optimization problems in robotic applications. In such safety-critical systems, it is vitally important to formally prove the correctness when genetic algorithms are applied. This paper focuses on formal modeling of crossover operations that are one of most important operations in genetic algorithms. Specially, we for the first time formalize crossover operations with higher-order logic based on HOL4 that is easy to be deployed with its user-friendly programing environment. With correctness-guaranteed formalized crossover operations, we can safely apply them in robotic applications. We implement our technique to solve a path planning problem using a genetic algorithm with our formalized crossover operations, and the results show the effectiveness of our technique. PMID:29114217

  4. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  5. Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Modified Cycle Crossover Operator

    PubMed Central

    Mohamd Shoukry, Alaa; Gani, Showkat

    2017-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are evolutionary techniques used for optimization purposes according to survival of the fittest idea. These methods do not ensure optimal solutions; however, they give good approximation usually in time. The genetic algorithms are useful for NP-hard problems, especially the traveling salesman problem. The genetic algorithm depends on selection criteria, crossover, and mutation operators. To tackle the traveling salesman problem using genetic algorithms, there are various representations such as binary, path, adjacency, ordinal, and matrix representations. In this article, we propose a new crossover operator for traveling salesman problem to minimize the total distance. This approach has been linked with path representation, which is the most natural way to represent a legal tour. Computational results are also reported with some traditional path representation methods like partially mapped and order crossovers along with new cycle crossover operator for some benchmark TSPLIB instances and found improvements. PMID:29209364

  6. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Facing point locks on both switches of the crossover, with both locks operated by a single lever, or (c... matter on the rail prevents effective shunting; (2) Where facing point locks with a single lever are...

  7. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Facing point locks on both switches of the crossover, with both locks operated by a single lever, or (c... matter on the rail prevents effective shunting; (2) Where facing point locks with a single lever are...

  8. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Facing point locks on both switches of the crossover, with both locks operated by a single lever, or (c... matter on the rail prevents effective shunting; (2) Where facing point locks with a single lever are...

  9. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Facing point locks on both switches of the crossover, with both locks operated by a single lever, or (c... matter on the rail prevents effective shunting; (2) Where facing point locks with a single lever are...

  10. Revealing the mechanism of the viscous-to-elastic crossover in liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav'yalov, Dmitry; ...

    2015-07-18

    In our work, we report on inelastic X-ray scattering experiments combined with the molecular dynamics simulations on deeply supercritical Ar. Our results unveil the mechanism and regimes of sound propagation in the liquid matter and provide compelling evidence for the adiabatic-to-isothermal longitudinal sound propagation transition. We introduce a Hamiltonian predicting low-frequency transverse sound propagation gaps, which is confirmed by experimental findings and molecular dynamics calculations. As a result, a universal link is established between the positive sound dispersion (PSD) phenomenon and the origin of transverse sound propagation revealing the viscous-to-elastic crossover in liquids. The PSD and transverse phononic excitations evolvemore » consistently with theoretical predictions. Both can be considered as a universal fingerprint of the dynamic response of a liquid, which is also observable in a subdomain of supercritical phase. Furthermore, the simultaneous disappearance of both these effects at elevated temperatures is a manifestation of the Frenkel line. We expect that these findings will advance the current understanding of fluids under extreme thermodynamic conditions.« less

  11. A Randomized Crossover Trial on Acute Stress-Related Physiological Responses to Mountain Hiking

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Hartl, Arnulf; Kopp, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Green exercise, defined as physical activity in natural environments, might have positive effects on stress-related physiological measures. Little is known about the acute effects of green exercise bouts lasting longer than 60 min. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of a three-hour green exercise intervention (mountain hiking) on stress-related physiological responses. Using a randomized crossover design, 42 healthy participants were exposed to three different conditions in a field-based experiment: outdoor mountain hiking, indoor treadmill walking, and sedentary control condition (three hours each). At baseline and at follow-up (five minutes after the condition), stress-related physiological responses (salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate variability) were measured. Salivary cortisol decreased in all conditions, but showed a larger decrease after both mountain hiking and treadmill walking compared to the sedentary control situation (partial η2 = 0.10). No differences were found between mountain hiking and treadmill walking in salivary cortisol. In heart rate variability and blood pressure, changes from baseline to follow-up did not significantly differ between the three conditions. The results indicate that three hours of hiking indoors or outdoors elicits positive effects on salivary cortisol concentration. Environmental effects seem to play a minor role in salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate variability. PMID:28800067

  12. A Randomized Crossover Trial on Acute Stress-Related Physiological Responses to Mountain Hiking.

    PubMed

    Niedermeier, Martin; Grafetstätter, Carina; Hartl, Arnulf; Kopp, Martin

    2017-08-11

    Green exercise, defined as physical activity in natural environments, might have positive effects on stress-related physiological measures. Little is known about the acute effects of green exercise bouts lasting longer than 60 min. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of a three-hour green exercise intervention (mountain hiking) on stress-related physiological responses. Using a randomized crossover design, 42 healthy participants were exposed to three different conditions in a field-based experiment: outdoor mountain hiking, indoor treadmill walking, and sedentary control condition (three hours each). At baseline and at follow-up (five minutes after the condition), stress-related physiological responses (salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate variability) were measured. Salivary cortisol decreased in all conditions, but showed a larger decrease after both mountain hiking and treadmill walking compared to the sedentary control situation (partial η² = 0.10). No differences were found between mountain hiking and treadmill walking in salivary cortisol. In heart rate variability and blood pressure, changes from baseline to follow-up did not significantly differ between the three conditions. The results indicate that three hours of hiking indoors or outdoors elicits positive effects on salivary cortisol concentration. Environmental effects seem to play a minor role in salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate variability.

  13. Reentrant resistive behavior and dimensional crossover in disordered superconducting TiN films

    SciTech Connect

    Postolova, Svetlana V.; Mironov, Alexey Yu.; Baklanov, Mikhail R.

    2017-05-11

    A reentrant temperature dependence of the normal state resistance often referred to as the N-shaped temperature dependence, is omnipresent in disordered superconductors – ranging from high-temperature cuprates to ultrathin superconducting films – that experience superconductor-to-insulator transition. Yet, despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon its origin still remains a subject of debate. Here we investigate strongly disordered superconducting TiN films and demonstrate universality of the reentrant behavior. We offer a quantitative description of the N-shaped resistance curve. We show that upon cooling down the resistance first decreases linearly with temperature and then passes through the minimum that marks the 3D-2D crossovermore » in the system. In the 2D temperature range the resistance first grows with decreasing temperature due to quantum contributions and eventually drops to zero as the system falls into a superconducting state. As a result, our findings demonstrate the prime importance of disorder in dimensional crossover effects.« less

  14. Inhomogeneous BCS-BEC crossover for trapped cold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaricci, A.; Privitera, A.; Capone, M.

    2014-05-01

    The BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover in a lattice is a powerful paradigm that describes how a superconductor deviates from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer physics as the attractive interaction increases. Optical lattices loaded with binary mixtures of cold atoms allow one to access this phenomenon experimentally in a clean and controlled way. We show that, however, the possibility to study this phenomenon in actual cold-atoms experiments is limited by the effect of the trapping potential. Real-space dynamical mean-field theory calculations show indeed that interactions and the confining potential conspire to pack the fermions in the center of the trap, which approaches a band insulator when the attraction becomes sizeable. Interestingly, the energy gap is spatially more homogeneous than the superfluid condensate order parameter. We show how this physics reflects in several observables, and we propose an alternative strategy to disentangle the effect of the harmonic potential and measure the intrinsic properties resulting from the interaction strength.

  15. The German East-West Mortality Difference: Two Crossovers Driven by Smoking.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; van Raalte, Alyson; Grigoriev, Pavel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    Before the fall of the Berlin Wall, mortality was considerably higher in the former East Germany than in West Germany. The gap narrowed rapidly after German reunification. The convergence was particularly strong for women, to the point that Eastern women aged 50-69 now have lower mortality despite lower incomes and worse overall living conditions. Prior research has shown that lower smoking rates among East German female cohorts born in the 1940s and 1950s were a major contributor to this crossover. However, after 1990, smoking behavior changed dramatically, with higher smoking intensity observed among women in the eastern part of Germany. We forecast the impact of this changing smoking behavior on East-West mortality differences and find that the higher smoking rates among younger East German cohorts will reverse their contemporary mortality advantage. Mortality forecasting methods that do not account for smoking would, perhaps misleadingly, forecast a growing mortality advantage for East German women. Experience from other countries shows that smoking can be effectively reduced by strict anti-smoking policies. Instead, East Germany is becoming an example warning of the consequences of weakening anti-smoking policies and changing behavioral norms.

  16. Interplay between structure-specific endonucleases for crossover control during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takamune T; Lui, Doris Y; Kim, Hyun-Min; Meyer, Katherine; Colaiácovo, Monica P

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of crossover events are tightly regulated at prophase of meiosis I. The resolution of Holliday junctions by structure-specific endonucleases, including MUS-81, SLX-1, XPF-1 and GEN-1, is one of the main mechanisms proposed for crossover formation. However, how these nucleases coordinately resolve Holliday junctions is still unclear. Here we identify both the functional overlap and differences between these four nucleases regarding their roles in crossover formation and control in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline. We show that MUS-81, XPF-1 and SLX-1, but not GEN-1, can bind to HIM-18/SLX4, a key scaffold for nucleases. Analysis of synthetic mitotic defects revealed that MUS-81 and SLX-1, but not XPF-1 and GEN-1, have overlapping roles with the Bloom syndrome helicase ortholog, HIM-6, supporting their in vivo roles in processing recombination intermediates. Taking advantage of the ease of genetic analysis and high-resolution imaging afforded by C. elegans, we examined crossover designation, frequency, distribution and chromosomal morphology in single, double, triple and quadruple mutants of the structure-specific endonucleases. This revealed that XPF-1 functions redundantly with MUS-81 and SLX-1 in executing crossover formation during meiotic double-strand break repair. Analysis of crossover distribution revealed that SLX-1 is required for crossover suppression at the center region of the autosomes. Finally, analysis of chromosome morphology in oocytes at late meiosis I stages uncovered that SLX-1 and XPF-1 promote meiotic chromosomal stability by preventing formation of chromosomal abnormalities. We propose a model in which coordinate action between structure-specific nucleases at different chromosome domains, namely MUS-81, SLX-1 and XPF-1 at the arms and SLX-1 at the center region, exerts positive and negative regulatory roles, respectively, for crossover control during C. elegans meiosis.

  17. Cross-over endocytosis of claudins is mediated by interactions via their extracellular loops

    PubMed Central

    Gehne, Nora; Lamik, Agathe; Lehmann, Martin; Haseloff, Reiner F.; Andjelkovic, Anuska V.

    2017-01-01

    Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double membrane vesicles. Super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of Cldns in these vesicles and revealed a distinct separation of Cldns derived from opposing cells within cross-over endocytosed vesicles. Colocalization of cross-over endocytosed Cldn with the autophagosome markers as well as inhibition of autophagosome biogenesis verified involvement of the autophagosomal pathway. Accordingly, cross-over endocytosed Cldns underwent lysosomal degradation as indicated by lysosome markers. Cross-over endocytosis of Cldn5 depended on clathrin and caveolin pathways but not on dynamin. Cross-over endocytosis also depended on Cldn-Cldn-interactions. Amino acid substitutions in the second extracellular loop of Cldn5 (F147A, Q156E) caused impaired cis- and trans-interaction, as well as diminished cross-over endocytosis. Moreover, F147A exhibited an increased mobility in the membrane, while Q156E was not as mobile but enhanced the paracellular permeability. In conclusion, the endocytosis of TJ proteins depends on their ability to interact strongly with each other in cis and trans, and the mobility of Cldns in the membrane is not necessarily an indicator of barrier permeability. TJ-remodeling via cross-over endocytosis represents a general mechanism for the degradation of transmembrane proteins in cell-cell contacts and directly links junctional membrane turnover to autophagy. PMID:28813441

  18. Atomic bond fluctuations and crossover to potential-energy-landscape-influenced regime in supercooled liquid.

    PubMed

    Levashov, V A; Egami, T; Aga, R S; Morris, J R

    2008-10-01

    The ideas related to potential-energy landscape and cooperativity of atomic rearrangements are widely discussed in the research field of glass transition. The crossover transition from high-temperature regime to potential-energy-landscape-influenced regime was extensively studied using the concept of inherent structure. However, the interpretation of this crossover behavior in terms of microscopic changes in real structures is still lacking. In this paper we present several observations on the crossover behavior on real structures. We compare fluctuations in the global properties (total number of bonds, total potential energy, pressure) versus fluctuations in the local properties (coordination number, atomic potential energy, local atomic pressure) by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We then show that the total and local fluctuations in the number of atomic bonds in the system depend on temperature differently above and below the temperature of crossover to the landscape-influenced regime. Similarly, the ratio between the global and local fluctuations in the potential energy and pressure changes in the vicinity of the crossover temperature, whereas the change is less distinct than in the case of the bond fluctuations. Our results indicate that local fluctuations become more correlated below the crossover temperature, most likely via the interaction through the dynamic shear elastic field.

  19. Randomized Polypill crossover trial in people aged 50 and over.

    PubMed

    Wald, David S; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    A Polypill is proposed for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people judged to be at risk on account of their age alone. Its efficacy in reducing cholesterol and blood pressure is uncertain. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of a Polypill among individuals aged 50+ without a history of cardiovascular disease and compared the reductions with those predicted from published estimates of the effects of the individual drugs. Participants took the Polypill (amlodipine 2.5 mg, losartan 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg and simvastatin 40 mg) each evening for 12 weeks and a placebo each evening for 12 weeks in random sequence. The mean within-person differences in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol at the end of each 12 week period were determined. 84 out of 86 participants completed both treatment periods. The mean systolic blood pressure was reduced by 17.9 mmHg (95% CI, 15.7-20.1) on the Polypill, diastolic blood pressure by 9.8 mmHg (8.1-11.5), and LDL cholesterol by 1.4 mmol/L (1.2-1.6), reductions of 12%, 11%, and 39% respectively. The results were almost identical to those predicted; 18.4 mmHg, 9.7 mmHg, and 1.4 mmol/L respectively. The Polypill resulted in the predicted reductions in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. Long term reductions of this magnitude would have a substantial effect in preventing heart attacks and strokes. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN36672232.

  20. Randomized Polypill Crossover Trial in People Aged 50 and Over

    PubMed Central

    Wald, David S.; Morris, Joan K.; Wald, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background A Polypill is proposed for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people judged to be at risk on account of their age alone. Its efficacy in reducing cholesterol and blood pressure is uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of a Polypill among individuals aged 50+ without a history of cardiovascular disease and compared the reductions with those predicted from published estimates of the effects of the individual drugs. Participants took the Polypill (amlodipine 2.5 mg, losartan 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg and simvastatin 40 mg) each evening for 12 weeks and a placebo each evening for 12 weeks in random sequence. The mean within-person differences in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol at the end of each 12 week period were determined. Results 84 out of 86 participants completed both treatment periods. The mean systolic blood pressure was reduced by 17.9 mmHg (95% CI, 15.7–20.1) on the Polypill, diastolic blood pressure by 9.8 mmHg (8.1–11.5), and LDL cholesterol by 1.4 mmol/L (1.2–1.6), reductions of 12%, 11%, and 39% respectively. The results were almost identical to those predicted; 18.4 mmHg, 9.7 mmHg, and 1.4 mmol/L respectively. Conclusion The Polypill resulted in the predicted reductions in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. Long term reductions of this magnitude would have a substantial effect in preventing heart attacks and strokes. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN36672232 PMID:22815989

  1. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Design Crossover trial. Setting Main meeting room of Leiden University’s Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were markers, or “fear factors” of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. Results All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Conclusion Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. PMID:26673787

  2. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2015-12-16

    To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Crossover trial. Main meeting room of Leiden University's Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. The primary outcome measures were markers, or "fear factors" of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Triggers for Preeclampsia Onset: a Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jane B; Schemann, Kathrin; Patterson, Jillian A; Morris, Jonathan; Herbert, Robert D; Roberts, Christine L

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion. Exposures to potential triggers were identified via guided questionnaire. Infective episodes included symptoms lasting >24 h. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension (BP ≥140 mmHg and/or ≥90 mmHg) and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/mmol). Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the odds of exposure to potential triggers in the case windows (1-7 days preceding diagnosis of preeclampsia) and control windows (8-14 days prior to diagnosis); unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) are reported. Among 286 recruited women, 25 (8.7%) reported a new infection in the 7 days prior to preeclampsia onset and 21 (7.3%) in the 8-14 days prior. There was no significant association between onset of infection in the 7 days prior and preeclampsia diagnosis (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.65, 2.34). Consumption of caffeine (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33, 0.77), spicy food (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.81), and alcohol (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10, 0.71) were strongly inversely associated with preeclampsia onset. Recent infection does not appear to trigger preeclampsia. Decreased consumption of caffeine, spicy food, and alcohol may be prodromal markers. Such behaviours may be early markers of imminent preeclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Scotian Shelf crossovers during winter/spring 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter C.; Flagg, Charles N.; Limeburner, Richard; Fuentes-Yaco, CéSar; Hannah, Charles; Beardsley, Robert C.; Irish, James D.

    2003-11-01

    A field program detected direct "crossover" of Scotian Shelf Water (SSC) from Browns to Georges Bank during winter/spring 1999 using (1) moored measurements, (2) drogued drifters, and (3) satellite imagery. Statistics of the 30-day trajectories indicate that (18, 55) ± 17% of the drifters crossed the (100, 200) m isobaths on Georges Bank. Transit times ranged from 2 to 26 days. Four of the drifters crossed onto the Northeast Peak (NEP) coinciding with the detection of Scotian Shelf Water at the central NEP mooring. These events are deemed "significant" because they serve to deliver particles from the Scotian Shelf directly to the gadoid spawning grounds on Georges Bank. Depths of the SSC layers lie between 15 and 50 m, and "residence times" for the Scotian Shelf Water on the NEP are estimated at 3 to 4 weeks. Canonical correlation analysis of the NEP temperature and salinity records suggest that 10% of the correlation structure among the variables is related to SSCs, while 70% is associated with the annual cycle. A search for SSC driving mechanisms reveals that (1) interannual variability of the annual freshwater discharge from the Gulf of St. Lawrence is not a factor, (2) Ekman-like response of near-surface currents to southeast wind stress plays a role but is not the dominant factor, and (3) mesoscale baroclinic features penetrating Northeast Channel from offshore are the most likely cause. Furthermore, the incidence of SSCs may be related to offshore fronts whose proximity is positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation index.

  5. Discontinuous Crossover between Fast and Slow Kinetics at the Volume Phase Transition in Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takaharu; Harada, Ichiro; Nishio, Kazufumi; Hirotsu, Shunsuke

    2000-08-01

    The kinetics of the volume phase transition in N-isopropylacrylamide gels has been studied as a function of crosslinker concentration. The shrinking kinetics at the transition is extremely slow in gels with a standard composition which have been used widely in various experiments. A discontinuous crossover from slow to much faster kinetics were observed in both high- and low-crosslinker-concentration regions, where the characteristic time of the shrinking process changes abruptly by two to four orders of magnitude with a minute change of the crosslinker concentration. In spite of these marked changes in the kinetics, no anomaly was observed in the degree of equilibrium swelling in these regions. A mechanism leading to sudden changes in kinetics is discussed in terms of an inhomogeneous network structure which is dependent on crosslink density.

  6. Which Treatment Is Better? Ascertaining Patient Preferences with Crossover Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; Zhukovsky, Donna S; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Context The difference in patient-reported outcomes between study arms can often be difficult to ascertain in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using a parallel design because of wide inter-individual variations in baseline characteristics and how patients interpret the outcome measures. Furthermore, the minimal clinically important difference is often not available for many outcomes, and even when available, not individualized for each patient. Crossover RCTs are designed for intra-individual comparisons, which can address these issues by asking patients 1) to directly compare the interventions in regard to effectiveness, adverse effects and ease of use, and 2) to provide an overall choice. Objectives We discuss the key design elements for crossover trials, their advantages and disadvantages relative to parallel designs, and their utility in palliative care research using a number of case examples. Methods This is a narrative review. Results Crossover studies randomize patients to a sequence of treatments. In addition to facilitating intra-individual comparisons, they often require a smaller sample size for the same statistical power compared to parallel designs, and are thus less costly. However, crossover studies are only feasible when the condition being studied is relatively stable and the intervention has a short term effect. Crossover studies with inadequate washout periods may be difficult to interpret. The risk of attrition also may increase because of prolonged study duration. Conclusion By facilitating intra-individual comparisons and eliciting patient preferences, crossover studies can provide unique information on the superior intervention. Crossover designs should be considered for selected palliative care studies. PMID:25555446

  7. A Randomized Crossover Design to Assess Learning Impact and Student Preference for Active and Passive Online Learning Modules.

    PubMed

    Prunuske, Amy J; Henn, Lisa; Brearley, Ann M; Prunuske, Jacob

    Medical education increasingly involves online learning experiences to facilitate the standardization of curriculum across time and space. In class, delivering material by lecture is less effective at promoting student learning than engaging students in active learning experience and it is unclear whether this difference also exists online. We sought to evaluate medical student preferences for online lecture or online active learning formats and the impact of format on short- and long-term learning gains. Students participated online in either lecture or constructivist learning activities in a first year neurologic sciences course at a US medical school. In 2012, students selected which format to complete and in 2013, students were randomly assigned in a crossover fashion to the modules. In the first iteration, students strongly preferred the lecture modules and valued being told "what they need to know" rather than figuring it out independently. In the crossover iteration, learning gains and knowledge retention were found to be equivalent regardless of format, and students uniformly demonstrated a strong preference for the lecture format, which also on average took less time to complete. When given a choice for online modules, students prefer passive lecture rather than completing constructivist activities, and in the time-limited environment of medical school, this choice results in similar performance on multiple-choice examinations with less time invested. Instructors need to look more carefully at whether assessments and learning strategies are helping students to obtain self-directed learning skills and to consider strategies to help students learn to value active learning in an online environment.

  8. Velocity Crossover Between Hydrous and Anhydrous Forsterite at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Jacobsen, S; Smyth, R

    2010-01-01

    The elastic properties of hydrous forsterite, Mg{sub 2-x}SiO{sub 4}H{sub 2x}, are relevant to interpreting seismic velocity anomalies in the Earth's mantle. In this study, we used Brillouin scattering to determine the single-crystal elasticity of forsterite with 0.9(1) wt.% H{sub 2}O (x = 0.14) to 14 GPa. Aggregate bulk and shear moduli of hydrous forsterite increase with pressure at a greater rate than those of the corresponding anhydrous phase. Compared with anhydrous forsterite, we observe a 7% increase in the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (K{prime}{sub S0} = 4.50(5)), and a 25% increase in the pressure derivative of the shearmore » modulus (G{prime}{sub 0} = 1.75(5)) for forsterite with near maximum possible water content. Using our results, we calculated the compressional, V{sub P}, and shear, V{sub S}, velocities of forsterite as a function of pressure at 300 K. Whereas V{sub P} and V{sub S} of hydrous forsterite are 0.6% and 0.4% slower than those of anhydrous forsterite at ambient pressure, velocity crossovers at {approx} 3-4 GPa result in higher hydrous forsterite velocities at pressures corresponding to depths below {approx} 120 km. At the pressure of the 410-km discontinuity, V{sub P} and V{sub S} of hydrous forsterite exceed those of anhydrous forsterite by 1.1(1)% and 1.9(1)%, respectively. This implies that incorporation of water could decrease the magnitude of the velocity contrast at 410-km depth between forsterite and wadsleyite. Although the effects of hydration on temperature derivatives of the elastic moduli of forsterite and wadsleyite are not yet known, from the current data we estimate that the presence of {approx} 0.4 wt.% H{sub 2}O in forsterite (at 60 mol%) could lower the P and S velocity contrast at 410-km depth to 3.8(4)% and 4.8(6)%, respectively. At high pressures, hydration also decreases the V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratio of forsterite, and lowers the maximum P wave azimuthal anisotropy and S wave splitting of forsterite.« less

  9. Crossover between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, the Gaussian unitary ensemble, and Poissonian statistics.

    PubMed

    Schweiner, Frank; Laturner, Jeanine; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Until now only for specific crossovers between Poissonian statistics (P), the statistics of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), or the statistics of a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) have analytical formulas for the level spacing distribution function been derived within random matrix theory. We investigate arbitrary crossovers in the triangle between all three statistics. To this aim we propose an according formula for the level spacing distribution function depending on two parameters. Comparing the behavior of our formula for the special cases of P→GUE, P→GOE, and GOE→GUE with the results from random matrix theory, we prove that these crossovers are described reasonably. Recent investigations by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 062205 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.062205] have shown that the Hamiltonian of magnetoexcitons in cubic semiconductors can exhibit all three statistics in dependence on the system parameters. Evaluating the numerical results for magnetoexcitons in dependence on the excitation energy and on a parameter connected with the cubic valence band structure and comparing the results with the formula proposed allows us to distinguish between regular and chaotic behavior as well as between existent or broken antiunitary symmetries. Increasing one of the two parameters, transitions between different crossovers, e.g., from the P→GOE to the P→GUE crossover, are observed and discussed.

  10. Crossover between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, the Gaussian unitary ensemble, and Poissonian statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweiner, Frank; Laturner, Jeanine; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Until now only for specific crossovers between Poissonian statistics (P), the statistics of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), or the statistics of a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) have analytical formulas for the level spacing distribution function been derived within random matrix theory. We investigate arbitrary crossovers in the triangle between all three statistics. To this aim we propose an according formula for the level spacing distribution function depending on two parameters. Comparing the behavior of our formula for the special cases of P →GUE , P →GOE , and GOE →GUE with the results from random matrix theory, we prove that these crossovers are described reasonably. Recent investigations by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 062205 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.062205] have shown that the Hamiltonian of magnetoexcitons in cubic semiconductors can exhibit all three statistics in dependence on the system parameters. Evaluating the numerical results for magnetoexcitons in dependence on the excitation energy and on a parameter connected with the cubic valence band structure and comparing the results with the formula proposed allows us to distinguish between regular and chaotic behavior as well as between existent or broken antiunitary symmetries. Increasing one of the two parameters, transitions between different crossovers, e.g., from the P →GOE to the P →GUE crossover, are observed and discussed.

  11. Randomized crossover clinical trial of real and sham peripheral prism glasses for hemianopia

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Alex R.; Keeney, Karen; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of real relative to sham peripheral prism glasses for patients with complete homonymous hemianopia and without visual neglect. Methods Patients recruited at 13 clinics were allocated by minimization into a double-masked, crossover trial with two groups. One group received real (57Δ) oblique and sham (≤ 5Δ) horizontal prisms; the other received real horizontal and sham oblique, in counterbalanced order. A masked data collector at each clinic administered questionnaires after each 4-week crossover period. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the overall difference, across the two periods of the crossover, between the proportion of participants who wanted to continue with (said “yes” to) real prisms and the proportion who said yes to sham prisms. The secondary outcome was the difference in perceived mobility improvement between real and sham prisms. Results Of 73 patients randomized, 61 completed the crossover. A significantly higher proportion said yes to real than sham prisms (64% vs. 36%; odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 21.0). Participants who continued wear after 6 months reported greater improvement in mobility with real than sham prisms at crossover end (p=0.002); participants who discontinued wear reported no difference. Conclusion Real peripheral prism glasses were more helpful for obstacle avoidance when walking than sham glasses, with no differences between the horizontal and oblique designs. Applications to clinical practice Peripheral prism glasses provide a simple and inexpensive mobility rehabilitation intervention for hemianopia. PMID:24201760

  12. Social Justice for Crossover Youth: The Intersection of the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems.

    PubMed

    Kolivoski, Karen M; Goodkind, Sara; Shook, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Social workers are critical to promoting racial and social justice. "Crossover youth," a term used to describe youths who have contact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are an especially vulnerable but often overlooked population with whom social workers engage. A disproportionate number of crossover youth are African American. Empirical research on crossover youth is growing, but such scholarship rarely engages with a human rights and social justice perspective. African American children and youths have a distinct place within the history and current context of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These systems have historically excluded them or treated them differently; now, African American youths are overrepresented in each of them, and evidence suggests they are more likely to cross over. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical and current context of crossover youth, with a particular focus on African American youths, to provide the foundation for a discussion of what social workers can do to promote racial and social justice for crossover youth, including specific implications for practice and policy, as well as broader implications for human and civil rights. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  13. Study on nature of crossover phenomena with application to gearbox fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xingxing; Li, Shunming; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a robust tool for uncovering long-range correlations hidden in the non-stationary data. Recently, crossover properties of the scaling-law curve obtained by DFA have been applied to diagnose gearbox faults. However, the nature of the crossover phenomena has not been well- explained. In this paper, an explanation for the nature of crossover phenomena is specifically given, which is conducive to discovering novel features for gearbox fault diagnosis. Firstly, an explicit exposition of the crossover phenomena is provided by analyzing the gearbox vibration signal. Secondly, the nature of crossover phenomena is specifically disclosed. Thirdly, the features with clear physical meaning are proposed to describe operating conditions of a gearbox. Then, to overcome the deficiency of feature extraction through visual observation, a piecewise-linear regression model is utilized to extract the features automatically. Lastly, several combinations of these features are used to classify the fault types. As a consequence, the proposed novel features are verified that they can well- distinguish the gearbox operating conditions with different fault types and severities, and deliver a better performance than the existing method depending on the sensitive index (SI).

  14. Biological signature of Scotian Shelf Water crossovers on Georges Bank during spring 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishner, Karen F.; Gifford, Dian J.; Sullivan, Barbara K.; Bisagni, James J.; Outram, Dawn M.; van Keuren, Donna E.

    2003-11-01

    Episodic crossovers of cold low salinity Scotian Shelf Water (SSW) onto the Northeast Peak of Georges Bank are a potentially important mechanism transporting plankton species, including the copepod Calanus finmarchicus and its prey and predators, onto the Bank each spring. We provide the first detailed investigation of horizontal and vertical zooplankton distributions in SSW crossovers compared to other onbank locations from three GLOBEC cruises during spring 1997. SSW crossovers are physically and biologically distinct from other Bank locations. In late spring, chlorophyll concentrations and in vivo fluorescence are elevated and light transmission is reduced in SSW, while during early spring, these parameters are more variable. SSW communities do not contain a unique zooplankton assemblage or indicator species but instead show differences in abundance and life history parameters for various taxa compared to other Bank locations. SSW has high abundances of young C. finmarchicus life history stages, almost no diel vertical migration of zooplankton, low abundances of invertebrate predators, and low fish egg abundance. Population development of C. finmarchicus in SSW lags that in adjacent water. The potential biological impact of SSW crossovers on Georges Bank varies seasonally. In April, density inversions and interleaving of SSW and non-SSW suggest active mixing, resulting in similar community composition of SSW and adjacent non-SSW. SSW crossovers are probably an important source to Georges Bank of young stages of C. finmarchicus in early spring. In May, after stratification strengthens, the greater differentiation between SSW plankton and elsewhere indicates that mixing between communities is more limited.

  15. Dimensional analysis and prediction of dielectrophoretic crossover frequency of spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Che-Kai; Juang, Jia-Yang

    2017-06-01

    The manipulation of biological cells and micrometer-scale particles using dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an indispensable technique for lab-on-a-chip systems for many biological and colloidal science applications. However, existing models, including the dipole model and numerical simulations based on Maxwell stress tensor (MST), cannot achieve high accuracy and high computation efficiency at the same time. The dipole model is widely used and provides adequate predictions on the crossover frequency of submicron particles, but cannot predict the crossover frequency for larger particles accurately; on the other hand, the MST method offers high accuracy for a wide variety of particle sizes and shapes, but is time-consuming and may lack predictive understanding of the interplay between key parameters. Here we present a mathematical model, using dimensional analysis and the Buckingham pi theorem, that permits high accuracy and efficiency in predicting the crossover frequency of spherical particles. The curve fitting and calculation are performed using commercial packages OriginLab and MATLAB, respectively. In addition, through this model we also can predict the conditions in which no crossover frequency exists. Also, we propose a pair of dimensionless parameters, forming a functional relation, that provide physical insights into the dependency of the crossover frequency on five key parameters. The model is verified under several scenarios using comprehensive MST simulations by COMSOL Multiphysics software (COMSOL, Inc.) and some published experimental data.

  16. Two measures of bilingualism in the memories of immigrants and indigenous minorities: crossover memories and codeswitching.

    PubMed

    Altman, Carmit

    2015-04-01

    Two indices of bilingualism, crossover memories and codeswitching (CS), were explored in five groups of immigrant (English-Hebrew, Georgian-Hebrew Russian-Hebrew) and indigenous bilinguals (Arabic-Hebrew, Hebrew-English). Participants recalled memories in response to cue words and then were asked to report the language of retrieval and provide a more elaborate narrative. More memories were 'same language' memories, recalled in the language of the experimental session/cue word, but as many as 48 % of the memories were crossovers, i.e. memories reported in a language other than the language of the session/cue word. In an effort to examine the ecological validity of the self-reported language of the memories, the frequency of CS in the elaborated narratives was investigated. For the entire sample, more CS was found for self-reported crossover memories in L2 sessions. In a further analysis of CS in crossover memories, collapsed across L1 and L2 sessions, significant differences emerged between immigrants and indigenous bilinguals. Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant bilinguals are discussed in terms of the role of activation in crossover memories.

  17. Interplay of Externally Doped and Thermally Activated Holes in La2-xSrxCuO4 and Their Impact on the Pseudogap Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor'Kov, Lev P.; Teitel'Baum, Gregory B.

    2006-12-01

    We presented the recent Hall effect data for a number of carriers in La2-xSrxCuO4 as the sum of two components: the temperature independent term n0(x), which is due to external doping, and the thermally activated contribution. Their balance determines the crossover temperature T*(x) from the marginal Fermi liquid to pseudogap regime. The activation energy Δ(x) for thermally excited carriers equals the energy between the Fermi surface “arc” and the band bottom, as seen in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Other implications for the (T, x)-phase diagram of cuprates are also discussed.

  18. Interplay of externally doped and thermally activated holes in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 and their impact on the pseudogap crossover.

    PubMed

    Gor'kov, Lev P; Teitel'baum, Gregory B

    2006-12-15

    We presented the recent Hall effect data for a number of carriers in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 as the sum of two components: the temperature independent term n0(x), which is due to external doping, and the thermally activated contribution. Their balance determines the crossover temperature T*(x) from the marginal Fermi liquid to pseudogap regime. The activation energy Delta(x) for thermally excited carriers equals the energy between the Fermi surface "arc" and the band bottom, as seen in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Other implications for the (T, x)-phase diagram of cuprates are also discussed.

  19. Physical exercise through mountain hiking in high-risk suicide patients. A randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Sturm, J; Plöderl, M; Fartacek, C; Kralovec, K; Neunhäuserer, D; Niederseer, D; Hitzl, W; Niebauer, J; Schiepek, G; Fartacek, R

    2012-12-01

    The following crossover pilot study attempts to prove the effects of endurance training through mountain hiking in high-risk suicide patients. Participants (n = 20) having attempted suicide at least once and clinically diagnosed with hopelessness were randomly distributed among two groups. Group 1 (n = 10) began with a 9-week hiking phase followed by a 9-week control phase. Group 2 (n = 10) worked vice versa. Assessments included the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Scale of Suicide Ideation (BSI), and maximum physical endurance. Ten participants of Group 1 and seven participants of Group 2 completed the study. A comparison between conditions showed that, in the hiking phase, there was a significant decrease in hopelessness (P < 0.0001, d = -1.4) and depression (P < 0.0001, d = -1.38), and a significant increase in physical endurance (P < 0.0001, d = 1.0), but no significant effect for suicide ideation (P = 0.25, d = -0.29). However, within the hiking phase, there was a significant decrease in suicide ideation (P = 0.005, d = -0.79). The results suggest that a group experience of regular monitored mountain hiking, organized as an add-on therapy to usual care, is associated with an improvement of hopelessness, depression, and suicide ideation in patients suffering from high-level suicide risk. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. A randomized crossover study comparing two mandibular repositioning appliances for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Bradley; Verrett, Ronald; Girvan, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment outcomes vary according to the design of the mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA). Two titratable MRA's were compared. The designs differ in advancement hardware and configuration of acrylic both in bulk and interocclusal contact. The primary treatment outcome was the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI). Other outcomes that were compared included Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, oxygen saturation, and subjective feedback regarding experiences with the appliances. Twenty-four subjects were recruited from consecutive referrals for MRA therapy following diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by polysomnography. Subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment arm of the crossover study. Each subject underwent an initial sleep study with a type III home monitor to establish a baseline RDI. Subjects were then treated with one of the two MRAs determined by random assignment. The MRA self-titration phase was monitored until a treatment position was determined, and the home sleep study was repeated. After a 2-week period without any OSA treatment, subjects received the second MRA and the self-titration treatment protocol was repeated. At completion of treatment with each appliance, subjects answered questionnaires and underwent a sleep study with the type III monitor. The outcome data for each appliance were compared using analysis of variance. Eighteen subjects completed the treatment protocol. There were no significant statistical differences in treatment outcomes between the two appliances. There was a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) preference for a MRA design with minimal coverage of teeth and palate. The subjects' appliance selection was consistent with a corresponding reduction in SAQLI score for the selected appliance. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between the two appliances in the outcomes measured, there was a trend toward

  1. Reducing Trunk Compensation in Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Crossover Trial Comparing Visual and Force Feedback Modalities.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Bulmaro Adolfo; Schneider, Andrea Nicole; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether the compensatory trunk movements of stroke survivors observed during reaching tasks can be decreased by force and visual feedback, and to examine whether one of these feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other in reducing this compensatory tendency. Randomized crossover trial. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling older adults (N=15; 5 women; mean age, 64±11y) with hemiplegia from nontraumatic hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke (>3mo poststroke), recruited from stroke recovery groups, the research group's website, and the community. In a single session, participants received augmented feedback about their trunk compensation during a bimanual reaching task. Visual feedback (60 trials) was delivered through a computer monitor, and force feedback (60 trials) was delivered through 2 robotic devices. Primary outcome measure included change in anterior trunk displacement measured by motion tracking camera. Secondary outcomes included trunk rotation, index of curvature (measure of straightness of hands' path toward target), root mean square error of hands' movement (differences between hand position on every iteration of the program), completion time for each trial, and posttest questionnaire to evaluate users' experience and system's usability. Both visual (-45.6% [45.8 SD] change from baseline, P=.004) and force (-41.1% [46.1 SD], P=.004) feedback were effective in reducing trunk compensation. Scores on secondary outcome measures did not improve with either feedback modality. Neither feedback condition was superior. Visual and force feedback show promise as 2 modalities that could be used to decrease trunk compensation in stroke survivors during reaching tasks. It remains to be established which one of these 2 feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other as a cue to reduce compensatory trunk movement. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Crossover from capillary fingering to compact invasion for two-phase drainage with stable viscosity ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Smith, D.H

    2007-02-01

    Motivated by a wide range of applications from enhanced oil recovery to carbon dioxide sequestration, we have developed a two-dimensional, pore-level model of immiscible drainage, incorporating viscous, capillary, and gravitational effects. This model has been validated quantitatively, in the very different limits of zero viscosity ratio and zero capillary number; flow patterns from modeling agree well with experiment. For a range of stable viscosity ratios (μinjected/μdisplaced 1), we have increased the capillary number, Nc, and studied the way in which the flows deviate from capillary fingering (the fractal flow of invasion percolation) and become compact for realistic capillary numbers. Resultsmore » exhibiting this crossover from capillary fingering to compact invasion are presented for the average position of the injected fluid, the fluid–fluid interface, the saturation and fractional flow profiles, and the relative permeabilities. The agreement between our results and earlier theoretical predictions [Blunt M, King MJ, Scher H. Simulation and theory of two-phase flow in porous media. Phys Rev A 1992;46:7680–99; Lenormand R. Flow through porous media: limits of fractal patterns. Proc Roy Soc A 1989;423:159–68; Wilkinson D. Percolation effects in immiscible displacement. Phys Rev A 1986;34:1380–90; Xu B, Yortsos YC, Salin D. Invasion Percolation with viscous forces. Phys Rev E 1998;57:739–51] supports the validity of these general theoretical arguments, which were independent of the details of the porous media in both two and three dimensions.« less

  3. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: density functional theory plus U approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yachao

    2014-12-07

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T(c)) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T(c) of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE(HL) and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T(c) by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T(c) of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T(c) of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  4. Glycopyrrolate for sialorrhea in Parkinson disease: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Arbouw, M E L; Movig, K L L; Koopmann, M; Poels, P J E; Guchelaar, H-J; Egberts, T C G; Neef, C; van Vugt, J P P

    2010-04-13

    Sialorrhea affects approximately 75% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Sialorrhea is often treated with anticholinergics, but central side effects limit their usefulness. Glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium bromide) is an anticholinergic drug with a quaternary ammonium structure not able to cross the blood-brain barrier in considerable amounts. Therefore, glycopyrrolate exhibits minimal central side effects, which may be an advantage in patients with PD, of whom a significant portion already experience cognitive deficits. To determine the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate in the treatment of sialorrhea in patients with PD. We conducted a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with oral glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily in 23 patients with PD. The severity of the sialorrhea was scored on a daily basis by the patients or a caregiver with a sialorrhea scoring scale ranging from 1 (no sialorrhea) to 9 (profuse sialorrhea). The mean (SD) sialorrhea score improved from 4.6 (1.7) with placebo to 3.8 (1.6) with glycopyrrolate (p = 0.011). Nine patients (39.1%) with glycopyrrolate had a clinically relevant improvement of at least 30% vs 1 patient (4.3%) with placebo (p = 0.021). There were no significant differences in adverse events between glycopyrrolate and placebo treatment. Oral glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily is an effective and safe therapy for sialorrhea in Parkinson disease. This study provides Class I evidence that glycopyrrolate 1 mg 3 times daily is more effective than placebo in reducing sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson disease during a 4-week study.

  5. Acute blood pressure response in hypertensive elderly women immediately after water aerobics exercise: A crossover study.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Vilaça-Alves, José; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Silva, Juliana Sá; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais Farias; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-01-01

    Water aerobics exercise is widely recommended for elderly people. However, little is known about the acute effects on hemodynamic variables. Thus, we assessed the effects of a water aerobic session on blood pressure in hypertensive elderly women. Fifty hypertensive elderly women aged 67.8 ± 4.1 years, 1.5 ± 0.6 m high and BMI 28.6 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 , participated in a crossover clinical trial. The experiment consisted of a 45-minute water aerobics session (70%-75% HRmax adjusted for the aquatic environment) (ES) and a control session (no exercise for 45 minutes) (CS). Heart rate was monitored using a heart rate monitor and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measurements were taken using a semi-automatic monitor before and immediately after the sessions, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. It was using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) with Bonferroni's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). At the end of the experimental session, ES showed a rise in SBP of 17.4 mmHg (14.3%, p < 0.001) and DBP of 5.4 mmHg (7.8%, p < 0.001) compared to CS. At 10 minutes after exercise, BP declined in ES by a greater magnitude than in CS (SBP 7.5 mmHg, 6.2%, p = 0.005 and DBP 3.8 mmHg, 5.5%, p = 0.013). At 20 minutes after exercise and thereafter, SBP and DBP were similar in both ES and CS. In conclusion, BP returned to control levels within 10-20 minutes remaining unchanged until 30 minutes after exercise, and post-exercise hypotension was not observed. Besides, BP changed after exercise was a safe rise of small magnitude for hypertensive people.

