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Sample records for bedrock geology forsmark

  1. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  2. Bedrock geology of the Cape Ann Area, Massachusetts. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Cape Ann on the Massachusetts eastern shore is dominated by igneous rocks, intruded into an igneous and metamorphic complex all cut by numerous faults. Geophysical investigations include total intensity aeromagnetic and gravity and magnetic studies. This report addresses structural features, stratigraphy, economic and environmental geology at the bedrock geology of the Cape Ann area.

  3. Quantitative mapping and statistical evaluation of fracture minerals in the granitic bedrock at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Martin; Sidborn, Magnus

    2016-10-01

    This article provides quantitative data on occurrences and amounts of fracture minerals that coat discrete fractures in granitic rock at the Forsmark site in Sweden. The data are useful for retardation modelling of radionuclide and other contaminants, and for groundwater composition calculations. In a unique campaign, 2071 open fractures in groundwater conducting rock have been mapped with respect to chlorite, calcite, and pyrite. In total 767 m of drill core has been studied from very shallow rock down to ~1000 m depth. The occurrences of fracture minerals, their thicknesses, and their fractions of surface coverage have been recorded for up to eight layers for each fracture. Detection limits are, for each layer, 0.1 mm for the thickness and 1 % for the surface coverage, except for pyrite crystals where surface coverages down to 0.01 % are detectable. The abundance of data has permitted statistical treatment, using parametric and non-parametric methods. Parametric fittings have been made to log-normal, truncated log-normal, and beta distributions. Chlorite, calcite, and pyrite were found in 57 %, 52 %, and 10 % of all mapped fractures, respectively. The fracture mineral thickness was 0.1 mm for calcite, 0.2 mm for chlorite, and 2 μm for pyrite, as averaged over the fracture surface area. For 50 % and 99 % of all fractures the total fracture coating thickness was less than 0.1 mm and 1 mm, respectively, which is important for diffusion resistance estimates. Average surface coverages were 18 % for calcite, 38 % for chlorite, and 0.5 % for pyrite. These data may be used for calculating the reaction capacity of flow paths.

  4. Bedrock Geologic Map of the New Milford Quadrangle, Litchfield and Fairfield Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the New Milford quadrangle, Litchfield and Fairfield Counties, Connecticut is described in this report. The database includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, structural geologic information, and photos.

  5. Bedrock geologic map of the Grafton quadrangle, Worcester County, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Dorais, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the 7.5-minute Grafton, Massachusetts, quadrangle consists of deformed Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic crystalline metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks. Neoproterozoic intrusive, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks crop out in the Avalon zone, and Cambrian to Silurian intrusive, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks crop out in the Nashoba zone. Rocks of the Avalon and Nashoba zones, or terranes, are separated by the Bloody Bluff fault. The bedrock geology was mapped to study the tectonic history of the area and to provide a framework for ongoing hydrogeologic characterization of the fractured bedrock of Massachusetts. This report presents mapping by G.J. Walsh, geochronology by J.N. Aleinikoff, geochemistry by M.J. Dorais, and consists of a map, text pamphlet, and GIS database. The map and text pamphlet are available in paper format or as downloadable files (see frame at right). The GIS database is available for download. The database includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, structural geologic information, and photographs.

  6. Novice to Expert Cognition During Geologic Bedrock Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcovic, H. L.; Libarkin, J.; Hambrick, D. Z.; Baker, K. M.; Elkins, J. T.; Callahan, C. N.; Turner, S.; Rench, T. A.; LaDue, N.

    2011-12-01

    Bedrock geologic mapping is a complex and cognitively demanding task. Successful mapping requires domain-specific content knowledge, visuospatial ability, navigation through the field area, creating a mental model of the geology that is consistent with field data, and metacognition. Most post-secondary geology students in the United States receive training in geologic mapping, however, not much is known about the cognitive processes that underlie successful bedrock mapping, or about how these processes change with education and experience. To better understand cognition during geologic mapping, we conducted a 2-year research study in which 67 volunteers representing a range from undergraduate sophomore to 20+ years professional experience completed a suite of cognitive measures plus a 1-day bedrock mapping task in the Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA. In addition to participants' geologic maps and field notes, the cognitive suite included tests and questionnaires designed to measure: (1) prior geologic experience, via a self-report survey; (2) geologic content knowledge, via a modified version of the Geoscience Concept Inventory; (3) visuospatial ability, working memory capacity, and perceptual speed, via paper-and-pencil and computerized tests; (4) use of space and time during mapping via GPS tracking; and (5) problem-solving in the field via think-aloud audio logs during mapping and post-mapping semi-structured interviews. Data were examined for correlations between performance on the mapping task and other measures. We found that both geological knowledge and spatial visualization ability correlated positively with accuracy in the field mapping task. More importantly, we found a Visuospatial Ability × Geological Knowledge interaction, such that visuospatial ability positively predicted mapping performance at low, but not high, levels of geological knowledge. In other words, we found evidence to suggest that visuospatial ability mattered for bedrock mapping for the

  7. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  8. Bedrock geologic map of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, C.F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Kirschner, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is an introduction with background information to accompany the bedrock geologic map (pl. 8.1) and cross sections (pl. 8.2) of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Unconsolidated Tertiary( ) and Quaternary sediments, principally those of the Pliocene( ) and Pleistocene Gubik Formation and the Holocene deposits, are omitted from the map in the northern part of the area in order to show the approximate subcrop contacts between consolidated rock units that are Tertiary and older in age. These contacts are approximated from information on the first consolidated rock unit drilled in oil exploration wells and from maps of shallow seismic results in the northern and eastern parts of the NPRA. Modifications to earlier geologic maps have been made where warranted by more recent geologic investigations. Previous geologic compilations of the southern part of the NPRA have been partly remapped to conform to the tectonostratigraphic units named by Ellersieck and others and Mayfield and others. In the northwestern part of the reserve, rocks previously mapped as part of the Colville Group are here reassigned to the Nanushuk Group. Reports of plant fossils on the Kuk and Kaolak Rivers and micropaleontologic study of near-surface strata at the Tunalik No. 1 well indicate that the rocks west of the Meade River are probably all pre-Turonian in age and therefore older than any known rocks in the Colville Group. This revision is consistent with the sedimentology, because both the Nanushuk and Colville Groups consist of deltaic sediments that were prograded across the North Slope from south-west to northeast. Through Colville deposition began with a significant marine transgression, it seems unlikely that this deposition reached as far west as the area in question.

  9. Bedrock geology of the Mount Carmel and Southington quadrangles, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, Crawford Ellswroth

    1962-01-01

    New data concerning the geologic structure, stratigraphy, petrography, origin, and ages of bedrock formations in an area of approximately 111 square miles in south-central Connecticut were obtained in the course of detailed geologic mapping from 1957 to 1960. Mapping was done at a scale of 1:24,000 on topographic base maps having a 10-foot contour interval. Bedrock formations are classified in two principal categories. The first includes metasedimentary, meta-igneous, and igneous rocks of Precambrian to Devonian age, which crop out in the western parts of both quadrangles. The second includes sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark Group of Late Triassic age, which crop out in the eastern parts of the quadrangles. Diabase dikes, which are Late Triassic or younger in age, intruded rocks in both the western and eastern parts of the map area. Rocks in the western part of the area underwent progressive regional metamorphism in Middle to Late Devonian time. The arrangement of the chlorite, garnet, biotite, staurolite, and kyanite zones here is approximately the mirror-image of metamorphic zones in Dutchess County, New York. However, garnet appeared before biotite in politic rocks in the map area, because the ration MgO/FeO is low. Waterbury Gneiss and the intrusive Woodtick Gneiss are parts of a basement complex of Precambrian age, which forms the core of the Waterbury dome. This structure is near the southern end of a line of similar domes that lie along the crest of a geanticline east of the Green Mountain anticlinorium. The Waterbury Gneiss is believed to have been metamorphosed in Precambrian time as well as in Paleozoic time. The Woodtick Gneiss also may have been metamorphosed more than once. In Paleozoic time, sediments were deposited in geosynclines during two main cycles of sedimentation. The Straits, Southington Mountain, and Derby Hill Schists, which range in age from Cambrian to Ordovician, reflect a transition from relatively clean politic sediments to

  10. Bedrock geologic map of the Worcester South quadrangle, Worcester County, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2015-09-29

    The bedrock geology was mapped to study the tectonic history of the area and to provide a framework for ongoing hydrogeologic characterization of the fractured bedrock of Massachusetts. This report presents mapping by Gregory J. Walsh and Arthur J. Merschat from 2008 to 2010. The report consists of a map and GIS database, both of which are available for download at http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3133/sim3345. The database includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrop locations, structural information, and photographs.

  11. Hydrology of the Helena area bedrock, west-central Montana, 1993-98; with a section on geologic setting and a generalized bedrock geologic map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, Joanna N.; Reynolds, Mitchell W.

    2000-01-01

    The Generalized Bedrock Geologic Map of the Helena Area, West-Central Montana (plate 1 in the report) provides an intermediate-scale overview of bedrock in the Helena area. The geologic map has been compiled at a scale of 1:100,000 from the most widely available sources of geologic map information (see index to geologic mapping on pl. 1). That information has been updated by M.W. Reynolds for this report with more recent geologic mapping and field revision of published maps. All well locations and all bedrock units penetrated during drilling have been confirmed on geologic maps at the largest scale available. Source geologic maps are all at scales larger than 1:100,000 scale. Care has been taken to ensure accurate representation of the original geology at the compilation scale. However, positional accuracy of some features might be somewhat diminished at the smaller scale of the base map when compared with the original data source. Also, line thicknesses for contacts and faults necessarily assume a greater width, relative to the real geologic feature, at the scale of the generalized map than on any original map. The map is not intended for large-scale, site-specific detailed planning. Bedrock units throughout the Helena area are generally covered by young surficial deposits such as alluvium, colluvium, glacial debris, or windblown sediment. Thickness of such deposits varies from veneers through which the underlying bedrock is clearly discernible to major thicknesses that conceal all underlying bedrock and structure. Boundaries of major accumulations of surficial deposits are attributed separately from bedrock contacts. These boundaries should not be considered precise at the map scale or at larger scales. Boundaries shown may be less accurate positionally than bedrock contacts and faults because (1) surficial deposits commonly thin to a knife edge; (2) different mappers will interpret the edge differently when drawing a boundary; or (3) the original geologic map

  12. Bedrock Geology of the Turkey Creek Drainage Basin, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Char, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    This geospatial data set describes bedrock geology of the Turkey Creek drainage basin in Jefferson County, Colorado. It was digitized from maps of fault locations and geologic map units based on age and lithology. Created for use in the Jefferson County Mountain Ground-Water Resources Study, it is to be used at a scale no more detailed than 1:50,000.

  13. Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, S.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of rock-derived mineral nutrient availability on the nutrient dynamics of overlying forest communities (Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmanni-Abies lasiocarpa v. arizonica) across three parent materials (andesite, limestone, and sandstone) in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Broad geochemical differences were observed between bedrock materials; however, bulk soil chemistries were remarkably similar between the three different sites. In contrast, soil nutrient pools were considerably different, particularly for P, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Despite variations in nutrient stocks and nutrient availability in soils, we observed relatively inflexible foliar concentrations and foliar stoichiometries for both deciduous and coniferous species. Foliar nutrient resorption (P and K) in the deciduous species followed patterns of nutrient content across substrate types, with higher resorption corresponding to lower bedrock concentrations. Work presented here indicates a complex plant response to available soil nutrients, wherein plant nutrient use compensates for variations in supply gradients and results in the maintenance of a narrow range in foliar stoichiometry. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Bedrock Geology of the DFDP-2 Drill-Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, V.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bedrock was encountered in DFDP-2B at drilled depths (MD) of 238.50-893.18 m (vertical depths of 238.40-818.00 m). Continuous sampling of cuttings revealed the bedrock is composed predominantly of ductilely sheared mylonite-series lithologies exhumed from the roots of the Alpine Fault zone. The protolith is interpreted to be amphibolite facies metasediments classified as part of the Aspiring Subdivision of the Torlesse Supergroup. Onsite description of whole cuttings and thin sections made within a few hours of sample recovery allowed identification of progressive structural changes. Fabrics were schistose in the upper part of the hole, but at greater depths we observed increasing indications that the rocks had been subjected to simple shear deformation. These macro-and micro-structural features are consistent with those that typify the Alpine Fault mylonite sequence previously described, and were used as input to drilling decisions. The structural features found to be the most useful indicators of ductile simple shear strain accommodated by the recovered rocks were the occurrence of shear bands; changes in mean quartz grain size; changes in maximum mica grain size; and redistribution of or changes in microstructural setting of accessory phases (e.g. graphite). The quartz:mica ratio based on mass was also determined but the extent to which this reflects true lithologic variations is unclear, as washing and winnowing of the samples (both by circulating drill fluids and during the sample collection process) probably modified bulk mineralogy in different particle size domains. Nevertheless, the quartz:mica dataset suggests a dramatic change in mineralogy at 730 m MD (vertical depth of 695 m). This coincides with a pronounced step in the temperature gradient, possibly related to large changes in hydrogeology.

  15. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Greater Lefkosia Area, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Newell, Wayne; Panayides, Ioannis; Stone, Byron; Tsiolakis, Efthymios; Necdet, Mehmet; Batihanli, Hilmi; Ozhur, Ayse; Lord, Alan; Berksoy, Okan; Zomeni, Zomenia; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The island of Cyprus has a long historical record of earthquakes that have damaged pre-Roman to modern human settlements. Because the recurrent damaging earthquakes can have a significant economic and social impact on Cyprus, this project was initiated to develop a seismic-hazard assessment for a roughly 400 square kilometer area centered on Cyprus' capital and largest city, whose European name is Nicosia and whose local name is Lefkosia. In addition, geologic and seismotectonic evaluations for the project extended beyond the perimeter of the geologic map. Additional structural, stratigraphic, and paleontological data were collected island-wide as well as data from literature research throughout the eastern Mediterranean region, in order to accurately place the geology and seismic hazards of the Lefkosia area in a regional tectonic framework.

