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Sample records for bed retorting process

  1. Retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1984-06-19

    Fines in the overhead vapors from an oil shale retort process in which fresh shale together with hot recycle combusted shale from a combustor are fed to a retort and at least partly fluidized by a countercurrent stripping gas stream are handled by removing a portion of the fines in a vapor-solid separation optionally subjecting the portion of fines to additional retorting in a fines retort condensing the partially dedusted gas separating the condensate into a substantially finesfree liquid oil and a wet solids and recycling at least a portion of the wet solids to the retort, fines retort, and/or combustor whereby the liquid on the wet solids is recovered and/or burned and the wet solids are dried.

  2. Fluid bed retorting process with multiple feed lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, G.B.

    1983-11-15

    Solid hydrocarbon-containing material, such as oil shale, coal or tar sand, is fed into a retort through a multiplicity of feed lines to enhance retorting efficiency, throughout and product yield. In the preferred form, larger particles of hydrocarbon-containing material gravitate downwardly through the retort in countercurrent relationship to an upward fluidized stream of smaller particles of hydrocarbon-containing material. This arrangement is especially useful to retort larger particles of hydrocarbon-containing material. One or more streams of intermediate size particles of hydrocarbon-containing material can also be fed into the retort.

  3. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Vego, A.; Stehn, J.; Taulbee, D.; Robl, T.; Hower, J.; Mahboub, K.; Robertson, R.; Hornsberger, P.; Oduroh, P.; Simpson, A.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis (shale oil production), gasification (synthesis gas production), and combustion of the spent oil shale for process heat. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The work completed this year involved several different areas. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of shale oil vapors were carried out in fluidized and fixed bed reactors using both freshly generated shale oil vapors and model compounds. The design and fabrication of the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II reactor was completed and installation of the process components was initiated. The raw oil shale sample (Cleveland Member from Montgomery County, Kentucky) for the program was mined, prepared, characterized and stored. A preliminary study of KENTORT II-derived oil for possible paving applications was completed, and it was concluded that the shale exhibits acceptable properties as an asphalt recycling agent.

  4. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. [Kentort II process--50-lb/hr

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.; Taulbee, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of January 1, 1992 through March 31, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The design of the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II retort was completed and fabrication is ready to begin. Data from the cold-flow model of the system and operating experience from the 5-lb/hr unit were used as the basis for the design. In another aspect of the program, a study of the cracking and coking kinetics of shale oil vapors was continued. A mathematical model was implemented to characterize the important mass transfer effects of the system. This model will be eventually broadened to become a general fluidized bed coking model. In addition, experiments were performed to examine the effects of surface area, initial carbon content and steam treatment on coking activity. From the data that has been collected to-date, it appears that the coking activity of the tested substrates can be explained in terms of porosity (surface area and pore volume) and the initial carbon content of the solid.

  5. Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process

    SciTech Connect

    Venardos, D.G.; Grieves, C.G.

    1985-01-22

    An oil shale process is provided to retort oil shale and purify oil shale retort water. In the process, raw oil shale is retorted in an in situ underground retort or in an above ground retort to liberate shale oil, light hydrocarbon gases and oil shale retort water. The retort water is separated from the shale oil and gases in a sump or in a fractionator or quench tower followed by an API oil/water separator. After the retort water is separated from the shale oil, the retort water is steam stripped, carbon adsorbed and biologically treated, preferably by granular carbon adsorbers followed by activated sludge treatment or by activated sludge containing powdered activated carbon. The retort water can be granularly filtered before being steam stripped. The purified retort water can be used in various other oil shale processes, such as dedusting, scrubbing, spent shale moisturing, backfilling, in situ feed gas injection and pulsed combustion.

  6. Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

    1989-03-01

    This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

  7. Recovery of retorted shale from an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Deering, R.F.; Duir, J.H.

    1984-05-01

    Retorted shale particles are recovered from a retort and delivered to a gas lift for transport to a fluidized combustor by passage, serially, through a sealing vessel, a crusher preferably operating at retort pressure, and a surge vessel. In the sealing vessel, a sealing gas is introduced, and after commingling with the shale, the gas passes counter-currently to the shale and enters the retort, thus sealing the retort gases in the retort while separating the retorted shale from the retort gases. Retorted shale from the sealing vessel is transported to a crusher, wherein the shale is reduced in size to that suitable for combustion under fluidized conditions. To prevent the crushed shale from packing, the shale is passed to a surge vessel, wherein the crushed shale is held as a fluidized bed, from which the crushed shale is continuously withdrawn at a regulated rate and introduced into the gas lift leading to the fluidized combustor.

  8. STBRSIM. Oil Shale Retorting Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.; Diaz, J.C.

    1992-03-02

    STBRSIM simulates an aboveground oil-shale retorting process that utilizes two reactors; a staged, fluidized-bed retort and a lift-pipe combustor. The model calculates the steady-state operating conditions for the retorting system,taking into account the chemical and physical processes occurring in the two reactors and auxiliary equipment. Chemical and physical processes considered in modeling the retort include: kerogen pyrolysis, bound water release, fluidization of solids mixture, and bed pressure drop. Processes accounted for by the combustor model include: combustion of residual organic carbon and hydrogen, combustion of pyrite and pyrrhotite, combustion of nonpyrolized kerogen, decomposition of dolomite and calcite, pneumatic transport, heat transfer between solids and gas streams, pressure drop and change in void fraction, and particle attrition. The release of mineral water and the pyrolysis of kerogen take place in the retort when raw shale is mixed with hot partially-burned shale, and the partial combustion of residual char and sulfur takes place in the combustor as the shale particles are transported pneumatically by preheated air. Auxiliary equipment is modeled to determine its effect on the system. This equipment includes blowers and heat-exchangers for the recycle gas to the retort and air to the combustor, as well as a condensor for the product stream from the retort. Simulation results include stream flow rates, temperatures and pressures, bed dimensions, and heater, cooling, and compressor power requirements.

  9. STBRSIM. Oil Shale Retorting Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-03-02

    STBRSIM simulates an aboveground oil-shale retorting process that utilizes two reactors - a staged, fluidized-bed retort and a lift-pipe combustor. The model calculates the steady-state operating conditions for the retorting system, taking into account the chemical and physical processes occurring in the two reactors and auxiliary equipment. Chemical and physical processes considered in modeling the retort include: kerogen pyrolysis, bound water release, fluidization of solids mixture, and bed pressure drop. Processes accounted for by the combustor model include: combustion of residual organic carbon and hydrogen, combustion of pyrite and pyrrhotite, combustion of nonpyrolized kerogen, decomposition of dolomite and calcite, pneumatic transport, heat transfer between solids and gas streams, pressure drop and change in void fraction, and particle attrition. The release of mineral water and the pyrolysis of kerogen take place in the retort when raw shale is mixed with hot partially-burned shale, and the partial combustion of residual char and sulfur takes place in the combustor as the shale particles are transported pneumatically by preheated air. Auxiliary equipment is modeled to determine its effect on the system. This equipment includes blowers and heat-exchangers for the recycle gas to the retort and air to the combustor, as well as a condensor for the product stream from the retort. Simulation results include stream flow rates, temperatures and pressures, bed dimensions, and heater, cooling, and compressor power requirements.

  10. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Taulbee, D.; Vego, A.; Stehn, J.; Fei, Y.; Robl, T.; Derbyshire, F.

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993 under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27286 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The PDU was assembled, instrumented and tested during this fiscal year. Along with the major activity of commissioning the 50-lb/hr retort, work was also completed in other areas. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of model compounds in a fixed bed reactor were continued. Additionally, as part of the effort to investigate niche market applications for KENTORT II-derived products, a study of the synthesis of carbon fibers from the heavy fraction of KENTORT II shale oil was initiated.

  11. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.; Taulbee, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of January 1, 1992 through March 31, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The design of the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II retort was completed and fabrication is ready to begin. Data from the cold-flow model of the system and operating experience from the 5-lb/hr unit were used as the basis for the design. In another aspect of the program, a study of the cracking and coking kinetics of shale oil vapors was continued. A mathematical model was implemented to characterize the important mass transfer effects of the system. This model will be eventually broadened to become a general fluidized bed coking model. In addition, experiments were performed to examine the effects of surface area, initial carbon content and steam treatment on coking activity. From the data that has been collected to-date, it appears that the coking activity of the tested substrates can be explained in terms of porosity (surface area and pore volume) and the initial carbon content of the solid.

  12. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Notestein, John E.; Mei, Joseph S.; Zeng, Li-Wen

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  13. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  14. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT 11) during the period of January 1, 1993 through March 31, 1993 under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27286 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The major activity for this quarter was to install various components of the process and provide utility support including air, water, electrical power, and computerized instrumentation. Following the completion of construction activities which is scheduled for next quarter, cold-flow testing and heat-up procedures will be performed.

  15. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Taulbee, D.; Fei, Y.; Carter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. Along with the major activity of assembling the components of the 50-lb/hr retort, work was also completed in other areas this quarter. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of model compounds in a fixed bed reactor were continued. Additionally, as part of the effort to investigate niche market applications for KENTORT II-derived products, a study of the synthesis of carbon fibers from the heavy fraction of KENTORT II shale oil was initiated.

  16. Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process

    SciTech Connect

    Venardos, D.G.; Grieves, C.G.

    1986-04-29

    An in situ oil shale process is described comprising the steps of: retorting raw oil shale in situ to liberate light hydrocarbon gases, shale oil and shale-laden retort water containing suspended and dissolved impurities including raw and spent oil shale particulates, shale oil, organic carbon, carbonates, ammonia and chemical oxygen demand; separating the light hydrocarbon gases and a substantial portion of the shale oil from the shale-laden retort water by sedimentation in an underground sump; removing a substantial portion of the remaining shale oil and a substantial portion of the suspended raw and spent oil shale particulates from the shale-laden retort water by filtering the shale-laden retort water through a granular filter; steam stripping a substantial amount of the ammonia and carbonates from the shale-laden retort water; and carbon adsorbing and biologically treating the shale-laden retort water to remove a substantial amount of the total and dissolved organic carbon from the shale-laden retort water and simultaneously substantially lower the chemical oxygen demand of the shale-laden retort water so as to substantially purify the shale-laden retort water.

  17. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  18. Process for retorting oil shale with fluidized retorting of shale fines

    SciTech Connect

    Deering, R. F.

    1985-05-07

    Hot particles removed from a retort, preferably retort-sized particles of oil shale removed from a retort operating at superatmospheric pressure, are crushed and fed to a fluidized surge zone maintained under non-oxidizing conditions at substantially the pressure of the retort to forestall escape of retort gases. Raw fines are introduced into the surge zone and retorted without agglomeration by heat transferred from the hot retorted particles and/or a heated fluidizing gas stream to educe hydrocarbonaceous vapors. Educed vapors are scrubbed, condensed and separated into liquid and gaseous product streams, a portion of the latter being recycled to provide fluidizing process gas streams.

  19. Huff and puff process for retorting oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Russum, L. W.

    1984-06-05

    Greater product yield and quality as well as simplified gas recovery can be attained by a huff and puff process for retorting oil shale. The process can be advantageously carried out in in situ retorts under ground as well as in surface retorts above ground. In the process, an active retort of raw oil shale is retorted without prior combustion of oil shale therein with retort off gases, which have been heated in a spent shale retort. In the preferred mode, retort off gases from the active retort and air are alternately injected into the spent retort to cyclically heat the off gases and combust the coked shale. The retort off gases can be deoiled and optionally scrubbed of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide before being heated in the spent retort.

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory oil shale project quarterly report, July-September 1984. [Moving-bed retort

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, A.E.

    1984-11-01

    Highlights of progress achieved during the quarter ending September, 1984, are summarized. Additional parameter studies using our moving-bed retort model were completed for an external-combustion, hot gas retort. Previously reported studies focused on effects of variations in the temperature and flow rate of the recycle gas and the dimensions of the retort. More recently, we investigated the effects of variations in shale grade, water content, flow rate, particle size, and bed porosity. We also considered effects of permeability contrast within a retort. The LLNL one-dimensional model for simulating oil shale retorting in an aboveground, moving-bed retort was applied to the indirect mode of operation in which externally heated recycle gas provides the heat required for the retorting process. Variations in recycle-gas temperature and flow rate, shale flow rate, shale grade, water content, particle size distribution, bed porosity, uniformity of porosity, and retort dimensions were studied. We have been evaluating the results for determining hydrogen sulfide and trace sulfur in gases taken from the pyrolysis portion of the retort after leaving the oil condensers, as determined by the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) for the retort runs R-2 through R-7. These runs were conducted in our hot solid retort system consisting of a fluidized bed pyrolyzer, a cascading bed combustor, and recirculating gas and solid streams. Differences had been noted between determinations of the H/sub 2/S by Draeger tubes and the portable on-line mini-quadrupole mass spectrometer (Analog Technology Corp. Automated Trace Gas Monitor Model 2001), and the grab samples run on the TQMS. The error was due to a complex mix of ion gauge response, gas viscosities and pumping speeds.

  1. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  2. Process concept of retorting of Julia Creek oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnai, O.

    1984-06-01

    A process is proposed for the above ground retorting of the Julia Creek oil shale in Queensland. The oil shale characteristics, process description, chemical reactions of the oil shale components, and the effects of variable and operating conditions on process performance are discussed. The process contains a fluidized bed combustor which performs both as a combustor of the spent shales and as a heat carrier generator for the pyrolysis step. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  4. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Seventh annual report, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    In the Geokinetics process, a pattern of blast holes is drilled from the surface, through the overburden, and into the oil shale bed. The holes are loaded with explosives and fired using a carefully planned blast system. The blast produces a fragmented mass of oil shale with high permeability. The fragmented zone constitutes an in situ retort. The project site is in the Mahogany Zone oil shale in Utah. During 1983 significant milestones were achieved. The burn of Retort No. 26 was completed on February 22, 1983, having produced 22,889 barrels of oil. By the end of July, 1983, all preparations were complete for the ignition of Retort No. 27. However, ignition was delayed until August 11, 1983, pending completion of the retort off gas processing facility. By early October, final preparations for the ignition of Retort No. 28 were completed and the retort was ignited on October 18, 1983. A facility to remove ammonia and hydrogen sulfide contaminants from Retorts No. 27 and No. 28 off gas was constructed at the site. Numerous environmental tests and experiments were conducted, primarily to gather data for permitting purposes. A pond to hold water produced by Retorts No. 27 and No. 28 was completed during August, 1983. The pond was put into service at the same time as the ignition of Retort No. 27.

  5. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  6. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  7. Process for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Knepper, J.C.

    1984-05-08

    A process is provided for forming an in situ oil shale retort which minimizes channeling, explosion gas turbulence and flame front tilting. In the process, explosives are detonated in an underground formation of oil shale to blast the oil shale into a permeable rubblized mass defining a retort, and gases emitted from the explosion are symmetrically vented. In the preferred form, the gases are vented through vertical vent holes and blast holes which extend through the top of the retort, as well as through a lateral access tunnel which extends into the bottom of the retort.

  8. In vivo cytogenetic effects of oil shale retort process waters.

    PubMed

    Meyne, J; Deaven, L L

    1982-01-01

    The induction of cytogenetic effects by oil shale retort process waters from 3 types of pilot plant retorts were examined in murine bone marrow. Each of the process waters induced increased frequencies of structural aberrations in mice treated with 3 daily intraperitoneal injections of the waters. The same treatment had no effect on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Mice given a 1% solution of an above-ground retort water ad libitum for 8 weeks consumed about 1 ml/kg per day of the process water and had a frequency of aberrations comparable to mice given the same dose intraperitoneally for 3 days. Transplacental exposure of C3H mouse embryos indicated that clastogenic compounds in the above-ground retort process water can cross the placenta and induce chromosomal aberrations in embryonic tissues.

  9. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort through a well in the formation adjacent the retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, R.D.

    1982-08-17

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring in a well extending through unfragmented formation adjacent the retort, for condition in the retort affected by the advancement of such a processing zone through the retort. Monitoring can be effected by placing means for monitoring such a condition in such a well extending through unfragmented formation adjacent the retort.

  10. Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1993-11-12

    The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

  11. Application of HTGR process heat to oil shale retorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadekamper, D. C.; Taylor, I. N.; Gleason, T. E.

    The currently developed oil shale retorting processes depend on some portion of their product to provide heat energy for process operation. In an attempt to increase the fossil fuel reserves of the United States, as well as decrease environmental pollution, it has been suggested that an High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) be used to supply the heat necessary for the retorting oil shale thus freeing additional petroleum products for sale. The TOSCO II process was selected as a typical oil shale retorting process and a detailed evaluation of the energy requirements was made. Various scenarios to replace selected portions of the process energy requirements with HTGR generated heat are described. The improvements in product yields and reductions in environmental pollution levels associated with a HTGR process heat scheme are summarized.

  12. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costimiris, E. C.

    1982-07-01

    The objective of the Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, Utah. During 1981, one full sized retort was blasted and the following three retorts were processed: (1) retort No. 24 operations were continued until July 23; (2) retort No. 23 was ignited and processed during the calendar year; (3) retort No. 25 was ignited and burned for 77 days during 1981.

  13. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry - a heritage meat product.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K; Das, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force values. Retort processed products had significantly lower L*, a*, b* and chroma values. Product was superior in all sensory attributes. It is concluded that Chettinad style goat meat product retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min, had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.

  14. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  15. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  16. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  17. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature.

  18. Modeling of oil shale compaction during retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    A model of oil shale compacting during retorting has been developed and incorporated into a one-dimensional retorting model. The model calculates the vertical stress distribution in a column of oil shale rubble and the degree of compaction that these stresses cause. A correlation was developed that relates shale grade, initial void volume, and vertical stress to the final compaction of the shale bed. The model then determines the gas pressure drip through the retort and the effects of the varying pressure on the retorting process. The model has been tested by simulating the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a Retort 1. The model calculates 8.1% compaction, whereas 12 to 16 compaction was measured in the retort; causes of the discrepancy between calculated and measured values are discussed. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.

    1982-10-01

    The Retort No. 25 burn was terminated on June 15, 1982. Total oil production for the second quarter was 6506 barrels during a 76 day production period. Final oil production for Retort No. 25 was 20,956 barrels. Final oil recovery was calculated to be 59% of the total in-place oil. Fugitive emissions, stack and process gas data indicated that all Retort No. 25 pollutants, except NO/sub x/, were below the allowable PSD limits. The Retort No. 25 process water characterization study was completed in April to determine the changes in retort produced water as the retort burn progressed. Results of the study are pending the completion of laboratory analysis. Retort No. 26 was prepared for ignition during the second quarter. Process manifolding and instrumentation were being completed so that ignition might occur shortly after the termination of the Retort No. 25 burn. Post blast core drilling and analysis was completed on Retort No. 27 during early April. The core samples indicated improved fracturing over previous retorts, especially near the bottom. Increasing the size of Retort No. 27 from one acre to two acres showed an increase in blast efficiency based on the criteria of fragmentation, quantity of explosives used per volume of void induced and percent void when compared with Retort No. 24. In June initial site preparation began on Retort No. 28 for blast hole drilling which will start in July. 17 figures, 16 tables.

  20. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  1. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  2. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    Oil production from Retort No. 23 began on April 6, 1981. The retort burn front remained uniform with good vertical distribution as it advanced through the retort. During the burn various amounts of recycled off gas were introduced into the inlet injection stream. This was done to observe the effect on the retort burn. Preliminary indications are that the gas recycling had no obvious effect on the burn. Further evaluation from Sandia National Laboratories will be forthcoming. After burning 106 days, Retort No. 23 shut in at 9:30 A.M. on June 30, 1981. Total production for the life of Retort No. 23 was 991 barrels of shale oil. Total shale oil production from Retort No. 24 to date is 11,233 barrels. Retort No. 24 produced a total of 4701 barrels during the second quarter, an average of 52 barrels per day. Retort No. 24 has now burned for 211 days. On June 26, a new production well was drilled on Retort No. 24. This well was drilled slightly outside the retort boundary on the off gas end. The purpose of this action was to increase production life of the retort. During June the fire front advanced to the far off gas wells. Shale oil production totaled 5523 barrels during the second quarter. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 26. By the end of June 202 blastholes had been drilled. Four additional instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 25. These wells will be used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel during electromagnetic testing which will assist in monitoring the burn front. Fabrication of the Retort No. 25 process equipment proceeded. Design of the Retort No. 25 instrumentation system was finalized and physical work began.

  3. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an oil shale retort by effluent water composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1980-09-23

    A processing zone advances through a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale in an in-situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort has an effluent water passing therefrom. The effluent water carries a constituent which is formed, by advancement of the processing zone through the fragmented mass, from a precursor contained in the formation. In a first aspect of the invention, the locus of the processing zone is determined by assaying the formation at selected locations in the retort for content of the precursor before processing the selected locations, and effluent water from the retort is monitored for concentration of the selected constituent. For example, the nitrogen content of kerogen can be the precursor and effluent water from the retort can be monitored for the concentration of ammonia and/or ammonium sulfate produced by retorting of kerogen in the oil shale. In the second embodiment of the invention, recognition is made of the correlation between the fischer assay of the oil shale and the amount of water it contains. Core samples of the formation are analyzed prior to processing to determine the water content and the predicted water production rate due to the passage of a processing zone through that location in the formation. Actual water production rate can then be compared with the predicted rate and the locus of the processing zone determined.

  4. Investigation of the Geokinetics Horizontal In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported on developing an in-situ process for recovering shale oil. On July 23, Retort No. 24 was shut-in. Production for the life of Retort No. 24 totaled 12,741 barrels of crude shale oil. A contract was made with the United States Defense Fuel Supply Center to furnish them with 5000 barrels of crude shale oil. Shipments were made by tanker trucks to the Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility near Rifle, Colorado to fulfill this contractual agreement. A shipment of 120 barrels of crude shale oil was made to Mobil Research Company. Retort No. 26 was loaded with explosives on August 5 and 6. This operation was carried out totally by Geokinetics' personnel. On August 7, Retort No. 26 was detonated. Again all blasting operations were carried out by Geokinetics personnel. According to initial indications the Retort No. 26 blast was highly successful. Following the blast of Retort No. 26 all efforts were turned to the ignition of Retort No. 25. Equipment and piping were set in place and the instrumentation systems were wired in. Ignition for Retort No. 25 is scheduled for mid to late October. The Retort No. 26 Post-blast Coring Program continued through the end of this quarter. With the ignition of Retort No. 25 the analytical lab began constant monitoring of the retort burn.

  5. Mercury retorts for the processing of precious metals and hazardous wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Charles; Hill, Eldan

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the authors describe some of the considerations for the design and operation of mercury retort facilities. These retort facilities are used for precious metals processing and for the treatment of mercury-bearing hazardous wastes. The relevant properties and characteristics of mercury and mercury vapor are presented, as well as facility engineering with respect to industrial hygiene, area ventilation, and material handling.

  6. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  7. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an oil shale retort by effluent off gas heating value

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1981-07-21

    A processing zone advances through a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort has an effluent gas passing therefrom. The effluent gas has a heating value which is dependent on the kerogen content of the oil shale then in contact with the processing zone. To determine the locus of the processing zone, the formation is assayed at selected locations in the retort for kerogen content before processing the selected locations, and effluent gas from the retort is monitored for its heating value.

  8. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  9. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  10. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  11. Retorting hydrocarbonaceous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Styring, R.E.

    1980-08-19

    Mined, crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids are pyrolyzed in a retort with a gas containing hydrocarbons. The gas is heated to a suitable temperature of at least 600/sup 0/F. Thereafter, a relatively small amount of oxygen is added to the heated gas outside the retort. The resulting mixture is then flowed into the retort. The amount of oxygen is theoretically sufficient to raise the temperature of the heated gas at least 100/sup 0/F., but is less than the amount theoretically sufficient to react with all of the hydrocarbons in the heated gas. The process is applicable to any type of retort wherein a retort recycle gas containing hydrocarbons is heated outside the retort and is then injected into the retort to provide a source of heat for pyrolyzing hydrocarbonaceous solids in the retort. The advantages of this modified indirect heated retorting method depends on the type of retort. This method provides added control over carbonate decomposition, coking or carbonization of the gas during heating, total gas flow, process variations, and the heat requirements and thermal efficiency of the process.

  12. Geotechnical Properties of Oil Shale Retorted by the PARAHO and TOSCO Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    outlet size set by consideration of particle interlucking, flow rate, etc. 235 .," Material Oil shale B. With vibrating equipment ] Material not suited...AD-AB.a 317 ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG--ETC F/S 8/7 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND-ETC(U...lEEllllElhllIE MEJ I .LEVEL. TECHNICAL REPORT 66-79-22 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OILas SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND C TOSCO PROCESSES by ( Frank C

  13. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected.

  14. Application of laboratory results to the design of a high yield VMIS oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, T.C.; Ricketts, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts have typically been designed to process a rubble bed having uniform cross-sectional rubble properties. Edge effects during rock fragmentation commonly produce increased void at the perimeter of these low-void retorts. Previous laboratory and field results have demonstrated this void variation normal to the direction of flow causes non-uniform retort front velocities that result in significantly lower oil yield. It is unlikely that process control parameters (e.g., multiple injection points, steam, etc.) can provide any significant yield improvement in these non-uniform retorts. Any large improvement would come from modified rubblization concepts. This paper describes a modification to the retort blast design to achieve a uniform retorting front velocity in rubble with non-uniform properties (void fraction and particle size). This concept requires the creation of an anisotropic rubble bed with varying particle size and void fraction normal to the direction of flow. The unavoidable increased void at the retort perimeter is offset by modifying the ratio of the effective particle size of the rubble in the central to the perimeter regions of the retort. The results of laboratory-scale pressure drop and retorting experiments with an empirical blast design technique are used to describe how a high-yield, second generation in situ retort would be designed. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    At the end of March 1982, Retort No. 25 was in its 167th day of burning with a total oil production of 16,599 barrels, an average of 99 barrels per day for this five month burn period. Total oil production for the first quarter was 9187 barrels, an average of 3062 barrels per month or 102 barrels per day. Various environmental studies were carried out on Retort No. 25 during this burn period, as defined in the Environment Research Plan. Stack gas analyses show that the retort operated within the PSD established emission levels. Lab and field experiments continued on a wet scrubber to remove H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ from the process gas. Process and instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 26. All process holes were completed in February and all instrumentation holes were finished in March. Installment of process manifolding, surface piping and thermocouples is continuing. The Retort No. 27 site was prepared for blasting during January and February with detonation of the retort accomplished on February 25. Retort No. 27, the first 2 acre retort, used 283,000 pounds of Ireco explosive loaded into 354 blast holes. Important data concerning the effect of retort size increase, early overburden motion and the effects of blast design modifications upon shale fracturing characteristics were obtained from this blast. Preliminary indications show that the blast was a success and post blast analysis is presently in progress to evaluate the characteristics of the blast. During the quarter, the second and third suite of samples for the Retort No. 25 fugitive emissions study were gathered. From this study, it was concluded that more sampling will be required before fugitive emission rates can be properly characterized.

  16. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    The ignition of Retort No. 25 took place on October 15, 1981. The operation was a success and the fire front remained uniform throughout the quarter. Production of crude shale oil from Retort No. 25 was 7153 barrels during the quarter. Stack gas analysis began on Retort No. 25 as part of normal air quality studies. The re-entry drilling program began on Retort No. 26 and all process wells were completed in December. Blasthole drilling began on the Retort No. 27 site in November. By the end of December, 16,416 feet had been drilled and an early February shot date is scheduled. Retort No. 27 will be twice the size of Retort No. 26. Lab personnel were involved in the testing of retort water for scrubbing purposes and the removal of H/sub 2/S gas. The new Kamp Kerogen water well was completed and put into service. Three mobile homes were relocated on the new mobile home park. Hook-ups were made and services provided.

  17. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported by Geokinetics on the successful blasting of Retort No. 25. Preparations are described for the ignition of Retort No. 24 nearing completion. This will be the largest retort processing facility utilized to date. Meteorological data of the area was obtained for permit applications from the Utah Air Conservation Committee and the US EPA. These must be obtained before ignition of retort No. 24. Drilling for the post-burn core sampling program (Retorts No. 16 and No. 17) was completed during the quarter. Approval to inject effluent water into the Mesa Verde Formation through a deep well was obtained. Construction of a new 1 1/2 acre evaporating pond has begun. The DOE Oil Shale Task Force will aid in the environmental research program; its role is described. A new vibro-rotary hammer was tested. Drilling penetration rates increased by 35%. A patent on horizontal fracturing methods was obtained. (DMC)

  18. Monitoring in situ retorting processes of oil shale by reflected and transmitted electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. H.; DuBow, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    A theoretical model for an in situ oil shale retort with three distinct vertical zones, all surrounded by a wall of oil shale, overburden and underburden, is considered for the study of potential electromagnetic monitoring of the progression of retorting processes using wave propagation techniques. The overall power reflection and transmission coefficients for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves are used for finding the position of a combustion zone in the retort, based upon the assumption of straight-line propagation of monochromatic plane waves through layered lossy dielectric media characterized by the dielectric constants and loss tangents. The behavior of each power coefficient is discussed as a function of burn front positions and signal frequencies. As a result of the relatively moderate signal power for each coefficient required for detection, and the one-to-one correspondence between each power coefficient and burn front position at typical conditions, the feasibility of using low radio-frequency waves to monitor relatively large scale in situ retorting process is established.

  19. Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Tassoney, J.P.

    1983-04-12

    Formation is excavated from an in situ oil shale retort site for forming at least one void within the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a void. The remaining zone is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Oil shale in the in situ retort is retorted to produce liquid and gaseous products, leaving a mass of spent oil shale particles in the in situ retort. Oil shale particles excavated from the in situ retort site are separately retorted, such as in a surface retorting operation, producing liquid and gaseous products and spent surface retorted oil shale particles. The spent surface retorted particles are disposed of by forming an aqueous slurry of the particles, and pumping the slurry into a spent in situ retort. In one embodiment, the aqueous slurry is introduced into a hot lower portion of the spent retort where contact with hot spent oil shale particles generates steam which, in turn, is withdrawn from the spent retort in usable form. In another embodiment, water from the aqueous slurry introduced into a spent in situ retort collects at a level within the retort. The water can be recovered by drilling a drainage hole upwardly from a lower level drift into the level within the spent retort where the water collects and draining the water through the drainage hole to the lower level drift for recovery.

  20. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  1. Thermal cracking of retort oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dearth, J.D.; Smith, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    The thermal cracking of retort oil vapors in an elongated reactor is improved by passing the effluent oil vapors and gases from a retort to a thermal cracking unit before the temperature of the retort effluent falls below 680* F. This encourages the more desirable cracking reactions, increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and avoids preheater coking.

  2. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  3. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  4. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  5. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  6. Lip-hung retort furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1986-08-05

    A fluidized bed furnace is described which consists of: a furnace housing including an outer shell; a furnace base and an outer top plate secured to the respective lower and upper ends of the furnace housing; a vertical retort having an opened upper end and an opened lower end, the retort being disposed in an opening formed in the outer top plate and extending downwardly into the center of the furnace housing; heat insulating material disposed between the outer shell and the vertical retort; a retort base assembly being adapted for closing the lower end of the vertical retort; upper support means for supporting the upper end of the vertical retort on top of the outer top plate so as to permit downward growth only during thermal expansion; the upper support means including an annular flange formed integrally with the sidewalls of the retort at the upper end thereof and being adapted to be fixedly mounted to the outer surface of the outer top plate; lower support means interposed between the lower surface of the retort base assembly and the upper surface of the furnace base for supporting substantially all the weight of the retort, the weight of the load of a fluidizable media, and the weight of a load of material to be heat treated.

  7. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches.

  8. In situ retorting of oil shale with pulsed water purge

    SciTech Connect

    Forgac, J.M.; Hoekstra, G.R.

    1987-01-20

    A process is described for retorting oil shale, comprising the steps of: heating a portion of a rubblized mass of oil shale in a retorting zone of an underground retort to a retorting temperature to liberate shale oil and retort water from the oil shale leaving retorted shale containing residual carbon; combusting the residual carbon in the oil shale in a combustion zone behind the retorting zone in the underground retort with a flame front fed by an oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas to provide a substantial portion of the heating, the flame front advancing generally in the direction of flow of the feed gas; injecting a purge liquid comprising retort water in the absence of the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas into the underground retort to quench the flame front while substantially stopping and blocking the flow of the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas into the retort while simultaneously continuing to liberate shale oil and retort water in the underground retort; the retort water liberated from the retort and injected into the underground retort as the purge liquid, comprising raw, retorted and spent oil shale particulates ranging in size from less than 1 micron to 1000 microns, water, shale oil, phenols, organic carbon, ammonia, sodium, iron, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, nitrogen, nickel, copper, phosphorus, zinc, and arsenic; reigniting the flame front with the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas by feeding the oxygen-containing feed gas into the retort in the absence of the retort water purge liquid while simultaneously substantially stopping and preventing the flow of the retort water purge liquid into the retort; and withdrawing the liberated shale oil and retort water from the underground retort.

  9. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms.

  10. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  11. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  12. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  13. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Strniste, G F; Chen, D J

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by thd process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistant mutants. (1-2 time background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delicate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  14. Optimization of processing conditions for the sterilization of retorted short-rib patties using the response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-Hee; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum sterilization conditions for short-rib patties in retort trays by considering microbiological safety, nutritive value, sensory characteristics, and textural properties. In total, 27 sterilization conditions with various temperatures, times, and processing methods were tested using a 3(3) factorial design. The response surface methodology (RSM) and contour analysis were applied to find the optimum sterilization conditions for the patties. Quality attributes were significantly affected by the sterilization temperature, time, and processing method. From RSM and contour analysis, the final optimum sterilization condition of the patties that simultaneously satisfied all specifications was determined to be 119.4°C for 18.55min using a water-cascading rotary mode. The findings of the present study suggest that using optimized sterilization conditions will improve the microbial safety, sensory attributes, and nutritional retention for retorted short-rib patties.

  15. Processing and storage of restructured surimi stew product in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Hema, K; Shakila, R Jeya; Shanmugam, S A; Jeevithan, E

    2015-03-01

    Restructured surimi gel product was prepared using short nosed white tripod (Triacanthus brevirosterus) with egg white as additive at 1 %. Heat setting was done initially at 45 °C for 30 min followed by heat processing 90 °C for 45 min. Restructured surimi gel in stew was standardized using four most popular recipes available in local cuisine based on the sensory acceptance and the Kerala fish stew was considered best. Restructured surimi gel in Kerala fish stew was then heat processed in 4 ply laminated retort pouch of dimension 150× 200 mm, at 15 psi gauge pressure for varying time duration and the Fo values ranged from 13.10 to 22.58 min. Products examined of their organoleptic and microbial qualities showed those processed with Fo value of 13.10 min was acceptable with excellent eating quality with no fishy flavour and was microbial sterile until the storage period of 6 months.

  16. Quality and shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in retort pouches.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-12-01

    The shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in 3-ply retort pouches at Fo = 12.13 in a stock sterilizer were evaluated at 15 days interval for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a period of 3 months. The pH of the product was 6.28 at 0 day and a gradual decline was noticed during storage. Texture of the product as indicated by shear force values had decreased slowly. The residual nitrite content had significantly declined from 82.67 ppm at 0 day to 45.00 ppm on 90th day of storage. The TBARS values were 0.24 and 0.67 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively at 0 day and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine value had significantly increased from 0.37 mg/100 g at 0 day to 0.58 mg/100 g during storage. Free aminoacid content increased gradually from an initial level of 124.32 to 217.51 at 90(th) day of storage. The SDS-PAGE hydrolysis pattern showed barely discernible 205 KDa protein and presence of subfragments in the molecular range of 63 KDa to 29 KDa protein. The sensory studies indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days. As the storage period increased pH, reidual nitrite, sensory attributes declined significantly and TBARS value, tyrosine value and free aminoacid content significantly increased. Mesophillic aerobes and anerobes were found to be absent. The shelf life study indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days based on the assessment of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  17. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  18. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  19. Method and apparatus for retorting a substance containing organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, B.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of an apparatus for converting a substance containing organic matter into hydrocarbon vapors and solids residue comprising: (A) a fluidized bed housing having an upstream end and a downstream end; (B) a substantially cylindrical retort, extending through and stationary relative to said fluidized bed housing and having an upstream end and a downstream end, each end being outside of said housing, the longitudinal axis of said retort being substantially parallel to a horizontal plane; (C) feeding means for feeding the substance containing organic matter into said retort, said feeding means communicating with the upstream portion of said retort; (D) means located within said retort for moving the substance containing organic matter from the upstream portion of said retort to the downstream portion thereof; (E) solids residue removing means for removing solids residue from said retort, said solids residue removing means communicating with the downstream portion of said retort; (F) solids residue introducing means for introducing said solids residue removed from said retort into said fluidized bed housing to employ said solids residue as particles of a fluidized bed, one end of said introducing means communicating with said solids residue removing means and the other end therof communicating with the upper upstream portion of said fluidized bed housing; (G) solids residue extracting means for extracting solids residue from said fluidized bed housing and communicating with the lower downstream portion fluidized bed housing; (H) fluidizing menas for maintaining within said fluidized bed housing a fluidized bed of heated particles of solids residue with which to heat said retort; (I) heating means for heating the particles; (J) hydrocarbon vapors removing means.

  20. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    PubMed

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-09-05

    Among the many roles played by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Regretfully, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs (1, 2, 3, and 4). The designs were (1) control (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder (3) addition of retort processing (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processing (design 4) significantly reduced total AFs by 57%. The present work demonstrated that design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  1. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  2. Evaluation by respirometry of the degradability of retort water using a shale ash and overburden packed column.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W P; Ho, N M; Taylor, M; Coombs, S; Bell, P R; Picaro, T

    2005-08-01

    Oil shale processing produces an aqueous wastewater stream known as retort water. The fate of the organic content of retort water from the Stuart oil shale project (Gladstone, Queensland) is examined in a proposed packed bed treatment system consisting of a 1:1 mixture of residual shale from the retorting process and mining overburden. The retort water had a neutral pH and an average unfiltered TOC of 2,900 mg 1(-1). The inorganic composition of the retort water was dominated by NH4+. Only 40% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the retort water was identifiable, and this was dominated by carboxylic acids. In addition to monitoring influent and effluent TOC concentrations, CO2 evolution was monitored on line by continuous measurements of headspace concentrations and air flow rates. The column was run for 64 days before it blocked and was dismantled for analysis. Over 98% of the TOC was removed from the retort water. Respirometry measurements were confounded by CO2 production from inorganic sources. Based on predictions with the chemical equilibrium package PHREEQE, approximately 15% of the total CO2 production arose from the reaction of NH4+ with carbonates. The balance of the CO2 production accounted for at least 80% of the carbon removed from the retort water. Direct measurements of solid organic carbon showed that approximately 20% of the influent carbon was held-up in the top 20cm of the column. Less than 20% of this held-up carbon was present as either biomass or as adsorbed species. Therefore, the column was ultimately blocked by either extracellular polymeric substances or by a sludge that had precipitated out of the retort water.

  3. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  4. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The ignition of Geokinetics first full-sized prototype retort (Retort 24) was completed on December 1, 1980. Recovery of oil from Retort No. 24 began about midway through December, and 531 barrels of oil had been recovered by the end of the quarter. A cold oil effect resulted in the accumulation of oil within the retort. Five thousand one ninety one barrels of oil were shipped to WESRECO, Salt Lake City, Utah during the quarter, and the shale oil was blended into No. 5 fuel oil, which was sold to industrial users. The Retort No. 25 post-blast core drilling program was completed in October. A total of seven core holes were drilled. Evaluation of the core samples was underway. Preliminary analysis indicated good breakage in the lower portion of Retort No. 25. A new technique for sealing retort surface fractures was designed and implemented on Retort No. 25. A layer of bentonite with gas and steam retention properties was applied to the retort surface and covered with a layer of topsoil.