  6. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Goldman, B; Truniger, S

    2010-10-01

    Many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience cramps during the course of the disease but so far, none of the medications used has been of proven benefit. The objective was to determine the effect of orally administered tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cramps in ALS patients. The authors conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 27 ALS patients suffering from moderate to severe (visual analogue scale (VAS); VAS≥4) daily cramps. There were 7 women and 20 men with a mean age of 57 years and a mean functional ALS score (ALSFRS-R) of 38.4. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 5 mg THC twice daily followed by placebo or vice versa. Each treatment period lasted for 2 weeks and was preceded by a 2-week drug-free observation period (run-in, wash-out period respectively). The primary outcome measure was change in cramp intensity as assessed by a VAS. Secondary outcome measures included the number of cramps per day, number of cramps during daytime and bedtime, intensity of fasciculations (VAS) as well as validated measures of quality of life (ALSAQ-40), quality of sleep (SDQ), appetite (FAACT) and depression (HADS). Complete data were available from 22 patients. THC was well tolerated. There was no evidence for a treatment effect on cramp intensity, number of cramps, fasciculation intensity or any of the other secondary outcome measures. This interventional study with orally administered THC 5 mg twice daily did not demonstrate subjective improvement of cramp intensity in ALS patients.

  7. Are Emotions Transmitted From Work to Family? A Crossover Model of Psychological Contract Breach.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huai-Liang

    2018-01-01

    Based on affective events theory and the crossover model, this study examines the effect of psychological contract breach on employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining and explores the crossover effect of employee dysfunctional behavior on partner family undermining in work-family issues. This study collected 370 employee-partner dyads (277 male employees, 93 female employees, M age = 43.59 years) from a large manufacturing organization. The results of this study support the conception that employees' psychological contract breach results in frustration in the workplace. In addition, mediation analysis results reveal that psychological contract breach relates to employee dysfunctional behavior in the workplace. The findings show that partners' psychological strain mediates the relationship between employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining. Furthermore, these findings provide investigations for the crossover model to display the value of psychological contract breach in family issues.

  8. Crossover design and its application in late-phase diabetes studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Malone, James; Fu, Haoda; Heilmann, Cory; Qu, Yongming; Huster, William J

    2016-09-01

    Crossover design has been widely used in late-phase clinical studies, as well as in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic, bioequivalence, and medical device studies; however, its interpretability and applicability continue to be debated. Herein we provide discussions around a crossover design's scientific benefit, applicability, and how it can be implemented in late-phase diabetes studies by properly handling key issues: carryover effect, washout period, and baseline selection. Specifically, detailed considerations are provided about the validity and situations of having appropriate length of study duration to deal with carryover effects so that a washout period may not be needed. A simulation study and data mining results on 12 crossover late-phase insulin clinical trials are presented to examine the discussion points and proposals. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd and Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  9. Exact tests in binary data under an incomplete block crossover design.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2018-02-01

    To improve the power of a parallel groups design and reduce the time length of a crossover trial, we may consider an incomplete block crossover design. Under a distribution-free random effects logistic regression model, we derive an exact test and a Mantel-Haenszel Type of summary test procedure for testing non-equality in binary data when comparing three treatments. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures. We find that both test procedures developed here can perform well in a variety of situations. We use the data taken as a part of the crossover trial comparing the low and high doses of an analgesic with a placebo for the relief of pain in primary dysmenorrhea to illustrate the use of the proposed test procedures.

  10. A Quality Control Mechanism Coordinates Meiotic Prophase Events to Promote Crossover Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Deshong, Alison J.; Ye, Alice L.; Lamelza, Piero; Bhalla, Needhi

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation relies on homologous chromosomes being linked by at least one crossover, the obligate crossover. Homolog pairing, synapsis and meiosis specific DNA repair mechanisms are required for crossovers but how they are coordinated to promote the obligate crossover is not well understood. PCH-2 is a highly conserved meiotic AAA+-ATPase that has been assigned a variety of functions; whether these functions reflect its conserved role has been difficult to determine. We show that PCH-2 restrains pairing, synapsis and recombination in C. elegans. Loss of pch-2 results in the acceleration of synapsis and homolog-dependent meiotic DNA repair, producing a subtle increase in meiotic defects, and suppresses pairing, synapsis and recombination defects in some mutant backgrounds. Some defects in pch-2 mutants can be suppressed by incubation at lower temperature and these defects increase in frequency in wildtype worms grown at higher temperature, suggesting that PCH-2 introduces a kinetic barrier to the formation of intermediates that support pairing, synapsis or crossover recombination. We hypothesize that this kinetic barrier contributes to quality control during meiotic prophase. Consistent with this possibility, defects in pch-2 mutants become more severe when another quality control mechanism, germline apoptosis, is abrogated or meiotic DNA repair is mildly disrupted. PCH-2 is expressed in germline nuclei immediately preceding the onset of stable homolog pairing and synapsis. Once chromosomes are synapsed, PCH-2 localizes to the SC and is removed in late pachytene, prior to SC disassembly, correlating with when homolog-dependent DNA repair mechanisms predominate in the germline. Indeed, loss of pch-2 results in premature loss of homolog access. Altogether, our data indicate that PCH-2 coordinates pairing, synapsis and recombination to promote crossover assurance. Specifically, we propose that the conserved function of PCH-2 is to destabilize pairing

  11. Temperature effect on the small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Djikaev, Y S; Ruckenstein, E

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics of hydration is expected to change gradually from entropic for small solutes to enthalpic for large ones. The small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration depends on the thermodynamic conditions of the solvent such as temperature, pressure, presence of additives, etc. We attempt to shed some light on the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale by using a probabilistic approach to water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a solute and solute radius. Incorporating that approach into the density functional theory, one can examine the solute size effects on its hydration over the entire small-to-large lengthscale range at a series of different temperatures. Knowing the dependence of the hydration free energy on the temperature and solute size, one can also obtain its enthalpic and entropic contributions as functions of both temperature and solute size. These functions can provide some interesting insight into the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration. The model was applied to the hydration of spherical particles of various radii in water in the temperature range from T = 293.15 K to T = 333.15 K. The model predictions for the temperature dependence of the hydration free energy of small hydrophobes are consistent with the experimental and simulational data on the hydration of simple molecular solutes. Three alternative definitions for the small-to-large crossover length-scale of hydrophobic hydration are proposed, and their temperature dependence is obtained. Depending on the definition and temperature, the small-to-large crossover in the hydration mechanism is predicted to occur for hydrophobes of radii from one to several nanometers. Independent of its definition, the crossover length-scale is predicted to decrease with increasing temperature.

  12. Rushing, distraction, walking on contaminated floors and risk of slipping in limited-service restaurants: a case--crossover study.

    PubMed

    Verma, Santosh K; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen Ruey; Courtney, Theodore K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Mittleman, Murray A; Ware, James H; Perry, Melissa J

    2011-08-01

    This nested case-crossover study examined the association between rushing, distraction and walking on a contaminated floor and the rate of slipping, and whether the effects varied according to weekly hours worked, job tenure and use of slip-resistant shoes. At baseline, workers from 30 limited-service restaurants in the USA reported average work hours, average weekly duration of exposure to each transient risk factor and job tenure at the current location. Use of slip-resistant shoes was determined. During the following 12 weeks, participants reported weekly their slip experience and exposures to the three transient exposures at the time of slipping. The case-crossover design was used to estimate the rate ratios using the Mantel-Haenszel estimator for person-time data. Among 396 participants providing baseline information, 210 reported one or more slips with a total of 989 slips. Rate of slipping was 2.9 times higher when rushing as compared to working at a normal pace (95% CI 2.5 to 3.3). Rate of slipping was also significantly increased by distraction (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0) and walking on a contaminated floor (RR 14.6, 95% CI 12.6 to 17.0). Use of slip-resistant shoes decreased the effects of rushing and walking on a contaminated floor. Rate ratios for all three transient factors decreased monotonically as job tenure increased. The results suggest the importance of these transient risk factors, particularly floor contamination, on rate of slipping in limited-service restaurant workers. Stable characteristics, such as slip-resistant shoes, reduced the effects of transient exposures.

  13. Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalis, Evangelos, E-mail: ebakalis@gmail.com, E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco, E-mail: ebakalis@gmail.com, E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it

    2015-06-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.

  14. Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance.

  15. Self-assembly of fully addressable DNA nanostructures from double crossover tiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Lin, Tong; Zhang, Suoyu; Bai, Tanxi; Mi, Yongli; Wei, Bryan

    2016-09-19

    DNA origami and single-stranded tile (SST) are two proven approaches to self-assemble finite-size complex DNA nanostructures. The construction elements appeared in structures from these two methods can also be found in multi-stranded DNA tiles such as double crossover tiles. Here we report the design and observation of four types of finite-size lattices with four different double crossover tiles, respectively, which, we believe, in terms of both complexity and robustness, will be rival to DNA origami and SST structures. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Radius crossover sign: an indication of malreduced radius shaft greenstick fractures.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patrick B; Crepeau, Allison E; Herrera-Soto, José A; Price, Charles T

    2012-06-01

    Radius shaft greenstick fractures in children can be a challenging injury to treat because angulation and rotational alignment are difficult to assess. In this report, we describe a simple method for analyzing the deformity and identifying rotational and angular malalignment. This technique involves analyzing the forearm radiographs as 2 segments, proximal and distal, and assuring that the rotational position of each matches the other. We present 3 cases of proximal radius greenstick fractures in malalignment to demonstrate the radius crossover sign. Identifying the radius crossover sign, and proceeding with further closed reduction may prevent deformity that could otherwise result in a significant loss of forearm motion. Level V.

  17. Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Höfinger, Siegfried; Venturini, Alessandro; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-06-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.

  18. Self-assembly of fully addressable DNA nanostructures from double crossover tiles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Lin, Tong; Zhang, Suoyu; Bai, Tanxi; Mi, Yongli; Wei, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami and single-stranded tile (SST) are two proven approaches to self-assemble finite-size complex DNA nanostructures. The construction elements appeared in structures from these two methods can also be found in multi-stranded DNA tiles such as double crossover tiles. Here we report the design and observation of four types of finite-size lattices with four different double crossover tiles, respectively, which, we believe, in terms of both complexity and robustness, will be rival to DNA origami and SST structures. PMID:27484479

  19. Molecular dynamics studies of heterogeneous dynamics and dynamic crossover in supercooled atomic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Hans C.

    2005-01-01

    Supercooled liquids near the glass transition exhibit the phenomenon of heterogeneous relaxation; at any specific time, a nominally homogeneous equilibrium fluid undergoes dynamic fluctuations in its structure on a molecular distance scale with rates that are very different in different regions of the sample. Several theoretical and simulation studies have suggested a change in the nature of the dynamics of fluids as they are supercooled, leading to the concept of a dynamic crossover that is often associated with mode coupling theory. Here, we will review the use of molecular dynamics computer simulation methods to investigate heterogeneous dynamics and dynamic crossovers in models of atomic liquids. PMID:15870201

  20. Molecular dynamics studies of heterogeneous dynamics and dynamic crossover in supercooled atomic liquids.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hans C

    2005-05-10

    Supercooled liquids near the glass transition exhibit the phenomenon of heterogeneous relaxation; at any specific time, a nominally homogeneous equilibrium fluid undergoes dynamic fluctuations in its structure on a molecular distance scale with rates that are very different in different regions of the sample. Several theoretical and simulation studies have suggested a change in the nature of the dynamics of fluids as they are supercooled, leading to the concept of a dynamic crossover that is often associated with mode coupling theory. Here, we will review the use of molecular dynamics computer simulation methods to investigate heterogeneous dynamics and dynamic crossovers in models of atomic liquids.

  1. Rhombic-Shaped Nanostructures and Mechanical Properties of 2D DNA Origami Constructed with Different Crossover/Nick Designs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhipeng; Huang, Yunfei; Park, Seongsu; Kawai, Kentaro; Kim, Do-Nyun; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Tabata, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    DNA origami methods enable the fabrication of various nanostructures and nanodevices, but their effective use depends on an understanding of their structural and mechanical properties and the effects of basic structural features. Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy is introduced to directly characterize, in aqueous solution, the crossover regions of sets of 2D DNA origami based on different crossover/nick designs. Rhombic-shaped nanostructures formed under the influence of flexible crossovers placed between DNA helices are observed in DNA origami incorporating crossovers every 3, 4, or 6 DNA turns. The bending rigidity of crossovers is determined to be only one-third of that of the DNA helix, based on interhelical electrostatic forces reported elsewhere, and the measured pitches of the 3-turn crossover design rhombic-shaped nanostructures undergoing negligible bending. To evaluate the robustness of their structural integrity, they are intentionally and simultaneously stressed using force-controlled atomic force microscopy. DNA crossovers are verified to have a stabilizing effect on the structural robustness, while the nicks have an opposite effect. The structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami and the effects of crossovers and nicks revealed in this paper can provide information essential for the design of versatile DNA origami structures that exhibit specified and desirable properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Cytopathology whole slide images and adaptive tutorials for senior medical students: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Van Es, Simone L; Kumar, Rakesh K; Pryor, Wendy M; Salisbury, Elizabeth L; Velan, Gary M

    2016-01-08

    Diagnostic cytopathology is an essential part of clinical decision-making. However, due to a combination of factors including curriculum reform and shortage of pathologists to teach introductory cytopathology, this area of pathology receives little or no formal attention in most medical school curricula. We have previously described the successful use of efficient and effective digital learning resources, including whole slide images (WSI) and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials (VMATs), to teach cytopathology to pathology specialist trainees - a group that had prior exposure to cytopathology in their day to day practice. Consequently, in the current study we attempted to demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of this eLearning resource in a cohort of senior medical students that was completely naïve to the subject matter (cytopathology). We evaluated both the quantitative and qualitative impact of these digital educational materials for learning cytopathology compared with existing resources (e-textbooks and online atlases). The senior medical students were recruited from The University of New South Wales Australia for a randomized cross-over trial. Online assessments, administered after each arm of the trial, contained questions which related directly to a whole slide image. Two categories of questions in the assessments (focusing on either diagnosis or identification of cellular features) were utilized to determine efficacy. User experience and perceptions of efficiency were evaluated using online questionnaires containing Likert scale items and open-ended questions. For this cohort of senior medical students, virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials (VMATs) proved to be at least as effective as existing digital resources for learning cytopathology. Importantly, virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials had superior efficacy in facilitating accurate diagnosis on whole slide images. Student perceptions of VMATs were positive, particularly regarding the immediate

  3. Does lavender aromatherapy alleviate premenstrual emotional symptoms?: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A majority of reproductive-age women experience a constellation of various symptoms in the premenstrual phase, commonly known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Despite its prevalence, however, no single treatment is universally recognized as effective, and many women turn to alternative approaches, including aromatherapy, a holistic mind and body treatment. The present study investigated the soothing effects of aromatherapy on premenstrual symptoms using lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), a relaxing essential oil, from the perspective of autonomic nervous system function. Methods Seventeen women (20.6 ± 0.2 years) with mild to moderate subjective premenstrual symptoms participated in a randomized crossover study. Subjects were examined on two separate occasions (aroma and control trials) in the late-luteal phases. Two kinds of aromatic stimulation (lavender and water as a control) were used. This experiment measured heart rate variability (HRV) reflecting autonomic nerve activity and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as a psychological index before and after the aromatic stimulation. Results Only a 10-min inhalation of the lavender scent significantly increased the high frequency (HF) power reflecting parasympathetic nervous system activity in comparison with water (aroma effect: F = 4.50, p = 0.050; time effect: F = 5.59, p = 0.017; aroma x time effect: F = 3.17, p = 0.047). The rate of increase in HF power was greater at 10–15 min (p = 0.051) and 20–25 min (p = 0.023) in the lavender trial than in the control trial with water. In addition, POMS tests revealed that inhalation of the aromatic lavender oil significantly decreased two POMS subscales—depression–dejection (p = 0.045) and confusion (p = 0.049)—common premenstrual symptoms, in the late-luteal phase, as long as 35 min after the aroma stimulation. Conclusions The present study indicated that lavender aromatherapy as a potential therapeutic

  4. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongqing; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the origin of seismic velocity heterogeneities in the mantle is crucial to understanding internal structures and processes at work in the Earth. The spin crossover in iron in ferropericlase (Fp), the second most abundant phase in the lower mantle, introduces unfamiliar effects on seismic velocities. First-principles calculations indicate that anticorrelation between shear velocity (VS) and bulk sound velocity (Vφ) in the mantle, usually interpreted as compositional heterogeneity, can also be produced in homogeneous aggregates containing Fp. The spin crossover also suppresses thermally induced heterogeneity in longitudinal velocity (VP) at certain depths but not in VS. This effect is observed in tomography models at conditions where the spin crossover in Fp is expected in the lower mantle. In addition, the one-of-a-kind signature of this spin crossover in the RS/P (∂⁡ln⁡VS/∂⁡ln⁡VP) heterogeneity ratio might be a useful fingerprint to detect the presence of Fp in the lower mantle. PMID:25002507

  5. What about the leader? Crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nina; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen; Loeb, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Although a growing body of research links leadership behavior to follower health, comparatively little is known about the health effects of being in the lead. This longitudinal study of 315 team members and 67 leaders examined the crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders. Leader emotional self-efficacy was tested as a moderator in the crossover process. Multiple regression analyses revealed that followers' work engagement was positively related to leaders' work engagement eight months later, controlling for followers' tenure with the leader, leader gender, autonomy, workload, and work engagement at Time 1. Leaders' emotional self-efficacy did not moderate the crossover of work engagement. Followers' emotional exhaustion was not directly related to leaders' emotional exhaustion over time. We did find a significant interaction effect for follower emotional exhaustion and leader emotional self-efficacy. This study is the first to show that crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement can unfold over time from team members to leaders. Main theoretical implications lie in the finding that-in line with job demands-resources theory-followers' psychological states can pose a demand or resource for leaders, and influence their well-being. For practitioners, our results offer valuable insights regarding the design of organizational health interventions as well as leadership development measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  7. 50 CFR 660.220 - Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions. 660.220 Section 660.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  8. 50 CFR 660.220 - Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions. 660.220 Section 660.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  9. Atomoxetine for Hyperactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Placebo-Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Amelia M.; Witwer, Andrea N.; Hall, Kristy L.; Thompson, Susan; Ramadan, Yaser

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore placebo-controlled efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Children ages 5 to 15 with ASD and prominent ADHD symptoms were randomly assigned to order in a crossover of clinically titrated ATX and placebo, 6…

  10. Quantum-classical crossover for the biaxial spin model with field applied along the hard axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, X.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2000-05-01

    The quantum-classical crossover of the escape rate Γ of the biaxial spin model Γ on temperature, namely a double transition (from thermal activation to thermally activated quantum tunnelling and then to ground-state quantum tunnelling). A new kind of spin thermon is also introduced in the formalism. The predictions can be tested experimentally for Fe8 molecular nanomagnets.

  11. Correlation between Fragility and the Arrhenius Crossover Phenomenon in Metallic, Molecular, and Network Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Kelton, K. F.; ...

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, we report the observation of a distinct correlation between the kinetic fragility index m and the reduced Arrhenius crossover temperature θ A = T A/T g in various glass-forming liquids, identifying three distinguishable groups. In particular, for 11 glass-forming metallic liquids, we universally observe a crossover in the mean diffusion coefficient from high-temperature Arrhenius to low-temperature super-Arrhenius behavior at approximately θ A ≈ 2 which is in the stable liquid phases. In contrast, for fragile molecular liquids, this crossover occurs at much lower θ A ≈ 1.4 and usually in their supercooled states. The θ A valuesmore » for strong network liquids spans a wide range higher than 2. Intriguingly, the high-temperature activation barrier E ∞ is universally found to be ~11k BT g and uncorrelated with the fragility or the reduced crossover temperature θ A for metallic and molecular liquids. Finally, these observations provide a way to estimate the low-temperature glassy characteristics (T g and m) from the high-temperature liquid quantities (E ∞ and θ A).« less

  12. The Daily Spillover and Crossover of Emotional Labor: Faking Emotions at Work and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Rodriguez-Munoz, Alfredo; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2012-01-01

    This diary study among 75 Spanish dual earner couples investigates whether emotional labor performed by employees at work has implications for themselves and for their partner at home. On the basis of the Spillover-Crossover model, we hypothesized that individuals' surface acting at work would spill over to the home domain, and that surface acting…

  13. Crossover learning of gestures in two ideomotor apraxia patients: A single case experimental design study.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Daisuke; Tanemura, Rumi

    2017-06-01

    Crossover learning may aid rehabilitation in patients with neurological disorders. Ideomotor apraxia (IMA) is a common sequela of left-brain damage that comprises a deficit in the ability to perform gestures to verbal commands or by imitation. This study elucidated whether crossover learning occurred in two post-stroke IMA patients without motor paralysis after gesture training approximately 2 months after stroke onset. We quantitatively analysed the therapeutic intervention history and investigated whether revised action occurred during gesture production. Treatment intervention was to examine how to influence improvement and generalisation of the ability to produce the gesture. This study used an alternating treatments single-subject design, and the intervention method was errorless learning. Results indicated crossover learning in both patients. Qualitative analysis indicated that revised action occurred during the gesture-production process in one patient and that there were two types of post-revised action gestures: correct and incorrect gestures. We also discovered that even when a comparably short time had elapsed since stroke onset, generalisation was difficult. Information transfer between the left and right hemispheres of the brain via commissural fibres is important in crossover learning. In conclusion, improvements in gesture-production skill should be made with reference to the left cerebral hemisphere disconnection hypothesis.

  14. Tuning porosity and radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes via crossover design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Kawai, Kentaro; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    DNA origami nanotubes are utilized as structural platforms for the fabrication of various micro/nanosystems for drug delivery, optical or biological sensing, and even nanoscale robots. Their radial structural and mechanical properties, which play a crucial role in the effective use of micro/nanosystems, have not been fully studied. In particular, the effects of crossovers, which are basic structures for rationally assembling double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) helices into a nanotube configuration, have not yet been characterized experimentally. To investigate the effects of crossovers on the porosity and the radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes, we fabricated a DNA origami nanotube with varied crossover designs along the nanotube axis. The radial geometry of the DNA origami nanotube is experimentally characterized by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Moreover, the radial mechanical properties of the DNA origami nanotube including the radial modulus are directly measured by force-distance-based AFM. These measurements reveal that the porosity and the radial modulus of DNA origami nanotubes can be tuned by adjusting the crossover design, which enables the optimal design and construction of DNA origami nanostructures for various applications.

  15. A Crossover Trial Evaluating an Educational-Behavioral Joint Protection Programme for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, A.; Lincoln, N.; Sutcliffe, L.

    1999-01-01

    Joint protection, a self-management technique taught to people with rheumatoid arthritis, was used in a group education program. A crossover trial (N=35) was conducted. No significant changes in measures of pain, functional disability, grip strength, self-efficacy or helplessness occurred post-education, although this may have been due to the…

  16. A Randomized Crossover Study of Web-Based Media Literacy to Prevent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML…

  17. Crossover from quantum tunneling to classical hopping of domain walls in ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Pu, Fu-Cho

    2001-09-01

    In the model of quantum tunneling of domain walls in ferromagnets given by Chudnovsky et al., the crossover from quantum tunneling to classical hopping is investigated. Considering the periodical boundary condition of spatial coordinate, the type of transition depends critically on the length of ferromagnet along the Y-axis.

  18. Progress in Developing a New Field-theoretical Crossover Equation-of-State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.; Zhong, Fang

    2003-01-01

    A new field-theoretical crossover equation-of-state model is being developed. This model of a liquid-gas critical point provides a bridge between the asymptotic equation-of-state behavior close to the transition, obtained by the Guida and Zinn-Justin parametric model [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 31, 8103 (1998)], and the expected mean field behavior farther away. The crossover is based on the beta function for the renormalized fourth-order coupling constant and incorporates the correct crossover exponents and critical amplitude ratios in both regimes. A crossover model is now being developed that is consistent with predictions along the critical isochore and along the coexistence curve of the minimal subtraction renormalization approach developed by Dohm and co-workers and recently applied to the O(1) universality class [Phys. Rev. E, 67, 021106 (2003)]. Experimental measurements of the heat capacity at constant volume, isothermal susceptibility, and coexistence curve near the He-3 critical point are being compared to the predictions of this model. The results of these comparisons will be presented.

  19. Thermal equation of state of lower-mantle ferropericlase across the spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhu; Lin, Jung-Fu; Liu, Jin; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2011-12-01

    The thermal equation of state of ferropericlase [(Mg0.75Fe0.25)O] has been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 140 GPa and 2000 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Based on results at high pressure-temperature conditions, the derived phase diagram shows that the spin crossover widens at elevated temperatures. Along the lower-mantle geotherm, the spin crossover occurs between 1700 km and 2700 km depth. Compared to the high-spin state, thermoelastic modeling of the data shows a ˜1.2% increase in density, a factor of two increase in thermal expansion coefficient over a range of 1000 km, and a maximum decrease of 37% and 13% in bulk modulus and bulk sound velocity, respectively, at ˜2180 km depth across the spin crossover. These anomalous behaviors in the thermoelastic properties of ferropericlase across the spin crossover must be taken into account in order to understand the seismic signatures and geodynamics of the lower mantle.

  20. Investigation of crossover processes in a unitized bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    grosse Austing, Jan; Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the losses in coulombic efficiency are investigated for a vanadium/air redox flow battery (VARFB) comprising a two-layered positive electrode. Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy is used to monitor the concentrations cV2+ and cV3+ during operation. The most likely cause for the largest part of the coulombic losses is the permeation of oxygen from the positive to the negative electrode followed by an oxidation of V2+ to V3+. The total vanadium crossover is followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the positive electrolyte after one VARFB cycle. During one cycle 6% of the vanadium species initially present in the negative electrolyte are transferred to the positive electrolyte, which can account at most for 20% of the coulombic losses. The diffusion coefficients of V2+ and V3+ through Nafion® 117 are determined as DV2+ ,N 117 = 9.05 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and DV3+ ,N 117 = 4.35 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and are used to calculate vanadium crossover due to diffusion which allows differentiation between vanadium crossover due to diffusion and migration/electroosmotic convection. In order to optimize coulombic efficiency of VARFB, membranes need to be designed with reduced oxygen permeation and vanadium crossover.

  1. Two structural relaxations in protein hydration water and their dynamic crossovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisasca, G.; De Marzio, M.; Corradini, D.; Gallo, P.

    2016-07-01

    We study the translational single particle dynamics of hydration water of lysozyme upon cooling by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We find that water close to the protein exhibits two distinct relaxations. By characterizing their behavior upon cooling, we are able to assign the first relaxation to the structural α-relaxation also present in bulk water and in other glass-forming liquids. The second, slower, relaxation can be ascribed to a dynamic coupling of hydration water motions to the fluctuations of the protein structure. Both relaxation times exhibit crossovers in the behavior upon cooling. For the α-process, we find upon cooling a crossover from a fragile behavior to a strong behavior at a temperature which is about five degrees higher than that of bulk water. The long-relaxation time appears strictly connected to the protein motion as it shows upon cooling a temperature crossover from a strong behavior with a lower activation energy to a strong behavior with a higher activation energy. The crossover temperature coincides with the temperature of the protein dynamical transition. These findings can help experimentalists to disentangle the different information coming from total correlators and to better characterize hydration water relaxations in different biomolecules.

  2. A Crossover Study of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents and Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Reese, R. Matthew; Valdovinos, Maria G.; Marquis, Janet G.; Fleming, Kandace K.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Risperidone has shown safety and efficacy for aggressive and destructive behaviors in short-term studies. This longer-duration study includes a broad sample. Forty subjects, aged 8-56 years (mean=22), all with mental retardation and 36 with autism spectrum disorders participated in this 22-week crossover study, with 24 weeks of open maintenance…

  3. Matrix-assisted relaxation in Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} spin-crossover microparticles, experimental and theoretical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Enachescu, Cristian, E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu

    2016-07-18

    In this study, we present the influence of the embedding matrix on the relaxation of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) spin-transition microparticles as revealed by experiments and provide an explanation within the framework of an elastic model based on a Monte-Carlo method. Experiments show that the shape of the high-spin → low-spin relaxation curves is drastically changed when the particles are dispersed in glycerol. This effect was considered in the model by means of interactions between the microparticles and the matrix. A faster start of the relaxation for microparticles embedded in glycerol is due to an initial positive local pressure actingmore » on the edge spin-crossover molecules from the matrix side. This local pressure diminishes and eventually becomes negative during relaxation, as an effect of the decrease of the volume of spin-crossover microparticles from high-spin to low-spin.« less

  4. Microscopic theory of cooperative spin crossover: Interaction of molecular modes with phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palii, Andrew; Ostrovsky, Serghei; Reu, Oleg; Tsukerblat, Boris; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Klokishner, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we present a new microscopic theoretical approach to the description of spin crossover in molecular crystals. The spin crossover crystals under consideration are composed of molecular fragments formed by the spin-crossover metal ion and its nearest ligand surrounding and exhibiting well defined localized (molecular) vibrations. As distinguished from the previous models of this phenomenon, the developed approach takes into account the interaction of spin-crossover ions not only with the phonons but also a strong coupling of the electronic shells with molecular modes. This leads to an effective coupling of the local modes with phonons which is shown to be responsible for the cooperative spin transition accompanied by the structural reorganization. The transition is characterized by the two order parameters representing the mean values of the products of electronic diagonal matrices and the coordinates of the local modes for the high- and low-spin states of the spin crossover complex. Finally, we demonstrate that the approach provides a reasonable explanation of the observed spin transition in the [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2 crystal. The theory well reproduces the observed abrupt low-spin → high-spin transition and the temperature dependence of the high-spin fraction in a wide temperature range as well as the pronounced hysteresis loop. At the same time within the limiting approximations adopted in the developed model, the evaluated high-spin fraction vs. T shows that the cooperative spin-lattice transition proves to be incomplete in the sense that the high-spin fraction does not reach its maximum value at high temperature.

  5. Randomized crossover clinical trial of real and sham peripheral prism glasses for hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Alex R; Keeney, Karen; Peli, Eli

    2014-02-01

    There is a major lack of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of prismatic treatments for hemianopia. Evidence for their effectiveness is mostly based on anecdotal case reports and open-label evaluations without a control condition. To evaluate the efficacy of real relative to sham peripheral prism glasses for patients with complete homonymous hemianopia. Double-masked, randomized crossover trial at 13 study sites, including the Peli laboratory at Schepens Eye Research Institute, 11 vision rehabilitation clinics in the United States, and 1 in the United Kingdom. Patients were 18 years or older with complete homonymous hemianopia for at least 3 months and without visual neglect or significant cognitive decline. Patients were allocated by minimization into 2 groups. One group received real (57-prism diopter) oblique and sham (<5-prism diopter) horizontal prisms; the other received real horizontal and sham oblique, in counterbalanced order. Each crossover period was 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the overall difference, across the 2 periods of the crossover, between the proportion of participants who wanted to continue with (said yes to) real prisms and the proportion who said yes to sham prisms. The secondary outcome was the difference in perceived mobility improvement between real and sham prisms. Of 73 patients randomized, 61 completed the crossover. A significantly higher proportion said yes to real than sham prisms (64% vs 36%; odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.8-21.0). Participants who continued wear after 6 months reported greater improvement in mobility with real than sham prisms at crossover end (P = .002); participants who discontinued wear reported no difference. Real peripheral prism glasses were more helpful for obstacle avoidance when walking than sham glasses, with no differences between the horizontal and oblique designs. Peripheral prism glasses provide a simple and inexpensive mobility rehabilitation intervention for hemianopia

  6. Studying the thermal/non-thermal crossover in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work performed under contract NAS5-32584 for Phase 3 of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) from 1 November 1993 through 1 November 1994. We have made spectral observations of the hard x-ray and gamma-ray bremsstrahlung emissions from solar flares using the Burst and Transit Source Experiment (BASTE) on CGRO. These measurements of their spectrum and time profile provided valuable information on the fundamental flare processes of energy release, particle acceleration, and energy transport. Our scientific objective was to study both the thermal and non-thermal sources of solar flare hard x-ray and gamma-ray emission.

  7. Laboratory- and community-based health outcomes in people with transtibial amputation using crossover and energy-storing prosthetic feet: A randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Sara J.; McDonald, Cody L.; Halsne, Elizabeth G.; Cheever, Sarah M.; Salem, Rana; Kramer, Patricia A.

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary prosthetic feet are generally optimized for either daily or high-level activities. Prosthesis users, therefore, often require multiple prostheses to participate in activities that span a range of mobility. Crossover feet (XF) are designed to increase the range of activities that can be performed with a single prosthesis. However, little evidence exists to guide clinical prescription of XF relative to traditional energy storing feet (ESF). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of XF and ESF on health outcomes in people with transtibial amputation. A randomized crossover study was conducted to assess changes in laboratory-based (endurance, perceived exertion, walking performance) and community-based (step activity and self-reported mobility, fatigue, balance confidence, activity restrictions, and satisfaction) outcomes. Twenty-seven participants were fit with XF and ESF prostheses with standardized sockets, interfaces, and suspensions. Participants were not blinded to the intervention, and wore each prosthesis for one month while their steps were counted with an activity monitor. After each accommodation period, participants returned for data collection. Endurance and perceived exertion were measured with the Six-Minute Walk Test and Borg-CR100, respectively. Walking performance was measured using an electronic walkway. Self-reported mobility, fatigue, balance confidence, activity restrictions, and satisfaction were measured with survey instruments. Participants also reported foot preferences upon conclusion of the study. Differences between feet were assessed with a crossover analysis. While using XF, users experienced improvements in most community-based outcomes, including mobility (p = .001), fatigue (p = .001), balance confidence (p = .005), activity restrictions (p = .002), and functional satisfaction (p < .001). Participants also exhibited longer sound side steps in XF compared to ESF (p < .001). Most participants (89%) reported an

  8. Laboratory- and community-based health outcomes in people with transtibial amputation using crossover and energy-storing prosthetic feet: A randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sara J; McDonald, Cody L; Halsne, Elizabeth G; Cheever, Sarah M; Salem, Rana; Kramer, Patricia A; Hafner, Brian J

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary prosthetic feet are generally optimized for either daily or high-level activities. Prosthesis users, therefore, often require multiple prostheses to participate in activities that span a range of mobility. Crossover feet (XF) are designed to increase the range of activities that can be performed with a single prosthesis. However, little evidence exists to guide clinical prescription of XF relative to traditional energy storing feet (ESF). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of XF and ESF on health outcomes in people with transtibial amputation. A randomized crossover study was conducted to assess changes in laboratory-based (endurance, perceived exertion, walking performance) and community-based (step activity and self-reported mobility, fatigue, balance confidence, activity restrictions, and satisfaction) outcomes. Twenty-seven participants were fit with XF and ESF prostheses with standardized sockets, interfaces, and suspensions. Participants were not blinded to the intervention, and wore each prosthesis for one month while their steps were counted with an activity monitor. After each accommodation period, participants returned for data collection. Endurance and perceived exertion were measured with the Six-Minute Walk Test and Borg-CR100, respectively. Walking performance was measured using an electronic walkway. Self-reported mobility, fatigue, balance confidence, activity restrictions, and satisfaction were measured with survey instruments. Participants also reported foot preferences upon conclusion of the study. Differences between feet were assessed with a crossover analysis. While using XF, users experienced improvements in most community-based outcomes, including mobility (p = .001), fatigue (p = .001), balance confidence (p = .005), activity restrictions (p = .002), and functional satisfaction (p < .001). Participants also exhibited longer sound side steps in XF compared to ESF (p < .001). Most participants (89%) reported an

  9. A meiotic XPF-ERCC1-like complex recognizes joint molecule recombination intermediates to promote crossover formation.

    PubMed

    De Muyt, Arnaud; Pyatnitskaya, Alexandra; Andréani, Jessica; Ranjha, Lepakshi; Ramus, Claire; Laureau, Raphaëlle; Fernandez-Vega, Ambra; Holoch, Daniel; Girard, Elodie; Govin, Jérome; Margueron, Raphaël; Couté, Yohann; Cejka, Petr; Guérois, Raphaël; Borde, Valérie

    2018-02-01

    Meiotic crossover formation requires the stabilization of early recombination intermediates by a set of proteins and occurs within the environment of the chromosome axis, a structure important for the regulation of meiotic recombination events. The molecular mechanisms underlying and connecting crossover recombination and axis localization are elusive. Here, we identified the ZZS (Zip2-Zip4-Spo16) complex, required for crossover formation, which carries two distinct activities: one provided by Zip4, which acts as hub through physical interactions with components of the chromosome axis and the crossover machinery, and the other carried by Zip2 and Spo16, which preferentially bind branched DNA molecules in vitro. We found that Zip2 and Spo16 share structural similarities to the structure-specific XPF-ERCC1 nuclease, although it lacks endonuclease activity. The XPF domain of Zip2 is required for crossover formation, suggesting that, together with Spo16, it has a noncatalytic DNA recognition function. Our results suggest that the ZZS complex shepherds recombination intermediates toward crossovers as a dynamic structural module that connects recombination events to the chromosome axis. The identification of the ZZS complex improves our understanding of the various activities required for crossover implementation and is likely applicable to other organisms, including mammals. © 2018 De Muyt et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Massive crossover elevation via combination of HEI10 and recq4a recq4b during Arabidopsis meiosis.

    PubMed

    Serra, Heïdi; Lambing, Christophe; Griffin, Catherine H; Topp, Stephanie D; Nageswaran, Divyashree C; Underwood, Charles J; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Fernandes, Joiselle B; Mercier, Raphaël; Henderson, Ian R

    2018-03-06

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo reciprocal crossovers, which generate genetic diversity and underpin classical crop improvement. Meiotic recombination initiates from DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are processed into single-stranded DNA that can invade a homologous chromosome. The resulting joint molecules can ultimately be resolved as crossovers. In Arabidopsis , competing pathways balance the repair of ∼100-200 meiotic DSBs into ∼10 crossovers per meiosis, with the excess DSBs repaired as noncrossovers. To bias DSB repair toward crossovers, we simultaneously increased dosage of the procrossover E3 ligase gene HEI10 and introduced mutations in the anticrossovers helicase genes RECQ4A and RECQ4B As HEI10 and recq4a recq4b increase interfering and noninterfering crossover pathways, respectively, they combine additively to yield a massive meiotic recombination increase. Interestingly, we also show that increased HEI10 dosage increases crossover coincidence, which indicates an effect on interference. We also show that patterns of interhomolog polymorphism and heterochromatin drive recombination increases distally towards the subtelomeres in both HEI10 and recq4a recq4b backgrounds, while the centromeres remain crossover suppressed. These results provide a genetic framework for engineering meiotic recombination landscapes in plant genomes.

  11. Broadband Via-Less Microwave Crossover Using Microstrip-CPW Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The front-to-back interface between microstrip and CPW (coplanar waveguide) typically requires complex fabrication or has high radiation loss. The microwave crossover typically requires a complex fabrication step. The prior art in microstrip-CPW transition requires a physical vias connection between the microstrip and CPW line on a separate layer. The via-less version of this transition was designed empirically and does not have a close form solution. The prior art of the micro wave crossover requires either additional substrate or wire bond as an air bridge to isolate two microwave lines at the crossing junction. The disadvantages are high radiation loss, no analytical solution to the problem, lengthy simulation time, and complex fabrication procedures to generate air bridges or via. The disadvantage of the prior crossover is a complex fabrication procedure, which also affects the device reliability and yield. This microstrip-CPW transition is visualized as two microstrip-slotline transitions combined in a way that the radiation from two slotlines cancels each other out. The invention is designed based on analytical methods; thus, it significantly reduces the development time. The crossover requires no extra layer to cross two microwave signals and has low radiation loss. The invention is simple to fabricate and design. It produces low radiation loss and can be designed with low insertion loss, with some tradeoff with signal isolation. The microstrip-CPW transition is used as an interface to connect between the device and the circuit outside the package. The via-less microwave crossover is used to allow two signals to cross without using an extra layer or fabrication processing step to enable this function. This design allows the solution to be determined entirely though analytical techniques. In addition, a planar via-less microwave crossover using this technique was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed crossover at 5 GHz has a minimum

  12. Spin crossover and iron-rich silicate melt in the Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryuichi; Ozawa, Haruka; Tateno, Shigehiko; Hirose, Kei; Hernlund, John; Muto, Shunsuke; Ishii, Hirofumi; Hiraoka, Nozomu

    2011-05-12

    A melt has greater volume than a silicate solid of the same composition. But this difference diminishes at high pressure, and the possibility that a melt sufficiently enriched in the heavy element iron might then become more dense than solids at the pressures in the interior of the Earth (and other terrestrial bodies) has long been a source of considerable speculation. The occurrence of such dense silicate melts in the Earth's lowermost mantle would carry important consequences for its physical and chemical evolution and could provide a unifying model for explaining a variety of observed features in the core-mantle boundary region. Recent theoretical calculations combined with estimates of iron partitioning between (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite and melt at shallower mantle conditions suggest that melt is more dense than solids at pressures in the Earth's deepest mantle, consistent with analysis of shockwave experiments. Here we extend measurements of iron partitioning over the entire mantle pressure range, and find a precipitous change at pressures greater than ∼76 GPa, resulting in strong iron enrichment in melts. Additional X-ray emission spectroscopy measurements on (Mg(0.95)Fe(0.05))SiO(3) glass indicate a spin collapse around 70 GPa, suggesting that the observed change in iron partitioning could be explained by a spin crossover of iron (from high-spin to low-spin) in silicate melt. These results imply that (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) liquid becomes more dense than coexisting solid at ∼1,800 km depth in the lower mantle. Soon after the Earth's formation, the heat dissipated by accretion and internal differentiation could have produced a dense melt layer up to ∼1,000 km in thickness underneath the solid mantle. We also infer that (Mg,Fe)SiO(3) perovskite is on the liquidus at deep mantle conditions, and predict that fractional crystallization of dense magma would have evolved towards an iron-rich and silicon-poor composition, consistent with seismic inferences of

  13. Headache after lumbar puncture: randomised crossover trial of 22-gauge versus 25-gauge needles.

    PubMed

    Crock, Catherine; Orsini, Francesca; Lee, Katherine J; Phillips, Roderic J

    2014-03-01

    To compare the frequency of headache and the procedure time following lumbar puncture (LP) using a 25-gauge needle compared to a 22-gauge needle. 4-period crossover blinded randomised controlled trial. Oncology unit, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Children aged 4-15 years at enrolment having LPs as part of their treatment for leukaemia. Each child was allocated a random sequence of four LPs, two with a 22-gauge and two with a 25-gauge needle. The presence of post-LP headache. Secondary outcomes included the presence of any headache, procedure time and impact of headache on the family. Data on 341 procedures in 93 randomised children were analysed. There was little difference in the incidence of post-LP headache between the two needle sizes (22-gauge 7.2%, 95% CI 3.8 to 12.2; 25-gauge 4.6%, 95% CI 2.0 to 8.9, p=0.3) or in the incidence of any headache (22-gauge 18% 95% CI 12.5 to 24.6; 25-gauge 15%, 95% CI 10.0 to 21.1, p=0.4). Use of the 25-gauge needle was associated with longer procedure times. The incidence of post-LP headache showed little evidence of an age effect (OR =1.1, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.3) and was higher in girls than in boys (11% vs 3%, respectively, OR=3.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 8.4, p=0.014). Fifty-five per cent of families with a child with a post-LP headache assessed the overall functional impact as moderate or severe. There was little difference in the occurrence of post-LP headache or any headache between procedures carried out using the 22-gauge or 25-gauge needles. Depending on the circumstances of the procedure and the experience of the operator, either gauge may be appropriate for an LP in a child.