  16. Bedrock geologic map of the Nashua South quadrangle, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, and Middlesex County, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Jahns, Richard H.; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2013-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the 7.5-minute Nashua South quadrangle consists primarily of deformed Silurian metasedimentary rocks of the Berwick Formation. The metasedimentary rocks are intruded by a Late Silurian to Early Devonian diorite-gabbro suite, Devonian rocks of the Ayer Granodiorite, Devonian granitic rocks of the New Hampshire Plutonic Suite including pegmatite and the Chelmsford Granite, and Jurassic diabase dikes. The bedrock geology was mapped to study the tectonic history of the area and to provide a framework for ongoing hydrogeologic characterization of the fractured bedrock of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. This report presents mapping by G.J. Walsh and R.H. Jahns and zircon U-Pb geochronology by J.N. Aleinikoff. The complete report consists of a map, text pamphlet, and GIS database. The map and text pamphlet are only available as downloadable files (see frame at right). The GIS database is available for download in ESRITM shapefile and Google EarthTM formats, and includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, structural geologic information, photographs, and a three-dimensional model.

  17. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  18. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater Augusta, Maine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W; Marvinney, Robert G; Loiselle, Marc C; Locke, Daniel B; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-04-15

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (10(0)-10(1) km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 microg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 microg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (approximately 40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%),the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (approximately 1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 microg/L arsenic in groundwater.

  20. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here.

  1. Bedrock geologic map of the Uxbridge quadrangle, Worcester County, Massachusetts, and Providence County, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the 7.5-minute Uxbridge quadrangle consists of Neoproterozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Avalon zone. In this area, rocks of the Avalon zone lie within the core of the Milford antiform, south and east of the terrane-bounding Bloody Bluff fault zone. Permian pegmatite dikes and quartz veins occur throughout the quadrangle. The oldest metasedimentary rocks include the Blackstone Group, which represents a Neoproterozoic peri-Gondwanan marginal shelf sequence. The metasedimentary rocks are intruded by Neoproterozoic arc-related plutonic rocks of the Rhode Island batholith. This report presents mapping by G.J. Walsh. The complete report consists of a map, text pamphlet, and GIS database. The map and text pamphlet are available only as downloadable files (see frame at right). The GIS database is available for download in ESRI™ shapefile and Google Earth™ formats, and includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, structural geologic information, geochemical data, and photographs.

  2. Interpretive geologic bedrock map of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle, Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reifenstuh, Rocky R.; Dover, James H.; Newberry, Rainer J.; Calutice, Karen H.; Liss, Shirley A.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Budtzen, Thomas K.; Weber, Florence R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides detailed (1:63,360-scale) mapping of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle (250 square miles; equivalent to four 7.5 minute quadrangles). The area is part of the Manley Hot Springs-Tofty mining districts and adjacent to the Rampart mining district to the north of the Tanana A-1 and A-2 Quadrangles. This report includes detailed bedrock, structural, stratigraphic, and geochronologic data. Based on the resulting geologic maps, field investigations, and laboratory materials analyses, the project has also generated derivative maps of geologic construction materials and geologic hazards.

  3. A Test of the Circumvention-of-Limits Hypothesis in Scientific Problem Solving: The Case of Geological Bedrock Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Petcovic, Heather L.; Baker, Kathleen M.; Elkins, Joe; Callahan, Caitlin N.; Turner, Sheldon P.; Rench, Tara A.; LaDue, Nicole D.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of individual differences in scientific problem solving were investigated. Participants representing a wide range of experience in geology completed tests of visuospatial ability and geological knowledge, and performed a geological bedrock mapping task, in which they attempted to infer the geological structure of an area in the Tobacco…

  4. Bedrock geologic map of the Montpelier and Barre West quadrangles, Washington and Orange Counties, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Kim, Jonathan; Gale, Marjorie H.; King, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the Montpelier and Barre West quadrangles consists of Silurian and Devonian metasedimentary rocks of the Connecticut Valley-Gaspe synclinorium (CVGS) and metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and metaintrusive rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Moretown and Cram Hill Formations. Devonian granite dikes occur throughout the two quadrangles but are more abundant in the Silurian and Devonian rocks. The pre-Silurian rocks are separated from the rocks of the CVGS by the informally named 'Richardson Memorial Contact,' historically interpreted as either an unconformity or a fault. The results of this report represent mapping by G.J. Walsh, Jonathan Kim, and M.H. Gale from 2002 to 2005. S.M. King assisted Kim and Gale from 2002 to 2003. A.M. Satkoski (Indiana University) assisted Walsh, and L.R. Pascale (University of Vermont) and C.M. Orsi (Middlebury College) assisted Kim and Gale as summer interns in 2003. This study was designed to map the bedrock geology in the area. This map supersedes a preliminary map of the Montpelier quadrangle (Kim, Gale, and others, 2003). A companion study in the Barre West quadrangle (Walsh and Satkoski, 2005) determined the levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in the bedrock from surface measurements at outcrops during the course of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping to identify which rock types were potential sources of radionuclides. Results of that study indicate that the carbonaceous phyllites in the CVGS have the highest levels of natural radioactivity.

  5. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  6. Steeply dipping heaving bedrock, Colorado: Part 1 - Heave features and physical geological framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.; Higgins, J.D.; Olsen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    Differentially heaving bedrock has caused severe damage near the Denver metropolitan area. This paper describes heave-feature morphologies, the underlying bedrock framework, and their inter-relationship. The heave features are linear to curvilinear and may attain heights of 0.7 m (2.4 ft), widths of 58 m (190 ft), and lengths of 1,067 m (3,500 ft). They are nearly symmetrical to highly asymmetrical in cross section, with width-to-height ratios of 45:1 to 400:1, and most are oriented parallel with the mountain front. The bedrock consists of Mesozoic sedimentary formations having dip angles of 30 degrees to vertical to overturned. Mixed claystone-siltstone bedding sequences up to 36-m (118-ft) thick are common in the heave-prone areas, and interbeds of bentonite, limestone, or sandstone may be present. Highly fractured zones of weathered to variably weathered claystone extend to depths of 19.5 to 22.3 m (64 to 73 ft). Fracture spacings are 0.1 to 0.2 m (0.3 to 0.7 ft) in the weathered and variably weathered bedrock and up to 0.75 m (2.5 ft) in the underlying, unweathered bedrock. Curvilinear shear planes in the weathered claystone show thrust or reverse offsets up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft). Three associations between heave-feature morphologies and the geological framework are recognized: (1) Linear, symmetrical to asymmetrical heaves are associated with primary bedding composition changes. (2) Linear, highly asymmetrical heaves are associated with shear planes along bedding. (3) Curvi-linear, highly asymmetrical heaves are associated with bedding-oblique shear planes.

  7. Bedrock geologic map of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and accompanying conodont data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Werdon, Melanie B.; Bleick, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    This 1:500,000-scale geologic map depicts the bedrock geology of Seward Peninsula, western Alaska, on the North American side of the Bering Strait. The map encompasses all of the Teller, Nome, Solomon, and Bendeleben 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, and parts of the Shishmaref, Kotzebue, Candle, and Norton Bay 1:250,000-scale quadrangles (sh. 1; sh. 2). The geologic map is presented on Sheet 1. The pamphlet includes an introductory text, detailed unit descriptions, tables of geochronologic data, and an appendix containing conodont (microfossil) data and a text explaining those data. Sheet 2 shows metamorphic and tectonic units, conodont color alteration indices, key metamorphic minerals, and locations of geochronology samples listed in the pamphlet. The map area covers 74,000 km2, an area slightly larger than West Virginia or Ireland.

  8. Preliminary bedrock geologic map of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and accompanying conodont data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Werdon, Melanie B.; Bleick, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    This 1:500,000-scale geologic map depicts the bedrock geology of Seward Peninsula, western Alaska, on the North American side of the Bering Strait. The map encompasses all of the Teller, Nome, Solomon, and Bendeleben 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, and parts of the Shishmaref, Kotzebue, Candle, and Norton Bay 1:250,000-scale quadrangles (sheet 1; sheet 2). The geologic map is presented on Sheet 1. The pamphlet includes an introductory text, unit descriptions, tables of geochronologic data, and an appendix containing conodont (microfossil) data and a text about those data. Sheet 2 shows metamorphic and tectonic units, conodont color alteration indices, key metamorphic minerals, and locations of geochronology samples listed in the pamphlet.

  9. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  10. Bedrock geologic map of the Hartland and North Hartland quadrangles, Windsor County, Vermont, and Sullivan and Grafton Counties, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This report consists of sheets 1 and 2 as well as an online geographic information systems database that includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, structural geologic information, and photographs. Sheet 2 of this report shows three cross sections, a tectonic map, and two brittle features maps that show measured outcrop-scale strike and dip results with summary stereonets and rose diagrams.

  11. Bedrock geologic map of the Hartland and North Hartland quadrangles, Windsor County, Vermont, and Sullivan and Grafton Counties, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2016-08-16

    This report consists of sheets 1 and 2 as well as an online geographic information systems database that includes contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, structural geologic information, and photographs. Sheet 2 of this report shows three cross sections, a tectonic map, and two brittle features maps that show measured outcrop-scale strike and dip results with summary stereonets and rose diagrams.

  12. Environmental quality and preservation; bedrock beneath reefs; the importance of geology in understanding biological decline in a modern reef ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, Barbara H.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental Quality and Preservation-Bedrock Beneath Reefs: the Importance of Geology in Understanding Biological Decline in a Modern Ecosystem' is a four-page and one-plate full-color discussion of the geologic framework and evolutionary history of the coral reef ecosystem that lines the outer shelf off the Florida Keys.

  13. Multipurpose bedrock surficial, and environmental geologic maps, New River valley, southwest Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, A. ); Collins, T. )

    1994-03-01

    Multipurpose bedrock, surficial, and environmental geologic maps have recently been completed for portions of the Valley and Ridge province of southwest VA. The maps, at both 1:100,000 and 1:24,000 scales, show generalized and detailed bedrock geology grouped by lithology and environmental hazard associations. Also shown are a variety of alluvial, colluvial, debris flow, and landslide deposits, as well as karst features. Multidisciplinary research topics addressed during the mapping included slope evolution and geomorphology, drainage history and terrace distribution, ancient large-scale landsliding, and sinkhole development. The maps have been used by land-use planners and engineering firms in an evaluation of Appalachian paleoseismicity and to assess potential groundwater contamination and subsidence in karst areas. The maps are being used for environmental hazard assessment and site selection of a proposed large electric powerline that crosses the Jefferson National Forest. Also, the maps are proving useful in planning for a public access interpretive geologic enter focused on large-scale slope failures. Some of the largest known landslides in eastern North America took place within the map area. Field comparisons and detailed structure mapping of similar features along the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies indicate that the landslides were probably emplaced during a single catastrophic event of short duration. Although the giles County seismic zone is nearby, stability analyses of slopes in the map area have shown that failure need not have been initiated by a seismic event. Several distinct colluvial units mapped within the area of landslides document a period of extensive weathering that postdates slide emplacement. Radiocarbon dates from landslide sag ponds indicate a minimum age of 9,860 B.P. for emplacement of some of the landslides. These results indicate that pre-slide colluvial and debris flow deposits are at least Pleistocene in age.

  14. Bedrock fluvial incision and longitudinal profile development over geologic time scales determined by fluvial terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Merritts, Dorothy J.

    Fluvial terraces preserve the history of river incision into bedrock over geologic time scales. In this paper we use terraces and a comparison of terrace longitudinal profiles to stream longitudinal profiles to develop a conceptual model of bedrock fluvial incision in diverse geologic, tectonic, and climatic settings. The conceptual model highlights a distinction between bedrock stream behavior in settings of relatively high versus relatively low tectonic activity. This distinction arises from the fundamentally different ways in which runoff is generated in these respective tectonic settings and the positive feedbacks that exist between topography and climate. The model allows for qualitative predictions of long profile shape that can be directly compared to the longitudinal profiles predicted by the stream power law. Our approach has the advantage of helping understand the geologic (and climatic) constraints on the wide variations in k, m, and n revealed in recent applications of the stream power law. We reconcile diverse longitudinal profile shapes and long-term rates of bedrock fluvial incision by considering how a drainage basin generates fluvial discharge and whether that discharge can produce the necessary stream power distributed across a valley bottom such that the long profile can rapidly accommodate changes in base level, climate, and/or rates of rock uplift. We propose that in tectonically active settings (Type I basins), the entire drainage basin experiences uplift which, in turn, builds steep slopes and concomitant increases in orographic precipitation that effectively generate the high peak discharges and fluvial-system wide stream power necessary to create and maintain concave-up long profiles and rates of incision equal and opposite to rates of rock uplift. Measured stream power for one of these basins is highly correlated to the width of the channel and valley bottom which argues for a conservation of energy along the profile and the apportionment

  15. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) in the Conterminous United States: Bedrock Geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the area of bedrock geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 Scale--A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map" (Schuben and others, 1994). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus

  16. Bedrock geologic and joint trend map of the Pinardville quadrangle, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, William C.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the Pinardville quadrangle includes the Massabesic Gneiss Complex, exposed in the core of a regional northeast-trending anticlinorium, and highly deformed metasedimentary rocks of the Rangeley Formation, exposed along the northwest limb of the anticlinorium. Both formations were subjected to high-grade metamorphism and partial melting: the Rangeley during the middle Paleozoic Acadian orogeny, and the Massabesic Gneiss Complex during both the Acadian and the late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Granitoids produced during these orogenies range in age from Devonian (Spaulding Tonalite) to Permian (granite at Damon Pond), each with associated pegmatite. In the latest Paleozoic the Massabesic Gneiss Complex was uplifted with respect to the Rangeley Formation along the ductile Powder Hill fault, which also had a left-lateral component. Uplift continued into the early Mesozoic, producing the 2-kilometer-wide Campbell Hill fault zone, which is marked by northwest-dipping normal faults and dilational map-scale quartz bodies. Rare, undeformed Jurassic diabase dikes cut all older lithologies and structures. A second map is a compilation of joint orientations measured at all outcrops in the quadrangle. There is a great diversity of strike trends, with northeast perhaps being the most predominant.