  5. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with transient specific IgE to boiled rice but not to retort-processed rice.

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Kosaka, Takuya; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Miyagawa, Kazuhiko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-02-01

    Described herein is the case of an 8-month-old girl with atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to rice. She presented with vomiting and poor general activity 2 h after ingestion of boiled rice. Oral food challenge test using high-pressure retort-processed rice was negative, but re-exposure to boiled rice elicited gastrointestinal symptoms. On western blot analysis the patient's serum was found to contain IgE bound to crude protein extracts from rice seed or boiled rice, but not from retort-processed rice. The major protein bands were not detected in the electrophoresed gel of retort-processed rice extracts, suggesting decomposition by high-temperature and high-pressure processing. Oral food challenge for diagnosing rice allergy should be performed with boiled rice to avoid a false negative. Additionally, some patients with rice allergy might be able to ingest retort-processed rice as a substitute for boiled rice. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Improved retort for cleaning metal powders with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1969-01-01

    Improved cleaning retort produces uniform temperature distribution in the heated zone and minimizes hydrogen channeling through the powder bed. Retort can be used for nonmetallic powders, sintering in a reducing atmosphere, and for cleaning powders in reduction atmospheres other than hydrogen.

  7. Apparatus for retorting comminuted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Strumskis, L.

    1982-04-20

    A continuously operable retort-type processing system for the recovery of petroleum-like products from comminuted oil-bearing shale and other oil-yielding particulate solid materials. The retort portion of the system includes an insulated retort outer shell for a wall jacket-type heat exchanger. Disposed within the retort, all driven from a common axially disposed motor-driven shaft, are a plurality of stirring fingers, wall scrapers and discharge shovels, the latter for use in discharge of spent solid material from the retort. The system envisions burning gases from the process to provide a fluid heat exchange medium as a source of the heat required for the process. The system further includes means for the admixture of steam and acetic acid with the starting particulate materials prior to its introduction into the retort. An additional instrumentality is included at an intermediate position along the reaction path of the materials as they pass through the retort for the addition of additional quantities of steam and acetic acid.

  8. Effect of pasteurization, high-pressure processing, and retorting on the barrier properties of nylon 6, nylon 6/ethylene vinyl alcohol, and nylon 6/nanocomposites films.

    PubMed

    Halim, L; Pascall, M A; Lee, J; Finnigan, B

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the impact of pasteurization, high-pressure processing (HPP), and retorting on the barrier properties of nylon 6 (N6), nylon 6/ethylene vinyl alcohol (N6/EVOH), and nylon 6/nanocomposite (N6/nano) materials. The pasteurized and high-pressure treated films were coextruded with low-density polyethylene (PE) as the heat-sealing layer. The retorted films were coextruded with polypropylene (PP). Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the samples were measured after pasteurization (75 degrees C for 30 min), HPP (800 MPa for 10 min at 70 degrees C), and retorting (121 degrees C for 30 min) treatments. These were compared with the thermal characteristics and morphologies of the samples using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that OTR of N6 and N6/Nano increased after HPP (16.9% and 39.7%), pasteurization (13.3% and 75.9%), and retorting (63.3% and 112.6%), respectively. For N6/EVOH, a decrease in OTR after HPP (53.9%) and pasteurization (44.5%) was observed. The HPP treatment increased the WVTR of N6 (21.0%), N6/EVOH (48.9%), and N6/Nano (21.2%). The WVTR of N6, N6/EVOH, and N6/Nano increased by 96.7%, 43.8%, and 40.7%, respectively, after pasteurization. The DSC analyses showed that the enthalpy and percent crystallinity increased (2.3% to 6.5%) in the N6/Nano when compared with the N6 material after each treatment. Retorting caused a decrease (3.5%) in the percent crystallinity of the polypropylene material. HPP did not cause major morphological changes to the samples. Results of the barrier studies were influenced by the crystallinity changes in the materials as seen in the XRD diffractograms.

  9. Formation, deposition, and drainage of mist in porous media with application to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, S.L.

    1984-06-01

    The research is aimed at developing the technological base for understanding and ultimately modeling the physical processes which control droplet size and droplet deposition within oil shale retorts. Two types of experiments were performed for this study: (1) size distributions of oil mists formed by condensation of oil vapor in an inert carrier gas were measured for a wide range of cooling rates and vapor concentrations thought to be typical of retorting conditions. Most experiments were conducted using a steady state tubular condenser which simulates a typical channel through a packed bed. Some unsteady-state experiments were conducted using an initially cold bed of shale rock and following the size distribution of the mist with time as the thermal front propagated through the bed; (2) capture efficiencies of oil mists in packed beds were measured for a wide range of droplet sizes, and gas velocities thought to be typical of retorting conditions. Both clean beds and beds with simulated liquid loading were used. 50 figures.

  10. Developing the Geokinetics/Department of Energy horizontal in situ retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under a cooperative agreement between Geokinetics Inc., and the US Department of Energy, spanning on eight year period. A large body of experimental data was generated which has been previously reported in a series of published and unpublished reports, as indicated in Chapter VII. The report summarizes research work performed from April of 1975 to August 15, 1985, but emphasizes data generated during the final three years of the project, when five large retorts were tested. The report draws conclusions based upon the total program, including work performed by Geokinetics prior to entering into the Cooperative Agreement, and presents the initial parameters useful for scaleup and design of a commercial scale operation, including data useful for assessing the environmental impacts and criteria for mitigation of such impacts. Specific details concerning the various aspects of the program may be obtained from the many previous reports that have been generated from the date of project initiation. A list of these reports is presented in Chapter VII. 28 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Integrated Use of Fluidized Bed Technology for Oil Production from Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirde, Andres; Martins, Ants

    The plant unit which consists of a fluidized bed retort and CFB furnace for burning the by-products of retorting (semicoke and semicoke gas) is presented in this paper. The oil shale retort consists of a fast fluidized bed shaft, coarse semicoke bit, semicoke separation chamber and cyclone for the separation of fine semicoke particles. The crashed oil shale and hot ash from the CFB ash separator are fed concurrently into the fast fluidized bed shaft. For fluidizing the mixture of oil shale and hot ash particles, the recycle semicoke gas is used. The pyrolysis of oil shale begins in fluidized bed and is completed in the semicoke separation chamber. The coarse semicoke particles are separated from fluidized bed directly while the medium size particles are separated from the gases in the semicoke separation chamber and the finest semicoke particles in the cyclone. All the fractions of semicoke from the fluidized bed retort and semicoke gas from the oil fractionator are burnt in the CFB furnace. The semicoke ash is separated from flue gases in the CFB ash separator. A part of separated hot ash is fed into the fluidized bed retort as a solid heat carrier material and the rest into the furnace through the ash cooler or separated from the process. The retention of sulphur dioxide formed during the semicoke and semicoke gas combustion, is guaranteed for about 99 % due to the high CaO content in the semicoke ash and convenient temperature (about 850°C) in the CFB furnace. The described plant unit is useful for retorting oil shale and other solid hydrocarbon-containing fuels. The advantages of the present retorting process and system are: improved oil yield, greater throughput, lower retorting time, avoidance of moving parts in the retorting zones, reduced downtime, etc. A new plant unit for oil shale oil production has been elaborated and defended by the Estonian Utility Model EE 200700671 UI.

  12. Advanced retorting, microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS), and pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) to process meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Medina-Meza, Ilce; Candoğan, Kezban; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Conventional thermal processes have been very reliable in offering safe sterilized meat products, but some of those products are of questionable overall quality. Flavor, aroma, and texture, among other attributes, are significantly affected during such processes. To improve those quality attributes, alternative approaches to sterilizing meat and meat products have been explored in the last few years. Most of the new strategies for sterilizing meat products rely on using thermal approaches, but in a more efficient way than in conventional methods. Some of these emerging technologies have proven to be reliable and have been formally approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Additional work needs to be done in order for these technologies to be fully adopted by the food industry and to optimize their use. Some of these emerging technologies for sterilizing meat include pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwaves, and advanced retorting. This review deals with fundamental and applied aspects of these new and very promising approaches to sterilization of meat products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  14. Organic constituents in process water from the in-situ retorting of oil from oil-shale kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Raphaelian, L A; Harrison, W

    1981-02-01

    Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) was performed on the acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid- and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of a composite sample of raw process water collected from separator Tank 6 by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. Of the 160 extractable and chromatographable organic compounds tentatively identified, the following compound classes were found (listed in decreasing order of abundance): quinolines and lower fatty acids, aminoindoles, neutral oxygenated heterocyclics, pyridines, pyrroles, pyrazoles, phenols, and alkanes. Noticeably absent or in low concentration were alkyl benzenes and alkenes. Assuming 100% extraction efficiency, these organics constitute approximately 0.035% of the retort water; approximately 50% of this amount is represented by the quinolines, fatty acids, aminoindoles, and oxygenated heterocyclics. The following differences were noted in the composition of the particulate and liquid extracts of the neutral and base fractions, respectively: (1) alkanes are a major portion of the particulates, whereas oxygenated hereocyclics are most prominent in the liquid; and (2) aminoindoles are only a minor portion of the particulates, but are prominent in the liquid phase. The concentration of a compound occurring in both the liquid and particulate extracts is approximately 40 to 100 times higher in the liquid than in the particulate extract.

  15. Underground oil-shale retort monitoring using geotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.

    1984-10-01

    Geophysical tomographs (geotomographs) were made of two underground oil-shale retorts: (1) the Occidental Oil Shale Inc. miniretort constructed for ignition tests at the demonstration mine at Logan Wash, Colorado; and (2) the Geokinetics Oil Shale Inc. Retort 25 near Vernal, Utah. These experiments demonstrate that geotomography may be a valuable diagnostic tool for underground oil-shale retorting processes. At the Geokinetics in-situ retort, the technique delineated the zones of high permeability in a cross-section of the retort. At the Occidental modified in-situ miniretort, the technique imaged the high temperature zone of the retort with a spatial resolution of about 2 m, and showed its temporal development over a period of eleven days.

  16. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  17. Stabilizing in situ oil shale retorts with injected grout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    A retort grouting process has been developed which would solve certain problems associated with in situ recovery of crude oil by retorting oil shale, such as surface subsidence, disturbance of groundwater flow, and accumulation of spent shale at the surface. Essentially, the process consists of using the spent shale to make a grout that can be injected into the retort after processing is completed. Bench-scale experiments using a high-temperature process show that grout can be prepared with sufficient strength, mobility, and permeability to stabilize processed in situ oil shale retorts. By reducing the need for surface disposal of spent shale and by increasing the quantity of shale that can be retorted in a given area, the grouting method should significantly improve the economics of the oil recovery process while also offering environmental advantages over surface processing of the shale.

  18. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  19. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  20. Rock motion simulation and prediction of porosity distribution for a two-void-level retort

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The computer program DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed in 1988 and 1989 to predict the motion of rock following a conventional blast. The ability to predict the rock motion associated with oil shale retort blasting, along with the induced porosity distribution, has been a driving force behind the development of DMC. Earlier this year DMC was used to simulate the rock motion associated with the rubblization of Occidental Oil Shale's Retort Number 8 which was a three-void-level retort processed in 1982. This paper discusses the algorithm developed to compute the porosity distribution of the muck after rock motion. It also contains a simulation of a two-void-level retort rubblization plan proposed by Ricketts, 1989. DMC is used to model the rock motion associated with the blasting and to obtain a final porosity distribution. Some improvement in the porosity distribution is seen over that observed in the three-void-level simulation. Thus, it may be that the two-void-level approach is not only more efficient to mine, but may also produce a more uniform rubble bed. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.P.; Takahashi, G.S.; Leshock, D.G.

    1991-10-14

    The fluidized-bed copper oxide process was developed to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas of coal-fired utility boilers. This dry and regenerable process uses a copper oxide sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. Contaminants are removed without generating waste material. (VC)

  2. Method for fully retorting an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Zahradnik, R.L.; Jacobson, C.L.; Shen, J.-C.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for operating an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, the retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within top, bottom and side boundaries of unfragmented formation and having a drift in communication with a lower region of the fragmented mass for withdrawal of liquid products of retorting and an off-gas comprising gaseous products of retorting. The method consists of: introducing a retort inlet mixture into an upper region of the fragmented mass in the retort for advancing a retorting zone downwardly through the retort for producing liquid and gaseous products of retorting; withdrawing retort off-gas comprising gaseous products of retorting through the product withdrawal drift; monitoring the temperature of the off-gas in the product withdrawal drift; and when the temperature of the off-gas exceeds a first selected temperature, spraying a sufficient amount of water into the off-gas stream in the withdrawal drift for contacting formation surrounding the drift with cooling water and for maintaining the temperature of the off-gas at no more than a second selected temperature.

  3. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  4. Report on 10-ton retort tracer testing: tests S76 through S79

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.

    1985-07-01

    An oil shale retort with contrasting permeability regions has been studied using gas tracer techniques. The Western Research Institute's 10-ton retort was loaded with oil shale of various size ranges resulting in different void fractions. Four retorting and tracer runs were performed on the retort. For each run, tracer injections were made into the main air flow inlet and into taps near the top of the retort. Detection taps were located at four levels in the retort with five taps on each level in tests S76 through S78. There were six taps on each level in run S79. The oil shale rubble bed was configured with a cylindrical nonuniform region on the center line of the retort in tests S76 through S78. In run S79 two side-by-side regions with differing bed properties were tracer tested and retorted. Response times were calculated from the tracer response curves. The tracer response times from in-bed tracer tests correlate with oil yield and with bed properties. Response times from the inlet-to-outlet tracer tests correlate with total oil yield through a first-order relationship with sweep efficiencies. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  6. Modeling of fluidized bed silicon deposition process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.; Hsu, G.; Lutwack, R.; PRATURI A. K.

    1977-01-01

    The model is intended for use as a means of improving fluidized bed reactor design and for the formulation of the research program in support of the contracts of Silicon Material Task for the development of the fluidized bed silicon deposition process. A computer program derived from the simple modeling is also described. Results of some sample calculations using the computer program are shown.

  7. Surge bin retorting solid feed material

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1984-11-06

    An improved surge bin for a Lurgi-Ruhrgas process has baffles which promote uniform flow of feed material through the surge bin. Improved retorting of kerogen from oil shale is obtained. Stripping gas such as steam, is supplied to the surge bin. A separator has a large disengaging volume to remove entrained solid particles and improve the quality of the hydrocarbon product.

  8. Plant for retorting oil products contained in shales and sands

    SciTech Connect

    Roma, C.

    1982-07-20

    A plant is described for continuously retorting oil products contained in shales and sands comprising a substantially horizontal retort furnace into which said shales and sands are introduced by means of hoppers and metering devices and placed on metal conveyors moving in counter-current to gases. Means are provided for placing shales and sands onto conveyors with a suitable thickness and for stirring the shales and sands. One or more combustion chambers are arranged outside the retort furnace for producing hot gases, and one or more input zones are located along the retort furnace for admitting hot gases into the retort furnace, causing the hot gases to mix with circulating gases which have been preheated by removing sensible heat from the exhausted shale and sand material. A direct contact condenser at the furnace head utilizes cold fluid to condense distilled oil products, and a decantation tank is arranged beneath the condenser for freeing the process gases from the dust. Uncondensed gases containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen, high hydrocarbon fractions, nitrogen and steam are recycled into the retort. Condensed oils from said distillation step, as well as oil drawn from the tunnel retort in liquid phase, are decanted and submitted to successive treatments.

  9. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  10. Fluid bed technology in materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, C.K.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    1999-01-01

    The author explores the various aspects of fluidization engineering and examines its applications in a multitude of materials processing techniques. Topics include process metallurgy, fluidization in nuclear engineering, and the pros and cons of various fluidization equipment. Gupta emphasizes fluidization engineering in high temperature processing, and high temperature fluidized bed furnaces.

  11. True in-situ oil retort: the role of intrashale transport and char gasification and an analysis of retort performance

    SciTech Connect

    Louvar, J.F.; Crowl, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study expands the theoretical understanding of the true in situ crack retort process for Eastern oil shale by (a) establishing the role of intrashale 2-dimensional transport on the performance of the retort, (b) determining the significance of the intrashale char gasification reactions with water and carbon dioxide, and (c) analyzing the performance characteristics of a theoretical true in-situ retort process for Eastern oil shale and establishing conditions for improving the retort performance. Two computer simulation models were developed and evaluated, one with 1-D mass transport and another with 2-D mass transport. The 1-D transport model featured instantaneous 1-D transfer of the pyrolysis products to the crack. The 2-D transport model featured 2-D species transport within the oil shale, and pyrolysis, gasification, and oxidation reactions within the oil shale.

  12. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  13. In situ oil shale retort system

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.; Kvapil, R.; Ricketts, T.E.; Studebaker, I.G.

    1984-04-10

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in spaced apart rows, with adjacent rows of such retorts being separated by load-bearing barrier pillars of unfragmented formation sufficiently strong for preventing substantial subsidence at the ground surface. Each retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. Separate air level drifts are excavated on an upper level of the retorts within alternating barrier pillars, and separate production level drifts are excavated at a lower production level of the retorts within intervening barrier pillars between the barrier pillars having the air level drifts. Each air level drift extends between a pair of adjacent rows of retorts adjacent upper edges of the retorts in the adjacent rows, and each production level drift extends between a pair of adjacent rows of retorts adjacent lower edges of the retorts on sides of the retorts opposite the air level drifts. During retorting operations, air is introduced along the upper edge of each retort through lateral air inlet passages extending from the adjacent air level drift. Off gas and liquid products are withdrawn from each retort through one or more lateral production level passages extending from the lower edge of the retort to the adjacent production level drift. Withdrawal of off gas along the lower edge of each retort opposite the upper edge where air is introduced causes a generally diagonal flow pattern of combustion gas through the fragmented mass from one upper edge toward the opposite lower edge of the retort.

  14. Modifications to a cyclone oil shale retorting concept

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.C.; Harak, A.E.

    1989-10-01

    A system for utilizing oil shale fines, in which the fines, instead of being rejected as wastes, are crushed even finer and then are used in a cyclone retort is described. This patented process uses high combustion temperature that removes all of the organic material from the spent shale and converts it into an inert, granulated slag. The primary advantages of this retorting system over more conventional aboveground retorting processes are the ability to use finely divided oil shales as charge stock and the production of an essentially inert slag from the retorted shale. A series of calculations were made to evaluate variations of the original concept. The original process design was based on a cyclone furnace temperature of 2800{degree}F and the use of hot combustion gases as the retorting medium. A recent study of retorted and burned oil shale properties showed that molten slag could be produced at temperatures lower than 2800{degree}F; therefore, additional calculations were made using a furnace temperature of 2300{degree}F. 11 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Postburn characterization of a modified in situ oil shale retort, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.; Trudell, L.G. . Western Research Inst.)

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide information about post processing mineralogical and lithological characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into the Rio Blanco Tract C-a retort 1 in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. Drilling and logging records indicate 35 to 40 feet of roof rock had collapsed into the retort since the burn was completed four years earlier. A water filled cavity 46 to 62 feet high existed at the topp and 374 feet of rubble was encountered in the bottom of the retort. Material from the retort was determined to be a highly altered, fused, vesicular rock with lessor amounts of carbonized, oxidized, and moderately heat altered oil shale. Thermal alteration produced high temperature silicate minerals from the original mixture of carbonate and silicate minerals.

  16. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion.

  17. Production of shale oil by in-situ retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    1983-04-05

    A modified in-situ retort for the retorting of oil shale is constructed by mining an open space having a volume of twentyfive to thirty-five percent of the volume of the retort in the bottom of the retort and thereafter blasting the oil shale that is to remain in the retort as rubble in a manner to cause random free fall of the shale particles onto the rubblized bed. Blasting occurs sequentially from the bottom of the unfragmented shale immediately above the open space to the top of the retort. At each blast, there is an open space below the shale to be broken in the blast having a volume at least one-third the volume of that shale, and the timing of the blasts is such that movement of the broken shale is not interfered with by shale broken in the preceding blast. There is no withdrawal of oil shale that would cause downward movement of the rubble that is to be retorted insitu. The resultant in-situ retort is characterized by a high and uniform permeability.

  18. In-situ retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, G.G.; West, R.C.

    1984-11-20

    Fluid, such as liquid water, is injected into the rock surrounding an in situ oil shale retort at sufficient pressure and flow rate so that the injected fluid flows toward the retort to block the path of hot liquid and gaseous kerogen decomposition products escaping from the retort and to return heat to the retort. The successful conduct of an oil shale retorting operation usually requires that the retort temperature be maintained at a temperature sufficient to decompose efficiently the kerogen contained in the oil shale. By reducing the heat loss from an active retort, the amount of energy required to maintain a desired temperature therein is reduced. The fluid injection method also maintains pressure in an in-situ oil shale retort, allowing in-situ oil shale retorting to be efficiently conducted at a desired pressure. The method also reduces the danger to mineworkers who may be engaged in adjacent mining operations due to the escape of hazardous gases from an active retort. The method allows a series of sequential in-situ oil shale retorts in an oil shale formation to be placed more closely together than previously practical by reducing hot fluid leakage from each active retort to one or more abandoned retorts adjacent thereto, thus improving the recovery factor from the formation. The method also minimizes contamination of the formation surrounding an active in-situ retort due to hazardous chemicals which may be contained in the kerogen decomposition products leaking from the retort.

  19. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  20. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    trays backup plate & support pillars to allow 35" shut height as required by most 3500 ton molding machines dedicated mounting rails for installation...hr. At this time, Stegner had modified all their pallet bottom plates to support the rack in all load bearing points and in addition, Wornick send two...COMBAT RATION NETWORK FOR TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts Final Technical Report STP 2010

  1. Consolidation of in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, O.A.; Matthews, C.W.

    1980-11-04

    Shale oil is recovered from an underground oil shale deposit by in-situ retorting of rubblized shale in a retort formed in the deposit. Oil shale in a volume in the range of ten to fifty percent of the volume of the retort is mined from the deposit and delivered to the surface to provide void space for the expansion of the shale that occurs on rubblization to form the in-situ retort. The oil shale delivered to the surface is retorted at the surface. After completion of the in-situ retorting, boreholes are drilled downwardly through the retorted shale and a pipe lowered through the borehole to a level near the bottom of the retort. Spent shale from the surface retorting operation is slurried and pumped into the lower end of the in-situ retort. Pumping is continued to squeeze the slurry into the fissures between blocks of spent shale. The slurry is delivered into successively higher levels of the retort and the pumping and squeezing operation repeated at each level. In a preferred operation, slurry discharged into the retort is allowed to set before discharging slurry into the retort at a higher level to avoid excessive hydrostatic pressures on the retort.

  2. Application of thermally-activated gas canisters in MIS oil-shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Ronchetto, J; Campbell, J; Frohwein, E; Clarkson, J; DuVal, V; Miller, W

    1982-05-13

    Thermally-activated gas canisters, were developed and field tested for use as temperature sensors during modified in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting. These instruments allow one to determine when known retort bed positions reach a predetermined temperature. From this information, the degree of flow uniformity through the bed can be determined. The main advantage of this concept is that the thermal sensors need no physical connection to their respectivce data acquisition instruments. A metal canister is filled with compressed freon (or other easily detectable gas) and sealed with a temperature sensitive cap. This cap is designed to open at a specific temperature. The released gas is then detected by analyzing the retort offgas using conventional gas chromatographic methods. The canisters are emplaced in the retort during construction. For the field test described, we simply lowered them downhole onto the rubble pile. They are ruggedly designed to survive subsequent blasting operations. 6 figures, 1 table.

  3. Retort abandonment: issues and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Wagner, P.; Peterson, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This paper has identified key issues in retort abandonment and has addressed research needs. Retort abandonment for vertical modified in-situ (VMIS) shale oil recovery is an environmentally sensitive research area that has received recognition only within the past five years. Thus, experimental data and information are, in general, limited. In addition, there is presently a wide spectrum of unresolved issues that range from basic problem definition to technical details of potential control technologies. This situation is compounded by the scale of the problem and the absence of a commercial industry. The problems involve large numbers and will require engineering on a gigantic scale. Abandoned retorts are large - up to 700 feet deep and several hundred feet in cross section. They will exist in huge blocks, several square miles in area, which are inaccessible at several thousand feet below the surface. The processes that will ultimately be used to extract the oil are undefined. The technology is in transition, and representative samples of materials have not been available for research. Research efforts in this area have concentrated on basic studies on the nature and magnitude of environmental problems resulting from VMIS oil extraction. These investigations have used laboratory reactors to generate spent shales and modeling studies to predict water quality and hydrologic impacts. The technology for retort abandonment is just now being developed, using engineering analyses to identify promising environmental control options and laboratory and modeling studies to determine feasibility. We expect that, as the environmental problems are better defined and understood, conventional control technologies will prove to be adaptable to a majority of the problems associated with this new process and that laboratory and modeling research on the problem definition will be refocused on technology development and field experiments.

  4. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed of Greenriver oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust form raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rates for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation; fracture and wear.

  5. Jetting out weak areas for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, J.

    1981-07-21

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. A void can be formed in formation within the retort site by directing fluid under pressure against a zone of relatively weakened formation, such as tuffs, gravel beds, or fractured oil shale, to erode such weakened formation into particle form, leaving a void space adjacent a remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. The void space can be formed by drilling a bore hole into the zone of weakened formation, placing a jet nozzle in the bore hole, and forcing a fluid such as water through the nozzle against the weakened formation for eroding it to form the void space. Eroded formation particles are passed to the bottom of the bore hole. Such water jetting techniques can be used to form voids in zones of weakened formation interspersed throughout the retort site. Remaining formation within the retort site is explosively expanded toward such a void space for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. The amount of eroded formation particles jetted from the retort site can be measured prior to explosive expansion for providing a selected void fraction in the resulting fragmented mass. Explosive also can be placed in voids excavated by such jetting for such explosive expansion.

  6. Proposed operating strategy for a field mis oil shale retorting experiment (RBOSC Retort O)

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.; Campbell, J.H.; McKenzie, D.R.; Raley, J.H.; Gregg, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    A possible operating strategy for a field scale retort (similar to Retort 0) proposed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC)) is discussed. This retorting strategy was developed based on model calculations, pilot retort experiments, and laboratory work carried out at LLL. From these calculations a set of operating conditions are derived that appear to give the best overall retort performance. A performance monitoring strategy is being developed based solely on the exit gas and oil composition.

  7. Pollution control technical manual: modified 'in situ' oil shale retorting combined with Lurgi surface retorting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using Lurgi surface retorting technology (developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany) and the Modified In Situ process (developed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.) proposed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. and Tenneco Shale Oil Company for use in the development of their Federal oil shale lease Tract C-b in western Colorado. Since details regarding waste streams and control technologies for the Lurgi process are presented in a separate PCTM, this document focuses principally on the Modified In Situ process.

  8. Method for bulking full a retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, Tw.E.; Sass, A.

    1984-05-22

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is provided. The in situ oil shale retort has top, bottom, and generally vertically extending side boundaries of unfragmented formation and contains a body of expanded oil shale formation that completely fills the retort to its top boundary. The retort is bulked full by explosively expanding a layer above a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles forming part of the body of expanded formation in the retort. The layer is expanded with an available void fraction of no more than about ten percent.

  9. Control technology for in-situ oil-shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate control technologies for groundwater pollution resulting from leaching of modified in-situ spent shale. Preliminary engineering analysis was used to identify control technologies which were technically feasible and cost-effective. Process modification, intentional leaching, and retort grouting were further evaluated using numerical modeling and experimental techniques. Numerical simulation of the geohydrology at tracts C-a and C-b was used to determine the flow regime during and after processing, the amount of water available from dewatering, and the time scale of groundwater reinvasion. It was found that reinvasion would take over 200 years and that dewatering flows would probably be insufficient to satisfy water requirements for retort grouting. The formulation of low-cost grouts based on surface-retorted spent shale was studied experimentally. A high-strength hydraulic cement was produced by calcining Lurgi spent shale with an equal amount of CaCO/sub 3/ at 1000 C for 1 h. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the leachate from a grouted retort would be more concentrated than that from an ungrouted retort, but the increase in concentration would be more than offset by the reduction in flow. A standard flow-cone test used for grouting of preplaced aggregate concrete was used as the criterion for grout fluidity. This criterion was achieved by inclusion of either 33 percent sand or 0.25 percent lignosulfonate fluidizer in the grout. These grouts were found to be Casson fluids with yield stress values about 60 dyne/cm/sup 2/. Intentional leaching of MIS retorts was evaluated by developing a mass-transfer model of the leaching process. The model was experimentally verified for total organic carbon and used to calculate that 2.1 to 3.4 pore volumes would be needed to reduce leachate concentrations to 10 percent of their initial value.

  10. Final report on the use of gaseous tracers in WRI's 10-ton nonuniform oil shale retorting tests

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1985-12-01

    For tests on nonuniform oil shale retorting, Western Research Institute's 10-ton retort was loaded with shale rubble in zones of different permeability. The permeability of any given zone was determined by the particle size range loaded into that zone. The retort was studied using gas tracer techniques and flow model simulations. Results of these tracer studies are discussed in this report. Nine retorting and tracer runs were made on the retort. For each run, tracer injections were made into the main air flow inlet and into taps near the top of the retort. Detection taps were located at four levels in the retort with five taps on each level in tests S71 through S78 and six taps on each level in run S79. The oil shale rubble bed was configured with a cylindrical core in tests S71 through S78 and with two side-by-side regions with differing bed properties in test S79. Relationships are shown between the tracer response and sweep efficiency, oil yield, and local yield. Model simulations are compared with tracer responses and indicate fair agreement between model-estimated and measured response times but poor agreement on the shapes of the response curves. Although the data are scattered, there is suggestive evidence that the sweep efficiency of a retort can be determined using simple inlet-to-outlet tracer tests. Oil yield can also be predicted for the operating conditions used for the nonuniform retorting tests. More tests on retorts with intermediate degrees of nonuniformity must be made to confirm the correlations developed in this study. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Reaction kinetics and diagnostics for oil-shale retorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, A. K.

    1981-10-01

    The advances in pyrolysis chemistry and kinetics and the resulting diagnostic methods based on effluent products for determining retort performance were reviewed. Kerogen pyrolysis kinetics and stoichiometry were generalized by further measurements on a larger number of samples. Analysis by capillary colunn gas chromatography of shale oil samples produced under a variety of field and laboratory conditions resulted in a method for determining the oil yield from a combustion retort. Measurement of sulfur products under a variety of conditions led to an understanding sulfur reactions both those of processing and environmental importance. Equations for estimating the heat of combustion of spent shale were developed by understanding oil shale composition and reactions.

  12. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm-3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.

  13. Fluidized bed heating process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHale, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Capacitive electrical heating of a fluidized bed enables the individual solid particles within the bed to constitute the hottest portion thereof. This effect is achieved by applying an A. C. voltage potential between dielectric coated electrodes, one of which is advantageously the wall of the fluidized bed rejection zone, sufficient to create electrical currents in said particles so as to dissipate heat therein. In the decomposition of silane or halosilanes in a fluidized bed reaction zone, such heating enhances the desired deposition of silicon product on the surface of the seed particles within the fluidized bed and minimizes undesired coating of silicon on the wall of the reaction zone and the homogeneous formation of fine silicon powder within said zone.

  14. 9 CFR 381.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... read at the same time at least once during process timing and the observed temperatures recorded. (2... retort or reel speed. (3) Continuous rotary retorts. Record the retort system number, the approximate... can exits the retort. The retort or reel speed shall be determined and recorded at intervals not to...

  15. Determination of polar organic solutes in oil-shale retort water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stuber, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of analytical methods were used to quantitatively determine polar organic solutes in process retort water and a gas-condensate retort water produced in a modified in situ oil-shale retort. Specific compounds accounting for 50% of the dissolved organic carbon were identified in both retort waters. In the process water, 42% of the dissolved organic carbon consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids from C2 to C10. Dissolved organic carbon percentages for other identified compound classes were as follows: aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, 1.4%; phenols, 2.2%; hydroxypyridines, 1.1%; aliphatic amides, 1.2%. In the gas-condensate retort water, aromatic amines were most abundant at 19.3% of the dissolved organic carbon, followed by phenols (17.8%), nitriles (4.3%), aliphatic alcohols (3.5%), aliphatic ketones (2.4%), and lactones (1.3%). Steam-volatile organic solutes were enriched in the gas-condensate retort water, whereas nonvolatile acids and polyfunctional neutral compounds were predominant organic constituents of the process retort water.

  16. Determination of polar organic solutes in oil-shale retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stuber, H.A.

    1982-10-01

    A variety of analytic methods were used to quantitatively determine polar organic solutes in process retort water and a gas-condensate retort water produced in a modified in situ oil-shale retort. Specific compounds accounting for 50% of the dissolved organic carbon were identified in both retort waters. In the process water, 42% of the dissolved organic carbon consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids from C/sub 2/ to C/sub 10/. Dissolved organic carbon percentages for other identified compound classes were as follows: aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, 1.4%; phenols, 2.2%; hydroxypyridines, 1.1%; aliphatic amides, 1.2%. In the gas-condensate retort water, aromatic amines were most abundant at 19.3% of the dissolved organic carbon, followed by phenols (17.8%), nitriles (4.3%), aliphatic alcohols (3.5%), aliphatic ketones (2.4%), and lactones (1.3%). Steam-volatile organic solutes were enriched in the gas-condensate retort water, whereas nonvolatile acids and polyfunctional neutral compounds were predominate organic constituents of the process retort water. 28 references.

  17. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L.

    1989-03-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory scale fluidized bed of Green River oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust from raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes, and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rate for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes, and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation: fracture and wear. Fracture of large particles sometimes produced fragments which were small enough to be blown out of the bed. These fragments were much larger than the individual mineral grains in the shale. The fracture mechanism was dominant in the case of raw shale. Dust in the smaller particle-size range was generated by wear. Wear was the dominant mechanisms in the case of burned shale, whereas, for retorted shale, nearly equal amounts of dust were generated by each mechanism. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  19. 4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. VIEW SOUTH FROM RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  20. Heat transfer simulation and retort program adjustment for thermal processing of wheat based Haleem in semi-rigid aluminum containers.

    PubMed

    Vatankhah, Hamed; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Shahedi Baghekhandan, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    A mixed computational strategy was used to simulate and optimize the thermal processing of Haleem, an ancient eastern food, in semi-rigid aluminum containers. Average temperature values of the experiments showed no significant difference (α = 0.05) in contrast to the predicted temperatures at the same positions. According to the model, the slowest heating zone was located in geometrical center of the container. The container geometrical center F0 was estimated to be 23.8 min. A 19 min processing time interval decrease in holding time of the treatment was estimated to optimize the heating operation since the preferred F0 of some starch or meat based fluid foods is about 4.8-7.5 min.

  1. The tendering process for beds and mattresses.

    PubMed

    Ballard, K; Baxter, H

    1998-04-01

    As increasing numbers of expensive, sophisticated bed and mattress systems become available, more trusts are negotiating contracts for supply, maintenance and training. It is important that tissue viability nurses become involved in such decision-making.

  2. Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1982-08-31

    A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

  3. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  4. Rapid Retort Processing of Eggs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-04

    heat sensitive than ovoalbumin but less susceptible to heat denaturation. Di- and trivalent ions are bound firmly by conalbumin (Stadelmann, 1977...Davisco, JE109-2-420, Soy protein isolate (Expro Manufacturing Corp, Pro Fam 646), Vital Wheat Gluten ( Hoogwegt US, S-2004), yellow food coloring...cohesiveness. The low hardness values in the case of wheat proteins may be explained by the characteristics of gluten protein. Wheat has the unique

  5. Postburn lithology and mineralogy at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a retort 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. [Core samples from near the in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Mason, G.M.; Fahy, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide basic data on some of the characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort after processing. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into Rio Blanco's Tract C-a retort 1 in the western part of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The retort operation had been completed nearly four years before the coring, and the cavity and mine workings had been flooded by groundwater for almost one year. Cores were characterized by lithologic description, x-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Drilling and logging records indicate as much as 35 to 40 feet of roof rock has collapsed into the retort since the burn was terminated. A water-filled attic cavity 46 to 62 feet high exists at the top of the retort. One core hole penetrated 377 feet of rubble in the retort and floor rock with numerous fractures below the retort. Most of the material recovered from the retort consisted of highly altered, fused and vesicular rock. Lesser amounts of carbonized, oxidized and moderately heated-altered oil shale were recovered from the upper and lower parts. Raw shale roof fall at the top and unretorted oil shale rubble at the bottom are also present. Thermal alteration has produced high-temperature silicate minerals from the original mixtures of carbonate and silicate minerals in the raw oil shale. Adequate material was recovered from the retort contents to provide valuable data on the lithologic, mineralogic, and physical characteristics of the MIS retort. 19 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Apparatus for the selective retorting of carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1985-02-26

    A staged retort is provided for the retorting of certain types of carbonaceous materials such as oil shale, coal or lignite, wherein the staged retort includes a number of separate retort chambers arranged in a modular configuration, with one retort chamber above the other, and mounted transversely within the staged retort. Each retort chamber is heated to a different temperature, and carbonaceous material is moved from a given retort chamber to a retort chamber having a higher temperature, whereby heavier fractions of liquid and/or gaseous hydrocarbons are formed as the carbonaceous materials undergo pyrolysis. Arrangements such as pressure regulating valves are provided to reduce mixing of the various fractions between the individual retort chambers to nearly zero, and conduits are provided to separately withdraw the hydrocarbon gases and/or liquids from each retort chamber. The carbonaceous material leaving the last retort where the final pyrolysis reactions occur, is routed to a combustion compartment wherein it is burned to produce heat used to heat the retort chambers. The staged retort also includes arrangements for heating a predetermined portion of the gases formed in the retort chambers, to mix the heated portion with a predetermined unheated portion to arrive at a controlled temperature, and then to inject this controlled temperature gas and/or any other substances into the retort chamber interiors to control the temperatures and/or the reaction therein so that each retort chamber can be maintained at the proper temperature and conditions chosen for pyrolysis therein.

  7. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-long; Meng, Jun; Li, Gui-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun; Tang, Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. The physicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bed filtration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemical forces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the microflocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and the experimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoretical prediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that the regulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of the physicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate the interaction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  8. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  9. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  10. Trace element partitioning during the retorting of Condor and Rundle oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Dale, L.S.; Chapman, J.F. )

    1988-05-01

    Composite oil shale samples from the Condor and Rundle deposits in Queensland were retorted under Fischer assay conditions at temperatures ranging from 300 to 545{degree}C. Trace elements mobilized to the shale oil and retort water were determined at each temperature. The results were comparable for both oil shales. Several elements including arsenic, selenium, chlorine, bromine, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc were progressively mobilized as the retort temperature was increased. Most elements partition mainly to the oil and to a lesser extent to the retort water in a similar manner to other oil shales. For Rundle oil shales, trace element abundances in oils, and the proportions of elements mobilized, generally increased with oil shale grade. This was attributed to the reduced effect of adsorption and/or coking of heavier oil fractions during retorting of higher grade samples. Nickel porphyrins, unidentified organometallic compounds, pyrite, and halite are considered to be the sources of mobile trace elements. The results are relatively favorable for oil shale processing and show that arsenic is the most significant element in relation to both shale oil refining and disposal of retort waters.