  14. Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS. Methods Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6 ± 0.9 years, height: 172.5 ± 1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3 ± 1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS + SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration). Results Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but

  15. SPECIFIC AND CROSS-OVER EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Flexibility is an important physical quality. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) methods such as foam rolling (FR) increase flexibility acutely but how long such increases in range of motion (ROM) last is unclear. Static stretching (SS) also increases flexibility acutely and produces a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs. FR may also produce a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs but this has not yet been identified. Purpose To explore the potential cross-over effect of SMFR by investigating the effects of a FR treatment on the ipsilateral limb of 3 bouts of 30 seconds on changes in ipsilateral and contralateral ankle DF ROM and to assess the time-course of those effects up to 20 minutes post-treatment. Methods A within- and between-subject design was carried out in a convenience sample of 26 subjects, allocated into FR (n=13) and control (CON, n=13) groups. Ankle DF ROM was recorded at baseline with the in-line weight-bearing lunge test for both ipsilateral and contralateral legs and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes following either a two-minute seated rest (CON) or 3 3 30 seconds of FR of the plantar flexors of the dominant leg (FR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine differences in ankle DF ROM. Results No significant between-group effect was seen following the intervention. However, a significant within-group effect (p<0.05) in the FR group was seen between baseline and all post-treatment time-points (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes). Significant within-group effects (p<0.05) were also seen in the ipsilateral leg between baseline and at all post-treatment time-points, and in the contralateral leg up to 10 minutes post-treatment, indicating the presence of a cross-over effect. Conclusions FR improves ankle DF ROM for at least 20 minutes in the ipsilateral limb and up to 10 minutes in the contralateral limb, indicating that FR produces a cross-over effect into the contralateral limb. The mechanism producing these cross-over effects is

  16. Development of methanol evaporation plate to reduce methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiming

    This research focuses on methanol crossover reduction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) through separating the methanol vapor from its liquid phase and feeding the vapor passively at low temperature range. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by using commercial available membrane with different thickness at different anode catalyst loading levels, and tested under the operating conditions below 100°C in cell temperature and cathode exit open to ambient pressure. Liquid methanol transport from the anode through the membrane into cathode ("methanol crossover") is identified as one of the major efficiency losses in a DMFC. It is known that the methanol crossover rate in the vapor phase is much lower than in liquid phase. Vapor feed can be achieved by heating the liquid methanol to elevated temperatures (>100°C), but other issues limit the performance of the cell when operating above 100°C. High temperature membranes and much more active cathode catalyst structures are required, and a complex temperature control system must be employed. However, methanol vapor feed can also occur at a lower temperature range (<100°C) by separating its vapor from the liquid phase by evaporation through a porous body. The methanol crossover with this vapor feed mode is lower compared with the direct liquid methanol feed. A new method of using a methanol evaporation plate (MEP) to separate the vapor from its liquid phase to reduce the liquid methanol crossover at low temperature range is developed. A MEP plays the roles of liquid/vapor methanol phase separation and evaporation in a DMFC. The goal of this study is to develop a MEP with the proper properties to achieve high methanol phase separation efficiency and fast methanol evaporation rate over a wide range of temperature, i.e., from room temperature up to near boiling temperature (100°C). MEP materials were selected and characterized. MEPs made from three different types were tested extensively with different

  17. Interplay between structural and magnetic-electronic responses of FeA l2O4 to a megabar: Site inversion and spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. M.; Hearne, G. R.; Layek, S.; Levy, D.; Pasternak, M. P.; Rozenberg, G. Kh.; Greenberg, E.

    2018-02-01

    X-ray diffraction pressure studies at room temperature demonstrate that the spinel FeA l2O4 transforms to a tetragonal phase at ˜18 GPa. This tetragonal phase has a highly irregular unit-cell volume versus pressure dependence up to ˜45 GPa, after which a transformation to a Cmcm postspinel phase is onset. This is attributable to pressure driven Fe↔Al site inversion at room temperature, corroborated by signatures in the 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy pressure data. At the tetragonal→postspinel transition, onset in the range 45-50 GPa, there is a concurrent emergence of a nonmagnetic spectral component in the Mössbauer data at variable cryogenic temperatures. This is interpreted as spin crossover at sixfold coordinated Fe locations emanated from site inversion. Spin crossover commences at the end of the pressure range of the tetragonal phase and progresses in the postspinel structure. There is also a much steeper volume change ΔV /V ˜ 10% in the range 45-50 GPa compared to the preceding pressure regime, from the combined effects of the structural transition and spin crossover electronic change. At the highest pressure attained, ˜106 GPa, the Mössbauer data evidence a diamagnetic Fe low-spin abundance of ˜50%. The rest of the high-spin Fe in eightfold coordinated sites continue to experience a relatively small internal magnetic field of ˜33 T. This is indicative of a magnetic ground state associated with strong covalency, as well as substantive disorder from site inversion and the mixed spin-state configuration. Intriguingly, magnetism survives in such a spin-diluted postspinel lattice at high densities. The R (300 K) data decrease by only two orders of magnitude from ambient pressure to the vicinity of ˜100 GPa. Despite a ˜26% unit-cell volume densification from the lattice compressibility, structural transitions, and spin crossover, FeA l2O4 is definitively nonmetallic with an estimated gap of ˜400 meV at ˜100 GPa. At such high densification

  18. Diffusion Monte Carlo study of strongly interacting two-dimensional Fermi gases

    DOE PAGES

    Galea, Alexander; Dawkins, Hillary; Gandolfi, Stefano; ...

    2016-02-01

    Ultracold atomic Fermi gases have been a popular topic of research, with attention being paid recently to two-dimensional (2D) gases. In this work, we perform T=0 ab initio diffusion Monte Carlo calculations for a strongly interacting two-component Fermi gas confined to two dimensions. We first go over finite-size systems and the connection to the thermodynamic limit. After that, we illustrate pertinent 2D scattering physics and properties of the wave function. We then show energy results for the strong-coupling crossover, in between the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regimes. Our energy results for the BEC-BCS crossover are parametrized to producemore » an equation of state, which is used to determine Tan's contact. We carry out a detailed comparison with other microscopic results. Lastly, we calculate the pairing gap for a range of interaction strengths in the strong coupling regime, following from variationally optimized many-body wave functions.« less

  19. Crossover from weak to strong localization in quasi-1D = conductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenson, M. E.; Khavin, Y. B.; Mikhalchuk, A. G.; Bozler, H. M.; Bogdanov, A. L.

    1997-03-01

    A crossover from weak localization (WL) to strong localization (SL) with decreasing temperature has been observed in the resistance of quasi-1D channels in Si delta-doped GaAs structures. The crossover occurs when the phase-breaking length becomes comparable to the localization length. In the SL regime, an activation temperature dependence R(T) is observed. The activation energy is very close to the spacing between the energy levels of the localized electrons within the localization domain. The activation energy decreases by half in strong magnetic fields, as a result, an exponentially strong negative magnetoresistance is developed. All the features of the magnetoresistance in the SL regime are in good agreement with the theory of doubling of the localization length in quasi-1D conductors in strong fields. The magnetoresistance provides a direct measurement of the localization length. Supported by RNFBR, INTAS 943862, and NSF DRM-9623716 (A.G.M. and H.M.B.)

  20. Liquid-to-liquid crossover in the GaIn eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Q.; Wang, X. D.; Su, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Liquid-liquid crossover is promising and closely related to the atomic dynamics during heating and cooling processes. Here we reveal a reversible structural crossover in the liquid Ga85.8In14.2 eutectic alloys by using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. A kink always appears on the temperature dependent behaviors of density, ratio of the second peak position to the first in the pair correlation function, coordination number, heat capacity, free energy, and atomic diffusivity in the temperature range of about 400–550 K. It is likely ascribed to atomic rearrangements of Ga and In atoms from a relative randommore » packing at high temperatures to a relative nonuniform packing at low temperatures, in which In atoms prefer to have more In neighbors. This observation will promote more understanding of the liquid structure of eutectic alloys« less

  1. Stochastic resonance in bistable spin-crossover compounds with light-induced transitions.

    PubMed

    Gudyma, Iurii; Maksymov, Artur; Dimian, Mihai

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical prediction of stochastic resonance in spin-crossover materials. The analysis of stochastic resonance phenomenon in a spin-crossover system is performed in the framework of the phenomenological kinetic model with light-induced transition described by dynamical potential in terms of the Lyapunov functions. By using numerical simulation of stochastic trajectories with white- and colored-noise action, the evaluation of stochastic resonance is carried out by signal-to-noise ratio of the system output. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio features a two-peak behavior which is related to the asymmetric shape of the dynamic potential. For the case of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, the variations of resonance condition with respect to different autocorrelation times are additionally studied.

  2. Self-Assembling Molecular Logic Gates Based on DNA Crossover Tiles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Eleanor A; Peterson, Evan; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2017-07-05

    DNA-based computational hardware has attracted ever-growing attention due to its potential to be useful in the analysis of complex mixtures of biological markers. Here we report the design of self-assembling logic gates that recognize DNA inputs and assemble into crossover tiles when the output signal is high; the crossover structures disassemble to form separate DNA stands when the output is low. The output signal can be conveniently detected by fluorescence using a molecular beacon probe as a reporter. AND, NOT, and OR logic gates were designed. We demonstrate that the gates can connect to each other to produce other logic functions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamic crossover in hydration water of curing cement paste: the effect of superplasticizer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Bausi, Francesco; Baglioni, Piero; Tyagi, Madhu; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-15

    The influence of a new comb-shaped polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer (CSSP) on the hydration kinetics and transport properties of aged cement pastes has been investigated by high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and low temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC). A new method of analysis of QENS spectra is proposed. By applying the refined method we were able to access to four independent physical parameters including the self-diffusion coefficient of the hydration water confined in the cement paste. Mean squared displacement (MSD) of the hydrogen atom for mobile water molecules displays a dynamic crossover temperature in agreement with DSC data. The experimental results indicate that CSSP polymer added into cement paste moderates the hydration process and decreases the dynamic crossover temperature of the hydration water.

  4. Dynamic crossover in hydration water of curing cement paste: the effect of superplasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Bausi, Francesco; Baglioni, Piero; Tyagi, Madhu; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    The influence of a new comb-shaped polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer (CSSP) on the hydration kinetics and transport properties of aged cement pastes has been investigated by high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and low temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC). A new method of analysis of QENS spectra is proposed. By applying the refined method we were able to access to four independent physical parameters including the self-diffusion coefficient of the hydration water confined in the cement paste. Mean squared displacement (MSD) of the hydrogen atom for mobile water molecules displays a dynamic crossover temperature in agreement with DSC data. The experimental results indicate that CSSP polymer added into cement paste moderates the hydration process and decreases the dynamic crossover temperature of the hydration water.

  5. Dimensional Crossover in a Charge Density Wave Material Probed by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, C. W.; Berthod, C.; Puppin, M.; Berger, H.; Wolf, M.; Hoesch, M.; Monney, C.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data reveal evidence of a crossover from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) behavior in the prototypical charge density wave (CDW) material NbSe3 . In the low-temperature 3D regime, gaps in the electronic structure are observed due to two incommensurate CDWs, in agreement with x-ray diffraction and electronic-structure calculations. At higher temperatures we observe a spectral weight depletion that approaches the power-law behavior expected in one dimension. From the warping of the quasi-1D Fermi surface at low temperatures, we extract the energy scale of the dimensional crossover. This is corroborated by a detailed analysis of the density of states, which reveals a change in dimensional behavior dependent on binding energy. Our results offer an important insight into the dimensionality of excitations in quasi-1D materials.

  6. A General Method for Computing the Homfly Polynomial of DNA Double Crossover 3-Regular Links

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meilian; Deng, Qingying; Jin, Xian’an

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years or so, chemists and molecular biologists have synthesized some novel DNA polyhedra. Polyhedral links were introduced to model DNA polyhedra and study topological properties of DNA polyhedra. As a very powerful invariant of oriented links, the Homfly polynomial of some of such polyhedral links with small number of crossings has been obtained. However, it is a challenge to compute Homfly polynomials of polyhedral links with large number of crossings such as double crossover 3-regular links considered here. In this paper, a general method is given for computing the chain polynomial of the truncated cubic graph with two different labels from the chain polynomial of the original labeled cubic graph by substitutions. As a result, we can obtain the Homfly polynomial of the double crossover 3-regular link which has relatively large number of crossings. PMID:25932998

  7. The BCS-BEC crossover: From ultra-cold Fermi gases to nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinati, Giancarlo Calvanese; Pieri, Pierbiagio; Röpke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter; Urban, Michael

    2018-04-01

    This report addresses topics and questions of common interest in the fields of ultra-cold gases and nuclear physics in the context of the BCS-BEC crossover. By this crossover, the phenomena of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluidity and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), which share the same kind of spontaneous symmetry breaking, are smoothly connected through the progressive reduction of the size of the fermion pairs involved as the fundamental entities in both phenomena. This size ranges, from large values when Cooper pairs are strongly overlapping in the BCS limit of a weak inter-particle attraction, to small values when composite bosons are non-overlapping in the BEC limit of a strong inter-particle attraction, across the intermediate unitarity limit where the size of the pairs is comparable with the average inter-particle distance. The BCS-BEC crossover has recently been realized experimentally, and essentially in all of its aspects, with ultra-cold Fermi gases. This realization, in turn, has raised the interest of the nuclear physics community in the crossover problem, since it represents an unprecedented tool to test fundamental and unanswered questions of nuclear many-body theory. Here, we focus on the several aspects of the BCS-BEC crossover, which are of broad joint interest to both ultra-cold Fermi gases and nuclear matter, and which will likely help to solve in the future some open problems in nuclear physics (concerning, for instance, neutron stars). Similarities and differences occurring in ultra-cold Fermi gases and nuclear matter will then be emphasized, not only about the relative phenomenologies but also about the theoretical approaches to be used in the two contexts. Common to both contexts is the fact that at zero temperature the BCS-BEC crossover can be described at the mean-field level with reasonable accuracy. At finite temperature, on the other hand, inclusion of pairing fluctuations beyond mean field represents an essential ingredient

  8. A switchable molecular rotator: neutron spectroscopy study on a polymeric spin-crossover compound.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velamazán, J Alberto; González, Miguel A; Real, José A; Castro, Miguel; Muñoz, M Carmen; Gaspar, Ana B; Ohtani, Ryo; Ohba, Masaaki; Yoneda, Ko; Hijikata, Yuh; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Motohiro; Ando, Hideo; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2012-03-21

    A quasielastic neutron scattering and solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy study of the polymeric spin-crossover compound {Fe(pyrazine)[Pt(CN)(4)]} shows that the switching of the rotation of a molecular fragment--the pyrazine ligand--occurs in association with the change of spin state. The rotation switching was examined on a wide time scale (10(-13)-10(-3) s) by both techniques, which clearly demonstrated the combination between molecular rotation and spin-crossover transition under external stimuli (temperature and chemical). The pyrazine rings are seen to perform a 4-fold jump motion about the coordinating nitrogen axis in the high-spin state. In the low-spin state, however, the motion is suppressed, while when the system incorporates benzene guest molecules, the movements of the system are even more restricted.

  9. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Peter P.; Scheurer, Mathias; Rachel, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    We propose a realistic cold-atom setup which allows for a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator phase by simply tuning the hopping between the layers. We further employ cluster slave-rotor mean-field theory to study the effect of additional Hubbard onsite interactions that give rise to various spin liquid-like phases such as gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating states.

  10. Activation barrier scaling and crossover for noise-induced switching in micromechanical parametric oscillators.

    PubMed

    Chan, H B; Stambaugh, C

    2007-08-10

    We explore fluctuation-induced switching in parametrically driven micromechanical torsional oscillators. The oscillators possess one, two, or three stable attractors depending on the modulation frequency. Noise induces transitions between the coexisting attractors. Near the bifurcation points, the activation barriers are found to have a power law dependence on frequency detuning with critical exponents that are in agreement with predicted universal scaling relationships. At large detuning, we observe a crossover to a different power law dependence with an exponent that is device specific.

  11. Widom line, dynamical crossover, and percolation transition of supercritical oxygen via molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Abhinav S.; Li, Huiyong; Chiew, Y. C.

    2018-01-01

    Supercritical oxygen, a cryogenic fluid, is widely used as an oxidizer in jet propulsion systems and is therefore of paramount importance in gaining physical insights into processes such as transcritical and supercritical vaporization. It is well established in the scientific literature that the supercritical state is not homogeneous but, in fact, can be demarcated into regions with liquid-like and vapor-like properties, separated by the "Widom line." In this study, we identified the Widom line for oxygen, constituted by the loci of the extrema of thermodynamic response functions (heat capacity, volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility) in the supercritical region, via atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the Widom lines derived from these response functions all coincide near the critical point until about 25 bars and 15-20 K, beyond which the isothermal compressibility line begins to deviate. We also obtained the crossover from liquid-like to vapor-like behavior of the translational diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and rotational relaxation time of supercritical oxygen. While the crossover of the translational diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity coincided with the Widom lines, the rotational relaxation time showed a crossover that was largely independent of the Widom line. Further, we characterized the clustering behavior and percolation transition of supercritical oxygen molecules, identified the percolation threshold based on the fractal dimension of the largest cluster and the probability of finding a cluster that spans the system in all three dimensions, and found that the locus of the percolation threshold also coincided with the isothermal compressibility Widom line. It is therefore clear that supercritical oxygen is far more complex than originally perceived and that the Widom line, dynamical crossovers, and percolation transitions serve as useful routes to better our understanding of the

  12. Widom line, dynamical crossover, and percolation transition of supercritical oxygen via molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Raman, Abhinav S; Li, Huiyong; Chiew, Y C

    2018-01-07

    Supercritical oxygen, a cryogenic fluid, is widely used as an oxidizer in jet propulsion systems and is therefore of paramount importance in gaining physical insights into processes such as transcritical and supercritical vaporization. It is well established in the scientific literature that the supercritical state is not homogeneous but, in fact, can be demarcated into regions with liquid-like and vapor-like properties, separated by the "Widom line." In this study, we identified the Widom line for oxygen, constituted by the loci of the extrema of thermodynamic response functions (heat capacity, volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility) in the supercritical region, via atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the Widom lines derived from these response functions all coincide near the critical point until about 25 bars and 15-20 K, beyond which the isothermal compressibility line begins to deviate. We also obtained the crossover from liquid-like to vapor-like behavior of the translational diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and rotational relaxation time of supercritical oxygen. While the crossover of the translational diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity coincided with the Widom lines, the rotational relaxation time showed a crossover that was largely independent of the Widom line. Further, we characterized the clustering behavior and percolation transition of supercritical oxygen molecules, identified the percolation threshold based on the fractal dimension of the largest cluster and the probability of finding a cluster that spans the system in all three dimensions, and found that the locus of the percolation threshold also coincided with the isothermal compressibility Widom line. It is therefore clear that supercritical oxygen is far more complex than originally perceived and that the Widom line, dynamical crossovers, and percolation transitions serve as useful routes to better our understanding of the

  13. Classical to quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism crossover in thermal transitions between magnetic states.

    PubMed

    Vlasov, Sergei; Bessarab, Pavel F; Uzdin, Valery M; Jónsson, Hannes

    2016-12-22

    Transitions between states of a magnetic system can occur by jumps over an energy barrier or by quantum mechanical tunneling through the energy barrier. The rate of such transitions is an important consideration when the stability of magnetic states is assessed for example for nanoscale candidates for data storage devices. The shift in transition mechanism from jumps to tunneling as the temperature is lowered is analyzed and a general expression derived for the crossover temperature. The jump rate is evaluated using a harmonic approximation to transition state theory. First, the minimum energy path for the transition is found with the geodesic nudged elastic band method. The activation energy for the jumps is obtained from the maximum along the path, a saddle point on the energy surface, and the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix at that point as well as at the initial state minimum used to estimate the entropic pre-exponential factor. The crossover temperature for quantum mechanical tunneling is evaluated from the second derivatives of the energy with respect to orientation of the spin vector at the saddle point. The resulting expression is applied to test problems where analytical results have previously been derived, namely uniaxial and biaxial spin systems with two-fold anisotropy. The effect of adding four-fold anisotropy on the crossover temperature is demonstrated. Calculations of the jump rate and crossover temperature for tunneling are also made for a molecular magnet containing an Mn 4 group. The results are in excellent agreement with previously reported experimental measurements on this system.

  14. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-07-18

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers.

  15. Application of minimal subtraction renormalization to crossover behavior near the (sup )3He liquid vapor critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, F.; Barmatz, M.; Hahn, I.

    2003-01-01

    Parametric expressions are used to calculate the isothermal susceptibility, specific heat, order parameter, and correlation length along the critical isochore and coexistence curve from the asymptotic region to crossover region.

  16. Does Cannabis Onset Trigger Cocaine Onset? A Case-Crossover Approach

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Megan S.; Comment, Leah Andrews; Liang, Kung Yee; Anthony, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric researchers tend to select the discordant co-twin design when they seek to hold constant genetic influence while estimating exposure-associated disease risk. The epidemiologic case-crossover research design developed for the past two decades represents a viable alternative, not often seen in psychiatric studies. Here, we turn to the epidemiologic case-crossover approach to examine the idea that cannabis onset is a proximal trigger for cocaine use, with the power of ‘subject-as-own-control’ research used to hold constant antecedent characteristics of the individual drug user, including genetic influence and other traits experienced up to the time of the observed hazard and control intervals. Data are from newly incident cocaine users identified in the 2002–2006 U.S. National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Among these cocaine users, 48 had both cannabis onset and cocaine onset in the same month-long hazard interval; the expected value is 30 users, based on the control interval we had pre-specified for case-crossover estimation (estimated relative risk, RR = 1.6; exact mid-p = 0.042). Within the framework of a subject-as-own-control design, the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that cannabis onset is a proximal trigger for cocaine use, with genetic influences (and many environmental conditions and processes) held constant. Limitations are noted and implications discussed. PMID:22228642

  17. Evolution of recombination in eutherian mammals: insights into mechanisms that affect recombination rates and crossover interference.

    PubMed

    Segura, Joana; Ferretti, Luca; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián; Capilla, Laia; Farré, Marta; Reis, Fernanda; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Fernández-Bellón, Hugo; Garcia, Francisca; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Robinson, Terence J; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-11-22

    Recombination allows faithful chromosomal segregation during meiosis and contributes to the production of new heritable allelic variants that are essential for the maintenance of genetic diversity. Therefore, an appreciation of how this variation is created and maintained is of critical importance to our understanding of biodiversity and evolutionary change. Here, we analysed the recombination features from species representing the major eutherian taxonomic groups Afrotheria, Rodentia, Primates and Carnivora to better understand the dynamics of mammalian recombination. Our results suggest a phylogenetic component in recombination rates (RRs), which appears to be directional, strongly punctuated and subject to selection. Species that diversified earlier in the evolutionary tree have lower RRs than those from more derived phylogenetic branches. Furthermore, chromosome-specific recombination maps in distantly related taxa show that crossover interference is especially weak in the species with highest RRs detected thus far, the tiger. This is the first example of a mammalian species exhibiting such low levels of crossover interference, highlighting the uniqueness of this species and its relevance for the study of the mechanisms controlling crossover formation, distribution and resolution.

  18. Crossover Distribution and Frequency Are Regulated by him-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Meneely, Philip M.; McGovern, Olivia L.; Heinis, Frazer I.; Yanowitz, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the him-5 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans strongly reduce the frequency of crossovers on the X chromosome, with lesser effects on the autosomes. him-5 mutants also show a change in crossover distribution on both the X and autosomes. These phenotypes are accompanied by a delayed entry into pachytene and premature desynapsis of the X chromosome. The nondisjunction, progression defects and desynapsis can be rescued by an exogenous source of double strand breaks (DSBs), indicating that the role of HIM-5 is to promote the formation of meiotic DSBs. Molecular cloning of the gene shows that the inferred HIM-5 product is a highly basic protein of 252 amino acids with no clear orthologs in other species, including other Caenorhabditis species. Although him-5 mutants are defective in segregation of the X chromosome, HIM-5 protein localizes preferentially to the autosomes. The mutant phenotypes and localization of him-5 are similar but not identical to the results seen with xnd-1, although unlike xnd-1, him-5 has no apparent effect on the acetylation of histone H2A on lysine 5 (H2AacK5). The localization of HIM-5 to the autosomes depends on the activities of both xnd-1 and him-17 allowing us to begin to establish pathways for the control of crossover distribution and frequency. PMID:22267496

  19. Crossover distribution and frequency are regulated by him-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Philip M; McGovern, Olivia L; Heinis, Frazer I; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2012-04-01

    Mutations in the him-5 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans strongly reduce the frequency of crossovers on the X chromosome, with lesser effects on the autosomes. him-5 mutants also show a change in crossover distribution on both the X and autosomes. These phenotypes are accompanied by a delayed entry into pachytene and premature desynapsis of the X chromosome. The nondisjunction, progression defects and desynapsis can be rescued by an exogenous source of double strand breaks (DSBs), indicating that the role of HIM-5 is to promote the formation of meiotic DSBs. Molecular cloning of the gene shows that the inferred HIM-5 product is a highly basic protein of 252 amino acids with no clear orthologs in other species, including other Caenorhabditis species. Although him-5 mutants are defective in segregation of the X chromosome, HIM-5 protein localizes preferentially to the autosomes. The mutant phenotypes and localization of him-5 are similar but not identical to the results seen with xnd-1, although unlike xnd-1, him-5 has no apparent effect on the acetylation of histone H2A on lysine 5 (H2AacK5). The localization of HIM-5 to the autosomes depends on the activities of both xnd-1 and him-17 allowing us to begin to establish pathways for the control of crossover distribution and frequency.

  20. Universality-class crossover by a nonorder field introduced to the pair contact process with diffusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Chan

    2017-09-01

    The one-dimensional pair contact process with diffusion (PCPD), an interacting particle system with diffusion, pair annihilation, and creation by pairs, has defied consensus about the universality class to which it belongs. An argument by Hinrichsen [Physica A 361, 457 (2006)PHYADX0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2005.06.101] claims that freely diffusing particles in the PCPD should play the same role as frozen particles when it comes to the critical behavior. Therefore, the PCPD is claimed to have the same critical phenomena as a model with infinitely many absorbing states that belongs to the directed percolation (DP) universality class. To investigate if diffusing particles are really indistinguishable from frozen particles in the sense of the renormalization group, we study numerically a variation of the PCPD by introducing a nonorder field associated with infinitely many absorbing states. We find that a crossover from the PCPD to DP occurs due to the nonorder field. By studying a similar model, we exclude the possibility that the mere introduction of a nonorder field to one model can entail a nontrivial crossover to another model in the same universality class, thus we attribute the observed crossover to the difference of the universality class of the PCPD from the DP class.

  1. Evolution of recombination in eutherian mammals: insights into mechanisms that affect recombination rates and crossover interference

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Joana; Ferretti, Luca; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián; Capilla, Laia; Farré, Marta; Reis, Fernanda; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Fernández-Bellón, Hugo; Garcia, Francisca; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Robinson, Terence J.; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Recombination allows faithful chromosomal segregation during meiosis and contributes to the production of new heritable allelic variants that are essential for the maintenance of genetic diversity. Therefore, an appreciation of how this variation is created and maintained is of critical importance to our understanding of biodiversity and evolutionary change. Here, we analysed the recombination features from species representing the major eutherian taxonomic groups Afrotheria, Rodentia, Primates and Carnivora to better understand the dynamics of mammalian recombination. Our results suggest a phylogenetic component in recombination rates (RRs), which appears to be directional, strongly punctuated and subject to selection. Species that diversified earlier in the evolutionary tree have lower RRs than those from more derived phylogenetic branches. Furthermore, chromosome-specific recombination maps in distantly related taxa show that crossover interference is especially weak in the species with highest RRs detected thus far, the tiger. This is the first example of a mammalian species exhibiting such low levels of crossover interference, highlighting the uniqueness of this species and its relevance for the study of the mechanisms controlling crossover formation, distribution and resolution. PMID:24068360

  2. Universality-class crossover by a nonorder field introduced to the pair contact process with diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Su-Chan

    2017-09-01

    The one-dimensional pair contact process with diffusion (PCPD), an interacting particle system with diffusion, pair annihilation, and creation by pairs, has defied consensus about the universality class to which it belongs. An argument by Hinrichsen [Physica A 361, 457 (2006), 10.1016/j.physa.2005.06.101] claims that freely diffusing particles in the PCPD should play the same role as frozen particles when it comes to the critical behavior. Therefore, the PCPD is claimed to have the same critical phenomena as a model with infinitely many absorbing states that belongs to the directed percolation (DP) universality class. To investigate if diffusing particles are really indistinguishable from frozen particles in the sense of the renormalization group, we study numerically a variation of the PCPD by introducing a nonorder field associated with infinitely many absorbing states. We find that a crossover from the PCPD to DP occurs due to the nonorder field. By studying a similar model, we exclude the possibility that the mere introduction of a nonorder field to one model can entail a nontrivial crossover to another model in the same universality class, thus we attribute the observed crossover to the difference of the universality class of the PCPD from the DP class.

  3. A randomized crossover study of web-based media literacy to prevent smoking.

    PubMed

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A

    2016-02-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML program based on health behavior theory and implemented using a two-group two-period crossover design. Students were randomly assigned by classroom to receive media literacy or control interventions in different sequences. They were assessed three times, at baseline (T0), an initial follow-up after the first intervention (T1) and a second follow-up after the second intervention (T2). Crossover analysis using analysis of variance demonstrated significant intervention coefficients, indicating that the SML condition was superior to control for the primary outcome of total SML (F = 11.99; P < 0.001) and for seven of the nine individual SML items. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses conducted using non-parametric methods. There were changes in some exploratory theory-based outcomes including attitudes and normative beliefs but not others. In conclusion, while strength of the design of this study supports and extends prior findings around effectiveness of SML programs, influences on theory-based mediators of smoking should be further explored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A randomized crossover study of web-based media literacy to prevent smoking

    PubMed Central

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML program based on health behavior theory and implemented using a two-group two-period crossover design. Students were randomly assigned by classroom to receive media literacy or control interventions in different sequences. They were assessed three times, at baseline (T0), an initial follow-up after the first intervention (T1) and a second follow-up after the second intervention (T2). Crossover analysis using analysis of variance demonstrated significant intervention coefficients, indicating that the SML condition was superior to control for the primary outcome of total SML (F = 11.99; P < 0.001) and for seven of the nine individual SML items. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses conducted using non-parametric methods. There were changes in some exploratory theory-based outcomes including attitudes and normative beliefs but not others. In conclusion, while strength of the design of this study supports and extends prior findings around effectiveness of SML programs, influences on theory-based mediators of smoking should be further explored. PMID:26675176

  5. Viscosity of liquid Ag-In-Sb-Te: Evidence of a fragile-to-strong crossover.

    PubMed

    Orava, J; Weber, H; Kaban, I; Greer, A L

    2016-05-21

    The temperature-dependent viscosity η(T) is measured for the equilibrium liquid of the chalcogenide Ag-In-Sb-Te (AIST), the first time this has been reported for a material of actual interest for phase-change memory. The measurements, in the range 829-1254 K, are made using an oscillating-crucible viscometer, and show a liquid with high fragility and low viscosity, similar to liquid pure metals. Combining the high-temperature viscosity measurements with values inferred from crystal growth rates in the supercooled liquid allows the form of η(T) to be estimated over the entire temperature range from above the melting point down to the glass transition. It is then clear that η(T) for liquid AIST cannot be described with a single fragility value, unlike other phase-change chalcogenides such as liquid Ge-Sb-Te. There is clear evidence for a fragile-to-strong crossover on cooling liquid AIST, similar to that analyzed in Te85Ge15. The change in fragility associated with the crossover in both these cases is rather weak, giving a broad temperature range over which η(T) is near-Arrhenius. We discuss how such behavior may be beneficial for the performance of phase-change memory. Consideration of the fragile-to-strong crossover in liquid chalcogenides may be important in tuning compositions to optimize the device performance.

  6. The triggering effect of alcohol and illicit drugs on violent crime in a remand prison population: a case crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Lena; Haggård, Ulrika; Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Thiblin, Ingemar

    2013-04-01

    The association between substance abuse, particularly alcohol abuse, and violence has been well established. However, since substance abuse co-occurs with several other risk factors for violence, the causal link between substance abuse and violence and the extent to which the acute influence of alcohol, illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, and anabolic androgenic steroids have a triggering effect on violent behavior are more uncertain. Case-crossover design was used based on data from structured face to face interviews with remand prisoners (n=194; 172 men, 22 women) suspected of violent crimes. odds ratio (OR 95% CI) for a violent crime, 24h after exposure to different substances, compared to periods of no exposure was calculated using conditional logistic regression and a Mantel-Haenszel estimator with confidence intervals for sparse data. Intake of alcohol (OR 6.41 CI 4.24-9.67) and large doses of benzodiazepines (OR 36.32 CI 7.14-183.65) triggered interpersonal violence. Stratified analyses of possible effect modifiers were sex, conduct/behavioral problems, trauma experiences; psychiatric vulnerability did not reveal any substantial differences. Influences of alcohol and unusually high doses of benzodiazepines are proximal risk factors for violent crime. Improved knowledge of short-term (and dose-related) risk factors may contribute to treatment planning and risk assessment of violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of electromagnetic shielding on phantom limb pain: A placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Keren; Oliver, Sarah; Sedki, Imad; Hanspal, Rajiv

    2016-06-01

    Environmental electromagnetic fields influence biological systems. Evidence suggests these have a role in the experience of phantom limb pain in patients with amputations. This article followed a previous study to investigate the effect of electromagnetic field shielding with a specially designed prosthetic liner. Randomised placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial. Twenty suitable participants with transtibial amputations, phantom pain at least 1 year with no other treatable cause or pathology were requested to record daily pain, well-being, activity and hours of prosthetic use on pre-printed diary sheets. These were issued for three 2-week periods (baseline, electromagnetic shielding (verum) and visually identical placebo liners - randomly allocated). Thirty-three per cent of the recruited participants were unable to complete the trial. The resulting N was therefore smaller than was necessary for adequate power. The remaining data showed that maximum pain and well-being were improved from baseline under verum but not placebo. More participants improved on all variables with verum than placebo. Electromagnetic field shielding produced beneficial effects in those participants who could tolerate the liner. It is suggested that this might be due to protection of vulnerable nerve endings from nociceptive effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic field shielding with a suitable limb/prosthesis interface can be considered a useful technique to improve pain and well-being in patients with phantom limb pain. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  8. Naturalistic conversation improves daytime motorway driving performance under a benzodiazepine: a randomised, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Moták, Ladislav; Bayssac, Laëtitia; Taillard, Jacques; Sagaspe, Patricia; Huet, Nathalie; Terrier, Patrice; Philip, Pierre; Daurat, Agnès

    2014-06-01

    The adverse effects of benzodiazepines on driving are widely recognised. The aims of this study were both to determine the impact of naturalistic conversation on the driving ability of drivers under a benzodiazepine, and to measure the accuracy of drivers' assessments of the joint effects of the benzodiazepine and conversation. Sixteen healthy male participants (29.69 ± 3.30 years) underwent a randomised, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with the benzodiazepine lorazepam (2mg). They drove 200 km (125 miles) on a motorway in the morning. We measured two driving ability-related variables (i.e., lane-keeping performance), and collected a set of self-assessed variables (i.e., self-assessment of driving performance) during two 10-min sequences of interest (no conversation vs. conversation). An analysis of variance revealed an interaction whereby lane-keeping performance under lorazepam was worse in the no-conversation condition than in the conversation condition. No such difference was detected under placebo. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed that self-assessments were (i) not at all predictive of lane-keeping when performed before the drive, but (ii) moderately predictive of lane-keeping performance when performed during or after the drive. We conclude that conversation with a passenger may contribute to safer lane-keeping when driving under a benzodiazepine. Moreover, a degree of awareness may be attained after some experience of driving under the influence of this type of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of the state-of-the-art of the methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Barragán, V. M.

    Direct (oxidation) methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are attractive for several applications, however, there are several barriers which must be overcome before they can become an alternative to internal combustion engines. At present, methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode appears to be the major limitation. This work shows the information on the influence of methanol crossover in DMFC and on the effort to get a more methanol-impermeably polymer electrolyte found in the literature.

  10. Identification of DSB-1, a Protein Required for Initiation of Meiotic Recombination in Caenorhabditis elegans, Illuminates a Crossover Assurance Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Stamper, Ericca L.; Rodenbusch, Stacia E.; Rosu, Simona; Ahringer, Julie; Villeneuve, Anne M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic recombination, an essential aspect of sexual reproduction, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are catalyzed by the widely-conserved Spo11 enzyme; however, the activity of Spo11 is regulated by additional factors that are poorly conserved through evolution. To expand our understanding of meiotic regulation, we have characterized a novel gene, dsb-1, that is specifically required for meiotic DSB formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. DSB-1 localizes to chromosomes during early meiotic prophase, coincident with the timing of DSB formation. DSB-1 also promotes normal protein levels and chromosome localization of DSB-2, a paralogous protein that plays a related role in initiating recombination. Mutations that disrupt crossover formation result in prolonged DSB-1 association with chromosomes, suggesting that nuclei may remain in a DSB-permissive state. Extended DSB-1 localization is seen even in mutants with defects in early recombination steps, including spo-11, suggesting that the absence of crossover precursors triggers the extension. Strikingly, failure to form a crossover precursor on a single chromosome pair is sufficient to extend the localization of DSB-1 on all chromosomes in the same nucleus. Based on these observations we propose a model for crossover assurance that acts through DSB-1 to maintain a DSB-permissive state until all chromosome pairs acquire crossover precursors. This work identifies a novel component of the DSB machinery in C. elegans, and sheds light on an important pathway that regulates DSB formation for crossover assurance. PMID:23990794

  11. Local and sex-specific biases in crossover vs. noncrossover outcomes at meiotic recombination hot spots in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Esther; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination initiated by programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) yields two types of interhomolog recombination products, crossovers and noncrossovers, but what determines whether a DSB will yield a crossover or noncrossover is not understood. In this study, we analyzed the influence of sex and chromosomal location on mammalian recombination outcomes by constructing fine-scale recombination maps in both males and females at two mouse hot spots located in different regions of the same chromosome. These include the most comprehensive maps of recombination hot spots in oocytes to date. One hot spot, located centrally on chromosome 1, behaved similarly in male and female meiosis: Crossovers and noncrossovers formed at comparable levels and ratios in both sexes. In contrast, at a distal hot spot, crossovers were recovered only in males even though noncrossovers were obtained at similar frequencies in both sexes. These findings reveal an example of extreme sex-specific bias in recombination outcome. We further found that estimates of relative DSB levels are surprisingly poor predictors of relative crossover frequencies between hot spots in males. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of mammalian meiotic recombination can be biased, that this bias can vary depending on location and cellular context, and that DSB frequency is not the only determinant of crossover frequency. PMID:26251527

  12. SU(4)-SU(2) crossover and spin-filter properties of a double quantum dot nanosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, V.; Padilla, R. A.; Martins, G. B.; Anda, E. V.

    2017-06-01

    The SU(4)-SU(2) crossover, driven by an external magnetic field h , is analyzed in a capacitively coupled double quantum dot device connected to independent leads. As one continuously charges the dots from empty to quarter filled, by varying the gate potential Vg, the crossover starts when the magnitude of the spin polarization of the double quantum dot, as measured by - , becomes finite. Although the external magnetic field breaks the SU(4) symmetry of the Hamiltonian, the ground state preserves it in a region of Vg, where - =0 . Once the spin polarization becomes finite, it initially increases slowly until a sudden change occurs, in which (polarization direction opposite to the magnetic field) reaches a maximum and then decreases to negligible values abruptly, at which point an orbital SU(2) ground state is fully established. This crossover from one Kondo state, with emergent SU(4) symmetry, where spin and orbital degrees of freedom all play a role, to another, with SU(2) symmetry, where only orbital degrees of freedom participate, is triggered by a competition between g μBh , the energy gain by the Zeeman-split polarized state and the Kondo temperature TKS U (4 ), the gain provided by the SU(4) unpolarized Kondo-singlet state. At fixed magnetic field, the knob that controls the crossover is the gate potential, which changes the quantum dots occupancies. If one characterizes the occurrence of the crossover by Vgmax, the value of Vg where reaches a maximum, one finds that the function f relating the Zeeman splitting, Bmax, which corresponds to Vgmax, i.e., Bmax=f (Vgmax) , has a similar universal behavior to that of the function relating the Kondo temperature to Vg. In addition, our numerical results show that near the SU(4) Kondo temperature and for relatively small magnetic fields the device has a ground state that restricts the electronic population at the dots to be spin polarized along the magnetic field. These two

  13. Operating characteristics of a partial-block randomized crossover bioequivalence study for dutasteride, a drug with a long half-life: investigation through simulation and comparison with final results.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gengqian; Thiessen, Jake J; Baidoo, Charlotte A; Fossler, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Studies to establish bioequivalence (BE) of a drug are important elements in support of drug applications. A typical BE study is conducted as a single dose, randomized, 2-period crossover design. For drugs with long half lives (≥ 48 hours) and evaluation of multiple BE objectives in 1 trial, this design may not be adequate. A parallel design may then be a more appropriate choice. However, parallel designs require increased sample size, which can become substantial. One option that is a compromise between the complete randomized block design and the parallel design is a partial-block crossover design. This approach came about during the development of a combination of dutasteride and tamsulosin. Previous experience with performing single-dose dutasteride studies suggested that 28 days of washout is needed between treatments because of its half-life of 7-9 days. Simulations were performed to assess the operating characteristics of this design using a previously developed PK model. Four scenarios were developed, and each scenario was simulated 500 times. The results showed that this design demonstrated acceptable consumer and producer risk. Partial-block crossover designs should be considered for studies when the half-life of the drug is long and there are more than 2 periods.

  14. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both individual SES and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage contribute to the mortality risk of older adults but do not completely explain race differences in mortality. The racial mortality crossover persists even after controlling for multilevel SES, suggesting that black older adults experience selective survival at very old ages. Addressing the individual and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage of blacks is necessary to reduce mortality disparities that culminate in older adulthood. PMID:21792390

  15. Multipoint linkage map of the human pseudoautosomal region, based on single-sperm typing: Do double crossovers occur during male meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, K.; Arnheim, N.; Lazzeroni, L.C.

    1994-09-01

    Sperm typing was used to measure recombination fractions among pseudoautosomal markers and the beginning of the X/Y-specific sequences located at the pseudoautosomal boundary. These experiments included primer-extension preamplification and PCR followed by allele typing using gel electrophoresis. A newly developed data-analysis program allowed the construction of the first multipoint-linkage sperm-typing map, using results obtained on seven loci from three individuals. The large sample size not only confirmed the increased recombination activity of the pseudoautosomal region but allowed an estimate of interference of recombination to be made. The coefficient of coincidence was calculated to be .26 over a physical distance ofmore » only {approximately} 1,800 kb. The observation of a few sperm presumably resulting from double recombination argues that more than one crossover event can occur in this region during male meiosis. 44 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.« less

  16. Military Medic Performance with Employment of a Commercial Intraosseous Infusion Device: A Randomized, Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Brett; Cronin, Aaron; Monti, Jonathan; Brigg, Andrew

    2018-02-06

    Obtaining intraosseous (IO) access remains an invaluable skill in the management and resuscitation of patients on the battlefield. The U.S. Army Combat Medic is currently trained to utilize a sternal IO device (FAST1® Intraosseous Infusion System); however, the Arrow® EZ-IO® Intraosseous Vascular Access System offers unique benefits including ease of use, reload ability, and placement location versatility. Studies have demonstrated high success rates in the operational settings using the EZ-IO® System; however, no prospective studies have been conducted to assess the performance of U.S. Army's conventional Combat Medics using the EZ-IO® System. We hypothesized that EZ-IO® System-naïve medics would have a statistically significant success rate advantage utilizing the proximal tibia approach versus proximal humerus approach. A total of 77 U.S. Army Medics (Military Occupational Specialty [MOS] 68 W) volunteer participants were recruited to participate in this randomized, crossover study. Participants received a standardized audio-visual-enhanced lecture on EZ-IO® System use without hands-on training and then randomized into two study groups according to which anatomical approach they would attempt first. Results were analyzed to determine participants' first-attempt mean success rates, mean required time to properly place the needle into simulated humeral head and proximal tibial bone models, and mean survey results measuring the participant's subjective assessment of the two approaches to include, along with training and testing experience. The data of those not naïve to the employment of the EZ-IO® System were excluded. The primary outcome measurement of overall mean participant success rate with attempted insertions into proximal tibial and humeral head bone models was 88% and 86%, respectively, demonstrating no statistically significant difference by approach, with no significant learning or design confounding effects (p > 0.05). Secondary outcomes of

  17. A Case Study of Controlling Crossover in a Selection Hyper-heuristic Framework Using the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem.

