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Sample records for beddingia deladenus siricidicola

  1. The influence of Amylostereum areolatum diversity and competitive interations on the fitness of the Sirex parasitic nematode Deladenus siricidicola

    Treesearch

    B.P. Hurley; H.J. Hatting; M.J. Wingfield; Kier Klepzig; B. Slippers

    2012-01-01

    The Sirex noctilio (woodwasp - Amylostereum areolatum (fungus) complex has caused substantial losses to pine industries in its introduced range. The nematode Deladenus siricidicola that parasitizes S. noctilio and feeds on A. areolatum is widely used as a biological control...

  2. Growth of the Sirex-parasitic nematode Deladenus siricidicola on the white rot fungus Amylostereum.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Isis A L; Morris, E Erin; Hajek, Ann E

    2016-02-01

    The Kamona strain of the nematode Deladenus siricidicola has been extensively used as a biological control agent against invasive Sirex noctilio woodwasps in the Southern Hemisphere, where it sterilizes female hosts. In North America, a non-sterilizing (NS) strain of D. siricidicola, thought to have been introduced with S. noctilio, is commonly found parasitizing this invasive woodwasp. Species of Deladenus that parasitize Sirex have a parasitic form, as well as a mycophagous form. The mycophagous form feeds on Sirex fungal symbionts in the genus Amylostereum. The goal of this study was to compare reproduction of NS and Kamona D. siricidicola when feeding on four isolates of Amylostereum areolatum (three introduced and one native in North America) and one native strain of Amylostereum chailletii isolated from Sirex nigricornis. Mycophagous forms of the two D. siricidicola strains displayed relatively similar production of offspring when feeding on most of the A. areolatum found associated with S. noctilio in this continent, except for strain BD on which NS produced more offspring than the biological control strain Kamona. Growth of both nematodes was greater on the introduced versus the native A. areolatum isolates.

  3. Biochemistry of Anhydrobiosis in Beddingia siricidicola, a Biological Control Agent of Sirex noctilio

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Michael J.; Bedding, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Proto-anhydrobiosis of the nematode, Beddingia siricidicola, was achieved by incubation in polyethylene glycol or various concentrations up to 4 M of glycerol. The associated changes in the levels of glycerol, unbound proline, trehalose, lipids, and glycogen were determined by alkylation strategies, followed by gas chromatography or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of glycerol reached 8.9% of dry weight, proline 2.4% of dry weight, and trehalose 8.0% of dry weight within B. siricidicola that were incubated in 1.5 M glycerol over 6 d, while glycerol reached 17.9% of dry weight after incubation for the same period in 4 M glycerol. Movement was thereby reduced but the nematodes from 1.5 M glycerol revived after a few minutes upon rehydrating and they were able to avoid osmotic damage by rapidly excreting the glycerol, much of it being expelled within the first hour. The potential for storage and transport of this nematode for the biological control of the pine-killing wasp, Sirex noctilio, was greatly improved when nematode suspensions were maintained in 1.5 M glycerol under refrigeration. PMID:26170473

  4. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  5. Biological control of Sirex noctilio in North America by Beddingia siricidicola: 2008 update

    Treesearch

    David W. Williams; Kelley E. Zylstra; Victor. Mastro

    2009-01-01

    The European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F., was discovered in Oswego County, New York, in the autumn of 2004. The woodwasp is apparently not under effective natural control, is already distributed over a wide area in...

  6. Nematodes for the biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio

    Treesearch

    Robin A. Bedding

    2007-01-01

    The tylenchid nematode Beddingia (Deladenus) siricidicola (Bedding) is by far the most important control agent of Sirex noctilio F., a major pest of pine plantations. It sterilizes female sirex, is density dependent, can achieve nearly 100 percent parasitism and, as a result of its complicated biology can be readily manipulated for sirex control. Bedding and Iede (2005...

  7. Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nasira, K.; Shahina, F.; Firoza, K.

    2013-01-01

    Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetus Chitambar, 1991; D. leptosoma Gagarin, 2001; D. ipini Massey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) canii Bedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialis Bedding, 1974; D. nevexii Bedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximus Bedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyi Bedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicola Bedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni Bedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females. PMID:23833325

  8. Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasira, K; Shahina, F; Firoza, K

    2013-06-01

    Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetusChitambar, 1991; D. leptosomaGagarin, 2001; D. ipiniMassey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) caniiBedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialisBedding, 1974; D. nevexiiBedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximusBedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyiBedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicolaBedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoniBedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females.

  9. Can entomophagous nematodes slow the spread of invasive pest populations? The case study of Beddingia siricidicola released for the management of Sirex noctilio

    Treesearch

    Juan C. Corley; José M. Villacide; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2014-01-01

    Though rarely used in this way, biological control could potentially be exploited for managing spread of invasive species. Because spread of invasive species emerges from the combined action of population growth and dispersal, natural enemies that affect either of these processes should also affect spread. Dispersal of parasitoid species plays a key role in determining...

  10. Detection and identification of Amylostereum areolatum (Russulales: Amylostereaceae) in the mycangia of Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricaidae) in central Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Jeremy Allison; James Meeker; Wood Johnson; Douglas Streett; M. Catherine Aime; Christopher Carlton

    2014-01-01

    The woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) has become established in North America. A primary tactic for the management of S. noctilio in the southern hemisphere has been the development of a biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. This nematode has a bicyclic life cycle including a...

  11. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Kevin Dodds; Daniel Miller

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S....