  11. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

  12. Upon erosion processes and dynamic condition of river bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadjev, Roumen

    2013-04-01

    This work deals with soil erosion processes due to the water streams in river beds and furrows in irrigation and concerns the interaction between river bed or soils and water flow. The dimensioning of the hydraulic processes and phenomena, including the processes causing erosion of the river beds and soils and the permanent alteration of their state in practice is done based on the flow velocities averaged-out in time. It is known however that the real, actual velocities are pulsation velocities, which are irregularly variable in time and by size and nature different from the averaged-out. The erosion processes and condition of river beds depending on the hydrodynamic energy indices like as flow turbulent intensity ? and probability coefficient M of the water flow and its pulsation velocities. This condition is most often expressed in terms of the time-averaged velocities which are fictitious in their essence. The real velocities which cause erosion are pulsation velocities and irregularly variable, with varying repetition and quantity of the probability coefficient M. Based on analytical studies, there is established a range of the optimal meanings of M, resp. of the utmost non-furrowing velocity for which the soil has sufficient protection against erosion for a flow velocity that meets the practical requirements. On this basis a hydrodynamic method is established and proposed for determination and prognostication of the state of the river beds and can serve for the prognostication and prevention of irrigation erosion process and the engineering facilities upon high waters and floods. It is used to determine and prognosticate the condition where the bed is at rest, at utmost equilibrium or in process of erosion - lowering upon the passage of a high wave or upon high water. Keywords: soil erosion, hydrodynamics, non-furrowing velocity, pulsation velocities, flow in natural beds, flood prevention.

  13. Mechanistic model for the leaching of retorted rundle oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Krol, A.A.; Bell, P.R.F.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1985-12-09

    The mechanisms involved in the leaching of inorganic components from oil shale mined at the Rundle deposit, Queensland, Australia, and retorted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process were examined. The phenomena of most significance were found to be solute dissolution, cation exchange, solution speciation and hydrodynamic and unsaturated flow effects. To check on the completeness of this characterization, a model was developed which describes the generation and transport of the major components (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl and SO/sub 4/) in the leachate as it infiltrates a column of dry retorted shale. Model predictions compare well with experimental results. It is concluded that the dominant mechanisms which control the rate of leaching have been recognized. 8 references, 11 figures.

  14. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 4. Solid waste from mining and surface retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The overall objectives of this study were to: review and evaluate published information on the disposal, composition, and leachability of solid wastes produced by aboveground shale oil extraction processes; examine the relationship of development to surface and groundwater quality in the Piceance Creek basin of northwestern Colorado; and identify key areas of research necessary to quantitative assessment of impact. Information is presented under the following section headings: proposed surface retorting developments; surface retorting processes; environmental concerns; chemical/mineralogical composition of raw and retorted oil shale; disposal procedures; water quality; and research needs.

  15. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  16. Modeling agglomeration processes in fluid-bed granulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cryer, S.A.

    1999-10-01

    Many agrochemicals are formulated as water dispersive granules through agglomeration, beginning with a fine powder ({approximately}1 {micro}m) and ending with granules on the order of 500 {micro}m. Powders are charged into a granulation system with a liquid binding agent, and granules are subsequently grown to an appropriate size. Granulation in fluid beds is presented using a mass conserving discretized population balance equation. Coalesce kernels governing the rate and extent of granulation are assumed dependent on the Stokes number, which is indirectly liked to important process variables (air and under flow rate, bed charge, bed geometry) such that the physical processes governing particle coalescence and rebound are correlated to process variables. A new coalescence kernel is proposed based on physical insight, simplicity, and deterministic equivalent modeling to account for uncertainty. This kernel is based on a Stokes number method where uncertainty in the Stokes number is characterized by polynomial chaos expansions. The magnitude of the coalescence kernel is proportional to the probability of the distribution of Stokes number exceeding a critical value. This mechanistic/semiempirical approach to fluid-bed agglomeration fosters an environment for process scaleup by eliminating specific equipment and process variable constraints to focus on the underlying mechanisms for proper scale-up procedures. Model predictions using this new kernel are then compared to experimental pilot-plant observations.

  17. Evaluation of control technology for modified in-situ oil-shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate two technologies to control groundwater pollution due to leaching of abandoned modified in-situ (MIS) retorts, retort grouting and international leaching. Retort grouting to reduce permeability was evaluated by measuring the permeability of grouts containing only raw or refined waste materials (Lurgi spent shale, fly ash, gypsum tailings, and lignosulfonate fluidizers). Permeability of the cured grouts decreased with increasing confining pressure. Electrical conductivity measurements on the permeate produced during permeability measurements suggest that grouting abandoned MIS retorts would increase the TDS of leachate by a factor of approximately 3; benefit of the proposed grouting operation would depend upon the flow rate through retorts being reduced by a greater factor to reduce the total mass (concentration x flow) of solute released. Costs for international leaching depend primarily upon the volume of leachate to be treated. The required number of pore volumes of leaching to reduce leachate concentration to 10% of its initial value was found to be 2.1 at tract C-a and 3.4 at tract C-b; the difference is due primarily to the greater void volume used at tract C-a (40% compared to 23%). Both technologies would require a large amount of water. Retort grouting requires water to prewet the MIS spent shale and to prepare the grout. These requirements were estimated at 140 to 210 gal/bbl of oil, considering only oil recovered by in-situ retorting. International leaching requires water to saturate the MIS spent shale and to replace blowdown or rejected brine from the leachate treatment process. These requirements were estimated at approximately 120 gal/bbl of oil.

  18. True in situ oil shale retort: the role of intrashale transport and char gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Louvar, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical understanding of the true in situ crack retort process for Eastern oil shale was expanded by: establishing the role of intrashale 2-dimensional transport on the performance of the retort; determining the significance of the intrashale char gasification reactions with water and carbon dioxide; and determining the conditions for improving the retort performance. Two computer simulation models were developed, one with 1-D mass transport and another with 2-D mass transport. The 1-D transport model includes: 2-D energy transport; variable physical properties; and instantaneous 1-D transfer of the pyrolysis products to the crack. The 2-D transport model includes; 2-D energy transport; variable physical properties; 2-D species transport within the oil shale; and pyrolysis, gasification, and oxidation reactions within the oil shale. The performance of the two models were studied. The results show that the 2-D transport feature has a significant impact on the performance of a true in situ Eastern oil shale retort. Intrashale pressure profiles were found to be very complex, distributing the pyrolysis and gasification products into the crack over a broad region. Results were used to develop regression equations to establish the functional relationships between the dependent and independent variables. Retort performance varied significantly with only minor changes in the operating variables: crack width, inlet gas moisture, ignition time, and gas inlet rate. The regression equations were also used to determine the optimum retort performance while constraining the gas temperature within a reasonable operating region. This theoretically predicted low optimum performance and variable sensitivity identify new problems which make the successful operation of a true in situ crack retort more difficult than previously anticipated.

  19. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  20. 3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  1. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  2. Design and test of two-step solar oil shale retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Taylor, R. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Ruiz, R.

    1981-09-01

    A design of a two step solar retort, the logic for the design, and the results from a preliminary test of the design at the White Sands Solar Furnace, New Mexico are presented. Solar retorting of oil shale is a technically feasible process where focused solar energy can displace fossil energy in the production of liquid fuels. The predicted result is a 10 to 40% improvement in the exportable fuel (oil + gas) production per ton of raw shale. Greater improvements are achieved with the lower grade shales where with nonsolar processes a larger fraction of the fuel content has to be used in the processing.

  3. Obstacles encountered in VMIS retort blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

    1986-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ (VMIS) retort method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation techniques to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate VMIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before a experimental mini-retort can be formed.

  4. Investigation of tracer tests on the Western Research Institute 10-ton retort

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1984-05-01

    An oil shale rubble bed with contrasting permeability regions is investigated using a gas tracer in conjunction with a two-dimensional flow and tracer model and with a one-dimensional dispersion model. Six runs on the retort are discussed. Tracer injections are made into the main flow inlet and into five taps near the top of the retort. Detection taps are located at four levels in the retort with five taps on each level. The one-dimensional dispersion model is fit to the tracer response curves producing estimates of dispersion and space time in the retort. The dispersion model produces reasonable estimates where the fluid flow deviates only slightly from vertical. The two-dimensional flow model developed by Travis at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is compared to tracer velocities. The correlation between the model and the data is good in the last of the six tests. The correlation is not as good in the earlier tests and possible reasons for this are discussed.

  5. Classification of annular bed flow patterns and investigation on their influence on the bottom spray fluid bed coating process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to classify annular bed flow patterns in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process, study their influence on coat uniformity and investigate the feasibility of developing real-time annular bed flow pattern detection as a PAT tool. High-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry were used to visualize annular bed flow. Color coating and subsequent tristimulus colorimetry were employed to determine influence of annular bed flow pattern on coat uniformity. Feasibility of monitoring annular bed flow pattern through an observation window was tested using miniaturized particle velocity field and time series particle velocity orientation information. Three types of annular bed flow patterns were identified. Plug flow gave the best coat uniformity followed by global and localized fluidization. Plug flow may be advantageous for high spray-rate conditions, large-scale coating and prevention of particle segregation. Plug flow could be differentiated from the other flow patterns through a simulated observation window. Annular bed flow patterns were classified and found to influence particle coat uniformity noticeably. Availability of annular bed flow information for large-scale coaters would enable adjustments for process optimization. This study highlights the potential of monitoring annular bed flow pattern as a PAT tool.

  6. A plan for hydrologic investigations of in situ, oil-shale retorting near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Larson, L.R.; Wallace, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of shale oil by the in-situ retort process may cause hydrologic impacts, the most significant being ground-water contamination and possible transport of contaminants into surrounding areas. Although these impacts are site-specific, many of the techniques used to investigate each retort operation commonly will be the same. The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a study of hydrologic impacts in the area of an in-situ retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, as a means of refining and demonstrating these techniques. Geological investigations include determining the areal extent and thickness of aquifers. Emphasis will be placed on determining lithologic variations from geophysical logging. Hydrologic investigations include mapping of potentiometric surfaces, determining rates of ground-water discharge, and estimating aquifer properties by analytical techniques. Water-quality investigations include monitoring solute migration from the retort site and evaluating sampling techniques by standard statistical procedures. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model will be developed to predict future movement of the water plume away from the retort. (USGS)

  7. Mercury emissions from a modified in-situ oil shale retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Pollard, Martin J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Gaseous Hg emissions were measured during the processing of a large modified in-situ oil shale retort (4×10 4 m 3) in Colorado. A continuous, on-line, gas monitor based upon the principal of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy was the primary analytical method. The on-line monitor technique was shown to be well suited for this application and compared favorably with an independent reference method which collects gaseous Hg by Au-amalgamation. Forty-two hours of on-line data were obtained over a 35-day period during the latter half of the retort burn. Hg emission rates in g day -1 were calculated from Hg concentration and offgas flow rate data. The predicted total gaseous Hg mass emission for the retort was 4 kg. Extrapolation of the data to a hypothetical modified in-situ oil shale facility with a daily production of 8× 10 61 (5 × 10 4 bbl) of oil results in a projected emission rate of ≈ 8 kg day -1. This estimated value is higher than Hg emission rates recorded for coal fired power plants. Emission rates were found to be highly variable both within and between days. Factors which may limit Hg emissions from a modified in-situ retort are discussed. Adsorption losses to unretorted shale at the bottom of a retort are suggested as a major sink for Hg. Losses of Hg to the extensive offgas plumbing system may also be substantial.

  8. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1979-12-07

    A process is described for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  9. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  10. Quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts: Bench-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

    1991-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operations procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale. The organic material that remained after retorting was most effectively removed from the retort by the use of reverse combustion. The removal of the organic material in this manner cracked the oil on the unretorted shale and removed heat from the bottom of the retort. Both were then transported toward the top of the retort. Unretorted kerogen was coked as it emerged from the shale near the reverse-combustion front. The reverse-combustion technique had an additional benefit in that the carbon deposited on the spent shale in the combusted zone appeared to provide a barrier to rehydration of the shale on introduction of water into the retorts. A hot quench immediately following retorting was also relatively effective in removing organic material from the retort. However, the quench did leave some organic material on the unretorted shale. This material was not readily removed by water leaching during laboratory testing. A deluge of water on a cool retort did not efficiently remove the organic material from the unretorted shale nor did the addition of a biodegradable detergent.

  11. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1983-01-11

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, a horizontally extending void is excavated within the boundaries of the retort site leaving a zone of unfragmented formation above and/or below such a void. A crack is propagated in at least one of the zones of unfragmented formation along the side boundaries of the retort site and thereafter the zone of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded towards such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort. Such a fragmented permeable mass is retorted in situ to produce shale oil.

  12. Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aldis, D.F.

    1991-10-25

    As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

  13. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

  14. Parallel-Processing Test Bed For Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard; Cole, Gary; Townsend, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Second-generation Hypercluster computing system is multiprocessor test bed for research on parallel algorithms for simulation in fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, chemistry, and other fields with large computational requirements but relatively low input/output requirements. Built from standard, off-shelf hardware readily upgraded as improved technology becomes available. System used for experiments with such parallel-processing concepts as message-passing algorithms, debugging software tools, and computational steering. First-generation Hypercluster system described in "Hypercluster Parallel Processor" (LEW-15283).

  15. Combat Ration Network for Technology Implementation. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    trays backup plate & support pillars to allow 35" shut height as required by most 3500 ton molding machines dedicated mounting rails for installation...hr. At this time, Stegner had modified all their pallet bottom plates to support the rack in all load bearing points and in addition, Wornick send two...COMBAT RATION NETWORK FOR TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts Final Technical Report STP 2010

  16. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  17. Iron crystallization in a fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Boonrattanakij, Nonglak; Lu, Ming-Chun; Anotai, Jin

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms of iron precipitation and crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor were investigated. Within the typical Fenton's reagent dosage and pH range, ferric ions as a product from ferrous ion oxidation would be supersaturated and would subsequently precipitate out in the form of ferric hydroxide after the initiation of the Fenton reaction. These precipitates would simultaneously crystallize onto solid particles in a fluidized-bed Fenton reactor if the precipitation proceeded toward heterogeneous nucleation. The heterogeneous crystallization rate was controlled by the fluidized material type and the aging/ripening period of the crystallites. Iron crystallization onto the construction sand was faster than onto SiO(2), although the iron removal efficiencies at 180 min, which was principally controlled by iron hydroxide solubility, were comparable. To achieve a high iron removal rate, fluidized materials have to be present at the beginning of the Fenton reaction. Organic intermediates that can form ferro-complexes, particularly volatile fatty acids, can significantly increase ferric ion solubility, hence reducing the crystallization performance. Therefore, the fluidized-bed Fenton process will achieve exceptional performance with respect to both organic pollutant removal and iron removal if it is operated with the goal of complete mineralization. Crystallized iron on the fluidized media could slightly retard the successive crystallization rate; thus, it is necessary to continuously replace a portion of the iron-coated bed with fresh media to maintain iron removal performance. The iron-coated construction sand also had a catalytic property, though was less than those of commercial goethite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In situ oil shale retorting: water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.A.

    1981-03-10

    Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company completed the first burn on their modified in-situ system located in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Gas stream analyses were performed using a small computerized mass spectrometer. These analyses were made continuously from a sample line originating at the off-gas knockout drum. In addition, the feasibility of determining trace sulfur gases in this mixture was tested. The mass spectrometer has a detection limit of about 5 ppM for a typical trace component in air or other simple gas matrix. However, because of the complex organic matrix composing the oil shale gas, it becomes very difficult to positively identify most trace components at this low ppM level. The sulfur gases which have the fewest interferences include H/sub 2/S, COS, CH/sub 3/SH and SO/sub 2/. These gases can be determined at approximatey the 15 to 25 ppM level. Mass spectrometric analysis of low- or sub-ppM level trace components in complex gas mixture would require pre-treatment of the gas such as concentration or separation to be effective. Positive identifications were made on H/sub 2/S, CH/sub 3/SH, COS and SO/sub 2/. Water samples were taken from five points in the Rio Blanco MIS process for organic characterization and toxicity screening. There was considerable variation in the toxicity of the retort waters relative to both time into the burn and the location of the sampling point. The scrubber water samples were more toxic than the other samples. This is most likely due to the higher pH of these samples. The east holding pond samples were not toxic. These samples represent an integrated sample set as all process waters are finally discharged into this holding pond.

  19. Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H.; Stepan, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.

  20. Technical note: Evaluation of a crucible furnace retort for laboratory torrefactions of wood chips

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed

    2014-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermal process that improves biomass performance as a fuel by property enhancements such as decreased moisture uptake and increased carbon density. Most studies to date have used very small amounts of finely ground biomass. This study reports the testing of a crucible furnace retort that was fabricated to produce intermediate quantities of torrefied...

  1. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  2. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S.; Sherwood, J.; Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  3. Metallorganic, organic, and mutagenic properties of oil shale retort waters

    SciTech Connect

    Toste, A.P.; Myers, R.B.

    1981-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic, organic, and metallorganic properties of oil shale retort waters. Four retort water samples were analyzed in the mutagenesis/organics study: a storage water and a condensate water from the Paraho aboveground retort; a retort water from the Occidental vertical, modified in situ retort; and a retort water from a horizontal, true in situ retort near Vernal, Utah. A second goal of this study was to develop and evaluate improved methods of chemically fractionating the complex organic content of retort waters to facilitate their chemical and mutagenic characterization. To begin the mutagenesis study, we tested several methods for extracting hydrophobic organics from the retort waters: (1) solvent extraction with pH adjustment; (2) XAD-4 partition chromatography; and (3) C/sub 18/-partition chromatography. We then tested the usefulness of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for fractionating the hydrophobic organic fraction. Each method was evaluated both chemically and biologically. For the metallorganics/organics study we decided to test steric-exclusion chromatography as a means of fractionating metal-organic chelates.

  4. Method of forming a rubblized in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    1980-03-25

    An in-situ retort is formed in an oil shale deposit by a sublevel caving method in which the starting slot for the sublevel caving is at opposite ends of the retort on adjacent sublevels. Any zones of high permeability that are formed adjacent to the starting slots are limited in vertical extent to the vertical spacing of the sublevels and are spaced from the zones of high permeability in adjacent sublevels by the length of the retort. A source of channeling through the retort that is caused by the usual sublevel caving mining method is thereby eliminated.

  5. Innovations in wastewater treatment: the moving bed biofilm process.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Hallvard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and presents applications of wastewater treatment processes in which this reactor is used. The MBBR processes have been extensively used for BOD/COD-removal, as well as for nitrification and denitrification in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. This paper focuses on the municipal applications. The most frequent process combinations are presented and discussed. Basic design data obtained through research, as well as data from practical operation of various plants, are presented. It is demonstrated that the MBBR may be used in an extremely compact high-rate process (<1 h total HRT) for secondary treatment. Most European plants require P-removal and performance data from plants combining MBBR and chemical precipitation is presented. Likewise, data from plants in Italy and Switzerland that are implementing nitrification in addition to secondary treatment are presented. The results from three Norwegian plants that are using the so-called combined denitrification MBBR process are discussed. Nitrification rates as high as 1.2 g NH4-N/m2 d at complete nitrification were demonstrated in practical operation at low temperatures (11 degrees C), while denitrification rates were as high as 3.5g NO3-Nequiv./m2.d. Depending on the extent of pretreatment, the total HRT of the MBBR for N-removal will be in the range of 3 to 5 h.

  6. Message passing kernel for the hypercluster parallel processing test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Blech, R.A.; Quealy, A.; Cole, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    A Message-Passing Kernel (MPK) for the Hypercluster parallel-processing test bed is described. The Hypercluster is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support investigations of parallel algorithms and architectures for computational fluid and structural mechanics applications. The Hypercluster resembles the hypercube architecture except that each node consists of multiple processors communicating through shared memory. The MPK efficiently routes information through the Hypercluster, using a message-passing protocol when necessary and faster shared-memory communication whenever possible. The MPK also interfaces all of the processors with the Hypercluster operating system (HYCLOPS), which runs on a Front-End Processor (FEP). This approach distributes many of the I/O tasks to the Hypercluster processors and eliminates the need for a separate I/O support program on the FEP.

  7. Pressure drops during low void volume combustion retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Stacks of cut oil shale bricks were combustion retorted in a batch, pilot scale sized retort at low void volumes (overall voids ranged from 8.4% to 18.4%). Retort pressure drops increased during retorting at least one order of magnitude. The Ergun equation and Darcy's law have been used by several researchers and organizations as diagnostic tools on oil shale retorts. These equations were tested on the uniformly packed retort reported in this paper to evaluate how well the equations represented the experimental conditions. Use of the Ergun equation to estimate the average particle size from retort pressure drops gave answers that were only approximately correct. Calculation of retort pressure drops from Darcy's law during retorting at low void volumes will probably give answers that are several times too small. Thermal expansion of the shale during retorting decreases retort permeability greatly and calculation of the decreased permeability is not possible at the present level of technology.

  8. Formation of in situ oil shale retort in plural steps

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, R.J.

    1984-07-10

    A subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ retort site. The retort is formed by excavating a lower level drift adjacent to a lower portion of the retort site and excavating an undercut within the retort site below a zone of unfragmented formation remaining within the retort site above the undercut. The bottom of the undercut slopes downwardly toward the lower level drift which opens into one side of the undercut, the slope being generally at the natural angle of slide of oil shale particles. The remaining zone of unfragmented formation is blasted downwardly toward the undercut in a series of lifts in sequence progressing upwardly in the retort site. The mass of formation particles formed during such blasting in lifts tends to slope downwardly toward the side of the retort adjacent the lower level drift. Formation particles are withdrawn from the fragmented mass between lifts through the lower level drift to provide void space toward which each lift is blasted. Such withdrawal of formation particles can create relatively higher permeability in the fragmented mass along the side above the lower level drift and relatively lower permeability in the fragmented mass along the opposite side of the retort. During retorting operations, to compensate for such permeability gradient, oxygen supplying gas is introduced into the upper low permeability region of the fragmented mass, and off gas is withdrawn through the lower level drift at the lower high permeability region for producing a generally diagonal gas flow pattern through the retort.

  9. Moving bed biofilm reactor technology: process applications, design, and performance.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, James P; Boltz, Joshua P

    2011-06-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) can operate as a 2- (anoxic) or 3-(aerobic) phase system with buoyant free-moving plastic biofilm carriers. These systems can be used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aquaculture, potable water denitrification, and, in roughing, secondary, tertiary, and sidestream applications. The system includes a submerged biofilm reactor and liquid-solids separation unit. The MBBR process benefits include the following: (1) capacity to meet treatment objectives similar to activated sludge systems with respect to carbon-oxidation and nitrogen removal, but requires a smaller tank volume than a clarifier-coupled activated sludge system; (2) biomass retention is clarifier-independent and solids loading to the liquid-solids separation unit is reduced significantly when compared with activated sludge systems; (3) the MBBR is a continuous-flow process that does not require a special operational cycle for biofilm thickness, L(F), control (e.g., biologically active filter backwashing); and (4) liquid-solids separation can be achieved with a variety of processes, including conventional and compact high-rate processes. Information related to system design is fragmented and poorly documented. This paper seeks to address this issue by summarizing state-of-the art MBBR design procedures and providing the reader with an overview of some commercially available systems and their components.

  10. Method for flattening the combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort by the addition of fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1980-09-30

    A secondary combustion zone is established and its location is controlled in a fragmented mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. A processing zone including a primary combustion zone is established in the retort by igniting a portion of the mass of particles. An oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into the retort to advance the processing zone through the fragmented mass. If the primary combustion zone is not substantially planar or has not progressed uniformly, a secondary combustion zone is established upstream of the primary combustion zone by introducing into the retort a retort inlet mixture comprising fuel and at least sufficient oxygen for combustion of the fuel at a temperature no greater than the primary combustion zone temperature. The secondary combustion zone is maintained at an upstream location and allowed to spread laterally through the fragmented mass, heating portions of such fragmented mass, to the self-ignition temperature of oil shale which spreads the primary combustion zone laterally across the fragmented mass at the upstream location. 48 claims.

  11. Bed occupancy monitoring: data processing and clinician user interface design.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Melanie; Joshi, Vilas; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of patients, especially at their place of residence, is becoming a significant part of the healthcare model. A variety of sensors are being used to monitor different patient conditions. Bed occupancy monitoring provides clinicians a quantitative measure of bed entry/exit patterns and may provide information relating to sleep quality. This paper presents a bed occupancy monitoring system using a bed pressure mat sensor. A clinical trial was performed involving 8 patients to collect bed occupancy data. The trial period for each patient ranged from 5-10 weeks. This data was analyzed using a participatory design methodology incorporating clinician feedback to obtain bed occupancy parameters. The parameters extracted include the number of bed exits per night, the bed exit weekly average (including minimum and maximum), the time of day of a particular exit, and the amount of uninterrupted bed occupancy per night. The design of a clinical user interface plays a significant role in the acceptance of such patient monitoring systems by clinicians. The clinician user interface proposed in this paper was designed to be intuitive, easy to navigate and not cause information overload. An iterative design methodology was used for the interface design. The interface design is extendible to incorporate data from multiple sensors. This allows the interface to be part of a comprehensive remote patient monitoring system.

  12. Modeling a Packed Bed Reactor Utilizing the Sabatier Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Malay G.; Meier, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is being developed using Python which characterizes the conversion and temperature profiles of a packed bed reactor (PBR) that utilizes the Sabatier process; the reaction produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. While the specific kinetics of the Sabatier reaction on the RuAl2O3 catalyst pellets are unknown, an empirical reaction rate equation1 is used for the overall reaction. As this reaction is highly exothermic, proper thermal control is of the utmost importance to ensure maximum conversion and to avoid reactor runaway. It is therefore necessary to determine what wall temperature profile will ensure safe and efficient operation of the reactor. This wall temperature will be maintained by active thermal controls on the outer surface of the reactor. Two cylindrical PBRs are currently being tested experimentally and will be used for validation of the Python model. They are similar in design except one of them is larger and incorporates a preheat loop by feeding the reactant gas through a pipe along the center of the catalyst bed. The further complexity of adding a preheat pipe to the model to mimic the larger reactor is yet to be implemented and validated; preliminary validation is done using the smaller PBR with no reactant preheating. When mapping experimental values of the wall temperature from the smaller PBR into the Python model, a good approximation of the total conversion and temperature profile has been achieved. A separate CFD model incorporates more complex three-dimensional effects by including the solid catalyst pellets within the domain. The goal is to improve the Python model to the point where the results of other reactor geometry can be reasonably predicted relatively quickly when compared to the much more computationally expensive CFD approach. Once a reactor size is narrowed down using the Python approach, CFD will be used to generate a more thorough prediction of the reactors performance.

  13. Pollutant fluxes to aquatic systems via bed-sediment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.; Maranto, L.; Valsaraj, K.T.

    1995-10-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) sorb strongly to sediments and partition weakly into the porewater and overlying water. This leads to the detection of HOCs in sediments long after, their original introduction to the environment. Water bodies with active sediment processes have larger fluxes of HOCs to overlying water. In the absence of sediment resuspension by erosive processes, the normal life cycle activities of benthic organisms will predominate in the transport of particles from within the sediment bed to the sediment-water interface. As a result the HOCs associated with the particles are released to the water column. This process is called bioturbation and is the focus of this paper. There are a number of species that act as bioturbators. The most prevalent ones, especially in contaminated sediments across many sites in the U.S. are the Tubificidae species that burrow within the sediment and defecate at the surface. Capping with clean sediment is a possible remediation measure for isolating the aquatic system from contaminated sediments. The placement of the cap will effectively increase the pathlength for contaminant transport by diffusion and advection and, will also decrease pollutant release by direct bioturbation of contaminated particles. This paper describes our experiments on contrasting the flux of HOCs from bioturbated capped and uncapped sediments in small laboratory microcosms with those of control microcosms (capped and uncapped) without bioturbators.

  14. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  15. Stress distribution and pillar design in oil shale retorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S. S.; Thill, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of retort interchamber pillars is important in determining surface stability over in situ retort mines and to the health and safety of miners, particularly with respect to possible escape of heat and toxic gases from retort chambers. Stress distribution in retort interchamber pillars, roof, and floor was examined with the aid of linear, finite-element analysis using data from experimentally determined mechanical properties. Properties determined included elastic moduli, strength, and creep constants in laboratory tests on core covering a 100-foot depth interval in the oil shale from the Piceance Basin in Colorado. The most critical stress concentration was found in the rib side of the interchamber pillar at a height above the floor line of 1.25 times the width. Guidelines for pillar design that consider pillar strength, creep, and retorting temperature effects are proposed.

  16. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401... comply with all provisions of the retort plan. The retort plan shall include— (1) Acceptable levels of combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401... comply with all provisions of the retort plan. The retort plan shall include— (1) Acceptable levels of combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401... comply with all provisions of the retort plan. The retort plan shall include— (1) Acceptable levels of combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which...

  19. Method for controlling void fraction distribution in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-04-17

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a retort site in a subterranean formation is provided. The in situ oil shale retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of oil shale particles formed within top, bottom, and side boundaries of the retort site. At least one void is excavated in the subterranean formation within the boundaries of the retort site, while a zone of unfragmented formation is left within the boundaries of the retort site adjacent such a void. An inlet is formed in a zone of the retort adjacent the intersection of a first side boundary of the retort site and the top boundary of the retort site and an outlet is formed in a zone of the retort adjacent the intersection of a second side boundary of the retort site and the bottom boundary of the retort site. The second side boundary is on the opposite side of the retort site from the first side boundary. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and the charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of formation toward the void for forming the fragmented mass within the boundaries of the retort site. The explosive charge pattern and detonation sequence are provided so that the fragmented mass formed has a lower void fraction in a center region of the retort and a higher void fraction in regions of the retort adjacent the side boundaries.

  20. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401 Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). (a) Retorts shall be provided with— (1) Two independent power...

  1. Two-level, horizontal free face mining system for in situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Ricketts, T.E.

    1986-09-16

    A method is described for forming an in-situ oil shale retort within a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, such an in-situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed within upper, lower and side boundaries of an in-situ oil shale retort site.

  2. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  3. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities.

  4. Bench-scale simulation of quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

    1992-06-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operating procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale.

  5. Bench-scale simulation of quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A. ); Boysen, J.E. )

    1992-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operating procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale.

  6. Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  7. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process. Proof-of-concept unit design

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.P.; Takahashi, G.S.; Leshock, D.G.

    1991-10-14

    The fluidized-bed copper oxide process was developed to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas of coal-fired utility boilers. This dry and regenerable process uses a copper oxide sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. Contaminants are removed without generating waste material. (VC)

  8. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Hutchins, Ned M.

    1984-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  9. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in-situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.

    1984-04-03

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  10. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Thomas F.; Moore, Dennis F.

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  11. Characterization and treatment of oil shale retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Torpy, M.F.; Raphaelian, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's research in the treatment and environmental control of oil shale retort waste water is described. It consists of 3 tasks: characterization, treatment, and engineering design and cost analysis. The comprehensive study is pragmatic to the extent it addresses critical issues that the oil shale industry must ultimately address for its production planning and permit acquisition. Results indicate that total organic carbon can be reduced by at least 90% in the Oxy-6 retort water. Retort water quality varies, and proven methods in the case of treating Oxy-6 retort water should be tested with other retort waters before generalized biological treatment techniques are adopted. The problem of maintaining sample quality over short and long periods of time may be an additional variable in treatment studies and should be minimized, when possible. Reuse of the biologically treated retort water for some purposes may require additional treatment to reduce the high concentrations of inorganic residual and organic constituents. The extent of reuse after organic carbon and inorganic residual reduction can be identified only by evaluating the necessary quality required for particular reuse purposes. A continued research program in water treatment, and especially in retort water reuse, is essential to the acceptability of the oil shale industry in the arid and relatively undeveloped region of the western states.

  12. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  13. Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

  14. Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubilization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  16. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  17. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  19. Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from spent uranium alloy fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghusen, J. J.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gunderson, G. E.; Holmes, J. T.; Jonke, A. A.; Kincinas, J. E.; Levitz, N. M.; Potts, G. L.; Ramaswami, D.; Stethers, H.; hide

    1967-01-01

    Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from uranium fuels containing either zirconium or aluminum. The uranium is recovered as uranium hexafluoride. The process requires few operations in simple, compact equipment, and eliminates aqueous radioactive wastes.

  20. Coagulation/sedimentation and activated carbon treatment of a true in situ oil shale retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Kocornik, D.J.; Mcternan, W.F.

    1984-08-01

    The wastewater studied in this paper is from a Geokinetics true in situ oil shale retort, which produced approximately equal volumes of wastewater and oil. This retort water is characterized by high levels of organic and inorganic carbon, alkalinity, ammonia and inorganic salts. Since no single water treatment process has proved effective on this complex waste, the authors' purpose in this paper is to present data on two different processes used both singly and in sequence. Inorganic metallic coagulants, both alone and in combination with organic polymers, were considered for use in coagulation-flocculationsedimentation systems. The most promising of these treatments were then experimented with as pretreatments for batch powdered activated carbon adsorption studies. Adsorption studies consisted of standard isotherm and equilibrium uptake tests conducted with two types of activated carbon on both pretreated and previously untreated retort water. The treatment effectiveness and physics of a flow-through granular activated carbon column system were also investigated. Results for each of the above sequences and for each step in each sequence are presented. The data collected indicate that coagulation will not be effective as a stand alone treatment process. Results of the flow-through carbon column study indicate that pretreatment of the influent may be beneficial to the performance of that system.

  1. Modeling study of carbonate decomposition in LLNL`s 4TU pilot oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1994-10-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) 4 tonne-per-day oil shale Pilot Retort (4TU-Pilot) has been modeled to study the degree of carbonate decomposition occurring in the process. The modeling uses a simplified version of the processes occurring in the retort to allow parametric studies to be performed. The primary focus of the work is on the sensitivity of computed carbonate decomposition to the assumed manner in which solid material leaves the retort. It was found that for a variety of assumptions about solid passage and evolution within the process the computed carbonate decomposition varied by only a few percent. It was also determined that using available kinetic expressions based on literature data led to a consistent underestimate of the carbonate decomposition, from 12--17% low on an absolute basis and on a relative basis as much as a factor of seven times too low. A simplified kinetic expression based on limited data from laboratory experiments on the same shale as used in the 4TU-Pilot run was also employed and found to match the pilot results fairly well.

  2. Mathematical modeling of oil mist formation, deposition, and drainage during oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model of oil mist formation and deposition, and liquid oil drainage during retorting has been formulated. The model was incorporated into the one-dimensional model of oil shale retorting developed by Braun. In this report a description of the development of the model is given. Results of a simulation of a batch retort are presented and compared with results from Braun's original model. The model predicts the expected physical behavior of liquid oil in a retort: accumulation in the cooler sections of the retort by deposition of mist, downward flow by gravity after a residual saturation is reached, and evaporation of residual oil as the retort front moves through the retort. The model is applicable both to modified in situ retorts and to surface batch retorts. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Method for controlling void in an in-situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.

    1984-04-03

    Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from an in-situ oil shale retort formed in a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. A void is excavated in the subterranean formation within the boundaries of the retort site and a zone of unfragmented formation is left in the retort site adjacent the void. A retort inlet is at one upper edge of the retort site and a retort outlet is at the lower edge of the retort site opposite the retort inlet. Explosive charges are placed in the zone of unfragmented formation and detonated in an asymmetrical time delay sequence for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles which substantially fills the retort to the top boundary in the region of the retort inlet. A combustion zone is formed in the fragmented permeable mass adjacent the inlet and a retort inlet mixture comprising an oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into the fragmented mass for sustaining the combustion zone and advancing the combustion zone diagonally through the fragmented mass from the inlet toward the outlet. A retorting zone is on the advancing side of the combustion zone for producing liquid and gaseous products and the liquid and gaseous products are withdrawn through the retort outlet.

  4. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  5. Organic solute profile of water from Rio Blanco Retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, R.E.; Clark, J.A.; Borg, H.M.

    1985-12-01

    Two water samples were taken from the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Retort 1 more than three years after shutdown of the retort burn. The retort had received considerable flushing. These water samples were screened and profiled chromatographically to ascertain the character of the 20 to 30 ppM total organic carbon remaining in each. The waters were found to contain only organophilic solutes above the one-part-per-billion level. Special detection methods with part-per-billion detection limits for selected hydrophilic indicators proved negative for those indicators. Selected indicators ranged from the most hydrophilic (alkanoic acids, alkylamines, and amides) to the least (phenol). The principal species readily identified by either gas chromatography or reversed-phase liquid chromatography were the light polyalkylpyridines and the polyalkylphenols. The two principal individual compounds detected in each water were 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol. The approximate concentrations of each were 200 ppb for a sample taken from the retort center and 400 ppb for a sample taken from the bottom level. It appears that there is a residual oil reservoir in the retort serving as a source of organophilic solutes. Any organic material now passing out of the retort would be highly organophilic and predisposed to deposit on even slightly hydrophobic surfaces such as oil shale or retorted oil shale. Based on the observations in this report, hydrophilic organic solutes may be presumed to be the key indicators for the interaction between oil shale in situ retort effluent and the surrounding environment. Timely monitoring of such sites and development of highly sensitive detection techniques for this class of materials would permit accurate description of migration pathways. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED DIRECTLY BEHIND THE GABLED PORTION OF OF THE 1859 FACADE ADDITION. THE COAL STORAGE FACILITY/BOILER HOUSE IS TO THE RIGHT OF THE RETORT HOUSE. THE OFFICES ARE IN THE THE THREE STORY BUILDING ON THE CORNER, TO THE RIGHT OF THE 1859 FACADE. - Buffalo Gas Light Company, 249 West Genesee Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Kvapil, R.

    1983-05-31

    A retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by excavating a void space in the retort site and then explosively expanding at least a portion of the remainder of the formation within the retort site toward the void space. The resultant fragmented mass explosively expanded toward the void space will be permeabilized by the void volume of the void space. The void space is initially formed by excavating at least three substantially parallel drifts through the retort site. At least two of the drifts are along opposed outside edges of the retort site and at least one drift is intermediate the two outside drifts. Excavation of the void space is conducted from the two outside drifts. A vertically extending slot is first excavated from each such drift upwardly into the proposed void space at one end of the retort site. The slot may be fanned above the drift so that the slots from the two outside drifts meet near the top of the void space. Upwardly extending shot holes are then drilled from each of the outside drifts parallel to the vertical slot. If the vertical slot is fanned, it is desirable to also drill the upwardly extending shot holes in a fanned pattern. The shot holes are then loaded with explosive and blasted and the resultant rubble excavated through the outside drifts. By gradually working along the length of the outside drifts, excavation of the void space can proceed with men and equipment safely within the outside drifts. The substantially triangular prism remaining in the void space intermediate the edges of the retort site can then be fragmented by means of shot holes drilled from the third intermediate drift extending through such prism.

  8. Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei

    2011-01-25

    A method device and material for performing adsorption wherein a fluid mixture is passed through a channel in a structured adsorbent bed having a solid adsorbent comprised of adsorbent particles having a general diameter less than 100 um, loaded in a porous support matrix defining at least one straight flow channel. The adsorbent bed is configured to allow passage of a fluid through said channel and diffusion of a target material into said adsorbent under a pressure gradient driving force. The targeted molecular species in the fluid mixture diffuses across the porous support retaining layer, contacts the adsorbent, and adsorbs on the adsorbent, while the remaining species in the fluid mixture flows out of the channel.

  9. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  10. Method of forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Studebaker, I.G.

    1984-01-03

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having a substantially vertically extending first cleavage plane set and a substantially vertically extending second cleavage plane set intersecting the first set. The dispersion of the individual cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets is determined. The in situ retort is formed by excavating a vertical slot-shaped void within the boundaries of the retort site, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation within the retort site which is to be explosively expanded toward the slot. The unfragmented formation adjacent the slot has a pair of longer vertical free faces substantially aligned with the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. A pair of shorter vertical side walls of the slot can extend substantially perpendicular to the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. Explosive placed in such remaining formation adjacent the slot is detonated to fracture formation along cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets and to expand such remaining formation within the retort site toward the slot, forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the retort site.