    PubMed

    Drake, John H; Özcan, Ender; Burke, Edmund K

    2016-01-01

    Hyper-heuristics are high-level methodologies for solving complex problems that operate on a search space of heuristics. In a selection hyper-heuristic framework, a heuristic is chosen from an existing set of low-level heuristics and applied to the current solution to produce a new solution at each point in the search. The use of crossover low-level heuristics is possible in an increasing number of general-purpose hyper-heuristic tools such as HyFlex and Hyperion. However, little work has been undertaken to assess how best to utilise it. Since a single-point search hyper-heuristic operates on a single candidate solution, and two candidate solutions are required for crossover, a mechanism is required to control the choice of the other solution. The frameworks we propose maintain a list of potential solutions for use in crossover. We investigate the use of such lists at two conceptual levels. First, crossover is controlled at the hyper-heuristic level where no problem-specific information is required. Second, it is controlled at the problem domain level where problem-specific information is used to produce good-quality solutions to use in crossover. A number of selection hyper-heuristics are compared using these frameworks over three benchmark libraries with varying properties for an NP-hard optimisation problem: the multidimensional 0-1 knapsack problem. It is shown that allowing crossover to be managed at the domain level outperforms managing crossover at the hyper-heuristic level in this problem domain.

  18. Compressibility of water in magma and the prediction of density crossovers in mantle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Agee, Carl B

    2008-11-28

    Hydrous silicate melts appear to have greater compressibility relative to anhydrous melts of the same composition at low pressures (<2GPa); however, at higher pressures, this difference is greatly reduced and becomes very small at pressures above 5GPa. This implies that the pressure effect on the partial molar volume of water in silicate melt ( partial differentialV-H2O/ partial differentialP) is highly dependent on pressure regime. Thus, H2O can be thought of as the most compressible 'liquid oxide' component in silicate melt at low pressure, but at high pressure its compressibility resembles that of other liquid oxide components. A best-fit curve to the data on V-H2O from various studies allows calculation of hydrous melt compression curves relevant to high-pressure planetary differentiation. From these compression curves, crystal-liquid density crossovers are predicted for the mantles of the Earth and Mars. For the Earth, trapped dense hydrous melts may reside atop the 410km discontinuity, and, although not required to be hydrous, atop the core-mantle boundary (CMB), in accord with seismic observations of low-velocity zones in these regions. For Mars, a density crossover at the base of the upper mantle is predicted, which would produce a low-velocity zone at a depth of approximately 1200km. If perovskite is stable at the base of the Martian mantle, then density crossovers or trapped dense hydrous melts are unlikely to reside there, and long-lived, melt-induced, low-velocity regions atop the CMB are not predicted.

  19. Melatonin improves sleep in children with epilepsy: randomized, double-blind cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Methods Eleven pre-pubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6–11 years with epilepsy were randomized by software algorithm to receive placebo or 9 mg sustained release melatonin for 4 weeks, followed by a 1-week washout and 4-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. Primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. Secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on EEG and reaction time measures on psychomotor vigilance task. Statistical tests appropriate for cross-over designs were used for analysis. Results Data were analyzed from ten subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (Mean difference (MD): 11.4 min, p= 0.02) and WASO (MD 22 min, p=0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, Slow-wave sleep duration and REM latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. Conclusion Sustained-release melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. PMID:25862116

  20. Treatment and Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Youth: Test of Cross-Over Effects.

    PubMed

    Garber, Judy; Brunwasser, Steven M; Zerr, Argero A; Schwartz, Karen T G; Sova, Karen; Weersing, V Robin

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid and share several common etiological processes. Therefore, it may be more efficient to develop interventions that treat or prevent these problems together rather than as separate entities. The present meta-analytic review examined whether interventions for children and adolescents that explicitly targeted either anxiety or depression showed treatment specificity or also impacted the other outcome (i.e. cross-over effects). We addressed this question both within the same type of study (i.e. treatment, prevention) and across study types. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed both constructs with dimensional measures were included in this review. For treatment studies, RCTs targeting anxiety (n = 18) showed significant effects on both anxious and depressive symptoms, although more strongly on anxiety than depression; similarly, RCTs treating depression (n = 9) yielded significant effects on both depressive and anxious symptoms, but stronger effects on depression than anxiety. Thus, there were cross-over effects in treatments purportedly targeting either anxiety or depression, and also treatment specificity, such that larger effects were seen for the target problem at which the treatment was aimed. Anxiety prevention studies (n = 14) significantly affected anxious, but not depressive symptoms, indicating no cross-over effect of anxiety prevention trials on depression. For depression prevention studies (n = 15), the effects were not significant for either depressive or anxiety symptoms, although the effect was significantly larger for depressive than for anxious symptoms. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the effect on depressive symptoms was significant in depression preventions trials of targeted but not universal samples. Implications for transdiagnostic interventions are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    DOE PAGES

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; ...

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show thatmore » the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length a B to the fermion scattering length a 2D. We find a B ≃ 0.56a 2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.« less

  2. Manipulating charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in iron coordination complexes with ligand substitution

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wenkai; Kjaer, Kasper S.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; ...

    2016-08-25

    Developing light-harvesting and photocatalytic molecules made with iron could provide a cost effective, scalable, and environmentally benign path for solar energy conversion. To date these developments have been limited by the sub-picosecond metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) electronic excited state lifetime of iron based complexes due to spin crossover – the extremely fast intersystem crossing and internal conversion to high spin metal-centered excited states. We revitalize a 30 year old synthetic strategy for extending the MLCT excited state lifetimes of iron complexes by making mixed ligand iron complexes with four cyanide (CN –) ligands and one 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. This enablesmore » MLCT excited state and metal-centered excited state energies to be manipulated with partial independence and provides a path to suppressing spin crossover. We have combined X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) Kβ hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy to characterize the electronic excited state dynamics initiated by MLCT excitation of [Fe(CN) 4(bpy)] 2–. The two experimental techniques are highly complementary; the time-resolved UV-visible measurement probes allowed electronic transitions between valence states making it sensitive to ligand-centered electronic states such as MLCT states, whereas the Kβ fluorescence spectroscopy provides a sensitive measure of changes in the Fe spin state characteristic of metal-centered excited states. Here, we conclude that the MLCT excited state of [Fe(CN) 4(bpy)] 2– decays with roughly a 20 ps lifetime without undergoing spin crossover, exceeding the MLCT excited state lifetime of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine) 3] 2+ by more than two orders of magnitude.« less

  3. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Collado, María Carmen; Engen, Phillip A; Bandín, Cristina; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Voigt, Robin M; Green, Stefan J; Naqib, Ankur; Keshavarzian, Ali; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The composition of the diet (what we eat) has been widely related to the microbiota profile. However, whether the timing of food consumption (when we eat) influences microbiota in humans is unknown. A randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy normal-weight young women to test the effect of the timing of food intake on the human microbiota in the saliva and fecal samples. More specifically, to determine whether eating late alters daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota, we interrogated salivary microbiota in samples obtained at 4 specific time points over 24 h, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between food timing and metabolic alterations in humans. Results revealed significant diurnal rhythms in salivary diversity and bacterial relative abundance ( i.e., TM7 and Fusobacteria) across both early and late eating conditions. More importantly, meal timing affected diurnal rhythms in diversity of salivary microbiota toward an inverted rhythm between the eating conditions, and eating late increased the number of putative proinflammatory taxa, showing a diurnal rhythm in the saliva. In a randomized, crossover study, we showed for the first time the impact of the timing of food intake on human salivary microbiota. Eating the main meal late inverts the daily rhythm of salivary microbiota diversity which may have a deleterious effect on the metabolism of the host.-Collado, M. C., Engen, P. A., Bandín, C., Cabrera-Rubio, R., Voigt, R. M., Green, S. J., Naqib, A., Keshavarzian, A., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Timing of food intake impacts daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota: a randomized, crossover study.

  4. Melatonin improves sleep in children with epilepsy: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A

    2015-05-01

    Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia, is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Eleven prepubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6-11 years with epilepsy were randomized by a software algorithm to receive placebo or a 9-mg sustained release (SR) melatonin formulation for four weeks, followed by a one-week washout and a four-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents, and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. The primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. The secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on electroencephalogram (EEG), and reaction time (RT) measures on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Statistical tests appropriate for crossover designs were used for the analysis. Data were analyzed from 10 subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (mean difference, MD, of 11.4 min and p = 0.02) and WASO (MD of 22 min and p = 0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, slow-wave sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. SR melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed, but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment and Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Youth: Test of Crossover Effects

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Zerr, Argero A.; Schwartz, Karen T.G.; Sova, Karen; Weersing, V. Robin

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid and share several common etiological processes. Therefore, it may be more efficient to develop interventions that treat or prevent these problems together rather than as separate entities. The present meta-analytic review examined whether interventions for children and adolescents that explicitly targeted either anxiety or depression showed treatment specificity or also impacted the other outcome (i.e., cross-over effects). We addressed this question both within the same type of study (i.e., treatment, prevention) and across study types. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed both constructs with dimensional measures were included in this review. For treatment studies, RCTs targeting anxiety (n=18) showed significant effects on both anxious and depressive symptoms, although more strongly on anxiety than depression; similarly, RCTs treating depression (n=9) yielded significant effects on both depressive and anxious symptoms, but stronger effects on depression than anxiety. Thus, there were cross-over effects in treatments purportedly targeting either anxiety or depression, and also treatment specificity, such that larger effects were seen for the target problem at which the treatment was aimed. Anxiety prevention studies (n=14) significantly affected anxious, but not depressive symptoms, indicating no cross-over effect of anxiety prevention trials on depression. For depression prevention studies (n=15), the effects were not significant for either depressive or anxiety symptoms, although the effect was significantly larger for depressive than for anxious symptoms. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the effect on depressive symptoms was significant in depression preventions trials of targeted but not universal samples. Implications for transdiagnostic interventions are discussed. PMID:27699941

  6. Role of superconducting energy gap in extended BCS-Bose crossover theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, I.; García, L. A.; de Llano, M.; Grether, M.

    2017-10-01

    The generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) theory of superconductivity (SC) is briefly surveyed. It hinges on three distinct new ingredients: (i) Treatment of Cooper pairs (CPs) as actual bosons since they obey Bose statistics, in contrast to BCS pairs which do not obey Bose commutation relations; (ii) inclusion of two-hole Cooper pairs (2hCPs) on an equal footing with two-electron Cooper pairs (2eCPs), thus making this a complete boson-fermion (BF) model; and (iii) inclusion in the resulting ternary ideal BF gas with particular BF vertex interactions that drive boson formation/disintegration processes. GBEC subsumes as special cases both BCS (having its 50-50 symmetry of both kinds of CPs) and ordinary BEC theories (having no 2hCPs), as well as the now familiar BCS-Bose crossover theory. We extended the crossover theory with the explicit inclusion of 2hCPs and construct a phase diagram of Tc/TF versus n/nf, where Tc and TF are the critical and Fermi temperatures, n is the total number density and nf that of unbound electrons at T = 0. Also, with this extended crossover one can construct the energy gap Δ(T)/Δ(0) versus T/Tc for some elemental SCs by solving at least two equations numerically: a gap-like and a number equation. In 50-50 symmetry, the energy gap curve agrees quite well with experimental data. But ignoring 2hCPs altogether leads to the gap curve falling substantially below that with 50-50 symmetry which already fits the data quite well, showing that 2hCPs are indispensable to describe SCs.

  7. Conditional Poisson models: a flexible alternative to conditional logistic case cross-over analysis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ben G; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tobias, Aurelio

    2014-11-24

    The time stratified case cross-over approach is a popular alternative to conventional time series regression for analysing associations between time series of environmental exposures (air pollution, weather) and counts of health outcomes. These are almost always analyzed using conditional logistic regression on data expanded to case-control (case crossover) format, but this has some limitations. In particular adjusting for overdispersion and auto-correlation in the counts is not possible. It has been established that a Poisson model for counts with stratum indicators gives identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression and does not have these limitations, but it is little used, probably because of the overheads in estimating many stratum parameters. The conditional Poisson model avoids estimating stratum parameters by conditioning on the total event count in each stratum, thus simplifying the computing and increasing the number of strata for which fitting is feasible compared with the standard unconditional Poisson model. Unlike the conditional logistic model, the conditional Poisson model does not require expanding the data, and can adjust for overdispersion and auto-correlation. It is available in Stata, R, and other packages. By applying to some real data and using simulations, we demonstrate that conditional Poisson models were simpler to code and shorter to run than are conditional logistic analyses and can be fitted to larger data sets than possible with standard Poisson models. Allowing for overdispersion or autocorrelation was possible with the conditional Poisson model but when not required this model gave identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression. Conditional Poisson regression models provide an alternative to case crossover analysis of stratified time series data with some advantages. The conditional Poisson model can also be used in other contexts in which primary control for confounding is by fine

  8. Manager Characteristics and Employee Job Insecurity around a Merger Announcement: The Role of Status and Crossover

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jack; Fox, Kimberly; Fan, Wen; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Most existing research theorizes individual factors as predictors of perceived job insecurity. Incorporating contextual and organizational factors at an information technology organization where a merger was announced during data collection, we draw on status expectations and crossover theories to investigate whether managers’ characteristics and insecurity shape their employees’ job insecurity. We find having an Asian as opposed to a White manager is associated with lower job insecurity, while managers’ own insecurity positively predicts employees’ insecurity. Also contingent on the organizational climate, managers’ own tenure buffers, and managers’ perceived job insecurity magnifies insecurity of employees interviewed after a merger announcement, further specifying status expectations theory by considering context. PMID:26190868

  9. Interferon alfa-2b in mixed cryoglobulinaemia: a controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, C; Marzo, E; Longombardo, G; La Civita, L; Lombardini, F; Giuggioli, D; Vanacore, R; Liberati, A M; Mazzoni, A; Greco, F

    1993-01-01

    To confirm the positive results of a preliminary trial, 26 patients with mixed cryoglobulinaemia were enrolled in a controlled, randomised, crossover trial with interferon alfa-2b. A significant improvement was seen in the purpura score and alanine aminotransferase activities during six months' treatment, and was associated with a significant decrease in cryocrit and a returning to normal of the lymphocyte CD4/CD8 ratio (in eight of nine patients). No significant variations were seen during the six month period without interferon. Only six patients withdrew from treatment, three because of side effects and three because of poor compliance. PMID:8314485

  10. Double-blind cross-over evaluation of mazindol in the treatment of obese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Miach, P J; Thomson, W; Doyle, A E; Louis, W J

    1976-09-04

    The effect of mazindol (AN 448) on weight and blood pressure was evaluated in a double-blind cross-over trial in 28 obese hypertensive patients, whose blood pressure was under stable control with one or more of the common antihypertensive agents--diuretics, beta-blocking drugs and methyldopa. There was a statistically significant decrease in weight, but no significant change in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) or pulse rate during active treatment. It was considered that the drug might be of benefit to some patients, provided that they were properly motivated to adhere to the dietary regime.

  11. Dimensional Crossover-Induced Topological Hall Effect in a Magnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Zang, Yunyi; Ruan, Wei; Gong, Yan; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yayu

    2017-10-01

    We report transport studies of Mn-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator (TI) films with an accurately controlled thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that films thicker than five quintuple layers (QLs) exhibit the usual anomalous Hall effect for magnetic TIs. When the thickness is reduced to four QLs, however, characteristic features associated with the topological Hall effect (THE) emerge. More surprisingly, the THE vanishes again when the film thickness is further reduced to three QLs. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that the coupling between the top and bottom surface states at the dimensional crossover regime stabilizes the magnetic Skyrmion structure that is responsible for the THE.

  12. A Randomized Crossover Trial of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Stage 3–4 CKD

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Robin L.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Heung, Michael; Hummel, Scott L.; Derebail, Vimal Kumar; Pitt, Bertram; Levin, Nathan W.; Zhu, Fansan; Abbas, Samer R.; Liu, Li; Kotanko, Peter; Klemmer, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often volume expanded and hypertensive. Few controlled studies have assessed the effects of a sodium-restricted diet (SRD) in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted a randomized crossover trial to evaluate the effect of SRD (target <2 g sodium per day) versus usual diet on hydration status (by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy) and blood pressure (BP) between May of 2009 and May of 2013. A total of 58 adults with stage 3–4 CKD were enrolled from two academic sites: University of Michigan (n=37) and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (n=21); 60% were men, 43% were diabetic, 93% were hypertensive, and mean age was 61 years. Participants followed SRD or usual diet for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week washout period and a 4-week crossover phase. During the SRD, dieticians provided counseling every 2 weeks, using motivational interviewing techniques. Results Whole-body extracellular volume and calf intracellular volume decreased by 1.02 L (95% confidence interval [95% CI], −1.48 to −0.56; P<0.001) and −0.06 L (95% CI, −0.12 to −0.01; P=0.02), respectively, implying decreased fluid content on the SRD compared with usual diet. Significant reductions in urinary sodium (−57.3 mEq/24 h; 95% CI, −81.8 to −32.9), weight (−2.3 kg; 95% CI, −3.2 to −1.5), and 24-hour systolic BP (−10.8 mmHg; 95% CI, −17.0 to −4.6) were also observed (all P<0.01). Albumin-to-creatinine ratio did not change significantly and mean serum creatinine increased slightly (0.1 mg/dl; 95% CI, −0.01 to 0.2; P=0.06). No period or carryover effects were observed. Results were similar when analyzed from phase 1 only before crossover, although P values were modestly larger because of the loss of power. Conclusions In this randomized crossover trial, implementation of SRD in patients with CKD stage 3–4 resulted in clinically and statistically significant improvement in BP

  13. The crossover between tunnel and hopping conductivity in granulated films of noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavokin, Alexey; Kutrovskaya, Stella; Kucherik, Alexey; Osipov, Anton; Vartanyan, Tigran; Arakelyan, Sergey

    2017-11-01

    The conductivity of thin films composed by clusters of gold and silver nanoparticles has been studies in a wide range of temperatures. The switch from a temperature independence to an exponential thermal dependence of the conductivity manifests the crossover between the tunnel and thermally activated hopping regimes of the electronic transport at the temperature of 60 °C. The characteristic thermal activation energy that governs hopping of electrons between nanoparticles is estimated as 1.3 eV. We have achieved a good control of the composition and thicknesses of nano-cluster films by use of the laser ablation method in colloidal solutions.

  14. Phase diagram of dilute nuclear matter: Unconventional pairing and the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Sedrakian, Armen; Clark, John W.

    2012-12-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of the phase structure of cold, dilute nuclear matter featuring a 3S1-3D1 condensate at nonzero isospin asymmetry, within wide ranges of temperatures and densities. We find a rich phase diagram comprising three superfluid phases, namely, a Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase, the ordinary BCS phase, and a heterogeneous, phase-separated BCS phase, with associated crossovers from the latter two phases to a homogeneous or phase-separated Bose-Einstein condensate of deuterons. The phase diagram contains two tricritical points (one a Lifshitz point), which may degenerate into a single tetracritical point for some degree of isospin asymmetry.

  15. Anti-emetic effect of high-dose metoclopramide vs alizapride--a randomised crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Seng, K T; Tiong, C E; Hiang, T C

    1994-01-01

    A randomised double-blind crossover study was undertaken to compare the anti-emetic efficacy of alizapride against high dose metoclopramide. A total of 32 patients on cisplatin were randomised to receive either high dose metoclopramide (7 mg kg-1 day-1) or alizapride (5 mg kg-1 day-1). Anti-emetic responses in terms of control of vomiting episodes were similar in both regimens (59%). However, patients showed a statistically significant preference for high dose metoclopramide (P = 0.02). Side effects of both regimens were minimal. We conclude that alizapride is not superior to high dose metoclopramide in controlling cisplatin induced vomiting. PMID:7826833

  16. A crossover trial of bromocriptine in the treatment of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, S E; Malloy, P F; Andrew, M E

    1988-08-01

    Seven patients with vascular dementia completed an 8-month randomized double-blind crossover trial of bromocriptine in a dosage of up to 30 mg per day. Patients were assessed using a modified UCLA Parkinson Rating Scale of symptoms and signs, and neuropsychological testing including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Wechsler Memory Scale, modified Thurstone Word Fluency Test, Wisconsin Card Sort, a test of visual vigilance, and a reaction time task. Subjects failed to perform significantly better on any measure while on bromocriptine, and on several measures their performance while on the drug was worse.

  17. Fragile to strong crossover and Widom line in supercooled water: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marzio, Margherita; Camisasca, Gaia; Rovere, Mauro; Gallo, Paola

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between the dynamics and thermodynamics of water in the supercooled region. Reviewed case studies comprehend bulk water simulated with the SPC/E, TIP4P and TIP4P/2005 potentials, water at protein interfaces, and water in solution with electrolytes. Upon supercooling, the fragile to strong crossover in the α-relaxation of water is found to occur when the Widom line emanating from the liquid-liquid critical point is crossed. This appears to be a general characteristic of supercooled water, not depending on the applied interaction potential and/or different local environments.

  18. A randomized crossover trial of tenoxicam compared with rofecoxib for postoperative dental pain control.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, M; De Silva, R K; Herbison, P; Templer, P

    2004-12-01

    Two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tenoxicam and rofecoxib, were compared for the control of postoperative pain following surgical extraction of bilaterally and symmetrically impacted wisdom teeth performed under intravenous sedation and local anaesthesia. Thirty-five young fit adult patients received each analgesic treatment for four days in a randomized, crossover design. The results suggest statistically better pain relief for the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib compared to tenoxicam, a traditional NSAID. There were side-effects with both treatments. Abdominal discomfort was significantly more common following rofecoxib compared to tenoxicam. Both analgesics were acceptable to most participants in the trial.

  19. Dimensional crossover of quantum nucleation processes in charge-density-wave phase slips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakenaka, Noriyuki; Shiobara, Masato; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tanda, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    A phenomenological model for quantum phase slips of charge-density waves that takes into account the system-size effect is presented. The process of quantum nucleation leading to the phase slip changes from vortex-pair to vortex-ring creations as the external electric field increases, which is analogous to the evolution of a ripple in a rectangular water tank. The crossover field is determined by the system size. The present model describes a number of features observed in the nonohmic conductivity in TaS3 at low temperature.

  20. Crossover behavior of the anomalous Hall effect and anomalous nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Miyasato, T; Abe, N; Fujii, T; Asamitsu, A; Onoda, S; Onose, Y; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y

    2007-08-24

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) are experimentally investigated in a variety of ferromagnetic metals including pure transition metals, oxides, and chalcogenides, whose resistivities range over 5 orders of magnitude. For these ferromagnets, the transverse conductivity sigma{xy} versus the longitudinal conductivity sigma{xx} shows a crossover behavior with three distinct regimes in accordance qualitatively with a recent unified theory of the intrinsic and extrinsic AHE. We also found that the transverse Peltier coefficient alpha{xy} for the ANE obeys the Mott rule. These results offer a coherent and semiquantitative understanding of the AHE and ANE to an issue of controversy for many decades.

  1. The role of the dynamic crossover temperature and the arrest in glass-forming fluids.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, F; Corsaro, C; Stanley, H E; Chen, S-H

    2011-09-01

    We discuss the role of the dynamic glass-forming fragile-to-strong crossover (FSC) in supercooled liquids. In the FSC, significant dynamic changes such as the decoupling (the violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation) of homologous transport parameters, e.g., the density relaxation time τ and the viscosity η, occur at a characteristic temperature T(c). We study the FSC using a scaling law approach. In particular, we use both forms of the mode-coupling theory (MCT): the original (ideal) and the extended form, which explicitly describes energy hopping processes. We demonstrate that T(c) plays the most important physical role in understanding dynamic arrest processes.

  2. Diagnostic crossover from obesity to atypical anorexia nervosa - a case report.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Heike; Schneider, Nora; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    A 15-year-old, female, formerly obese adolescent was referred to our day care clinic due to self-induced massive weight loss and depressive symptoms. Intense treatment, additional dialectical behavioral therapy and psychopharmacological treatment prevented further weight loss and improved her affective state. Due to remaining anorexic symptoms such as body image distortion, outpatient psychotherapeutic treatment is continued. This case report indicates the importance of further research on diagnostic crossover from obesity to atypical anorexia nervosa. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Physical Mapping of Meiotic Crossover Events in a 200-Kb Region of Neurospora Crassa Linkage Group I

    PubMed Central

    Mautino, M. R.; Haedo, S. D.; Rosa, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a general restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy to analyze the distribution of meiotic crossover events throughout specific genetic intervals. We have isolated 64 recombinant chromosomes carrying independent meiotic crossover events in the genetic interval eth-1-un-2 on linkage group I of Neurospora crassa. Thirty-eight crossover events were physically mapped with reference to a 200-kb region cloned by chromosome walking, using N. crassa λ and cosmid libraries. Crossovers were homogeneously distributed at intervals of 5.0 +/- 2.3 kb along the entire cloned interval. The ratio of physical to genetic distance appears to be higher in the region than in the overall N. crassa genome, suggesting that recombinational activity is less in large chromosomes than in small ones. The present work provides a method for defining the centromeric-telomeric orientation of single cloned DNA fragments. Their physical distance can also be estimated with respect to linked loci, provided that crossover events are distributed homogeneously in the interval. This strategy overcomes typical difficulties in defining the position and direction of chromosome walking steps on conventional linkage maps. PMID:8104159

  4. Switchable slow relaxation of magnetization in the native low temperature phase of a cooperative spin-crossover compound.

    PubMed

    Urtizberea, A; Roubeau, O

    2017-03-01

    The implementation of single-molecule magnet properties in spin crossover materials is sought as a unique source of magnetic multistability at the molecular level. Examples however remain extremely scarce, in part due to the diamagnetic state of most Fe(ii) spin crossover materials at low temperatures. We have studied the complex [Fe(mtz) 6 ](CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 (mtz = 1-methyltetrazole) as a tantalizing candidate of such coexistence, due to its known partial spin crossover and therefore paramagnetic native low temperature phase. The single-crystal structures of [Fe(mtz) 6 ](CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 reported here allow rationalizing its peculiar cooperative spin-crossover behavior. Importantly, the high-spin Fe crystallographic sites at low temperature exhibit a high symmetry with a local trigonal distortion, usually source of magnetic anisotropy. The analysis of equilibrium magnetic properties confirm the presence of a significant magnetic anisotropy at the Fe(ii) high spin sites in the high symmetry low temperature phase. This results in field-induced slow relaxation of their magnetization which is dominated at low temperature by tunneling and direct processes and is strongly enhanced above 3 K by Raman and Orbach processes. Unprecedentedly, these single-molecule magnet properties are observed in the native ground state of a spin crossover material and efficiently and reversibly switched OFF through visible light irradiation.

  5. The effects of the DDS-1 strain of lactobacillus on symptomatic relief for lactose intolerance - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, Michael N; Udani, Jay K; Molina, Jhanna Pamela; Shahani, Michael

    2016-05-20

    Lactose intolerance is a form of lactose maldigestion where individuals experience symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramping, flatulence, vomiting and bowel sounds following lactose consumption. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a species of bacteria known for its sugar fermenting properties. Preclinical studies have found that Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation may assist in breaking down lactose; however, no human clinical trials exist evaluating its efficacy in alleviating symptoms related to lactose intolerance. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to evaluate the effect of a proprietary strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus on relieving discomfort related to lactose intolerance. The study enrolled healthy volunteers between 18 and 75 years of age who complained of lactose intolerance. Screening visits included a lactose challenge visit to confirm eligibility based on a score of 10 or higher on subjective assessment of the following symptoms after lactose challenge: diarrhea, abdominal cramping, vomiting, audible bowel sounds, flatulence, and overall symptoms. Qualified subjects participated in a 2-arm crossover design, with each arm consisting of 4 weeks of intervention of either active or placebo product, with a 2-week washout period during crossover. The study product consisted of the DDS-1 strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus (Nebraska Cultures, Walnut Creek, California). The placebo was formulated from maltodextrin. Study participants were instructed to take the product once daily for 4 weeks. Data collected included subjective symptom scores related to lactose intolerance. Longitudinal comparison between the DDS-1 group and placebo group demonstrated statistically significant reductions in abdominal symptom scores during the 6-h Lactose Challenge at week 4 for diarrhea (p = 0.033), abdominal cramping (p = 0.012), vomiting (p = 0.0002), and overall symptom score (p = 0.037). No adverse

  6. Test Equality between Three Treatments under an Incomplete Block Crossover Design.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Under a random effects linear additive risk model, we compare two experimental treatments with a placebo in continuous data under an incomplete block crossover trial. We develop three test procedures for simultaneously testing equality between two experimental treatments and a placebo, as well as interval estimators for the mean difference between treatments. We apply Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and interval estimators in a variety of situations. We note that the bivariate test procedure accounting for the dependence structure based on the F-test is preferable to the other two procedures when there is only one of the two experimental treatments has a non-zero effect vs. the placebo. We note further that when the effects of the two experimental treatments vs. a placebo are in the same relative directions and are approximately of equal magnitude, the summary test procedure based on a simple average of two weighted-least-squares (WLS) estimators can outperform the other two procedures with respect to power. When one of the two experimental treatments has a relatively large effect vs. the placebo, the univariate test procedure with using Bonferroni's equality can be still of use. Finally, we use the data about the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) readings taken from a double-blind crossover trial comparing two different doses of formoterol with a placebo to illustrate the use of test procedures and interval estimators proposed here.

  7. Effects of spin crossover on iron isotope fractionation in Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, T.; Shukla, G.; Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the iron isotope composition of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) is +0.1‰ richer in heavy Fe (56Fe) relative to chondrites, while basalts from Mars and Vesta have similar Fe isotopic composition as chondrites. Several hypotheses could explain these observations. For instance, iron isotope fractionation may have occurred during core formation or Earth may have lost some light Fe isotope during the high temperature event in the early Earth. To better understand what drove these isotopic observations, it is important to obtain accurate Fe isotope fractionation factors among mantle and core phases at the relevant P-T conditions. In bridgmanite, the most voluminous mineral in the lower mantle, Fe can occupy more than one crystalline site, be in ferrous and/or ferric states, and may undergo a spin crossover in the lower mantle. Iron isotopic fractionation properties under spin crossover are poorly constrained, while this may be relevant to differentiation of Earth's magma ocean. In this study we address the effect of these multiple states on the iron isotope fractionation factors between mantle and core phases.

  8. 1D-3D Crossover In A Spin-Balanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Olsen, Ben A.; Fry, Jacob A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    We experimentally study the phases of an ultracold two-spin component gas of atomic fermions (6Li) confined to 1D tubes formed by a 2D optical lattice. Spin-imbalanced trapped Fermi gases have been observed to phase separate in both 1D and 3D, but with qualitatively different features. The difference between the phase separation in these regimes allows for the dimensionality of the system to be determined using phase diagrams. We observed the transition for a 1D-like to 3D-like Fermi gas by varying the atomic interactions and the tunneling rate between the 1D tubes. Using the inversion of the phase separation between 1D and 3D, we determined crossover point. By scaling the tunneling rate t with respect to the pair binding energy ɛB, we observe a collapse of the data and have identified a universal crossover point of t /ɛB = 0 . 025 (7). Supported by the NSF, ONR, the Welch Foundation, and the ARO-MURI program.

  9. Detecting The FFLO Phase In The Dimensional Crossover Of An Imbalanced FERMI Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yi; Fry, Jacob; Marchant, Anna; Revelle, Melissa; Hulet, Randall

    2017-04-01

    The exotic Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) magnetized superconductor occupies a large region of the one-dimensional (1D) phase diagram. However, the FFLO phase is more robust against quantum and thermal fluctuations in higher dimensions. This motivated us to map the dimensional crossover between 1D and 3D, as it is predicted to be the optimal regime to search for FFLO. We prepare a spin-imbalanced Fermi gas of 6Li, analogous to creating a magnetized atomic cloud. By using a 2D optical lattice, we confine the atoms to 1D tubes and bring the system to the dimensional crossover regime by tuning the inter-tube tunneling rate and interaction strength. To detect FFLO, we take 1D time of flight measurements using a blue-detuned anti-trapping beam to cancel the axial confinement. This permits the mapping of the linear momentum distribution, from which signatures of FFLO may be observed. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, ONR, and The Welch Foundation.

  10. New Hofmann-like spin crossover compound with 3,5-lutidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi; Takahashi, Miwa

    2014-04-01

    A new type III of 3,5-lutidine spin crossover coordination compound with formula Fe(3,5-lutidine)2Ni(CN)4·2[(H2O)(3,5-lutidine)] 2c has been obtained. The ratio of the high spin state (HS) iron (II) changing to the low spin state (LS) iron (II) in 2c is higher than that of type I and type II 3,5-lutidine coordination polymer 2a and 2b previously reported. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 2c show two different doublets which correspond to HS1 (inner doublet lines) and HS2 (outer doublet lines). The intensity of the HS1 doublet decreases on cooling to 80 K while the intensity of another component, the LS singlet, increases. The 90 % of the HS1 doublet change to the LS singlet is probably due to suitable environments of octahedral iron (II) ions coordinated by four nitrogen atoms of cyano groups and two nitrogen atoms of 3,5-lutidine ligands. We also prepared the Hofmann-like 3,5-dichloropyridine coordination compound Fe(3,5-dichloropyridine)2Ni(CN)4 ·2[(3,5-dichloropyridine)(H2O)] 2d to compare it with 2c. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 2d show that 2d is not a spin crossover coordination compound.

  11. Meiotic prophase roles of Rec8 in crossover recombination and chromosome structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Wook; Lee, Min-Su; Xaver, Martin; Zhang, Liangran; Hong, Soo-Gil; Kong, Yoon-Ju; Cho, Hong-Rae; Kleckner, Nancy; Kim, Keun P.

    2016-01-01

    Rec8 is a prominent component of the meiotic prophase chromosome axis that mediates sister chromatid cohesion, homologous recombination and chromosome synapsis. Here, we explore the prophase roles of Rec8. (i) During the meiotic divisions, Rec8 phosphorylation mediates its separase-mediated cleavage. We show here that such cleavage plays no detectable role for chromosomal events of prophase. (ii) We have analyzed in detail three rec8 phospho-mutants, with 6, 24 or 29 alanine substitutions. A distinct ‘separation of function’ phenotype is revealed. In the mutants, axis formation and recombination initiation are normal, as is non-crossover recombination; in contrast, crossover (CO)-related events are defective. Moreover, the severities of these defects increase coordinately with the number of substitution mutations, consistent with the possibility that global phosphorylation of Rec8 is important for these effects. (iii) We have analyzed the roles of three kinases that phosphorylate Rec8 during prophase. Timed inhibition of Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase confers defects concordant with rec8 phospho-mutant phenotypes. Inhibition of Hrr25 or Cdc5/polo-like kinase does not. Our results suggest that Rec8's prophase function, independently of cohesin cleavage, contributes to CO-specific events in conjunction with the maintenance of homolog bias at the leptotene/zygotene transition of meiotic prophase. PMID:27484478

  12. Meiotic prophase roles of Rec8 in crossover recombination and chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang-Wook; Lee, Min-Su; Xaver, Martin; Zhang, Liangran; Hong, Soo-Gil; Kong, Yoon-Ju; Cho, Hong-Rae; Kleckner, Nancy; Kim, Keun P

    2016-11-02

    Rec8 is a prominent component of the meiotic prophase chromosome axis that mediates sister chromatid cohesion, homologous recombination and chromosome synapsis. Here, we explore the prophase roles of Rec8. (i) During the meiotic divisions, Rec8 phosphorylation mediates its separase-mediated cleavage. We show here that such cleavage plays no detectable role for chromosomal events of prophase. (ii) We have analyzed in detail three rec8 phospho-mutants, with 6, 24 or 29 alanine substitutions. A distinct 'separation of function' phenotype is revealed. In the mutants, axis formation and recombination initiation are normal, as is non-crossover recombination; in contrast, crossover (CO)-related events are defective. Moreover, the severities of these defects increase coordinately with the number of substitution mutations, consistent with the possibility that global phosphorylation of Rec8 is important for these effects. (iii) We have analyzed the roles of three kinases that phosphorylate Rec8 during prophase. Timed inhibition of Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase confers defects concordant with rec8 phospho-mutant phenotypes. Inhibition of Hrr25 or Cdc5/polo-like kinase does not. Our results suggest that Rec8's prophase function, independently of cohesin cleavage, contributes to CO-specific events in conjunction with the maintenance of homolog bias at the leptotene/zygotene transition of meiotic prophase. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Numerical Investigations of the Thermal, Pressure and Size Effects on 2D Spin Crossover Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlé, C.; Allal, S. E.; Sohier, D.; Dufaud, T.; Caballero, R.; de Zela, F.; Dahoo, P. R.; Boukheddaden, K.; Linares, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of the Ising-like model, the thermal and pressure effects on the spin crossover systems are evaluated through two-states fictitious spin operators σ with eigenvalues 𝜎 = -1 and 𝜎 = +1 respectively associated with the low-spin (LS) and highspin (HS) states of each spin-crossover (SCO) molecule. Based on each configurational state, the macroscopic SCO system, is described by the following variables: m=Σ σi, s=Σ σi σj and c=Σ σk standing respectively for the total magnetization, the short-range correlations and surface magnetization. To solve this problem, we first determine the density of macrostates d[m][s][c], giving the number of microscopic configurations with the same m, s and c values. In this contribution, two different ways have been performed to calculate this important quantity: (i) the entropic sampling method, based on Monte Carlo simulations and (ii) a new algorithm based on specific dynamic programming. These two methods were tested on the 2D SCO nanoparticles for which, we calculated the average magnetization < σ> taking into account for short-, long-range interactions as well as for the interaction between surface molecules with their surrounding matrix. We monitored the effect of the pressure, temperature and size on the properties of the SCO nanoparticles.

  14. Universal Fermi liquid crossover and quantum criticality in a mesoscopic system.

    PubMed

    Keller, A J; Peeters, L; Moca, C P; Weymann, I; Mahalu, D; Umansky, V; Zaránd, G; Goldhaber-Gordon, D

    2015-10-08

    Quantum critical systems derive their finite-temperature properties from the influence of a zero-temperature quantum phase transition. The paradigm is essential for understanding unconventional high-Tc superconductors and the non-Fermi liquid properties of heavy fermion compounds. However, the microscopic origins of quantum phase transitions in complex materials are often debated. Here we demonstrate experimentally, with support from numerical renormalization group calculations, a universal crossover from quantum critical non-Fermi liquid behaviour to distinct Fermi liquid ground states in a highly controllable quantum dot device. Our device realizes the non-Fermi liquid two-channel Kondo state, based on a spin-1/2 impurity exchange-coupled equally to two independent electronic reservoirs. On detuning the exchange couplings we observe the Fermi liquid scale T*, at energies below which the spin is screened conventionally by the more strongly coupled channel. We extract a quadratic dependence of T* on gate voltage close to criticality, and validate an asymptotically exact description of the universal crossover between strongly correlated non-Fermi liquid and Fermi liquid states.

  15. Diagnostic Crossover in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: Implications for DSM-V

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Dorer, David J.; Franko, Debra L.; Tahilani, Kavita; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Herzog, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is designed primarily as a clinical tool. Yet high rates of diagnostic “crossover” among the anorexia nervosa subtypes and bulimia nervosa may reflect problems with the validity of the current diagnostic schema, thereby limiting its clinical utility. This study was designed to examine diagnostic crossover longitudinally in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa to inform the validity of the DSM-IV-TR eating disorders classification system. Method A total of 216 women with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa were followed for 7 years; weekly eating disorder symptom data collected using the Eating Disorder Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Examination allowed for diagnoses to be made throughout the follow-up period. Results Over 7 years, the majority of women with anorexia nervosa experienced diagnostic crossover: more than half crossed between the restricting and binge eating/purging anorexia nervosa subtypes over time; one-third crossed over to bulimia nervosa but were likely to relapse into anorexia nervosa. Women with bulimia nervosa were unlikely to cross over to anorexia nervosa. Conclusions These findings support the longitudinal distinction of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa but do not support the anorexia nervosa subtyping schema. PMID:18198267

  16. Anisotropy crossover in the frustrated Hubbard model on four-chain cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, G.; Lenz, B.; Manmana, S. R.; Noack, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by dimensional crossover in layered organic κ salts, we determine the phase diagram of a system of four periodically coupled Hubbard chains with frustration at half filling as a function of the interchain hopping t⊥/t and interaction strength U /t at a fixed ratio of frustration and interchain hopping t'/t⊥=-0.5 . We cover the range from the one-dimensional limit of uncoupled chains (t⊥/t =0.0 ) to the isotropic model (t⊥/t =1.0 ). For strong U /t , we find an antiferromagnetic insulator; in the weak-to-moderate-interaction regime, the phase diagram features quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic behavior, an incommensurate spin density wave, and a metallic phase as t⊥/t is increased. We characterize the phases through their magnetic ordering, dielectric response, and dominant static correlations. Our analysis is based primarily on a variant of the density-matrix renormalization-group algorithm based on an efficient hybrid-real-momentum-space formulation, in which we can treat relatively large lattices albeit of a limited width. This is complemented by a variational cluster approximation study with a cluster geometry corresponding to the cylindrical lattice allowing us to directly compare the two methods for this geometry. As an outlook, we make contact with work studying dimensional crossover in the full two-dimensional system.

  17. Quantum phase crossover and chaos in a generalized Jahn-Teller lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerníková, Eva; Shpyrko, Serge

    2011-02-01

    The generalized multispin Jahn-Teller model on a finite lattice or formally equivalent Dicke model extended to two long-wavelength coherent bosons of different frequencies is shown to exhibit a crossover between the polaron-modified 'quasi-normal' and the squeezed 'radiation' domains. We investigate the effects of two kinds of interfering fluctuations on the phase crossover and on statistical characteristics of boson complex spectra. (i) Fluctuations in the electron subsystem—finite-size quantum fluctuations—are responsible for the dephasing of the coherence in the radiation domain and for the moderate occupation of the excited states in the normal domain. In the quasiclassical limit, radiation phase implies the existence of a coherent acoustic super-radiant phase. (ii) Level-spacing fluctuations in the excited boson level subsystem with strong level repulsions. Related probability distributions are shown to be non-universally spread between the limiting universal Wigner-Dyson and Poisson distributions. We proved that the difference in boson frequencies is responsible for reaching the most stochastic limit of the Wigner-Dyson distribution. Instanton lattice as a sequence of tunneling events in the most chaotic radiation domain exhibits maximal number of level-avoidings (repulsions). The non-universality of the distributions is caused by boson correlations which compete with the level repulsions.

  18. Motor Cortex Stimulation for Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized Cross-over Trial.

    PubMed

    Radic, Julia A E; Beauprie, Ian; Chiasson, Paula; Kiss, Zelma H T; Brownstone, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has been used to treat medically refractory neuropathic pain over the past 20 years. We investigated this procedure using a prospective multicentre randomized blinded crossover trial. Twelve subjects with three different neuropathic pain syndromes had placement of MCS systems after which they were randomized to receive low ("subtherapeutic") or high ("therapeutic") stimulation for 12 weeks, followed by a crossover to the other treatment group for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the pain visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II, medication log, work status, global impression of change, and SF-36 quality of life scale. The trial was halted early due to lack of efficacy. One subject withdrew early due to protocol violation and five subjects withdrew early due to transient adverse events. Six subjects with upper extremity pain completed the study. There was no significant change in VAS with low or high stimulation and no significant improvement in any of the outcome measures from low to high stimulation. SF-36 role physical and mental health scores were worse with high compared to low stimulation (p=0.024, p=0.005). We failed to show that MCS is an effective treatment for refractory upper extremity neuropathic pain and suggest that previous studies may have been skewed by placebo effects, or ours by nocebo. We suggest that a healthy degree of skepticism is warranted when considering this invasive therapy for upper extremity pain syndromes.