  12. Interactions Among Latitude, Nematode Parasitization, and Female Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Jessica A; Chase, Kevin D; Galligan, Larry D; Riggins, John J; Stephen, Fred M

    2016-12-01

    Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an innocuous pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America, utilizing dead or dying pine trees as hosts. Although S. nigricornis F. does not cause economic damage, a closely related species, Sirex noctilio, was discovered in New York in 2004 and has continually spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, threatening the multi-billion-dollar pine timber industry of the southeastern United States and raising interest about potential interactions with native woodwasps and associated mortality agents. A non-sterilizing strain of the biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae), was introduced along with S. noctilio but is not inhibiting the spread or establishment of S. noctilio A North American congener, Deladenus proximus Bedding, has been recently isolated from S. noctilio and shows promise as a biological control agent. To better understand the potential of D. proximus as a control agent for S. noctilio, we measured and dissected nearly 1,200 S. nigricornis females from Arkansas and Mississippi and evaluated differences among collection location with regard to nematode virulence, woodwasp body size, and egg load. Body size and egg load were related to collection location, and nematode infestation resulted in significantly smaller females who produced significantly fewer eggs. Female woodwasps, especially those collected in Arkansas, were often fully sterilized by nematodes, and a higher percent sterilization was inversely related to body size and fewer eggs. We propose field studies to test the nematode's ability to sterilize S. noctilio in the northeastern United States.

  13. Interactions Among Latitude, Nematode Parasitization, and Female Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Jessica A; Chase, Kevin D; Galligan, Larry D; Riggins, John J; Stephen, Fred M

    2016-09-02

    Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an innocuous pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America, utilizing dead or dying pine trees as hosts. Although S. nigricornis F. does not cause economic damage, a closely related species, Sirex noctilio, was discovered in New York in 2004 and has continually spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, threatening the multi-billion-dollar pine timber industry of the southeastern United States and raising interest about potential interactions with native woodwasps and associated mortality agents. A non-sterilizing strain of the biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae), was introduced along with S. noctilio but is not inhibiting the spread or establishment of S. noctilio A North American congener, Deladenus proximus Bedding, has been recently isolated from S. noctilio and shows promise as a biological control agent. To better understand the potential of D. proximus as a control agent for S. noctilio, we measured and dissected nearly 1,200 S. nigricornis females from Arkansas and Mississippi and evaluated differences among collection location with regard to nematode virulence, woodwasp body size, and egg load. Body size and egg load were related to collection location, and nematode infestation resulted in significantly smaller females who produced significantly fewer eggs. Female woodwasps, especially those collected in Arkansas, were often fully sterilized by nematodes, and a higher percent sterilization was inversely related to body size and fewer eggs. We propose field studies to test the nematode's ability to sterilize S. noctilio in the northeastern United States.

  14. Application and commercialization of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2013-07-01

    While nematodes are most commonly known for their negative impact on plants, animals, and humans, there are a number of species which are commercially explored. This review highlights some of the most important success stories for the application of nematodes. They are used as bioindicators in ecological and toxicity studies, as model organisms for elucidating fundamental biological questions and for high throughput screening of drugs. Besides these indirect uses, direct applications include the use of Beddingia siricidicola against a major forest pest and the commercialization of Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Phasmarhabditis as biological pest control products. New directions for the commercialization of nematodes are the use as living food, specifically loaded with essential nutrients for various fish and shrimp larvae. Even human parasites or closely related species have been successfully used for curing autoimmune disorders and are currently in the process of being developed as drugs. With the striving development of life sciences, we are likely to see more applications for nematodes in the future. A prerequisite is that we continue to explore the vast number of yet undiscovered nematode species.

  15. The bark beetle, Ips grandicollis, disrupts biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, via fungal symbiont interactions.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Fazila; Gurr, Geoff M; Carnegie, Angus J; Bedding, Robin A; Bashford, Richard; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I

    2014-04-01

    The corticoid fungus, Amylostereum areolatum, is deposited in pine trees by the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, at the time of oviposition. This fungus is essential in S. noctilio larval growth and it is also a food source for Beddingia siricidicola, the nematode used for S. noctilio biological control. In recent years, the historically successful biological control programme has been disrupted in Australia by the bark beetle, Ips grandicollis. This study investigated whether the mechanism of this disruption involves a fungus, Ophiostoma ips, which I. grandicollis introduces into trees. In artificial and wood media, A. areolatum was unable to grow in areas occupied by O. ips. The latter fungus was faster growing, especially at 25 °C rather than 20 °C. Larval galleries of S. noctilio in field-collected samples were strongly associated with wood infested by A. areolatum and absent from areas affected by O. ips. The nematode failed to survive and reproduce on O. ips as it can on A. areolatum. Competitive interactions between O. ips and A. areolatum within the trap trees are demonstrated to be key factors in the negative effect of I. grandicollis on S. noctilio biological control programmes.

  16. Molecular and morphological characterization of Veleshkinema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Miraeiz, Esmaeil; Heydari, Ramin; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-08-19

    Veleshkinema  iranicum n. gen., n. sp. is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new genus is characterized by having slender females and males, stylet with asymmetrical knobs, dorsal gland orifice just posterior to subventral knob, lip region with flattened apex and eight sectors, pharynx with a non-muscular and non-valvular median bulb, pharyngeal glands slightly overlapping intestine dorsally, visible cellular cardia, female with a single gonad having a quadricolumellate crustaformeria with 8-10 cells in each column, no postvulval uterine sac and rounded and offset spermatheca containing spheroid sperm cells, males with arcuate tylenchoid spicules and subterminal bursa. The new genus is morphologically compared with four genera: Abursanema, Deladenus, Prothallonema and Sphaerularia. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new genus using 808 bp partial sequences of SSU ribosomal RNA gene placed the new genus in a clade with Sphaerularia spp. In phylogenetic analyses using 756 bp partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (D2-D3 segments), the new genus formed a monophyletic group with Abursanema iranicum and Sphaerularia spp.