  11. Triangular blasting into limited voids for vertical free face retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1981-04-21

    Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, the retort is formed by excavating a narrow vertical slot diagonally across a retort site of rectangular horizontal crosssection, leaving separate triangular zones of unfragmented formation within the retort site on opposite sides of the diagonal slot. Explosive is placed in a plurality of vertical blasting holes drilled in each triangular zone of formation, and such explosive is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the triangular zones toward vertical free faces adjacent the slot for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. Detonation of explosive in the blasting holes expands separate wedge-shaped segments of formation toward the diagonal slot, owing to the natural cratering effect of each blast, causing the wedge-shaped segments being expanded to conform generally to the side boundaries of each triangular zone, and producing reasonably good fragmentation and movement of expanded formation toward the slot from formation throughout the retort site. Several such slots can be employed in forming a retort.

  12. Influence of process parameters on tablet bed microenvironmental factors during pan coating.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Bindra, Dilbir S; Felton, Linda A

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of monitoring microenvironmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity) experienced by the tablet bed during a pan coating process, thereby necessitating the need to understand how various process parameters influence these microenvironmental conditions. The process parameters studied in this work include exhaust air temperature, spray rate, inlet airflow rate, gun-to-bed distance, coating suspension percent solids, and atomization and pattern air pressure. Each of these process parameters was found to have an impact on the tablet bed relative humidity (RH), as measured using PyroButton data logging devices. A higher tablet bed RH was obtained with an increase in spray rate and atomization air pressure and with a decrease in exhaust air temperature, inlet airflow rate, gun-to-bed distance, suspension percent solids, and pattern air pressure. Based on this work, it can be concluded that the tablet bed thermodynamic conditions are a cumulative effect of the various process conditions. A strong correlation between the tablet bed RH and the frequency of tablet coating defect (logo bridging) was established, with increasing RH resulting in a higher percent of logo bridging events.

  13. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  14. Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Dhanapal, K; Reddy, G V S; Nayak, B B; Basu, S; Shashidhar, K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Chouksey, M K

    2010-09-01

    Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient

  15. True in situ oil shale retorting experiment at Rock Springs site 12

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A. Jr.; Merriam, N.W.; Virgona, J.E.; Parrish, R.L.

    1980-05-01

    A true in situ oil shale fracturing and retorting experiment was conducted near Rock Springs, Wyoming in 1977, 1978, and 1979. A 20-foot (6.1 m) thick zone of oil shale located 200 feet (61 m) below surface was hydraulically and explosively fractured. The fractured oil shale was extensively evaluated using flow tests, TV logging, caliper logging, downhole flow logging, core samples, and tracer tests. Attempts to conduct true in situ retorting tests in portions of the pattern with less than 5 percent void space as measured by caliper logs and less than 1 percent active void space measured by tracer test were curtailed when air could not be injected at desired rates. It is thought the fractures plugged as a result of thermal swelling of the oil shale. Air was injected at programmed rates in an area with 10 percent void measured by caliper log and 1.4 pecent active void measured by tracer test. A burn front was propagated in a narrow path moving away from the location of the production well. The vertical sweep of the burn front was measured at less than 4 feet (1.3 m). The burn front could not be sustained beyond 10 days without use of supplemental fuel. The authors recommend a minimum of 5 percent well-distributed void for attempts to retort 20 gpt (81 L/m ton) oil shale in confined beds. A void space of 5 percent may be roughly equivalent to 5 to 10 percent measured by caliper log and 1.4 percent or more by tracer test.

  16. An integrated expanded bed adsorption process for lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G purification from crude sweet whey.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiao-Yan; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-02-01

    An integrated expanded bed adsorption process was developed in this study to purify lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) from crude sweet whey. The process used two sequential expanded beds packed with a cationic exchanger (Fastline SP) and a mixed-mode resin (Streamline Direct CST-1), respectively. Lactoferrin was isolated in the first expanded bed packed with Fastline SP, and the flow through was loaded into the second expanded bed packed with Streamline Direct CST-1 to separate IgG. Three integration strategies were compared to improve the separation efficiency, especially for the purification of IgG in the second expanded bed. The purities of IgG obtained from these three strategies were 91.9%, 83.8% and 92.4%, and the recoveries were 14.3%, 63.7% and 29.7%, respectively. By efficient integration of the two expanded beds, lactoferrin and IgG were successfully recovered from crude sweet whey with high purities and reasonable recoveries. Moreover, the stream flowed out of the integrated process was collected and separated by ultrafiltration to produce whey protein concentrate. Therefore, sweet whey resource could be fully utilized. The results demonstrated that it is possible to purify multiple proteins from untreated crude resource with a rationally designed expanded bed adsorption process.

  17. A process to produce effervescent tablets: fluidized bed dryer melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to apply melt granulation in a fluidized bed dryer (fluidized bed dryer melt granulation) to manufacture one-step effervescent granules composed of anhydrous citric acid and sodium bicarbonate to make tablets. This study permitted us to establish that such process parameters as concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, residence times in the fluidized bed dryer, fineness of PEG6000, fineness of initial mixture effervescent systems, and efficiency of two lubricants markedly affect some granule and tablet characteristics. It is a dry process that is simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible, and particularly adapted to produce effervescent granules that are easily compressed into effervescent tablets.

  18. Effect of ash content on the combustion process of simulated MSW in the fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M

    2016-02-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigates the effects of ash content on the combustion process of simulated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). A fixed-bed experimental reactor was utilized to reveal the combustion characteristics. Temperature distributions, ignition front velocity, and the characteristics of gas species' release were measured and simulated during the combustion process. In the present work, the two-dimensional unsteady mathematical heterogeneous model was developed to simulate the combustion process in the bed, including the process rate model as well as NOx production model. The simulation results in the bed are accordant with the experimental results. The results show that as ash content increases, the lower burning rate of fuel results in char particles leaving the grate without being fully burned, causing a loss of combustible material in the MSW in a fixed bed and therefore reducing the combustion efficiency and increasing the burning time of the MSW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for forming a module of in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.

    1984-04-03

    A module of in-situ oil shale retorts are formed in a row of retort sites in a subterranean formation. Each retort has top, bottom, and side boundaries of unfragmented formation and contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles. Two cross drifts are excavated through the retort sites along the row. One of the drifts is at a lower elevation near the floor of voids to be formed in the retort sites and along one side boundary of the retort sites. The other drift ramps upwardly at an end of the row for extending through the retort sites at a higher elevation near the roof of the voids excavated in the retort sites and along the opposite side boundaries of the retort sites. A horizontally extending slice is excavated at the elevation of the higher drift extending substantially to the side boundaries of a retort site for commencing a void within the retort site. The balance of the void is formed by benching from the slice to the elevation of the lower drift. This leaves at least one zone of unfragmented formation remaining in the retort site with a horizontally extending free face adjacent to the void. Such a zone of formation is explosively expanded toward the void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort.

  20. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.E.

    1984-04-10

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  1. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  2. Assessment of the long-term stability of retort pouch foods to support extended duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Catauro, Patricia M; Perchonok, Michele H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the suitability of retort processed foods to support long-duration spaceflight, a series of 36-mo accelerated shelf life studies were performed on 13 representative retort pouch products. Combined sensory evaluations, physical properties assessments, and nutritional analyses were employed to determine shelf life endpoints for these foods, which were either observed during the analysis or extrapolated via mathematical projection. Data obtained through analysis of these 13 products were later used to estimate the shelf life values of all retort-processed spaceflight foods. In general, the major determinants of shelf life appear to be the development of off-flavor and off-color in products over time. These changes were assumed to be the result of Maillard and oxidation reactions, which can be initiated or accelerated as a result of the retort process and product formulation. Meat products and other vegetable entrées are projected to maintain their quality the longest, between 2 and 8 y, without refrigeration. Fruit and dessert products (1.5 to 5 y), dairy products (2.5 to 3.25 y), and starches, vegetable, and soup products (1 to 4 y) follow. Aside from considerable losses in B and C vitamin content, nutritional value of most products was maintained throughout shelf life. Fortification of storage-labile vitamins was proposed as a countermeasure to ensure long-term nutritive value of these products. The use of nonthermal sterilization technologies was also recommended, as a means to improve initial quality of these products and extend their shelf life for use in long-duration missions. Data obtained also emphasize the importance of low temperature storage in maintaining product quality. Retort sterilized pouch products are garnering increased commercial acceptance, largely due to their improved convenience and quality over metal-canned products. Assessment of the long-term stability of these products with ambient storage can identify potential areas for

  3. Addition of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process and improves vermicompost quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antonio de Mendonça; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Rozatti, Marcos A T; Martins, Marcos F Leal

    2017-03-01

    Animal waste is usually a good substrate for vermicomposting. However, numerous animal husbandry systems use bedding that consists primarily of lignocellulosic substrates, which hinders earthworm and microorganism's development and thus, the entire bioconversion process. One possible solution is to mix the used bedding with other waste materials that are more amenable to earthworm ingestion and can provide better conditions for earthworm population growth. Here, we have aimed to examine the effectiveness of such procedure by mixing rice-husk-based sheep bedding with cattle manure in different proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). We have carried out vermicomposting experiments in benchtop vermireactors inoculated with 0.88kg of dry matter (sheep bedding+cattle manure). Data used in the Principal Component Analysis were the multiple vermicomposting variables (i.e., EC; pH; HA/FA and C/N ratios; P, K, cellulose, and hemicellulose content). The effect of the treatment on earthworm count was analyzed with ANOVA. We have observed that the addition of at least 25% of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process but it is necessary 148days to obtain a stabilized vermicompost. However, increasing the proportion of cattle manure to sheep bedding, the vermicomposting time decreases proportionally to 94days. We concluded that vermicomposting can be considered a bioprocess to stabilize rice husk after being used as sheep bedding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  5. Process enhancement of supercritical methanol biodiesel production by packing beds.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bao-Quan; Zhou, Dan; Li, Gen; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Xue, Song; Liu, Jiao

    2017-03-01

    Continuous fixed bed reactors filled by three kinds of packing which were glass bead, glass spring and Dixon rings were investigated. The effect of temperature, pressure, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, flow rate, the size and shape of the packing were researched. The highest yield 90.84% of FAME was obtained by filling Dixon rings as packing with the condition of the temperature was 350°C, the pressure was 22MPa, the molar ratio of methanol to oil was 42:1. In addition, the reusability of Dixon rings was perfect. Numerical simulation was researched to provide theoretical basis for experimental results, besides the kinetics and thermodynamics behavior were investigated to explore the reaction mechanism.

  6. [Structure and fluidization of an internally circulating fluidized bed for FGD process].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liuchun; Yang, Wenqi; Tong, Zhiquan

    2003-09-01

    A new internally circulating fluidized bed for FGD process was developed, and different types of top and bottom structures were employed in the experiment to find out the best fluidized bed structure. Fluidizing status, the axial distribution of solid hold-up and the fluid mechanics under cold conditions were investigated. The results indicate that the unit can realize internally circulating of a large number of solid particles which presents an core-annulus structure when the velocity of fluidizing gas was at the range of 2.5 to 5 m/s, and that the solid density in the bed is higher than that in traditional equal diameter fluidized bed, which provide the equipment with potential for application in FGD process.

  7. Apparatus for controlling condensate level in steam retort

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.D.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling the level of steam condensate in a steam retort comprising: drain valve means operable to regulate drainage of the condensate from the retort; and control means for operating the drain valve means in response to the condensate level in the retort, the control means comprising: sensing means for providing a first signal when condensate rises to a predetermined level to effect opening of the drain valve means and for providing a second signal when condensate falls below the predetermined level to effect closing of the drain valve means; the sensing means comprising magnetic float switch means comprising: a non-magnetic steam having a chamber therein and extendable into the steam retort in a fixed position; a magnetic reed switch disposed within the chamber in the stem; means for mounting the reed switch in a fixed position within the stem; a float movably mounted exteriorly of the steam and movable in response to the level of the condensate in the steam retort; and a magnet connected to the float and movable in response thereto for effecting operation of the reed switch.

  8. Method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1983-01-25

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale which is ignited by introducing fuel and air through a passage leading to the fragmented mass. The amount of air provided is in the range of from about 1/3 more than the amount of air required to stoichiometrically combine with the fuel to about twice the amount of air required to stoichiometrically combine with the fuel. The fuel/air mixture is ignited and hot combustion gases pass downwardly into the fragmented mass. The hot combustion gases heat oil shale particles above the self-ignition temperature of such particles, thereby forming a primary combustion zone in the fragmented mass. Introduction of fuel is discontinued when the concentration of oxygen in off gas from the retort decreases to below a first selected value. The surface of the fragmented mass is cooled and then fuel is re-introduced into the retort, forming a secondary combustion zone below the surface of the fragmented mass for spreading the primary combustion zone. When the concentration of oxygen in off gas from the retort decreases below a second selected value, the secondary combustion zone is extinguished.

  9. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Henry, R.F.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.; Herzenberg, C.; Helt, J.E.; Carls, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is undertaking several tasks primarily in support of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Work is under way to provide fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support to METC, determination of the state of the art of instrumentation for FBC applications, evaluation of the performance capability of cyclones for hot-gas cleaning in PFBC systems, and an initial assessment of methods for the measurement of sodium sulfate dew point.

  10. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of several types of spent livestock bedding in a batch leach-bed reactor: substrate characterization and process performance.

    PubMed

    Riggio, S; Torrijos, M; Debord, R; Esposito, G; van Hullebusch, E D; Steyer, J P; Escudié, R

    2017-01-01

    Spent animal bedding is a valuable resource for green energy production in rural areas. The properties of six types of spent bedding collected from deep-litter stables, housing either sheeps, goats, horses or cows, were compared and their anaerobic digestion in a batch Leach-Bed Reactor (LBR) was assessed. Spent horse bedding, when compared to all the other types, appeared to differ the most due to a greater amount of straw added to the litter and a more frequent litter change. Total solids content appeared to vary significantly from one bedding type to another, with consequent impact on the methane produced from the raw substrate. However, all the types of spent bedding had similar VS/TS (82.3-88.9)%, a C/N well-suited to anaerobic digestion (20-28, except that of the horse, 42) and their BMPs were in a narrow range (192-239NmLCH4/gVS). The anaerobic digestion in each LBR was stable and the pH always remained higher than 6.6 regardless of the type of bedding. In contrast to all the other substrates, spent goat bedding showed a stronger acidification resulting in a methane production lag phase. Finally, spent bedding of different origins reached, on average, (89±11)% of their BMP after 60days of operation. This means that this waste is well-suited for treatment in LBRs and that this is a promising process to recover energy from dry agricultural waste.

  11. Development and application of a process window for achieving high-quality coating in a fluidized bed coating process.

    PubMed

    Laksmana, F L; Hartman Kok, P J A; Vromans, H; Frijlink, H W; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K

    2009-01-01

    Next to the coating formulation, process conditions play important roles in determining coating quality. This study aims to develop an operational window that separates layering from agglomeration regimes and, furthermore, the one that leads to the best coating quality in a fluidized bed coater. The bed relative humidity and the droplet size of the coating aerosol were predicted using a set of engineering models. The coating quality was characterized using a quantitative image analysis method, which measures the coating thickness distribution, the total porosity, and the pore size in the coating. The layering regime can be achieved by performing the coating process at a certain excess of the viscous Stokes number (DeltaSt(v)). This excess is dependent on the given bed relative humidity and droplet size. The higher the bed relative humidity, the higher is the DeltaSt(v) required to keep the process in the layering regime. Further, it is shown that using bed relative humidity and droplet size alone is not enough to obtain constant coating quality. The changes in bed relative humidity and droplet size have been identified to correlate to the fractional area of particles sprayed per unit of time. This parameter can effectively serve as an additional parameter to be considered for a better control on the coating quality. High coating quality is shown to be achieved by performing the process close to saturation and spraying droplets small enough to obtain high spraying rate, but not too small to cause incomplete coverage of the core particles.

  12. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil-shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above-ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission-source identification and source-specific pollution-control applications. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-18

    This volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplishes two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flow-sheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Volume III is divided into two separate parts. Part II covers mercury; trace metals; carbon monoxide; NO/sub x/; and hydrocarbons. Mercury waste water control technologies discussed include ion exchange, starch complexing, ferrite coprecipitation, evaporation ponds, sulfide precipitation, activated carbon, and specific control processes. Trace metal control processes in waste water discussed include reverse osmosis, starch complexing, sodium borohydride, hydroxide precipitation, ferrite coprecipitation, ion exchange, activated carbon, sulfide precipitation, evaporation ponds, and combined physical-chemical metal removal. Offgas system removal of beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium are also covered. Carbon monoxide control technologies in utility and industrial boilers and in petroleum refineries are covered. Flue gas denitrification processes discussed included noncatalytic and catalytic reduction, adsorption, oxidation, alkalized alumina, electron beam radiation, activated carbon process for NO/sub x/ removal. Hydrocarbon control technologies in waste water and gases are described. (DMC)

  13. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1) Steam...

  14. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1) Steam...

  15. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1) Steam...

  16. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1) Steam...

  17. Testing and performance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Girvin, D.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Nelson, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes and discusses the design, construction, calibration and operations of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) 6-kg retort. Use of this retort will help determine the distribution and speciation of Hg, As, Se, and Cd compounds as a function of retorting parameters in shale oil, retort water, and offgas. The first test consisted of heating the oil shale to 500/sup 0/C with a 100% nitrogen (N/sub 2/) sweep gas. Results of this test demonstrated that the system operates as designed; only two minor modifications were necessary to achieve satisfactory operation of the retort. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  19. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  20. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  1. Dynamics of a True Moving Bed separation process: Linear model identification and advanced process control.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Idelfonso B R; Ribeiro, Ana M; Martins, Márcio A F; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Koivisto, Hannu; Loureiro, José M

    2017-06-30

    The control of Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) units is challenging due to their complex dynamic behaviour and the difficulty of measuring their main properties. Furthermore, for the SMB units, the transfer function identification when the unit is operating at its optimal point is not easy to be done through the usual way. This work presents the development of a novel strategy to identify transfer functions of TMB/SMB and its application on classical linear model predictive controllers (MPC). However, for the process in study, due its unique dynamics, only the identification of the linear model is not enough to solve its control problem. Therefore, it is proposed a modification in the MPC prediction, that consists in a strategy based on a switching system where the most adequate transfer function is employed in the controller to overcome the problems related with the process dynamic behaviour. The results show that the used methodology enables the easy identification of transfer functions at the process optimal operating point and that the MPC can control the process in both the servo and regulator problem cases. It is also showed that the transfer function identified can be applied in the control of a SMB unit with four columns, under its optimal conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and research of adaptive control of purification process of biotrickling bed for VOC waste gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Ming-Fu; Luo, Kai; Luo, Bin-Bin; Ling, Wen-Hao

    2008-10-01

    Based on visualization test of biotrickling bed, we analyze the dynamicmodel of the purification process, and get the dynamic model on liquid flux and purification efficiency. The adaptive control strategy is applied in the purification process. The simulation test proves that under the same disturbance the adaptive control strategy is more effective than PID.

  3. Static mixer retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    York, E.D.; Knepper, J.C.; Forgac, J.M.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a system for retorting oil shale, comprising: a static mixer having an upper free-fall section with a domed roof and a lower elongated deflector section. The deflector section having a greater diameter than the upper section, the static mixer having a vertical axis and having only stationary parts and components consisting of six vertically spaced tiers of triangular-shaped internals having upwardly pointing apexes in the deflector section, alternate tiers of the internals being spaced substantially parallel and at about right angles to adjacent tiers as viewed from the roof, the tiers extending substantially horizontally across the deflector section, the six tiers, as viewed from the roof, consisting of first and second tiers having only three triangular-shaped internals of substantially the same size, and third, fourth, fifth and sixth tiers positioned beneath the first and second tiers and having similarly sized triangular-shaped internals, the internals in the first and second tiers being smaller than the internals in the third through sixth tiers, the third and fourth tiers each having three triangular-shaped internals, the first through fourth tiers each having a center internal with an apex positioned substantially along the vertical axis, the first through fourth tiers each having outer internals with the apexes of the outer internals of the third and fourth tiers spaced laterally inwardly of the outer internals in the first and second tiers, the fifth and sixth tiers each having two intermediate triangular-shaped internals and two downwardly and inwardly sloping outer internals with the apexes of the intermediate internals being spaced outwardly and offset from the apexes of the center internals of the first through fourth tiers, the outer internals in the firth and sixth tiers being spaced outwardly from the outer internals in the third and fourth tiers.

  4. Stability control in underground working adjacent an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, Th. E.

    1985-07-30

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in spaced-apart rows, with adjacent rows of such retorts being separated by load-bearing inter-retort pillars of unfragmented formation sufficiently strong for preventing substantial subsidence. Each retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. An air level drift is excavated in formation directly above the inter-retort pillar so that the roof and/or floor of the air level drift is spaced above the upper boundaries of the retorts in such adjacent rows. This causes the roof of the air level drift to be in compression, rather than in tension, which stabilizes the roof and avoids dangerous rock falls. During retorting operations, air is introduced at the upper edge of each retort through lateral air inlet passages sloping downwardly from the air level drift. Off gas and liquid products are withdrawn from each retort through a production level passage at the bottom of each report at the edge opposite the air inlet. The production level passages connect to a main production level drift extending between adjacent rows of retors. The roof of the main production level drift is excavated in fgormation directly below the inter-retort pillar so that the roof of of the production level drift is spaced below the lower boundaries of the retorts in adjacent rows. This places the roof of the production level drift in compression, avoiding the likelihood of rock falls.

  5. Process costs and flowsheets, bed defluidization characteristics, stone reactivity changes and attrition losses for a regenerative fluidized-bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, W.M.; Montagna, J.C.; Smith, G.W.; Smyk, E.B.

    1980-05-01

    As a means of significantly reducing the amount of limestone required by the fluidized-bed combustion of coal, a limestone regeneration process has been developed which allows the sorbent to be recycled back to the combustor for reuse. To further the development of regeneration, experiments were performed to (1) evaluate the effects of repeated utilization on the sorbent reactivity for sulfation and regeneration and (2) characterize the minimum fluidizing-gas velocity required for the regeneration process to prevent agglomeration and defluidization of the bed. This report presents the results of those investigations plus (1) the development of process flowsheets and (2) an estimation of process costs and the economics of regeneration. The results of the experimental regeneration process studies confirm the potentially large reductions in the amount of sorbent required by FBC's which can be achieved by regeneration, possibly as high as 80%. The economic projections indicate that at current limestone prices, regeneration is not clearly justified on an economic basis; i.e., the cost of the regeneration process slightly exceeds the anticipated savings in limestone raw material cost which results from the regeneration process. However, the cost of limestone disposal has not been thoroughly addressed. Hence, if disposal costs due to environmental considerations, particularly the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, become significant, the economic attractiveness of regeneration would be greatly enhanced.

  6. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  7. Method for assuring uniform combustion in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1981-04-28

    A substantially flat combustion zone is established in a fragmented mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. By igniting a portion of the mass of particles, a heated zone including a combustion zone is established in the retort. For a first period of time, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the retort and heated zone at a rate sufficient to advance the heated zone through the fragmented mass. The locus of the combustion zone is monitored to determine if the combustion zone is substantially flat. If the combustion zone is not substantially flat, introduction of oxidizing gas into the retort is reduced temporarily for a second period of time to a rate such that the flow of heated gas through the retort for retorting oil shale in a retorting zone on the advancing side of the combustion zone is substantially reduced for a sufficient time to appreciably flatten the heated zone. Thereafter, introduction of gas comprising an oxidizing gas to the retort is resumed at a sufficient rate to advance the heated zone through the fragmented mass. Off gas withdrawn from the retort during the second period of time can be enriched having a heating value of at least about 75 btu/scf, and often in excess of about 150 btu/scf. To produce such enriched off gas, introduction of gas into the retort can be temporarily reduced even when it is not necessary to establish a substantially flat combustion zone in the retort. This enriched off gas can be withdrawn from the top of the retort and can be used for igniting another retort or for sustaining a secondary combustion zone in another retort.

  8. Near-bed particle motion due to turbulent flow using image-processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anindita; Mazumder, B. S.; Ojha, Satya P.

    2007-11-01

    This study investigates the behavior of particle motion over the rough bed surface due to near-bed turbulence in an open channel flow using image processing techniques. The instantaneous fluid velocity components are measured by 16MHz 3D-Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). High-speed Motion-Scope (HSMS) system has been used to record the motion-picture photography of the particles movement on the surface of the rough bed at the rate of 250 frames/sec. The recorded images are analyzed in the light of particle motions, trajectories, saltation heights and lengths of individual particles, angles of orientation and their interactions with the boundary using digital image processing techniques with the help of the software Image Pro-Plus (IPP).

  9. Directly irradiated fluidized bed reactors for thermochemical processing and energy storage: Application to calcium looping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregambi, Claudio; Montagnaro, Fabio; Salatino, Piero; Solimene, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Directly irradiated fluidized bed reactors are very promising in the context of concentrated solar power applications, as they can be operated at process temperatures high enough to perform thermochemical storage reactions with high energy density. Limestone calcination-carbonation is an appealing reaction for thermochemical storage applications due to the cheapness of the raw material, and the interesting value of the reaction enthalpy at fairly high process temperatures. Moreover, limestone calcination-carbonation is intensively studied in Calcium Looping (CaL) application for post combustion CO2 capture and sequestration. In this work, the dynamics of a directly irradiated 0.1 m ID fluidized bed reactor exposed to a 12 kWel simulated solar furnace is analyzed with specific reference to temperature distribution at the surface and in the bulk of the bed. Simulation of the solar radiation was performed through an array of three short arc Xe-lamps coupled with elliptical reflectors, yielding a peak flux of nearly 3000 kW m-2 and a total power of nearly 3 kW incident on the bed surface. Moreover, the directly irradiated fluidized bed reactor has been used to perform CaL tests by alternating solar-driven limestone calcination and autothermal recarbonation of lime. CaL has been investigated with the twofold perspective of: a) accomplishing energy storage by solar-driven calcination of limestone; b) perform solar-aided CO2 capture from flue gas to be embodied in carbon capture and sequestration schemes.

  10. 4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CASTIRON RETORTS AT TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CAST-IRON RETORTS AT TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING PORTION OF HOT BLAST STOVE AND TURNED HEAD. - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  11. 1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort rings in foreground were once located in Engine Room Building. See photo WA-131-A-2. Building on left is Machine Shop. Boiler Building is in front of stack. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. Prenatal toxicology of shale oil retort water in mice.

    PubMed

    Gregg, C T; Tietjen, G; Hutson, J Y

    1981-01-01

    Shale oil retort water, a by-product of the production of oil from shale, potentially amounts to tens of millions of gallons per year and must be treated or recycled with regard for public health. Such retort water was given to 98 female ICR/DUB mice in their drinking water at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% for periods up to 203 d. Seven of 75 treated animals developed adenomalike lesions that were not seen in the control animals. These ranged from adenomas and an adenomatoid nodule in the lung to the rectal adenocarcinoma. Although the incidence of adenomalike lesions was not statistically significant, this appearance of neoplasia requires further investigation. Eighty-five animals became pregnant. The proportion of animals pregnant, weights of nonpregnant animals, weight gain during pregnancy, average fetal weight, number of live fetuses per liter, and proportion of male fetuses were unaffected by drinking retort water. Early and late fetal deaths and preimplantation losses were likewise unaffected, except for a significant increase in preimplantation losses in animals consuming 1.0% retort water. A variety of palatal defects were seen in treated animals, however, including single and multiple cleft palates and a defect, to our knowledge not previously reported, in which the posterior portion of one or both palatal shelves appeared not to have formed. The palatal defects, as a group, were dose-dependent and statistically significant.

  13. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR FLASHING MERCURY OFF OF GOLD TO CREATE SOFT INGOTS CALLED "SPONGES." AT RIGHT ARE SAFES FOR STORING 22-POUND SPONGES WORTH OVER $60,000 EACH, CA. 1985. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  14. Fluidized Bed Opposed Jet Mill System for Processing Inorganic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nuzal, S. M. D.; Mohammed, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    A jet mill system was built aiming to give values for processing inorganic materials, to be used for different industry. The milling housing of the system is composed of; milling chamber, compressed air nozzles which deliver compressed air in the milling chamber to accelerate sample particles. The classifier wheel is composed of two concentric pieces welded together under argon and coupled to a AC Motor, 0 - 9000 rpm, 2 kW, with AC frequencies convertor. The performances of this jet mill system were tried on five cheap locally available materials, viz. white sand, glass, iron oxide, black carbon and alum. It is possible to get particle sizes of less than 1 μm with narrow distribution of particle sizes.

  15. Engineering Test Report Paint Waste Reduction Fluidized Bed Process Demonstration at Letterkenny Army Depot Chambersburg, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    hazardous waste and release smaie hazardous material. intoI the workcplace because most of them incorporate toxic chlorinated solvents or caustic soda . These...sensitive parts but the cost is an order of magnitude greater to operate that its alternative for this purpose, the Caustic Soda Process. Sasia: The...Fluidized Bed Paint Removal Process cost $4.06 per part cleaned as compare to $.31 per p art for the Caustic Soda Process, This disparity is due to the

  16. Optimum process design of packed bed type thermal storage systems and other applications

    DOEpatents

    Bindra, Hitesh; Bueno, Pablo

    2016-10-25

    Methods and systems for optimizing the process of heat and/or mass transfer operations in packed beds and embodiments of applications of the methods are disclosed herein below. In one instance, the method results in the profile of the quantity representative of the heat and/or mass transfer operation having a propagating substantially sharp front.

  17. Automatic River Bed Grain Size Measurement Using Image Processing and Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D.; Nelson, P. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Gravel-bedded rivers cut through hilly and mountainous areas, driving landscape evolution and creating a diverse habitat upon which river food web ecosystems develop. Our understanding of the mechanics underlying important processes in fluvial geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and aquatic ecology inevitably requires knowledge about the grain size distribution of river bed material. Standard methods of sampling bed surface material may introduce errors due to biases and inadequate sample size. Alternative areal or volumetric sampling procedures are often impractical, particularly in coarse channel beds. Furthermore, all invasive sampling techniques can compromise laboratory flume experiments. These concerns suggest that there is a practical need for a reliable, automated, non-invasive procedure for obtaining the grain size distribution of bed surface material. Although considerable effort has been made to automatically generate grain size distributions using image processing and analysis techniques, the problem remains quite challenging: issues such as varying lighting conditions, partial immersion of particles in water, and heterogeneous mineralogy result in ambiguities that cannot be easily resolved. Feature extraction introduces further biases due to over- or under-segmentation of the image. Moreover, unless the grain distributions are fairly homogeneous between different locations, and images are collected in similar fashion, it is difficult to parametrize any such method in a transferable manner. In this study we present an image processing and machine learning procedure to automatically identify and measure grains from photographic images of gravel-bedded rivers. We apply the state-of-the-art of image segmentation techniques, making use of local cues such as brightness, color, and texture in a multi-scale approach. These cues are globalized using a graph partitioning method on the oriented contour signal. The resulting boundary probability signal is treated by a

  18. MTG process in a fluidized bed with catalyst circulation: Operation and simulation of an experimental unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J.M.; Gayubo, A.G.; Aguayo, A.T.; Olazar, M.; Bilbao, J.

    1998-11-01

    The simulation of the MTG process has been studied in a fluidized bed with circulation of the catalyst (prepared based on a HZSM-5 zeolite). The simulation has been carried out by taking into account the activity distribution of the catalyst particles in the bed and by using experimentally determined kinetic models for the reaction at zero time on stream and for the catalyst deactivation. The results of the simulation have been proven in an experimental laboratory unit by operating in the range between 380 and 420 C, with different values of space time and of average residence time of the catalyst.

  19. Powder Bed Layer Characteristics: The Overseen First-Order Process Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindt, H. W.; Megahed, M.; Lavery, N. P.; Holmes, M. A.; Brown, S. G. R.

    2016-08-01

    Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing offers unique advantages in terms of manufacturing cost, lot size, and product complexity compared to traditional processes such as casting, where a minimum lot size is mandatory to achieve economic competitiveness. Many studies—both experimental and numerical—are dedicated to the analysis of how process parameters such as heat source power, scan speed, and scan strategy affect the final material properties. Apart from the general urge to increase the build rate using thicker powder layers, the coating process and how the powder is distributed on the processing table has received very little attention to date. This paper focuses on the first step of every powder bed build process: Coating the process table. A numerical study is performed to investigate how powder is transferred from the source to the processing table. A solid coating blade is modeled to spread commercial Ti-6Al-4V powder. The resulting powder layer is analyzed statistically to determine the packing density and its variation across the processing table. The results are compared with literature reports using the so-called "rain" models. A parameter study is performed to identify the influence of process table displacement and wiper velocity on the powder distribution. The achieved packing density and how that affects subsequent heat source interaction with the powder bed is also investigated numerically.

  20. Study of instrumentation needs for process control and safety in coal fluidized-bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Griggs, K.E.; Henry, R.F.; Podolski, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the current state of the art of instrumentation for planned and operating fluidized-bed combustion systems. This study is intended to identify instrumentation needs and serve as a data base for projects to develop this instrumentation. A considerable number of needs for measurements for which presently available instrumentation is not suitable were reported by respondents. The identified deficiencies are presented with the associated physical parameter ranges for FBC processes. New techniques and instrumentation under development, as well as some available alternative instruments, are discussed briefly. Also, newly instituted mechanisms for technical information exchange on instrumentation for fossil energy applications are identified. Development of instruments to meet the identified measurement deficiencies is recommended in order to ensure the feasibility of automatic control of large-scale fluidized-bed combustion systems, and to advance the state of the art of fluidized-bed combustion technology.

  1. The hypercluster: A parallel processing test-bed architecture for computational mechanics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of numerical methods and software tools for parallel processors can be aided through the use of a hardware test-bed. The test-bed architecture must be flexible enough to support investigations into architecture-algorithm interactions. One way to implement a test-bed is to use a commercial parallel processor. Unfortunately, most commercial parallel processors are fixed in their interconnection and/or processor architecture. In this paper, we describe a modified n cube architecture, called the hypercluster, which is a superset of many other processor and interconnection architectures. The hypercluster is intended to support research into parallel processing of computational fluid and structural mechanics problems which may require a number of different architectural configurations. An example of how a typical partial differential equation solution algorithm maps on to the hypercluster is given.

  2. Evaluation of process errors in bed load sampling using a dune model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, B.; Troutman, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the streamwide bed load discharge obtained using sampling devices are dependent upon good at-a-point knowledge across the full width of the channel. Using field data and information derived from a model that describes the geometric features of a dune train in terms of a spatial process observed at a fixed point in time, we show that sampling errors decrease as the number of samples collected increases, and the number of traverses of the channel over which the samples are collected increases. It also is preferable that bed load sampling be conducted at a pace which allows a number of bed forms to pass through the sampling cross section. The situations we analyze and simulate pertain to moderate transport conditions in small rivers. In such circumstances, bed load sampling schemes typically should involve four or five traverses of a river, and the collection of 20-40 samples at a rate of five or six samples per hour. By ensuring that spatial and temporal variability in the transport process is accounted for, such a sampling design reduces both random and systematic errors and hence minimizes the total error involved in the sampling process.

  3. Alexandria fluidized-bed process development unit: cold-mode testing

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    The objectives of the current test program include: validation of predictions from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Coal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor System Model; experimental studies supporting AFBC process developments; and the collection of transient data for process control design. This topical report summarizes results from cold mode testing, i.e., experiments performed without combustion for MIT Model verification. During these tests, sulfated limestone (generated from normal AFBC operations) was fluidized with air at temperatures ranging from 80 to 500/sup 0/F in the 3' x 3' (nominal) size PDU at Alexandria, VA. The MIT Model predictions tested include: slumped bed height, minimum fluidization velocity, and expanded bed height. In all cases, there were large discrepancies between the Model predictions and corresponding experimental results. Other results obtained included solids size distribution and particle size profiles in the bed. Size distribution was adequately modeled by the Rosin-Rammler equation. No transient process data was collected due to hardware problems with the Data Acquisition System. Tests were also performed to determine the effect of maldistribution of air, caused by leaks in the air distributor, on experimental results. The data indicated that effects of these leaks seemed to be undetectable.

  4. Performance of Fluidized bed Fenton process in Degrading Acid Blue 113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, M. M.; Raman, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    The performance of a fluidized bed Fenton process in degrading Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) was investigated. Fluidized bed Fenton process is a modification of conventional Fenton oxidation, aimed at reducing sludge generation and improving process performance. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of operational parameter on the color removal from the dye. Dimensionless factors, Dye/Fe2+, H2O2/Fe2+ and pH were used as the independent variables in Box-Behnken Design (BDD). Reduced quadratic model was developed to predict the color removal. The process could remove up to 99 % of the initial color. The most significant factor for color removal was found to be Dye/Fe2+, followed by H2O2/Fe2+. Unlike conventional Fenton, the initial pH of the solution does not have a significant effect on the color removal.

  5. Bio-oil production from palm fronds by fast pyrolysis process in fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Nino; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.; Kiky Corneliasari, S.

    2017-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis process of palm fronds has been conducted in the fluidized bed reactor to yield bio-oil product (pyrolysis oil). The process employed sea sand as the heat transfer medium. The objective of this study is to design of the fluidized bed rector, to conduct fast pyrolysis process to product bio-oil from palm fronds, and to characterize the feed and bio-oil product. The fast pyrolysis process was conducted continuously with the feeding rate around 500 g/hr. It was found that the biomass conversion is about 35.5% to yield bio-oil, however this conversion is still minor. It is suggested due to the heating system inside the reactor was not enough to decompose the palm fronds as a feedstock. Moreover, the acids compounds ware mostly observed on the bio-oil product.

  6. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with controlled seismic vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1983-09-06

    An array of explosive charges is formed in a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The explosive charges that are located around the perimeter of the retort site are smaller than the explosive charges located more remote from the perimeter. Formation within the retort site is explosively expanded toward a void formed in the site by detonating the explosive charges. This explosive expansion of formation results in a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort. Damage to objects near the retort site, which is caused by seismic shock from the detonations, is minimized by using smaller explosive charges around the perimeter than in the center of the retort site.

  7. Comparison of low shear, high shear, and fluid bed granulation during low dose tablet process development.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Debra S

    2004-03-01

    Three processing methods were compared to develop a low dose (0.1%) immediate release tablet. Similar formulations were used to evaluate low shear, high shear, and fluid bed granulation methods. For each granulation process, the drug was dissolved or suspended in the granulating fluid and sprayed into the granulator. Both water and methanol were evaluated as granulating fluids. The low shear granulation was performed in a Patterson-Kelley V-Blender with I-bar. The high shear granulation was performed in a GRAL (top entry impeller) and a Diosna (bottom mounted impeller). Fluid bed granulation was also performed using top-spray. Acceptable content uniformity was obtained using each technology. The type of granulator and granulating solvent affected the granulation particle size distributions and bulk/tap densities. However, the addition of extragranular microcrystalline cellulose minimized the effect of variable granulation properties and allowed similar tablets to be produced from each granulation process.