  19. A semi-parametric approach to the frequency of occurrence under a simple crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the frequency of occurrence for an event of interest in a crossover design, we propose a semi-parametric approach. We develop two point estimators and four interval estimators in closed forms for the treatment effect under a random effects multiplicative risk model. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate these estimators and compare the four interval estimators with the classical interval estimator suggested elsewhere in a variety of situations. We note that the point estimator using the ratio of two arithmetic averages of mean frequencies under a multiplicative risk model can be comparable to the point estimator using the ratio of two geometric averages of mean frequencies. We note that as long as the number of patients per group is large, all the four interval estimators developed here can perform well. We also note that the classical interval estimator derived under the commonly assumed Poisson distribution for the frequency data can be conservative and lose precision if the Poisson distribution assumption is violated. We use a double-blind randomized crossover trial comparing salmeterol with a placebo in exacerbations of asthma to illustrate the practical use of these estimators. © The Author(s) 2012.

  20. An Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in Institutionalized Elderly with Cognitive Deficits: A Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week “washout period” of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors. PMID:24251085

  1. An exercise program to prevent falls in institutionalized elderly with cognitive deficits: a crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    DeSure, Ariell R; Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-11-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week "washout period" of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors.

  2. Analysis of phase transitions in spin-crossover compounds by using atom - phonon coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gîndulescu, A.; Rotaru, A.; Linares, J.; Dimian, M.; Nasser, J.

    2011-01-01

    The spin - crossover compounds (SCO) have become of great interest recently due to their potential applications in memories, sensors, switches, and display devices. These materials are particularly interesting because upon application of heat, light, pressure or other physical stimulus, they feature a phase transition between a low-spin (LS) diamagnetic ground state and a high-spin (HS) paramagnetic state, accompanied in some cases by color change. The phase transition can be discontinuous (with hysteresis), in two steps or gradual. Our analysis is performed by using the atom - phonon coupling (APC) model which considers that neighboring molecules are connected through a spring characterized by an elastic constant depending on molecules electronic state. By associating a fictitious spin to each molecule that has -1 and +1 eigenvalues corresponding to LS and HS levels respectively, an Ising type model can be developed for the analysis of metastable states and phase transitions in spin-crossover compounds. This contribution is aimed at providing a review of our recent results in this area, as well as novel aspects related to SCO compounds behavior at low temperature. In the framework of the APC model, we will discuss about the existence of metastable and unstable states, phase transitions and hysteresis phenomena, as well as their dependence on sample size.

  3. Fragile to strong crossover at the Widom line in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, P.; Corradini, D.; Rovere, M., E-mail: rovere@fis.uniroma3.it

    2013-11-28

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical properties of an aqueous solution of NaCl at a concentration of 0.67 mol/kg upon supercooling. In a previous study of the same ionic solution, we have located the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and determined the Widom line connected to the liquid-liquid transition. We present here the results obtained from the study of the self-intermediate scattering function in a large range of temperatures and densities approaching the LLCP. The structural relaxation is in agreement with the mode coupling theory (MCT) in the region of mild supercooling. In the deeper supercooled region the α-relaxationmore » time as function of temperature deviates from the MCT power law prediction showing a crossover from a fragile to a strong behavior. This crossover is found upon crossing the Widom line. The same trend was found in bulk water upon supercooling and it appears almost unchanged by the interaction with ions apart from a shift in the thermodynamic plane toward lower pressures and higher temperatures. These results show that the phenomenology of supercooled water transfers from bulk to solution where the study of the supercooled region is experimentally less difficult.« less

  4. Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2018-03-01

    The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information thatmore » reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.« less

  5. BCS-BEC crossovers and unconventional phases in dilute nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W.

    2014-12-01

    We study the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetrical nuclear matter in the density-temperature plane, allowing for four competing phases of nuclear matter: (i) the unpaired phase; (ii) the translationally and rotationally symmetric, but isospin-asymmetrical BCS condensate; (iii) the current-carrying Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase; and (iv) the heterogeneous phase-separated phase. The phase diagram of nuclear matter composed of these phases features two tricritical points, in general, as well as crossovers from the asymmetrical BCS phase to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of deuterons plus a neutron gas, for both the homogeneous superfluid phase (at high temperatures) and the heterogeneous phase (at low temperatures). The BCS-BEC-type crossover in the condensate occurs as the density is reduced. We analyze in detail some intrinsic properties of these phases, including the Cooper-pair wave function, the coherence length, the occupation numbers of majority and minority nucleonic components, and the dispersion relations of quasiparticle excitations about the ground state. We show by explicit examples that the physics of the individual phases and the transition from weak to strong coupling can be well understood by tracing the behavior of these quantities.

  6. Mte1 interacts with Mph1 and promotes crossover recombination and telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sonia; Altmannova, Veronika; Luke-Glaser, Sarah; Henriksen, Peter; Gallina, Irene; Yang, Xuejiao; Choudhary, Chunaram; Luke, Brian; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-01-01

    Mph1 is a member of the conserved FANCM family of DNA motor proteins that play key roles in genome maintenance processes underlying Fanconi anemia, a cancer predisposition syndrome in humans. Here, we identify Mte1 as a novel interactor of the Mph1 helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vitro, Mte1 (Mph1-associated telomere maintenance protein 1) binds directly to DNA with a preference for branched molecules such as D loops and fork structures. In addition, Mte1 stimulates the helicase and fork regression activities of Mph1 while inhibiting the ability of Mph1 to dissociate recombination intermediates. Deletion of MTE1 reduces crossover recombination and suppresses the sensitivity of mph1Δ mutant cells to replication stress. Mph1 and Mte1 interdependently colocalize at DNA damage-induced foci and dysfunctional telomeres, and MTE1 deletion results in elongated telomeres. Taken together, our data indicate that Mte1 plays a role in regulation of crossover recombination, response to replication stress, and telomere maintenance. PMID:26966248

  7. The Effect of Paging Reminders on Fellowship Conference Attendance: A Multi-Program Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua; Zaffiri, Lorenzo; Clary, Julie; Davis, Tyler; Bosslet, Gabriel T

    2016-07-01

    Educational conferences have long served as a foundation of medical education. Sending reminder text pages prior to the start of conferences is a method that may be employed to enhance conference attendance. The goal of our study was to determine if routine text paging before regularly scheduled conferences improves attendance among fellows in 3 internal medicine programs. A prospective, randomized, crossover study included 3 fellowship programs: pulmonary and critical care, cardiovascular disease, and hematology-oncology. The study was performed between October 2014 and March 2015. All fellows were included and randomized to 1 of 2 groups (with subsequent crossover to opposite group): Pages or No Pages. Paging reminders, which included conference title, location, and time, were sent 30 minutes prior to every conference for those in the intervention arm. Attendance was collected through a standard attendance log using self-registration. A total of 46 fellows and 156 conferences were included for analysis, with 75 during the first 3 months and 81 during the second 3 months. There were no differences in individual overall attendance between randomized groups for the entire study period (42.9% versus 46.5%, P = .46). Paging reminders had no effect on overall individual attendance (43.7% versus 45.6%, P = .50). In addition, no significant differences were identified for individuals within each fellowship and training year. Paging reminders prior to a regularly scheduled conference had no effect on overall attendance in this study. Fellows reported that clinical obligations were a major barrier to conference attendance.

  8. Music exposure and maturation of late preterm sleep-wake cycles: a randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Adia; Agthe, Alexander G; El Metwally, Dina

    2018-04-01

    To determine the effect of music on sleep-wake cycle (SWC) patterns in late preterm neonates. In a masked crossover study, infants between 32 and 36 6/7 weeks gestation were randomised to music exposure either during the first six or last six hours of a 12-hour observation period. SWC characteristics were determined by continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) read by two coders masked to exposure sequence. Analysis was performed in paired comparisons. ANOVA was used to assess the effects of music exposure, period and crossover on SWC outcomes: (i) Burdjalov Scores (BS) during active sleep (AS) (ii) per cent and duration of quiet sleep (QS). Thirty infants were studied. A total of 222 QS cycles (median seven per patient; range five to 12) were analysed. Music exposure was associated with higher BS (F = 10.60, p = 0.0019) in AS and decreased interruptions during QS. The advanced postconceptual age (PCA) SWC pattern during AS was equivalent to a one-week mean. Number, duration and ratio of QS cycles did not change with music exposure. Music exposure elicits an increasing PCA pattern in AS and fewer interruptions in QS. Music may benefit sleep in late preterm infants. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Randomized crossover study of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Han-Suk; Sohn, Jin A; Lee, Jin A; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Kim, Beyong Il; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), a new method of mechanical ventilation that delivers pressure assistance that is proportional to the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi), could lower the inspiratory pressure and respiratory muscle load in preterm infants supported with ventilators. Twenty-six mechanically ventilated preterm infants were randomized to crossover ventilation with NAVA and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) with pressure support (PS) for 4 hours each in a randomized order. A 1-hour interval for washout was provided between the 2 modes of ventilation. The ventilator settings were adjusted to maintain similar levels of end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). The ventilator parameters, vital signs, and gas exchange effects under the 2 ventilatory modes were compared. Nineteen infants completed the 9-hour crossover comparison protocol. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), work of breathing, and peak EAdi with NAVA were lower than those in SIMV with PS. Calculated tidal volume to peak EAdi ratio and PIP to peak EAdi ratio were higher with NAVA. There were no significant differences in mean airway pressure, inspiratory oxygen fraction, and blood gas values. The measurements of vital signs did not differ significantly between the 2 modes. NAVA lowered PIP and reduced respiratory muscle load in preterm infants at equivalent inspiratory oxygen fraction and partial pressure of CO(2) of capillary blood in comparison with SIMV with PS. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement in chest compression quality using a feedback device (CPRmeter): a simulation randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Buléon, Clément; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Halbout, Laurent; Arrot, Xavier; De Facq Régent, Hélène; Chelarescu, Dan; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac arrest survival depends on celerity and efficiency of life support action. Guidelines emphasized the chest compression (CC) quality and feedback devices are encouraged. The purpose is to study the impact of the CPRmeter feedback device on resuscitation performed by untrained rescuers. This is a prospective randomized crossover study on manikins (Resusci Anne). One hundred and forty four students inexperienced in cardiopulmonary resuscitation representing untrained rescuers were included. Participants performed 2 minutes of CC without interruption with (group G) or without (group B) feedback. Four months passed between the 2 crossover phases to avoid resilience effect. Data collected by the CPRmeter device were: CC rate, depth and release. Efficient CC rate ([simultaneous and correct CC rate, depth and release] primary outcome) (absolute difference [95% CI]) was significantly improved in group G (71%) compared to group B (26%; [45 {36-55}]; P < .0001). Adequate depth rate (>38 mm) was significantly improved in group G (85%) compared to group B (43%; [42 {33-52}]; P < .0001). Adequate CC rate (90-120/min) was significantly improved in group G (81%) compared to group B (56%; [25 {15-35}]; P < .0001). The average CC rate and depth in group G were significantly less dispersed around the mean compared to group B (test of variance P < .007; P < .015 respectively). The use of the CPRmeter significantly improved CC quality performed by students inexperienced in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2013.

  11. BEC and Dimensional Crossover in a Boson Gas Within Multi-slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, O. A.; Solís, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    For an ideal Bose-gas within a multi-slabs periodic structure, we report a dimensional crossover and discuss whether a BEC transition at T c ≠0 disappears or not. The multi-slabs structure is generated via a Kronig-Penney potential perpendicular to the slabs of width a and separated by a distance b. The ability of the particles to jump between adjacent slabs is determined by the hight V 0 and width b of the potential barrier. Contrary to what happens in the boson gas inside a zero-width multilayers case, where the critical temperature diminishes and goes up again as a function of the wall separation, here the T c decreases continuously as the potential barrier height and the cell size a+ b increase. The specific heat shows a crossover from 3D to 2D when the height of the potential or the barrier width increase, in addition to the well known peak related to the Bose-Einstein condensation.

  12. Crossover of the Power-Law Exponent for Carbon Nanotube Conductivity as a Function of Salinity.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yuki; Netz, Roland R; Bocquet, Lydéric; Bonthuis, Douwe Jan

    2018-03-22

    On the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in cylindrical coordinates, we calculate the conductivity of a single charged nanotube filled with electrolyte. The conductivity as a function of the salt concentration follows a power-law, the exponent of which has been controversially discussed in the literature. We use the co-ion-exclusion approximation and obtain the crossover between different asymptotic power-law behaviors analytically. Numerically solving the full Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we also calculate the complete diagram of exponents as a function of the salt concentration and the pH for tubes with different radii and p K a values. We apply our theory to recent experimental results on carbon nanotubes using the p K a as a fit parameter. In good agreement with the experimental data, the theory shows power-law behavior with the exponents 1/3 at high pH and 1/2 at low pH, with a crossover depending on salt concentration, tube radius and p K a .

  13. Wind Farm Layout Optimization through a Crossover-Elitist Evolutionary Algorithm performed over a High Performing Analytical Wake Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner-Bossi, Nicolas; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Wind turbine wakes can significantly disrupt the performance of further downstream turbines in a wind farm, thus seriously limiting the overall wind farm power output. Such effect makes the layout design of a wind farm to play a crucial role on the whole performance of the project. An accurate definition of the wake interactions added to a computationally compromised layout optimization strategy can result in an efficient resource when addressing the problem. This work presents a novel soft-computing approach to optimize the wind farm layout by minimizing the overall wake effects that the installed turbines exert on one another. An evolutionary algorithm with an elitist sub-optimization crossover routine and an unconstrained (continuous) turbine positioning set up is developed and tested over an 80-turbine offshore wind farm over the North Sea off Denmark (Horns Rev I). Within every generation of the evolution, the wind power output (cost function) is computed through a recently developed and validated analytical wake model with a Gaussian profile velocity deficit [1], which has shown to outperform the traditionally employed wake models through different LES simulations and wind tunnel experiments. Two schemes with slightly different perimeter constraint conditions (full or partial) are tested. Results show, compared to the baseline, gridded layout, a wind power output increase between 5.5% and 7.7%. In addition, it is observed that the electric cable length at the facilities is reduced by up to 21%. [1] Bastankhah, Majid, and Fernando Porté-Agel. "A new analytical model for wind-turbine wakes." Renewable Energy 70 (2014): 116-123.

  14. Lack of adjustment latitude at work as a trigger of taking sick leave-a Swedish case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Hultin, Hanna; Hallqvist, Johan; Alexanderson, Kristina; Johansson, Gun; Lindholm, Christina; Lundberg, Ingvar; Möller, Jette

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals reporting a low level of adjustment latitude, defined as having few possibilities to temporarily adjust work demands to illness, have a higher risk of sick leave. To what extent lack of adjustment latitude influences the individual when making the decision to take sick leave is unknown. We hypothesize that ill individuals are more likely to take sick leave on days when they experience a lack of adjustment latitude at work than on days with access to adjustment latitude. A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a cohort of 1 430 employees at six Swedish workplaces, with a 3-12 month follow-up of all new sick-leave spells. Exposure to lack of adjustment latitude on the first sick-leave day was compared with exposure during several types of control periods sampled from the previous two months for the same individual. Only 35% of the respondents reported variations in access to adjustment latitude, and 19% reported a constant lack of adjustment latitude during the two weeks prior to the sick-leave spell. Among those that did report variation, the risk of sick leave was lower on days with lack of adjustment latitude, than on days with access (Odds Ratio 0.36, 95% Confidence Interval 0.25-0.52). This is the first study to show the influence of adjustment latitude on the decision to take sick leave. Among those with variations in exposure, lack of adjustment latitude was a deterrent of sick leave, which is contrary to the à priori hypothesis. These results indicate that adjustment latitude may not only capture long-lasting effects of a flexible working environment, but also temporary possibilities to adjust work to being absent. Further studies are needed to disentangle the causal mechanisms of adjustment latitude on sick-leave.

  15. The effect of a standardised source of divided attention in airway management: A randomised, crossover, interventional manikin study.

    PubMed

    Prottengeier, Johannes; Petzoldt, Marlen; Jess, Nikola; Moritz, Andreas; Gall, Christine; Schmidt, Joachim; Breuer, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Dual-tasking, the need to divide attention between concurrent tasks, causes a severe increase in workload in emergency situations and yet there is no standardised training simulation scenario for this key difficulty. We introduced and validated a quantifiable source of divided attention and investigated its effects on performance and workload in airway management. A randomised, crossover, interventional simulation study. Center for Training and Simulation, Department of Anaesthesiology, Erlangen University Hospital, Germany. One hundred and fifty volunteer medical students, paramedics and anaesthesiologists of all levels of training. Participants secured the airway of a manikin using a supraglottic airway, conventional endotracheal intubation and video-assisted endotracheal intubation with and without the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), which served as a quantifiable source of divided attention. Primary endpoint was the time for the completion of each airway task. Secondary endpoints were the number of procedural mistakes made and the perceived workload as measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's task load index (NASA-TLX). This is a six-dimensional questionnaire, which assesses the perception of demands, performance and frustration with respect to a task on a scale of 0 to 100. All 150 participants completed the tests. Volunteers perceived our test to be challenging (99%) and the experience of stress and distraction true to an emergency situation (80%), but still fair (98%) and entertaining (95%). The negative effects of divided attention were reproducible in participants of all levels of expertise. Time consumption and perceived workload increased and almost half the participants make procedural mistakes under divided attention. The supraglottic airway technique was least affected by divided attention. The scenario was effective for simulation training involving divided attention in acute care medicine. The significant effects

  16. Aluminium foil for the prevention of post-amputation pain: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Minnee, Robert C; Lam, Kayan Y; Wisselink, Willem; Vahl, Anco C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a painful sensation perceived in the missing limb after amputation. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Until recently, only opioid analgesics have been proven to be effective in prospective studies. Anecdotally, patients with PLP employ self-help measures, sometimes including ‘wrapping up’ or rubbing their stump with aluminium foil for relief. Our hypothesis is that wrapping an amputation stump with aluminium foil perioperatively will prevent PLP in the postoperative period. Methods: From September 2007 to September 2009, 32 consecutive patients were included in a crossover, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial. Perioperative fitting of an aluminium stump bandage was compared with a placebo paper foil. Scores were noted daily in a variable diary. The observation period was 2 weeks: in the first week participants were double blinded, and in the second week there was a change of bandage from aluminium to placebo or vice versa. A visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used as primary research variable. Secondary variables were use of analgesics, VAS measures of wound pain and the incidence of wound infections. Statistical analysis was done by means of Student’s t-test for non-paired observations. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. A period effect (p= 0.84) and treatment–period interaction (p = 0.79) were not present. There was no significant difference (mean difference 0.42) between both treatments in PLP VAS scores (95% CI −2.56 to −1.81, p = 0.71). VAS measure of wound pain showed no significant difference between both groups (mean difference 0.34, 95% CI −2.32 to −1.66, p = 0.72). Also, the other secondary endpoints did not differ. Conclusion: Patients receiving an aluminium foil stump wrapping do not experience less phantom pain than with a placebo. PMID:26516506

  17. Aluminium foil for the prevention of post-amputation pain: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Minnee, Robert C; Bosma, Jan; Lam, Kayan Y; Wisselink, Willem; Vahl, Anco C

    2013-05-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a painful sensation perceived in the missing limb after amputation. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Until recently, only opioid analgesics have been proven to be effective in prospective studies. Anecdotally, patients with PLP employ self-help measures, sometimes including 'wrapping up' or rubbing their stump with aluminium foil for relief. Our hypothesis is that wrapping an amputation stump with aluminium foil perioperatively will prevent PLP in the postoperative period. From September 2007 to September 2009, 32 consecutive patients were included in a crossover, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial. Perioperative fitting of an aluminium stump bandage was compared with a placebo paper foil. Scores were noted daily in a variable diary. The observation period was 2 weeks: in the first week participants were double blinded, and in the second week there was a change of bandage from aluminium to placebo or vice versa. A visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used as primary research variable. Secondary variables were use of analgesics, VAS measures of wound pain and the incidence of wound infections. Statistical analysis was done by means of Student's t-test for non-paired observations. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. A period effect (p= 0.84) and treatment-period interaction (p = 0.79) were not present. There was no significant difference (mean difference 0.42) between both treatments in PLP VAS scores (95% CI -2.56 to -1.81, p = 0.71). VAS measure of wound pain showed no significant difference between both groups (mean difference 0.34, 95% CI -2.32 to -1.66, p = 0.72). Also, the other secondary endpoints did not differ. Patients receiving an aluminium foil stump wrapping do not experience less phantom pain than with a placebo.

  18. Crossover Temperature from Non-Fermi Liquid to Fermi Liquid Behavior in Two Types of Impurity Kondo Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Maebashi, Hideaki

    2002-07-01

    Numerical renormalization-group results on entropy of the anisotropic two-channel Kondo model with the band-width cutoff (D) in the presence of a magnetic field (h) are obtained to determine crossover temperature from the non-Fermi liquid to Fermi liquid fixed point. It is found that the crossover temperature (Tx) is given by Tx\\equiv{r}TK˜ D(Δ J/Jav)2 e-1/Jav when (h /TK)2 ≪ r ≪ 1 , where TK, Jav and Δ J are the Kondo temperature, the average and difference of the exchange coupling constants, respectively. This result indicates that non-Fermi liquid behavior can be seen even if Δ J ≫ TK. Robust similarities of the crossover behavior in the region around the non-Fermi liquid critical point to that of the two-impurity Kondo model are also discussed.

  19. The pulsationally modulated radial crossover signature of the slowly rotating magnetic B-type star ξ1 CMa★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th

    2018-04-01

    We report the latest set of spectropolarimetric observations of the magnetic β Cep star ξ1 CMa. The new observations confirm the long-period model of Shultz et al. (2017), who proposed a rotational period of about 30 years and predicted that in 2018 the star should pass through a magnetic null. In perfect agreement with this projection, all longitudinal magnetic field ⟨Bz⟩ measurements are close to 0 G. Remarkably, individual Stokes V profiles all display a crossover signature, which is consistent with ⟨Bz⟩ ˜ 0 but is not expected when vsin i ˜ 0. The crossover signatures furthermore exhibit pulsationally modulated amplitude and sign variations. We show that these unexpected phenomena can all be explained by a `radial crossover' effect related to the star's radial pulsations, together with an important deviation of the global field topology from a purely dipolar structure, which we explore via a dipole+quadrupole configuration as the simplest non-dipolar field.

  20. Anomalous dispersion and band gap reduction in UO2+x and its possible coupling to the coherent polaronic quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradson, Steven D.; Andersson, David A.; Bagus, Paul S.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Clark, David L.; Conradson, Dylan R.; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Martucci, Mary B.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Valdez, James A.

    2016-05-01

    Hypervalent UO2, UO2(+x) formed by both addition of excess O and photoexcitation, exhibits a number of unusual or often unique properties that point to it hosting a polaronic Bose-Einstein(-Mott) condensate. A more thorough analysis of the O X-ray absorption spectra of UO2, U4O9, and U3O7 shows that the anomalous increase in the width of the spectral features assigned to predominantly U 5f and 6d final states that points to increased dispersion of these bands occurs on the low energy side corresponding to the upper edge of the gap bordered by the conduction or upper Hubbard band. The closing of the gap by 1.5 eV is more than twice as much as predicted by calculations, consistent with the dynamical polaron found by structural measurements. In addition to fostering the excitation that is the proposed mechanism for the coherence, the likely mirroring of this effect on the occupied, valence side of the gap below the Fermi level points to increased complexity of the electronic structure that could be associated with the Fermi topology of BEC-BCS crossover and two band superconductivity.

  1. Dynamical vanishing of the order parameter in a confined Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Fermi gas after an interaction quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannibal, S.; Kettmann, P.; Croitoru, M. D.; Axt, V. M.; Kuhn, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the Higgs mode in an ultracold confined Fermi gas after an interaction quench and find a dynamical vanishing of the superfluid order parameter. Our calculations are done within a microscopic density-matrix approach in the Bogoliubov-de Gennes framework which takes the three-dimensional cigar-shaped confinement explicitly into account. In this framework, we study the amplitude mode of the order parameter after interaction quenches starting on the BCS side of the BEC-BCS crossover close to the transition and ending in the BCS regime. We demonstrate the emergence of a dynamically vanishing superfluid order parameter in the spatiotemporal dynamics in a three-dimensional trap. Further, we show that the signal averaged over the whole trap mirrors the spatiotemporal behavior and allows us to systematically study the effects of the system size and aspect ratio on the observed dynamics. Our analysis enables us to connect the confinement-induced modifications of the dynamics to the pairing properties of the system. Finally, we demonstrate that the signature of the Higgs mode is contained in the dynamical signal of the condensate fraction, which, therefore, might provide a new experimental access to the nonadiabatic regime of the Higgs mode.

  2. Phases of circle-compactified QCD with adjoint fermions at finite density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Takuya; Ünsal, Mithat; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    We study chemical-potential dependence of confinement and mass gap in QCD with adjoint fermions in spacetime with one spatial compact direction. By calculating the one-loop effective potential for the Wilson line in the presence of a chemical potential, we show that a center-symmetric phase and a center-broken phase alternate when the chemical potential in units of the compactification scale is increased. In the center-symmetric phase we use semiclassical methods to show that photons in the magnetic bion plasma acquire a mass gap that grows with the chemical potential as a result of anisotropic interactions between monopole-instantons. For the neutral fermionic sector which remains gapless perturbatively, there are two possibilities at a nonperturbative level: either to remain gapless (unbroken global symmetry) or to undergo a novel superfluid transition through a four-fermion interaction (broken global symmetry). If the latter is the case, this leads to an energy gap of quarks proportional to a new nonperturbative scale L-1exp [-1 /(g4μ L )] , where L denotes the circumference of S1, the low-energy physics is described by a Nambu-Goldstone mode associated with the baryon number, and there exists a new type of BEC-BCS crossover of the diquark pairing as a function of the compactification scale at a small chemical potential.

  3. Effect of dexmedetomidine injected into the oral mucosa in combination with lidocaine on local anesthetic potency in humans: a crossover double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ayaka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to dexmedetomidine, a selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, as a possible additive for local anesthesia. However, the effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on the anesthetic action in humans has not fully been clarified. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine injected into the oral mucosa in combination with lidocaine on local anesthetic potency in humans. Twenty healthy volunteers were included in the present crossover double-blinded study. Lidocaine solution or lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution was submucosally injected into the alveolar mucosa in a crossover and double-blinded manner. The local anesthetic effect of the solutions was evaluated by measuring the current perception threshold (CPT) in the oral mucosa for 120 minutes after injection. Furthermore, the sedation level, blood pressure, and heart rate of the volunteers were evaluated. For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and 2-way repeated measures analysis of variation were used. The CPT was increased with the 2 solutions and peaked 10 minutes after injection. CPT values 10 and 20 minutes after injection of lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution were considerably higher than those with lidocaine solution. The duration of an important increase in the CPT after injection with lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution was longer than that with lidocaine. Furthermore, the area under the time curve of CPT was considerably higher with lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution than with lidocaine solution. No volunteer showed a change in sedation level, blood pressure, or heart rate after injection with either test solution throughout the experiment. The present study showed that a combination of dexmedetomidine plus lidocaine considerably enhances the local anesthetic potency of lidocaine without any major influences on the cardiovascular system when locally injected into the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015

  4. Resonant crossover of terahertz loss to the gain of a Bloch oscillating InAs/AlSb superlattice.

    PubMed

    Savvidis, P G; Kolasa, B; Lee, G; Allen, S J

    2004-05-14

    Terahertz absorption in waveguides loaded with InAs/AlSb super-superlattice mesas reveals a frequency dependent crossover from loss to gain that is related to the Stark ladder produced by an applied dc electric field. Electric field domains appear to be suppressed in the super-superlattice composed of many very short segments of superlattice, interrupted by heavily doped InAs regions. Resonant crossover is indicated by an increase in terahertz transmission as the Stark splitting or Bloch frequency determined by the applied dc electric field exceeds the measurement frequency.

  5. The quality of a newly developed infant chest compression method applied by paramedics: a randomised crossover manikin trial.

    PubMed

    Smereka, Jacek; Kasiński, Mariusz; Smereka, Adam; Ładny, Jerzy R; Szarpak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The aetiology of sudden cardiac arrest in infants is different from that in adults, with respiratory failure, sudden infant death syndrome, and drowning being the primary causes in the former. According to the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations, the quality of chest compressions (CC) is a key element affecting the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The current ERC and AHA guidelines recommend the 'two-finger technique' (TFT) or 'two-thumb encircling hands technique' (TTHT) for external CCs during infant CPR. The aim of the randomised crossover manikin trial was to assess the CC quality during simulated resuscitation in infants performed by paramedics. A prospective, randomised, crossover, single-centre study was conducted between June and August 2016. The study material consisted of 120 fully trained and licensed paramedics (39 females, 32.5%) with a minimum of five years of professional experience (mean 7.5 ± 4.8 years) in emergency medicine (mean age, 30.5 ± 5.5 years). The participants performed CCs using three techniques: TFT (the rescuer compresses the sternum with the tips of two fingers); TTHT; and the 'new two-thumb technique' (nTTT). The novel method of CCs in an infant consists of using two thumbs directed at the angle of 90 degrees to the chest while closing the fingers of both hands in a fist. The median CC rate when using the TFT, the TTHT, and nTTT methods varied and amounted to 134 min-1 vs. 126 min-1 vs. 114 min-1, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the median CC frequency between TFT and TTHT (p < 0.001), TFT and nTTT (p < 0.001), and between TTHT and nTTT (p < 0.001). The highest percentage of compressions with the frequency recommended by the ERC guidelines (100-120 min-1) was achieved by the study participants only with the nTTT. The median CC depth during the TFT was 28 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 27-30 mm) and was significantly lower

  6. Evaluation of 5 Hour Energy Drink on the Blood Pressure and Electrocardiograph Parameters on Young Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover, Placebo-Controlled Trial (Presentation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-11

    drink on the blood pressure and electrocardiograph parameters on young healthy volunteers: A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial...interval after acute and chronic consumption. METHODS: This was a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study enrolling young healthy volunteers not...other substances. • There have been reports of atrial fibrillation, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac deaths in healthy individuals

  7. Spin crossover in (Mg,Fe3+)(Si,Fe3+)O3 bridgmanite: Effects of disorder, iron concentration, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Gaurav; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2016-11-01

    The spin crossover of iron in Fe3+ -bearing bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle, is by now a well-established phenomenon, though several aspects of this crossover remain unclear. Here we investigate effects of disorder, iron concentration, and temperature on this crossover using ab initio LDA + Usc calculations. The effect of concentration and disorder are addressed using complete statistical samplings of coupled substituted configurations in super-cells containing up to 80 atoms. Vibrational/thermal effects on the crossover are addressed within the quasiharmonic approximation. The effect of disorder seems quite small, while increasing iron concentration results in considerable increase in the crossover pressure. Our calculated compression curves for iron-free, Fe2+ -, and Fe3+ -bearing bridgmanite compare well with the latest experimental measurements. The comparison also suggests that in a closed system, Fe2+ present in the sample may transform into Fe3+ by introduction of Mg and O vacancies with increasing pressure. As in the spin crossover in ferropericlase, this crossover in bridgmanite is accompanied by a clear volume reduction and an anomalous softening of the bulk modulus throughout the crossover pressure range. These effects reduce significantly with increasing temperature. Though the concentration of [Fe3+]Si in bridgmanite may be small, related elastic anomalies may impact the interpretation of radial and lateral velocity structures of the Earth's lower mantle.

  8. Crossovers trigger a remodeling of meiotic chromosome axis composition that is linked to two-step loss of sister chromatid cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Schvarzstein, Mara; Barroso, Consuelo; Lightfoot, James; Dernburg, Abby F.; Villeneuve, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    Segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis depends on linkages (chiasmata) created by crossovers and on selective release of a subset of sister chromatid cohesion at anaphase I. During Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis, each chromosome pair forms a single crossover, and the position of this event determines which chromosomal regions will undergo cohesion release at anaphase I. Here we provide insight into the basis of this coupling by uncovering a large-scale regional change in chromosome axis composition that is triggered by crossovers. We show that axial element components HTP-1 and HTP-2 are removed during late pachytene, in a crossover-dependent manner, from the regions that will later be targeted for anaphase I cohesion release. We demonstrate correspondence in position and number between chiasmata and HTP-1/2-depleted regions and provide evidence that HTP-1/2 depletion boundaries mark crossover sites. In htp-1 mutants, diakinesis bivalents lack normal asymmetrical features, and sister chromatid cohesion is prematurely lost during the meiotic divisions. We conclude that HTP-1 is central to the mechanism linking crossovers with late-prophase bivalent differentiation and defines the domains where cohesion will be protected until meiosis II. Further, we discuss parallels between the pattern of HTP-1/2 removal in response to crossovers and the phenomenon of crossover interference. PMID:18923085

  9. A cross-over experiment to investigate possible mechanisms for lower BMIs in people who habitually eat breakfast.

    PubMed

    Reeves, S; Huber, J W; Halsey, L G; Villegas-Montes, M; Elgumati, J; Smith, T

    2015-05-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of breakfast eaters is frequently reported to be lower compared with that of breakfast skippers. This is not explained by differences in energy intakes, indicating there may be other mechanisms serving to drive this paradoxical association between breakfast and BMI. This study aimed to investigate the effect of eating breakfast versus morning fasting on measures predominantly of metabolism in lean and overweight participants who habitually eat or skip breakfast. Participants (n=37) were recruited into four groups on the basis of BMI (lean and overweight) and breakfast habit (breakfast eater and breakfast skipper). Participants were randomly assigned to a breakfast experimental condition, breakfast eating or no breakfast, for 7 days and then completed the alternative condition. At the end of each breakfast experimental condition, measurements were made before and after a high carbohydrate breakfast of 2274 ± 777 kJ or a rest period. Resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food (TEF), blood glucose, insulin and leptin levels were recorded. Hunger and 'morningness' were assessed and pedometers worn. Lean participants had lower fasting insulin levels (P=0.045) and higher insulin concentrations following breakfast (P=0.001). BMI and breakfast habit did not interact with the experimental breakfast condition, with the exception of hunger ratings; breakfast eaters were hungrier in the mornings compared with breakfast skippers in the no breakfast condition (P=0.001). There is little evidence from this study for a metabolic-based mechanism to explain lower BMIs in breakfast eaters.

  10. Two- to three-dimensional crossover in a dense electron liquid in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matmon, Guy; Ginossar, Eran; Villis, Byron J.; Kölker, Alex; Lim, Tingbin; Solanki, Hari; Schofield, Steven R.; Curson, Neil J.; Li, Juerong; Murdin, Ben N.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2018-04-01

    Doping of silicon via phosphine exposures alternating with molecular beam epitaxy overgrowth is a path to Si:P substrates for conventional microelectronics and quantum information technologies. The technique also provides a well-controlled material for systematic studies of two-dimensional lattices with a half-filled band. We show here that for a dense (ns=2.8 ×1014 cm-2) disordered two-dimensional array of P atoms, the full field magnitude and angle-dependent magnetotransport is remarkably well described by classic weak localization theory with no corrections due to interaction. The two- to three-dimensional crossover seen upon warming can also be interpreted using scaling concepts developed for anistropic three-dimensional materials, which work remarkably except when the applied fields are nearly parallel to the conducting planes.

  11. Modeling nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions at the nanoscale: Application to spin-crossover

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Tae; van der Veen, Renske M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a continuum mechanics based approach for modeling thermally induced single-nanoparticle phase transitions studied in ultrafast electron microscopy. By using coupled differential equations describing heat transfer and the kinetics of the phase transition, we determine the major factors governing the time scales and efficiencies of thermal switching in individual spin-crossover nanoparticles, such as the thermal properties of the (graphite) substrate, the particle thickness, and the interfacial thermal contact conductance between the substrate and the nanoparticle. By comparing the simulated dynamics with the experimental single-particle diffraction time profiles, we demonstrate that the proposed non-equilibrium phase transition model can fully account for the observed switching dynamics. PMID:28653019

  12. Crossover from super- to subdiffusive motion and memory effects in crystalline organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, G; Cataudella, V; Mishchenko, A S; Nagaosa, N; Fierro, A; de Candia, A

    2015-02-27

    The transport properties at finite temperature of crystalline organic semiconductors are investigated, within the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, by combining an exact diagonalization technique, Monte Carlo approaches, and a maximum entropy method. The temperature-dependent mobility data measured in single crystals of rubrene are successfully reproduced: a crossover from super- to subdiffusive motion occurs in the range 150≤T≤200  K, where the mean free path becomes of the order of the lattice parameter and strong memory effects start to appear. We provide an effective model, which can successfully explain features of the absorption spectra at low frequencies. The observed response to slowly varying electric field is interpreted by means of a simple model where the interaction between the charge carrier and lattice polarization modes is simulated by a harmonic interaction between a fictitious particle and an electron embedded in a viscous fluid.

  13. 57 Fe Mössbauer probe of spin crossover thin films on a bio-membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Anil D.; Garcia, Yann

    2012-03-01

    An illustrious complex [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2 (ptz = 1-propyl-tetrazole) ( 1) which was produced in the form of submicron crystals and thin film on Allium cepa membrane was probed by 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy in order to follow its intrinsic spin crossover. In addition to a weak signal that corresponds to neat SCO compound significant amount of other iron compounds are found that could have morphed from 1 due to specific host-guest interaction on the lipid-bilayer of bio-membrane. Further complimentary information about biogenic role of membrane, was obtained from variable temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy on a ~5% enriched [57Fe(H2O)6](BF4)2 salt on this membrane.

  14. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  15. Defined-size DNA triple crossover construct for molecular electronics: modification, positioning and conductance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linko, Veikko; Leppiniemi, Jenni; Paasonen, Seppo-Tapio; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Jussi Toppari, J.

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel, defined-size, small and rigid DNA template, a so-called B-A-B complex, based on DNA triple crossover motifs (TX tiles), which can be utilized in molecular scale patterning for nanoelectronics, plasmonics and sensing applications. The feasibility of the designed construct is demonstrated by functionalizing the TX tiles with one biotin-triethylene glycol (TEG) and efficiently decorating them with streptavidin, and furthermore by positioning and anchoring single thiol-modified B-A-B complexes to certain locations on a chip via dielectrophoretic trapping. Finally, we characterize the conductance properties of the non-functionalized construct, first by measuring DC conductivity and second by utilizing AC impedance spectroscopy in order to describe the conductivity mechanism of a single B-A-B complex using a detailed equivalent circuit model. This analysis also reveals further information about the conductivity of DNA structures in general.

  16. A Few of Our Favorite Things: Pairing, the Bouquet, Crossover Interference and Evolution of Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zickler, Denise; Kleckner, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis presents many important mysteries that await elucidation. Here we discuss two such aspects. First, we consider how the current meiotic program might have evolved. We emphasize the central feature of this program: how homologous chromosomes find one another ("pair") so as to create the connections required for their regular segregation at Meiosis I. Points of emphasis include the facts that: (i) the classical "bouquet stage" is not required for initial homolog contacts in the current evolved meiotic program; and (ii) diverse observations point to commonality between molecules that mediate meiotic inter-homolog interactions and molecules that are integral to centromeres and/or to microtubule organizing centers (a.k.a. spindle pole bodies or centrosomes). Second, we provide an overview of the classical phenomenon of crossover (CO) interference in an effort to bridge the gap between description on the one hand versus logic and mechanism on the other. PMID:26927691

  17. Temperature crossover of decoherence rates in chaotic and regular bath dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A S; Elran, Y; Brumer, P

    2012-03-01

    The effect of chaotic bath dynamics on the decoherence of a quantum system is examined for the vibrational degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule in a realistic, constant temperature collisional bath. As an example, the specific case of I(2) in liquid xenon is examined as a function of temperature, and the results compared with an integrable xenon bath. A crossover in behavior is found: The integrable bath induces more decoherence at low bath temperatures than does the chaotic bath, whereas the opposite is the case at the higher bath temperatures. These results, verifying a conjecture due to Wilkie, shed light on the differing views of the effect of chaotic dynamics on system decoherence.

  18. Hidden Order and Dimensional Crossover of the Charge Density Waves in TiSe 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.

    2016-11-29

    Charge density wave (CDW) formation, a key physics issue for materials, arises from interactions among electrons and phonons that can also lead to superconductivity and other competing or entangled phases. The prototypical system TiSe 2, with a particularly simple (2 × 2 × 2) transition and no Kohn anomalies caused by electron-phonon coupling, is a fascinating but unsolved case after decades of research. Our angle-resolved photoemission measurements of the band structure as a function of temperature, aided by first-principles calculations, reveal a hitherto undetected but crucial feature: a (2 × 2) electronic order in each layer sets in at ~232more » K before the widely recognized three-dimensional structural order at ~205 K. The dimensional crossover, likely a generic feature of such layered materials, involves renormalization of different band gaps in two stages.« less

  19. The impact of mass transport and methanol crossover on the direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, K.; Taama, W. M.; Argyropoulos, P.; Sundmacher, K.

    The performance of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell based on a Nafion® solid polymer electrolyte membrane is reported. The cell utilises a porous Pt-Ru-carbon supported catalyst anode. The effect of cell temperature, air cathode pressure, methanol fuel flow rate and methanol concentration on the power performance of a small-scale (9 cm 2 area) cell is described. Data reported is analysed in terms of semi-empirical models for the effect of methanol crossover by diffusion on cathode potential and thus cell voltage. Mass transfer characteristics of the anode reaction are interpreted in terms of the influence of carbon dioxide gas evolution and methanol diffusion in the carbon cloth diffusion layer. Preliminary evaluation of reaction orders and anode polarisation agree with a previous suggested mechanism for methanol oxidation involving a rate limiting step of surface reaction between adsorbed CO and OH species.

  20. Effectiveness of electric toothbrushing in patients with neuromuscular disability: A randomized observer-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tokuhei; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Takahashi, Kazuya; Ishida, Chiho; Komai, Kiyonobu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Sugiura, Shirou

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an electric toothbrush for oral care in patients with neuromuscular disability. In this randomized observer-blind crossover trial, 30 patients with neuromuscular disease performed either electric or manual toothbrushing each for 4 weeks. Plaque status (plaque control record), periodontal pocket depth, oral status (oral assessment guide), salivary bacterial count, and toothbrushing time were assessed after each period and compared between the two groups by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Twenty-eight patients completed the study, including 18 communicative patients. Periodontal pockets were significantly shallower and toothbrushing time was significantly shorter with electric toothbrush use than with manual toothbrush use. No significant differences in oral status and salivary bacterial counts were noted between the approaches, but plaque status significantly improved after electric toothbrushing in communicative patients. Electric toothbrushing is beneficial for maintaining oral health in patients with neuromuscular disability and reducing the caregivers' oral care burden. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Surface induces different crystal structures in a room temperature switchable spin crossover compound.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Demitri, Nicola; Schäfer, Bernhard; Borgatti, Francesco; Torelli, Piero; Gobaut, Benoit; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Gazzano, Massimo; Milita, Silvia; Bergenti, Ilaria; Ruani, Giampiero; Šalitroš, Ivan; Ruben, Mario; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-07

    We investigated the influence of surfaces in the formation of different crystal structures of a spin crossover compound, namely [Fe(L)2] (LH: (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), which is a neutral compound thermally switchable around room temperature. We observed that the surface induces the formation of two different crystal structures, which exhibit opposite spin transitions, i.e. on heating them up to the transition temperature, one polymorph switches from high spin to low spin and the second polymorph switches irreversibly from low spin to high spin. We attributed this inversion to the presence of water molecules H-bonded to the complex tetrazolyl moieties in the crystals. Thin deposits were investigated by means of polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy; moreover the analysis of the Raman spectra and the interpretation of spin inversion were supported by DFT calculations.