  17. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle consists of Neoproterozoic and Permian gneisses and granites of the Gander and Avalon terranes, Silurian metasedimentary rocks of the Merrimack terrane, and Silurian to Devonian metasedimentary rocks of uncertain origin. The Avalon terrane rocks crop out within the Selden Neck block, and the Gander terrane rocks crop out within the Lyme dome. The Silurian to Devonian rocks crop out between these two massifs. Previous mapping in the Old Lyme quadrangle includes the work by Lawrence Lundgren, Jr. Lundgren's work provides an excellent resource for rock descriptions and detailed modal analyses of rock units that will not be duplicated in this current report. New research that was not covered in detail by Lundgren is the focus of this report and includes (1) evaluation of the rocks in the core of the Lyme dome in an effort to subdivide units in this area; (2) structural analysis of foliations and folds in and around the Lyme dome; (3) geochronology of selected units within the Lyme dome; and (4) analysis of joints and the fracture properties of the rocks.

  18. The bedrock geology and fracture characterization of the Maynard quadrangle of eastern Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvin, Tracey A.

    The bedrock geology of the Maynard quadrangle of east-central Massachusetts was examined through field and petrographic studies and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. The quadrangle spans much of the Nashoba terrane and a small area of the Avalon terrane. Two stratigraphic units were defined in the Nashoba terrane: the Cambrian to Ordovician Marlboro Formation and the Ordovician Nashoba Formation. In addition, four igneous units were defined in the Nashoba terrane: the Silurian to Ordovician phases of the Andover Granite, the Silurian to Devonian Assabet Quartz Diorite, the Silurian to Devonian White Pond Diorites (new name), and the Mississippian Indian Head Hill Igneous Complex. In the Avalon terrane, one stratigraphic unit was defined as the Proterozoic Z Westboro Formation Mylonites, and one igneous unit was defined as the Proterozoic Z to Devonian Sudbury Valley Igneous Complex. Two major faults were identified: the intra-terrane Assabet River fault zone in the central part of the quadrangle, and the south-east Nashoba terrane bounding Bloody Bluff fault zone. Petrofabric studies on fault rocks in two areas indicated final motion in those areas: the sheared Marlboro Formation amphibolites indicated dextral transpressive NW over SE motion, and the Westboro Formation Mylonites indicated sinistral strike-slip motion. Fracture characterization of entire quadrangle where attributes (orientation, trace length, spacing, and termination) of fractures and joints were used to identify dominant sets of fractures that affect the transmissivity and storage of groundwater. Orientations of SW -- NE are dominant throughout the quadrangle and consistent with regional trend.

  19. Uranium and thorium series radionuclides in drinking water from drilled bedrock wells: correlation to geology and bedrock radioactivity and dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Isam Salih, M M; Pettersson, H B L; Lund, E

    2002-01-01

    Natural radioactivity in drinking water from 328 drilled wells was studied in correlation to source parameters. Poor correlation to both aquifer geology and bedrock radioactivity was observed. Concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 222Rn and 210Po in groundwater samples was in the ranges <0.027-5.3, <0.016-4.9, <0.014-1.24, 5-8105 and <0.05-0.947 Bq.l(-1) respectively. In about 80% of the sites the radon concentration exceeds the Nordic recommended exemption level for radon in drinking water and 15% of the sites exceed the action limit. The effective doses from ingestion were calculated and presented in association with geology. Doses due to ingestion ranged between 0.05 and 20.4 mSv.y(-1), where the average contribution from 222Rn amounted to 75%. In comparison, the effective doses from inhalation of indoor 222Rn ranged between 0.2 and 20 mSv.y(-1). The average contribution from inhalation of 222Rn in air to the total effective dose (ingestion+inhalation) was 58 +/- 22%, 73 +/- 18% and 77 +/- 16% (1 SD) for the age categories 1 y, 10 y and adults respectively.

  20. Bedrock Geology and Asbestos Deposits of the Upper Missisquoi Valley and Vicinity, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, Wallace Martin; Albee, Arden Leroy; Chidester, A.H.

    1963-01-01

    The upper Missisquoi Valley and vicinity as described in this report covers an area of about 250 square miles at the headwaters of the Missisquoi River in north-central Vermont. About 90 percent of the area is forested and the remainder is chiefly farm land. The topography reflects the geologic structure and varied resistance of the bedrock to erosion. Most of the area is on the east limb of the Green Mountain anticlinorium, which is the principal structural feature of Vermont. The bedrock is predominantly sedimentary and volcanic rock that has been regionally metamorphosed. It was intruded before metamorphism by mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, and after metamorphism by felsic and mafic igneous rocks. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks range in age from Cambrian(?) to Middle Silurian, the intrusive igneous rocks from probably Late Ordovician to probably late Permian. Metamorphism and principal folding in the region occurred in Middle Devonian time. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks make up a section at least 25,000 feet thick and can be divided into nine formations. The Hazens Notch formation of Cambrian(?) and Early Cambrian age is characterized by carbonaceous schist. It is succeeded in western parts of the area by the Jay Peak formation of Early Cambrian age, which is chiefly a schist that is distinguished by the general absence of carbonaceous zones; in central parts of the area the Hazens Notch formation is followed by the Belvidere Mountain amphibolite, probably the youngest of the formations of Early Cambrian age. The Ottauquechee formation, composed of carbonaceous phyllite and quartzite, and phyllitic graywacke, is of Middle Cambrian age. The Stowe formation of Late Cambrian(?) and Early(?) Ordovician age overlies the Ottauquechee and is predominantly noncarbonaceous schist, though it also contains greenstone and carbonaceous schist and phyllite. The Umbrella Hill formation of Middle Ordovician age is characteristically a

  1. Digital bedrock mapping at the Geological Survey of Norway: BGS SIGMA tool and in-house database structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Deta; Viola, Giulio; Bingen, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, the Geological Survey of Norway has been implementing and continuously developing a digital workflow for geological bedrock mapping in Norway, from fieldwork to final product. Our workflow is based on the ESRI ArcGIS platform, and we use rugged Windows computers in the field. Three different hardware solutions have been tested over the past 5 years (2010-2015). (1) Panasonic Toughbook CE-19 (2.3 kg), (2) Panasonic Toughbook CF H2 Field (1.6 kg) and (3) Motion MC F5t tablet (1.5 kg). For collection of point observations in the field we mainly use the SIGMA Mobile application in ESRI ArcGIS developed by the British Geological Survey, which allows the mappers to store georeferenced comments, structural measurements, sample information, photographs, sketches, log information etc. in a Microsoft Access database. The application is freely downloadable from the BGS websites. For line- and polygon work we use our in-house database, which is currently under revision. Our line database consists of three feature classes: (1) bedrock boundaries, (2) bedrock lineaments, and (3) bedrock lines, with each feature class having up to 24 different attribute fields. Our polygon database consists of one feature class with 38 attribute fields enabling to store various information concerning lithology, stratigraphic order, age, metamorphic grade and tectonic subdivision. The polygon and line databases are coupled via topology in ESRI ArcGIS, which allows us to edit them simultaneously. This approach has been applied in two large-scale 1:50 000 bedrock mapping projects, one in the Kongsberg domain of the Sveconorwegian orogen, and the other in the greater Trondheim area (Orkanger) in the Caledonian belt. The mapping projects combined collection of high-resolution geophysical data, digital acquisition of field data, and collection of geochronological, geochemical and petrological data. During the Kongsberg project, some 25000 field observation points were collected by eight

  2. Bedrock geology and outcrop fracture trends in the vicinity of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, William C.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site consists of an eastward-directed plume of volatile organic compounds, principally tetrachloroethylene (PCE), in alluvium and glacial sand and gravel in the Souhegan River valley, just south of the river and about 4 kilometers west of the town of Milford, New Hampshire. Sampling of monitoring wells at the site has helped delineate the extent of the plume and has determined that some contaminant has migrated into the underlying crystalline bedrock, including bedrock north of the river within 200 meters of a nearby residential development that was constructed in 1999. Borehole geophysical logging has identified a northeast preferential trend for bedrock fractures, which may provide a pathway for the migration of contaminant under and north of the Souhegan River. The current study investigates the bedrock geologic setting for the site, including its position relative to known regional geologic structures, and compiles new strike and dip measurements of joints in exposed bedrock to determine if there are dominant trends in orientation similar to what was found in the boreholes. The site is located on the northwestern limb of a northeast-trending regional anticlinorium that is southeast of the Campbell Hill fault zone. The Campbell Hill fault zone defines the contact between granite and gneiss of the anticlinorium and granite and schist to the northwest and is locally marked by lenses of massive vein quartz, minor faults, and fracture zones that could potentially affect plume migration. The fault zone was apparently not intercepted by any of the boreholes that were drilled to delineate the contaminant plume and therefore passes to the north of the northernmost borehole in the vicinity of the new residential area. Joints measured in surface exposures indicate a strong preferred direction of strike to the north-northeast corroborating the borehole data and previous outcrop and geophysical studies. The north-northeast preferred

  3. Bedrock Geologic Map of New Hampshire, a Digital Representation of Lyons and Others 1997 Map and Ancillary Files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Derek S.; Lyons, John B.; Wittkop, Chad A.; Dicken, Connie L.

    2006-01-01

    The New Hampshire Geological Survey collects data and performs research on the land, mineral, and water resources of the State, and disseminates the findings of such research to the public through maps, reports, and other publications. The Bedrock Geologic Map of New Hampshire, by John B. Lyons, Wallace A. Bothner, Robert H. Moench, and James B. Thompson, was published in paper format by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1997. The online version of this CD contains digital datasets of the State map that are intended to assist the professional geologist, land-use planners, water resource professionals, and engineers and to inform the interested layperson. In addition to the bedrock geology, the datasets include geopolitical and hydrologic information, such as political boundaries, quadrangle boundaries, hydrologic units, and water-well data. A more thorough explanation for each of these datasets may be found in the accompanying metadata files. The data are spatially referenced and may be used in a geographic information system (GIS). ArcExplorer, the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) free GIS data viewer, is available at http://www.esri.com/software/arcexplorer. ArcExplorer provides basic functions that are needed to harness the power and versatility of the spatial datasets. Additional information on the viewer and other ESRI products may be found on the ArcExplorer website. Although extensive review and revisions of the data have been performed by the USGS and the New Hampshire Geological Survey, these data represent interpretations made by professional geologists using the best available data, and are intended to provide general geologic information. Use of these data at scales larger than 1:250,000 will not provide greater accuracy. The data are not intended to replace site-specific or specific-use investigations. The U.S. Geological Survey, New Hampshire Geological Survey, and State of New Hampshire make no representation or warranty

  4. Approaches and algorithms for groundwater flow modeling in support of site investigations and safety assessment of the Forsmark site, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Lee; Joyce, Steven

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has in 2011 finalized a safety assessment project, SR-Site, with the objective to assess the long term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Northern Uppland of Sweden. Prior to the safety assessment, comprehensive site investigations were conducted at the Forsmark site to build understanding and characterize the site. An essential part of the site investigations were to describe hydrological properties and characteristics of the site and use this to assess the groundwater pathway. The geological structural context of the crystalline bedrock at Forsmark implied a fracture network concept was the natural description for interpreting site data and assessing the groundwater pathway. Of primary importance to the description of the fracture system was the assignment of down-borehole flow-logging measurements to individual fractures identified by imaging techniques, providing the basis to relate hydrogeological characteristics such as anisotropy and heterogeneity to the geological structural framework. Also, the key input quantities to the assessment of long-term safety can be closely related to the derived fracture flow-rate distributions. Key success factors for this project were to develop and test strategies for modeling methodologies, as described in this paper, from an early stage, hand-in-hand with the planning and phased acquisition of site data as well as successive safety assessments.

  5. Beneath it all: bedrock geology of the Catskill Mountains and implications of its weathering.

    PubMed

    Ver Straeten, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The Devonian-age bedrock of the Catskill Mountains has been the focus of many studies. This paper reviews the character and composition of the rocks of the Catskills, and examines weathering (rock decay) processes and their implications in the Catskills. Rocks of the Catskills and closest foothills consist of siliciclastic rocks (sandstones, mudrocks, conglomerates) with minimal, locally dispersed carbonate rocks. The former are dominated by quartz, metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments, and clay minerals. Other minor sediment components include cements, authigenic and heavy minerals, and fossil organic matter. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering of the Catskill bedrock since uplift of the Appalachian region, combined with glaciation, have dissected a plateau of nearly horizontally layered rocks into a series of ridges, valleys, and peaks. The varied weathering processes, in conjunction with many factors (natural and anthropogenic), fragment the rocks, forming sediment and releasing various elements and compounds. These may have positive, neutral, or negative implications for the region's soils, waters, ecology, and human usage. A new generation of studies and analyses of the Catskill bedrock is needed to help answer a broad set of questions and problems across various fields of interest. PMID:23895551

  6. Beneath it all: bedrock geology of the Catskill Mountains and implications of its weathering.

    PubMed

    Ver Straeten, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The Devonian-age bedrock of the Catskill Mountains has been the focus of many studies. This paper reviews the character and composition of the rocks of the Catskills, and examines weathering (rock decay) processes and their implications in the Catskills. Rocks of the Catskills and closest foothills consist of siliciclastic rocks (sandstones, mudrocks, conglomerates) with minimal, locally dispersed carbonate rocks. The former are dominated by quartz, metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments, and clay minerals. Other minor sediment components include cements, authigenic and heavy minerals, and fossil organic matter. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering of the Catskill bedrock since uplift of the Appalachian region, combined with glaciation, have dissected a plateau of nearly horizontally layered rocks into a series of ridges, valleys, and peaks. The varied weathering processes, in conjunction with many factors (natural and anthropogenic), fragment the rocks, forming sediment and releasing various elements and compounds. These may have positive, neutral, or negative implications for the region's soils, waters, ecology, and human usage. A new generation of studies and analyses of the Catskill bedrock is needed to help answer a broad set of questions and problems across various fields of interest.