  8. Numerical modelling of colmation and decolmation processes for gravel-bed river restoration schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Alex; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Stoesser, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that man has greatly influenced river sediment loading, which has had a detrimental effect on the aquatic ecosystem, in particular on salmonid spawning in gravel-bed rivers. Successful spawning relies upon a balance between colmation and decolmation processes. Excessive colmation results in juvenile fish being injured through abrasion and adhesion. Without decolmation, juvenile fish trying to emerge from the riverbed, following their incubation period, become trapped. Sediment oxygen demand and intragravel flows can also be influenced by colmation and decolmation resulting in changes in dissolved oxygen levels in the riverbed. Therefore, river restoration schemes often aim to emulate the balance between these processes. However, though conceptually well understood, the physical processes of colmation and decolmation are at best poorly described. This makes the design of restoration schemes challenging and as a result many have had little effect on salmonid spawning whilst some have even been detrimental. It is only with recent advances in technology that it has been possible to understand the complexities of the processes, in particular the influence of microscopic turbulent flows within the near-bed region and within a riverbed's pore matrix. This research aims to further understanding of colmation and decolmation by focusing on the quantification of turbulence close to and within the riverbed facilitating the modelling of these processes. By enhancing the capability of the 2D numerical hydraulic modelling package DIVAST (Depth Integrated Velocities And Solute Transport), this research ultimately aims to improve the design and assessment of gravel-bed river restoration schemes.

  9. Kinetics of nitrobenzene oxidation and iron crystallization in fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Anotai, Jin; Sakulkittimasak, Pasootah; Boonrattanakij, Nonglak; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2009-06-15

    This research investigated the nitrobenzene oxidation and iron removal by fluidized-bed Fenton process using metal oxide as the carriers. It was found that the removal efficiency of nitrobenzene was not affected in the presence of metal oxide. However, metal oxide could retard the degradation rate of nitrobenzene with Fenton process due to ferrous adsorption/complexation onto its surface leaving insufficient free Fe(2+) to catalyze the decomposition of H(2)O(2). Nonetheless, as the free Fe(2+) was sufficient, nitrobenzene was oxidized at the same rate as that by the conventional Fenton process. Fenton's reagent and nitrobenzene concentrations have an impact on nitrobenzene oxidation rate. The empirical kinetic equation for nitrobenzene oxidation by the fluidized-bed Fenton process under the conditions of 0.667-5mM of Fe(2+), 10-50mM of H(2)O(2), 5-12.5mM of nitrobenzene, 76.9 g/l of metal oxide, and pH 2.8+/-0.2, can be described as: [see formula text] Considering on iron removal performance, it was found that the fluidized-bed Fenton process could remove 30-65% of iron via iron crystallization onto the carriers' surface which could lead to a significant reduction in ferric hydroxide sludge production. H(2)O(2) played an important role in iron crystallization and once it was exhausted, the re-dissolution of iron occurred. In addition, it was found that the metal oxide could be repeatedly used up to 5 cycles without any significant deterioration in its surface activity. Hence, it implies that the metal oxide can be used successfully in the fluidized-bed Fenton process operated under a continuous mode.

  10. The application of moving bed biofilm reactor to denitrification process after trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Lukasz; Drewnowski, Jakub; Kopec, Adam

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents research of a prototype moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The device was used for the post-denitrification process and was installed at the end of a technological system consisting of a septic tank and two trickling filters. The concentrations of suspended biomass and biomass attached on the EvU Perl moving bed surface were determined. The impact of the external organic carbon concentration on the denitrification rate and efficiency of total nitrogen removal was also examined. The study showed that the greater part of the biomass was in the suspended form and only 6% of the total biomass was attached to the surface of the moving bed. Abrasion forces between carriers of the moving bed caused the fast stripping of attached microorganisms and formation of flocs. Thanks to immobilization of a small amount of biomass, the MBBR was less prone to leaching of the biomass and the occurrence of scum and swelling sludge. It was revealed that the maximum rate of denitrification was an average of 0.73 gN-NO(3)/gDM·d (DM: dry matter), and was achieved when the reactor was maintained in external organic carbon concentration exceeding 300 mgO2/dm(3) chemical oxygen demand. The reactor proved to be an effective device enabling the increase of total nitrogen removal from 53.5% to 86.0%.

  11. [Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed.

  12. The toxicity of Rio Blanco Tract C-a groundwater samples before and after the pumpdown of retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company received permission from the US Bureau of Land Management/Oil Shale Projects Office to proceed with retort abandonment activities at its Tract C-a modified in situ retort site. One of the first abandonment activities undertaken was to flood the retort with groundwater to dissolve soluble contaminants associated with the retorting operation. Saline water was then pumped from the retort into evaporation ponds during two pumpdown operations in May of 1985 and June of 1986. The principal objective of the pumpdown operations was to remove contaminated groundwater from the retort area and to prevent the migration of contaminants beyond the retort. A toxicological evaluation of groundwaters collected from within the retort and outside the retort is currently in progress. Acute and chronic toxicity tests have been performed using the freshwater invertebrate Ceriodaphnia affinis/dubia with groundwater samples collected before and after the first pumpdown of the retort. The objectives of these tests have been to evaluate the success of the pumpdown operation, to assess the effect of the pumping operations on groundwater quality both within and outside the retort, and to evaluate the toxicity of groundwater within the retort relative to local groundwater that has not been affected by the retorting operation. This report presents the results of toxicity tests performed before and after the first pumpdown operation. Additional toxicity tests are planned for samples collected after the second pumpdown operation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. The development of a fluidized bed process for the heat treatment of aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keist, Jay

    2005-04-01

    Heat treating of aluminum alloys is often necessary to achieve the mechanical properties required for a part. With conventional furnaces, though, the heat-treating process requires several hours and manufacturers have traditionally utilized off-line, batch heat-treating operations. The long cycle times required for heat treating with conventional systems go contrary to lean manufacturing where the goal is to reduce the time a part spends in the factory. The fluidized bed technology offers rapid heating rates and excellent temperature control that allows one to significantly reduce the time required for heat treating by an order of magnitude. Technomics developed a fluidized bed conveying system that allows the manufacturer to bring the heat-treating system in-line with the casting or forging operation, obtaining a true lean manufacturing process.

  14. Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Ossio, E.; Fox, P.

    1980-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.

  15. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  16. Array Processing for Radar Clutter Reduction and Imaging of Ice-Bed Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogineni, P.; Leuschen, C.; Li, J.; Hoch, A.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Ledford, J.; Jezek, K.

    2007-12-01

    A major challenge in sounding of fast-flowing glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica is surface clutter, which masks weak returns from the ice-bed interface. The surface clutter is also a major problem in sounding and imaging sub-surface interfaces on Mars and other planets. We successfully applied array-processing techniques to reduce clutter and image ice-bed interfaces of polar ice sheets. These techniques and tools have potential applications to planetary observations. We developed a radar with array-processing capability to measure thickness of fast-flowing outlet glaciers and image the ice-bed interface. The radar operates over the frequency range from 140 to 160 MHz with about an 800- Watt peak transmit power with transmit and receive antenna arrays. The radar is designed such that pulse width and duration are programmable. The transmit-antenna array is fed with a beamshaping network to obtain low sidelobes. We designed the receiver such that it can process and digitize signals for each element of an eight- channel array. We collected data over several fast-flowing glaciers using a five-element antenna array, limited by available hardpoints to mount antennas, on a Twin Otter aircraft during the 2006 field season and a four-element array on a NASA P-3 aircraft during the 2007 field season. We used both adaptive and non-adaptive signal-processing algorithms to reduce clutter. We collected data over the Jacobshavn Isbrae and other fast-flowing outlet glaciers, and successfully measured the ice thickness and imaged the ice-bed interface. In this paper, we will provide a brief description of the radar, discuss clutter-reduction algorithms, present sample results, and discuss the application of these techniques to planetary observations.

  17. Recycling glass fibres from scrap composites using a fluidized bed process

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerley, J.R.; Fenwick, N.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Rudd, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    A new fluidised bed process for the recovery of fibres from scrap composites has been developed. The process involves the thermal decomposition of the polymer in a fluidised bed, with subsequent energy recovery. Clean fibres are then recovered in a form suitable for recycling into new composites. The process is particularly suitable for contaminated or mixed scrap materials and is therefore targeted for the recycling of post consumer scrap, for example, scrap composites from the automotive industry. This paper will briefly describe the process and then focus upon the properties of the glass fibres recovered from the processing of SMC scrap in the laboratory test facility. The effect of the thermal processing on the fibres will be described and optimum processing conditions discussed. Scrap processed at 450{degrees}C results in fibres with a strength reduced to about half that of virgin fibre. With processing above 450{degrees}C there is a greater reduction in strength, but below 450{degrees}C the fibres are still significantly contaminated with polymer. The prospects for the recycling of a range of different types of polymer composite, based on different resins and proportions of fibre and filler, will be discussed. The initial results of the reuse of the recycled fibres in a glass fibre veil product will also be reported.

  18. Efficient Heat and Mass Transfer Formulations for Oil Shale Retorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. C.; Zhang, F.

    2007-12-01

    A mathematical model for oil shale retorting is described that considers kerogen pyrolysis, oil coking, residual carbon gasification, carbonate mineral decomposition, water-gas shift, and phase equilibria reaction. Reaction rate temperature-dependence is described by Arrhenius kinetics. Fractured rock is modeled as a bi-continuum consisting of fracture porosity in which advective and dispersive gas and heat transport occur, and rock matrix in which diffusive mass transport and thermal conduction occur. Heat transfer between fracture and matrix regions is modeled either by a partial differential equation for spherical conduction or by a linear first-order heat transfer formulation. Mass transfer is modeled in an analogous manner or assuming local equilibrium. First-order mass and heat transfer coefficients are computed by a theoretical model from fundamental rock matrix properties. The governing equations are solved using a 3-D finite element formulation. Simulations of laboratory retort experiments and hypothetical problems indicated thermal disequilibrium to be the dominant factor controlling retort reactions. Simulation accuracy was unaffected by choice of mass transfer formulation. However, computational effort to explicitly simulate diffusive mass transfer in the rock matrix increased computational effort by more than an order of magnitude compared with first-order mass transfer or equilibrium analyses. A first-order heat transfer approximation of thermal conduction can be used without significant loss of accuracy if the block size and/or heating rate are not too large, as quantified by a proposed dimensionless heating rate.

  19. Inversion of Bedding and Parasequence Types Preserved in Shelfal Mudstone Strata to Significant Marine Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohacs, K.; Lazar, R.; Demko, T.

    2012-12-01

    Mudstone strata contain an almost bewildering variety of physical, chemical, and biogenic attributes at the lamina to bed scale (mm - dm). Our observations of more than 7 km of Paleozoic to Pliocene mudstone revealed patterns in this variety of such macroscopic attributes as lithofacies, bedding, sedimentary structures, and stratal stacking patterns at the bedset to parasequence scale (cm - m). We quantified characteristics of each association and linked them to sets of depositional processes. Most shelfal mudstone strata appear to have accumulated in one of three end-member facies association successions (FASs) that can be related to physiographic settings and depositional regimes through characteristic modes of sediment transport and accumulation, as well as variations in benthic-energy and oxygen levels. FAS-1 comprises 1- to 10-meter-thick coarsening/thickening-upward stratal units, defined by lithologic indices: percent sandstone/siltstone/grainstone (Ss/Zs/Gs), maximum grain size, thickness of individual Ss/Zs/Gs bedsets. These FASs also have increasing total-organic-carbon content (TOC) and planktonic material in basal bedsets, overlain by an interval with an upward decrease in TOC and planktonic microfossil abundance along with an upward increase in skeletal phosphate, palynomorph content, and bioturbation. FAS-2 comprise 1- to 14-meter-thick coarsening/thickening-upward stratal units, defined by similar lithologic indices and changes as FAS-1; FAS-2 also has an upward decrease in content of TOC and planktonic microfossils, skeletal phosphate, and ichnofossil abundance and diversity. Very basal bedsets tend to have relatively low concentrations of planktonic material. Also distinctive are the common occurrence of palynodebris throughout (in post-Silurian rocks), with thin lags of macrofossils and skeletal phosphate in basal portions, Bouma B-C bedsets, and soft-sediment deformation with minimal, horizontal burrows in its middle portions, and scours, graded

  20. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process.

  1. Fluid bed drying of guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK) extract: effect of process factors on caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Pagliarussi, Renata S; Bastos, Jairo K; Freitas, Luis A P

    2006-06-16

    The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 3(3) factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120 degrees C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120 degrees C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120 degrees C.

  2. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000°C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geometry is defined by a graphite retort with a 2.5 inch inside diameter, conical section with a 60° included angle, and a 4 mm gas inlet orifice diameter through which particles are removed from the reactor at the completion of each run. The particles may range from 200 µm to 2 mm in diameter. Maintaining optimal gas flow rates slightly above the minimum spouting velocity throughout the duration of each run is complicated by the variation of particle size and density as conversion and/or coating reactions proceed in addition to gas composition and temperature variations. In order to achieve uniform particle coating, prevent agglomeration of the particle bed, and monitor the reaction progress, a spouted bed monitoring system was developed. The monitoring system includes a high-sensitivity, low-response time differential pressure transducer paired with a signal processing, data acquisition, and process control unit which allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor. The pressure transducer is mounted upstream of the spouted bed reactor gas inlet. The gas flow into the reactor induces motion of the particles in the bed and prevents the particles from draining from the reactor due to gravitational forces. Pressure fluctuations in the gas inlet stream are generated as the particles in the bed interact with the entering gas stream. The pressure fluctuations are produced by bulk movement of the bed, generation and movement of gas bubbles through the bed, and the individual motion of particles and particle subsets in the bed. The pressure fluctuations propagate upstream to the pressure transducer where they can be monitored. Pressure fluctuation, mean differential pressure, gas flow rate, reactor

  3. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  4. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Gerhard John; Jonke, Albert A.; Snyder, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  5. Rhythmic bedding in prodeltaic deposits of the ancient Colorado River: Exploring genetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waresak, Sandra; Nalin, Ronald; Lucarelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Prodeltaic deposits represent a valuable archive for the characterization of deltaic depositional systems, offering a distal, minimally reworked record of dominant processes active at the fluvial-marine interface. The Fish Creek Basin (CA, US) preserves a ~ 3-km thick, lower Pliocene, progradational deltaic succession formed when the ancestral Colorado River infiltrated a marine rift basin (the early Gulf of California). The unit in this succession interpreted as prodeltaic, corresponding to the upper Mud Hills Member of the Deguynos Formation, consists of ~ 300 m of muddy siltstones. A striking attribute of parts of this unit is the presence of rhythmic bedding, with consistently alternating silt- to fine sand-dominated and clay-dominated beds forming couplets with an average thickness of 12 cm. By performing a detailed sedimentological analysis of the rhythmites and investigating periodicities in bed thickness, our study aimed at reconstructing the mode of deposition of this enigmatic prodeltaic succession. We measured at high stratigraphic resolution 265 consecutive couplets, for a total thickness of 33 m. Individual beds have good lateral persistence of at least tens of meters and gradational to sharp, flat contacts. Observed sedimentary structures are concentrated on the coarser portion of the couplets and mostly consist of parallel and wavy lamination, with subordinate ripple cross-lamination and localized internal scours. Bioturbation appears low in intensity or absent. Most notably, grain size analysis performed with laser diffraction techniques on several couplets shows a consistent pattern of inverse grading transitioning to normal grading. The cumulative evidence of these sedimentological features indicates that deposition of the rhythmites was accomplished via hyperpycnal flows, each couplet most likely representing an individual event in a setting characterized by high overall depositional rates. We performed time series analysis on bed thickness of

  6. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S

    2013-10-01

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  7. The role of vegetation and bed-level fluctuations in the process of channel narrowing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Lewis, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    A catastrophic flood in 1965 on Plum Creek, a perennial sandbed stream in the western Great Plains, removed most of the bottomland vegetation and transformed the single-thalweg stream into a wider, braided channel. Following eight years of further widening associated with minor high flows, a process of channel narrowing began in 1973; narrowing continues today. The history of channel narrowing was reconstructed by counting the annual rings of 129 trees and shrubs along a 5-km reach of Plum Creek near Louviers, Colorado. Sixty-three of these plants were excavated in order to determine the age and elevation of the germination point. The reconstructed record of channel change was verified from historical aerial photographs, and then compared to sediment stratigraphy and records of discharge and bed elevation from a streamflow gaging station in the study reach. Channel narrowing at Plum Creek occurs in two ways. First, during periods of high flow, sand and fine gravel are delivered to the channel, temporarily raising the general bed-level. Subsequently, several years of uninterrupted low flows incise a narrower channel. Second, during years of low flow, vegetation becomes established on the subaerial part of the present channel bed. In both cases, surfaces stabilize as a result of vegetation growth and vertical accretion of sediment.

  8. Vistula River bed erosion processes and their influence on Warsaw's flood safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuszewski, A.; Moran, S.

    2015-03-01

    Large cities have historically been well protected against floods as a function of their importance to society. In Warsaw, Poland, located on a narrow passage of the Vistula River valley, urban flood disasters were not unusual. Beginning at the end of the 19th century, the construction of river embankment and training works caused the narrowing of the flood passage path in the downtown reach of the river. The process of bed erosion lowered the elevation of the river bed by 205 cm over the 20th century, and the consequences of bed lowering are reflected by the rating curve change. Conditions of the flood passage have been analysed by the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model both in retro-modelling and scenario simulation modelling. The high water mark of the 1844 flood and iterative calculations in retro-modelling made possible estimation of the discharge, Q = 8250 m3 s-1. This highest observed historical flood in a natural river has been compared to recent conditions of the Vistula River in Warsaw by scenario modelling. The result shows dramatic changes in water surface elevation, velocities, and shear stress. The vertical velocity in the proximity of Port Praski gauge at km 513 can reach 3.5 m s-1, a very high value for a lowland river. The average flow conveyance is improving due to channel erosion but also declining in the case of extreme floods due to high resistance from vegetation on the flood plains.

  9. Chemical looping combustion in a rotating bed reactor--finding optimal process conditions for prototype reactor.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Silje Fosse; Blom, Richard

    2011-11-15

    A lab-scale rotating bed reactor for chemical looping combustion has been designed, constructed, and tested using a CuO/Al(2)O(3) oxygen carrier and methane as fuel. Process parameters such as bed rotating frequency, gas flows, and reactor temperature have been varied to find optimal performance of the prototype reactor. Around 90% CH(4) conversion and >90% CO(2) capture efficiency based on converted methane have been obtained. Stable operation has been accomplished over several hours, and also--stable operation can be regained after intentionally running into unstable conditions. Relatively high gas velocities are used to avoid fully reduced oxygen carrier in part of the bed. Potential CO(2) purity obtained is in the range 30 to 65%--mostly due to air slippage from the air sector--which seems to be the major drawback of the prototype reactor design. Considering the prototype nature of the first version of the rotating reactor setup, it is believed that significant improvements can be made to further avoid gas mixing in future modified and up-scaled reactor versions.

  10. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  11. Thermographic Measurements of the Commercial Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the high-temperature melt pool region in the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is a primary focus of researchers to further understand the dynamic physics of the heating, melting, adhesion, and cooling which define this commercially popular additive manufacturing process. This paper will detail the design, execution, and results of high speed, high magnification in-situ thermographic measurements conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) focusing on the melt pool region of a commercial L-PBF process. Multiple phenomena are observed including plasma plume and hot particle ejection from the melt region. The thermographic measurement process will be detailed with emphasis on the ‘measurability’ of observed phenomena and the sources of measurement uncertainty. Further discussion will relate these thermographic results to other efforts at NIST towards L-PBF process finite element simulation and development of in-situ sensing and control methodologies. PMID:28058036

  12. Thermographic Measurements of the Commercial Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process at NIST.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the high-temperature melt pool region in the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is a primary focus of researchers to further understand the dynamic physics of the heating, melting, adhesion, and cooling which define this commercially popular additive manufacturing process. This paper will detail the design, execution, and results of high speed, high magnification in-situ thermographic measurements conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) focusing on the melt pool region of a commercial L-PBF process. Multiple phenomena are observed including plasma plume and hot particle ejection from the melt region. The thermographic measurement process will be detailed with emphasis on the 'measurability' of observed phenomena and the sources of measurement uncertainty. Further discussion will relate these thermographic results to other efforts at NIST towards L-PBF process finite element simulation and development of in-situ sensing and control methodologies.

  13. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.; ,

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  15. Trace element partitioning during the retorting of Julia Creek oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Dale, L.S.; Chapman, J.f.

    1987-05-01

    A bulk sample of oil shale from the Julia Creek deposit in Queensland was retorted under Fischer assay conditions at temperatures ranging from 250 to 550 /sup 0/C. The distributions of the trace elements detected in the shale oil and retort water were determined at each temperature. Oil distillation commenced at 300 /sup 0/C and was essentially complete at 500 /sup 0/C. A number of trace elements were progressively mobilized with increasing retort temperature up to 450 /sup 0/C. The following trace elements partitioned mainly to the oil: vanadium, arsenic, selenium, iron, nickel, titanium, copper, cobalt, and aluminum. Elements that also partitioned to the retort waters included arsenic, selenium, chlorine, and bromine. Element mobilization is considered to be caused by the volatilization of organometallic compounds, sulfide minerals, and sodium halides present in the oil shale. The results have important implications for shale oil refining and for the disposal of retort waters. 22 references, 5 tables.

  16. Factors affecting degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Meng-Hsuan; Methatham, Thanakorn; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the target compound is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used as a photoresist stripping solvent in the semiconductor and thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing processes. The effects of the operating parameters (pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations) on the degradation of DMSO in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were examined. This study used the Box-Behnken design (BBD) to investigate the optimum conditions of DMSO degradation. The highest DMSO removal was 98 % for pH 3, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 12. At pH 2 and 4, the highest DMSO removal was 82 %, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 6.5. The correlation of DMSO removal showed that the effect of the parameters on DMSO removal followed the order Fe(2+) > H2O2 > pH. From the BBD prediction, the optimum conditions were pH 3, 5 mM of Fe(2+), and 60 mM of H2O2. The difference between the experimental value (98 %) and the predicted value (96 %) was not significant. The removal efficiencies of DMSO, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and iron in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were higher than those in the traditional Fenton process.

  17. Effects of process parameters on solid self-microemulsifying particles in a laboratory scale fluid bed.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Tusharmouli; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to select the critical process parameters of the fluid bed processes impacting the quality attribute of a solid self-microemulsifying (SME) system of albendazole (ABZ). A fractional factorial design (2(4-1)) with four parameters (spray rate, inlet air temperature, inlet air flow, and atomization air pressure) was created by MINITAB software. Batches were manufactured in a laboratory top-spray fluid bed at 625-g scale. Loss on drying (LOD) samples were taken throughout each batch to build the entire moisture profiles. All dried granulation were sieved using mesh 20 and analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), morphology, density, and flow. It was found that as spray rate increased, sauter-mean diameter (D(s)) also increased. The effect of inlet air temperature on the peak moisture which is directly related to the mean particle size was found to be significant. There were two-way interactions between studied process parameters. The main effects of inlet air flow rate and atomization air pressure could not be found as the data were inconclusive. The partial least square (PLS) regression model was found significant (P < 0.01) and predictive for optimization. This study established a design space for the parameters for solid SME manufacturing process.

  18. The use of fixed bed absorbents for flexible operation on the SAGE gas processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carnell, P.J.H.; Joslin, K.W.; Woodham, P.R.

    1995-11-01

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. operates the SAGE Gas Terminal at St. Fergus, Scotland on behalf of the SAGE partners. This terminal is capable of processing 1,150 MMscfd of sour gas with the sales gas being delivered into the British Gas distribution network and NGL`s exported by pipelines to Shell`s NGL fractionation plant at Mossmorran and BP`s fractionation plant at Kinneil. In order to meet the specifications for the sales gas and NGL produced while processing different mixtures of three separate feed gases produced by three independently operated production platforms the SAGE Gas Terminal has utilized ICI Katalco`s PURASPEC{trademark} processes to provide flexibility and reduce cost. This paper discusses how and where these fixed bed processes are utilized.

  19. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  20. Performance analysis of RDF gasification in a two stage fluidized bed-plasma process.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, M; Lettieri, P; Taylor, R; Chapman, C

    2016-01-01

    The major technical problems faced by stand-alone fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) for waste-to gas applications are intrinsically related to the composition and physical properties of waste materials, such as RDF. The high quantity of ash and volatile material in RDF can provide a decrease in thermal output, create high ash clinkering, and increase emission of tars and CO2, thus affecting the operability for clean syngas generation at industrial scale. By contrast, a two-stage process which separates primary gasification and selective tar and ash conversion would be inherently more forgiving and stable. This can be achieved with the use of a separate plasma converter, which has been successfully used in conjunction with conventional thermal treatment units, for the ability to 'polish' the producer gas by organic contaminants and collect the inorganic fraction in a molten (and inert) state. This research focused on the performance analysis of a two-stage fluid bed gasification-plasma process to transform solid waste into clean syngas. Thermodynamic assessment using the two-stage equilibrium method was carried out to determine optimum conditions for the gasification of RDF and to understand the limitations and influence of the second stage on the process performance (gas heating value, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency), along with other parameters. Comparison with a different thermal refining stage, i.e. thermal cracking (via partial oxidation) was also performed. The analysis is supported by experimental data from a pilot plant.

  1. Process Analysis of Lignite Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Coupled with Pyrolysis Topping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoqun; Dong, Li; Wang, Yin; Matsuzawa, Y.; Xu, Guangwen

    We developed a comprehensive process model in ASPEN Plus to simulate the energy and mass balances of a lignite-fueled atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler integrated with coal predrying and pyrolysis topping. In this model, it is assumed that the heat from exhausted flue gas was employed for coal predrying, and the sensible heat derived from circulated bed material was used for the pyrolysis topping (endothermic process). The simulation was conducted with respectto the Yunnan Kaiyuan CFB boiler, and two representative lignite coals from Xiao Long Tan (XLT) and Xin Shao (XS) were considered. The result shows that the predrying of coal with the sensible heat of above 363 K from flue gas, the amount of coal consumed in the boiler can be reduced by 3.5% and 5.3% for XLT lignite and XS lignite, respectively. It was also found that integration of pyrolysis topping with the boiler increased the coal consumption of the boiler, and the extent of consumption-increase varies with the yields of tar and gas in the pyrolysis topping process. For agas yield of 5.2% and a tar yield of 5-6%, the consumption of XS lignite increased by about 20% comparing to that in the case without topping.

  2. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of the shale-oil produced in the Estonian Kiviter retort.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P; Veidebaum, T; Tamme, J; Põldvere, E

    1990-01-01

    Skin painting experiments in CC57Bl mice showed that the total oil (TO) obtained by thermal processing of lump oil shale in the high capacity 'Kiviter' retort containing 56 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and diluted with benzene (66.6%) induced skin tumours in five out of 60 effective mice--in three mice squamous-cell papillomas and in two mice carcinomas. The light fraction (230-350 degrees C) of this oil and the laboratory residue (82 ppm BP) of the latter failed to induce skin tumours. An industrial residue of a blend of shale oils containing 590 ppm BP induced in 10 mice papillomas and in three mice carcinomas, gave a positive response in the Ames assay and also induced chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. The laboratory residue and light fraction were clearly mutagenic in the Ames assay and positive responses were also obtained with the basic and neutral fractions and a polynuclear aromatics fraction.

  3. Modified graphical autocatalytic set model of combustion process in circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Nurul Syazwani; Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ismail, Razidah

    2014-07-01

    Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler (CFB) is a device for generating steam by burning fossil fuels in a furnace operating under a special hydrodynamic condition. Autocatalytic Set has provided a graphical model of chemical reactions that occurred during combustion process in CFB. Eight important chemical substances known as species were represented as nodes and catalytic relationships between nodes are represented by the edges in the graph. In this paper, the model is extended and modified by considering other relevant chemical reactions that also exist during the process. Catalytic relationship among the species in the model is discussed. The result reveals that the modified model is able to gives more explanation of the relationship among the species during the process at initial time t.

  4. Spent shale as a control technology for oil shale retort water. Annual report, October 1, 1978 - September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.P.; Jackson, D.E.; Sakaji, R.H.; Daughton, C.G.; Selleck, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    This program is investigating two potential uses of the spent shale for treatment of retort waters. In the first application, the abandoned in-situ retorts would be directly used as part of a treatment system. Water generated in one retort would be circulated through spent shale in an adjacent retort to reduce contaminants in the water and to cool the in-situ spent shale in preparation for retort abandonment and grouting. In the second application, spent shale produced in surface retorts would be used in packed columns similar to powdered activated carbon columns. The exhausted spent shale would be disposed of along with other solid wastes in the on-site solid waste disposal facility. The work summarized here indicated that spent shales are effective in removing color, odor, inorganic carbon, and certain classes of organic compounds, and in elevating the pH of retort water and gas condensates so that NH/sub 3/ may be readily stripped.

  5. Numerical investigation of solid mixing in a fluidized bed coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenche, Venkatakrishna; Feng, Yuqing; Ying, Danyang; Solnordal, Chris; Lim, Seng; Witt, Peter J.

    2013-06-01

    Fluidized beds are widely used in many process industries including the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Despite being an intensive research area, there are no design rules or correlations that can be used to quantitatively predict the solid mixing in a specific system for a given set of operating conditions. This paper presents a numerical study of the gas and solid dynamics in a laboratory scale fluidized bed coating process used for food and pharmaceutical industries. An Eulerian-Eulerian model (EEM) with kinetic theory of granular flow is selected as the modeling technique, with the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS/Fluent being the numerical platform. The flow structure is investigated in terms of the spatial distribution of gas and solid flow. The solid mixing has been evaluated under different operating conditions. It was found that the solid mixing rate in the horizontal direction is similar to that in the vertical direction under the current design and operating conditions. It takes about 5 s to achieve good mixing.

  6. Combining High Resolution Measurements and Simulations of Near-Bed Sediment Transport Processes Under Large-Scale Breaking Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, J. R.; Hurther, D.; van der Zanden, J.; van der A, D. A.; Ribberink, J.; O'Donoghue, T.; Li, M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical processes involved in near-bed sediment transport under regular, breaking waves are investigated using a combined framework of high resolution measurement and numerical simulation. Experiments are carried out at full scale (0.85 m wave height, 4 s period) in the CIEM wave flume above a mobile sand bed (d10, d50, d90 = 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.37 mm). Vertical profiles of co-located, two component (u, w) velocity and particle concentration are measured in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) using a multi-frequency acoustic concentration velocity profiler (ACVP) at several locations along the beach. The intra-wave free stream velocity measurements are provided as input to three dimensional Euler-Lagrange point-particle simulations of the BBL. Using a series of feedback controllers, the simulation forcing is adjusted to match the measured orbital velocity and turbulent intensities at an elevation of z~8 cm above the bed. The simulations treat sand grains both in the bed and in suspension as Lagrangian particles that respond to hydrodynamic and inter-particle forces. Particles are coupled to the near-bed hydrodynamics through the volume filtered Navier Stokes equations, which are solved in a finite volume LES framework at near particle scale. Several wave cycles are simulated in order to make direct comparisons of the mean and turbulent statistics with the measurements and to explore the near-bed particle response to wave breaking. Statistics of the space-time dependent grain-size distribution, a natural output of the particle-based simulations, are fed back into the acoustic calibration of the ACVP, improving the instrument's response to grain size sorting induced by the near bed flow. This cross validation and calibration of measurement and simulation allows for detailed interrogation of near-bed transport processes with minimal empirical assumptions relating to bed shear, particle pickup, or surface wave breaking.

  7. Treatment of amoxicillin by O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Zeng, Zequan; Li, Yingwen; Arowo, Moses; Chen, Jianfeng; Meng, Hong; Shao, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, simulated amoxicillin wastewater was treated by the O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed (RPB) and the results were compared with the Fenton process and the O3 followed by Fenton (O3 + Fenton) process. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate and the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) in the O3/Fenton process were approximately 17% and 26%, respectively, higher than those in the O3 + Fenton process with an initial pH of 3. The COD removal rate of the amoxicillin solution reached maximum at the Fe(II) concentration of 0.6 mM, temperature of 25 °C, rotation speed of 800 rpm and initial pH of 3. The BOD5/COD of the amoxicillin solution increased from 0 to 0.38 after the solution was treated by the O3/Fenton process. Analysis of the intermediates indicated that the pathway of amoxicillin degradation in the O3/Fenton process was similar to that in the O3 + Fenton process. Contrast experiment results showed that amoxicillin degradation was significantly intensified in the RPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Process defects and in situ monitoring methods in metal powder bed fusion: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Marco; Colosimo, Bianca Maria

    2017-04-01

    Despite continuous technological enhancements of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, the lack of process repeatability and stability still represents a barrier for the industrial breakthrough. The most relevant metal AM applications currently involve industrial sectors (e.g. aerospace and bio-medical) where defects avoidance is fundamental. Because of this, there is the need to develop novel in situ monitoring tools able to keep under control the stability of the process on a layer-by-layer basis, and to detect the onset of defects as soon as possible. On the one hand, AM systems must be equipped with in situ sensing devices able to measure relevant quantities during the process, a.k.a. process signatures. On the other hand, in-process data analytics and statistical monitoring techniques are required to detect and localize the defects in an automated way. This paper reviews the literature and the commercial tools for in situ monitoring of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. It explores the different categories of defects and their main causes, the most relevant process signatures and the in situ sensing approaches proposed so far. Particular attention is devoted to the development of automated defect detection rules and the study of process control strategies, which represent two critical fields for the development of future smart PBF systems.

  9. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  10. Characterization of in-situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1984-07-17

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in-situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  11. Handling of solids-laden hydrocarbonaceous bottoms in a retort using solid heat-carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, H.B.

    1981-01-20

    Crushed mined coal, oil shale or tar sands, feedstocks are retorted in a retort using heat-carrying solids to supply at least fifty percent of the heat required to produce an average retort temperature of between 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C) and 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C) to produce hydrocarbonaceous gases and oil. The hydrocarbon oils are treated in a manner such that there is produced a bottoms fraction containing organic carbon compounds having a boiling point above 950* F. And particulate inorganic matter derived from the retorted material. The bottoms fraction is fed directly or indirectly into the retort in a manner such that the bottoms fraction does not contact the reheated heat carriers before the heat carrying solids are contacted with the crushed mined feedstock. The bottoms fraction may be fed directly into the retort downstream of the point where the feedstock and heat carriers are first mixed, or the bottoms fraction may be fed into the feedstock before the feedstock enters the retort. This method of handling the bottoms fraction prevents breakage or agglomeration of the heat carrying solids.

  12. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1991-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

  14. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25-1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  15. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300°C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200–230ºC and 270–280ºC. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25–1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  16. Inorganic solute profiles of waters related to Rio Blanco oil shale project retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, R.E.; Borg, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    Water samples were taken from the Rio Blanco oil shale project retort 1 site approximately three- and one-half years after the shutdown of the oil recovery phase. Intermittent flooding and pumpdown of the retort occurred in the interval between shutdown and sampling for this study. Waters from within the retort and from downgradient and offsite locations were compared using a battery of analyses for inorganic and general water quality parameters. Inorganic solute species were selected as potential key indicator species if the particular species concentration inside the retort was greater than that outside the retort. Six inorganic parameters were found to qualify as potential key indicators for retort water migration from the site: potassium, lithium, ammonia, fluoride, thiosulfate, and boron. Except for ammonia, these indicators differ from those selected by other researchers at other modified in situ retorting sites. Ion chromatographic techniques were shown to be applicable for five of the six potential key indicators - all except boron which was detected spectroscopically. Low part-per-billion ion chromatographic analyses were demonstrated for lithium and ammonia. Fractional part-per-million ion chromatographic analyses were demonstrated for potassium and fluoride. Thiosulfate detection limits were in the low part-per-million range and only allowed detection of this indicator inside the retort. Five of the indicators (all except thiosulfate) were detected at slightly elevated levels in the Mahogany Zone ''B'' groove completion of the downgradient well. However, insufficient historical baseline data are available at the low detection levels required to allow positive identification of communication between this well and the retort. The potential for enhancement of sensitivity of the ion chromatographic methods beyond that already achieved for the selected indicators is discusses. 11 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  17. Tensiomygraphic Measurement of Atrophy Related Processes During Bed Rest and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunic, B. ostjan; Degens, Hans; Rittweger, Jorn; Narici, Marcco; Pisot, Venceslav; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Pisot, Rado

    2013-02-01

    Tensiomyographic (TMG) parameters were recently proposed for a non-invasive estimation of MHC distribution in human vastus lateralis muscle. However, TMG potential is even higher, offers additional insight into the skeletal muscle physiology, especially in the field of atrophy and hypertrophy. The purpose of this study is in developing time dynamics of TMG-measured contraction time (Tc) and maximal response amplitude (Dm), together with muscle belly thickness, measure thoroughly during 35-day bed rest and followed in 30-day recovery (N = 10 males; age 24.3 ± 2.6 years). Measurements were performed in two postural muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis) and one non-postural muscle (biceps femoris). During bed rest period we found different dynamics of muscle thickness decrease and Dm increase. Tc was unchanged in postural muscles, but in non-postural muscle increased significantly and stayed as such even at the end of recovery. We could conclude that TMG related parameters are more sensitive in measuring muscle atrophic and hypertrophic processes than biomedical imaging technique. However, a mechanism that regulates Dm still needs to be identified.

  18. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1983-01-01

    A method and a cutter for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head (72) has a hollow body (76) with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft (74) extends from the hollow body (76). Cutter teeth (78) are mounted on the upper surface of the body (76) and relatively small holes (77) are formed in the body (76) between the cutter teeth (78). Relatively large peripheral flutes (80) around the body (76) allow material to drop below the drill head (72). A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

  19. Numerical Modelling of a Fast Pyrolysis Process in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalifar, S.; Ghiji, M.; Abbassi, R.; Garaniya, V.; Hawboldt, K.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the Eulerian-Granular approach is applied to simulate a fast pyrolysis bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Fast pyrolysis converts biomass to bio-products through thermochemical conversion in absence of oxygen. The aim of this study is to employ a numerical framework for simulation of the fast pyrolysis process and extend this to more complex reactor geometries. The framework first needs to be validated and this was accomplished by modelling a lab-scale pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor in 2-D and comparing with published data. A multi-phase CFD model has been employed to obtain clearer insights into the physical phenomena associated with flow dynamics and heat transfer, and by extension the impact on reaction rates. Biomass thermally decomposes to solid, condensable and non-condensable and therefore a multi-fluid model is used. A simplified reaction model is sued where the many components are grouped into a solid reacting phase, condensable/non-condensable phase, and non-reacting solid phase (the heat carrier). The biomass decomposition is simplified to four reaction mechanisms based on the thermal decomposition of cellulose. A time-splitting method is used for coupling of multi-fluid model and reaction rates. A good agreement is witnessed in the products yield between the CFD simulation and the experiment.

  20. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1983-07-05

    A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale. 4 figs.

  1. Preparative chromatography with supercritical fluids. Comparison of simulated moving bed and batch processes.

    PubMed

    Peper, Stephanie; Johannsen, Monika; Brunner, Gerd

    2007-12-28

    Preparative chromatography is a key technology for the separation of fine chemicals in production scale. Most of the published studies are carried out using liquid solvents as mobile phase. However, the used organic solvents can often be replaced by supercritical fluids. A reduction or renouncement of organic solvents does not only correspond to the trend of the so-called green chemistry--a sustainable, environmentally friendly production of chemical products. But a changeover to chromatography with supercritical fluids can also be reasonable under economic criteria. In this contribution a comparison between the Batch-supercritical fluid chromatography (Batch-SFC) process and the simulated moving bed (SMB)-SFC process is presented. Because of the minor importance of solvent consumption and solvent recovery in SFC, the separation systems were optimized primarily in terms of their specific productivity. For three of the four investigated model systems, the specific productivity of the SMB process is significantly higher than the productivity of the Batch process. Due to the fact, that the process with the higher specific productivity is not inevitably the more economical process, supplementary the costs of the process were considered. Therefore the comparison of the two processes was done from an economic point of view considering the minimum product price that has to be realized to fulfill the defined economic aim. It was found that although the optimized specific productivities of the SMB process were significantly higher than the productivities of the Batch process, the Batch process is the more profitable process for the investigated production rate range between 0.4 and 5t/a.