  2. High spin-filter efficiency and Seebeck effect through spin-crossover iron–benzene complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Qiang; Zhou, Liping, E-mail: zhoulp@suda.edu.cn; Cheng, Jue-Fei

    2016-04-21

    Electronic structures and coherent quantum transport properties are explored for spin-crossover molecule iron-benzene Fe(Bz){sub 2} using density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green’s function. High- and low-spin states are investigated for two different lead-molecule junctions. It is found that the asymmetrical T-shaped contact junction in the high-spin state behaves as an efficient spin filter while it has a smaller conductivity than that in the low-spin state. Large spin Seebeck effect is also observed in asymmetrical T-shaped junction. Spin-polarized properties are absent in the symmetrical H-shaped junction. These findings strongly suggest that both the electronic and contact configurations play significant rolesmore » in molecular devices and metal-benzene complexes are promising materials for spintronics and thermo-spintronics.« less

  3. Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical framework is developed for better understanding the time-dependent soft-x-ray response of dissipative quantum many-body systems. It is shown how x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at transition-metal L edges can provide insight into ultrafast intersystem crossings of importance for energy conversion, ultrafast magnetism, and catalysis. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogs is used as a model system to demonstrate how the x-ray response is affected by the nonequilibrium dynamics on a femtosecond time scale. Changes in local spin and symmetry and the underlying mechanism are reflected in strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in x-ray absorption, crystal-field collapse and/or oscillations, and time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.

  4. Structural Dynamics upon Photoexcitation in a Spin Crossover Crystal Probed with Femtosecond Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yifeng; Liu, Lai Chung; Müller-Werkmeister, Henrike M; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Dongfang; Field, Ryan L; Sarracini, Antoine; Moriena, Gustavo; Collet, Eric; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2017-06-12

    Photoexcitation of spin crossover (SCO) complexes can trigger extensive electronic spin transitions and transformation of molecular structure. However, the precise nature of the associated ultrafast structural dynamics remains elusive, especially in the solid state. Here, we studied a single-crystal SCO material with femtosecond electron diffraction (FED). The unique capability of FED allows us to directly probe atomic motions and to track ultrafast structural changes within a crystal lattice. By monitoring the time-dependent changes of the Bragg reflections, we observed the formation of a photoinduced structure similar to the thermally induced high-spin state. The data and refinement calculations indicate the global structural reorganization within 2.3 ps, as the metal-ligand bond distribution narrows during intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) driving the intermolecular rearrangement. Three independent dynamical group are identified to model the structural dynamics upon photoinduced SCO. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Crossover of Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Carrier Density in Germanium Two-Dimensional Hole Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Hsin; Chuang, Yen; Chiu, Po-Yuan; Hsu, Nai-Wen; Lu, Tzu-Ming; Li, Jiun-Yun

    We performed a detailed study on the enhancement-mode two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) in the Ge/Ge1-xSix (0.15 cross-over of equilibrium and non-equilibrium 2DHG density is reported in any two-dimensional system for the first time. Furthermore, an unexpectedly low effective capacitance in the shallow-channel devices was also observed. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations showed beatings in a very shallow 2DHG ( 9 nm) due to second subband population. Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

  6. Testing crossover effects in an actor-partner interdependence model among Chinese dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Cheung, Fanny M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Asymmetry of configuration space induced by unequal crossover: implications for a mathematical theory of evolutionary innovation.

    PubMed

    Shpak, M; Wagner, G P

    2000-01-01

    Evolution can be regarded as the exploration of genetic or morphological state space by populations. In traditional models of population and quantitative genetics, the state space can be formally represented as a configuration space with clearly defined concepts of neighborhood and distance, defined by the action of variational operators such as mutation and/or recombination. In this paper, we describe a process where no genetic configuration space closure (and hence, no non-arbitrary notion of distance and neighborhood) exists. The process is gene duplication by means of unequal crossover, which we regard as an example of an "innovation" process that changes the state space of the system rather than exploring a closed state space. We assert that such processes are qualitatively distinct from representations of the adaptation process, which occur on regular configuration spaces.

  8. Sequence Effect on Ampicillin Blood Levels Noted in an Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Epicillin Triple Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Agneta; Sabath, L. D.; Rosner, Bernard

    1975-01-01

    Amoxicillin, ampicillin, and epicillin (500 mg of each) were given orally to fasting men and women in a triple crossover study. Peak serum concentrations were significantly higher for amoxicillin than for ampicillin and significantly lowest for epicillin. The concentrations of antibiotics in serum were comparable in men and women. Total urine recovery was highest for amoxicillin (56.7%) and lowest for epicillin (27.5%), and higher in men than in women for each of the three antibiotics. Saliva, sweat, and tears contained only very small amounts of amoxicillin and, rarely, ampicillin or epicillin. A significant (P < 0.02) sequence effect was noted in that peak serum concentrations of ampicillin were higher (6.4 μg/ml) if epicillin had been taken the previous week than when ampicillin was taken first (2.7 μg/ml). PMID:1101821

  9. Crossover physics in the nonequilibrium dynamics of quenched quantum impurity systems.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Romain; Trinh, Kien; Haas, Stephan; Saleur, Hubert

    2013-06-14

    A general framework is proposed to tackle analytically local quantum quenches in integrable impurity systems, combining a mapping onto a boundary problem with the form factor approach to boundary-condition-changing operators introduced by Lesage and Saleur [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4370 (1998)]. We discuss how to compute exactly the following two central quantities of interest: the Loschmidt echo and the distribution of the work done during the quantum quench. Our results display an interesting crossover physics characterized by the energy scale T(b) of the impurity corresponding to the Kondo temperature. We discuss in detail the noninteracting case as a paradigm and benchmark for more complicated integrable impurity models and check our results using numerical methods.

  10. A few of our favorite things: Pairing, the bouquet, crossover interference and evolution of meiosis.

    PubMed

    Zickler, Denise; Kleckner, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    Meiosis presents many important mysteries that await elucidation. Here we discuss two such aspects. First, we consider how the current meiotic program might have evolved. We emphasize the central feature of this program: how homologous chromosomes find one another ("pair") so as to create the connections required for their regular segregation at Meiosis I. Points of emphasis include the facts that: (i) the classical "bouquet stage" is not required for initial homolog contacts in the current evolved meiotic program; and (ii) diverse observations point to commonality between molecules that mediate meiotic inter-homolog interactions and molecules that are integral to centromeres and/or to microtubule organizing centers (a.k.a. spindle pole bodies or centrosomes). Second, we provide an overview of the classical phenomenon of crossover (CO) interference in an effort to bridge the gap between description on the one hand versus logic and mechanism on the other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999–2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tappmax, an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (−7% 95% CI −13%; −1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant. PMID:22016711

  12. Dynamics, thermodynamics and structure of liquids and supercritical fluids: crossover at the Frenkel line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Yu D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Proctor, J. E.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    We review recent work aimed at understanding dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids. The focus of our discussion is on solid-like transverse collective modes, whose evolution in the supercritical fluids enables one to discuss the main properties of the Frenkel line separating rigid liquid-like and non-rigid gas-like supercritical states. We subsequently present recent experimental evidence of the Frenkel line showing that structural and dynamical crossovers are seen at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the line as predicted by theory and modelling. Finally, we link dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids by the new calculation of liquid energy governed by the evolution of solid-like transverse modes. The disappearance of those modes at high temperature results in the observed decrease of heat capacity.

  13. Defined-size DNA triple crossover construct for molecular electronics: modification, positioning and conductance properties.

    PubMed

    Linko, Veikko; Leppiniemi, Jenni; Paasonen, Seppo-Tapio; Hytönen, Vesa P; Toppari, J Jussi

    2011-07-08

    We present a novel, defined-size, small and rigid DNA template, a so-called B-A-B complex, based on DNA triple crossover motifs (TX tiles), which can be utilized in molecular scale patterning for nanoelectronics, plasmonics and sensing applications. The feasibility of the designed construct is demonstrated by functionalizing the TX tiles with one biotin-triethylene glycol (TEG) and efficiently decorating them with streptavidin, and furthermore by positioning and anchoring single thiol-modified B-A-B complexes to certain locations on a chip via dielectrophoretic trapping. Finally, we characterize the conductance properties of the non-functionalized construct, first by measuring DC conductivity and second by utilizing AC impedance spectroscopy in order to describe the conductivity mechanism of a single B-A-B complex using a detailed equivalent circuit model. This analysis also reveals further information about the conductivity of DNA structures in general.

  14. Hysteretic Four-Step Spin Crossover within a Three-Dimensional Porous Hofmann-like Material

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, John E.; Price, Jason R.; Neville, Suzanne M.

    2016-10-21

    Materials that display multiple stepped spin crossover (SCO) transitions with accompanying hysteresis present the opportunity for ternary, quaternary, and quinary electronic switching and data storage but are rare in existence. Herein, we present the first report of a four-step hysteretic SCO framework. Single-crystal structure analysis of a porous 3D Hofmann-like material showed long-range ordering of spin states: HS, HS 0.67LS 0.33, HS 0.5LS 0.5, HS 0.33LS 0.67, and LS. These detailed structural studies provide insight into how multistep SCO materials can be rationally designed through control of host–host and host–guest interactions.

  15. Dynamics, thermodynamics and structure of liquids and supercritical fluids: crossover at the Frenkel line.

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Tsiok, E N; Proctor, J E; Prescher, C; Prakapenka, V B; Trachenko, K; Brazhkin, V V

    2018-04-04

    We review recent work aimed at understanding dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids. The focus of our discussion is on solid-like transverse collective modes, whose evolution in the supercritical fluids enables one to discuss the main properties of the Frenkel line separating rigid liquid-like and non-rigid gas-like supercritical states. We subsequently present recent experimental evidence of the Frenkel line showing that structural and dynamical crossovers are seen at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the line as predicted by theory and modelling. Finally, we link dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids by the new calculation of liquid energy governed by the evolution of solid-like transverse modes. The disappearance of those modes at high temperature results in the observed decrease of heat capacity.

  16. Metal-insulator crossover behavior at the surface of NiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, D. D.; Krishnakumar, S. R.; Weschke, E.; Schüßler-Langeheine, C.; Mazumdar, Chandan; Kilian, L.; Kaindl, G.; Mamiya, K.; Fujimori, S.-I.; Fujimori, A.; Miyadai, T.

    2003-04-01

    We have performed a detailed high-resolution electron spectroscopic investigation of NiS2 and related Se-substituted compounds, NiS2-xSex, which are known to be gapped insulators in the bulk at all temperatures. A large spectral weight at the Fermi energy of the room temperature spectrum, in conjunction with the extreme surface sensitivity of the experimental probe, however, suggests that the surface layer is metallic at about 300 K. Interestingly, the evolution of the spectral function with decreasing temperature is characterized by a continuous depletion of the single-particle spectral weight at the Fermi energy and the development of a gap-like structure below a characteristic temperature, providing evidence for a metal-insulator crossover behavior at the surfaces of NiS2 and of related compounds. These results provide a consistent description of the unusual transport properties observed in these systems.

  17. Spin crossover and high spin filtering behavior in Co-Pyridine and Co-Pyrimidine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhongqian; Zhou, Liping; Cheng, Jue-Fei; Li, Shu-Jin; You, Wen-Long; Wang, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    We present a theoretical study on a series of cobalt complexes, which are constructed with cobalt atoms and pyridine/pyrimidine rings, using density functional theory. We investigate the structural and electric transport properties of spin crossover (SCO) Co complex with two spin states, namely low-spin configuration [LS] and high-spin configuration [HS]. Energy analyses of the two spin states imply that the SCO Co-Pyridine2 and Co-Pyrimidine2 complexes may display a spin transition process accompanied by a geometric modification driven by external stimuli. A nearly perfect spin filtering effect is observed in the Co-Pyrimidine2 complex with [HS] state. In addition, we also discover the contact-dependent transmission properties of Co-Pyridine2. These findings indicate that SCO Co complexes are promising materials for molecular spintronic devices.

  18. Two dynamical crossovers in protein hydration water revealed by the NMR spin-spin relaxation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, D.; Vasi, S.; Corsaro, C.

    2016-05-01

    Hydration water is essential in determining the optimal conditions for the development of the biological activity of biological systems. Indeed the physical properties of hydration water are responsible for and determine the region of biological stability of proteins. By means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, we probe some thermodynamical properties of the first hydration shell of lysozyme from 200K to 360K. In particular, we study the thermal behavior of the nuclear magnetization and of the apparent spin-spin relaxation time (T_2^*) . We find the existence of two thermal borders with two corresponding evident crossovers at low and high temperatures signaling the thresholds of the native state of lysozyme and therefore of its functionality.

  19. Room temperature current modulation in large area electronic junctions of spin crossover thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalabaeva, Victoria; Ridier, Karl; Rat, Sylvain; Manrique-Juarez, Maria D.; Salmon, Lionel; Séguy, Isabelle; Rotaru, Aurelian; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2018-01-01

    We report large-area (˜3 mm2), pinhole free crossbar junctions of thin films of the molecular complex [Fe(HB(tz)3)2] displaying spin transition around 336 K. The charge transport in the thinner junctions (10 and 30 nm) occurs by a tunneling mechanism, which is not affected substantially by the spin transition. The thicker junctions (100 and 200 nm) exhibit rectifying behavior and a reproducible drop of their electrical resistance by ca. 65-80% when switching the molecules from the high-spin to the low-spin state. This current modulation is ascribed to a bulk-limited charge transport mechanism via a thermally activated hopping process. The demonstrated possibility of resistance switching in ambient conditions provides appealing prospects for the implementation of molecular spin crossover materials in electronic and spintronic devices.

  20. Crossover Patterning by the Beam-Film Model: Analysis and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangran; Liang, Zhangyi; Hutchinson, John; Kleckner, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Crossing-over is a central feature of meiosis. Meiotic crossover (CO) sites are spatially patterned along chromosomes. CO-designation at one position disfavors subsequent CO-designation(s) nearby, as described by the classical phenomenon of CO interference. If multiple designations occur, COs tend to be evenly spaced. We have previously proposed a mechanical model by which CO patterning could occur. The central feature of a mechanical mechanism is that communication along the chromosomes, as required for CO interference, can occur by redistribution of mechanical stress. Here we further explore the nature of the beam-film model, its ability to quantitatively explain CO patterns in detail in several organisms, and its implications for three important patterning-related phenomena: CO homeostasis, the fact that the level of zero-CO bivalents can be low (the “obligatory CO”), and the occurrence of non-interfering COs. Relationships to other models are discussed. PMID:24497834

  1. Mammalian CNTD1 is critical for meiotic crossover maturation and deselection of excess precrossover sites

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, J. Kim; Sun, Xianfei; Yokoo, Rayka

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic crossovers (COs) are crucial for ensuring accurate homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis I. Because the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination greatly outnumber eventual COs, this process requires exquisite regulation to narrow down the pool of DSB intermediates that may form COs. In this paper, we identify a cyclin-related protein, CNTD1, as a critical mediator of this process. Disruption of Cntd1 results in failure to localize CO-specific factors MutLγ and HEI10 at designated CO sites and also leads to prolonged high levels of pre-CO intermediates marked by MutSγ and RNF212. These data show that maturation of COs is intimately coupled to deselection of excess pre-CO sites to yield a limited number of COs and that CNTD1 coordinates these processes by regulating the association between the RING finger proteins HEI10 and RNF212 and components of the CO machinery. PMID:24891606

  2. Contact Dependence and Velocity Crossover in Friction between Microscopic Solid/Solid Contacts.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Joshua D; Niguès, Antoine; Chennevière, Alexis; Siria, Alessandro

    2017-10-11

    Friction at the nanoscale differs markedly from that between surfaces of macroscopic extent. Characteristically, the velocity dependence of friction between apparent solid/solid contacts can strongly deviate from the classically assumed velocity independence. Here, we show that a nondestructive friction between solid tips with radius on the scale of hundreds of nanometers and solid hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers has a strong velocity dependence. Specifically, using laterally oscillating quartz tuning forks, we observe a linear scaling in the velocity at the lowest accessed velocities, typically hundreds of micrometers per second, crossing over into a logarithmic velocity dependence. This crossover is consistent with a general multicontact friction model that includes thermally activated breaking of the contacts at subnanometric elongation. We find as well a strong dependence of the friction on the dimensions of the frictional probe.

  3. The Electronic Structure Signature of the Spin Cross-Over Transition of [Co(dpzca)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Mu, Sai; Liu, Yang; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jian; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Enders, Axel; Dowben, Peter A.

    2018-05-01

    The unoccupied electronic structure of the spin crossover molecule cobalt (II) N-(2-pyrazylcarbonyl)-2-pyrazinecarboxamide, [Co(dpzca)2] was investigated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and compared with magnetometry (SQUID) measurements. The temperature dependence of the XAS and molecular magnetic susceptibility χmT are in general agreement for [Co(dpzca)2], and consistent with density functional theory (DFT). This agreement of magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides strong evidence that the changes in magnetic moment can be ascribed to changes in electronic structure. Calculations show the choice of Coulomb correlation energy U has a profound effect on the electronic structure of the low spin state, but has little influence on the electronic structure of the high spin state. In the temperature dependence of the XAS, there is also evidence of an X-ray induced excited state trapping for [Co(dpzca)2] at 15 K.

  4. External chest compressions using a mechanical feedback device : cross-over simulation study.

    PubMed

    Skorning, M; Derwall, M; Brokmann, J C; Rörtgen, D; Bergrath, S; Pflipsen, J; Beuerlein, S; Rossaint, R; Beckers, S K

    2011-08-01

    External chest compressions (ECC) are essential components of resuscitation and are usually performed without any adjuncts in professional healthcare. Even for healthcare professionals during in-hospital and out-of-hospital resuscitation poor performance in ECC has been reported in recent years. Although several stand-alone devices have been developed none has been implemented as a standard in patient care. The aim of this study was to examine if the use of a mechanical device providing visual feedback and audible assistance during ECC improves performance of healthcare professionals following minimal and simplified instructions. In a prospective, randomized cross-over study 81 healthcare professionals performed ECC for 3 min (in the assumed setting of a secured airway) twice on a manikin (Skillreporter ResusciAnne®, with PC-Skillreporting System Version 1.3.0, Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway) in a mock cardiac arrest scenario. Group 1 (n=40) performed ECC with the device first followed by classic ECC and group 2 (n=41) in the opposite order. Minimal instructions were standardized and provided by video instruction (1 min 38 s). Endpoints were achievement of a mean compression rate between 90 and 110/min and a mean compression depth of 40-50 mm. In addition participants had to answer questionnaires about demographic data, professional experience and recent recommendations for ECC as well as their impression of the device concerning the ease of use and their personal level of confidence. Data were analyzed for group-related and inter-group differences using SAS (Version 9.1.3, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A total of 81 healthcare professionals regularly involved in resuscitation attempts in pre-hospital or in-hospital settings took part in the study with no differences between the groups: females 35.8% (n=52), emergency medical technicians 32.1% (n=26), anesthesia nurses 32.1% (n=26), physicians (anesthesiology) 45% (n=29). In group 1 33 out of 40 (82.5%; 99.7±4

  5. Semiparametric time varying coefficient model for matched case-crossover studies.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Villa, Ana Maria; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, H

    2017-03-15

    In matched case-crossover studies, it is generally accepted that the covariates on which a case and associated controls are matched cannot exert a confounding effect on independent predictors included in the conditional logistic regression model. This is because any stratum effect is removed by the conditioning on the fixed number of sets of the case and controls in the stratum. Hence, the conditional logistic regression model is not able to detect any effects associated with the matching covariates by stratum. However, some matching covariates such as time often play an important role as an effect modification leading to incorrect statistical estimation and prediction. Therefore, we propose three approaches to evaluate effect modification by time. The first is a parametric approach, the second is a semiparametric penalized approach, and the third is a semiparametric Bayesian approach. Our parametric approach is a two-stage method, which uses conditional logistic regression in the first stage and then estimates polynomial regression in the second stage. Our semiparametric penalized and Bayesian approaches are one-stage approaches developed by using regression splines. Our semiparametric one stage approach allows us to not only detect the parametric relationship between the predictor and binary outcomes, but also evaluate nonparametric relationships between the predictor and time. We demonstrate the advantage of our semiparametric one-stage approaches using both a simulation study and an epidemiological example of a 1-4 bi-directional case-crossover study of childhood aseptic meningitis with drinking water turbidity. We also provide statistical inference for the semiparametric Bayesian approach using Bayes Factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. First dicyanamide-bridged spin-crossover coordination polymer: synthesis, structural, magnetic, and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Genre, Caroline; Jeanneau, Erwann; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Luneau, Dominique; Borshch, Serguei A; Matouzenko, Galina S

    2008-01-01

    We report here on the synthesis and characterisation of a first iron(II) spin-crossover coordination polymer with the dca spacer ligand, having the formula [Fe(aqin)2(dca)]ClO4.MeOH (aqin=8-aminoquinoline, dca=dicyanamide), which displays a two-step complete spin transition. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy have revealed that the two relatively gradual steps are centred at 215 and 186 K and are separated by an inflection point at about 201 K, at which 50 % of the complex molecules undergo a spin transition. The two steps are related to the existence of two crystallographically inequivalent metal sites, as confirmed by the structural and Mössbauer studies. The crystal structure was resolved at 293 K (HS form) and 130 K (LS form). Both spin-state structures belong to the triclinic P1 space group (Z=2). The complex assumes a linear chain structure, in which the active iron(II) sites are linked to each other by anionic dicyanamide ligands acting as chemical bridges. The Fe-Fe distances through the dca ligand are 8.119(1) and 7.835(1) A in the high-spin and low-spin structures, respectively. The polymeric chains extend along a (1, 0, -1) axis and are packed in sheets, between which the perchlorate anions and methanol molecules are inserted. The complex molecules are linked together by pi-stacking interactions and H-bonding between the H-donor aqin ligands and the perchlorate ions. These structural features provide a basis for cooperative interactions in the crystal lattice. Analysis of the two-step spin-crossover character in this compound suggests that covalent interactions through the spacer ligand do not provide the main mechanism of cooperativity.

  7. The new insight into dynamic crossover in glass forming liquids from the apparent enthalpy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Julio Cesar; Martinez-Garcia, Jorge; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Hulliger, Jürg

    2012-08-01

    One of the most intriguing phenomena in glass forming systems is the dynamic crossover (TB), occurring well above the glass temperature (Tg). So far, it was estimated mainly from the linearized derivative analysis of the primary relaxation time τ(T) or viscosity η(T) experimental data, originally proposed by Stickel et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 2043 (1996), 10.1063/1.470961; Stickel et al. J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1086 (1997)], 10.1063/1.474456. However, this formal procedure is based on the general validity of the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation, which has been strongly questioned recently [T. Hecksher et al. Nature Phys. 4, 737 (2008), 10.1038/nphys1033; P. Lunkenheimer et al. Phys. Rev. E 81, 051504 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.051504; J. C. Martinez-Garcia et al. J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024512 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3514589. We present a qualitatively new way to identify the dynamic crossover based on the apparent enthalpy space (H_a^' = {{dln τ }/{d({1/T})}}) analysis via a new plot ln H_a^' vs. 1/T supported by the Savitzky-Golay filtering procedure for getting an insight into the noise-distorted high order derivatives. It is shown that depending on the ratio between the "virtual" fragility in the high temperature dynamic domain (mhigh) and the "real" fragility at Tg (the low temperature dynamic domain, m = mlow) glass formers can be splitted into two groups related to f < 1 and f > 1, (f = mhigh/mlow). The link of this phenomenon to the ratio between the apparent enthalpy and activation energy as well as the behavior of the configurational entropy is indicated.

  8. The cross-over to magnetostrophic convection in planetary dynamo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurnou, J. M.; King, E. M.

    2017-03-01

    Global scale magnetostrophic balance, in which Lorentz and Coriolis forces comprise the leading-order force balance, has long been thought to describe the natural state of planetary dynamo systems. This argument arises from consideration of the linear theory of rotating magnetoconvection. Here we test this long-held tenet by directly comparing linear predictions against dynamo modelling results. This comparison shows that dynamo modelling results are not typically in the global magnetostrophic state predicted by linear theory. Then, in order to estimate at what scale (if any) magnetostrophic balance will arise in nonlinear dynamo systems, we carry out a simple scaling analysis of the Elsasser number Λ, yielding an improved estimate of the ratio of Lorentz and Coriolis forces. From this, we deduce that there is a magnetostrophic cross-over length scale, LX≈(Λo2/ R mo)D , where Λo is the linear (or traditional) Elsasser number, Rmo is the system scale magnetic Reynolds number and D is the length scale of the system. On scales well above LX, magnetostrophic convection dynamics should not be possible. Only on scales smaller than LX should it be possible for the convective behaviours to follow the predictions for the magnetostrophic branch of convection. Because LX is significantly smaller than the system scale in most dynamo models, their large-scale flows should be quasi-geostrophic, as is confirmed in many dynamo simulations. Estimating Λo≃1 and Rmo≃103 in Earth's core, the cross-over scale is approximately 1/1000 that of the system scale, suggesting that magnetostrophic convection dynamics exists in the core only on small scales below those that can be characterized by geomagnetic observations.

  9. Effect of Sensory Stimuli on Restless Legs Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Rozeman, Anouk D.; Ottolini, Truus; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Vogels, Oscar J.M.; Rijsman, Roselyne M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: A variety of sensory stimuli relieve restless legs syndrome symptoms. Because systematic evaluations of sensory stimulation in restless legs syndrome are largely lacking, we performed a randomized crossover study to evaluate the effect of external sensory stimulation on restless legs syndrome symptoms. Methods: Eighteen patients underwent 3 consecutive suggestive immobilization tests with the order of the following 3 conditions randomly assigned: no electrical stimulation (condition 1), tactile and proprioceptive sensory stimulation (condition 2), and tactile sensory stimulation only (condition 3). Restless legs syndrome symptoms were quantified by visual analog scales, and periodic leg movements during wake were measured. Results: Baseline visual analogue scale score was 4.5 (range 0-60) in condition 1, 10.5 (range 0-96) in condition 2, and 8.5 in condition 3 (p = 0.21). There was a tendency towards a higher maximum visual analogue scale score and visual analogue scale score at the end of the suggested immobilization test in the conditions with tactile sensory stimulation, though not significant (p = 0.74 and p = 0.29, respectively). Fifteen patients suffered from periodic leg movements during wake. Median indices were 18 (range 0-145) in condition 1, 26 (range 0-190) in condition 2, and 49 (range 0-228) in condition 3 (p = 0.76). Conclusions: We found a tendency towards less leg discomfort in the conditions in which an external sensory input was applied. This potential benefit of sensory stimuli on restless legs syndrome severity merits further investigation as this could open new ways towards a better pathophysiological understanding and non-pharmacological treatments. Citation: Rozeman AD, Ottolini T, Grootendorst DC, Vogels OJM, Rijsman RM. Effect of sensory stimuli on restless legs syndrome: a randomized crossover study. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):893-896. PMID:25126036

  10. Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, C B; Bain, P G; Teare, L; Liu, X; Joint, C; Wroath, C; Parkin, S G; Fox, P; Wright, D; Hobart, J; Zajicek, J P

    2004-10-12

    The long-term treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) may be complicated by the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Clinical and animal model data support the view that modulation of cannabinoid function may exert an antidyskinetic effect. The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial to examine the hypothesis that cannabis may have a beneficial effect on dyskinesia in PD. A 4-week dose escalation study was performed to assess the safety and tolerability of cannabis in six PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Then a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study (RCT) was performed, in which 19 PD patients were randomized to receive oral cannabis extract followed by placebo or vice versa. Each treatment phase lasted for 4 weeks with an intervening 2-week washout phase. The primary outcome measure was a change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (items 32 to 34) dyskinesia score. Secondary outcome measures included the Rush scale, Bain scale, tablet arm drawing task, and total UPDRS score following a levodopa challenge, as well as patient-completed measures of a dyskinesia activities of daily living (ADL) scale, the PDQ-39, on-off diaries, and a range of category rating scales. Seventeen patients completed the RCT. Cannabis was well tolerated, and had no pro- or antiparkinsonian action. There was no evidence for a treatment effect on levodopa-induced dyskinesia as assessed by the UPDRS, or any of the secondary outcome measures. Orally administered cannabis extract resulted in no objective or subjective improvement in dyskinesias or parkinsonism.

  11. X Chromosome Crossover Formation and Genome Stability in Caenorhabditis elegans Are Independently Regulated by xnd-1

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, T. Brooke; Mainpal, Rana; Amrit, Francis R. G.; Krause, Michael W.; Ghazi, Arjumand; Yanowitz, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    The germ line efficiently combats numerous genotoxic insults to ensure the high fidelity propagation of unaltered genomic information across generations. Yet, germ cells in most metazoans also intentionally create double-strand breaks (DSBs) to promote DNA exchange between parental chromosomes, a process known as crossing over. Homologous recombination is employed in the repair of both genotoxic lesions and programmed DSBs, and many of the core DNA repair proteins function in both processes. In addition, DNA repair efficiency and crossover (CO) distribution are both influenced by local and global differences in chromatin structure, yet the interplay between chromatin structure, genome integrity, and meiotic fidelity is still poorly understood. We have used the xnd-1 mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the relationship between genome integrity and crossover formation. Known for its role in ensuring X chromosome CO formation and germ line development, we show that xnd-1 also regulates genome stability. xnd-1 mutants exhibited a mortal germ line, high embryonic lethality, high incidence of males, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation. We discovered that a hypomorphic allele of mys-1 suppressed these genome instability phenotypes of xnd-1, but did not suppress the CO defects, suggesting it serves as a separation-of-function allele. mys-1 encodes a histone acetyltransferase, whose homolog Tip60 acetylates H2AK5, a histone mark associated with transcriptional activation that is increased in xnd-1 mutant germ lines, raising the possibility that thresholds of H2AK5ac may differentially influence distinct germ line repair events. We also show that xnd-1 regulated him-5 transcriptionally, independently of mys-1, and that ectopic expression of him-5 suppressed the CO defects of xnd-1. Our work provides xnd-1 as a model in which to study the link between chromatin factors, gene expression, and genome stability. PMID:27678523

  12. Crossover Control Study of the Effect of Personal Care Products Containing Triclosan on the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Angela C.; Pischel, Lauren; Ley, Catherine; Suh, Gina; Goodrich, Julia K.; Haggerty, Thomas D.; Ley, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Commonly prescribed antibiotics are known to alter human microbiota. We hypothesized that triclosan and triclocarban, components of many household and personal care products (HPCPs), may alter the oral and gut microbiota, with potential consequences for metabolic function and weight. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, participants were given triclosan- and triclocarban (TCS)-containing or non-triclosan/triclocarban (nTCS)-containing HPCPs for 4 months and then switched to the other products for an additional 4 months. Blood, stool, gingival plaque, and urine samples and weight data were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals throughout the study period. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolic and endocrine markers and urine samples for triclosan. The microbiome in stool and oral samples was then analyzed. Although there was a significant difference in the amount of triclosan in the urine between the TCS and nTCS phases, no differences were found in microbiome composition, metabolic or endocrine markers, or weight. Though this study was limited by the small sample size and imprecise administration of HPCPs, triclosan at physiologic levels from exposure to HPCPs does not appear to have a significant or important impact on human oral or gut microbiome structure or on a panel of metabolic markers. IMPORTANCE Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used commercial microbicides found in toothpastes and soaps. It is unknown what effects these chemicals have on the human microbiome or on endocrine function. From this randomized crossover study, it appears that routine personal care use of triclosan and triclocarban neither exerts a major influence on microbial communities in the gut and mouth nor alters markers of endocrine function in humans. PMID:27303746

  13. The cross-over to magnetostrophic convection in planetary dynamo systems.

    PubMed

    Aurnou, J M; King, E M

    2017-03-01

    Global scale magnetostrophic balance, in which Lorentz and Coriolis forces comprise the leading-order force balance, has long been thought to describe the natural state of planetary dynamo systems. This argument arises from consideration of the linear theory of rotating magnetoconvection. Here we test this long-held tenet by directly comparing linear predictions against dynamo modelling results. This comparison shows that dynamo modelling results are not typically in the global magnetostrophic state predicted by linear theory. Then, in order to estimate at what scale (if any) magnetostrophic balance will arise in nonlinear dynamo systems, we carry out a simple scaling analysis of the Elsasser number Λ , yielding an improved estimate of the ratio of Lorentz and Coriolis forces. From this, we deduce that there is a magnetostrophic cross-over length scale, [Formula: see text], where Λ o is the linear (or traditional) Elsasser number, Rm o is the system scale magnetic Reynolds number and D is the length scale of the system. On scales well above [Formula: see text], magnetostrophic convection dynamics should not be possible. Only on scales smaller than [Formula: see text] should it be possible for the convective behaviours to follow the predictions for the magnetostrophic branch of convection. Because [Formula: see text] is significantly smaller than the system scale in most dynamo models, their large-scale flows should be quasi-geostrophic, as is confirmed in many dynamo simulations. Estimating Λ o ≃1 and Rm o ≃10 3 in Earth's core, the cross-over scale is approximately 1/1000 that of the system scale, suggesting that magnetostrophic convection dynamics exists in the core only on small scales below those that can be characterized by geomagnetic observations.

  14. Pediatric functional constipation treatment with Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt: A crossover, double-blind, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Paula VP; Lima, Luiza N; Souza, Tassia C; Mazochi, Vanessa; Penna, Francisco J; Silva, Andreia M; Nicoli, Jacques R; Guimarães, Elizabet V

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the treatment of pediatric functional chronic intestinal constipation (FCIC) with a probiotic goat yogurt. METHODS: A crossover double-blind formula-controlled trial was carried out on 59 students (age range: 5-15 years) of a public school in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, presenting a FCIC diagnostic, according to Roma III criteria. The students were randomized in two groups to receive a goat yogurt supplemented with 109 colony forming unit/mL Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) (probiotic) daily or only the yogurt for a period of 5 wk (formula). Afterwards, the groups were intercrossed for another 5 wk. Defecation frequency, stool consistency and abdominal and defecation pain were assessed. RESULTS: Both treatment groups demonstrated improvement in defecation frequency compared to baseline. However, the group treated with probiotic showed most significant improvement in the first phase of the study. An inversion was observed after crossing over, resulting in a reduction in stool frequency when this group was treated by formula. Probiotic and formula improved stool consistency in the first phase of treatment, but the improvement obtained with probiotic was significantly higher (P = 0.03). In the second phase of treatment, the group initially treated with probiotic showed worseningstool consistency when using formula. However, the difference was not significant. A significant improvement in abdominal pain and defecation pain was observed with both probiotic and formula in the first phase of treatment, but again the improvement was more significant for the group treated with B. longum during phase I (P < 0.05). When all data of the crossover study were analyzed, significant differences were observed between probiotic yogurt and yogurt only for defecation frequency (P = 0.012), defecation pain (P = 0.046) and abdominal pain (P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: An improvement in defecation frequency and abdominal pain was observed using both supplemented and non

  15. Using a Montessori method to increase eating ability for institutionalised residents with dementia: a crossover design.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Chan; Huang, Ya-Ju; Watson, Roger; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lee, Yue-Chune

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of applying a Montessori intervention to improve the eating ability and nutritional status of residents with dementia in long-term care facilities. An early intervention for eating difficulties in patients with dementia can give them a better chance of maintaining independence and reduce the risk of malnutrition. An experimental crossover design was employed. Twenty-nine residents were chosen from two dementia special care units in metropolitan Taipei. To avoid contamination between participants in units using both Montessori and control interventions, two dementia special care units were randomly assigned into Montessori intervention (I1) and routine activities (I2) sequence groups. A two-period crossover design was used, with 15 residents assigned to Montessori intervention sequence I (I1, I2) and 14 residents assigned to Montessori intervention sequence II (I2, I1). On each intervention day, residents were given their assigned intervention. Montessori intervention was provided in 30-min sessions once every day, three days per week, for eight weeks. There was a two-week washout period between each intervention. There was a significant reduction in the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia score for the Montessori intervention period but not for the routine activities period, while the mean differences for the Eating Behavior Scale score, self-feeding frequency and self-feeding time were significantly higher than those of the routine activities period. Except for the Mini-Nutritional Assessment score post-test being significantly less than the pre-test for the routine activities period, no significant differences for any other variables were found for the routine activities period. This study confirms the efficacy of a Montessori intervention protocol on eating ability of residents with dementia. Adopting Montessori intervention protocols to maintain residents' self-feeding ability in clinical practice is recommended. Montessori

  16. Acetyl-l-carnitine versus placebo for migraine prophylaxis: A randomized, triple-blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Knut; Brenner, Eiliv; Linde, Mattias; Gravdahl, Gøril Bruvik; Tronvik, Erling Andreas; Engstrøm, Morten; Sonnewald, Ursula; Helde, Grethe; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Sand, Trond

    2015-10-01

    Preventive medication is indicated for many migraine patients, but is used in relatively few. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of acetyl-l-carnitine as a prophylactic drug in migraine patients. A single-center, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out. Men and women, age 18-65 years, with episodic migraine but otherwise healthy, were recruited mostly through advertisements. After a four-week run-in-phase, 72 participants were randomized to receive either placebo or 3 g acetyl-l-carnitine for 12 weeks. After a four-week washout, treatment was switched. The primary outcome was days with moderate or severe headache per four weeks. Secondary outcomes were days with headache, hours with headache, proportion of responders (>50% reduction in migraine days from baseline) and adverse events. In the complete case analyses, no statistically significant differences were found between acetyl-l-carnitine and placebo in severe or moderate headache days per month (3.0 versus 3.1, p = 0.80), headache days per month (5.1 versus 5.2, p = 0.73) or for the other secondary outcome measures. In this triple-blind crossover study no differences were found in headache outcomes between acetyl-l-carnitine and placebo. Our results do not provide evidence of benefit for efficacy of acetyl-l-carnitine as prophylactic treatment for migraine. EUDRACT (2012-001624-36), ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01695317). © International Headache Society 2015.

  17. Case-Crossover Analysis of Air Pollution Health Effects: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Application

    PubMed Central

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Taracido, Margarita; Tobias, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background Case-crossover is one of the most used designs for analyzing the health-related effects of air pollution. Nevertheless, no one has reviewed its application and methodology in this context. Objective We conducted a systematic review of case-crossover (CCO) designs used to study the relationship between air pollution and morbidity and mortality, from the standpoint of methodology and application. Data sources and extraction A search was made of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Reports were classified as methodologic or applied. From the latter, the following information was extracted: author, study location, year, type of population (general or patients), dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), type of CCO design, and whether effect modification was analyzed for variables at the individual level. Data synthesis The review covered 105 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 addressed methodological aspects, and the remainder involved the design’s application. In the methodological reports, the designs that yielded the best results in simulation were symmetric bidirectional CCO and time-stratified CCO. Furthermore, we observed an increase across time in the use of certain CCO designs, mainly symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. The dependent variables most frequently analyzed were those relating to hospital morbidity; the pollutants most often studied were those linked to particulate matter. Among the CCO-application reports, 13.6% studied effect modification for variables at the individual level. Conclusions The use of CCO designs has undergone considerable growth; the most widely used designs were those that yielded better results in simulation studies: symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. However, the advantages of CCO as a method of analysis of variables at the individual level are put to little use. PMID:20356818

  18. Apparent temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospital admissions in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of temperature on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been investigated as extensively as the effects of broader outcomes of morbidity and mortality. Sixteen studies reported inconsistent results and two considered confounding by air pollution. We addressed some of the methodological limitations of the previous studies in this study. Methods This is the first study of the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) and AMI hospital admissions in Copenhagen. The study period covered 1 January 1999-31 December 2006, stratified in warm (April - September) and cold (October - March) periods. A case-crossover epidemiology study design was applied. Models were adjusted for public holidays and influenza, confounding by PM10, NO2 and CO was investigated, the lag and non-linear effects of Tappmax was examined, effect modification by age, sex and SES was explored, and the results of the case-crossover models were compared to those of the generalised additive Poisson time-series and generalised estimating equation models. Results 14 456 AMI hospital admissions (12 995 people) occurred during the study period. For an inter-quartile range (6 or 7°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tappmax, a 4% (95% CI:-2%; 10%) and 9% (95% CI: 3%; 14%) decrease in the AMI admission rate was observed in the warm and cold periods, respectively. The 19-65 year old group, men and highest SES group seemed to be more susceptible in the cold period. Conclusion An increase in Tappmax is associated with a decrease in AMI admissions during the colder months. PMID:22463704

  19. A case-crossover study on transient risk factors of work-related eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-Y; Fong, P-C; Lin, S-F; Chang, C-H; Chan, C-C

    2009-08-01

    To investigate modifiable risk and preventive factors of work-related eye injuries. A case-crossover study conducted to explore the associations between transient risk factors and work-related eye injuries. Patients seen at seven medical centres in Taiwan with work-related eye injuries over a 4-year period were enrolled in the study. Clinical information was collected from medical charts and detailed information on exposure to eight potentially modifiable factors during the 60 minutes prior to the occurrence of each injury, as well as during the same time interval on the last work day prior to the injury, were obtained using questionnaire surveys. Matched-pair interval analysis was adopted to assess the odds ratios (ORs) for work-related eye injuries given exposure to the eight modifiable factors. A total of 283 subjects were interviewed. Most of these injured workers were young, male, and self-employed or small enterprise workers. The most common injury type was photokeratitis (33.2%), mainly caused by welding (30.4%). The OR for a work-related eye injury was increased with the performance of an unfamiliar task (57.0), operation of a faulty tool or piece of equipment (48.5), distractions (24.0), being rushed (13.0), or fatigued (10.0), and a poor work environment (4.3). Wearing eye protection devices was found to have a significant protective effect on workers who might otherwise have been exposed to eye injuries (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7). Potential modifiable risk and preventive factors for work-related eye injuries were identified using a case-crossover study. This information should be helpful in the development of preventive strategies.

  20. The cross-over to magnetostrophic convection in planetary dynamo systems

    PubMed Central

    King, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Global scale magnetostrophic balance, in which Lorentz and Coriolis forces comprise the leading-order force balance, has long been thought to describe the natural state of planetary dynamo systems. This argument arises from consideration of the linear theory of rotating magnetoconvection. Here we test this long-held tenet by directly comparing linear predictions against dynamo modelling results. This comparison shows that dynamo modelling results are not typically in the global magnetostrophic state predicted by linear theory. Then, in order to estimate at what scale (if any) magnetostrophic balance will arise in nonlinear dynamo systems, we carry out a simple scaling analysis of the Elsasser number Λ, yielding an improved estimate of the ratio of Lorentz and Coriolis forces. From this, we deduce that there is a magnetostrophic cross-over length scale, LX≈(Λo2/Rmo)D, where Λo is the linear (or traditional) Elsasser number, Rmo is the system scale magnetic Reynolds number and D is the length scale of the system. On scales well above LX, magnetostrophic convection dynamics should not be possible. Only on scales smaller than LX should it be possible for the convective behaviours to follow the predictions for the magnetostrophic branch of convection. Because LX is significantly smaller than the system scale in most dynamo models, their large-scale flows should be quasi-geostrophic, as is confirmed in many dynamo simulations. Estimating Λo≃1 and Rmo≃103 in Earth’s core, the cross-over scale is approximately 1/1000 that of the system scale, suggesting that magnetostrophic convection dynamics exists in the core only on small scales below those that can be characterized by geomagnetic observations. PMID:28413338

  1. Photoemission evidence for crossover from Peierls-like to Mott-like transition in highly strained VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverock, J.; Preston, A. R. H.; Newby, D., Jr.; Smith, K. E.; Sallis, S.; Piper, L. F. J.; Kittiwatanakul, S.; Lu, J. W.; Wolf, S. A.; Leandersson, M.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2012-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic study that reveals that the metal-insulator transition of strained VO2 thin films may be driven towards a purely electronic transition, which does not rely on the Peierls dimerization, by the application of mechanical strain. Comparison with a moderately strained system, which does involve the lattice, demonstrates the crossover from Peierls- to Mott-like transitions.