  7. Surficial and bedrock geologic map database of the Kelso 7.5 Minute quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedford, David R.

    2003-01-01

    This geologic map database describes geologic materials for the Kelso 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California. The area lies in eastern Mojave Desert of California, within the Mojave National Preserve (a unit of the National Parks system). Geologic deposits in the area consist of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Cambrian-Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic plutonic and hypabyssal rocks, Tertiary basin fill, and Quaternary surficial deposits. Bedrock deposits are described by composition, texture, and stratigraphic relationships. Quaternary surficial deposits are classified into soil-geomorphic surfaces based on soil characteristics, inset relationships, and geomorphic expression. The surficial geology presented in this report is especially useful to understand, and extrapolate, physical properties that influence surface conditions, and surface- and soil-water dynamics. Physical characteristics such as pavement development, soil horizonation, and hydraulic characteristics have shown to be some of the primary drivers of ecologic dynamics, including recovery of those ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbance, in the eastern Mojave Desert and other arid and semi-arid environments.

  8. Bedrock geologic and structural map through the western Candor Colles region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The structure and geology of the layered deposits in the Candor Colles region corresponding to units Avfs, Avme, and Hvl of Witbeck and others (1991) are reevaluated in this 1:18,000-scale map. The objectives herein are to gather high-resolution structural measurements to (1) refine the previous unit boundaries in this area established by Witbeck and others (1991), (2) revise the local stratigraphy where necessary, (3) characterize bed forms to help constrain depositional processes, and (4) determine the styles and extent of deformation to better inform reconstructions of the local post-depositional geologic history.

  9. Geology and hydrology of the deep bedrock aquifers in eastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Deep bedrock aquifers are present in rocks of Cretaceous through Pennsylvanian age in eastern Colorado. These aquifers are the Laramie-Fox Hills (the uppermost aquifer studied), Fort Hays-Codell, Dakota-Cheyenne, Entrada-Dockum, Lyons, and Fountain. Structural mapping indicates the aquifers are 2,000 to 9,000 ft below land surface in most of eastern Colorado but outcrop in local areas in a narrow band along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Recharge primarily occurs in outcrops and produces a northerly or easterly groundwater flow to discharge areas along the South Platte or Arkansas Rivers. Deep aquifers also discharge by underflow to Kansas and Nebraska. Some water-yielding strata in the Dakota-Cheyenne aquifer are not in hydraulic connection with the aquifer, and abnormal fluid pressures, trapped hydrocarbons, and high dissolved-solids concentrations are found in these strata. Temperature and dissolved-solids mapping indicate water temperatures of 100 to 210 in northeastern Colorado and a zone of relatively fresh water extending through a 7,000 sq mi area of the Dakota-Cheyenne aquifer in southeastern Colorado. Water levels in the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer continue to decline as much as 12 ft/yr in local areas near Denver. (USGS)

  10. Aluminum forms in stream sediment: Relation to bedrock geology and water chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Zeiler, M.A.; Mulholland, P.J.; Elwood, J.W.; Cook, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients in sediment and water chemistry were characterized in a high elevation stream in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, to elucidate the geochemical behavior of aluminum across gradients in pH (4.5 to 6.5) and elevation (1120 to 1895 m). Observed gradients are driven in part by the presence of pyritic bedrock, which occurs at higher elevations and yields acidity when exposed to oxidation by landslide activity. Exchangeable Al in sediment (estimated using potassium chloride) varied in response to monomeric Al in streamwater and thus decreased downstream. Organic Al in sediment (estimated using sodium pyrophosphate) did not vary in proportion to the organic carbon content of sediment. Amorphous Al in sediment (estimated as the difference between oxalate- and pyrophosphate-extractable Al) and Al extractable with acidified streamwater (pH 4.5) was lowest at the more acidic sites. These results suggest that increases in soluble Al in downstream reaches during episodic pH depressions could be due in part to the release of adsorbed and/or precipitated Al in sediment.

  11. Bedrock geologic and structural map through the western Candor Colles region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The structure and geology of the layered deposits in the Candor Colles region corresponding to units Avfs, Avme, and Hvl of Witbeck and others (1991) are reevaluated in this 1:18,000-scale map. The objectives herein are to gather high-resolution structural measurements to (1) refine the previous unit boundaries in this area established by Witbeck and others (1991), (2) revise the local stratigraphy w

  12. Use of Bedrock and Geomorphic Mapping Compilations in Assessing Geologic Hazards at Recreation Sites on National Forests in NW California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Bell, A.; Elder, D.; Mowery, R.; Mikulovsky, R.; Klingel, H.; Stevens, M.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic hazards on US Forest Service lands have a long history of producing catastrophic events. In 1890 (prior to the establishment of the Forest Service), the China Mine landslide buried a miner’s camp along the Trinity River in NW California, killing a number of miners. An earthquake in southwestern Montana triggered a massive landslide which killed 28 people in a US Forest Service campground in 1959. In 1980, Mount St. Helens erupted in Oregon, killing 57 people. Debris flows from a winter storm in 2003 on the burned hillslopes of the San Bernardino National Forest in California killed 14 people at the St. Sophia youth Camp. A rockfall in the summer of 2009 in Lassen National Park killed a 9 year old boy. The most recent catastrophe occurred on June 11, 2010 when 20 people died in a flash flood at the Albert Pike Campground on the Ouachita National Forest. These and other disasters point out the need for geologic hazard mapping and assessments on the National Forests. The US Forest Service (USFS) is currently assessing geologic hazards in the Northern Province of USFS Region 5 (Pacific Southwest Region), which includes the Klamath, Mendocino, Shasta-Trinity, and Six Rivers National Forests. The most common geologic hazards (relatively short return intervals) in this area include landslides, rock falls, debris flows, flooding, temporary dam failures (landslide or woody debris), naturally occurring hazardous materials, (asbestos radon, etc), and rarely, karst subsidence. Seismic and volcanic hazards are also important at longer return intervals. This assessment will be conducted in three phases, and is patterned after a process developed by Region 8 of the US Forest Service. The first phase is a reconnaissance level assessment based on existing information such as spatial databases, aerial photos, Digital Elevation Models, State of California Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zone maps, previous investigations and anecdotal accounts of past events. The bedrock

  13. Bedrock geology of snyderville basin: Structural geology techniques applied to understanding the hydrogeology of a rapidly developing region, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighley, K.E.; Yonkee, W.A.; Ashland, F.X.; Evans, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of ground water is a problem for many communities throughout the west. As these communities continue to experience growth, the initial allocation of ground water supplies proves inadequate and may force restrictions on existing, and future, development plans. Much of this new growth relies on ground water supplies extracted from fractured bedrock aquifers. An example of a community faced with this problem is western Summit County, near Park City, Utah, This area has experienced significant water shortages coupled with a 50% growth rate in the past 10-15 years. Recent housing development rests directly on complexly deformed Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the Mount Raymond-Absaroka thrust system. The primary fractured bedrock aquifers are the Nugget Sandstone, and limestones in the Thaynes and Twin Creek Formations. Ground water production and management strategies can be improved if the geometry of the structures and the flow properties of the fractured and folded bedrock can be established. We characterize the structures that may influence ground water flow at two sites: the Pinebrook and Summit Park subdivisions, which demonstrate abrupt changes (less than 1 mi/1.6 km) within the hydrogeologic systems. Geologic mapping at scales of 1:4500 (Pinebrook) and 1:9600 (Summit Park), scanline fracture mapping at the outcrop scale, geologic cross sections, water well data, and structural analysis, provides a clearer picture of the hydrogeologic setting of the aquifers in this region, and has been used to successfully site wells. In the Pinebrook area, the dominate map-scale structures of the area is the Twomile Canyon anticline, a faulted box-like to conical anticline. Widely variable bedding orientations suggest that the fold is segmented and is non-cylindrical and conical on the western limb with a fold axis that plunges to the northwest and also to the southeast, and forms a box-type fold between the middle and eastern

  14. Miscellaneous investigations series: Bedrock geologic map of the Lone Mountain pluton area, Esmeralda County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, F.

    1984-12-31

    The joint attitudes were measured in the field and plotted on aerial photos at a scale of 1:24,000. The pluton is intensely jointed, primarily as a result of cooling and movement of the magma within a northwest-trending stress field. Foliation, in general, is poorly developed, and quality varies from area to area, but it is best developed close to the contacts with the metasedimentary rocks. A prominent northwest foliation direction was observed that parallels the northwest elongation of the exposed pluton. Faults in the pluton are difficult to identify because of the homogeneity of the rock. Several faults were mapped in the northern part of the area where they have a northeast trend and intersect the northwest-trending lamprophyre dikes with little apparent displacement. A major fault that bounds the northern part of the pluton is downthrown to the north and strikes northeast. This fault offsets the alluvium, the metasedimentary rocks, and the pluton and forms fault scraps as high as 10 m. Aeromagnetic data (US Geological Survey, 1979) suggest the following: (1) the local magnetic highs in the central part of the Lone Mountain pluton are probably related to topographic highs (peaks) where the flight lines are closer to the pluton; (2) a magnetic low in the northeastern part of Lone Mountain coincides with the pluton-country rock contact, which may be very steep; (3) the contours for the southwestern part of the mapped area indicate that the pluton-country rock contact is not as steep as that in the northeastern part and that the pluton probably coalesces at depth with the Weepah pluton, a pluton exposed south of the mapped area; and (4) the contours for the area of the Lone Mountain pluton express a northwest-trending gradient that parallels the northwest elongation of the Lone Mountain pluton and the northwest-trending stress field. 10 refs.

  15. Geologic controls on bedrock channel width in large, slowly-eroding catchments: Case study of the New River in eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotila, James A.; Moskey, Kristyn A.; Prince, Philip S.

    2015-02-01

    We have investigated the geologic controls on hydraulic geometry of bedrock rivers using a single large catchment, the New River, from a stable tectonic setting with variable, resistant lithology but spatially stable climate. Our survey of channel width at 0.5 km spacing along 572 km of the river shows major variation that only roughly fits the expected scaling relationships between width, drainage area, and slope. Considerable variations in width, including steps in trends and large spikes, relate to physiogeologic boundaries that the river passes through. A large fraction (15%) of the river's length classifies as bedrock reach, showing that it behaves more like a bedrock river than an alluvial river. Unlike established trends, the channel is wider in bedrock than in alluvium. Field observations show that aspect ratio (width to depth) is not constant, but fluctuates systematically with width from wide, shallow reaches to narrower, deeper reaches. Our observations of bedrock properties suggest that susceptibility to fluvial plucking versus abrasion may control this anomalous channel morphology. One end member form with aspect ratio as high as 500, which we term the incision plain, is associated with very closely spaced discontinuities (~ 10 cm) in otherwise hard rock. We propose that the closely spaced discontinuities enable efficient plucking that leads to widening by lateral erosion. This morphology locally occurs in other passive margin rivers and may be a fundamental fluvial form that is similar to, but the inverse of, slot canyons. The other end member, which we term channel neck, is narrower and deeper with complex flow paths through blocky bedrock. This form occurs where discontinuity spacing is longer (> 0.5 m) and erosion is abrasion dominated. These results imply that changes in channel width do not necessarily reflect variations in uplift rate, but instead may result from complex response to bedrock properties.

  16. Bedrock geologic map of the southern part of the Diorite and Champion 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, William F.; Klasner, John S.

    1977-01-01

    This map illustrates the bedrock geology of part of the Marquette iron range in the Diorite and Champion 7 ½-minute quadrangles. The area includes part of the Marquette trough, a synclinorium containing rocks of the Marquette Range Supergroup (Precambrian X) and older Precambrian W basement gneiss. Among the Precambrian X rocks is the economically important banded iron-formation, and the oldest rocks of the Precambrian W gneiss consist of a mafic-ultramafic volcanic-intrusive complex that contains gold deposits.

  17. Preliminary bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle was completed in a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This report provides baseline geologic information that will be useful in future studies of groundwater and surface water resources, geologic hazards, and the distribution of soils and plants. The west half of the Sanders quadrangle encompasses approximately 2,509 km2 (980 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°30' to 35° N., long 109°30' to 110° W. The majority of the land within the map area lies within the Navajo Nation. South of the Navajo Nation, private and State lands form a checkerboard pattern east and west of Petrified Forest National Park. In the west half of the Sanders quadrangle, Mesozoic bedrock is nearly flat lying except near folds. A shallow Cenozoic erosional basin that developed about 20 Ma in the western part of the map area cut across late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that were subsequently filled with flat-lying Miocene and Pliocene mudstone and argillaceous sandstone and fluvial sediments of the Bidahochi Formation and associated volcanic rocks of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field. The Bidahochi rocks are capped by Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene fluvial sediments and Quaternary eolian and alluvial deposits. Erosion along northeast-southwest-oriented drainages have exposed elongated ridges of Bidahochi Formation and basin-fill deposits that are exposed through shallow eolian cover of similarly oriented longitudinal dunes. Stokes (1964) concluded that the accumulation of longitudinal sand bodies and the development of confined parallel drainages are simultaneous processes resulting in parallel sets of drainages and ridges oriented along the prevailing southwest wind direction on the southern Colorado Plateau.