  2. Applicability of fluidized bed reactor in recalcitrant compound degradation through advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Tisa, Farhana; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of industrial waste water (e.g. textile waste water, phenol waste water, pharmaceutical etc) faces limitation in conventional treatment procedures. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) do not suffer from the limits of conventional treatment processes and consequently degrade toxic pollutants more efficiently. Complexity is faced in eradicating the restrictions of AOPs such as sludge formation, toxic intermediates formation and high requirement for oxidants. Increased mass-transfer in AOPs is an alternate solution to this problem. AOPs combined with Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) can be a potential choice compared to fixed bed or moving bed reactor, as AOP catalysts life-span last for only maximum of 5-10 cycles. Hence, FBR-AOPs require lesser operational and maintenance cost by reducing material resources. The time required for AOP can be minimized using FBR and also treatable working volume can be increased. FBR-AOP can process from 1 to 10 L of volume which is 10 times more than simple batch reaction. The mass transfer is higher thus the reaction time is lesser. For having increased mass transfer sludge production can be successfully avoided. The review study suggests that, optimum particle size, catalyst to reactor volume ratio, catalyst diameter and liquid or gas velocity is required for efficient FBR-AOP systems. However, FBR-AOPs are still under lab-scale investigation and for industrial application cost study is needed. Cost of FBR-AOPs highly depends on energy density needed and the mechanism of degradation of the pollutant. The cost of waste water treatment containing azo dyes was found to be US$ 50 to US$ 500 per 1000 gallons where, the cost for treating phenol water was US$ 50 to US$ 800 per 1000 gallons. The analysis for FBR-AOP costs has been found to depend on the targeted pollutant, degradation mechanism (zero order, 1st order and 2nd order) and energy consumptions by the AOPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  4. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts II. Comparison of mutagenic effects at five genetic markers induced by retort process water plus near ultraviolet light in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, D J; Strniste, G F

    1982-01-01

    A chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line heterozygous at the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) locus was used for selection of induced mutants resistant to 8-azaadenine (8AA), 6-thioguanine (6TG), ouabain (OUA), emetine (EMT) and diphtheria toxin (DIP). The expression times necessary for optimizing the number of mutants recovered at the different loci have been determined using the know direct acting mutagen, far ultraviolet light (FUV), and a complex aqueous organic mixture (shale oil process water) activated with near ultraviolet light (NUV). Our results indicate that optimal expression times following treatment with either mutagen was between 2 and 8 days (depending on the genetic marker examined). For CHO cells treated with shale oil process water and subsequently exposed to NUV a linear dose response for mutant induction was observed for all five genetic loci. At 10% surviving fraction of cells, between 35- and 130-fold increases above background mutation frequencies were observed for the various markers examined. Among the five genetic loci tested, OUAR was the most sensitive marker tested.

  5. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on aniline oxidation by electro-Fenton and fluidized-bed Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Anotai, Jin; Su, Chia-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2010-11-15

    In this study, the electro-Fenton and fluidized-bed Fenton processes under the given conditions were used to oxidize aniline. Factors such as feeding mode and concentration of the hydrogen peroxide were explored. Results showed that the feeding mode of H(2)O(2) did not significantly affect the aniline oxidation in the electro-Fenton process. However, the aniline oxidation slightly decreased with the two-step addition of H(2)O(2) in the fluidized-bed Fenton process. Presumably the decline of remaining Fe(2+) led to destitute hydrogen radicals from the Fe(2+)-catalyzed H(2)O(2). In addition, the removal efficiency of aniline was maintained at a maximum as H(2)O(2) concentration was higher than 0.04 M in the electro-Fenton process. Meanwhile, the almost exhausted H(2)O(2) would increase the amount of Fe(2+) in the solution for the electro-Fenton process. This is because the Fe(2+) is regenerated through the reduction of Fe(3+) on the cathode. The electro-Fenton process has a stronger oxidative ability with regard to the production of the oxalic acid than fluidized-bed Fenton process which was attributed to a higher consumption of H(2)O(2). Therefore, in the aspect of H(2)O(2) depletion, the mineralization efficiency of the fluidized-bed Fenton process was higher than that of the electro-Fenton process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization and scale-up of a fluid bed tangential spray rotogranulation process.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, J; Dumont, H; Bertrand, F; Legros, R

    2007-04-20

    The production of pellets in the pharmaceutical industry generally involves multi-step processing: (1) mixing, (2) wet granulation, (3) spheronization and (4) drying. While extrusion-spheronization processes have been popular because of their simplicity, fluid-bed rotogranulation (FBRG) is now being considered as an alternative, since it offers the advantages of combining the different steps into one processing unit, thus reducing processing time and material handling. This work aimed at the development of a FBRG process for the production of pellets in a 4.5-l Glatt GCPG1 tangential spray rotoprocessor and its optimization using factorial design. The factors considered were: (1) rotor disc velocity, (2) gap air pressure, (3) air flow rate, (4) binder spray rate and (5) atomization pressure. The pellets were characterized for their physical properties by measuring size distribution, roundness and flow properties. The results indicated that: pellet mean particle size is negatively affected by air flow rate and rotor plate speed, while binder spray rate has a positive effect on size; pellet flow properties are enhanced by operating with increased air flow rate and worsened with increased binder spray rate. Multiple regression analysis enabled the identification of an optimal operating window for production of acceptable pellets. Scale-up of these operating conditions was tested in a 30-l Glatt GPCG15 FBRG.

  7. Process for generating electricity in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system

    DOEpatents

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating electricity using a gas turbine as part of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system wherein coal is fed as a fuel in a slurry in which other constituents, including a sulfur sorbent such as limestone, are added. The coal is combusted with air in a pressurized combustion chamber wherein most of the residual sulfur in the coal is captured by the sulfur sorbent. After particulates are removed from the flue gas, the gas expands in a turbine, thereby generating electric power. The spent flue gas is cooled by heat exchange with system combustion air and/or system liquid streams, and the condensate is returned to the feed slurry.

  8. A message passing kernel for the hypercluster parallel processing test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    A Message-Passing Kernel (MPK) for the Hypercluster parallel-processing test bed is described. The Hypercluster is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support investigations of parallel algorithms and architectures for computational fluid and structural mechanics applications. The Hypercluster resembles the hypercube architecture except that each node consists of multiple processors communicating through shared memory. The MPK efficiently routes information through the Hypercluster, using a message-passing protocol when necessary and faster shared-memory communication whenever possible. The MPK also interfaces all of the processors with the Hypercluster operating system (HYCLOPS), which runs on a Front-End Processor (FEP). This approach distributes many of the I/O tasks to the Hypercluster processors and eliminates the need for a separate I/O support program on the FEP.

  9. Bi-level optimizing control of a simulated moving bed process with nonlinear adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Jin-Il; Park, Hyukmin; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Lee, Kwang Soon

    2011-09-23

    A bi-level optimizing control scheme originally proposed for a simulated moving bed (SMB) with linear isotherms has been extended to an SMB with nonlinear isotherms. Cyclic steady state optimization is performed in the upper level to determine the optimum switching period and time-varying feed/desorbent flow rates, and repetitive model predictive control is run in the lower level for purity regulation, taking the decision variables from the upper level as feed-forward information. Experimental as well as numerical study for an SMB process separating a high-concentration mixture of aqueous L-ribose and L-arabinose solutions showed that the proposed scheme performs satisfactorily against various disturbances. In contrast, an alternative scheme based on an SMB model with linear isotherms showed a limitation in the control performance; this scheme was apt to fail in purity regulation.

  10. Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes

    DOE PAGES

    Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Guss, Gabe; Khairallah, Saad A.; ...

    2016-05-20

    Understanding laser interaction with metal powder beds is critical in predicting optimum processing regimes in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals. In this work, we study the denudation of metal powders that is observed near the laser scan path as a function of laser parameters and ambient gas pressure. We show that the observed depletion of metal powder particles in the zone immediately surrounding the solidified track is due to a competition between outward metal vapor flux directed away from the laser spot and entrainment of powder particles in a shear flow of gas driven by a metalmore » vapor jet at the melt track. Between atmospheric pressure and ~10 Torr of Ar gas, the denuded zone width increases with decreasing ambient gas pressure and is dominated by entrainment from inward gas flow. The denuded zone then decreases from 10 to 2.2 Torr reaching a minimum before increasing again from 2.2 to 0.5 Torr where metal vapor flux and expansion from the melt pool dominates. In addition, the dynamics of the denudation process were captured using high-speed imaging, revealing that the particle movement is a complex interplay among melt pool geometry, metal vapor flow, and ambient gas pressure. The experimental results are rationalized through finite element simulations of the melt track formation and resulting vapor flow patterns. The results presented here represent new insights to denudation and melt track formation that can be important for the prediction and minimization of void defects and surface roughness in additively manufactured metal components.« less

  11. Development of a fluid bed granulation process control strategy based on real-time process and product measurements.

    PubMed

    Burggraeve, Anneleen; Silva, Ana F T; Van den Kerkhof, Tom; Hellings, Mario; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Vander Heyden, Yvan; De Beer, Thomas

    2012-10-15

    This article describes the results of three case studies conducted consecutively, in order to develop a process control strategy for a top-spray fluid bed granulation process. The use of several real-time particle size (i.e., spatial filter velocimetry and focused beam reflectance measurement) and moisture (i.e., near infrared (NIR) and Lighthouse near infrared spectroscopy) analyzers was examined. A feed-forward process control method was developed, where in-line collected granulation information during the process spraying phase was used to determine the optimum drying temperature of the consecutive drying phase. Via real-time monitoring of process (i.e., spraying temperature and spray rate) and product (i.e., granule size distribution and moisture) parameters during the spraying period, the batch bulk density was predicted at the end of the spraying cycle, using a PLS model. When this predicted bulk density was not meeting the desired value, the developed control method allowed the calculation of an adjusted drying temperature leading to the desired batch bulk density at the end of the granulation process. Besides the development of the feed-forward control strategy, a quantitative PLS model for in-line moisture content prediction of the granulated end product was built using the NIR data.

  12. In-situ oil shale retort with differing upper and lower void fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-03-06

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation by excavating voids adjacent the top and bottom boundaries of the retort, leaving an intermediate zone of unfragmented formation between the voids. The lower level void is substantially larger than the upper level void. A lower portion of the intermediate zone is explosively expanded downwardly towards the lower level void for forming a first moiety of a fragmented mass of formation particles in the retort and leaving a void space over the top of the first moiety having about the same volume as the upper level void. Thereafter an upper portion of the intermediate zone is explosively expanded upwardly towards the upper level void and downwardly towards the void space for forming a second moiety of the fragmented mass in the retort. The fragmented mass has an average void fraction up to about 25% and no substantial part has a void fraction less than about 20%.

  13. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  14. Evaluation of Selected Chemical Processes for Production of Low-cost Silicon, Phase 3. [using a fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and operation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) for the production of granular semiconductor grade silicon by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles is presented. The construction of the process development unit (PDU) is reported. The PDU consists of four critical units of the EPSDU: the fluidized bed reactor, the reactor by product condenser, the zinc vaporizer, and the electrolytic cell. An experimental wetted wall condenser and its operation are described. Procedures are established for safe handling of SiCl4 leaks and spills from the EPSDU and PDU.

  15. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O'Neil, D.J. . Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  16. Application of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration technology using retort reactors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiping; Liu, Biao; Chen, Yingquan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    To introduce application status and illustrate the good utilisation potential of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration using retort reactors, the properties of major products and the economic viability of commercial factories were investigated. The capacity of one factory was about 3000t of biomass per year, which was converted into 1000t of charcoal, 950,000Nm(3) of biogas, 270t of woody tar, and 950t of woody vinegar. Charcoal and fuel gas had LHV of 31MJ/kg and 12MJ/m(3), respectively, indicating their potential for use as commercial fuels. The woody tar was rich in phenols, while woody vinegar contained large quantities of water and acetic acid. The economic analysis showed that the factory using this technology could be profitable, and the initial investment could be recouped over the factory lifetime. This technology offered a promising means of converting abundant agricultural biomass into high-value products.

  17. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  18. Determining Permissible Oxygen and Water Vapor Transmission Rate for Non-Retort Military Ration Packaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    oxygen transmission rate ( OTR ) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), for the non-retort pouch found in the Meal, Ready to EatTM (MRETM) individual...water vapor ingress is 0.004 g/pouch/d. Cracker samples used to determine permissible OTR did not fall below the overall quality requirement for...sensory attributes during the 32-week study. Thus, an allowable OTR for the non-retort pouch cannot be calculated from the results obtained. 15

  19. Nitrogen cycling processes and microbial community composition in bed sediments in the Yukon River at Pilot Station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repert, Deborah A.; Underwood, Jennifer C.; Smith, Richard L.; Song, Bongkeun

    2014-01-01

    Information on the contribution of nitrogen (N)-cycling processes in bed sediments to river nutrient fluxes in large northern latitude river systems is limited. This study examined the relationship between N-cycling processes in bed sediments and N speciation and loading in the Yukon River near its mouth at the Bering Sea. We conducted laboratory bioassays to measure N-cycling processes in sediment samples collected over distinct water cycle seasons. In conjunction, the microbial community composition in the bed sediments using genes involved in N-cycling (narG, napA, nosZ, and amoA) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences was examined. Temporal variation was observed in net N mineralization, nitrate uptake, and denitrification rate potentials and correlated strongly with sediment carbon (C) and extractable N content and microbial community composition rather than with river water nutrient concentrations. The C content of the bed sediment was notably impacted by the spring flood, ranging from 1.1% in the midst of an ice-jam to 0.1% immediately after ice-out, suggesting a buildup of organic material (OM) prior to scouring of the bed sediments during ice break up. The dominant members of the microbial community that explained differences in N-processing rates belonged to the genera Crenothrix,Flavobacterium, and the family of Comamonadaceae. Our results suggest that biogeochemical processing rates in the bed sediments appear to be more coupled to hydrology, nutrient availability in the sediments, and microbial community composition rather than river nutrient concentrations at Pilot Station.

  20. Nitrogen cycling processes and microbial community composition in bed sediments in the Yukon River at Pilot Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repert, Deborah A.; Underwood, Jennifer C.; Smith, Richard L.; Song, Bongkeun

    2014-12-01

    Information on the contribution of nitrogen (N)-cycling processes in bed sediments to river nutrient fluxes in large northern latitude river systems is limited. This study examined the relationship between N-cycling processes in bed sediments and N speciation and loading in the Yukon River near its mouth at the Bering Sea. We conducted laboratory bioassays to measure N-cycling processes in sediment samples collected over distinct water cycle seasons. In conjunction, the microbial community composition in the bed sediments using genes involved in N-cycling (narG, napA, nosZ, and amoA) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences was examined. Temporal variation was observed in net N mineralization, nitrate uptake, and denitrification rate potentials and correlated strongly with sediment carbon (C) and extractable N content and microbial community composition rather than with river water nutrient concentrations. The C content of the bed sediment was notably impacted by the spring flood, ranging from 1.1% in the midst of an ice-jam to 0.1% immediately after ice-out, suggesting a buildup of organic material (OM) prior to scouring of the bed sediments during ice break up. The dominant members of the microbial community that explained differences in N-processing rates belonged to the genera Crenothrix, Flavobacterium, and the family of Comamonadaceae. Our results suggest that biogeochemical processing rates in the bed sediments appear to be more coupled to hydrology, nutrient availability in the sediments, and microbial community composition rather than river nutrient concentrations at Pilot Station.

  1. Characterization of wet granulation process parameters using response surface methodology. 1. Top-spray fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Lipps, D M; Sakr, A M

    1994-07-01

    Randomized full-factorial designs (3(2)) were used to investigate the effects of processing conditions in the top-spray fluidized bed (TSFB) on the granulation of acetaminophen powder (USP) using 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone (w/w) as the binder. Measured granule properties included the following: mean size and size distribution, specific surface area, bulk density, tapped density, flow rate through an orifice, angle of repose, residual moisture content, and percent overs (> 2 mm). The granules were then compressed (500, 1000, 1500 lbs) into tablets (9-mm shallow concave) using an instrumented rotary press and analyzed for both physical properties and drug-release characteristics. All experimental batches were run in triplicate to reduce the possibility of erroneous results and to increase the confidence in the resulting empirical relationships derived using response-surface methodology. Measured responses were then related to process parameters using two-factor and three-factor linear, interactions, and quadratic regression models. These models were used to generate three-dimensional response surfaces for use in the final analyses. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from 0.08 to 0.81 were obtained, indicating that only a portion of the variation in the data could be explained by the changes in process parameter settings during granulation and tableting. The best overall model fits were observed for mean granule size, size distribution, bulk density, tapped density, percent drug dissolution, tablet disintegration time, and tablet friability.

  2. Initial operating capability for the hypercluster parallel-processing test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is investigating the benefits of parallel processing to applications in computational fluid and structural mechanics. To aid this investigation, NASA Lewis is developing the Hypercluster, a multi-architecture, parallel-processing test bed. The initial operating capability (IOC) being developed for the Hypercluster is described. The IOC will provide a user with a programming/operating environment that is interactive, responsive, and easy to use. The IOC effort includes the development of the Hypercluster Operating System (HYCLOPS). HYCLOPS runs in conjunction with a vendor-supplied disk operating system on a Front-End Processor (FEP) to provide interactive, run-time operations such as program loading, execution, memory editing, and data retrieval. Run-time libraries, that augment the FEP FORTRAN libraries, are being developed to support parallel and vector processing on the Hypercluster. Special utilities are being provided to enable passage of information about application programs and their mapping to the operating system. Communications between the FEP and the Hypercluster are being handled by dedicated processors, each running a Message-Passing Kernel, (MPK). A shared-memory interface allows rapid data exchange between HYCLOPS and the communications processors. Input/output handlers are built into the HYCLOPS-MPK interface, eliminating the need for the user to supply separate I/O support programs on the FEP.

  3. Initial operating capability for the hypercluster parallel-processing test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, G.L.; Blech, R.A.; Quealy, A.

    1989-03-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is investigating the benefits of parallel processing to applications in computational fluid and structural mechanics. To aid this investigation, NASA Lewis is developing the Hypercluster, a multi-architecture, parallel-processing test bed. The initial operating capability (IOC) being developed for the Hypercluster is described. The IOC will provide a user with a programming/operating environment that is interactive, responsive, and easy to use. The IOC effort includes the development of the Hypercluster Operating System (HYCLOPS). HYCLOPS runs in conjunction with a vendor-supplied disk operating system on a Front-End Processor (FEP) to provide interactive, run-time operations such as program loading, execution, memory editing, and data retrieval. Run-time libraries, that augment the FEP FORTRAN libraries, are being developed to support parallel and vector processing on the Hypercluster. Special utilities are being provided to enable passage of information about application programs and their mapping to the operating system. Communications between the FEP and the Hypercluster are being handled by dedicated processors, each running a Message-Passing Kernel, (MPK). A shared-memory interface allows rapid data exchange between HYCLOPS and the communications processors. Input/output handlers are built into the HYCLOPS-MPK interface, eliminating the need for the user to supply separate I/O support programs on the FEP.

  4. Design Space Approach in Optimization of Fluid Bed Granulation and Tablets Compression Process

    PubMed Central

    Djuriš, Jelena; Medarević, Djordje; Krstić, Marko; Vasiljević, Ivana; Mašić, Ivana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize fluid bed granulation and tablets compression processes using design space approach. Type of diluent, binder concentration, temperature during mixing, granulation and drying, spray rate, and atomization pressure were recognized as critical formulation and process parameters. They were varied in the first set of experiments in order to estimate their influences on critical quality attributes, that is, granules characteristics (size distribution, flowability, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and moisture content) using Plackett-Burman experimental design. Type of diluent and atomization pressure were selected as the most important parameters. In the second set of experiments, design space for process parameters (atomization pressure and compression force) and its influence on tablets characteristics was developed. Percent of paracetamol released and tablets hardness were determined as critical quality attributes. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied in order to determine design space. ANNs models showed that atomization pressure influences mostly on the dissolution profile, whereas compression force affects mainly the tablets hardness. Based on the obtained ANNs models, it is possible to predict tablet hardness and paracetamol release profile for any combination of analyzed factors. PMID:22919295

  5. Chemical and physical interactions of an in situ oil-shale process water with a surface soil

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, J.A.; Stuber, H.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical interactions of an in situ oil-shale process (retort) water with a surface soil were investigated by soil and effluent analyses of three soil-column experiments whereby soil was leached with: (1) Distilled water, (2) a synthetic retort water containing only inorganic solutes, and (3) an actual retort water produced by in situ processing of oil shale. Major findings of this study include an ion exchange-precipitation reaction, in which exchangeable calcium in the soil is displaced by ammonium from retort water and precipitated as carbonate by inorganic carbon in retort water. This precipitation process affects soil permeability. Ammonium was strongly adsorbed from retort water by the soil, and was not removed by subsequent distilled-water leaching and drying. 26 refs.

  6. Three column intermittent simulated moving bed chromatography: 1. Process description and comparative assessment.

    PubMed

    Jermann, Simon; Mazzotti, Marco

    2014-09-26

    The three column intermittent simulated moving bed (3C-ISMB) process is a new type of multi-column chromatographic process for binary separations and can be regarded as a modification of the I-SMB process commercialized by Nippon Rensui Corporation. In contrast to conventional I-SMB, this enables the use of only three instead of four columns without compromising product purity and throughput. The novel mode of operation is characterized by intermittent feeding and product withdrawal as well as by partial recycling of the weakly retained component from section III to section I. Due to the smaller number of columns with respect to conventional I-SMB, higher internal flow rates can be applied without violating pressure drop constraints. Therefore, the application of 3C-ISMB allows for a higher throughput whilst using a smaller number of columns. As a result, we expect that the productivity given in terms of throughput per unit time and unit volume of stationary phase can be significantly increased. In this contribution, we describe the new process concept in detail and analyze its cyclic steady state behavior through an extensive simulation study. The latter shows that 3C-ISMB can be easily designed by Triangle Theory even under highly non-linear conditions. The simple process design is an important advantage to other advanced SMB-like processes. Moreover, the simulation study demonstrates the superior performance of 3C-ISMB, namely productivity increases by roughly 60% with respect to conventional I-SMB without significantly sacrificing solvent consumption.

  7. In situ oil shale retort having horizontal voids with side pillars

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.; Burton, R.S.

    1984-06-12

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale by excavating one or more horizontally extending voids across a retort site, leaving a zone of unfragmented formation having a horizontal free face adjacent such a horizontal void. In one embodiment, such a horizontal void is excavated across less than the entire width of the retort site, leaving ''side pillars'' of unfragmented formation spaced inwardly from adjacent side boundaries of the retort site at opposite sides of such a horizontal void. This reduces the maximum span of the horizontal void, when compared with supporting overburden above the void with one or more interior isolated pillars spaced inwardly from the side boundaries of the retort. The side pillars are explosively expanded. Then such a zone of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded toward such a horizontal void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in the retort. The resulting fragmented mass can have a slightly narrowed region along the sides where the side pillars were present.

  8. Control of airblast during explosive expansion in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.

    1980-05-06

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Underground workings excavated within the formation provide a means for access to a retort site in the formation. At least one void is excavated in the retort site via access provided by the underground workings, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent the void. Explosive placed in the remaining unfragmented formation adjacent such a void is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding the unfragmented formation toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. Prior to such explosive expansion, a barrier of unfragmented formation is left between such a void and underground workings providing means for access to such a void. At least one gas flow passage extends through the barrier of unfragmented formation between the means for access and the retort site. Such a gas flow passage has a substantially smaller cross-section for gas flow than the transverse crosssection of the means for access to the retort site. The smaller cross-section of such a gas flow passage temporarily confines the high gas pressure generated by the explosion and limits the flow of gas to the means for access for attenuating airblast in the means for access and other underground workings in gas communication with the means for access.

  9. Method of bulking an in situ oil shale retort substantially full of fragmented shale

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1982-11-23

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is provided. The in situ oil shale retort has a top boundary, generally vertically extending side boundaries, and a bottom boundary of unfragmented formation. A first portion of formation is excavated for forming at least one void within the boundaries, leaving a remaining portion of formation within the boundaries adjacent the void or voids. A remaining portion of unfragmented formation within the retort boundaries is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in the retort. A void space remains between the upper surface of the fragmented mass and overlying unfragmented formation. A lower portion of the overlying formation is explosively expanded downwardly toward the void space for substantially filling the retort with formation particles. A sill pillar of unfragmented formation is left extending between an air level base of operation and the top boundary of the retort being formed.

  10. Characterization of in-situ oil-shale retorts prior to ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1982-06-04

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the report. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition. 9 figures.

  11. Method of forming an in-situ oil shale retort in formation with joints

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts

    1984-08-21

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having at least one set of naturally occurring cleavage planes is provided. The in situ oil shale retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed within top, bottom, and side boundaries of unfragmented formation. A void is excavated in the subterranean formation within the boundaries of the retort site, while a zone of unfragmented formation is left within the retort boundaries adjacent the void. A plurality of rows of horizontally spaced apart explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation where each such row is in a line about perpendicular to the strike of the major cleavage plane set in the formation. The rows of explosive charges are detonated in a selected sequence with the charges in each such row detonated about simultaneously for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort.

  12. Rock bolting techniques for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, A.

    1981-08-04

    A subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort site. Formation is initially excavated from the retort site for forming one or more voids extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a zone of unfragmented formation adjacent such a void. In one ambodiment, an array of rocks bolts are anchored in at least a portion of the roof adjacent such a void for providing reinforcement of unfragmented formation above the void. Vertical blasting holes are drilled in the zone of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. Explosive is placed in the blasting holes and detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void, including the rock bolted portion of the roof, for forming at least a portion of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Surprisingly, the rock bolting does not interfere with, and in some instances can improve, fragmentation compared with comparable blasts without such rock bolts. The reinforcement provided by the rock bolts can reduce or eliminate the need for roof support pillars in horizontal voids at intermediate levels of the retort site.

  13. Method for inhibiting sloughing of unfragmented formation in an in-situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.C.

    1984-04-24

    A method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale is provided. A void space is in the retort between the top surface of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of overlying unfragmented formation. A hot ignition gas comprising oxygen is introduced into the void space to form a combustion zone across the surface of the fragmented mass. An oxygen-supplying gas is then introduced into the void space for sustaining the combustion zone and for advancing the combustion zone downwardly through the retort. The combustion zone is then extinguished and a cool inert gas is introduced into the retort to cool carbonaceous materials comprising the surface of the fragmented mass to a temperature below the self-ignition temperature of such carbonaceous materials, while leaving carbonaceous materials below the fragmented mass surface at temperatures greater than the self-ignition temperature of such materials. Introduction of the inert gas is then discontinued. Thereafter, an oxygen-supplying gas is re-introduced into the retort to ignite the carbonaceous materials below the surface of the fragmented mass for re-establishing the combustion zone in the fragmented mass and for advancing the combustion zone downwardly through the retort.

  14. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  15. Application of in-line near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate batch modeling for process monitoring in fluid bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Kona, Ravikanth; Qu, Haibin; Mattes, Robert; Jancsik, Bela; Fahmy, Raafat M; Hoag, Stephen W

    2013-08-16

    Fluid bed is an important unit operation in pharmaceutical industry for granulation and drying. To improve our understanding of fluid bed granulation, in-line near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and novel environmental temperature and RH data logger called a PyroButton(®) were used in conjunction with partial least square (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to develop multivariate statistical process control charts (MSPC). These control charts were constructed using real-time moisture, temperature and humidity data obtained from batch experiments. To demonstrate their application, statistical control charts such as Scores, Distance to model (DModX), and Hotelling's T(2) were used to monitor the batch evolution process during the granulation and subsequent drying phase; moisture levels were predicted using a validated PLS model. Two data loggers were placed one near the bottom of the granulator bowl plenum where air enters the granulator and another inside the granulator in contact with the product in the fluid bed helped to monitor the humidity and temperature levels during the granulation and drying phase. The control charts were used for real time fault analysis, and were tested on normal batches and on three batches which deviated from normal processing conditions. This study demonstrated the use of NIRS and the use of humidity and temperature data loggers in conjunction with multivariate batch modeling as an effective tool in process understanding and fault determining method to effective process control in fluid bed granulation.

  16. Morphodynamic river processes and techniques for assessment of channel evolution in Alpine gravel bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formann, E.; Habersack, H. M.; Schober, St.

    2007-10-01

    Over the past 10 years many restoration projects have been undertaken in Austria, and river engineering measures such as spur dykes and longitudinal bank protection, which imposed fixed lateral boundaries on rivers, have been removed. The EU-Life Project "Auenverbund Obere Drau" has resulted in extensive restoration on the River Drau, aimed to improve the ecological integrity of the river ecosystem, to arrest riverbed degradation, and to ensure flood protection. An essential part of the restoration design involved the consideration of self-forming river processes, which led to new demands being imposed on river management. This paper illustrates how model complexity is adapted to the solution and evaluation of different aspects of river restoration problems in a specific case. Point-scale monitoring data were up-scaled to the whole investigation area by means of digital elevation models, and a scaling approach to the choice of model complexity was applied. Simple regime analysis methods and 1-D models are applicable to the evaluation of long-term and reach-scale restoration aims, and to the prediction of kilometre-scale processes (e.g. mean river bed aggradation or degradation, flood protection). 2-D models gave good results for the evaluation of hydraulic changes (e.g. transverse flow velocities, shear stresses, discharges at diffluences) for different morphological units at the local scale (100 m-10 m), and imposed an intermediate demand on calibration data and topographic survey. The study shows that complex 3-D numerical models combined with high resolution digital elevation models are necessary for detailed analysis of processes (1 m-0.01 m), but not for the evaluation of the restoration aims on the River Drau. In conclusion, model choice (complexity) will depend on both lower limits (determined by the complexity of processes to be analysed) and upper limits (field data quality and process understanding for numerical models).

  17. Process Development of Adenoviral Vector Production in Fixed Bed Bioreactor: From Bench to Commercial Scale.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Hanna P; Heikkilä, Kati M; Lipponen, Eevi M; Valonen, Piia; Müller, Achim; Räsänen, Eva; Tuunanen, Tarja; Hassinen, Minna M; Parker, Nigel; Karhinen, Minna; Shaw, Robert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale vector manufacturing for phase III and beyond has proven to be challenging. Upscaling the process with suspension cells is increasingly feasible, but many viral production applications are still applicable only in adherent settings. Scaling up the adherent system has proven to be troublesome. The iCELLis(®) disposable fixed-bed bioreactors offer a possible option for viral vector manufacturing in large quantities in an adherent environment. In this study, we have optimized adenovirus serotype 5 manufacturing using iCELLis Nano with a cultivation area up to 4 m(2). HEK293 cell cultivation, infection, and harvest of the virus (by lysing the cells inside the bioreactor) proved possible, reaching total yield of up to 1.6×10(14) viral particles (vp)/batch. The iCELLis 500 is designed to satisfy demand for large-scale requirements. Inoculating a large quantity of cell mass into the iCELLis 500 was achieved by first expanding the cell mass in suspension. Upscaling the process into an iCELLis 500/100 m(2) cultivation area cassette was practical and produced up to 6.1×10(15) vp. Flask productivity per cm(2) in iCELLis Nano and iCELLis 500 was in the same range. As a conclusion, we showed for the first time that iCELLis 500 equipment has provided an effective way to manufacture large batches of adenoviral vectors.

  18. Assessment of percolation through a solid leach bed in dry batch anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Shewani, Anil; Horgue, Pierre; Pommier, Sébastien; Debenest, Gérald; Lefebvre, Xavier; Gandon, Emmanuel; Paul, Etienne

    2015-02-01

    This work aimed at assessing water percolation through a solid cow manure leach bed in dry batch AD processes. A laboratory-scale percolation column and an experimental methodology were set up. Water behaviour was modelled by a double porosity medium approach. An experimental procedure was proposed to determine the main hydrodynamic parameters of the multiphase flow model: the porosity, the permeability and the term for water exchange from macro- to micro-porosity. Micro- and macro-porosity values ranged from 0.42 to 0.70 m(3) m(-3) and 0.18 to 0.50 m(3) m(-3). Intrinsic permeability values for solid cow manure ranged from 5.55·10(-11) to 4.75·10(-9) m(2). The term for water exchange was computed using a 2nd order model. The CFD tool developed was used to simulate successive percolation and drainage operations. These results will be used to design leachate recirculation strategies and predict biogas production in full-scale dry AD batch processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  20. Sandia/Geokinetics retort 23: Comparison of real-time analyses with post-burn coring results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Cook, D.W.; Costomiris, E.G.

    1983-04-01

    Retort 23, a 6000-tonne horizontal in situ oil shale retorting experiment conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and Geokinetics, Inc., was completed in June, 1981. Detailed analyses of retort performance based upon data available in real-time (flows, temperatures, product compositions) were made at that time. Seventeen months after completion of the experiment, the retort had cooled enough to allow recovery of spent shale samples from six vertical core wells at various locations in and just outside the retort. All cores were logged and photographed; in addition, two complete cores (plus one pre-burn core) were analyzed chemically. We present comparisons of visual observations and chemical analyses of the cores with real-time results (thermal data and material balance calculations) to verify such indicators of retort performance as the extent of retorting, carbonate decomposition, and char combustion. While these data were, of course, important in completing the analyses of retort 23, they have had even more significance in validating realtime analyses techniques for use on other retorts.

  1. Multiple sensor detection of process phenomena in laser powder bed fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Brandon; Whitenton, Eric; Moylan, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process in which a high power laser melts metal powder layers into complex, three-dimensional shapes. LPBF parts are known to exhibit relatively high residual stresses, anisotropic microstructure, and a variety of defects. To mitigate these issues, in-situ measurements of the melt-pool phenomena may illustrate relationships between part quality and process signatures. However, phenomena such as spatter, plume formation, laser modulation, and melt-pool oscillations may require data acquisition rates exceeding 10 kHz. This hinders use of relatively data-intensive, streaming imaging sensors in a real-time monitoring and feedback control system. Single-point sensors such as photodiodes provide the temporal bandwidth to capture process signatures, while providing little spatial information. This paper presents results from experiments conducted on a commercial LPBF machine which incorporated synchronized, in-situ acquisition of a thermal camera, high-speed visible camera, photodiode, and laser modulation signal during fabrication of a nickel alloy 625 AM part with an overhang geometry. Data from the thermal camera provides temperature information, the visible camera provides observation of spatter, and the photodiode signal provides high temporal bandwidth relative brightness stemming from the melt pool region. In addition, joint-time frequency analysis (JTFA) was performed on the photodiode signal. JTFA results indicate what digital filtering and signal processing are required to highlight particular signatures. Image fusion of the synchronized data obtained over multiple build layers allows visual comparison between the photodiode signal and relating phenomena observed in the imaging detectors.

  2. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  3. A new fluid-bed hydrodealkylation process of heavy aromatic oils against high content of coke deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, T.; Kubota, O.; Tashiro, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, the significance of chemical grade naphthalene and {beta}-methylnaphthalene as base materials for synthesis has been increasing, and it seems important to establish a rational process to dealkylate heavy aromatic oils. In this presentation, a new hydrodealkylation process with a fluid-bed reactor and its reaction performance in dealkylation of LCO are described. With this process, even an heavy aromatic oil containing substantial amount of poly-cyclic aromatics, polyalkylated aromatics and impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds can be directly processed, and dealkylation with sufficient desulfurization and denitrogenation proceeds stably by a selected catalyst in the presence of coke deposited on it. This process and its concept are also applicable to dealkylation of heavy polyalkyl benzen, coal tar, or other heavy aromatic oils. The fluid-bed reaction analysis for a consecutive dealkylation reaction and the catalyst reactivity under coke deposition are described and discussed.

  4. A process-based model for erosion of Macoma balthica-affected mud beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Prooijen, Bram C.; Montserrat, Francesc; Herman, Peter M. J.

    2011-04-01

    Modeling the effect of biota on sediment dynamics is a difficult task. In this paper we re-analyze experimental results of Willows et al. (1998) on the effects of Macoma balthica on sediment erosion. A process-based framework is proposed, fully compatible with a physical description of erosion processes in case of no biogenic influences. The bed is represented by a fluff layer on top of a substrate. A characteristic feature of the framework is that the sediment is represented by a probability density distribution for the critical shear stress, allowing for Type I and Type II erosion. M. balthica increases the sediment mass in the fluff layer. This increase is determined by considering the action radius, the overlap of feeding areas, and the feeding rate per animal. The calibrated action radius and feeding rate were in the range as found in the literature. The distribution of sediment over the erodibility classes and the erosion rate parameter are hardly influenced at all. Due to overlapping feeding areas, the effect is non-linear with density of the animals. The model results are in close agreement with the measured results, suggesting that no further formulations of biological effects are needed to simulate the experiments of Willows et al. (1998). In nature, other effects like disrupting the biofilm by grazing can be of importance and should be included in a later stage. This study emphasizes the crucial role of sediment availability and the effect of biota on it. This aspect needs more attention in future experiments. The proposed model turned out to work well for the effects of M. balthica and offers opportunities to include other biogenic effects in a process-based way as well.

  5. Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment by chemical oxidation and moving bed biofilm processes.

    PubMed

    Vendramel, S M R; Justo, A; González, O; Sans, C; Esplugas, S

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, four oxidation techniques were investigated (O3, O3/UV, H2O2/O3, O3/H2O2/UV) to pre-treat reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate before treatment in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system. Without previous oxidation, the MBBR was able to remove a small fraction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (5-20%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (2-15%). When the concentrate was previously submitted to oxidation, DOC removal efficiencies in the MBBR increased to 40-55%. All the tested oxidation techniques improved concentrate biodegradability. The concentrate treated by the combined process (oxidation and MBBR) presented residual DOC and COD in the ranges of 6-12 and 25-41 mg L(-1), respectively. Nitrification of the RO concentrate, pre-treated by oxidation, was observed in the MBBR. Ammonium removal was comprised between 54 and 79%. The results indicate that the MBBR was effective for the treatment of the RO concentrate, previously submitted to oxidation, generating water with an improved quality.

  6. Mechanisms of flow through compressible porous beds in sedimentation, filtration, centrifugation, deliquoring, and ceramic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The University of Houston research program is aimed at the specific area of solid/liquid separation including sedimentation, thickening, cake filtration, centrifugation, expression, washing, deep-bed filtration, screening, and membrane separation. Unification of the theoretical approaches to the various solid/liquid separation operations is the principle objective of the research. Exploring new aspects of basic separation mechanisms, verification of theory with experiment, development of laboratory procedures for obtaining data for design, optimizing operational methods, and transferring the results to industry are a part of the Houston program. New methodology developed in our program now permits an engineer or scientist to handle thickening, cake filtration, centrigual filtration, and expression in a unified manner. The same fundamental equations are simply adapted to the differing parameters and conditions related to the various modes of separation. As the system is flexible and adaptable to computational software, new developments can continually be added. Discussions of the various research projects in this report have been kept to a minimum and are principally qualitative. The length of the report would be excessive if each topic were covered in depth. Although the number of research topics may appear larger than one would expect, many are closely interconnected and reflect our philosophy of working in apparently diverse fields such as ceramics, mining, wastewater, food, chemical processing, and oil well operations.