  2. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  3. Electronic evidence of an insulator-superconductor crossover in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films.

    PubMed

    He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Defa; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; Li, Fangsen; Tang, Chenjia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2014-12-30

    In high-temperature cuprate superconductors, it is now generally agreed that superconductivity is realized by doping an antiferromagnetic Mott (charge transfer) insulator. The doping-induced insulator-to-superconductor transition has been widely observed in cuprates, which provides important information for understanding the superconductivity mechanism. In the iron-based superconductors, however, the parent compound is mostly antiferromagnetic bad metal, raising a debate on whether an appropriate starting point should go with an itinerant picture or a localized picture. No evidence of doping-induced insulator-superconductor transition (or crossover) has been reported in the iron-based compounds so far. Here, we report an electronic evidence of an insulator-superconductor crossover observed in the single-layer FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. By taking angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the electronic structure and energy gap, we have identified a clear evolution of an insulator to a superconductor with increasing carrier concentration. In particular, the insulator-superconductor crossover in FeSe/SrTiO3 film exhibits similar behaviors to that observed in the cuprate superconductors. Our results suggest that the observed insulator-superconductor crossover may be associated with the two-dimensionality that enhances electron localization or correlation. The reduced dimensionality and the interfacial effect provide a new pathway in searching for new phenomena and novel superconductors with a high transition temperature.

  4. Electronic evidence of an insulator–superconductor crossover in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films

    PubMed Central

    He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Defa; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; Li, Fangsen; Tang, Chenjia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-01-01

    In high-temperature cuprate superconductors, it is now generally agreed that superconductivity is realized by doping an antiferromagnetic Mott (charge transfer) insulator. The doping-induced insulator-to-superconductor transition has been widely observed in cuprates, which provides important information for understanding the superconductivity mechanism. In the iron-based superconductors, however, the parent compound is mostly antiferromagnetic bad metal, raising a debate on whether an appropriate starting point should go with an itinerant picture or a localized picture. No evidence of doping-induced insulator–superconductor transition (or crossover) has been reported in the iron-based compounds so far. Here, we report an electronic evidence of an insulator–superconductor crossover observed in the single-layer FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. By taking angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the electronic structure and energy gap, we have identified a clear evolution of an insulator to a superconductor with increasing carrier concentration. In particular, the insulator–superconductor crossover in FeSe/SrTiO3 film exhibits similar behaviors to that observed in the cuprate superconductors. Our results suggest that the observed insulator–superconductor crossover may be associated with the two-dimensionality that enhances electron localization or correlation. The reduced dimensionality and the interfacial effect provide a new pathway in searching for new phenomena and novel superconductors with a high transition temperature. PMID:25502774

  5. Do males matter? Testing the effects of male genetic background on female meiotic crossover rates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Singh, Nadia D

    2014-09-01

    Meiotic recombination is a critical genetic process as well as a pivotal evolutionary force. Rates of crossing over are highly variable within and between species, due to both genetic and environmental factors. Early studies in Drosophila implicated female genetic background as a major determinant of crossover rate and recent work has highlighted male genetic background as a possible mediator as well. Our study employed classical genetics to address how female and male genetic backgrounds individually and jointly affect crossover rates. We measured rates of crossing over in a 33 cM region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome using a two-step crossing scheme exploiting visible markers. In total, we measured crossover rates of 10 inbred lines in a full diallel cross. Our experimental design facilitates measuring the contributions of female genetic background, male genetic background, and female by male genetic background interaction effects on rates of crossing over in females. Our results indicate that although female genetic background significantly affects female meiotic crossover rates in Drosophila, male genetic background and the interaction of female and male genetic backgrounds have no significant effect. These findings thus suggest that male-mediated effects are unlikely to contribute greatly to variation in recombination rates in natural populations of Drosophila. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk via cholesterol reduction, anti-inflammation, glucoregulation, and antioxidation. The objective of this randomized, controlled, cross-over trial was to determine whether the addition of 85 g almonds daily to a National Cholesterol Education Progr...

  7. Challenging Fiction: Exploring Meaning-Making Processes in the Crossover between Social Media and Drama in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Kristian Nødtvedt

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how meaning-making activity can be expressed and shaped in the crossover between drama in education and social media. This study concerns the use of empirical material from an educational drama project called #iLive, which was designed and implemented, on four different occasions with a total of 89 students…

  8. Precise Orbit Determination for GEOSAT Follow-On Using Satellite Laser Ranging Data and Intermission Altimeter Crossovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Pavlis, Despina E.; Marr, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On Spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 with the primary objective of the mission to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Following an extensive set of calibration campaigns in 1999 and 2000, the US Navy formally accepted delivery of the satellite on November 29, 2000. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler (Tranet-style) beacons track the spacecraft. Although limited amounts of GPS data were obtained, the primary mode of tracking remains satellite laser ranging. The GFO altimeter measurements are highly precise, with orbit error the largest component in the error budget. We have tuned the non-conservative force model for GFO and the gravity model using SLR, Doppler and altimeter crossover data sampled over one year. Gravity covariance projections to 70x70 show the radial orbit error on GEOSAT was reduced from 2.6 cm in EGM96 to 1.3 cm with the addition of SLR, GFO/GFO and TOPEX/GFO crossover data. Evaluation of the gravity fields using SLR and crossover data support the covariance projections and also show a dramatic reduction in geographically-correlated error for the tuned fields. In this paper, we report on progress in orbit determination for GFO using GFO/GFO and TOPEX/GFO altimeter crossovers. We will discuss improvements in satellite force modeling and orbit determination strategy, which allows reduction in GFO radial orbit error from 10-15 cm to better than 5 cm.

  9. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  10. DNA damage response clamp 9-1-1 promotes assembly of ZMM proteins for formation of crossovers and synaptonemal complex

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Miki; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Grubb, Jennifer T.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Shinohara, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during meiosis is positively regulated by the ZMM proteins (also known as SIC proteins). DNA damage checkpoint proteins also promote efficient formation of interhomolog crossovers. Here, we examined, in budding yeast, the meiotic role of the heterotrimeric DNA damage response clamp composed of Rad17, Ddc1 and Mec3 (known as ‘9-1-1’ in other organisms) and a component of the clamp loader, Rad24 (known as Rad17 in other organisms). Cytological analysis indicated that the 9-1-1 clamp and its loader are not required for the chromosomal loading of RecA homologs Rad51 or Dmc1, but are necessary for the efficient loading of ZMM proteins. Interestingly, the loading of ZMM proteins onto meiotic chromosomes was independent of the checkpoint kinase Mec1 (the homolog of ATR) as well as Rad51. Furthermore, the ZMM member Zip3 (also known as Cst9) bound to the 9-1-1 complex in a cell-free system. These data suggest that, in addition to promoting interhomolog bias mediated by Rad51–Dmc1, the 9-1-1 clamp promotes crossover formation through a specific role in the assembly of ZMM proteins. Thus, the 9-1-1 complex functions to promote two crucial meiotic recombination processes, the regulation of interhomolog recombination and crossover formation mediated by ZMM. PMID:25736290

  11. Membrane tethering by the atlastin GTPase depends on GTP hydrolysis but not on forming the cross-over configuration

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Simran G.; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Peijun; Lee, Tina H.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored atlastin GTPase couples nucleotide hydrolysis to the catalysis of homotypic membrane fusion to form a branched endoplasmic reticulum network. Trans dimerization between atlastins anchored in opposing membranes, accompanied by a cross-over conformational change, is thought to draw the membranes together for fusion. Previous studies on the conformational coupling of atlastin to its GTP hydrolysis cycle have been carried out largely on atlastins lacking a membrane anchor. Consequently, whether fusion involves a discrete tethering step and, if so, the potential role of GTP hydrolysis and cross-over in tethering remain unknown. In this study, we used membrane-anchored atlastins in assays that separate tethering from fusion to dissect the requirements for each. We found that tethering depended on GTP hydrolysis, but, unlike fusion, it did not depend on cross-over. Thus GTP hydrolysis initiates stable head-domain contact in trans to tether opposing membranes, whereas cross-over formation plays a more pivotal role in powering the lipid rearrangements for fusion. PMID:25253720

  12. Membrane tethering by the atlastin GTPase depends on GTP hydrolysis but not on forming the cross-over configuration.

    PubMed

    Saini, Simran G; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Peijun; Lee, Tina H

    2014-12-01

    The membrane-anchored atlastin GTPase couples nucleotide hydrolysis to the catalysis of homotypic membrane fusion to form a branched endoplasmic reticulum network. Trans dimerization between atlastins anchored in opposing membranes, accompanied by a cross-over conformational change, is thought to draw the membranes together for fusion. Previous studies on the conformational coupling of atlastin to its GTP hydrolysis cycle have been carried out largely on atlastins lacking a membrane anchor. Consequently, whether fusion involves a discrete tethering step and, if so, the potential role of GTP hydrolysis and cross-over in tethering remain unknown. In this study, we used membrane-anchored atlastins in assays that separate tethering from fusion to dissect the requirements for each. We found that tethering depended on GTP hydrolysis, but, unlike fusion, it did not depend on cross-over. Thus GTP hydrolysis initiates stable head-domain contact in trans to tether opposing membranes, whereas cross-over formation plays a more pivotal role in powering the lipid rearrangements for fusion. © 2014 Saini et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Preliminary Report of Clinical Outcomes After Single Crossover Bioresorbable Scaffold Implantation Without Routine Side Branch Strut Dilation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akihito; Jabbour, Richard J; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Mangieri, Antonio; Pagnesi, Matteo; Montalto, Claudio; Chieffo, Alaide; Carlino, Mauro; Montorfano, Matteo; Latib, Azeem; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes following single crossover bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) implantation without routine side branch (SB) strut dilation. It is unknown whether SB strut dilation is routinely required after single crossover BRS implantation if there is no compromise of the jailed SB. Among 187 bifurcation lesions treated with Absorb BRS, 115 lesions (101 patients) were treated with single crossover BRS implantation. Strut dilation toward SB was considered only when SB was compromised (SB TIMI flow < 3 or SB ostium > 75%) after main branch (MB) BRS implantation. Clinical outcomes including cardiac death, follow-up myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and definite scaffold thrombosis (ST) were investigated. The majority of target lesions were in the left anterior descending artery (73.0%) and the rate of true bifurcation lesions was 42.6%. SB strut dilation was performed in only 20% of lesions (n = 23), and intravascular imaging was used in most cases (90.4%). The rates of TLR per lesion at 1-year was 3.1% in MB, and 0% in SB. In all patients, the cumulative rate of cardiac death was 1.1% at 1-year, follow-up MI 2.2%, TVR 3.5%, and definite ST 1.0%. Clinical outcomes were acceptable in bifurcation lesions treated with single crossover BRS implantation without routine SB strut dilation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Association with Gastrointestinal Illness: A case crossover analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources potentially causing contamination. SSOs are primarily caused by heavy rainfall, which is expected to become heavier and more episodic due to climate change. We conducted a case-crossover ...

  15. Sound Velocities at the Spin Crossover in (Mg0.75Fe0.25)O Ferropericlase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturhahn, W.; Lin, J.; Jackson, J. M.; Zhao, J.

    2006-12-01

    Iron-bearing minerals of the lower mantle like ferropericlase and silicate perovskite have recently been studied to evaluate the presence of pressure-dependent crossovers between the high-spin and the low-spin state of iron. Such a crossover was clearly observed in ferropericlase using x-ray emission spectroscopy [1,2], conventional Mössbauer spectroscopy [3], and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy [4]. In the case of silicate perovskite, the electronic state of the iron has been studied with x-ray emission spectroscopy [5,6] and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy [7] but the situation remains unclear. Also the influence of the spin crossover on sound velocities of the iron-bearing minerals of the lower mantle has not been studied experimentally. We applied nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to determine the vibrational density of states of Fe in (Mg0.75Fe0.25)O ferropericlase up to 110 GPa and ambient temperature. We observed a significant effect of the spin crossover in ferropericlase on its elasticity and sound velocities that can derived from the vibrational density of states. We will also briefly address the potential effects of high temperatures on the spin crossover in the framework of a recently suggested thermal population model [8]. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE-BES, Office of Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38 and by NSF through COMPRESS. [1] Badro J. et al. (2003) Science 300, 789 [2] Lin J.-F. et al. (2005) Nature 436, 377 [3] Speziale S. et al. (2005) PNAS 102, 17918 [4] Lin J.-F. et al. (2006) Phys.Rev. B 73, 113107 [5] Li J. et al. (2004) PNAS 101, 14027 [6] Badro J. et al. (2004) Science 305, 383 [7] Jackson J.M. et al. (2005) American Mineral. 90, 199 [8] Sturhahn W. et al. (2005) Geophys.Res.Lett. 31, L12307

  16. Crossover effects of estrogen receptor status on breast cancer-specific hazard rates by age and race.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Black, Dalliah M; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Liu, Peijun; Li, Xu; Du, Xianglin L; He, Jianjun; Yang, Jin; Hunt, Kelly K; Yi, Min

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies found that the risk of breast cancer-related death is greater in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative disease than in ER-positive disease within 5 years of diagnosis, but greater for ER-positive disease than for ER-negative disease more than 5 years after diagnosis. This phenomenon is referred to as ER-positive and -negative crossover. Our aim was to evaluate this crossover by determining the timing of the hazard of breast cancer death by patient, clinical, and tumor factors. Patients with breast cancer diagnosed between 1990 and 2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The cohort was evaluated by age at diagnosis, race, tumor ER status, tumor and nodal stage, and tumor grade. Disease-specific (DS) hazard rates were calculated. Of the 439,444 patients identified, 77.5% had ER-positive disease. Overall, ER-negative to ER-positive DS hazard rates crossed between the years 7 and 8 after diagnosis. Earlier crossover was linked to black or Hispanic race, young age (<40 years), or tumors that were larger, higher grade, or affected the nodes. Young black (<40 years) patients who had a T3/T4 tumor with positive nodes, grade III or undifferentiated, had the earliest crossover, in year 4. The timing of crossover of death hazard for ER-positive and ER-negative disease varies by clinical and tumor factors. These findings may help guide recommendations regarding the duration of endocrine therapy for patients with ER-positive cancer.

  17. Correlation strength, Lifshitz transition, and the emergence of a two-dimensional to three-dimensional crossover in FeSe under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skornyakov, S. L.; Anisimov, V. I.; Vollhardt, D.; Leonov, I.

    2018-03-01

    We report a detailed theoretical study of the electronic structure, spectral properties, and lattice parameters of bulk FeSe under pressure using a fully charge self-consistent implementation of the density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory method (DFT+DMFT). In particular, we perform a structural optimization and compute the evolution of the lattice parameters (volume, c /a ratio, and the internal z position of Se) and the electronic structure of the tetragonal (space group P 4 /n m m ) unit cell of paramagnetic FeSe. Our results for the lattice parameters obtained by structural optimization using DFT+DMFT are in good quantitative agreement with experiment, implying a crucial importance of electron correlations in determining the correct lattice properties of FeSe. Most importantly, upon compression to 10 GPa our results reveal a topological change in the Fermi surface (Lifshitz transition) which is accompanied by a two- to three-dimensional crossover and a small reduction of the quasiparticle mass renormalization compared to ambient pressure. The behavior of the momentum-resolved magnetic susceptibility χ (q ) shows no topological changes of magnetic correlations under pressure but demonstrates a reduction of the degree of the in-plane (π ,π ) stripe-type nesting. Our results for the electronic structure and lattice parameters of FeSe are in good qualitative agreement with recent experiments on its isoelectronic counterpart FeSe1 -xSx .

  18. Temperature- and Pressure-Induced Spin Crossover in Co1+xCr2-xSe4 (x = 0.24): A Diffraction Study.

    PubMed

    Svitlyk, V; Chernyshov, D; Mozharivskyj, Y; Yuan, F; Zaharko, O; Mezouar, M

    2016-01-04

    The Co(2+) ions of the Co1+xCr2-xSe4 phase (Co1.24Cr1.76Se4 composition with x = 0.24, C2/m space group, Cr3S4-type structure) undergo a high- to low-spin-state transition around 230 K, as concluded from the temperature-dependent single-crystal synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments and the previously reported physical property studies. The change of the spin state is not instantaneous and goes through a wide spin-crossover (SCO) region of 75 K. A similar Co(2+) high- to low-spin-state transition is suggested at a pressure of 14.5 GPa, as is evident from the pressure-dependent single-crystal synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments. The corresponding SCO region is equal to 5 GPa, and the structural behavior is different from the one observed during the temperature-dependent transition. Coupling between the spin-conversion process in Co1+xCr2-xSe4 and the concomitant changes in the physical properties opens a way for a controlled tuning of the observed physical response through compositional and structural modifications.

  19. Relationship of Buckling and Knee Injury to Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Web-Based Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Zobel, Isabelle; Erfani, Tahereh; Bennell, Kim L; Makovey, Joanna; Metcalf, Ben; March, Lyn; Zhang, Yuqing; Eckstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of limited mobility and diminished quality of life. Pain is the main symptom that drives individuals with knee OA to seek medical care and a recognized antecedent to disability and eventually joint replacement. Evidence shows that patients with symptomatic OA experience fluctuations in pain severity. Mechanical insults to the knee such as injury and buckling may contribute to pain exacerbation. Objective Our objective was to examine whether knee injury and buckling (giving way) are triggers for exacerbation of pain in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study, a novel methodology in which participants with symptomatic radiographic knee OA who have had knee pain exacerbations were used as their own control (self-matched design), with all data collected via the Internet. Participants were asked to log-on to the study website and complete an online questionnaire at baseline and then at regular 10-day intervals for 3 months (control periods)—a total of 10 questionnaires. They were also instructed to go to the website and complete pain exacerbation questionnaires when they experienced an isolated incident of knee pain exacerbation (case periods). A pain exacerbation “case” period was defined as an increase of ≥2 compared to baseline. At each contact the pain exacerbation was designated a case period, and at all other regular 10-day contacts (control periods) participants were asked about knee injuries during the previous 7 days and knee buckling during the previous 2 days. The relationship of knee injury and buckling to the risk of pain exacerbation was examined using conditional logistic regression models. Results The analysis included 157 participants (66% women, mean age: 62 years, mean BMI: 29.5 kg/m2). Sustaining a knee injury was associated with experiencing a pain exacerbation (odds ratio [OR] 10.2, 95% CI 5.4, 19.3) compared with no injury. Knee

  20. Online hemodiafiltration versus acetate-free biofiltration: a prospective crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Feng; Ahrenholz, Peter; Winkler, Roland E; Ramlow, Wolfgang; Tiess, Michael; Michelsen, Ann; Pätow, Wolfgang

    2002-02-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (online HDF) and acetate-free biofiltration (AFB) are 2 innovative renal replacement therapies. Convincing evidence has shown that both techniques are superior to conventional hemodialysis in many aspects. The aim of the present investigation was to compare online HDF and AFB in 12 stable maintenance hemodialysis patients in a prospective, randomized crossover trial. Twelve stable dialysis patients, age 49.7 +/- 11.3 years and on dialysis for 83.5 +/- 76.7 months, were treated prospectively and randomly by either AFB, predilution HDF (pre-HDF), or postdilution HDF (post-HDF) for a total of 36 weeks using exclusively F60S high-flux dialyzers. Routine blood biochemical tests, bone metabolism parameters, and clearance for both small and larger molecular weight substances were measured at defined intervals. During the trial period inter- and intradialysis symptoms, e.g., hypotensive episodes and intradialysis arterial blood gas analyses, were recorded. Both online HDF and AFB were well accepted by the overwhelming majority of patients and also by the dialysis staff. Pretreatment sodium, total and ionized calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, and urea did not differ within or between the 3 treatment groups. Potassium increased slightly in HDF patients while phosphate and beta2-microglobulin (beta2-M) decreased in all groups. After dialysis, AFB patients exhibited a significantly higher bicarbonate concentration and lower potassium level when identical potassium concentrations in dialysate were used. Patients receiving AFB manifested less intradialysis partial pressure of oxygen drop and partial pressure of carbon dioxide rise than those on HDF treatments. HDF treatments could afford higher single-pool and double-pool Kt/V, higher effective urea and beta2M clearance, and lower total interdialysis symptom scores than the AFB treatment method. While bone metabolism parameters did not differ between the 3 dialysis modalities, some parameters such as

  1. The role of crossover operator in evolutionary-based approach to the problem of genetic code optimization.

    PubMed

    Błażej, Paweł; Wnȩtrzak, Małgorzata; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    One of theories explaining the present structure of canonical genetic code assumes that it was optimized to minimize harmful effects of amino acid replacements resulting from nucleotide substitutions and translational errors. A way to testify this concept is to find the optimal code under given criteria and compare it with the canonical genetic code. Unfortunately, the huge number of possible alternatives makes it impossible to find the optimal code using exhaustive methods in sensible time. Therefore, heuristic methods should be applied to search the space of possible solutions. Evolutionary algorithms (EA) seem to be ones of such promising approaches. This class of methods is founded both on mutation and crossover operators, which are responsible for creating and maintaining the diversity of candidate solutions. These operators possess dissimilar characteristics and consequently play different roles in the process of finding the best solutions under given criteria. Therefore, the effective searching for the potential solutions can be improved by applying both of them, especially when these operators are devised specifically for a given problem. To study this subject, we analyze the effectiveness of algorithms for various combinations of mutation and crossover probabilities under three models of the genetic code assuming different restrictions on its structure. To achieve that, we adapt the position based crossover operator for the most restricted model and develop a new type of crossover operator for the more general models. The applied fitness function describes costs of amino acid replacement regarding their polarity. Our results indicate that the usage of crossover operators can significantly improve the quality of the solutions. Moreover, the simulations with the crossover operator optimize the fitness function in the smaller number of generations than simulations without this operator. The optimal genetic codes without restrictions on their structure

  2. Two-stage crossover from thermal to quantum flux creep of dilute vortex ensembles in various high-Tc superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkerman, Johan J.; Venturini, E. L.; Siegal, M. P.; Yun, S. H.; Karlsson, U. O.; Rao, K. V.

    2001-09-01

    The thermal-to-quantum flux creep crossover at low vortex densities has been studied in YBa2Cu3O7, TlBa2CaCu2O7-δ, and HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ thin films using ac susceptibility. The crossover temperatures Tcr are 10-11, 17, and 30 K, respectively. Both thermal and quantum flux creep is suppressed as the vortex density is decreased. We observe a two-stage nature in the crossover behavior which appears to be a general property of all the three materials studied.

  3. Image of a line is not shrunk but neglected. Absence of crossover in unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Ishiai, Sumio; Koyama, Yasumasa; Nakano, Naomi; Seki, Keiko; Nishida, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Kazuko

    2004-01-01

    Patients with left unilateral spatial neglect following right hemisphere lesions usually err rightward when bisecting a horizontal line. For very short lines (e.g. 25 mm), however, leftward errors or seemingly 'right' neglect is often observed. To explain this paradox of crossover in the direction of errors, rather complicated models have been introduced as to the distribution of attention. Neglect may be hypothesized to occur in representational process of a line or estimation of the midpoint on the formed image, or both. We devised a line image task using a computer display with a touch panel and approached the representational image of a line to be bisected. Three patients with typical left neglect were presented with a line and forced to see its whole extent with cueing to the left endpoint. After disappearance of the line, they pointed to the right endpoint, the left endpoint, or the subjective midpoint according to their representational image. The line image between the reproduced right and left endpoints was appropriately formed for the 200 mm lines. However, the images for the shorter 25 and 100 mm lines were longer than the physical lengths with overextension to the left side. These results proved the context effect that short lines may be perceived longer when they are presented in combination with longer lines. One of our patients had an extensive lesion that involved the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, and the other two had a lesion restricted to the posterior right hemisphere. The image for a fully perceived line may be represented far enough into left space even when left neglect occurs after a lesion that involves the right parietal lobe. The patients with neglect placed the subjective midpoint rightward from the centre of the stimulus line for the 100 and 200 mm lines and leftward for the 25 mm lines. This crossover of bisection errors disappeared when the displacement of the subjective midpoint was measured from the centre of the

  4. Suicide and Ambient Temperature in East Asian Countries: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonhee; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Bing-Yu; Woo, Jong-Min; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A limited number of studies suggest that ambient temperature contributes to suicide; these studies typically focus on a single nation and use temporally and spatially aggregated data. Objective We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and suicide in multiple cities in three East Asian countries. Methods A time-stratified case-crossover method was used to explore the relationship between temperature and suicide, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders and time-invariant individual characteristics. Sex- and age-specific associations of temperature with suicide were estimated, as were interactions between temperature and these variables. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate country-specific pooled associations of temperature with suicide. Results An increase in temperature corresponding to half of the city-specific standard deviation was positively associated with suicide in most cities, although average suicide rates varied substantially. Pooled country-level effect estimates were 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 10.8%) for a 2.3°C increase in ambient temperature in Taiwan, 6.8% (95% CI: 5.4, 8.2%) for a 4.7°C increase in Korea, and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.3, 5.7%) for a 4.2°C increase in Japan. The association between temperature and suicide was significant even after adjusting for sunshine duration; the association between sunshine and suicide was not significant. The associations were greater among men than women in 12 of the 15 cities although not significantly so. There was little evidence of a consistent pattern of associations with age. In general, associations were strongest with temperature on the same day or the previous day, with little evidence of associations with temperature over longer lags (up to 5 days). Conclusions We estimated consistent positive associations between suicide and elevated ambient temperature in three East Asian countries, regardless of country, sex, and age. Citation Kim Y, Kim H, Honda Y, Guo YL

  5. The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition--a crossover trial in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Jose; Ellerbroek, Anya; Silver, Tobin; Vargas, Leonel; Peacock, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Eight weeks of a high protein diet (>3 g/kg/day) coupled with a periodized heavy resistance training program has been shown to positively affect body composition with no deleterious effects on health. Using a randomized, crossover design, resistance-trained male subjects underwent a 16-week intervention (i.e., two 8-week periods) in which they consumed either their normal (i.e., habitual) or a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/day). Thus, the purpose of this study was to ascertain if significantly increasing protein intake would affect clinical markers of health (i.e., lipids, kidney function, etc.) as well as performance and body composition in young males with extensive resistance training experience. Twelve healthy resistance-trained men volunteered for this study (mean ± SD: age 25.9 ± 3.7 years; height 178.0 ± 8.5 cm; years of resistance training experience 7.6 ± 3.6) with 11 subjects completing most of the assessments. In a randomized crossover trial, subjects were tested at baseline and after two 8-week treatment periods (i.e., habitual [normal] diet and high protein diet) for body composition, measures of health (i.e., blood lipids, comprehensive metabolic panel) and performance. Each subject maintained a food diary for the 16-week treatment period (i.e., 8 weeks on their normal or habitual diet and 8 weeks on a high protein diet). Each subject provided a food diary of two weekdays and one weekend day per week. In addition, subjects kept a diary of their training regimen that was used to calculate total work performed. During the normal and high protein phase of the treatment period, subjects consumed 2.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.8 g/kg/day of dietary protein, respectively. The mean protein intake over the 4-month period was 2.9 ± 0.9 g/kg/day. The high protein group consumed significantly more calories and protein (p < 0.05) than the normal protein group. There were no differences in dietary intake between the groups for

  6. Compression of a multiphase mantle assemblage: Effects of undesirable stress and stress annealing on the iron spin state crossover in ferropericlase: Stresses and HS-LS Crossover in (Mg,Fe)O

    DOE PAGES

    Glazyrin, Konstantin; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Smith, Jesse S.; ...

    2016-05-30

    Using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, we explore characteristic signatures for nonhydrostaticstresses and their effect on the spin state crossover of ferrous iron in (Mg, Fe)O ferropericlase (Fp) uponcompression in a two-phase mixture which includes an Al- and Fe-bearing bridgmanite (Bm). Here, we observe aninfluence of nonhydrostatic stresses on the spin state crossover starting pressure and width. The undesirablestresses discussed here include uniaxial deviatoric stress evolving in the diamond anvil cell and effects ofintergrain interaction. And while the former leads to a pressure overestimation, the latter one lowers the pressure ofthe onset for the high-spin to low-spin electronic transition in Fe 2+more » in ferropericlase (Mg, Fe)O with respect tohydrostatic conditions.« less

  7. Mössbauer spectroscopic study on spin crossover coordination polymer Fe(3-Clpy)2[Pd(CN)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi; Sekiya, Madoka; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic results on the alternatively prepared spin crossover coordination polymer Fe(3-Clpy)2Pd(CN)4 sample I agree with those of SQUID data. Mössbauer specrum at RT shows two diffrent doublets which correspond to the HS1(inner doublet) and HS2(outer doublet). The intensity of the HS1 doublet decreases on cooling to 78 K at the expense of a new one featuring the LS singlet. Almost 100 % of HS1 change to LS singlet due to iron(II) ions coordinated by four N atoms of cyano groups and two N atoms of 3-Clpy ligand in the sample I. The SQUID data of the sample I prepared by a new direct contact method are different from those of the already reported Fe(3-Clpy)2Pd(CN)4 sample. The differences of the SQUID data are associated with particle size effects in molecule spin crossover samples.

  8. ESR evidence of the dynamic crossover in the supercooled liquid states of a series of solid n-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Bartoš, Josef; Corsaro, C; Mallamace, D; Švajdlenková, H; Lukešová, M

    2018-04-09

    A study of the rotation dynamics of the spin probe TEMPO by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in a series of six short- and medium-sized n-alkanes is presented. In addition to the usual crossover effects connected with solid-liquid phase transitions at temperature Tm and the solid-solid transition at Tss, we find a strong correlation between the change in reorientation at the characteristic ESR temperature TfastX1 < Tss and/or Tm with the ratio TfastX1/Tm = 0.76 ± 0.03 and the characteristic dynamic temperature, TX, obtained from the viscosity data. This indicates the presence of local disordered regions in the crystalline structure which is indeed sensitive to dynamic change at the crossover temperature TX ≅ TfastX1.

  9. Feasibility demonstration of booster cross-over system for 3 1/2 inch SRB/MLP frangible nut system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Recent testing of the SRB/MLP Frangible Nut System (SOS Part Number 114850-9/Boosters P/N 114848-3) at NASA indicated a need to reduce the function time between boosters (2) within a single frangible nut. These boosters are initiated separately by electrical impulse(s). Coupling the output of each detonator with an explosive cross-over would reduce the function time between boosters (independent of electrical impulse) while providing additional redundancy to the system. The objectives of this program were to: provide an explosive cross-over between boosters, reduce function time between boosters to less than one (1) millisecond within a given nut, reduce cost of boosters, be compatible with the existing frangible nut system, and meet requirements of USBI Spec's (nut 10SPC-0030, booster 10SPC-0031).

  10. Intervention for phantom limb pain: A randomized single crossover study of mirror therapy.

    PubMed

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Nagabushnam, Satish C; Katuwal, Nagendra; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Mirror therapy suggested to help relieve phantom limb pain (PLP) by resolving the visual- proprioceptive dissociation in the brain, but studies so far either had shorter follow-up or smaller sample size. In this randomized single crossover trial, 64 amputees with PLP in the age group of 15-75 years of age were distributed into test and control groups by simple randomization method. Of these 28 in control and 32 in test groups, respectively, completed the 4 weeks of mirror therapy and 12 weeks of follow-up assessments. A standardized set of exercises for 15 min/day for 4 and 8 weeks in test and control groups (in the first 4 weeks, the mirror was covered), respectively, was administered under supervision of one of the authors. All were assessed using the visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire on day 0 and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after therapy. In control group for the initial 4 weeks, the mirror was covered. The assessing author was blinded to the group to which the participants belonged. Significant reduction in PLP was noted in the test group at 4 weeks compared to the control group ( P < 0.0001). Significant reduction was seen in control group also after the switchover and sustained for 12 weeks in both. No harm was reported. Mirror therapy is effective in relieving the intensity, duration, frequency, and overall PLP, and improvement is maintained up to 12 weeks' posttherapy.

  11. Elasticity of Ferropericlase across the Spin Crossover in the Earth’s Lower Mantle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Tong, Xinyue; Lin, Jung-Fu; Okuchi, Takuo; Tomioka, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the elasticity of ferropericlase across the spin transition can help explain seismic and mineralogical models of the lower-mantle including the origin of seismic heterogeneities in the middle to lowermost parts of the lower mantle1234. However, the effects of spin transition on full elastic constants of ferropericlase remain experimentally controversial due to technical challenges in directly measuring sound velocities under lower-mantle conditions12345. Here we have reliably measured both VP and VS of a single-crystal ferropericlase ((Mg0.92,Fe0.08)O) using complementary Brillouin Light Scattering and Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering coupled with a diamond anvil cell up to 96 GPa. The derived elastic constants show drastically softened C11 and C12 within the spin transition at 40–60 GPa while C44 is not affected. The spin transition is associated with a significant reduction of the aggregate VP/VS via the aggregate VP softening because VS softening does not visibly occur within the transition. Based on thermoelastic modelling along an expected geotherm, the spin crossover in ferropericlase can contribute to 2% reduction in VP/VS in a pyrolite mineralogical model in mid lower-mantle. Our results imply that the middle to lowermost parts of the lower-mantle would exhibit enhanced seismic heterogeneities due to the occurrence of the mixed-spin and low-spin ferropericlase. PMID:26621579

  12. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of topological Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Mathias S; Rachel, Stephan; Orth, Peter P

    2015-02-11

    Interacting cold-atomic gases in optical lattices offer an experimental approach to outstanding problems of many body physics. One important example is the interplay of interaction and topology which promises to generate a variety of exotic phases such as the fractionalized Chern insulator or the topological Mott insulator. Both theoretically understanding these states of matter and finding suitable systems that host them have proven to be challenging problems. Here we propose a cold-atom setup where Hubbard on-site interactions give rise to spin liquid-like phases: weak and strong topological Mott insulators. They represent the celebrated paradigm of an interacting and topological quantum state with fractionalized spinon excitations that inherit the topology of the non-interacting system. Our proposal shall help to pave the way for a controlled experimental investigation of this exotic state of matter in optical lattices. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator by tuning the hopping between the layers.

  13. Kinesiology tape does not promote vertical jumping performance: A deceptive crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Cheung, R T H; Yau, Q K C; Wong, K; Lau, P; So, A; Chan, N; Kwok, C; Poon, K Y; Yung, P S H

    2016-02-01

    Kinesiology tape (KINTAPE) is one of the most common adhesive therapeutic tapes. Apart from clinical applications, KINTAPE claims to be able to enhance functional performance by muscle activity facilitation. However, emerging evidence suggests that the isokinetic muscle strength remains similar when the placebo effect is eliminated. In view of the weak relationship between functional performance and isokinetic muscle strength, this study investigated the true effects of KINTAPE on functional performance. Deceptive, randomized, and crossover trial. Sixty four experienced volleyball players performed vertical jumping test under three taping conditions: true facilitative KINTAPE, sham KINTAPE, and no KINTAPE. Under the pretense of applying adhesive muscle sensors, KINTAPE was applied to their quadriceps and gastrocnemius in the first two conditions. Mean maximum jump height and peak jump power were averaged from three attempts. Within-subject comparisons were conducted by repeated measure ANOVA. Out of 64 participants, 30 of them were successfully deceived and they were ignorant about KINTAPE. No significant differences were found in both maximum jump height (η(2) = 0.001; p = 0.241) and peak jump power (η(2) = 0.001; p = 0.134) between three taping conditions. The results showed that KINTAPE did not facilitate muscle performance by generating higher jumping power or yielding a better jumping performance. These findings reinforce that previously reported muscle facilitatory effects or functional enhancement using KINTAPE may be attributed to placebo effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentration Dependence of VO2+ Crossover of Nafion for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    The VO2+ crossover, or permeability, through Nafion in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was monitored as a function of sulfuric acid concentration and VO2+ concentration. A vanadium rich solution was flowed on one side of the membrane through a flow field while symmetrically on the other side a blank or vanadium deficit solution was flowed. The blank solution was flowed through an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) cavity and the VO2+ concentration was determined from the intensity of the EPR signal. Concentration values were fit using a solution of Fick s law that allows for the effect of concentration changemore » on the vanadium rich side. The fits resulted in permeability values of VO2+ ions across the membrane. Viscosity measurements of many VO2+ and H2SO4 solutions were made at 30 60 C. These viscosity values were then used to determine the effect of the viscosity of the flowing solution on the permeability of the ion. 2013 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.004306jes] All rights reserved.« less

  15. Methylene blue treatment for residual symptoms of bipolar disorder: randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Alda, Martin; McKinnon, Margaret; Blagdon, Ryan; Garnham, Julie; MacLellan, Susan; O'Donovan, Claire; Hajek, Tomas; Nair, Cynthia; Dursun, Serdar; MacQueen, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Residual symptoms and cognitive impairment are among important sources of disability in patients with bipolar disorder. Methylene blue could improve such symptoms because of its potential neuroprotective effects. We conducted a double-blind crossover study of a low dose (15 mg, 'placebo') and an active dose (195 mg) of methylene blue in patients with bipolar disorder treated with lamotrigine. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in a 6-month trial (trial registration: NCT00214877). The outcome measures included severity of depression, mania and anxiety, and cognitive functioning. The active dose of methylene blue significantly improved symptoms of depression both on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (P = 0.02 and 0.05 in last-observation-carried-forward analysis). It also reduced the symptoms of anxiety measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (P = 0.02). The symptoms of mania remained low and stable throughout the study. The effects of methylene blue on cognitive symptoms were not significant. The medication was well tolerated with transient and mild side-effects. Methylene blue used as an adjunctive medication improved residual symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  16. Case-crossover analysis of condom use and HSV-2 acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Wald, Anna; Martin, Emily T.; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Magaret, Amalia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background While growing evidence suggests that condoms offer moderate protection against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), inability to control for unknown or unmeasured confounders associated with sexual activity may reduce the accuracy of the estimates. The case-crossover design offers increased control of individual-level confounders, and was thus used with the aim of producing a more accurate estimate of the effect of condom use on HSV-2 acquisition. Methods Data were pooled from six prospective studies that measured HSV-2 status at enrollment and over follow-up, and included periodic self-reported condom use and sexual activity. Sexual activity contemporaneous with acquisition was assigned to a case period; earlier sexual activity was assigned to a control period. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in behavior during the case and control periods. Results One hundred ninety-one eligible participants acquired HSV-2 during follow-up. This approach detected a 3.6% increase in the odds of HSV-2 acquisition with each unprotected act (odds ratio (OR)=1.036; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.021, 1.052), but no increase in the odds of acquisition associated with protected acts (OR=1.008; 95% CI: 0.987, 1.030). Conclusions This analysis suggests that condoms offer significant protection against HSV-2 transmission. PMID:22504606

  17. Recurrent dynamics in an epidemic model due to stimulated bifurcation crossovers

    SciTech Connect

    Juanico, Drandreb Earl; National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines 1101

    2015-05-15

    Epidemics are known to persist in the form of recurrence cycles. Despite intervention efforts through vaccination and targeted social distancing, peaks of activity for infectious diseases like influenza reappear over time. Analysis of a stochastic model is here undertaken to explore a proposed cycle-generating mechanism – the bifurcation crossover. Time series from simulations of the model exhibit oscillations similar to the temporal signature of influenza activity. Power-spectral density indicates a resonant frequency, which corresponds to the annual seasonality of influenza in temperate zones. The study finds that intervention actions influence the extinguishability of epidemic activity. Asymptotic solution to a backwardmore » Kolmogorov equation corresponds to a mean extinction time that is a function of both intervention efficacy and population size. Intervention efficacy must be greater than a certain threshold to increase the chances of extinguishing the epidemic. Agreement of the model with several phenomenological features of epidemic cycles lends to it a tractability that may serve as early warning of imminent outbreaks.« less

  18. Crossover Behavior of Gas Transport in Polymer Melts: A Molecular Simulation Approach to the Robeson Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Kumar, Sanat

    Efficient and selective transport of small gas molecules using lightweight and easily processable polymeric membranes is crucial in many clean energy technologies. For a pair of wanted (A) and unwanted (B) gases, the performance of membrane separation is characterized by the permeability of A (PA) and the selectivity of A with respect to B (αAB = PA/PB) . Empirically, the so-called Robeson plot, i.e. the scatter plot of αAB versus PA, exhibits a tradeoff relation, whose upper bound sets the optimal membrane separation limit. Simple thermodynamic and kinetic argument like the Freeman theory predicts that the slope magnitude (λ) of the upper bound is purely determined by the molecular size ratio as λ = (dB/dA)2 -1. However, systematic studies of the Robeson plot on the molecular level and a quantitative understanding of the microscopic mechanisms that control the separation ability are still missing. We perform molecular dynamics simulation to calculate the permeability of model gas molecules in coarse-grained polymer melts, from which the corresponding Robeson plot is constructed. We observe a crossover behavior of gas transport as the gas size is tuned from below to above approximately twice the monomer size. The Freeman prediction is only valid in the large gas size limit. Further investigations on the gas dynamics show that its diffusion behavior changes from a geometric obstruction mechanism to an activated trap-and-jump process.

  19. First Step Towards a Devil's Staircase in Spin-Crossover Materials.

    PubMed

    Trzop, Elzbieta; Zhang, Daopeng; Piñeiro-Lopez, Lucia; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco J; Carmen Muñoz, M; Palatinus, Lukas; Guerin, Laurent; Cailleau, Hervé; Real, Jose Antonio; Collet, Eric

    2016-07-18

    The unprecedented bimetallic 2D coordination polymer {Fe[(Hg(SCN)3 )2 ](4,4'-bipy)2 }n exhibits a thermal high-spin (HS)↔low-spin (LS) staircase-like conversion characterized by a multi-step dependence of the HS molar fraction γHS . Between the fully HS (γHS =1) and LS (γHS =0) phases, two steps associated with different ordering appear in terms of spin-state concentration waves (SSCW). On the γHS ≈0.5 step, a periodic SSCW forms with a HS-LS-HS-LS sequence. On the γHS ≈0.34 step, the 4D superspace crystallography structural refinement reveals an aperiodic SSCW, with a HS-LS sequence incommensurate with the molecular lattice. The formation of these different long-range spatially ordered structures of LS and HS states during the multi-step spin-crossover is discussed within the framework of "Devil's staircase"-type transitions. Spatially modulated phases are known in various types of materials but are uniquely related to molecular HS/LS bistability in this case. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthetic food colourings and 'hyperactivity': a double-blind crossover study.

    PubMed

    Rowe, K S

    1988-04-01

    Of 220 children referred for suspected 'hyperactivity', 55 were subjected to a 6 week trial of the Feingold diet. Forty (72.7%) demonstrated improved behaviour and 26 (47.3%) remained improved following liberalization of the diet over a period of 3-6 months. The parents of 14 children claimed that a particular cluster of behaviours was associated with the ingestion of foods containing synthetic colourings. A double-blind crossover study, employing a single-subject repeated measures design was conducted, using eight of these children. Subjects were maintained on a diet free from synthetic additives and were challenged daily for 18 weeks with either placebo (during lead-in and washout periods) or 50 mg of either tartrazine or carmoisine, each for 2 separate weeks. Two significant reactors were identified whose behavioural pattern featured extreme irritability, restlessness and sleep disturbance. One of the reactors did not have inattention as a feature. The findings raise the issue of whether the strict criteria for inclusion in studies concerned with 'hyperactivity' based on 'attention deficit disorder' may miss children who indicate behavioural changes associated with the ingestion of food colourings. Moreover, for further studies, the need to construct a behavioural rating instrument specifically validated for dye challenge is suggested.