  18. Bedrock topography of western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, based on bedrock altitudes from geologic borings and analysis of ambient seismic noise by the horizontal-to-vertical spectral-ratio method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Gillian M.; Lane, Jr., John W.; Voytek, Emily B.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a topographic map of the bedrock surface beneath western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, that was prepared for use in groundwater-flow models of the Sagamore lens of the Cape Cod aquifer. The bedrock surface of western Cape Cod had been characterized previously through seismic refraction surveys and borings drilled to bedrock. The borings were mostly on and near the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The bedrock surface was first mapped by Oldale (1969), and mapping was updated in 2006 by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE, 2006). This report updates the bedrock-surface map with new data points collected by using a passive seismic technique based on the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) of ambient seismic noise (Lane and others, 2008) and from borings drilled to bedrock since the 2006 map was prepared. The HVSR method is based on a relationship between the resonance frequency of ambient seismic noise as measured at land surface and the thickness of the unconsolidated sediments that overlie consolidated bedrock. The HVSR method was shown by Lane and others (2008) to be an effective method for determining sediment thickness on Cape Cod owing to the distinct difference in the acoustic impedance between the sediments and the underlying bedrock. The HVSR data for 164 sites were combined with data from 559 borings to bedrock in the study area to create a spatially distributed dataset that was manually contoured to prepare a topographic map of the bedrock surface. The interpreted bedrock surface generally slopes downward to the southeast as was shown on the earlier maps by Oldale (1969) and AFCEE (2006). The surface also has complex small-scale topography characteristic of a glacially eroded surface. More information about the methods used to prepare the map is given in the pamphlet that accompanies this plate.

  19. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired.

  20. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired. PMID:18258282

  1. High-resolution morphologic and spectral characteristics of Crater-exposed Bedrock on Mars: Insights into the petrogenesis, stratigraphy and geologic history of the Martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornabene, L. L.; Caudill, C. M.; McEwen, A. S.; Osinski, G.; Wray, J. J.; Mustard, J. F.; Skok, J. R.; Marzo, G.; Grant, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Rocks form under a variety of geologic settings and conditions, thus the mineral composition, texture, structures and stratigraphic relationships of exposed rocks provide geologists a means to access information about the past geologic and climatic history. Typically, tectonic events (e.g., orogenic) and erosional processes expose sections of older terrestrial rocks at the surface. On Mars, a lack of complex tectonics and lower erosion rates make these tectonic exposures virtually non-existent. Impacts, however, generate localized displacements and structural uplift of target rocks and exposes them within the crater rim, walls, terraces and central structural uplifts. Imagery from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) of this Crater-Exposed Bedrock (CEB) reveals unprecedented meter to decameter textural and structural detail [1]. Our initial work, based on previous efforts [1-3], has revealed that not all craters are well exposed due to impact melt coatings and ongoing degradation, infilling, and mantling of crater rims, floors and walls. Thus, making a database (DB) of craters with good exposures is an essential step towards understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of CEB textures, structures and compositions. When complete, the DB will aid our ability to make inferences regarding the petrogenesis, evolution and geologic history of the upper crust at regional and potentially global scales. Our CEB DB will be used to focus on spectral units that specifically correlate with CEB textures and stratigraphic relationships. Our preliminary results suggest that CEB can be classified into three textural categories, 1) Megabreccias (MB), 2) Intact layered Stratigraphy (IS), and 3) a massive textured Fractured Bedrock (FB), with each of these classifications being informative with respect to a specific geologic setting or possible set of histories (e.g., late-heavy bombardment, cyclical volcanism and sedimentation). Preliminary spectral analyses

  2. Predicting multi-scale relationships between geomorphology and bedrock geology of the rocky intertidal in Central and Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, A.; Aiello, I. W.

    2014-12-01

    Substratum geology is fundamental in shaping rocky shore morphology. Specific lithologies have various responses to wave action, tectonic features (e.g. fractures, faults) and sedimentary structures (e.g. bedding), creating distinctive weathering profiles. Along with local oceanography and climate forcing, different rock substrata create coastal morphologies that can vary distinctly between scales, ranging from mm to km. Despite the complexity of the system, qualitative observations show coastal areas with similar rock types share similar geomorphologies. Thus, a statistic relationship between geomorphology (expressed for instance by surface parameter rugosity) and geology can be envisaged. There are multiple benefits of finding such a relationship, as rocky intertidal geomorphology can be an important determinant in which organisms can settle, grow, and survive in near shore communities: allowing the prediction of geomorphologic parameters determining coastal ecology solely based on substratum geology, a crucial aspect in guiding the selection of marine protected areas. This study presents preliminary results of multi-scale geospatial surveys (cm to tens of meters) of rocky intertidal outcrops from Central to Northern California using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner. The outcrops investigated are representative of the most common igneous and sedimentary rocks in California (granitoids, conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones) and metamorphic units. The statistical analysis of the survey data support the hypothesis that surface properties can change significantly with changing scale, each rock type having distinct surface characteristics which are similar to comparable lithologies exposed at different locations. These scale dependent variations are controlled by different lithologic and structural characteristics of the outcrop in question. Our data also suggests lithologic variability within a rock unit could be a very significant factor in controlling changes in

  3. Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance bedrock geologic map for the northern Alaska peninsula area, southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    he growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  4. Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the generalized bedrock geologic map, Yukon Flats region, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Stanley, Richard G.; Crews, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  5. Reflection seismic imaging of the deeper structures at the Forsmark spent nuclear fuel repository site, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Brojerdi, Fatemeh; Juhlin, Christopher; Malehmir, Alireza; Stephens, Michael B.

    2013-02-01

    The Forsmark area belongs to the Paleoproterozoic Svecokarelian orogen (c. 1.9-1.8 Ga), the principal geological entity inside the Fennoscandian Shield, and is the site where Sweden has proposed to store its spent nuclear fuel. Three major sub-vertical (at the surface), composite ductile and brittle deformation zones that strike in a WNW or NW direction are present in the area. In between these zones the bedrock is less deformed and considered suitable for a repository. We present reprocessed reflection seismic data from seven profiles in which we have focused on improving the images in the depth range 1-5 km by passing lower frequencies through the processing flow at the cost of poorer resolution in the near-surface realm. The new images indicate that sub-horizontal to moderately dipping structures are possibly more extensive at depth than previously thought. Three main deeper reflective zones have been identified, one that is sub-horizontal and two that dip moderately to the southwest. The sub-horizontal reflective zone may represent a 1.27-1.26 Ga dolerite sill at about 3 km depth. One of the moderately dipping reflective zones may originate either from another dolerite sill or from a brittle fault system. The other moderately dipping structure may be present throughout most of the area and could cut all three sub-vertical deformation zones at depth. The new images and corresponding interpretation do not require a re-evaluation of the Forsmark site for storage of spent fuel, but they do influence how to interpret the deeper structures and, as a consequence, the tectonic evolution of the area.

  6. Crustal implications of bedrock geology along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) in the Brooks Range, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Wallace, W.K.; Mull, C.G.; Adams, K.E.; Plafker, G.; Nokleberg, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) project along the Dalton Highway in northern Alaska indicates that the Endicott Mountains allochthon and the Hammond terrane compose a combined allochthon that was thrust northward at least 90 km in the Early Cretaceous. The basal thrust of the combined allochthon climbs up section in the hanging wall from a ductile shear zone, in the south through lower Paleozoic rocks of the Hammond terrane and into Upper Devonian rocks of the Endicott Mountains allochthon at the Mount Doonerak antiform, culminating in Early Cretaceous shale in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range. Footwall rocks north of the Mount Doonerak antiform are everywhere parautochthonous Permian and Triassic shale of the North Slope terrane rather than Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous strata of the Colville Basin as shown in most other tectonic models of the central Brooks Range. Stratigraphic and structural relations suggest that this thrust was the basal detachment for Early Cretaceous deformation. Younger structures, such as the Tertiary Mount Doonerak antiform, deform the Early Cretaceous structures and are cored by thrusts that root at a depth of about 10 to 30 km along a deeper detachment than the Early Cretaceous detachment. The Brooks Range, therefore, exposes (1) an Early Cretaceous thin-skinned deformational belt developed during arc-continent collision and (2) a mainly Tertiary thick-skinned orogen that is probably the northward continuation of the Rocky Mountains erogenic belt. A down-to-the-south zone of both ductile and brittle normal faulting along the southern margin of the Brooks Range probably formed in the mid-Cretaceous by extensional exhumation of the Early Cretaceous contractional deformation. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Quantitative bedrock geology of east and Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, eastern and southeastern China, East Timor, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, far-eastern Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic bedrock based on data from the most recent digital geologic maps of East and Southeast Asia (Coordinating Committee for Coastal and Offshore Geosciences Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) and the Geologic Survey of Japan, 1997; 1:2,000,000), published as Digital Geoscience Map G-2 by the Geological Survey of Japan. Sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, plutonic rocks, ultramafic rocks and metamorphic rocks cover 73.3%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 0.9%, and 8.6% of the surface area, respectively. The average ages of major lithologic units, weighted according to bedrock area, are as follows: sedimentary rocks (average stratigraphic age of 123 Myr/median age of 26 Myr), volcanic rocks (84 Myr/20 Myr), intrusive rocks (278 Myr/195 Myr), ultramafic rocks (unknown) and metamorphic rocks (1465 Myr/1118 Myr). The variability in lithologic composition and age structure of individual countries reflects the complex tectonic makeup of this region that ranges from Precambrian cratons (e.g., northeast China and North Korea) to Mesozoic-Cenozoic active margins (e.g., Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea). The spatial resolution of the data varies from 44 km2 per polygon (Japan) to 1659 km2 per polygon (Taiwan) and is, on average (490 km2/polygon), similar to our previous analyses of the United States of America and Canada. The temporal and spatial resolution is sufficiently high to perform age-area analyses of individual river basins larger than ˜10,000 km2 and to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between bedrock geology and river chemistry. As many rivers draining tropical, mountainous islands of East and Southeast Asia have a disproportionate effect on the dissolved and particulate load delivered to the world oceans, bedrock geology in such river drainage basins disproportionately affect ocean chemistry.

  8. Environmental impacts of oil production on soil, bedrock, and vegetation at the U.S. Geological Survey Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.; Keeland, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the impacts of oil and gas production on soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems in the United States. Two sites in northeastern Oklahoma (sites A and B) are presently being investigated under the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research project. Oil wells on the lease surrounding site A in Osage County, Oklahoma, produced about 100,000 bbl of oil between 1913 ard 1981. Prominent production features on the 1.5-ha (3.7-ac) site A include a tank battery, an oil-filled trench, pipelines, storage pits for both produced water and oil, and an old power unit. Site activities and historic releases have left open areas in the local oak forest adjacent to these features and a deeply eroded salt scar downslope from the pits that extends to nearby Skiatook Lake. The site is underlain by surficial sediments comprised of very fine-grained eolian sand and colluvium as much as 1.4 m (4.6 ft) thick, which, in turn, overlie flat-lying, fractured bedrock comprised of sandstone, clayey sandstone, mudstone, and shale. A geophysical survey of ground conductance and concentration measurements of aqueous extracts (1:1 by weight) of core samples taken in the salt scar and adjacent areas indicate that unusual concentrations of NaCl-rich salt are present at depths to at least 8 m (26 ft) in the bedrock; however, little salt occurs in the eolian sand. Historic aerial photographs, anecdotal reports from oil-lease operators, and tree-ring records indicate that the surrounding oak forest was largely established after 1935 and thus postdates the majority of surface damage at the site. Blackjack oaks adjacent to the salt scar have anomalously elevated chloride (>400 ppm) in their leaves and record the presence of NaCl-rich salt or salty water in the shallow subsurface. The geophysical measurements also indicate moderately elevated conductance beneath the oak forest adjoining the salt scar. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of

  9. Preliminary bedrock geologic map of parts of the Lower Waterford, Concord, Littleton, and Miles Pond 7 1/2-minute quadrangles, Vermont and New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, Douglas W.

    1994-01-01

    The map area, in east-central Vermont and adjacent New Hampshire, consists of parts of the Lower Waterford, Concord, Littleton and Miles Pond 7 1/2-minute quadrangles (Fig. 1) that together constitute the Littleton 15-minute quadrangle. The mapping is part of the effort to produce a new bedrock geologic map of Vermont through the collection of field data at a scale of 1:24,000. The focus of my part of the project is to map and interpret the "New Hampshire sequence" rocks (White and Jahns, 1950) that crop out in Vermont and their relationship to those of the "Vermont sequence", or the Connecticut Valley trough, west of the Monroe line, here a fault (Hatch, 1988a). The work is a continuation of mapping just initiated by N.L. Hatch, Jr., prior to his death in 1991. This particular map area was chosen as the place to initiate this study because it includes one of the largest areas of the New Hampshire sequence in Vermont, because it is adjacent to and on strike with the Littleton-Moosilauke area in New Hampshire that includes the type area of most of the units of the New Hampshire sequence (Billings, 1935, 1937), and because the Connecticut River here runs roughly east to west across the regional strike and might provide a good stratigraphic section across the rocks under study. The mapping showed that no bedrock is exposed along either bank of the Connecticut River across most of the area, but there are excellent exposures in the spillways of two large dams, Moore Dam on the east and Comerford Dam on the west (about 100 m west of the Lower Waterford quadrangle), along Interstate Highway 93 (1-93), and adequate exposures in the hills above the river. My mapping was mostly in the Vermont parts of the Littleton 15-minute quadrangle but included some work in the Barnett 7 1/2 x 15-minute quadrangle to the west and a zone along the New Hampshire side of the Connecticut River that included Albee Hill, Partridge Lake, Highland Croft farm, the former Fitch farm, and the

  10. Multi-scale groundwater flow modeling during temperate climate conditions for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Steven; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Forsmark in Sweden has been proposed as the site of a geological repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel, to be located at a depth of approximately 470 m in fractured crystalline rock. The safety assessment for the repository has required a multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate the impact of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conditions close to the repository and in a wider regional context. Assessing the consequences of potential radionuclide releases requires quantitative site-specific information concerning the details of groundwater flow on the scale of individual waste canister locations (1-10 m) as well as details of groundwater flow and composition on the scale of groundwater pathways between the facility and the surface (500 m to 5 km). The purpose of this article is to provide an illustration of multi-scale modeling techniques and the results obtained when combining aspects of local-scale flows in fractures around a potential contaminant source with regional-scale groundwater flow and transport subject to natural evolution of the system. The approach set out is novel, as it incorporates both different scales of model and different levels of detail, combining discrete fracture network and equivalent continuous porous medium representations of fractured bedrock.