  7. Removal of hexavalent chromium by biosorption process in rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Panda, M; Bhowal, A; Datta, S

    2011-10-01

    Removal of hexavalent chromium ions from an aqueous solution by crude tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell was examined in a rotating packed bed contactor by continuously recirculating a given volume of solution through the bed. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) within the biosorbent appeared to be the removal mechanism. Depletion rate of Cr(VI) from, and release of reduced Cr(III) ions into the aqueous phase, was influenced by mass transfer resistance besides pH and packing depth. A mathematical model considering the reduction reaction to be irreversible and incorporating intraparticle and external phase mass transfer resistances represented the experimental data adequately. The study indicated that the limitations of fixed bed contactor operating under terrestrial gravity in intensifying mass transfer rates for this system can be overcome with rotating packed bed due to liquid flow under centrifugal acceleration.

  8. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing and production records. 318.306 Section 318.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... retort operation. Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative chain...

  9. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and production records. 318.306 Section 318.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... retort operation. Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative chain...

  10. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  11. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    PubMed Central

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  12. A novel energy-efficient pyrolysis process: self-pyrolysis of oil shale triggered by topochemical heat in a horizontal fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-06

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  13. A power-law approximation for fluvial incision by tools and bed coverage processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. T.; Gasparini, N. M.

    2005-12-01

    The stream-power model is widely used to represent fluvial incision in bedrock channels. The model does not account for the amount of sediment in the channel, which can abrade the channel at low concentrations or armor the channel at high concentrations. Here we use a natural example (Clearwater River, Washington State, USA) and numerical experiments to explore how sediment flux influences bedrock incision at a drainage-wide scale. We have generated numerical landscapes with different uplift patterns using the CHILD numerical model and incision rules that include a tools-and-coverage formulation. We then use regression analysis to fit a power-law function I=K*Am*Sn*, where I is incision rate, S slope, and A drainage area, and K*, m*, and n* are fit parameters. We find that this formulation works very well for the Clearwater and all of our numerical experiments. The function has the same form as the stream-power model, but the parameters are empirically defined (as indicated by the asterisks) and can take on values quite different than those inferred from process-based arguments. The best-fit parameters appear to be constant at the scale of a single drainage, but they vary between drainages depending on the pattern of uplift, and whether or not the landscape has reached steady-state. In all cases, slope-area steepness analysis works well for estimating relative incision rates. Our analysis indicates that, in some cases, m* can be quite low, apparently due to the fact that bed coverage increases with increasing area. We conclude that the power-law formulation provides a good functional representation of fluvial incision, but that there are no universal values for m* and n*. These conclusions have important implications for the size of mountain belts and feedbacks between tectonic uplift and surface processes.

  14. Effects of corn processing, particle size, and diet form on performance of calves in bedded pens.

    PubMed

    Bateman, H G; Hill, T M; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2009-02-01

    In a series of 5 trials, Holstein calves from zero to 12 wk old were housed in pens bedded with straw and fed diets to evaluate physical form of starters containing different processed corn on calf performance. Starters were formulated to have similar ingredient and nutrient compositions. Calves, initially less than 1 wk old, were housed in individual pens through 8 wk and weaned at 6 wk in trial 1 and at 4 wk in trials 2 and 3. In trials 4 and 5, calves initially 8 wk old were housed in group pens (6 calves/pen) from 8 to 12 wk. Trial 1 compared feeding calves a pelleted versus textured starter. Trial 2 compared feeding calves a textured starter versus feeding half meal starter with half textured starter. Trial 3 compared feeding calves textured starters containing whole, steam-flaked, or dry rolled corn. Trial 4 compared feeding calves textured starters containing steam-flaked versus dry rolled corn. Trial 5 compared feeding calves textured starters containing whole or dry rolled corn. Measurements included average daily gain (ADG), starter intake, feed efficiency, hip width change, body condition score change, fecal scores, and medical treatments. Physical form of starter feed did not affect any measurements in trials 1, 3, 4, and 5. In trial 2, calves fed starters manufactured with large amounts of fines had 11% less feed intake and 6% slower ADG than calves fed a textured starter. When starters contained similar ingredient and nutrient contents, manufacturing processes did not affect calf performance unless the diet contained a significant amount of fines, which reduced intake and ADG.

  15. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale, Phase 2. Construction, operation, testing, and environmental impact. Final report, August 1981-December 1982. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A.L.; Zahradnik, R.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Occidential Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) recently completed the demonstration of mining, rubblization, ignition, and simulataneous processing of two commericalized modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the Logas Wash facility near DeBeque, Colorado. Upon completion of Retort 6 in 1978, Occidential began incorporating all of the knowledge previously acquired in an effort to design two more commercial-sized MIS retorts. Any commercial venture of the future would require the ability to operate simultaneously more than one retort. Thus, Retorts 7 and 8 were developed during 1980 and 1981 through joint funding of the DOE and OOSI in Phase II. Rubblization of the retorts produced an average rubble void of 18.5% in the low grade shale (17 gallons per ton) at the Logan Wash site. After rubblization, bulkheads were constructed, inlet and offgas pipes were installed and connected to surface processing facilities and liquid product handling systems were connected to the retorts. Extensive instrumentation was installed in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories for monitoring the complete operation of the retorts. After pre-ignition testing, Retort 8 was ignited in December of 1981 and Retort 7 was ignited in January of 1982. The retorts were operated without interruption from ignition until mid- November of 1982 at which time inlet gas injection was terminated and water quenching was begun. Total product yield from the two retorts was approximately 200,000 barrels of oil, or 70% of the Fischer Assay oil-in-place in the rubblized rock in the two retrots. Water quenching studies were conducted over a period of several months, with the objective of determining the rate of heat extraction from the retorts as well as determining the quantity and quality of offgas and water coming out from the quenching process. Data from these studies are also included in this Summary Report. 62 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    DOEpatents

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  17. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizinig larger catalyst particles and small biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    DOEpatents

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2016-12-06

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  18. Effect of Alcaligenes faecalis on nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen removal in three phase fluidized bed process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Shi-Jun; Lee, Byung-Hun

    2004-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the greenhouse effect gases, has not been known that how much N2O is produced from municipal wastewater treatment and what its management should be. In this study, for controlling nitrous oxide emission and removing nitrogen from municipal wastewater, we experimented the three phase fluidized bed process equipped with draft tube along with immobilized Alcaligenes faecalis, a typical heterotrophic nitrifer and a predominant genus. Also we evaluated the optimum treatment condition of the three phase fluidized bed process for emitting nitrous oxide. The results of this study showed that the three phase fluidized bed process was more effective than the activated sludge process for controlling nitrous oxide emission and removing nitrogen. Increasing amount of A. faecalis in reactor should be encouraged for controlling nitrous oxide emission and removing nitrogen. In addition, the activated sludge process using immobilized A. faecalis as a carrier had more nitrogen removal efficiency than conventional activated sludge process. The accumulation of NO2-N, NO3-N resulted in high N2O emission. Therefore, we suggested that it is necessary to reduce NO2-N and NO3-N for both reducing N2O emission and improving nitrogen removal.

  19. Predictive Simulation of Process Windows for Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Influence of the Powder Bulk Density.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Alexander M; Küng, Vera E; Pobel, Christoph; Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2017-09-22

    The resulting properties of parts fabricated by powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes are determined by their porosity, local composition, and microstructure. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the stochastic powder bed on the process window for dense parts by means of numerical simulation. The investigations demonstrate the unique capability of simulating macroscopic domains in the range of millimeters with a mesoscopic approach, which resolves the powder bed and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool. A simulated process window reveals the influence of the stochastic powder layer. The numerical results are verified with an experimental process window for selective electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, the influence of the powder bulk density is investigated numerically. The simulations predict an increase in porosity and surface roughness for samples produced with lower powder bulk densities. Due to its higher probability for unfavorable powder arrangements, the process stability is also decreased. This shrinks the actual parameter range in a process window for producing dense parts.

  20. Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching

  1. Development of a trickle bed reactor of electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yangming; Liu, Hong; Shen, Zhemin; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-10-15

    To avoid electrolyte leakage and gas bubbles in the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactors using a gas diffusion cathode, we developed a trickle bed cathode by coating a layer composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (C-PTFE) onto graphite chips instead of carbon cloth. The trickle bed cathode was optimized by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, in which carbon black, PTFE, and a surfactant were considered as the determinant of the performance of graphite chips. In the reactor assembled by the trickle bed cathode, H2O2 was generated with a current of 0.3A and a current efficiency of 60%. This performance was attributed to the fine distribution of electrolyte and air, as well as the effective oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the electrolyte-cathode interface. In terms of H2O2 generation and current efficiency, the developed trickle bed reactor had a performance comparable to that of the conventional E-Fenton reactor using a gas diffusion cathode. Further, 123 mg L(-1) of reactive brilliant red X-3B in aqueous solution was decomposed in the optimized trickle bed reactor as E-Fenton reactor. The decolorization ratio reached 97% within 20 min, and the mineralization reached 87% within 3h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of control technology for modified in situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate two technologies to control groundwater pollution due to leaching of abandoned modified in-situ (MIS) retorts, retort grouting and intentional leaching. Retort grouting to reduce permeability was evaluated by measuring the permeability of grouts containing only raw or refined waste materials (Lurgi spent shale, fly ash, gypsum tailings, and lignosulfonate fluidizers). The principal factor controlling grout formulation was the requirement for adequate fluidity without bleeding. This was achieved by inclusion of 0.25% lignosulfonate fluidizer in the grout. Permeability of the cured grouts decreased with increasing confining pressure; at 200 psi confining pressure, permeabilities as low as 5x10/sup -7/ cm/sec were measured. Electrical conductivity measurements on the permeate produced during permeability measurements suggest that grouting abandoned MIS retorts would increase the TDS of leachate by a factor of approximately 3; benefit of the proposed grouting operation would depend upon the flow rate through retorts being reduced by a greater factor to reduce the total mass (concentration x flow) of solute released. Comparison of the measured grout permeabilities to the permeability of surrounding rock suggest that this would be the case.

  3. Method for control of geometry of fragmented mass in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T. E.

    1985-12-24

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is provided. The in situ retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles within top, bottom, and generally vertically extending side boundaries of unfragmented formation. A lower portion of the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a nonlevel top surface is initially formed in the retort. A void space is left within the retort boundaries extending between the nonlevel top surface of the fragmented mass lower portion and a generally horizontally extending free face of an overlying layer of unfragmented formation. Thereafter, the overlying layer of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded into the void space to thereby form the remaining portion of the fragmented mass in the retort. The overlying layer is expanded in a plurality of separate horizontally spaced regions with a time delay between explosive expansion of each successive region. The average vertical distance from the generally horizontal free face of each such region of the layer expanded earlier in the sequence to the nonlevel top surface of the lower portion of the fragmented mass is greater than the average vertical distance from the generally horizontal free face of each such region expanded later in the sequence to the nonlevel top surface of the lower portion of the fragmented mass.

  4. Method of attenuating airblast from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    French, G. B.

    1980-12-16

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and including underground workings by excavating a means for access to a retort site in the formation, excavating a void in the retort site at least in part from the means for access, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation in the retort site adjacent the void, placing explosive in the remaining portion of formation, and detonating the explosive in such unfragmented formation in a single round to explosively expand formation toward the void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ retort. A permeable barrier is provided between the void and the underground workings which provide means for access to such a void. The permeable barrier has a cross-section for gas flow which is substantially smaller than the transverse cross-section of such means for access, and the cross-section of such permeable barrier temporarily confines gas from such explosive expansion and limits flow of such gas to such means for access to attentuate airblast in underground workings. A fragmented permeable mass of formation particles produced during excavation of the void can provide such a permeable barrier.

  5. Method of in situ oil shale retort ignition with oxygen control

    SciTech Connect

    Gragg, F.M.; Jacobson, L.; Shen, J.C.

    1984-05-15

    A method for recovering liquid and gaseous products from an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale is provided. A hot ignition gas comprising oxygen at a first selected concentration is introduced into the fragmented mass for heating the fragmented mass top surface. The percentage of the fragmented mass top surface that is at a temperature no less than the ignition temperature of oil shale is determined. Thereafter, the concentration of oxygen in the ignition gas is increased by an amount proportional to the determined percentage. Such heating of the fragmented mass top surface establishes a combustion zone in the retort. After the combustion zone has spread horizontally across the retort, introduction of the hot ignition gas is discontinued. Thereafter, an oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into the retort for advancing the combustion zone downwardly through the fragmented mass. Liquid and gaseous products are produced in a retorting zone on the advancing side of the combustion zone and are recovered.

  6. 21 CFR 113.87 - Operations in the thermal processing room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ensure that the water will not, before the start of each thermal process, lower the initial temperature... change has occurred in the heat-sensitive indicator as a result of retorting for all retort baskets... should be made. (c) The initial temperature of the contents of the containers to be processed shall...

  7. 21 CFR 113.87 - Operations in the thermal processing room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ensure that the water will not, before the start of each thermal process, lower the initial temperature... change has occurred in the heat-sensitive indicator as a result of retorting for all retort baskets... should be made. (c) The initial temperature of the contents of the containers to be processed shall...

  8. Analysing hyporheic exchange processes during unsteady flow in a small gravel bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtenbach, Andreas; Schuetz, Tobias; Krein, Andreas; Bierl, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying hyporheic exchange in gravel dominated rivers still remains a challenging task in stream ecology and hydrology, in particular during unsteady flow. We adopted three strategies to decipher exchange processes with the hyporheic zone during unsteady boundary conditions. First, artificial floods were generated in the mid-mountain gravel bed river system of the Olewiger Bach, Germany (24 km2). The advantage of the artificial flood approach lies in the selective control of governing processes by experimental design. Consequently, hydraulic boundary conditions such as maximum discharge, runoff volume and flood duration are steerable during the field experiments and the composition of the discharged water (e.g. low conductivity values) is known. Second, hyporheic exchange was analysed via heat dynamics using air, water and sediment pore water temperatures. Temperature dynamics in the hyporheic zone were monitored at the head, mid and tail of a riffle using specific lances (length: 67 cm, Ø: 3cm) containing temperature sensors in depths of 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 45 and 65 cm. Short-term temperature variability during the unsteady artificial flood waves were analysed in high resolution of 10-30 seconds. In order to capture long-term seasonal fluctuations and dynamics during natural floods temperature was continuously measured at 5-min resolution. However, heat transfer in the hyporheic zone is affected by both advective and conductive transport. In a third strategy we therefore measure electrical conductivity and selected solutes in pore water during three artificial floods in 2015. Pore water was sampled from different sediment depths (5, 15, 25 and 45 cm) via stainless steel multilevel probes (length: 58 cm, Ø: 4cm). The investigation of temperature and pore water dynamics reveals that precedent hydrological conditions and ground-water levels are significant determinants for hyporheic exchange during unsteady flow. Stable groundwater stratification in spring for

  9. Processing of residues and municipal waste in circulating fluidized beds: Operating experience, design concepts and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Plass, L.; Albrecht, J.; Loeffler, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    Based on experience on processing of unconventional fuels in commercial Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) gasifiers new plant concepts for thermal treatment of residues and municipal waste are presented. Particular emphasis is put on optimizing process efficiencies and environmental performance of the overall processes. The thermal treatment of waste is carried out in two steps: Gasification in a CFB-reactor is followed by a high temperature reactor for complete breakdown of gaseous condensable hydrocarbons and for slagging of dust entrained in the CFB product gas. Major details of the process alternatives are discussed in view of economical and ecological aspects.

  10. Effects of Known Determinants on Methylene Bisphenyl Isocyanate (MDI) Concentration During Spray-On Truck Bed-Lining Processes.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nicholas C; Brazile, William J; Finnie, Katie L; Tiger, James P

    2017-08-01

    Occupational exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) presents serious worker health concerns as it may lead to short- and long-term health effects such as asthma, airway irritation, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and irritation of skin and mucous membranes. While studies of worker isocyanate exposures during vehicle painting activities are widespread, few studies have investigated the spray-on truck bed-liner (STBL) industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of several ventilation system variables and process characteristics in controlling MDI concentrations in the STBL industry. A total of 47 personal air samples were collected for MDI during 18 site visits at nine STBL companies in Colorado and Wyoming. Ventilation system and process characteristics that were assessed included: ventilation system face velocity, airflow, air changes per minute (AC/M), capture velocity, percent of MDI in bed-liner product, application temperature, application pressure, paint booth temperature, paint booth relative humidity, paint booth volume, and quantity of bed-liner product applied. Pearson correlation revealed percentage of MDI in bed-liner product (r = 0.557, n = 14, P < 0.05) and process temperature (r = 0.677, n = 14, P < 0.05) had high positive correlation with MDI concentration. Ventilation system face velocity (r = -0.578, n = 14, P < 0.05) and AC/M (r = -0.657, n = 14, P < 0.05) had high negative correlation with MDI concentration while airflow (r = -0.475, n = 14, P < 0.05) and capture velocity (r = -0.415, n = 14, P = 0.07) had moderate negative correlation with MDI concentration. Multiple linear regression revealed process temperature and capture velocity made a statistically significant and unique contribution in estimating MDI concentration (F (2, 11) = 10.99, P < 0.05) with an adjusted R2 of 0.61, explaining 61% of the variability in MDI concentration. This investigation contributed to an understudied STBL industry by targeting

  11. Development of a visiometric process analyzer for real-time monitoring of bottom spray fluid-bed coating.

    PubMed

    Liew, Celine Valeria; Wang, Li Kun; Wan Sia Heng, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Particle recirculation within the partition column is a major source of process variability in the bottom spray fluid-bed coating process. However, its locality and complex nature make it hidden from the operator. The aim of this study was to take snapshots of the process by employing a visiometric process analyzer based on high-speed imaging and ensemble correlation particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify particle recirculation. High-speed images of particles within the partition column of a bottom spray fluid-bed coater were captured and studied by morphological image processing and ensemble correlation PIV. Particle displacement probability density function (PDF) obtained from ensemble correlation PIV was consistent with validation experiments using an image tracking method. Particle displacement PDF was further resolved into particle velocity magnitude and particle velocity orientation histograms, which gave information about particle recirculation probability, thus quantifying the main source of process variability. Deeper insights into particle coating process were obtained and better control of coat uniformity can thus be achieved with use of the proposed visiometric process analyzer. The concept of visiometric process analyzers was proposed and their potential applications in pharmaceutical processes were further discussed.

  12. Gamma 60Co-irradiation of organic matter in the Phosphoria Retort Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewan, M. D.; Ulmishek, G. F.; Harrison, W.; Schreiner, F.

    1991-04-01

    Irradiation experiments were conducted on a thermally immature rock sample of the Phosphoria Retort Shale and its isolated kerogen. A 60Co-source for gamma radiation was employed at dosages ranging from 81 to 885 Mrads, which are attainable by Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales with syngenetic uranium enrichments. Kerogen elemental, isotopic, and pyrolysate compositions are not affected at these dosages, but the bitumens extracted from the irradiated rock are affected. The major effects are reductions in the amounts of bitumen, acyclic isoprenoids, and high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids. Natural differences in the amounts of bitumen and acyclic isoprenoid due to regional and stratigraphie variations in organic source input and depositional conditions make the radiation-induced reductions in these parameters difficult to use as indicators of natural radiation damage in black shales. However, the preferential reduction in the high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids, which are ubiquitous in the living precursory organic matter, is diagnostic of experimental γ-irradiation but may not be diagnostic of natural irradiation. The overall process associated with radiation damage is polymerization by cross-linking through a free radical mechanism. As a result, irradiation of organic matter in black shales is more likely to retard rather than enhance petroleum generation.

  13. Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Khraisha, Y.H.

    2000-05-01

    Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

  14. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  15. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  16. Numerical analysis of the process of combustion and gasification of the polydisperse coke residue of high-ash coal under pressure in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    A.Y. Maistrenko; V.P. Patskov; A.I. Topal; T.V. Patskova

    2007-09-15

    A numerical analysis of the process of 'wet' gasification of high-ash coal under pressure in a low-temperature fluidized bed has been performed. The applicability of the previously developed computational model, algorithm, and program for the case under consideration has been noted. The presence of 'hot spots' (short-time local heatings) at different points of the bed has been confirmed.

  17. Modeling of the behavior of a multicomponent shale oil during retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    The one-dimensional oil shale retorting model developed originally by Braun has been modified to simulate the behavior of multicomponent shale oil during retorting. The current modifications extend an earlier model that incorporated one-component oil mist formation and deposition and liquid oil drainage into Braun's model. A sample calculation shows that the model agrees at least qualitatively with experiments; the lack of detailed experimental data precludes quantitative comparisons at this time. An attempt to include liquid water accumulation and drainage phenomena has not yet succeeded. A pressure drop calculation based on Ergun's equation has also been added, thereby incorporating pressure effects into the model. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of different carriers and operating parameters on degradation of flax wastewater by fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengtian; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Gao, Baotian

    2015-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the effectiveness of a fluidized-bed Fenton process in treating flax wastewater. Flax wastewater was taken from a paper-making factory in a secondary sedimentation tank effluent of a paper-making factory in Hebei. The performance of three carriers (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3) used in the reactor was compared, and the effects of different operational conditions, and Fenton reagent concentrations were studied. Experimental results indicated that SiO2 was the most appropriate carrier in the system. The dose of Fe2+ and H2O2 was a significant operating factor in the degradation progress. The bed expansion was considered to be another factor influencing the treatment effect. Under the appropriate conditions (300 mg/L Fe2+, 600 mg/L H2O2, and 74.07 g/L SiO2 as the carrier, at pH=3, 50% bed expansion), the highest removal rate of total organic carbon (TOC) and color was 89% and 94%, respectively. The article also discussed the process of the colority removal of flax wastewater and the kinetics of TOC removal.

  19. Influence of process variable and physicochemical properties on the granulation mechanism of mannitol in a fluid bed top spray granulator.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jonathan; Kaster, Meagan; Dumont, Hubert

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of specific process variables, including the hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) binder solution atomization, on the fluidized bed top spray granulation of mannitol. Special attention was given to the relationship between wetting and the granule growth profile. The atomization of the HPC binder solution using a binary nozzle arrangement produced droplets of decreasing size as the atomization pressure was increased, while changes in the spray rate had little effect on the mean droplet size. Increasing the HPC binder concentration from 2 to 8% w/w increased the binder droplet size and was most likely attributed to higher solution viscosity. The top spray granulation of mannitol showed induction type growth behavior. Process conditions like high spray rate, low fluidizing air velocity and binder solution concentration that promote the availability of HPC binder solution at the surface of the particles appeared to be key in enhancing nucleation and growth of the granules. Increasing the bed moisture level, up to a certain value, reduced the contribution of attrition to the overall growth profile of the granule and, more significantly, produced less granule breakage on drying. It was observed that the mean granule size could be reduced as much as 40% between the end of granulation and the end of drying for lower initial bed moisture level despite a shorter drying phase. High atomization pressure, especially when maintained during the drying phase, contributed substantially to granule breakage.

  20. Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  1. Spouted bed as an efficient processing for probiotic orange juice drying.

    PubMed

    Alves, Niédila Nascimento; de Oliveira Sancho, Soraya; da Silva, Ana Raquel Araújo; Desobry, Stéphane; da Costa, José Maria Correia; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the influence of spouted bed drying temperature and maltodextrin dextrose equivalent on the probiotic microbial survival during drying and storage period and on physicochemical properties of fermented probiotic orange juice in powder. Probiotic orange juice was spouted bed dried at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C using maltodextrin with a different dextrose equivalent (10, 20, 30 and 39). After drying, the microbial was higher when lower drying temperatures were applied. During the storage, the highest drying temperatures (80 and 90°C) negatively affected the microorganism survival. On the other hand, at the lowest drying temperature (60°C), the product presented higher Aw, what negatively affected the microbial survival during storage. The temperature of 70°C was the best to preserve the microbial viability during storage. Physicochemical parameters were improved when temperature increased and dextrose equivalent decreased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 113.87 - Operations in the thermal processing room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ensure that the water will not, before the start of each thermal process, lower the initial temperature... change has occurred in the heat-sensitive indicator as a result of retorting for all retort baskets... checks should be made. (c) The initial temperature of the contents of the containers to be...

  3. 9 CFR 318.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 318.303 Section 318.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Minimum headspace; and (2) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d...

  4. 9 CFR 318.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 318.303 Section 318.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Minimum headspace; and (2) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d...

  5. 9 CFR 318.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 318.303 Section 318.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Minimum headspace; and (2) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d...

  6. 9 CFR 318.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 318.303 Section 318.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Minimum headspace; and (2) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d...

  7. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  8. Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  9. Hydrocarbon processing of gas containing feed in a countercurrent moving catalyst bed

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.S.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstream containing organo-metallic and/or metal components under catalytic hydrocarbon upgrading conditions in a reactor vessel. In it an upwardly flowing feed stream reacts with a downwardly moving catalyst bed, the vessel including feed inlet means at the lower end thereof and product recovery means and catalyst delivery means at the upper end thereof.

  10. Functionalization of polymers using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor and the impact on SLM-processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, M. Schmitt, A. Schmidt, J. Peukert, W. Wirth, K-E

    2014-05-15

    In order to improve thermoplastics (e.g. Polyamide, Polypropylene and Polyethylene) for Selective Laser Beam Melting (SLM) processes a new approach to functionalize temperature sensitive polymer powders in a large scale is investigated. This is achieved by combining an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a fluidized bed reactor. Using pressurized air as the plasma gas, radicals like OH* are created. The functionalization leads to an increase of the hydrophilicity of the treated polymer powder without changing the bulk properties. Using the polymers in a SLM process to build single layers of melted material leads to an improvement of the melted layers.

  11. Focused beam reflectance method as an innovative (PAT) tool to monitor in-line granulation process in fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Alshihabi, Firas; Vandamme, Thierry; Betz, Gabriele

    2013-02-01

    Fluidized bed granulation is a commonly used unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. But still to obtain and control the desired granule size is challenging due to many process variables affecting the final product. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) is an increasingly popular particle growth analysis technique. FBRM tool was installed in two different locations inside a fluidized bed granulator (GPCG2, Glatt, Binzen) in order to monitor the granulation growth kinetics. An experimental design was created to study the effect of process variables using FBRM probe and comparing the results with the one's measured by sieve analysis. The probe location is of major importance to get smooth and robust curves. The excess feeding of binder solution might lead to agglomeration and thus to process collapse, however this phenomenon was clearly detected with FBRM method. On the other hand, the process variables at certain levels might affect the FBRM efficiency by blocking the probe window with sticky particles. A good correlation was obtained (R(2) = 0.95) between FBRM and sieve analysis mean particle size. The proposed in-line monitoring tool enables the operator to select appropriate process parameters and control the wet granulation process more efficiently.

  12. Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Shapovalov, S.; Chaikina, O.; Akivis, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the Spitsbergen Island and the Franz Josef Land and the deep Nansen trough in the North, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the East and the North shore of Europe in the South. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed in the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. Two transverse trenches cross both shelf and continental slope, namely the Medvezhinsky trench between Norway and Spitsbergen in the West and the Franz Victoria trench between Spitsbergen and the Franz Josef Land in the North. The Barents and the Kara Seas are connected by the Kara Gate Strait and wide transverse trough of Saint Anna in the North-West. The recent assessment of the eolian solid sediment supply to the Barents Sea is about 0.904 tons. The Barents Sea as a whole should be considered as "starving" in terms of its feeding with solid sediment matter. Observations show the considerable part of the sea bottom to be free of Holocene sediment cover. The more ancient Quaternary units or bedrock can be seen at the bottom surface. This phenomenon is the most typical for arches of relatively shallow elevations. Thick accumulations of new sediments are connected with fjords. The amount of sea ice delivered from the Barents Sea to the Arctic Ocean is 35 km3 a year. This value should be added by iceberg delivery from the North island of Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Spitsbergen Island and North Norway but most of

  13. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. Effect of the iron oxide catalyst on o-toluidine oxidation by the fluidized-bed fenton process.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Chi; Fan, Chun-Cheng; Anotai, Jin; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Fe2+ concentration and synthetic iron oxide catalysts on o-toluidine degradation using a fluidized-bed Fenton process. The mineralization ofo-toluidine in the synthetic catalyst system is also examined. The H3.5 and H7.3 Fe/SiO2 and A7.8 and A 12.5 Fe/SiO2 catalysts were successfully synthesized by adding H202 and injecting air process, respectively. The optimum initial ferrous ion concentration for degradation of 1 mM o-toluidine was 1 mM. Experimental results reveal that 1 mM o-toluidine can be 100% degraded at 60 and 120 min in the modified fluidized-bed Fenton process with A7.8 Fe/SiO2 and the conventional fluidized-bed Fenton process with SiO2 carrier, respectively, when the optimum conditions of 1mM Fe2+ and 17mM H202 at pH 3 were used. The A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst had a stronger oxidation ability than the H3.5 Fe/SiO2, H7.3 Fe/SiO2 and A12.5 Fe/SiO2 catalysts, and was attributed to the high iron content on the surface of the SiO2 support. The Fenton and Fenton-like reactions occurred in the A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst system. Degradation of o-toluidine in the Fenton-like process follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst efficiently enhanced o-toluidine oxidation under the pH range of 2-4.

  15. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  16. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  17. A continuous process for biodiesel production in a fixed bed reactor packed with cation-exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yaohui; Zhang, Aiqing; Li, Jianxin; He, Benqiao

    2011-02-01

    Continuous esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from acidified oil with methanol was carried out with NKC-9 cation-exchange resin in a fixed bed reactor with an internal diameter of 25 mm and a height of 450 mm to produce biodiesel. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in methanol/oil mass ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst bed height, whereas decreased with increases in initial water content in feedstock and feed flow rate. The FFA conversion kept over 98.0% during 500 h of continuous esterification processes under 2.8:1 methanol to oleic acid mass ratio, 44.0 cm catalyst bed height, 0.62 ml/min feed flow rate and 65°C reaction temperature, showing a much high conversion and operational stability. Furthermore, the loss of sulfonic acid groups from NKC-9 resin into the production was not found during continuous esterification. In sum, NKC-9 resin shows the potential commercial applications to esterification of FFA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functionalization of polymer powders for SLS-processes using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, Marius; Schmitt, Adeliene; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst

    2015-05-22

    Recently additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymers have gained more importance for industrial applications [1]. Tailor-made modification of polymers is essential in order to make these processes more efficient and to cover the industrial demands. The so far used polymer materials show weak performance regarding the mechanical stability of processed parts. To overcome this limitation, a new route to functionalize the surface of commercially available polymer particles (PA12; PE-HD; PP) using an atmospheric plasma jet in combination with a fluidized bed reactor has been investigated. Consequently, an improvement of adhesion and wettability [2] of the polymer surface without restraining the bulk properties of the powder is achieved. The atmospheric plasma jet process can provide reactive species at moderate temperatures which are suitable for polymer material. The functionalization of the polymer powders improves the quality of the devices build in a SLS-process.

  19. Analysis of the laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process through experimental measurement and finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Alexander Jay

    The objective in this work is to provide rigourous experimental measurements to aid in the development of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM). A specialized enclosed instrumented measurement system is designed to provide in situ experimental measurements of temperature and distortion. Experiments include comparisons of process parameters, materials and LPBF machines. In situ measurements of distortion and temperature made throughout the build process highlight inter-layer distortion effects previously undocumented for laser powder bed fusion. Results from these experiments are also be implemented in the development and validation of finite element models of the powder bed build process. Experimental analysis is extended from small-scale to larger part-scale builds where experimental post-build measurements are used in analysis of distortion profiles. Experimental results provided from this study are utilized in the validation of a finite element model capable of simulating production scale parts. The validated finite element model is then implemented in the analysis of the part to provide information regarding the distortion evolution process. A combination of experimental measurements and simulation results are used to identify the mechanism that results in the measured distortion profile for this geometry. Optimization of support structure primarily focuses on the minimization of material use and scan time, but no information regarding failure criteria for support structure is available. Tensile test samples of LPBF built support structure are designed, built, and tested to provide measurements of mechanical properties of the support structure. Experimental tests show that LPBF built support structure has only 30-40% of the ultimate tensile strength of solid material built in the same machine. Experimental measurement of LPBF built support structure provides clear failure criteria to be utilized in the future design and implementation of

  20. Effects of organic wastes on water quality from processing of oil shale from the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted during a 6-year research project to determine the nature and effects of organic wastes from processing of Green River Formation oil shale on water quality. Fifty percent of the organic compounds in two retort wastewaters were identified as various aromatic amines, mono- and dicarboxylic acids phenols, amides, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and hydroxypyridines. Spent shales with carbonaceous coatings were found to have good sorbent properties for organic constituents of retort wastewaters. However, soils sampled adjacent to an in situ retort had only fair sorbent properties for organic constituents or retort wastewater, and application of retort wastewater caused disruption of soil structure characteristics and extracted soil organic matter constituents. Microbiological degradation of organic solutes in retort wastewaters was found to occur preferentially in hydrocarbons and fatty acid groups of compounds. Aromatic amines did not degrade and they inhibited bacterial growth where their concentrations were significant. Ammonia, aromatic amines, and thiocyanate persisted in groundwater contaminated by in situ oil shale retorting, but thiosulfate was quantitatively degraded one year after the burn. Thiocyanate was found to be the best conservative tracer for retort water discharged into groundwater. Natural organic solutes, isolated from groundwater in contact with Green River Formation oil shale and from the White River near Rangely, Colorado, were readily distinguished from organic constituents in retort wastewaters by molecular weight and chemical characteristic differences. (USGS)

  1. Yield and Production Properties of Wood chips and Particles Torrefied in a Crucible Furnace Retort

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Karen G. Reed

    2016-01-01

    Biomass preprocessing by torrefaction improves feedstock consistency and thereby improves the efficiency of biofuels operations, including pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion. A crucible furnace retort was fabricated of sufficient size to handle a commercially available wood chip feedstock. Varying the torrefaction times and temperatures provided an array of...

  2. Groundwater studies at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's retort 1 at Tract C-a

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, J.S.; Poulson, R.; Hill, S.; Suthersan, S.

    1987-11-01

    Western Research Institute has continued to assess groundwater at the site of the 1981 modified in situ oil shale retorting tests at Federal Prototype Lease Trace C-a near Rifle, Colorado. The organic constituents, the toxicology, and the microorganisms associated with the groundwater are discussed in this report. 22 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. A geochemical method for determining heat history of retorted shale oil. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Flom, E.A.; Thompson, S.J.

    1980-06-01

    Geochemical data is encoded in biochemical molecules which survive in oil shale deposits. Porphyrins in retorted shale oil hold a key to the heat history of the oil. A method for analyzing shale oils to determine ratios of porphyrin types and mass spectral data of these porphyrins is reported. (Author)

  4. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  5. Optimization of operating parameters of endothermic generators with electric heating of retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, A. M.; Fink, A. V.; Kagarmanov, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    Equations of heat and gas balance of endothermic generator at air conversion of methane are used for optimizing the parameters with respect to maximum yield of hydrogen and carbon oxide at minimum consumption of electric energy for heating the retort with catalyst.

  6. Growth of bacteria in an oil shale retort water by indigenous microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; Williams, S.E.

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that relatively high aerobic and anaerobic (or facultatively anaerobic) heterotrophic bacterial population densities occur as indicated by an increase in the turbidity of freshly filtered (0.4 ..mu..m) Omega-9 retort water after a few days incubation at room temperature. Growth of these microorganisms alters the nature and concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic constituents. Bacteria are the only microorganisms known to have demonstrated a capacity to grow in undiluted Omega-9 retort water. Bacterial growth experiments are performed for a variety of reasons. In some situations microorganisms are cultivated to yield a specific product, as a protein source, or because their growth in a particular medium removes certain undesired constituents. Nutritional and physical parameters will often govern the rate at which growing microbial populations proliferate. It was considered important, therefore, to establish what rates of bacterial growth were occurring in the Omega-9 retort water by indigenous, mixed bacterial populations. The study reported here was devised to assess bacterial growth characteristics in an example retort water. Information of this type may have implications in 1) the development of biological treatment systems, 2) establishing hazard assessment and abatement criteria, and 3) in assessing the stability of research samples.

  7. Cytotoxicity of synthetic fuel products on Tetrahymena pyriformis. II. Shale oil retort water.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T W; Dumont, J N; Kyte, L M

    1978-11-01

    Shale oil retort water is obtained by centrifuging the oil/water emulsion produced by oil shale retorting. The ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis was exposed to retort water; 2, 1, and 0.5% initially increased motility; longer exposures decreased motility. Three, 4, and 5% all decreased motility. Cell lysis was directly related to concentration; after 24 h, population densities were 0, 10, and 25% of controls for 2, 1, and 0.5% retort water, respectively. Oxygen consumption paralleled the motility pattern: at lower concentrations it increased initially but decreased with extended exposures while at higher concentrations it decreased rapidly. The most striking cytologic alteration of cells exposed to the toxicant occurred in the membranes; alterations of mucocysts and glycogen content were also observed, but mitochondrial changes were not. Population growth was affected at much lower concentrations than the other test indices. The growth of test populations reached a plateau at values inversely related to concentration: concentrations less than 0.4% had no effect on growth rate.

  8. Mechanisms of flow through compressible porous beds in sedimentation, centrifugation, deliquoring, and ceramic processing

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-25

    The major topics covered in the investigation include: centrifugation; cake filtration; sedimentation and thickening; capillary suction operations; ceramics, slip casting; optimization studies; and wastewater. The research program was aimed at the specific areas of solid/liquid separation including sedimentation, thickening, cake filtration, centrifugation, expression, washing, deep-bed filtration, screening, and membrane separation. Unification of the theoretical approaches to the various solid/liquid separation operations was the principle objective of the research. Exploring new aspects of basic separation mechanisms, verification of theory with experiment, development of laboratory procedures for obtaining data for design, optimizing operational methods, and transferring the results to industry were part of the program.

  9. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem.

  10. A continuous-flow biodiesel production process using a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Huang, Yu-Hang; Lin, Rong-Hsien; Shang, Neng-Chou

    2010-01-01

    The continuous-flow transesterification of soybean oil with methanol using a rotating packed bed (RPB) for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) is presented herein. The RPB, which provides high centrifugal force and has an adjustable rotational speed, is employed as a novel transesterification reactor. In this study, biodiesel is synthesized via the methanolysis of soybean oil using potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. The following variables were investigated for their effects on transesterification efficiency: the methanol-oil molar ratio, the estimated hydraulic retention time, the rotational speed of the packed-bed rotator, the reaction temperature, and the catalyst dosage. The yield of the fatty acid methyl esters (Y(FAME)) in the RPB system depends significantly on the experimental conditions, which influence the residence time distribution, the transesterification reaction rate, and the micromixing intensity. Due to its excellent micromixing characteristics, the RPB system shows satisfactory transesterification efficiency. The values of Y(FAME), productivity of FAMEs (P(FAME)), and P(FAME) per unit reactor volume (P(FAME)/V(R)) in the RPB are used to evaluate the performance for biodiesel production and allow for further comparison with other continuous transesterification reactors. Consequently, a RPB is considered a practical transesterification reactor with high transesterification efficiency.

  11. Modular pebble-bed reactor reforming plant design for process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, D.E.; Cowan, C.L.; Davis, C.R.; El Sheikh, K.A.; Hui, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary design study of a Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor System Reforming (MPB-R) Plant. The system uses one pressure vessel for the reactor and a second pressure vessel for the components, i.e., reformer, steam generator and coolant circulator. The two vessels are connected by coaxial pipes in an arrangement known as the side-by-side (SBS). The goal of the study is to gain an understanding of this particular system and to identify any technical issues that must be resolved for its application to a modular reformer plant. The basic conditions for the MPB-R were selected in common with those of the current study of the MRS-R in-line prismatic fuel concept, specifically, the module core power of 250 MWt, average core power density of 4.1 w/cc, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with a /sup 235/U content of 20% homogeneously mixed with thorium, and a target burnup of 80,000 MWD/MT. Study results include the pebble-bed core neutronics and thermal-hydraulic calculations. Core characteristics for both the once-through-then-out (OTTO) and recirculation of fuel sphere refueling schemes were developed. The plant heat balance was calculated with 55% of core power allotted to the reformer.