  1. Crossover behavior of the thermal conductance and Kramers’ transition rate theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Sahu, Subin; Chien, Chih-Chun; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Kramers’ theory frames chemical reaction rates in solution as reactants overcoming a barrier in the presence of friction and noise. For weak coupling to the solution, the reaction rate is limited by the rate at which the solution can restore equilibrium after a subset of reactants have surmounted the barrier to become products. For strong coupling, there are always sufficiently energetic reactants. However, the solution returns many of the intermediate states back to the reactants before the product fully forms. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance displays an analogous physical response to the friction and noise that drive the heat current through a material or structure. A crossover behavior emerges where the thermal reservoirs dominate the conductance at the extremes and only in the intermediate region are the intrinsic properties of the lattice manifest. Not only does this shed new light on Kramers’ classic turnover problem, this result is significant for the design of devices for thermal management and other applications, as well as the proper simulation of transport at the nanoscale.

  2. The effect of an alternative keyboard on musculoskeletal discomfort: A randomized cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy A; Moehling, Krissy K; Park, Seo Young

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the effectiveness of alternative keyboards in reducing discomfort in the workplace. We hypothesized that participants using a fixed split-angle (alternative) keyboard would report significantly greater improvements in discomfort in comparison to those using a standard keyboard. Additionally, we hypothesized that at 5 months participants would significantly prefer the configuration of the alternative keyboard in comparison to the standard keyboard. In this randomized cross-over trial 77 symptomatic computer operators used fixed split-angle or standard flat keyboards for five months in their workplace, then switched to the other keyboard. Discomfort was collected weekly using the Weekly Discomfort Survey and usability was measured monthly. There was no significant keyboard by period effect on any discomfort measure. The number of participants with discomfort decreased dramatically in the first month of use, regardless of keyboard type, and this number remained relatively unchanged for the remainder of the study. Participants' ratings significantly favored the standard flat keyboard for usability. This study does not support the use of fixed split-angle keyboards over standard flat keyboards to reduce discomfort in the workplace. Further research is needed to evaluate if subgroups of keyboard users might benefit.

  3. Impact of a soy drink on climacteric symptoms: an open-label, crossover, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Tranche, Salvador; Brotons, Carlos; Pascual de la Pisa, Beatriz; Macías, Ramón; Hevia, Eduardo; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a soy drink with a high concentration of isoflavones (ViveSoy®) on climacteric symptoms. Methods: An open-label, controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in 147 peri- and postmenopausal women. Eligible women were recruited from 13 Spanish health centers and randomly assigned to one of the two sequence groups (control or ViveSoy®, 500 mL per day, 15 g of protein and 50 mg of isoflavones). Each intervention phase lasted for 12 weeks with a 6-week washout period. Changes on the Menopause Rating Scale and quality of life questionnaires, as well as lipid profile, cardiovascular risk and carbohydrate and bone metabolism were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-effects model. Results: A sample of 147 female volunteers was recruited of which 90 were evaluable. In both sequence groups, adherence to the intervention was high. Regular consumption of ViveSoy® reduced climacteric symptoms by 20.4% (p = 0.001) and symptoms in the urogenital domain by 21.3% (p < 0.05). It also improved health-related quality life by 18.1%, as per the MRS questionnaire (p <0.05). Conclusion: Regular consumption of ViveSoy® improves both the somatic and urogenital domain symptoms of menopause, as well as health-related quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26806546

  4. Probing photoinduced spin states in spin-crossover molecules with neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridier, K.; Craig, G. A.; Damay, F.; Fennell, T.; Murrie, M.; Chaboussant, G.

    2017-03-01

    We report a neutron-scattering investigation of the spin-crossover compound [Fe (ptz) 6] (BF4)2 , which undergoes an abrupt thermal spin transition from high spin (HS), S =2 , to low spin (LS), S =0 , around 135 K. The HS magnetic state can be restored at low temperature under blue/green light irradiation. We have developed a specially designed optical setup for neutron scattering to address the magnetic properties of the light-induced HS state. By using neutron diffraction, we demonstrate that significant HS/LS ratios (of up to 60%) can be obtained with this experimental setup on a sample volume considered large (400 mg), while a complete recovery of the LS state is achieved using near-infrared light. Finally, with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) we have observed magnetic transitions arising from the photo-induced metastable HS S =2 state split by crystal-field and spin-orbit coupling. We interpret the INS data assuming a spin-only model with a zero-field splitting of the S =2 ground state. The obtained parameters are D ≈-1.28 ±0.03 meV and |E |≈0.08 ±0.03 meV. The present results show that in situ magnetic inelastic neutron-scattering investigations on a broad range of photomagnetic materials are now possible.

  5. Corrections to scaling and crossover from good- to theta-solvent regimes of interacting polymers.

    PubMed

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    2005-04-01

    We exploit known properties of universal ratios, involving the radius of gyration R(g), the second and third virial coefficients B(2) and B(3), and the effective pair potential between the centers of mass of self-avoiding polymer chains with nearest-neighbor attraction, as well as Monte Carlo simulations, to investigate the crossover from good- to theta-solvent regimes of polymers of finite length L. The scaling limit and finite-L corrections to scaling are investigated in the good-solvent case and close to the theta temperature. Detailed interpolation formulas are derived from Monte Carlo data and results for the Edwards two-parameter model, providing estimates of universal ratios as functions of the observable ratio A(2)=B(2)/R(g) (3) over the whole temperature range, from the theta point to the good-solvent regime. The convergence with L (L< or =8000) is found to be satisfactory under good-solvent conditions, but longer chains would be required to match theoretical predictions near the theta point, due to logarithmic corrections. A quantitative estimate of the universal ratio A(3)=B(3)/R(g) (6) as a function of temperature shows that the third virial coefficient remains positive throughout, and goes through a pronounced minimum at the theta temperature, which goes to zero as 1/ln L in the scaling limit.

  6. Association of cerebrovascular events with antidepressant use: a case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-05-01

    The authors sought to assess the risk of cerebrovascular events associated with use of antidepressant medications. The authors conducted a case-crossover study of 24,214 patients with stroke enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007. The authors compared the rates of antidepressant use during case and control time windows of 7, 14, and 28 days. Adjustments were made for time-dependent variables, such as health system utilization and proposed confounding medications. Stratified analyses were performed for valuing the interaction between the stroke risk of antidepressant use and age, sex, presence of mood disorder, stroke type, severity of chronic illness, and duration of antidepressant treatment. A conditional logistic regression model was used to determine the odds of antidepressant use during case time windows. The adjusted odds ratio of stroke risk with antidepressant exposure was 1.48 (95% confidence interval=1.37-1.59) using 14-day time windows. Stroke risk was negatively associated with the number of antidepressant prescriptions reported. Use of antidepressants with high inhibition of the serotonin transporter was associated with a greater risk of stroke than use of other types of antidepressants. These findings suggest that antidepressant use may be associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

  7. Double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial with clobetasol propionate in desquamative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso; Domaneschi, Carina; Komesu, Marilena Chinali; Souza, Cacilda da Silva; Aoki, Valéria; Migliari, Dante Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 0.05% clobetasol propionate ointment administered in trays to 22 patients with desquamative gingivitis in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Patients received container number 1 and were instructed to apply the ointment 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and to reduce the application to once a day in the third week. Next, the patients were then instructed to discontinue the treatment for 2 weeks, and were then given container 2, used in the same way and for the same length of time as container 1. Regarding signs, 17 patients presented some improvement, while 5 experienced worsening with clobetasol propionate. With the placebo, 14 patients presented some improvement, and 8 patients presented worsening. For symptoms, there was complete improvement in 2 patients, partial improvement in 12, no response in 7, and worsening in 1 with clobetasol propionate. With the placebo, there was partial improvement in 8 patients, no response in 12 and worsening in 2. No statistically significant difference was found between clobetasol and placebo (p>0.05). Within the period designed to treat the gingival lesions of the patients, clobetasol propionate did not significantly outperform the placebo.

  8. Smoking Behavior and Exposure: Results of a Menthol Cigarette Cross-over Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Richter, Patricia; de Castro, B Rey; Sosnoff, Connie; Potts, Jennifer; Clark, Pamela; McCraw, Joan; Yan, Xizheng; Chambers, David; Watson, Clifford

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to improve understanding of the differences in use behavior and exposure when smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes using a 2-part cross-over design. Adult daily smokers were assigned randomly to alternate between 2 weeks of exclusively smoking a menthol test cigarette or a non-menthol test cigarette. Urine and saliva were collected for biomarker measurements; carbon monoxide (CO) was measured, and participants smoked test cigarettes through a CreSS® smoking topography device during 3 clinic visits. Participants turned in their cigarette butts from the test periods for determination of mouth level nicotine and completed subjective questionnaires related to the test cigarettes. Regardless of cigarette preference, participants had higher salivary cotinine when smoking the non-menthol test cigarette, but there were no significant differences detected in urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol between the 2 test cigarettes. Mouth level nicotine, puff volume, and puff duration were significantly higher when smoking the menthol brand. Both menthol and non-menthol smokers reported significantly lower enjoyment and satisfaction scores for test cigarettes compared with their brand of choice. Our results suggest that mentholation has an effect on measures of smoking behavior and that mouth level nicotine is a useful indicator of between-brand smoke exposure.

  9. Auricular Acupuncture for Exam Anxiety in Medical Students—A Randomized Crossover Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Klausenitz, Catharina; Hacker, Henriette; Hesse, Thomas; Kohlmann, Thomas; Endlich, Karlhans; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Usichenko, Taras

    2016-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in the treatment of preoperative anxiety. The aim was to investigate whether AA can reduce exam anxiety as compared to placebo and no intervention. Forty-four medical students were randomized to receive AA, placebo, or no intervention in a crossover manner and subsequently completed three comparable oral anatomy exams with an interval of 1 month between the exams/interventions. AA was applied using indwelling fixed needles bilaterally at points MA-IC1, MA-TF1, MA-SC, MA-AT1 and MA-TG one day prior to each exam. Placebo needles were used as control. Levels of anxiety were measured using a visual analogue scale before and after each intervention as well as before each exam. Additional measures included the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, duration of sleep at night, blood pressure, heart rate and the extent of participant blinding. All included participants finished the study. Anxiety levels were reduced after AA and placebo intervention compared to baseline and the no intervention condition (p < 0.003). AA was better at reducing anxiety than placebo in the evening before the exam (p = 0.018). Participants were able to distinguish between AA and placebo intervention. Both AA and placebo interventions reduced exam anxiety in medical students. The superiority of AA over placebo may be due to insufficient blinding of participants. PMID:28033320

  10. Comparison of antiemetic efficacy of granisetron and ondansetron in Oriental patients: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, R. T.; Chow, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    A double-blind randomized crossover trial was performed to compare the antiemetic efficacy of two 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, granisetron and ondansetron, in Chinese patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) for breast cancer. Twenty patients were randomized to receive chemotherapy with either granisetron on day 1 and ondansetron on day 8 of the first cycle followed by the reverse order in the second cycle, or vice versa. The number of vomiting episodes and the severity of nausea in the first 24 h (acute vomiting/nausea) and the following 7 days (delayed vomiting/nausea) were studied. Acute vomiting was completely prevented in 29 (72.5%) cycles with granisetron and 27 (67.5%) cycles with ondansetron, and treatment failure (>5 vomiting episodes) occurred in two (5%) cycles with each agent (P = NS). Acute nausea was completely controlled in 15 (37.5%) cycles with granisetron and 14 (35%) cycles with ondansetron, whereas severe acute nausea occurred in four (10%) cycles with each agent (P = NS). However, complete response for delayed vomiting was observed in only 21 (52.5%) cycles with granisetron and 22 (55%) cycles with ondansetron (P = NS), and delayed nausea was completely controlled in only 11 (27.5%) and ten (25%) cycles respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, both granisetron and ondansetron are effective in controlling acute nausea and vomiting in Chinese patients, with equivalent antiemetic efficacy. Control of delayed nausea and vomiting is less satisfactory. PMID:9635849

  11. Sever's injury; treat it with a heel cup: a randomized, crossover study with two insole alternatives.

    PubMed

    Perhamre, S; Lundin, F; Norlin, R; Klässbo, M

    2011-12-01

    Sever's injury (apophysitis calcanei) is considered to be the dominant cause of heel pain among children. Common advice is to reduce physical activity. However, our previous study showed that application of insoles reduced pain in Sever's injury without having to reduce physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test which of the two insoles, the heel wedge or the heel cup, provided best pain relief during sport activity in boys with Sever's injury (n=51). There was a crossover design in the first randomized part of the study. In the second part, the boys, 9-14 years, chose which insole they preferred. There was a reduction in odds score for pain to a fifth (a reduction of 80%) for the cup compared with the wedge (P<0.001). When an active choice was made, the heel cup was preferred by >75% of the boys. All boys maintained their high level of physical activity throughout. At 1-year follow-up, 22 boys still used an insole and 19 of them reported its effect on pain as excellent or good (n=41). © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Elasticity of ferropericlase across the spin crossover in the Earth’s lower mantle

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Jing; Tong, Xinyue; Lin, Jung-Fu; ...

    2015-12-01

    Knowing the elasticity of ferropericlase across the spin transition can help explain seismic and mineralogical models of the lower-mantle including the origin of seismic heterogeneities in the middle to lowermost parts of the lower mantle1–4. However, the effects of spin transition on full elastic constants of ferropericlase remain experimentally controversial due to technical challenges in directly measuring sound velocities under lower-mantle conditions1–5. Here we have reliably measured both V P and V S of a single-crystal ferropericlase ((Mg 0.92,Fe 0.08)O) using complementary Brillouin Light Scattering and Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering coupled with a diamond anvil cell up to 96 GPa.more » The derived elastic constants show drastically softened C 11 and C 12 within the spin transition at 40–60 GPa while C 44 is not affected. The spin transition is associated with a significant reduction of the aggregate V P/V S via the aggregate V P softening because V S softening does not visibly occur within the transition. Based on thermoelastic modelling along an expected geotherm, the spin crossover in ferropericlase can contribute to 2% reduction in V P/V S in a pyrolite mineralogical model in mid lower-mantle. Our results indicate that the middle to lowermost parts of the lower-mantle would exhibit enhanced seismic heterogeneities due to the occurrence of the mixed-spin and low-spin ferropericlase.« less

  13. Quantitative study of ruthenium cross-over in direct methanol fuel cells during early operation hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoekel, A.; Melke, J.; Bruns, M.; Wippermann, K.; Kuppler, F.; Roth, C.

    2016-01-01

    In direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), ruthenium cross-over is an important degradation phenomenon. The loss of ruthenium from the anode, its transport through the membrane and its deposition onto the cathode are detrimental to the fuel cell performance and limit the fuel cell's lifetime. Here we present a quantitative study on the fraction of ruthenium being transferred from the anode to the cathode during early operation hours (0-100 h) of a DMFC. Already during fabrication of the MEA ruthenium is transferred to the cathode. In our pristine MEAs about 0.024 wt% Ru could be found in the cathode catalyst. The cell potential during operation seems to have only a minor influence on the dissolution process. In contrast, the operation time appears to be much more important. Our data hint at two dissolution processes: a fast process dominating the first hours of operation and a slower process, which is responsible for the ongoing ruthenium transfer during the fuel cell lifetime. After 2 h held at open circuit conditions the Ru content of the cathode side was 10 times higher than in the pristine MEA. In contrast, the slower process increased that amount only by a factor of two over the course of another 100 h.

  14. A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of Gastrin-Releasing Peptide in Childhood Autism.

    PubMed

    Marchezan, Josemar; Becker, Michele; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Roesler, Rafael; Renck, Luiza Brusius; Gonçalves, Marcela Matos Monteiro; Ranzan, Josiane; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) compared with placebo in autism spectrum disorder symptoms. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial using GRP 160 pmol/kg for 4 consecutive days in 10 children with autism. Outcomes were measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) scale. All participants were boys, aged between 4 and 9 years. There was a reduction in the scores of the ABC range and its subscales after use GRP and placebo. The reduction was more prominent with GRP, particularly in the subscale "hyperactivity and noncompliance," but there was no statistical difference between the results (P = 0.334). After a week of infusion, 5 children showed improvement of 25% or greater in the total score of the ABC scale with GRP use and 2 with placebo use; however, there was no statistical difference (P = 0.375). There were no adverse effects, changes in vital signs, or laboratory abnormalities associated with the use of GRP. The results of this study, despite the small sample size, reinforce previous data on the safety of the GRP in short-term use. There is a need for further research with other designs and a larger sample size to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GRP in children with autism.

  15. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of topological Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheurer, Mathias S.; Rachel, Stephan; Orth, Peter P.

    2015-02-01

    Interacting cold-atomic gases in optical lattices offer an experimental approach to outstanding problems of many body physics. One important example is the interplay of interaction and topology which promises to generate a variety of exotic phases such as the fractionalized Chern insulator or the topological Mott insulator. Both theoretically understanding these states of matter and finding suitable systems that host them have proven to be challenging problems. Here we propose a cold-atom setup where Hubbard on-site interactions give rise to spin liquid-like phases: weak and strong topological Mott insulators. They represent the celebrated paradigm of an interacting and topological quantum state with fractionalized spinon excitations that inherit the topology of the non-interacting system. Our proposal shall help to pave the way for a controlled experimental investigation of this exotic state of matter in optical lattices. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator by tuning the hopping between the layers.

  16. An analysis of the crossover between local and massive separation on airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, M.; Carter, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Massive separation on airfoils operating at high Reynolds number is an important problem to the aerodynamicist, since its onset generally determines the limiting performance of an airfoil, and it can lead to serious problems related to aircraft control as well as turbomachinery operation. The phenomenon of crossover between local separation and massive separation on realistic airfoil geometries induced by airfoil thickness is investigated for low speed (incompressible) flow. The problem is studied both for the asymptotic limit of infinite Reynolds number using triple-deck theory, and for finite Reynolds number using interacting boundary-layer theory. Numerical results are presented which follow the evolution of the flow as it develops from a mildly separated state to one dominated by the massively separated flow structure as the thickness of the airfoil geometry is systematically increased. The effect of turbulence upon the evolution of the flow is considered, and the impact is significant, with the principal effect being the suppression of the onset of separation. Finally, the effect of surface suction and injection for boundary-layer control is considered. The approach which was developed provides a valuable tool for the analysis of boundary-layer separation up to and beyond stall. Another important conclusion is that interacting boundary-layer theory provides an efficient tool for the analysis of the effect of turbulence and boundary-layer control upon separated vicsous flow.

  17. Error augmentation enhancing arm recovery in individuals with chronic stroke: a randomized crossover design.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Farnaz; Case Lazarro, Emily D; Listenberger, Molly; Kenyon, Robert V; Kovic, Mark; Bogey, Ross A; Hedeker, Donald; Jovanovic, Borko D; Patton, James L

    2014-02-01

    Neurorehabilitation studies suggest that manipulation of error signals during practice can stimulate improvement in coordination after stroke. To test visual display and robotic technology that delivers augmented error signals during training, in participants with stroke. A total of 26 participants with chronic hemiparesis were trained with haptic (via robot-rendered forces) and graphic (via a virtual environment) distortions to amplify upper-extremity (UE) tracking error. In a randomized crossover design, the intervention was compared with an equivalent amount of practice without error augmentation (EA). Interventions involved three 45-minute sessions per week for 2 weeks, then 1 week of no treatment, and then 2 additional weeks of the alternate treatment. A therapist provided a visual cursor using a tracking device, and participants were instructed to match it with their hand. Haptic and visual EA was used with blinding of participant, therapist, technician-operator, and evaluator. Clinical measures of impairment were obtained at the beginning and end of each 2-week treatment phase as well as at 1 week and at 45 days after the last treatment. Outcomes showed a small, but significant benefit to EA training over simple repetitive practice, with a mean 2-week improvement in Fugl-Meyer UE motor score of 2.08 and Wolf Motor Function Test of timed tasks of 1.48 s. This interactive technology may improve UE motor recovery of stroke-related hemiparesis.

  18. Acupuncture for Pain in Chronic Pancreatitis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Juel, Jacob; Liguori, Stefano; Liguori, Aldo; Poulsen, Jakob L; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Graversen, Carina; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2017-02-01

    Many patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) have insufficient effect of treatment, and the prevalence of adverse effects is high. Consequently, alternatives to conventional management are needed. We aimed to study the effect of acupuncture in painful CP. This was a prospective, single-blinded, randomized crossover trial. Fifteen patients with CP were assigned to a session of acupuncture followed by sham stimulation or vice versa. Patients rated clinical pain scores daily on a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS) and completed the Patient Global Impression of Change. For mechanistic linkage, resting state electroencephalograms were recorded and quantified by spectral power analysis to explore effects on central pain processing. Acupuncture, compared with sham stimulation, caused more pain relief (2.0 ± 1.5 VAS vs 0.7 ± 0.8 VAS; P = 0.009). The effect, however, was short, and after 1-week follow-up, there was no difference in clinical pain scores between groups (P = 1.0) or the rating of Patient Global Impression of Change (P = 0.8). Electroencephalogram spectral power distributions between sham and acupuncture were comparable between groups (all P > 0.6). The study presents proof-of-concept for the analgesic effect of acupuncture in pancreatic pain. Although the effect was short lasting, the framework may be used to conceptualize future trials of acupuncture in visceral pain.

  19. Piroxicam immediate release formulations: A fasting randomized open-label crossover bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Sally A; El-Bedaiwy, Heba M

    2014-11-01

    Piroxicam is a NSAID with analgesic and antipyretic properties, used for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two brands of piroxicam capsules (20 mg) in 24 Egyptian volunteers. The in vivo study was established according to a single-center, randomized, single-dose, laboratory-blinded, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study with a washout period of 3 weeks. Under fasting conditions, 24 healthy male volunteers were randomly selected to receive a single oral dose of one capsule (20 mg) of either test or reference product. Plasma samples were obtained over a 144-hour interval and analyzed for piroxicam by HPLC with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax , tmax , AUC0-t , AUC0-∞ , Vd /F, Cl/F, and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of log transformed values of Cmax , AUC0-t , and AUC0-∞ of the two treatments were within the acceptable range (0.8-1.25) for bioequivalence. From PK perspectives, the two piroxicam formulations were considered bioequivalent, based on the rate and extent of absorption. No adverse events occurred or were reported after a single 20-mg piroxicam and both formulations were well-tolerated. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Numerical simulation of a device with two spin crossover complexes: application for temperature and pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, Jorge; Eddine Allal, Salah; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Garcia, Yann

    2017-12-01

    The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon is related to the ability of a transition metal to change its spin state vs. a given perturbation. For an iron(II) SCO complexes the reversible changes involve the diamagnetic low-spin (S = 0) and the paramagnetic high-spin (HS S = 2) states [1,2,3]. In this contribution we simulate the HS Fraction (nHS) for different set values of temperature and pressure for a device using two SCO complexes with weak elastic interactions. We improve the calculation given by Linares et al. [4], taking also into account different volume (VHS, VLS) changes of the SCO. We perform all the calculation in the frame work of an Ising-like model solved in the mean-field approximation. The two SCO show in the case of “weak elastic interactions”, gradual spin transitions such that both temperature and pressure values can be obtained from the optical observation in the light of calculations discussed in this article.

  1. Proton Pump Inhibitors Alter Specific Taxa in the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome: A Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Freedberg, Daniel E; Toussaint, Nora C; Chen, Sway P; Ratner, Adam J; Whittier, Susan; Wang, Timothy C; Wang, Harris H; Abrams, Julian A

    2015-10-01

    We conducted an open-label crossover trial to test whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) affect the gastrointestinal microbiome to facilitate Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Twelve healthy volunteers each donated 2 baseline fecal samples, 4 weeks apart (at weeks 0 and 4). They then took PPIs for 4 weeks (40 mg omeprazole, twice daily) and fecal samples were collected at week 8. Six individuals took the PPIs for an additional 4 weeks (from week 8 to 12) and fecal samples were collected from all subjects at week 12. Samples were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found no significant within-individual difference in microbiome diversity when we compared changes during baseline vs changes on PPIs. There were, however, significant changes during PPI use in taxa associated with CDI (increased Enterococcaceae and Streptococcaceae, decreased Clostridiales) and taxa associated with gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth (increased Micrococcaceae and Staphylococcaceae). In a functional analysis, there were no changes in bile acids on PPIs, but there was an increase in genes involved in bacterial invasion. These alterations could provide a mechanism by which PPIs predispose to CDI. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01901276. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of the physical properties of neurons and glial cells using dielectrophoresis crossover frequency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianyi; Ming, Yixuan; Perry, Susan F; Tatic-Lucic, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    We successfully determine the ranges of dielectric permittivity, cytoplasm conductivity, and specific membrane capacitance of mouse hippocampal neuronal and glial cells using dielectrophoresis (DEP) crossover frequency (CF). This methodology is based on the simulation of CF directly from the governing equation of a dielectric model of mammalian cells, as well as the measurements of DEP CFs of mammalian cells in different suspension media with different conductivities, based on a simple experimental setup. Relationships between the properties of cells and DEP CF, as demonstrated by theoretical analysis, enable the simultaneous estimation of three properties by a straightforward fitting procedure based on experimentally measured CFs. We verify the effectiveness and accuracy of this approach for primary mouse hippocampal neurons and glial cells, whose dielectric properties, previously, have not been accurately determined. The estimated neuronal properties significantly narrow the value ranges available from the literature. Additionally, the estimated glial cell properties are a valuable addition to the scarce information currently available about this type of cell. This methodology is applicable to any type of cultured cell that can be subjected to both positive and negative dielectrophoresis.

  3. The Kondo problem. II. Crossover from asymptotic freedom to infrared slavery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1982-04-01

    In the preceding paper we transformed the s-d Hamiltonian onto a resonance level with a large perturbation and derived the scaling equations for the vertices, the invariant coupling, and the resonance width. The scaling equations are integrated under the assumption that the energy dependence of the resonance width can be neglected. The transcendental equation obtained in this way for the renormalized resonance width is solved in the relevant limits and allows a calculation of the static and dynamical susceptibility. At high temperatures the perturbation expansion for the relaxation rate and the susceptibility is reproduced up to third order in Jρ. At low temperatures the lifetime and χ0 remain finite and vary according to a Fermi-liquid theory. The approximation scheme interpolates in this way between the asymptotic freedom and the infrared slavery, yielding a smooth crossover. The present results are in quantitative agreement with previous ones obtained with the relaxation-kernel method by Götze and Schlottmann. The advantages and drawbacks of the method are discussed. The calculation of the dynamical susceptibility is extended to nonzero external magnetic fields. The quasielastic peak of χ''(ω)ω is suppressed at low temperatures and large magnetic fields and shoulders develop at ω=+/-B.

  4. Cold Dialysis Solution for Hemodialysis Patients With Fatigue: a Cross-over Study.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Mahbobeh; Gholami, Zohreh; Hekmatpou, Davood; Soltani, Parvin; Haghverdi, Farshid

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of cold dialysis on fatigue in hemodialysis patients. In a double-blinded cross-over clinical trial, 46 participants were recruited from a hemodialysis unit in Iran. The participants were allocated into 2 groups through simple random sampling method. Each group received 3 sessions of hemodialysis with a dialysis solution temperature of either 37°C 3 or 35.5°C during the first week and then with for another week with the other temperature.  The self-report Piper Fatigue Scale questionnaire was filled out by the participants. The Piper Fatigue Scale scores in the cold dialysis groups were significantly lower than those in the conventional dialysis solution temperature (P < .001). Reducing the temperature of hemodialysis solution brought a 31.3% reduction in the fatigue score. Cold dialysis can be used for all hemodialysis patients as a routine intervention, and in particular, it is recommended dialysis patients who have severe fatigue as a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic option.

  5. Energy band gap and optical transition of metal ion modified double crossover DNA lattices.

    PubMed

    Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Ha, Taewoo; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Choi, Kyujin; Lee, Junwye; Kim, Byeonghoon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Sung Ha

    2014-10-22

    We report on the energy band gap and optical transition of a series of divalent metal ion (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) modified DNA (M-DNA) double crossover (DX) lattices fabricated on fused silica by the substrate-assisted growth (SAG) method. We demonstrate how the degree of coverage of the DX lattices is influenced by the DX monomer concentration and also analyze the band gaps of the M-DNA lattices. The energy band gap of the M-DNA, between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), ranges from 4.67 to 4.98 eV as judged by optical transitions. Relative to the band gap of a pristine DNA molecule (4.69 eV), the band gap of the M-DNA lattices increases with metal ion doping up to a critical concentration and then decreases with further doping. Interestingly, except for the case of Ni(2+), the onset of the second absorption band shifts to a lower energy until a critical concentration and then shifts to a higher energy with further increasing the metal ion concentration, which is consistent with the evolution of electrical transport characteristics. Our results show that controllable metal ion doping is an effective method to tune the band gap energy of DNA-based nanostructures.

  6. Familial Angelman syndrome with a crossover in the critical deletion region.

    PubMed

    Nelen, M R; Van der Burgt, C J; Nillesen, W N; Vis, A; Smeets, H J

    1994-09-01

    More than two thirds of the patients with Angelman syndrome (AS) carry a deletion or other chromosomal abnormality in the 15q11-13 region. A much less frequent cause (4%) is paternal uniparental disomy of the entire chromosome. In general no abnormalities are detectable in familial cases and an inherited submicroscopic deletion was described only once. Here a familial case of 2 sibs with AS is reported. No major cytogenetic or molecular abnormality was identified, but a recombination event had occurred in the AS critical region. The AS locus, D15S113, D15S10, D15S11, and D15S18 mapped proximal and the GABRB3 gene, D15S97, the GABRA5 gene, and D15S12 distal to the crossover site. This recombination within the AS critical region confirmed the exclusion of GABRB3 as a candidate gene for AS. Other markers and candidate genes can be tested genetically as well for a possible role in AS.

  7. Familial Angelman syndrome with a crossover in the critical deletion region

    SciTech Connect

    Nelen, M.R.; Van der Burgt, C.J.A.M.; Nillesen, W.N.

    1994-09-01

    More than two thirds of the patients with Angelman syndrome (AS) carry a deletion or other chromosomal abnormality in the 15q11-13 region. A much less frequent cause (4%) is paternal uniparental disomy of the entire chromosome. In general no abnormalities are detectable in familial cases and an inherited submicroscopic deletion was described only once. Here a familial case of 2 sibs with AS is reported. No major cytogenetic or molecular abnormality was identified, but a recombination event had occurred in the AS critical region. The AS locus, D15S113, D15S10, D15S11, and D15S18 mapped proximal and the GABRB3 gene, D15S97, andmore » GABRA5 gene, and D15S12 distal to the crossover site. This recombination within the AS critical region confirmed the exclusion of GABRB3 as a candidate gene for AS. Other markers and candidate genes can be tested genetically as well for a possible role in AS. 36 refs., 4 figs.« less

  8. Dimensional Crossover Induced Topological Hall Effect in a Magnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Zang, Yunyi; Ruan, Wei; Gong, Yan; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Wang, Yayu; State Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics Team; Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter Team

    The realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators (TIs) unambiguously proves the intrinsic mechanism of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) associated with the Berry curvature in momentum space. The real space configuration of the local moments in magnetic TIs may also have unique topological properties. The entanglement of momentum and real space topology in magnetic TI can lead to novel quantum phenomena, such as the emergence of skyrmions. Here we report experimental investigations of Mn-doped Bi2Te3 TI films with accurately controlled thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We found that films thicker than 5 quintuple-layer (QL) exhibit the usual AHE as commonly observed in magnetic TIs. When the thickness is reduced to 4 QL, however, characteristic features associated with the topological Hall effect (THE) emerge. More surprisingly, the THE vanishes again when the film thickness is further reduced to 3 QL. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that the coupling between the top and bottom surface states at the dimensional crossover regime leads to magnetic skyrmion structure that is responsible for the THE. This work is supported by NSFC and MOST of China.

  9. Geostrophic current estimation using altimeter data at ground track crossovers in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Longfei; Li, Ziwei; Zhou, Xuan

    2013-12-01

    Geostrophic current comprises a large portion of the ocean current, which plays an important role in global climate change. Based on classic oceanography, geostrophic current can be derived from pressure gradient. Assuming water density to be constant, we can estimate geostrophic current from Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT). In this paper, we use ADT data obtained from multi-satellite altimeters to extract sea surface tilts along-track at crossover points. The calculated tilts along these two tracks can be converted into orthogonal directions and are used to estimate geostrophic current. In northwest Pacific, computed geostrophic current velocities are evaluated with Argos data. In total, 771 pairs of temporally and spatially consistent Argos measurements along with estimated geostrophic velocity datasets are used for validation. In this study, the effect of different cut-off wavelengths of the low pass filter applied to ADT is discussed. Our results show that a cut-off wavelength of 75 km is the most suitable choice for the study area. The estimated geostrophic velocity and the Argos measurement are in good agreement with each other, with a correlation coefficient of 0.867 for zonal component, and 0.734 for meridional one. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between the estimated geostrophic velocity and Argos measurement is derived, providing us a favorable and convenient approach to estimate sea surface flow velocity from the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data. The experimental application of the derived method on Kuroshio reveals reasonable results compared with previous studies.

  10. Acute Low Back Pain? Do Not Blame the Weather-A Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Beilken, Keira; Hancock, Mark J; Maher, Chris G; Li, Qiang; Steffens, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of various weather parameters on the risk of developing a low back pain (LBP) episode. Case-crossover study. Primary care clinics in Sydney, Australia. 981 participants with a new episode of acute LBP. Weather parameters were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were derived comparing two exposure variables in the case window-(1) the average of the weather variable for the day prior to pain onset and (2) the change in the weather variable from 2 days prior to 1 day prior to pain onset-with exposures in two control windows (1 week and 1 month before the case window). The weather parameters of precipitation, humidity, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, and air pressure were not associated with the onset of acute LBP. For one of the four analyses, higher temperature slightly increased the odds of pain onset. Common weather parameters that had been previously linked to musculoskeletal pain, such as precipitation, humidity, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, and air pressure, do not increase the risk of onset for LBP. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Impact of Michelangelo prosthetic hand: Findings from a crossover longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Cutti, Andrea G; Verni, Gennaro; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Rossi, Nicolino

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the functional and psychosocial impact of the multigrip Michelangelo (M) prosthetic hand. Transradial myoelectric prosthesis users (6 men, median age: 47 y) participated in a crossover longitudinal study. A multifactorial assessment protocol was applied before the application of M and after 3 mo (functional assessment) and 6 mo (psychosocial assessment) of home use. Functional assessment included both practical tests (i.e., Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure [SHAP], Box and Blocks Test [BBT], and Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test [MMDT]) and self-report functional scales. Psychosocial assessment consisted of a clinical interview and a battery of self-report questionnaires concerning current anxious-depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life, body image concerns, adjustment and satisfaction with prosthesis, social support, coping style, and personality. Increased manual dexterity was observed after 3 mo based on improvements in the SHAP, BBT, and MMDT. Two important themes emerged from the clinical interviews at the 6 mo follow-up: (1) the enhanced functionality and (2) the "like a real hand" aspect of the M, which further increased prosthesis integration to the Self. A few patients expressed concerns about M dimension, noise, and weight. The M appeared to restore hand function and natural appearance. The present findings provide preliminary evidence, and additional studies are needed.

  12. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for asthma: a case-crossover study in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particles (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for asthma in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for asthma was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased asthma admissions were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels both on warm days (>23°C) and cool days (<23°C), with an interquartile range rise associated with a 12% (95% CI = 6-18%) and 3% (95% CI = 0-8%) elevation in admissions for asthma, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 levels remained significant for increased asthma admissions after inclusion of SO2 or O3 both on warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 elevate the risk of hospital admissions for asthma in Taiwan.

  13. The acute effect of pleasurable music on craving for alcohol: A pilot crossover study.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Walter S; Han, Xiaotong

    2017-07-01

    Chronic administration of drugs of abuse leads to a dopamine deficient state in the mesolimbic system, causing dysphoria in abstinence and contributing to craving and return to use. Recent functional imaging studies have shown that listening to personally pleasing music activates the mesolimbic reward system in a fashion similar to drugs of abuse. It has been proposed that such activation could ameliorate the dysphoria and craving of the hypodopaminergic state. The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of listening to personally pleasing or moving music on reducing craving in abstinent alcoholics using a single-blind, within-subject randomized block design, with three randomly determined presentations of each condition. Twelve participants with Alcohol Use Disorder on a residential substance rehabilitation unit reported their level of craving with a Visual Analog Scale before and after listening to either the participant-selected song or white noise. Using a mixed model to analyze the crossover design, the music intervention was found to have a statistically significant advantage in craving reduction compared to the noise control. Our results indicate that personally pleasing music might have a role in augmenting substance use disorder treatment via craving reduction. Further study is warranted to elucidate factors which predict the most robust response from this intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary nitrate reduces resting metabolic rate: a randomized, crossover study in humans.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ekblom, Björn; Mattsson, Mathias P; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E; Nyström, Thomas; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2014-04-01

    Nitrate, which is an inorganic anion abundant in vegetables, increases the efficiency of isolated human mitochondria. Such an effect might be reflected in changes in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and formation of reactive oxygen species. The bioactivation of nitrate involves its active accumulation in saliva followed by a sequential reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide, and other reactive nitrogen species. We studied effects of inorganic nitrate, in amounts that represented a diet rich in vegetables, on the RMR in healthy volunteers. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we measured the RMR by using indirect calorimetry in 13 healthy volunteers after a 3-d dietary intervention with sodium nitrate (NaNO₃) or a placebo (NaCl). The nitrate dose (0.1 mmol · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) corresponded to the amount in 200-300 g spinach, beetroot, lettuce, or other vegetable that was rich in nitrate. Effects of direct nitrite exposure on cell respiration were studied in cultured human primary myotubes. The RMR was 4.2% lower after nitrate compared with placebo administration, and the change correlated strongly to the degree of nitrate accumulation in saliva (r² = 0.71). The thyroid hormone status, insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, plasma concentration of isoprostanes, and total antioxidant capacity were unaffected by nitrate. The administration of nitrite to human primary myotubes acutely inhibited respiration. Dietary inorganic nitrate reduces the RMR. This effect may have implications for the regulation of metabolic function in health and disease.

  15. Statistical crossover and nonextensive behavior of neuronal short-term depression.

    PubMed

    Silva, A J da; Floquet, S; Santos, D O C

    2018-03-01

    The theoretical basis of neuronal coding, associated with short-term degradation in synaptic transmission, is a matter of debate in the literature. In fact, electrophysiological signals are commonly characterized as inversely proportional to stimulus intensity. Among theoretical descriptions of this phenomenon, models based on 1/f-dependency are employed to investigate the biophysical properties of short-term synaptic depression. In this work, we formulate a model based on a paradigmatic q-differential equation to obtain a generalized formalism useful for investigation of nonextensivity in this specific type of synaptic plasticity. Our analysis reveals nonextensivity in data from electrophysiological recordings and also a statistical crossover in neurotransmission. In particular, statistical transitions provide additional support to the hypothesis of heterogeneous release probability of neurotransmitters. On the other hand, the simple vesicle model agrees with data only at low-frequency stimulations. Thus, the present work presents a method to demonstrate that short-term depression is not only governed by random mechanisms but also by nonextensive behavior. Our findings also conciliate morphological and electrophysiological investigations into a coherent biophysical scenario.

  16. Dynamic Chemistry of Disulfide Terminated Oligonucleotides in Duplexes and Double-Crossover Tiles.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Mattia; Vesterager Gothelf, Kurt

    2016-06-16

    Designed nanostructures formed by self-assembly of multiple DNA strands suffer from low stability at elevated temperature and under other denaturing conditions. Here, we propose a method for covalent coupling of DNA strands in such structures by the formation of disulfide bonds; this allows disassembly of the structure under reducing conditions. The dynamic chemistry of disulfides and thiols was applied to crosslink DNA strands with terminal disulfide modifications. The formation of disulfide-linked DNA duplexes consisting of three strands is demonstrated, as well as a more-complex DNA double-crossover tile. All the strands in the fully disulfide-linked structures are covalently and geometrically interlocked, and it is demonstrated that the structures are stable under heating and in the presence of denaturants. Such a reversible system can be exploited in applications where higher DNA stability is needed only temporarily, such as delivery of cargoes to cells by DNA nanostructures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. SGEM Hot Off the Press: ultrasound during critical care simulation: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Paul; Thoma, Brent; Milne, Ken; Bond, Chris

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine's (CJEM) developing social media strategy, 1 we are collaborating with the Skeptics' Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) to summarize and critically appraise the current emergency medicine (EM) literature using evidence-based medicine principles. In the "Hot Off the Press" series, we select original research manuscripts published in CJEM to be featured on the SGEM website/podcast 2 and discussed by the study authors and the online EM community. A similar collaboration is underway between the SGEM and Academic Emergency Medicine. What follows is a summary of the selected article the immediate post-publication synthesis from the SGEM podcast, commentary by the first author, and the subsequent discussion from the SGEM blog and other social media. Through this series, we hope to enhance the value, accessibility, and application of important, clinically relevant EM research. In this, the third SGEM HOP hosted collaboratively with CJEM, we discuss Olszynski et al.'s randomized crossover study evaluating the use of ultrasound simulator devices during critical care simulation. 3.

  18. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  19. The MAP kinase pathway coordinates crossover designation with disassembly of synaptonemal complex proteins during meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajan, Saravanapriah; Mohideen, Firaz; Tzur, Yonatan B; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Crawley, Oliver; Montoya, Alex; Faull, Peter; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Cutillas, Pedro R; Jambhekar, Ashwini; Blower, Michael D; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Harper, J Wade; Colaiacovo, Monica P

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) is crucial for proper meiotic chromosome segregation. However, the signaling mechanisms that directly regulate this process are poorly understood. Here we show that the mammalian Rho GEF homolog, ECT-2, functions through the conserved RAS/ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway in the C. elegans germline to regulate the disassembly of SC proteins. We find that SYP-2, a SC central region component, is a potential target for MPK-1-mediated phosphorylation and that constitutively phosphorylated SYP-2 impairs the disassembly of SC proteins from chromosomal domains referred to as the long arms of the bivalents. Inactivation of MAP kinase at late pachytene is critical for timely disassembly of the SC proteins from the long arms, and is dependent on the crossover (CO) promoting factors ZHP-3/RNF212/Zip3 and COSA-1/CNTD1. We propose that the conserved MAP kinase pathway coordinates CO designation with the disassembly of SC proteins to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12039.001 PMID:26920220

  20. COSA-1 Reveals Separable Licensing and Reinforcement Steps and Efficient Homeostasis Governing Meiotic Crossovers

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Rayka; Zawadzki, Karl A.; Nabeshima, Kentaro; Drake, Melanie; Arur, Swathi; Villeneuve, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes ensure their faithful segregation during meiosis. We identify C. elegans COSA-1 as a key component required to convert double-strand breaks (DSBs) into COs. COSA-1 localizes to foci during late meiotic prophase that correspond to the single CO site on each homolog pair. These foci represent sites of eventual concentration of other conserved CO proteins that initially exhibit broader distribution. Chromosomes gain and lose competence to load CO proteins at DSBs during meiotic progression, with competence to load COSA-1 requiring a prior licensing event. Our data further suggest a self-reinforcing mechanism maintaining CO designation. Modeling of a non-linear dose-response relationship between IR-induced DSBs and COSA-1 foci reveals efficient conversion of DSBs into COs when DSBs are limiting, and a robust capacity to limit the number of cytologically-differentiated CO sites when DSBs are in excess. COSA-1 foci serve as a biodosimeter for DSB levels and a unique live-cell readout of CO interference. PMID:22464324