  11. Generalized geologic map of bedrock lithologies and surficial deposits in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation with the National Park Service (NPS). This work has been compiled as a 1:100,000-scale map derived from mapping done at 1:24,000 and 1:62,500 scale. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.discoverlifeinamerica.org/). At the request of NPS, we mapped areas previously not visited, revised the geology where stratigraphic and structural problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  12. Bedrock and surficial geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles is the result of a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This map provides geologic information useful for range management, plant and animal studies, flood control, water resource investigations, and natural hazards associated with sand-dune mobility. The map provides connectivity to the regional geologic framework of the Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 314 km2 (123 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°37'30" to 35°30' N., long 109°45' to 110° W. The quadrangles lie within the southern Colorado Plateau geologic province and within the northeastern portion of the Hopi Buttes (Tsézhin Bií). Large ephemeral drainages, Pueblo Colorado Wash and Steamboat Wash, originate north of the map area on the Defiance Plateau and Balakai Mesa respectively. Elevations range from 1,930 m (6,330 ft) at the top of Satan Butte to about 1,787 m (5,860 ft) at Pueblo Colorado Wash where it exits the southwest corner of the Greasewood quadrangle. The only settlement within the map area is Greasewood, Arizona, on the north side of Pueblo Colorado Wash. Navajo Highway 15 crosses both quadrangles and joins State Highway 264 northwest of Ganado. Unimproved dirt roads provide access to remote parts of the Navajo Reservation.

  13. Bedrock cores from 89° North: Implications for the geologic framework and Neogene paleoceanography of Lomonosov Ridge and a tie to the Barents shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Pease, Victoria L.; Willard, Debra A.; Phillips, R.L.; Clark, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Two piston cores from the Eurasian flank of Lomonosov Ridge near lat 88.9°N, long 140°E provide the first samples of bedrock from this high-standing trans-Arctic ridge. Core 94-PC27 sampled nonmarine siltstone similar in facies and age to uppermost Triassic to lower Lower Jurassic and mid– Lower Cretaceous beds in the 4 to > 5 km Mesozoic section on Franz Josef Land, on the outer Barents shelf. A ca. 250 Ma peak in the cumulative frequency curve of detrital zircons from the siltstone, dated by U- Th-Pb analysis, suggests a source in the post-tectonic syenites of northern Taymyr and nearby islands in the Kara Sea. Textural trends reported in the literature indicate that the Lower Jurassic nonmarine strata of Franz Josef Land coarsen to the southeast; this suggests the existence of a sedimentary system in which detrital zircons could be transported from the northern Taymyr Peninsula to the outer Barents shelf near the position of core 94-PC27 prior to opening of the Eurasia Basin. Correlation of the coaly siltstone in core 94-PC27 with part of the Mesozoic section on Franz Josef Land is compatible with the strong evidence from seafloor magnetic anomalies and bathymetry that Lomonosov Ridge is a continental fragment rifted from the Barents shelf during the Cenozoic. It also suggests that Lomonosov Ridge near the North Pole is underlain by a substantial section of unmetamorphosed Mesozoic marine and nonmarine sedimentary strata. Core 94-PC29 sampled cyclical deposits containing ice-rafted debris (IRD) overlying weakly consolidated laminated olive-black anoxic Neogene siltstone and mudstone with an average total organic carbon (TOC) of 4.1 wt%. The high TOC content of the mudstone indicates that during the Neogene, prior to the introduction of IRD into the Arctic seas about 3.3 Ma (early late Pliocene), the shallow waters of the central Arctic Ocean supported significant primary photosynthetic organic production near the North Pole. These deposits also contain fine

  14. Preliminary bedrock geologic map of part of the northern disturbed belt, Lewis and Clark, Teton, Pondera, Glacier, Flathead, and Powell Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mudge, Melville R.; Earhart, Robert L.; Rice, Dudley D.; Heisey, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The geologic map covers the Sawtooth and Lewis and Clark Ranges and part of the Flathead Range. It includes most of the disturbed belt in northwestern Moutana except the area east of the northern Rocky Mountains and the norhtern and southern parts of the belt. Most data are from an unpublished map of the Bob Marshall Wilderness and of the many proposed additions to the Wilderness. Strike and dip symbols are omitted from the map, and all contacts are shown in solid lines, alhough locally they are inferred beneath a Quaternary cover. Future studies will complete mapping of the northern disturbed belt in Montana.

  15. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  16. Can arsenic occurrence rates in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 µg L−1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 µg L−1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology. PMID:22260208

  17. Can arsenic occurrence rate in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 μg L–1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 μg L–1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology.

  18. Can arsenic occurrence rates in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G; Culbertson, Charles W; Zheng, Yan

    2012-02-21

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 μg L(-1) of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 μg L(-1)) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology.

  19. Bedrock Geology of the Thiel Mountains, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ford, A B; Aaron, J M

    1962-09-01

    Cordierite-bearing, hyper-sthene-quartz monzonite porphyry, the most widespread rock unit, is intruded by biotite granite and porphyritic biotite granite. Sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, mainly quartzites and argillites, have been metamorphosed locally to hornfels and have been involved in high-angle faulting. Shear zones are common in the plutonic rocks.

  20. Approaches to confirmatory testing of a groundwater flow model for sparsely fractured crystalline rock, exemplified by data from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follin, Sven; Hartley, Lee

    2014-03-01

    The Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB) has proposed the Forsmark site as a future repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel, involving disposal at about 470 m depth in sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock. An essential part of the completed inter-disciplinary site investigation was to develop an integrated account of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. First, this report recollects the integrated understanding and some key hydraulic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock at Forsmark along with a description of the flow model set-up and the methodology used for paleoclimatic flow modeling. Second, the protocol used for site-scale groundwater flow and solute transport modeling is demonstrated. In order to conduct a quantitative assessment of groundwater flow paths at Forsmark, the standard guide for groundwater flow modeling was elaborated on, to support both discrete and porous media flow approaches. In total, four independent types of data were used to confirm that the final groundwater flow model for the crystalline bedrock was representative of site conditions.

  1. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  2. Periodic bedrock ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Becker, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for sediment transport and erosion by wind is widespread over the surface of Mars today and was likely a major geomorphic process for much of its geological past. Although Martian surface features resembling aeolian dunes and ripples have been recognized since the Mariner and Viking missions, such features have been interpreted previously as active, indurated, or exhumed sedimentary forms. Here we report evidence based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images that show some megaripple forms are eroded into cohesive substrate rather than being composed of loose granular material or fossilized dunes. Exposure of stratigraphic continuity within layered, cohesive material extending crest to trough through features with mean wavelengths of 18 to 51 m demonstrates the primarily erosional formation of what we term periodic bedrock ridges (PBRs). Hence some surfaces on Mars previously considered to be covered by wind-deposited material are actually wind-carved exposures that offer windows into Martian history. PBRs lack the distinctive streamlining associated with wind-parallel yardangs and comparison of PBR orientation to yardangs, megayardangs, and active sedimentary dunes in the same vicinity confirm that these PBRs formed transverse to prevailing winds. Observed wavelengths of PBRs are comparable to those predicted by a simple model for erosional wavelengths of periodic transverse bed forms owing to the spacing of flow separations within the flow. Recognition of these transverse aeolian erosional forms brings up the question of how widespread Martian PBRs are and how many have been misinterpreted as active or indurated (fossilized) sedimentary dunes.

  3. New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical

  4. Bedrock topography of northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) is generally overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium, which range in thickness from less than 1 foot (0.3 m) to more than 400 ft (18 m), respectively. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses when were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. 

  5. Bedrock topography of southeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa is covered nearly everywhere by unconsolidated deposits of glacial drift and alluvium, which range in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet, and from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet, respectively. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intesne periods of interglacial erosion. 

  6. Bedrock topography of central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) generally is ovelain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, comprised of glacial till and glacial outwash, varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet; the alluvium in central Iowa varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet. The configuration of the bedrock suface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 10 county area in central Iowa, is the seventh of a series of 9 reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock surface of Iowa. 

  7. Bedrock topography of southwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sendlein, Lyle V.A.; Gilmore, Jack L.

    1980-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) is generally overlain by unconsolidataed deposits consisting of glacial drift, alluvium, and loess. Loess deposits are most extensive in areas bordering the Missouri River flood plain, attaining a thickness of over 200ft in some places. The total thickness of the unconsolidated sediments ranges from less than 1 ft to more than 450 ft. The configuration of the underlying bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses that were developed during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. 

  8. Bedrock topography of northwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.; Runkle, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) generally is overlain by deposits of glacial drive and alluvium. The drift, consisting of glacial till and glacial outwash, ranges in thickness from zero to more than 500 feet in western Iowa; the alluvium in stream valleys ranges in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 70 feet. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses that were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion. This map, for a 12 county area in west-central Iowa, is the eighth in a series of nine reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedriock topography of Iowa. 

  9. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    Potentially economic mineral resources are present in the subsurface in the map area. Exploration drill-hole data indicate that anomalously high concentrations of base-metal sulfides locally occur within the Cambrian Bonneterre Formation. The geologic setting of these anomalous concentrations is similar to that found in the Viburnum Trend, part of the largest lead-mining district in the world. The southernmost part of the Viburnum Trend extends into the northern part of the map area and is exploited by the Sweetwater Mine. Undeveloped and potentially economic occurrences of base metals are known also beneath Blair Creek, a tributary to the Current River in the north-central part of the map area.

  10. Hillslope Evolution by Bedrock Landslides

    PubMed

    Densmore; Anderson; McAdoo; Ellis

    1997-01-17

    Bedrock landsliding is a dominant geomorphic process in a number of high-relief landscapes, yet is neglected in landscape evolution models. A physical model of sliding in beans is presented, in which incremental lowering of one wall simulates baselevel fall and generates slides. Frequent small slides produce irregular hillslopes, on which steep toes and head scarps persist until being cleared by infrequent large slides. These steep segments are observed on hillslopes in high-relief landscapes and have been interpreted as evidence for increases in tectonic or climatic process rates. In certain cases, they may instead reflect normal hillslope evolution by landsliding. PMID:8994029

  11. Site Characterization of Deep Bedrock with Integrated Geophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Kim, C.; Eun, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    In order to utilize the deep underground storage facility stable for a long time, precise site characterization is required before its construction. Various kinds of geophysical survey as well as drilling and geological survey should be used to know the status of deep bedrock. A research had been conducted to make the site characterization of deep bedrock for several years, and to achieve its purpose, integrated geophysical survey were applied to the test area which had gneiss bedrock. DC resistivity survey for six surficial profiles was conducted to find the appropriate location of drilling survey. Cross-hole/surface-to-hole resistivity tomography survey and borehole reflection radar survey were applied to the drill holes after its installation completed. Three bore holes of which length was 500 meter were drilled to investigate the status of deep bedrock, and cross-hole tomography survey was applied between two boreholes among these. Also borehole reflection radar survey was conducted to another two boreholes. Deep seated fracture zones which were not identified with the surficial geological and resistivity survey were found through the analysis of tomography section. Fracture zones were consisted of steep slope fault and these were also identified with the result of borehole radar section. After the basic survey was completed, one of three holes was extended to the depth of 1 km. Radar reflection survey which was only available to the deep drill-hole was applied. Because steel casing was installed to the depth of 750 m to stabilize the extended drill-hole, resistivity method was not available and borehole radar reflection method was only available among the geophysical method used in this research. Through results of radar reflection survey, several fracture zones were identified for the newly extended section of drill hole and some of those facture has relatively large size and passed through the bore hole.

  12. Geophysical investigations of well fields to characterize fractured-bedrock aquifers in southern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Moore, Richard Bridge; Mack, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Bedrock-fracture zones near high-yield bedrock wells in southern New Hampshire well fields were located and characterized using seven surface and six borehole geophysical survey methods. Detailed surveys of six sites with various methods provide an opportunity to integrate and compare survey results. Borehole geophysical surveys were conducted at three of the sites to confirm subsurface features. Hydrogeologic settings, including a variety of bedrock and surface geologic materials, were sought to gain an insight into the usefulness of the methods in varied terrains. Results from 15 survey lines, 8 arrays, and 3 boreholes were processed and interpreted from the 6 sites. The surface geophysical methods used provided physical properties of fractured bedrock. Seismic refraction and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) primarily were used to characterize the overburden materials, but in a few cases indicated bedrock-fracture zones. Magnetometer surveys were used to obtain background information about the bedrock to compare with other results, and to search for magnetic lows, which may result from weathered fractured rock. Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys (EM) and very-low-frequency electromagnetic surveys (VLF) were used as rapid reconnaissance techniques with the primary purpose of identifying electrical anomalies, indicating potential fracture zones in bedrock. Direct-current (dc) resistivity methods were used to gather detailed subsurface information about fracture depth and orientation. Two-dimensional (2-D) dc-resistivity surveys using dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays located and characterized the overburden, bedrock, and bedrock-fracture zones through analysis of data inversions. Azimuthal square array dc-resistivity survey results indicated orientations of conductive steep-dipping bedrock-fracture zones that were located and characterized by previously applied geophysical methods. Various available data sets were used for site selection

  13. Investigating Lithologic Controls on the Morphology and Evolution of Bedrock Streams, Ouachita Mountains, Central Arkansas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, C. D., II; Gasparini, N. M.