  12. Flows and Heat Exchange in a Geothermal Bed in the Process of Extraction of a Vapor-Water Mixture from It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanov, M. M.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Abasov, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    With the use of the finite-difference method, a nonstationary nonlinear problem on the heat and mass transfer in a geothermal bed in the process of extraction of a vapor-water mixture from it was solved numerically with regard for the heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks. The results obtained were analyzed and compared with the results of earlier investigations. It was established that the heat exchange between the bed and its roof and bottom influences the heat and mass transfer in the neighborhood of a producing well in it. It is shown that this heat exchange increases somewhat the pressure (temperature) of the phase transition of the heat-transfer medium and changes its saturation with water. At the stage of stationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, this change leads to a decrease in the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium, i.e., to an additional evaporation of water from it. However, at the stage of substantially nonstationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, the pattern is more complex: within certain time intervals, the heat exchange in separate regions of the bed decreases the content of vapor in the heat-transfer medium (increases its saturation with water). Moreover, in both the cases of absence and presence of heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks, the distributions of the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium in the bed executes damped oscillations and, in so doing, approaches the stationary state.

  13. Observation and simulation of heterogeneous 2D water and solute flow processes in ditch beds for subsequent catchment modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dages, Cecile; Samouelian, Anatja; Lanoix, Marthe; Dollinger, Jeanne; Chakkour, Sara; Chovelon, Gabrielle; Trabelsi, Khouloud; Voltz, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Ditches are involved in the transfer of pesticide to surface and groundwaters (e.g. Louchart et al., 2001). Soil horizons underlying ditch beds may present specific soil characteristics compared to neighbouring field soils due to erosion/deposition processes, to the specific biological activities (rooting dynamic and animal habitat) in the ditches (e.g. Vaughan et al., 2008) and to management practices (burning, dredging, mowing,...). Moreover, in contrast to percolation processes in field soils that can be assumed to be mainly 1D vertical, those occurring in the ditch beds are by essence 2D or even 3D. Nevertheless, due to a lake of knowledge, these specific aspects of transfer within ditch beds are generally omitted for hydrological simulation at the catchment scale (Mottes et al., 2014). Accordingly, the aims of this study were i) to characterize subsurface solute transfer through ditch beds and ii) to determine equivalent hydraulic parameters of the ditch beds for use in catchment scale hydrological simulations. A complementary aim was to evaluate the error in predictions performed when percolation in ditches is assumed to be similar to that in the neighbouring field soil. First, bromide transfer experiments were performed on undisturbed soil column (15 cm long with a 15 cm inner-diameter), horizontally and vertically sampled within each soil horizon underlying a ditch bed and within the neighboring field. Columns were sampled at the Roujan catchment (Hérault, France), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Second, for each column, a set of parameters was determined by inverse optimization with mobile-immobile or dual permeability models, with CXTFIT (Toride et al., 1999) or with HYDRUS (Simunek et al., 1998). Third, infiltration and percolation in the ditch was simulated by a 2D flow domain approach considering the 2D variation in hydraulic properties of the cross section of a ditch bed. Last

  14. Knife grid size reduction to pre-process packed beds of high- and low-moisture switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Igathinathane, C; Womac, A R; Sokhansanj, S; Narayan, S

    2008-05-01

    A linear knife grid device was developed for first-stage size reduction of high- and low-moisture switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a tough, fibrous perennial grass being considered as a feedstock for bioenergy. The size reduction is by a shearing action accomplished by forcing a thick packed bed of biomass against a grid of sharp knives. The system is used commercially for slicing forages for drying or feed mixing. No performance data or engineering equations are available in published literature to optimize the machine and the process for biomass size reductions. Tests of a linear knife grid with switchgrass quantified the combined effect of shearing stresses, packed bed consolidation, and frictional resistance to flow through a knife grid. A universal test machine (UTM) measured load-displacement of switchgrass at two moisture contents: 51%, and 9% wet basis; three knife grid spacings: 25.4, 50.8, and 101.6mm; and three packed bed depths: 50.8, 101.6, and 152.4mm. Results showed that peak load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied inversely with knife grid spacing and directly with packed bed depth (except ultimate shear stress). Mean ultimate shear stresses of high- and low-moisture switchgrass were 0.68+/-0.24, and 0.41+/-0.21 MPa, mass-based cutting energy values were 4.50+/-4.43, and 3.64+/-3.31 MJ/dry Mg, and cutting energy based on new surface area, calculated from packed-circle theory, were 4.12+/-2.06, and 2.53+/-0.45 kJ/m2, respectively. The differences between high- and low-moisture switchgrass were significant (P<0.05), such that high-moisture switchgrass required increased shear stress and cutting energy. Reduced knife grid spacing and increased packed bed depths required increased cutting energy. Overall, knife grid cutting energy was much less than energy values published for rotary equipment. A minimum knife grid spacing of 25.4mm appears to be a practical lower limit, considering the high ram force that would be needed for

  15. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m3/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  16. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m(3)/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  17. Measurement of process dynamics through coaxially aligned high speed near-infrared imaging in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jason C.; Lane, Brandon M.; Yeung, Ho

    2017-05-01

    For process stability in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM), control of melt pool dimensions is imperative. In order to control melt pool dimensions in real time, sampling frequencies in excess of 10 kHz may be required, which presents a challenge for many thermal and optical monitoring systems. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is currently developing the Additive Manufacturing Metrology Testbed (AMMT), which replicates a metal based laser powder bed fusion AM process while providing open architecture for control, sensing, and calibration sources. The system is outfitted with a coaxially aligned, near-infrared (NIR) high speed melt pool monitoring (MPM) system. Similar monitoring systems are incorporated into LPBF research testbeds, and appearing on commercial machines, but at lower available frame rates, which may limit observation of higher frequency events such as spatter or size fluctuations. This paper presents an investigation of the coaxial imaging systems of the AMMT to capture the process dynamics, and quantify the effects of dynamic fluctuations on melt pool size measurements. Analysis is carried out on a baseline experiment with no powder material added, melt pool size measurements collected in-situ are compared to ex-situ measurements, and results are discussed in terms of temporal bandwidth. Findings will show that, even at the frame rate and resolution presented, challenges in relating in-situ video signals to the ex-situ measurement analysis remain.

  18. Experimental investigation of synthetic gas composition in a two-stage fluidized bed gasification process: effect of activated carbon as bed material.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jia-Hong; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Chang, Tsung-Jen; Weng, Wang-Chang; Liu, JingYong

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a two-stage fluidized bed gasifier was used to investigate the effect of the equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass ratio (S/B) on the synthetic gas distribution while activated carbon (AC) was added as the bed material in secondary gasifier (Stage II). The experimental results showed that when the empty bed (without the bed material) was used for the Stage II reaction, the hydrogen (H2) content in the synthetic gas emitted from the Stage II reactor was 2-3 mol% higher than that from the first-stage gasifier (Stage I). It was supposed that using the Stage II reactor prolongs the reaction time and thereby increases the H2 production. Besides, when the AC was added in the Stage II gasifier, the H2 concentration, the total gas yield, and gas heating value reached their maximum (30 mol%) when ER and S/B were 0.3 and 1.5, respectively.

  19. Pedogenic slickensides, indicators of strain and deformation processes in red bed sequences of the Appalachian foreland

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.B. ); Nickelsen, R.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Pedogenic slickensides are convex-concave slip surfaces that form during expansion/contraction in expansive clay soils such as Vertisols. In the central Appalachians, they occur near the tops of fining-upward cycles in Paleozoic red beds such as the Bloomsburg, Catskill, and Mauch Chunk Formations. Pedogenic slickensides are found in association with other pedogenic (or paleosol) features such as clay-skinned peds, in situ calcareous nodules, and root impressions. Repeated movements along these shear planes during pedogenesis produce strongly aligned clay particles adjacent to pedogenic slickensides; as a result, they are preserved as discrete fractures throughout diagenesis, compaction, and superimposed tectonic deformation. During whole-rock deformation, pedogenic slickensides segregate penetratively deformed rocks into independent, foliate packets and serve as discontinuities that are followed by later structural features. Because the original morphology of pedogenic slickensides is known, they can be used as crude strain markers.

  20. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Carls, E.L.; Helt, J.E.; Henry, R.F.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to support the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center by providing a core group of experienced personnel (1) to prepare (a) program interaction plans suitable for recommending program needs and (b) recommendations for the DOE-PFBC development program, (2) to analyze data and designs for two large pilot-scale PFBC programs (i.e., Curtiss-Wright and IEA Grimethorpe), and (3) to participate in design/review for the large PFBC programs. Results are reported on a development methodology for the commercialization of PFBC technology, a FBC instrumentation state-of-the-art review, the development of a sodium sulfate dew point measurement instrument, and the evaluation of cyclones for hot gas cleanup.

  1. Processing RoxAnn sonar data to improve its categorization of lake bed surficial sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cholwek, Gary; Bonde, John; Li, Xing; Richards, Carl; Yin, Karen

    2000-01-01

    To categorize spawning and nursery habitat for lake trout in Minnesota's near shore waters of Lake Superior, data was collected with a single beam echo sounder coupled with a RoxAnn bottom classification sensor. Test areas representative of different bottom surficial substrates were sampled. The collected data consisted of acoustic signals which showed both depth and substrate type. The location of the signals was tagged in real-time with a DGPS. All data was imported into a GIS database. To better interpret the output signal from the RoxAnn, several pattern classifiers were developed by multivariate statistical method. From the data a detailed and accurate map of lake bed bathymetry and surficial substrate types was produced. This map will be of great value to fishery and other natural resource managers.

  2. Modeling hospital surgical delivery process design using system simulation: optimizing patient flow and bed capacity as an illustration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that hospital operation is an intricate system with limited resources and many interacting sources of both positive and negative feedback. The purpose of this study is to design a surgical delivery process in a county hospital in the U.S where patient flow through a surgical ward is optimized. The system simulation modeling is used to address questions of capacity planning, throughput management and interacting resources which constitute the constantly changing complexity that characterizes designing a contemporary surgical delivery process in a hospital. The steps in building a system simulation model is demonstrated using an example of building a county hospital in a small city in the US. It is used to illustrate a modular system simulation modeling of patient surgery process flows. The system simulation model development will enable planners and designers how they can build in overall efficiencies in a healthcare facility through optimal bed capacity for peak patient flow of emergency and routine patients.

  3. Factors affecting the geochemistry of a thick, subbituminous coal bed in the Powder River Basin: volcanic, detrital, and peat-forming processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, S.S.; Ruppert, L.F.; Belkin, H.E.; Stanton, R.W.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    .provides further support for a volcanic ash component. Other factors that probably affected the geochemistry of the coal bed include (1) detrital input associated with the deposition of the roof rocks of the coal bed, (2) peat-forming processes and plant material, and (3) epigenetic ground-water flow. ?? 1993.

  4. Acetaldehyde removal using an atmospheric non-thermal plasma combined with a packed bed: role of the adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Klett, C; Duten, X; Tieng, S; Touchard, S; Jestin, P; Hassouni, K; Vega-González, A

    2014-08-30

    This work is an attempt in order to help towards understanding the influence of the adsorption process on the removal of a VOC (acetaldehyde, CH3CHO) using cyclic non thermal plasma (NTP) combined with a packed-bed of a catalyst support, α-Al2O3. In the first part, the results obtained by placing the saturated alumina pellets inside the plasma discharge zone are discussed, in terms of acetaldehyde removal, CO and CO2 production. In the second part, adsorption of CH3CHO, CO, CO2 and O3 was carried out, from single and multicomponent mixtures of the different compounds. The results showed that (i) the adsorption capacities followed the order CH3CHO≫  CO2>CO; (ii) O3 was decomposed on the alumina surface; (iii) CO oxidation occurred on the surface when O3 was present. In the third part, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to follow the alumina surface during acetaldehyde adsorption. DRIFTS measurements demonstrated that besides the bands of molecularly adsorbed acetaldehyde, several absorptions appeared on the spectra showing the intermediate surface transformation of acetaldehyde already at 300K. Finally, the relationship between the adsorption results and the NTP combined with a packed-bed process is discussed.

  5. The production of pure pressurised hydrogen by the reformer-steam iron process in a fixed bed reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestl, Stephan; Voitic, Gernot; Lammer, Michael; Marius, Bernhard; Wagner, Julian; Hacker, Viktor

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a fixed bed chemical looping process for the decentralised production of pure pressurised hydrogen for fuel cell applications is described. CH4 is converted to a syngas using conventional steam reforming. The syngas is directly used for the reduction of an iron based oxygen carrier. A consecutive oxidation step using steam leads to the formation of pure pressurised hydrogen. A thermodynamic analysis was performed in order to investigate feasible conditions for the syngas generation and reduction step. Experiments using pure hydrogen as well as an artificial syngas mixture showed the feasibility of the process for the production of pressurised hydrogen. A stable hydrogen production at a pressure of 8-11 bar(g) was achieved and only minor impurities of 700 ppm of carbon dioxide but no signs of carbon monoxide were detected in the produced hydrogen. Although the active surface decreased from 7.5 m2 g-1 to 0.9 m2 g-1 only moderate losses of reactivity were measured in the fixed bed reactor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a loss of 9% of reactive material over nine cycles, presumably due to sintering effects.

  6. Separation of hydrogen mixtures by a two-bed pressure swing adsorption process using zeolite 5A

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Lee, C.H.; Chang, J.W.

    1997-07-01

    A study on a two-bed six-step pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process using zeolite 5A was performed experimentally and theoretically for bulk separation of H{sub 2}/CO and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} systems (70/30 vol %) as major components in coke oven gas. When the pressure is cycled between 1 and 11 atm at ambient temperatures, 70% H{sub 2} in the feed could be concentrated to 99.99% in the product with a recovery of 75.87% in the H{sub 2}/CO mixture and 80.38% in the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixture. The effects of adsorption pressure, P/F ratio, adsorption/purge step time, and pressure equalization step time were investigated experimentally. If the product end of an adsorption bed was not contaminated during the adsorption and depressurizing pressure equalization steps, elongation of both the adsorption and purge steps gave good adsorbent productivity and recovery without any decrease in purity. Certain elongations of step time in the pressure equalization step resulted in a better performance of a PSA process. When the H{sub 2} mole fraction of effluent stream during the pressure equalization step was not high, the initial H{sub 2} purity of the adsorption step was not good because of the contamination of the product end section. These results were analyzed by a mathematical model incorporating heat and momentum balances.

  7. Early processing variations in selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli during 30 days head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; He, Si-Yang; Niu, Dong-Bin; Guo, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Long; Wang, De-Sheng; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Li, Zhi-Li; Tang, Guo-Hua; Li, Yin-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    , but no variations were detected in the no response and direction selective response tasks. It is suggested that the negative shift in color selective response task on the 3rd day of bed rest are a result of fluid redistribution. And feature selection was more affected than motion selection in the head down bed rest. The variations in cognitive processing speed observed for the combined color-direction selective response task are suggested to reflect the interaction between top-down mechanisms and hierarchical physiological characteristics during 30 days head-down bed rest.

  8. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  9. An Economic and Ecologic Comparison of the Nuclear Stimulation of Natural Gas Fields with Retorting of Oil Shale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    points out that to obtain a usable hydrocarbon from the material, either the entire forma- tion must be heated IN SITU through fracturing and...injection of a high temperature fluid, or the shale must be mined and retorted on the surface. In either case the rate at which the shale can be heated ...fact that rich oil shale will burn, thereby providing heat to cook or retort ’^^, ■ • ■. .-. . , .■■:.: ■■ : , ^^^J

  10. Effect of algae on flocculation of suspended bed sediments in a large shallow lake. Consequences for ecology and sediment transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lucas Pardo, Miguel Angel; Sarpe, Dirk; Winterwerp, Johan Christian

    2015-06-01

    Lake Markermeer, a large shallow lake in The Netherlands, suffers from turbidity and ecology problems. As part of a study aiming to mitigate these problems, we study flocculation processes in the lake; in particular, the possible mutual flocculation between algae and re-suspended bed sediments. We show that sediment re-suspended from the bed of the lake can flocculate, forming flocs for which size is a function of the turbulence level in the water column. Moreover, we also demonstrate that algae and re-suspended bed sediments can mutually flocculate, yielding organic-inorganic aggregates. These aggregates have different features to those of their individual components, some of which have been measured and characterized in this paper. Furthermore, the characteristics of the resulting organic-inorganic flocs are strongly influenced by the type of algae in the aggregate. We found that, in the case of flocs consisting of bed sediments and filamentous algae, flocculation yields smaller flocs than for bed sediments only, resulting in an increased turbidity in the water column. In the case of flocs consisting of bed sediments and colonial algae, flocs grow faster and become larger than bed sediment flocs, which may result in the depletion of most colonies from the water column.

  11. Strategy of mitigating ammonium-rich waste inhibition on anaerobic digestion by using illuminated bio-zeolite fixed-bed process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Stanislaus, Mishma Silvia; Hu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chenyu; Zhu, Qi; Li, Dawei; Yang, Yingnan

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent illumination combined with bio-zeolite fixed-bed process was utilized to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion with ammonium-rich substrate. The batch experiments were carried out at NH4(+)-N concentration of 2211mg/L under intermittent illumination and dark (as control) conditions, respectively. The illuminated bioreactor achieved higher methane production (287mL/g-DOC) and ATP value (0.38μmol/L) than that under dark condition. Then the bio-zeolite fixed-bed bioreactor (NH4(+)-N concentration: 3000mg/L) was used to study the additional efficiency on the illuminated ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion process. The result showed that the illuminated fixed-bed bioreactor presented the greatest methane concentration (70%), methane yield (283mL/g-DOC) and quantity of methanogens comparing with no-bed bioreactor. Furthermore, the illuminated fixed-bed bioreactor achieved better performance during 118-day semi-continuous fermentation. The combination of the intermittent illumination and bio-zeolite fixed-bed strategy contributed to the higher efficiency and stability of the ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Repowering applications using the British Gas/Lurgi fixed-bed gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Shellhorse, V.H.; Garstang, J.H.; Herbert, P.K.; Kluttz, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    Steady economic growth, aging US base load power plants and Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, will stimulate planning for new base-load capacity. What type of plants will be considered for the next increment of base load in the US? One option that is frequently discussed is the repowering of existing power plants with advanced technology, clean fuels and state-of-the-art environmental controls. Repowerings using natural gas have been implemented where supplies of natural gas are adequate and pricing is competitive. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) is another repowering option with growing interest based on support from the US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program demonstration plants and experience gleaned from plants in several European countries. The British Gas Lurgi (BGL) fixed-bed, slagging gasifier is a state-of-the-art technology well suited for CGCC repowering applications. It offers dramatically reduced environmental emissions, simplicity, and improved thermal efficiency. This paper discusses such repowering applications.

  13. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1996-06-21

    This project deals with the demonstration of a full size commercial coking retort using Calderon's novel process for making metallurgical coke. Tests are currently being conducted on a heat resistant alloy by subjecting such alloy to raw gases from an actual operating coke oven at LTV Steel's coke plant in Warren, Ohio to determine the effects of sulfurous gases on the alloy before ordering 232,000 lbs of this alloy for the full size commercial coking retort. Design engineering is proceeding.

  14. Experimental Study on Conductivity Anisotropy of Limestone Considering the Bedding Directional Effect in the Whole Process of Uniaxial Compression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinji; Liu, Bin; Li, Shucai; Yang, Lei; Song, Jie; Li, Ming; Mei, Jie

    2016-03-04

    Experimental studies were conducted on the changes of the potential differences in different directions during the uniaxial compression on limestone samples parallel and normal to the bedding plane. In the test, electric current was supplied at both ends of the samples, and concurrent measurement was conducted in four measuring lines at a 45-degree angle to each other. First, the change laws of the potential differences in different directions and the similarities and differences of rock samples were summarized. In regards to the uniaxial compression properties and crack growth, the above-mentioned similarities and differences were further analyzed. Then, the anisotropy factor was introduced to further explore the response characteristics. It was found that the anisotropic changes of rock samples went through three stages during the uniaxial compression process, providing a reference for describing the properties in different failure stages of rock samples and obtaining precursory information about the fracture. Besides, the relationship between the peak stress and initial potential difference in a direction normal to the current direction was obtained by means of data fitting, providing a new method of predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of rock samples. According to the preceding analysis, this paper studied rock anisotropy by considering the bedding directional effect in terms of conductivity and provided a reference for subsequent study on rock materials' properties and engineering practices.

  15. Experimental Study on Conductivity Anisotropy of Limestone Considering the Bedding Directional Effect in the Whole Process of Uniaxial Compression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinji; Liu, Bin; Li, Shucai; Yang, Lei; Song, Jie; Li, Ming; Mei, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted on the changes of the potential differences in different directions during the uniaxial compression on limestone samples parallel and normal to the bedding plane. In the test, electric current was supplied at both ends of the samples, and concurrent measurement was conducted in four measuring lines at a 45-degree angle to each other. First, the change laws of the potential differences in different directions and the similarities and differences of rock samples were summarized. In regards to the uniaxial compression properties and crack growth, the above-mentioned similarities and differences were further analyzed. Then, the anisotropy factor was introduced to further explore the response characteristics. It was found that the anisotropic changes of rock samples went through three stages during the uniaxial compression process, providing a reference for describing the properties in different failure stages of rock samples and obtaining precursory information about the fracture. Besides, the relationship between the peak stress and initial potential difference in a direction normal to the current direction was obtained by means of data fitting, providing a new method of predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of rock samples. According to the preceding analysis, this paper studied rock anisotropy by considering the bedding directional effect in terms of conductivity and provided a reference for subsequent study on rock materials’ properties and engineering practices. PMID:28773287

  16. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  17. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  18. A highly efficient polyampholyte hydrogel sorbent based fixed-bed process for heavy metal removal in actual industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyin; Luo, Jinming; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Ma, Jianhong; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-02-01

    High sorption capacity, high sorption rate, and fast separation and regeneration for qualified sorbents used in removing heavy metals from wastewater are urgently needed. In this study, a polyampholyte hydrogel was well designed and prepared via a simple radical polymerization procedure. Due to the remarkable mechanical strength, the three-dimensional polyampholyte hydrogel could be fast separated, easily regenerated and highly reused. The sorption capacities were as high as 216.1 mg/g for Pb(II) and 153.8 mg/g for Cd(II) owing to the existence of the large number of active groups. The adsorption could be conducted in a wide pH range of 3-6 and the equilibrium fast reached in 30 min due to its excellent water penetration for highly accessible to metal ions. The fixed-bed column sorption results indicated that the polyampholyte hydrogel was particularly effective in removing Pb(II) and Cd(II) from actual industrial effluent to meet the regulatory requirements. The treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using one fixed bed column were as high as 684 bed volumes (BV) (7736 mL) for Pb(II) and 200 BV (2262 mL) for Cd(II). Furthermore, the treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using tandem three columns reached 924 BV (31,351 mL) for Pb(II) and 250 BV (8483 mL) for Cd(II), producing only 4 BV (136 mL) eluent. Compared with the traditional high density slurry (HDS) process with large amount of sludge, the proposed process would be expected to produce only a small amount of sludge. When the treatment volume was controlled below 209.3 BV (7103 mL), all metal ions in the actual industrial effluent could be effectively removed (<0.01 mg/L). This wok develops a highly practical process based on polyampholyte hydrogel sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from practical wastewater.

  19. Transient Combustion in Granular Propellant Beds. Part I. Theoretical Modeling and Numerical Solution of Transient Combustion Processes in Mobile Granular Propellant Beds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    cFAD iNJ ~) CONTRACT REPORT NO. 346 O~TRANSIENT COMýBUST ION IN GRANULAR PROPELLANT BEDS. PART 1 :. THEOREH-CAI 0 MODELING AND NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF...University Park, PA 16102 C. tw. August 1977 * 1 ~ k MI Dsettvy this report whea it is no lon~ger needed. Do not i-.ttxan it tc the origin~ator...1161ORY Pllphoo coCVtzO Prope.luat Bads. Part ZP Theoretical Modeling anO N4aorll a Solution of Trausiont Combustion Prqeti Fb 1 ,U1-6.1~ 9 I--Mob ..e

  20. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.S.

    1982-02-16

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  1. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOEpatents

    Burton, III, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  2. Method and apparatus for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Robert S.; Rundberg, Sten I.; Vaughn, James V.; Williams, Thomas P.; Benson, Gregory C.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is provided for igniting an in situ oil shale retort having an open void space over the top of a fragmented mass of particles in the retort. A conduit is extended into the void space through a hole in overlying unfragmented formation and has an open end above the top surface of the fragmented mass. A primary air pipe having an open end above the open end of the conduit and a liquid atomizing fuel nozzle in the primary air pipe above the open end of the primary air pipe are centered in the conduit. Fuel is introduced through the nozzle, primary air through the pipe, and secondary air is introduced through the conduit for vortical flow past the open end of the primary air pipe. The resultant fuel and air mixture is ignited for combustion within the conduit and the resultant heated ignition gas impinges on the fragmented mass for heating oil shale to an ignition temperature.

  3. Application of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for treatment of complex wastewaters at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, I.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-10-01

    The feasibility of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for the treatment of potato starch wastewater at low ambient temperatures was demonstrated by operating two 5.65 l reactors at 14 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. The organic space loading rates achieved in these laboratory-scale reactors were 3 kg COD/cubic m/day at 14 degrees C and 4-5 kg COD/cubic m/day at 20 degrees C. The corresponding sludge loading rates were 0.12 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 14 degrees C and 0.16-0.18 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 20 degrees C. These findings are of considerable practical importance because application of anaerobic treatment at low ambient temperatures will lead to considerable savings in energy needed for operating the process. As compared with various other anaerobic wastewater treatment processes, a granular sludge upflow process represents one of the best options developed so far. Although the overall sludge yield under psychrophilic conditions is slightly higher than under optimal mesophilic conditions, this doesn't seriously hamper the operation of the process. The extra sludge yield, due to accumulation of slowly hydrolyzing substrate ingredients, was 4.75% of the COD input at 14 degrees C and 1.22% of the COD input at 20 degrees C. 26 references.

  4. Optimal performance of single-column chromatography and simulated moving bed processes for the separation of optical isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medi, Bijan; Kazi, Monzure-Khoda; Amanullah, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Chromatography has been established as the method of choice for the separation and purification of optically pure drugs which has a market size of about 250 billion USD. Single column chromatography (SCC) is commonly used in the development and testing phase of drug development while multi-column Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) chromatography is more suitable for large scale production due to its continuous nature. In this study, optimal performance of SCC and SMB processes for the separation of optical isomers under linear and overloaded separation conditions has been investigated. The performance indicators, namely productivity and desorbent requirement have been compared under geometric similarity for the separation of a mixture of guaifenesin, and Tröger's base enantiomers. SCC process has been analyzed under equilibrium assumption i.e., assuming infinite column efficiency, and zero dispersion, and its optimal performance parameters are compared with the optimal prediction of an SMB process by triangle theory. Simulation results obtained using actual experimental data indicate that SCC may compete with SMB in terms of productivity depending on the molecules to be separated. Besides, insights into the process performances in terms of degree of freedom and relationship between the optimal operating point and solubility limit of the optical isomers have been ascertained. This investigation enables appropriate selection of single or multi-column chromatographic processes based on column packing properties and isotherm parameters.

  5. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Pint, Bruce A; Ryan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  6. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process. Phase IV. Conceptual design and economic evaluation, Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-30

    Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP) of Des Plaines, Illinois has contracted A.E. Roberts & Associates, Inc. (AERA) of Atlanta, Georgia to prepare a sensitivity analysis for the development of the Fluidized-bed Copper Oxide (FBCO) process. As proposed by AERA in September 1991, development of the FBCO process design for a 500 mega-watt (MW) unit was divided into three tasks: (1) Establishment of a Conceptual Design, (2) Conceptual Design, (3) Cost Analysis Task 1 determined the basis for a conceptual design for the 500 megawatt (MW) FBCO process. It was completed by AERA in September of 1992, and a report was submitted at that time {open_quotes}Establishment of the Design Basis for Application to a 500 MW Coal-fired Facility.{close_quotes} Task 2 gathered all pertinent data available to date and reviewed its applicability to the 500 MW FBCO process. Work on this task was carried out on a joint basis by the AERA team members: Roberts & Schaefers worked on the dense phase transport aspect of the design; Cornell and Carnegie Mellon Universities worked on the design kinetics and modeling; and AERA contributed commercial power and combustion experience. Task 3 provides budgetary cost estimates for the FBCO process and competing alternative technologies for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide removal.

  7. Degradation of p-nitrophenol in aqueous solution by microwave assisted oxidation process through a granular activated carbon fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Bo, Longli; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Zhao, Yazhi

    2006-09-01

    A microwave (MW) assisted oxidation process was investigated for degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution. The process consisted of a granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed reactor, a MW source, solution and air supply system, and a heat exchanger. The process was operated in continuous flow mode. Air was applied for oxygen supply. GAC acted as a MW energy absorption material as well as the catalyst for PNP degradation. MW power, air flow, GAC dose, and influent flow proved to be major factors which influenced PNP degradation. The results showed that PNP was degraded effectively by this new process. Under a given condition (PNP concentration 1330mg/L, MW power 500 W, influent flow 6.4 mL/min, air flow 100 mL/min), PNP removed 90%, corresponding to 80% of TOC removal. The pathway of PNP degradation was deduced based on GC-MS identification of course products. PNP experienced sequential oxidation steps and mineralized ultimately. Nitro-group of PNP converted to nitrite and nitrate. Biodegradability of the solution was improved apparently after treatment by MW assisted oxidation process, which benefit to further treatment of the solution using biochemical method.

  8. Endostatin capture from Pichia pastoris culture in a fluidized bed. From on-chip process optimization to application.

    PubMed

    Shiloach, Joseph; Santambien, Patrick; Trinh, Loc; Schapman, Anthony; Boschetti, Egisto

    2003-06-25

    One of the characteristics of the methylothrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is its ability to grow to a very high cell density. Biomass concentrations of 300-400 g wet mass/l are common. It is therefore obvious that the recovery processes of extracellular proteins from this microorganism should take into account the effect of high biomass content. Separation by filtration and/or centrifugation is possible but these steps are cumbersome and can affect the protein recovery. The use of fluidized beds is attractive proteins capture option since it eliminates the biomass while capturing the desired protein. Zirconia-based resins possess unique properties which make them appropriate for processing high biomass concentrations in an expanded bed mode. The beads are particularly heavy (density is 3.2 g/ml) and small (75 microm) and therefore can accommodate high fluidization velocity and high mass transport. Specific operating conditions for effective capture of expressed protein have to be determined. This determination is generally time consuming and requires relatively large amount of feedstock for the lab trials. To avoid multiple chromatographic trials in columns, optimal conditions of adsorption and elution were determined by ProteinChip technology coupled with mass spectrometry. This technology involves flat chip surfaces functionalized as chromatographic beads where it is possible to adsorb and desorb proteins. Four different functional groups (strong anion-exchange, weak cation-exchange, hydrophobic and metal chelate) were tested and the retained proteins were analyzed directly by mass spectrometry. The weak cation-exchange group was chosen for further work. The Zirconia-based weak cation-exchange sorbent (CM HyperZ) was evaluated for binding capacity in a packed column and then for capturing endostatin from crude feed stock. Based on the previously determined conditions; 45 l of culture containing approximately 15 kg of biomass (wet mass) and 3 g endostatin were

  9. Flexibility of the Fluid-Bed Calciner Process in View of Changing Demands in the Alumina Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hans Werner; Beisswenger, Hans; Kämpf, Fritz

    1980-02-01

    The two most frequently used types of alumina are finegrained, high-calcined, "floury" alumina and coarse-grained, low-calcined, "sandy" alumina; they result from different calcining conditions. Because of the increasing exchange of alumina on the international market, there is a growing demand for a modern calcining system allowing the production of various qualities. The fluid-bed calciner process is optimally suited to these demands. As grain-size distribution is of great importance for the quality of weakly calcined alumina, extensive investigations have been made to determine the influence of calcination on aluminum hydroxide. It was found that, besides the mechanical strength of the aluminum hydroxide, local velocity rates, solids concentration, and details of design affect the grain size of calcined alumina. Results from pilot and industrial plants are presented and discussed with regard to consequences for layout and operating conditions of calcining plants.

  10. Electron-transfer-initiated benzoin- and Stetter-like reactions in packed-bed reactors for process intensification

    PubMed Central

    Zaghi, Anna; Ragno, Daniele; Di Carmine, Graziano; De Risi, Carmela; Bortolini, Olga; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Fantin, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    A convenient heterogeneous continuous-flow procedure for the polarity reversal of aromatic α-diketones is presented. Propaedeutic batch experiments have been initially performed to select the optimal supported base capable to initiate the two electron-transfer process from the carbamoyl anion of the N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent to the α-diketone and generate the corresponding enediolate active species. After having identified the 2-tert-butylimino-2-diethylamino-1,3-dimethylperhydro-1,3,2-diazaphosphorine on polystyrene (PS-BEMP) as the suitable base, packed-bed microreactors (pressure-resistant stainless-steel columns) have been fabricated and operated to accomplish the chemoselective synthesis of aroylated α-hydroxy ketones and 2-benzoyl-1,4-diones (benzoin- and Stetter-like products, respectively) with a good level of efficiency and with a long-term stability of the packing material (up to five days). PMID:28144342

  11. Microbial community of sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed in the SANI® process for saline sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Shi, Manyuan; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Shao, Ming-Fei; Zhang, Tong; Ekama, George A; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the microbial community of the sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) of a novel sulfate reduction, autotrophic denitrification, and nitrification integrated (SANI®) process for saline sewage treatment. The investigation involved a lab-scale SANI® system treating synthetic saline sewage and a pilot-scale SANI® plant treating 10 m(3)/day of screened saline sewage. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were the dominant population, responsible for more than 80% of the chemical oxygen demand removal, and no methane-producing archaea were detected in both SRUSBs. Thermotogales-like bacteria were the dominant SRB in the pilot-scale SRUSB while Desulforhopalus-like bacteria were the major species in the lab-scale SRUSB.

  12. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  13. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Martin M.

    1982-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  14. Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

  15. Microbiological degradation of organic components in oil shale retort water: organic acids.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J E; Riley, R G; Li, S W; Mann, D C; Wildung, R E

    1981-11-01

    The losses of benzoic acid and a homologous series of both mono- and dibasic aliphatic acids in oil shale retort water were monitored with time (21 days) in liquid culture (4% retort water, vol/vol) inoculated with soil. The organic acids constituted approximately 12% of the dissolved organic carbon in retort water, which served as the sole source of carbon and energy in these studies. The levels of the acids in solution were reduced by 80 to 90% within 9 days of incubation. From mass balance calculations, the decrease in dissolved organic carbon with time of incubation was equal to the formation of CO(2) and bacterial cell carbon. The decrease in the level of the acid components, either from degradation to CO(2) or incorporation into bacteria, would account for approximately 70% of the loss in dissolved organic carbon within the first 9 days of incubation and would account for approximately 50% of the loss over the entire 21-day incubation period.

  16. Integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed-membrane hybrid process for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dashtban Kenari, Seyedeh Laleh; Barbeau, Benoit

    2017-04-15

    Newly developed ceramic membrane technologies offer numerous advantages over the conventional polymeric membranes. This work proposes a new configuration, an integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed (PFB)-ceramic MF/UF hybrid process, for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water. A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of this process with respect to iron and manganese control as well as membrane fouling. In addition, the fouling of commercially available ceramic membranes in conventional preoxidation-MF/UF process was compared with the hybrid process configuration. In this regard, a series of experiments were conducted under different influent water quality and operating conditions. Fouling mechanisms and reversibility were analyzed using blocking law and resistance-in-series models. The results evidenced that the flux rate and the concentration of calcium and humic acids in the feed water have a substantial impact on the filtration behavior of both membranes. The model for constant flux compressible cake formation well described the rise in transmembrane pressure. The compressibility of the filter cake substantially increased in the presence of 2 mg/L humic acids. The presence of calcium ions caused significant aggregation of manganese dioxide and humic acid which severely impacted the extent of membrane fouling. The PFB pretreatment properly alleviated membrane fouling by removing more than 75% and 95% of iron and manganese, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SURVEY OF GRAIN SIZE INFORMATION ON RIVER BED BY IMAGE PROCESSING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Keisuke; Ihara, Kazuki; Yasuda, Shingo

    We tried a method of grain sizing by image processing which is available to survey and analyze in short time. The high-efficiency method actualizes high spatial resolution information of grain size distribution. Thus, the information has a vailability to express a situation of stream flow better than traditional grain sizing methods. For this reason, we paid attention to 50 m reservoir area upper from the check dam in mountainous region and surveyed the grain distribution at 26 sites and river channel landform. The grain sizing by image processing provided the appropriate result qualitatively. Moreover we estimated the critical diameter of moving from hydraulic information simultaneously. A qualitative appropriate result is showed less than 50 mm error as a result, however, quantitative response is not found between the critical diameter of moving and the grain size distribution surveyed. Meanwhile,the different grain sizing methods that are image processing and traditional sieving are used to cover the bilateral weak point. Thereby, a peak of grain existence probability is found in the threshold diameter between image processing and sieving. This result indicates that it is necessary to change the threshold diameter much larger than the limit of image processing grain sizing.

  18. Bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Barry

    2007-01-01

    Bed load transport is a fundamental physical process in alluvial rivers, building and maintaining a channel geometry that reflects both the quantity and timing of water and the volume and caliber of sediment delivered from the watershed. A variety of formulae have been developed to predict bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers, but testing of the equations in natural...

  19. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed and trickling biofilter process for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jiangzheng; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino; Le Bihan, Yann

    2016-01-01

    A combined upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-trickling biofilter (TBF) process was constructed to treat swine wastewater, a typical high-strength organic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio and ammonia toxicity. The results showed that the UASB-TBF system can remarkably enhance the removal of pollutants in the swine wastewater. At an organic loading rate of 2.29 kg/m(3) d and hydraulic retention time of 48 h in the UASB, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), Suspended Solids and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen removals of the combined process reached 83.6%, 84.1% and 41.2%, respectively. In the combined system the UASB served as a pretreatment process for COD removal while nitrification and denitrification occurred only in the TBF process. The TBF performed reasonably well at a surface hydraulic load as high as 0.12 m(3)/m(2) d. Since the ratio of influent COD to total mineral nitrogen was less than 3.23, it is reasonable to suggest that the wood chips in TBF can serve as a new carbon source for denitrification.

  20. Treatment of oil sands process-affected water using moving bed biofilm reactors: With and without ozone pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yijing; Huang, Chunkai; Rocha, Ketley Costa; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Liu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Two moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were operated to treat raw (untreated) and 30 mg/L ozone-treated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). After 210 days, the MBBR process showed 18.3% of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and 34.8% of naphthenic acids (NAs) removal, while the ozonation combined MBBR process showed higher removal of AEF (41.0%) and NAs (78.8%). Biodegradation of raw and ozone treated OSPW showed similar performance. UPLC/HRMS analysis showed a highest NAs removal efficiency with a carbon number of 14 and a -Z number of 4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed thicker biofilms in the raw OSPW MBBR (97 ± 5 μm) than in the ozonated OSPW MBBR (71 ± 12 μm). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) results showed higher abundance of gene copies of total bacteria and nitrogen removal relevant bacteria in the ozonated OSPW MBBR, but no significant difference was found. MiSeq sequencing showed Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Acidobacteria were dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.