    2014-12-01

    The incision of bedrock streams largely controls the topographic evolution of mountainous areas, and patterns of incision into bedrock hold information critical to unraveling past climate and tectonic uplift patterns. A popular tool in studying patterns of incision in bedrock streams is the channel steepness index, or channel gradient normalized by drainage area. The three main factors that are thought to affect channel steepness index are uplift rate, climate, and lithology. The Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas provide a study site with currently uniform uplift (essentially zero) and climate, allowing us to explore how changes in lithology affect local channel steepness values. The Ouachita Mountains are an intensely folded and faulted highland region, structurally related to the Appalachian Mountains to the east. Folding and faulting of this region occurred during the Paleozoic, and is no longer active. The trellised morphology of the stream network is controlled by past folding, as stream channels in the region generally flow along fold hinges. Bedrock in the area consists of Arkansas Novaculite, a massive chert that is highly resistant to erosion, and less resistant shale and sandstone members of the Bigfork and Mississippi Mountain Formation. Sense of bedding of geologic units is generally steep, although local folding causes high variation in bedding orientation.Where bedrock channels transition from novaculite to shale, knickpoints and high channel steepness index values are observed in some streams, while others seem unaffected by this lithologic boundary. We explore 5 bedrock streams that flow over the novaculite/shale boundary to determine what lithologic factors have the largest impact on incision of bedrock channels. Analysis consists of measurements of channel morphology, detailed local geologic mapping of bedding and fold orientation, and measurements of rock strength along stream channels. Understanding how lithologic differences affect local

  14. Controls of bedrock geochemistry on soil and plant nutrients in Southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, J.C.; Reynolds, R.; Sanford, R.L.; Fernandez, D.; Lamothe, P.

    2006-01-01

    The cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau contain numerous geologically and geochemically distinct sedimentary bedrock types. In the area near Canyonlands National Park in Southeastern Utah, geochemical variation in geologic substrates is related to the depositional environment with higher concentrations of Fe, Al, P, K, and Mg in sediments deposited in alluvial or marine environments and lower concentrations in bedrock derived from eolian sand dunes. Availability of soil nutrients to vegetation is also controlled by the formation of secondary minerals, particularly for P and Ca availability, which, in some geologic settings, appears closely related to variation of CaCO3 and Ca-phosphates in soils. However, the results of this study also indicate that P content is related to bedrock and soil Fe and Al content suggesting that the deposition history of the bedrock and the presence of P-bearing Fe and Al minerals, is important to contemporary P cycling in this region. The relation between bedrock type and exchangeable Mg and K is less clear-cut, despite large variation in bedrock concentrations of these elements. We examined soil nutrient concentrations and foliar nutrient concentration of grasses, shrubs, conifers, and forbs in four geochemically distinct field sites. All four of the functional plant groups had similar proportional responses to variation in soil nutrient availability despite large absolute differences in foliar nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry across species. Foliar P concentration (normalized to N) in particular showed relatively small variation across different geochemical settings despite large variation in soil P availability in these study sites. The limited foliar variation in bedrock-derived nutrients suggests that the dominant plant species in this dryland setting have a remarkably strong capacity to maintain foliar chemistry ratios despite large underlying differences in soil nutrient availability. ?? 2006 Springer Science

  15. Identification Of Rippability And Bedrock Depth Using Seismic Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Nur Azwin; Saad, Rosli; Nawawi, M. N. M; Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer; Mohamad, Edy Tonizam

    2010-12-23

    Spatial variability of the bedrock with reference to the ground surface is vital for many applications in geotechnical engineering to decide the type of foundation of a structure. A study was done within the development area of Mutiara Damansara utilising the seismic refraction method using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph. The geological features of the subsurface were investigated and velocities, depth to the underlying layers were determined. The seismic velocities were correlated with rippability characteristics and borehole records. Seismic sections generally show a three layer case. The first layer with velocity 400-600 m/s predominantly consists of soil mix with gravel. The second layer with velocity 1600-2000 m/s is suggested to be saturated and weathered area. Both layers forms an overburden and generally rippable. The third layer represents granite bedrock with average depth and velocity 10-30 m and >3000 m/s respectively and it is non-rippable. Steep slope on the bedrock are probably the results of shear zones.

  16. Bedrock channel reaches morphology: examples from the Northern Marche Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, V.; di Agostino, V.; Troiani, F.; Nesci, O.; Savelli, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Northern Marche rivers, on account of a significant variability of their catchment geology, geodynamics and geomorphology, can be regarded as excellent natural laboratories for the study of the morphology, dynamics and evolution of bedrock channel reaches. Hence a geomorphologic study has been carried on in order to map and describe -from qualitative and quantitative point of view- some bedrock channel types of this area, to detect morphological controls at different scales (from the local scale up to the catchment one), and to assess human perturbations on the drainage systems. The study is based on detailed field surveying concerning channel shape and dynamics, floodplain configurations, slope geomorphologic processes, bedrock structure and composition. In addiction, a good aero photograph documentation dating back to the 1955 allowed a reliable reconstruction of the main evolution trends of bedrock channel reaches in the latest past. In the reported rivers the bedrock channel reaches vary in length from a few tens to hundreds of meters, and alternate with alluvial and mixed bedrock-alluvial channel reaches. In many cases specific numerical relations among geometric parameters of bedrock channels have been discovered and some similarities in both morphology and dynamics of rock-cut channels with alluvial channel reaches have been pointed out. Specifically, with regard of their morphologic arrangement, geometric parameters, and flow dynamics several bedrock channels are quite similar to step pool channels found along gravelly channel reaches. Nonetheless, along a given segment of the hydrographical network where an individual alluvial-channel pattern (e.g. a wandering) is found both upstream and downstream a rock-cut channel reach, the occurrence of this latter (e.g. planar bedrock-floored channel) simply breaks the along-stream continuity of the alluvial-bed morphology.

  17. Fluorine geochemistry in bedrock groundwater of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Seong-Yong; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kangjoo; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2007-10-15

    High fluoride concentrations (median=4.4 mg/L) in deep bedrock groundwater of South Korea prevent the usage of it as a drinking water source. The hydrogeochemistry of deep thermal groundwaters (N=377) in diverse bedrocks has been studied in order to evaluate the geologic and geochemical controls on fluoride concentrations in groundwater. The groundwater samples were clustered geologically, and the average and median concentrations of fluoride were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. The order of median fluoride concentration with respect to geology is as follows: metamorphic rocks> or =granitoids > or =complex rock>volcanic rocks> or =sedimentary rocks. This result indicates that the geological source of fluoride in groundwater is related to the mineral composition of metamorphic rocks and granitoids. With respect to groundwater chemistry, the fluoride concentration was highest in Na-HCO3 type groundwater and lowest in Ca-HCO3 type groundwater. Ionic relationships also imply that the geochemical behavior of fluoride in groundwater is related to the geochemical process releasing Na and removing Ca ions. The thermodynamic relationship between the activities of Ca and F indicates that fluoride concentration is controlled by the equilibrium of fluorite (CaF2). In other words, the upper limits of fluoride concentration are determined by the Ca ion; i.e., Ca concentrations play a crucial role in fluoride behavior in deep thermal groundwater. The result of this study suggests that the high fluoride in groundwater originates from geological sources and fluoride can be removed by fluorite precipitation when high Ca concentration is maintained. This provides a basis for a proper management plan to develop the deep thermal groundwater and for treatment of high fluoride groundwater frequently found in South Korea. PMID:17655916

  18. Fluorine geochemistry in bedrock groundwater of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Seong-Yong; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kangjoo; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2007-10-15

    High fluoride concentrations (median=4.4 mg/L) in deep bedrock groundwater of South Korea prevent the usage of it as a drinking water source. The hydrogeochemistry of deep thermal groundwaters (N=377) in diverse bedrocks has been studied in order to evaluate the geologic and geochemical controls on fluoride concentrations in groundwater. The groundwater samples were clustered geologically, and the average and median concentrations of fluoride were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. The order of median fluoride concentration with respect to geology is as follows: metamorphic rocks> or =granitoids > or =complex rock>volcanic rocks> or =sedimentary rocks. This result indicates that the geological source of fluoride in groundwater is related to the mineral composition of metamorphic rocks and granitoids. With respect to groundwater chemistry, the fluoride concentration was highest in Na-HCO3 type groundwater and lowest in Ca-HCO3 type groundwater. Ionic relationships also imply that the geochemical behavior of fluoride in groundwater is related to the geochemical process releasing Na and removing Ca ions. The thermodynamic relationship between the activities of Ca and F indicates that fluoride concentration is controlled by the equilibrium of fluorite (CaF2). In other words, the upper limits of fluoride concentration are determined by the Ca ion; i.e., Ca concentrations play a crucial role in fluoride behavior in deep thermal groundwater. The result of this study suggests that the high fluoride in groundwater originates from geological sources and fluoride can be removed by fluorite precipitation when high Ca concentration is maintained. This provides a basis for a proper management plan to develop the deep thermal groundwater and for treatment of high fluoride groundwater frequently found in South Korea.

  19. Reflection seismic imaging of a hydraulically conductive fracture zone in a high noise area, Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Stephens, M. B.; Cosma, C.

    2007-05-01

    High resolution reflection seismic methods have proven to be useful tools for locating fracture zones in crystalline rock. Siting of potential high-level nuclear waste repositories is a particularly important application of these methods. By using small explosive sources (15-75 grams), high resolution images of the sub-surface have been obtained in the depth range 100 m to 2 km in Sweden, Canada and elsewhere. Although ambient noise conditions in areas such as the Fennoscandian and Canadian shields are generally low, industrial noise can be high in some areas, particularly at potential sites suitable for repositories, since these are often close to existing infrastructure. In addition, the presence of this infrastructure limits the choice of sources available to the geophysicist. Forsmark, located about 140 km north of Stockholm, is one such potential site where reflection seismics have been carried out. Existing infrastructure includes nuclear reactors for power generation and a low- level waste repository. In the vicinity of the reactors, it was not possible to use an explosive source due to permitting restrictions. Instead, a VIBSIST system consisting of a tractor mounted hydraulic hammer was used in the vicinity of the reactors. By repeatedly hitting the pavement, without breaking it, at predefined sweeps and then stacking the signals, shot records comparable to explosive data could be generated. These shot records were then processed using standard methods to produce stacked sections along 3 profiles within the reactor area. Clear reflections are seen in the uppermost 600 m along 3 of these profiles. Correlation of crossing profiles shows that the strongest reflection (B8) is generated by a gently east-southeast dipping interface. Prior to construction of the reactors, several boreholes were drilled to investigate the bedrock in the area. One of these boreholes was located close to where two of the profiles cross. Projection of the B8 reflection into the

  20. A transmissivity model for deformation zones in fractured crystalline rock and its possible correlation to in situ stress at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The Forsmark site was recently proposed by the Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB) to serve as the potential site for construction of a future geological repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel at about 470 m depth in fractured crystalline rock. The considerations included, among other things, distance from regionally significant deformation zones with highly strained rock, lithological homogeneity, low hydraulic conductivity, groundwater salinity with an acceptable range, and lack of potential mineral resources. This report describes the calculation of transmissivity of deduced deformation zones at Forsmark and the transmissivity model used in the regional groundwater flow modeling carried out in support of the integrated site description. Besides significant decrease with increasing depth (more than four orders of magnitude over a depth of about 1 km), the calculated transmissivity values also reveal considerable spatial variability along the strikes of the zones, i.e. lateral heterogeneity (more than two orders of magnitude). A hydro-mechanical coupling is discussed, based on presented models for the tectonic evolution and the principal stress tensor. Tentatively, laboratory-scale relationships developed from normal stress experiments on a single fracture in crystalline rock can be used to estimate the maximum values of transmissivity of deduced deformation zones at Forsmark.

  1. Bedrock geologic map of the Westhampton Quadrangle, Hampshire County, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Westhampton Quadrangle lies on the east flank of the Precambrian Berkshire Massif between the Goshen Dome to the north, the Woronoco Dome to the south, and the Mesozoic Hartford Basin to the east. The area is underlain almost entirely by metasedimentary rocks of Early Devonian age. The quadrangle offers a comparison of strikingly different map patterns of the Goshen and Waits River formations and contains several excellent exposures that straddle the contact between them.

  2. Bedrock geology of the northern Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, D. A.; Wright, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau is surrounded by a complex assemblage of highly deformed Precambrian to lower Tertiary continental and oceanic rocks that reflects numerous episodes of continental accretion. The plateau itself is comprised of the Columbia River basalt group formed between about 16.5 x 1 million years B.P. and 6 x 1 million years B.P. Eruptions were infrequent between about 14 and 6 x 1 million years B.P., allowing time for erosion and deformation between successive outpourings. The present-day courses of much of the Snake River, and parts of the Columbia River, across the plateau date from this time. Basalt produced during this waning activity is more heterogeneous chemically and isotopically than older flows, reflecting its prolonged period of volcanism.

  3. Application of Microtremor Array Analysis to Estimate the Bedrock Depth in the Beijing Plain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Liu, J.; Su, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of large cities around the world, urban geological survey provides key information regarding resource development and urban construction. Among the major cities of the world, China's capital city Beijing is among the largest cities possessing complex geological structures. The urban geological survey and study in Beijing involves the following aspects: (1) estimating the thickness of the Cenozoic deposit; (2) mapping the three-dimensional structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as its relations to faults and tectonic settings; and (3) assessing the capacity of the city's geological resources in order to support its urban development and operation safety. The geological study of Beijing in general was also intended to provide basic data regarding the urban development and appraisal of engineering and environment geological conditions, as well as underground space resources. In this work, we utilized the microtremor exploration method to estimate the thickness of the bedrock depth, in order to delineate the geological interfaces and improve the accuracy of the bedrock depth map. The microtremor observation sites were located in the Beijing Plain area. Traditional geophysical or geological survey methods were not effective in these areas due to the heavy traffic and dense buildings in the highly-populated urban area. The microtremor exploration method is a Rayleigh-wave inversion technique which extracts its phase velocity dispersion curve from the vertical component of the microtremor array records using the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method, then inverts the shear-wave velocity structure. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in ranging from 40 to 300 m, properly adjusted depending on the geological conditions (depth of the bedrock). The collected microtremor data are used to: (1) estimation of phase velocities of Rayleigh-wave from the vertical components of the microtremor

  4. Yields of bedrock wells in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, B.P.; Simcox, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Six to seven percent of the population of Massachusetts obtains its water from domestic bedrock wells. Additional public, commercial, industrial, and domestic supplies from bedrock will be needed in the future. Information about the factors that are related to large well yields is needed. The factors associated with well yields were identified by use of statistical analysis of reported data from 4,218 bedrock wells. The median reported yield of all bedrock wells was 7 gallons per minute, and the median depth was 170 feet. Wells in valleys and lowlands had the largest median yield--I0 gallons per minute. The median well yield on hilltops and slopes was 6 gallons per minute. In valleys and lowlands, significant increases in well yields corresponded to increasing thickness of overburden. On hilltops and slopes, only small increases in well yield corresponded to increases in overburden thickness. Increases in well diameter corresponded to significant increases in well yields for all well locations, depths, and use categories. The common assumptions that fractured crystalline rocks generally yield only small quantities of water to wells and that the fractures that yield water to wells pinch out or are closed because of lithostatic pressure at depths greater than 300 to 400 feet may be in error. Analysis of well data indicates that the median yield of all bedrock wells decreased as well depth increased to 400 feet and increased slightly with well depths greater than 600 feet. The median yield of bedrock wells located in valleys and lowlands reached 50 gallons per minute at depths of 600 to 700 feet. The median yield of wells located on hilltops and slopes reached 15 gallons per minute at depths of 600 to 700 feet. Carbonate bedrock, with a median well yield of 25 gallons per minute, seemed to be the most productive bedrock type. A reported yield of 1,700 gallons per minute from an industrial well completed in carbonate bedrock is the largest reported yield from a bedrock

  5. Combining airborne electromagnetic and geotechnical data for automated depth to bedrock tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Craig William; Pfaffhuber, Andreas Aspmo; Anschütz, Helgard; Smaavik, Tone Fallan

    2015-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data was used to supplement geotechnical investigations for a highway construction project in Norway. Heterogeneous geology throughout the survey and consequent variable bedrock threshold resistivity hindered efforts to directly track depth to bedrock, motivating us to develop an automated algorithm to extract depth to bedrock by combining both boreholes and AEM data. We developed two variations of this algorithm: one using simple Gaussian or inverse distance weighting interpolators, and another using ordinary kriging and combined probability distribution functions of input parameters. Evaluation shows that for preliminary surveys, significant savings in boreholes required can be made without sacrificing bedrock model accuracy. In the case study presented, we estimate data collection savings of 1000 to 10,000 NOK/km (c. 160 to 1600 USD/km) would have been possible for early phases of the investigation. However, issues with anthropogenic noise, low signal, and uncertainties in the inversion model likely reduced the comparative advantage that including AEM provided. AEM cannot supersede direct sampling where the model accuracy required exceed the resolution possible with the geophysical measurements. Nevertheless, with the algorithm we can identify high probability zones for shallow bedrock, identify steep or anomalous bedrock topography, and estimate the spatial variability of depth at earlier phases of investigation. Thus, we assert that our method is still useful where detailed mapping is the goal because it allows for more efficient planning of secondary phases of drilling.

  6. Bedrock topography of south-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cagle, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    The bedrock surface in Iowa is covered nearly everywhere by unconsolidated deposits of glacial drift and alluvium which range in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet, and from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet, respectively. The bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses, which were developed during the long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion.

  7. Bedrock topography of north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) is generally overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium, which range in thickness from less than 1 ft to more than 400 ft, and from less than 1 ft to about 60 ft respectively. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but mroe intense, periods of interglacial erosion.

  8. A Fresh Crater Drills to Tharsis Bedrock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of a newly formed impact crater in the Tharsis region of Mars at 1316 UTC (8:16 a.m. EST) on Jan. 13, 2007, near 17.0 degrees north latitude, 246.4 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered by the image is just over 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    The Tharsis region is a high volcanic plateau that stands about 5 kilometers (3 miles) above the surrounding plains. The rocks forming Tharsis are younger than in most parts of mars, as evidenced by their low density of craters. The best estimate of their age is comparable to the age of Shergotty-class meteorites thought to originate from Mars. However, Tharsis is covered by a nearly unbroken, meters-thick layer of dust that has frustrated all attempts to measure its bedrock composition remotely, and to determine if it matches the composition of Shergotty-class meteorites.

    The recent discovery of dark, newly formed impact craters on Mars has provided the CRISM team a chance, finally, to measure the rocks that make up Tharsis. Over the lifetime of the Mars Global Surveyor mission, its high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera monitored the surface and documented the very recent formation of some two dozen small impact craters. Several of them are in Tharsis and pierce the plateau's dust blanket to expose bedrock. MRO's instruments have been trained on these 'drill holes' into Mars' volcanic crust, including the crater shown here.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that usually highlight compositional variations. This image shows the impact crater, a ring of dark, excavated rock (inset), and a surrounding system of rays. Crater rays are common around young impact craters, and they form when ejected boulders reimpact the surface and stir up the local rock

  9. Mapping the geophysical bedrock of the Moesian Platform using H/V ratios and borehole data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinela Manea, Elena; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The strong effects at long periods observed in the extra-Carpathian area of Romania during large Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes were explained by the influence of both source mechanism and mechanical properties of the geological structure. Complex basin geometry and the low seismic velocities of the sediments are the primary responsible for the large amplification and long duration of the seismic records from the extra-Carpathian area during intermediate-depth earthquakes. The aim of this study is to map the geophysical bedrock of this area correlating and interpolating the results obtained from local resonance phenomena evaluation with the available surface geological data. The site was investigated through the computation of H/V spectral ratios from three-directional single station measurements of ambient vibration. The first step was to estimate the depth of the geophysical bedrock at all the Romanian seismic stations located in the extra-Carpathian area (velocity sensors) using the fundamental frequency retrieved from the H/V curves. In the second stage of the study all the relevant peaks from the H/V curves were interpreted in consonance with the available information of the geology. The geological data were obtained from the database developed in the national BIGSEES project by National Institute of Earth Physics. In this database are integrated all the geological, geophysical data from all the past projects, contracts, studies (as refraction, reflexion, etc.), geotechnical drillings and other information publicly available. The mapping of the geophysical bedrock was done interpolating the geological database and information gathered/resulted from H/V using a geographical informational system(GIS). The geology of this area displays very complex features as outcrops in small zones/lines/ near the Danube and then is gradually dipping to about 2 km depth in the N-NE. The depth of the bedrock is (nearly) constant around 100 m depth on the right side of

  10. Flow Structure in a Bedrock Canyon (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, J. G.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.; Bomhof, J.; Lin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bedrock canyon incision is widely recognized as setting the pace of landscape evolution. A variety of models link flow and sediment transport processes to the bedrock canyon incision rate. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are quite well developed in some models. In contrast, the model components that represent fluid flow remain rudimentary. Part of the reason is that there have been relatively few observations of flow structure in a bedrock canyon. Here, we present observations of flow obtained using an array of three acoustic Doppler current profilers during a 524 km long continuous centerline traverse of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada as it passes through a series of bedrock canyons. Through this portion of the river, the channel alternates between gravel-bedded reaches that are deeply incised into semi-consolidated glacial deposits and solid bedrock-bound reaches. We present observations of flow through 41 bedrock bound reaches of the river, derived from our centerline traverses and more detailed three-dimensional mapping of the flow structure in 2 canyons. Our observations suggest that flow in the most well-defined canyons (deep, laterally constrained, completely bedrock bound) is far more complex than that in a simple prismatic channel. As flow enters the canyon, a high velocity core plunges from the surface to the bed, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities at the bed and low velocities at the surface). This plunging flow then upwells along the canyon wall, resulting in a three-dimensional flow with counter-rotating, along-stream eddies that diverge near the bed. We observe centerline ridges along the canyon floors that result from the divergence and large-scale surface boils caused by the upwelling. This flow structure causes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor, and ensures the base of the canyon walls are swept of debris that otherwise may be deposited due to lower shear stresses abutting the walls. The

  11. Structure of Flow in a Bedrock Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, J. G.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.; Bomhof, J.; Lin, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bedrock canyon incision is widely recognized as setting the pace of landscape evolution. A variety of models link flow and sediment transport processes to the bedrock canyon incision rate. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are quite well developed in some models. In contrast, the model components that represent fluid flow remain rudimentary. Part of the reason is that there have been relatively few observations of flow structure in a bedrock canyon. Here, we present observations of flow obtained using an array of three acoustic Doppler current profilers during a 524 km long continuous centerline traverse of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada as it passes through a series of bedrock canyons. Through this portion of the river, the channel alternates between gravel-bedded reaches that are deeply incised into semi-consolidated glacial deposits and solid bedrock-bound reaches. We present observations of flow through 41 bedrock bound reaches of the river, derived from our centerline traverses and more detailed three-dimensional mapping of the flow structure in 2 canyons. Our observations suggest that flow in the most well-defined canyons (deep, laterally constrained, completely bedrock bound) is far more complex than that in a simple prismatic channel. As flow enters the canyon, a high velocity core plunges from the surface to the bed, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities at the bed and low velocities at the surface). This plunging flow then upwells along the canyon wall, resulting in a three-dimensional flow with counter-rotating, along-stream eddies that diverge near the bed. We observe centerline ridges along the canyon floors that result from the divergence and large-scale surface boils caused by the upwelling. This flow structure causes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor, and ensures the base of the canyon walls are swept of debris that otherwise may be deposited due to lower shear stresses abutting the walls. The

  12. Bedrock control of leachate migration from the Torrington Landfill, Torrington, CT

    SciTech Connect

    Haydock, S.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The Torrington Landfill lies within the Western Connecticut Highlands and overlies the geologic contact between the interlayered schists and gneisses of the Hartland Formation from the medium grained granites and pegmatites of the Tyler Lake Granite. The contact separating the two formations, exposed to the south and north of the landfill, is sharp and discordant. Geologic structures observed at the outcrop scale include a dominant foliation, several generations of folding, and three dominant fracture orientations measuring N70W, N35W, and N15E. Bedrock controlled surface topography directs the flow of leachate from the landfill in the overburden aquifer and prevents the leachate from migrating in a radial pattern. Outcrops to the west, southwest, southeast, east, and north of the landfill act as barriers to leachate migration and funnel leachate through two bedrock valleys present along the south and northeast sides of the landfill. Leachate migration within the crystalline bedrock occurs primarily through fracture zones. Field observations suggest that neither the intrusive contact between the two formations nor the dominant foliation are likely leachate migration pathways. The ability of the fractured bedrock to transmit leachate depends on the extent of fracture development and the degree of fracture interconnection. Those areas where fractures are well developed generally show topographic expression, such as along the course of Peck Brook and the southern bedrock valley, and are documented pathways for leachate migration. These interpretations regarding leachate migration pathways from the landfill within both the overburden and bedrock aquifers are supported by historical groundwater monitoring data, and by data generated from a geophysical survey completed around the perimeter of the landfill.

  13. Bedrock topography of west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.; Runkle, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock in Iowa (Hershey 1969) generally is overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, consisting of glacial till and glacial outwash, ranges in thickness from zero to more than 500 feet in western Iowa; the alluvium in stream valleys ranges in thickness from less than 1 to more than 70 feet. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 12-county area in west-central Iowa, is the eighth of a series of nine reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock topograhy of Iowa. 

  14. Bedrock topography beneath the Red Lake peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Shaw, G.H. . Geology Dept.); Glaser, P. . Limnological Research Center); Siegel, D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Detailed hydrologic investigations of peat landforms in the Red Lake Peatlands have revealed that groundwater flow is significantly related to the type of landform and vegetation community present at a given site. Hydrogeologic modeling of shallow groundwater systems suggests that bedrock topography is an important, perhaps the vital, boundary condition controlling groundwater flow. Determination of depth to bedrock beneath different peat landforms is necessary to test the hydrogeologic models and obtain a better understanding of the processes which produce them. Direct determination of bedrock depth in peatlands is hampered by the difficult conditions and high costs of boring. In addition, environmental impacts from boring activities would probably be substantial in these sensitive ecosystems. Shallow seismic methods appear to be the most promising approach to obtain the necessary data. Unfortunately the 2+ meters of peat covering Lake Agassiz sediments overlying the bedrock is not only a poor substrate for geophone emplacement, but is a strong attenuator of seismic waves. These difficulties have been overcome by constructing a tool which allows the geophones to be emplaced beneath the peat and into the top of the sediments. The shotgun cartridge source is also located beneath the peat. This combination results in very good seismic records, far better than those possible with surface sources and geophones. The results from a preliminary survey along a 600m line show that there are significant variations in bedrock topography below the peat. In a distance of less than 500m, depth to bedrock changes by about 30%, from about 55m to about 40m. This is similar to variations indicated by the models.

  15. Continental bedrock and riverine fluxes of strontium and neodymium isotopes to the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.; Arsouze, Thomas; Jeandel, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Realistic models of past climate and ocean chemistry depend on reconstructions of the Earth's surface environments in the geologic past. Among the critical parameters is the geologic makeup of continental drainage. Here we show, for the present, that the isotope composition of dissolved strontium in rivers increases linearly with the age of bedrock in drainage basins, with the notable exception of the drainage area of Arabia, India, and Southeast Asia that is affected by unusually radiogenic dissolved Sr from the Himalaya. We also demonstrate that the neodymium isotope compositions of suspended matter in rivers as well as clastic sediments deposited along the ocean margins decrease linearly with the bedrock ages of river drainage basins and large-scale continental drainage regions, as determined from digital geologic maps. These correlations are used to calculate the present-day input of dissolved Sr (4.7 × 1010 mol yr-1, 87Sr/86Sr of ˜0.7111) and particulate Nd isotopes (ɛNd of approximately -7.3 ± 2.2) to the oceans. The fact that the regionally averaged ɛNd of the global detrital input to the global coastal ocean is identical to globally averaged seawater (ɛNd of -7.2 ± 0.5) lends credence to the importance of "boundary exchange" for the Nd isotope composition of water masses. Regional biases in source areas of detrital matter and runoff are reflected by the observation that the average age of global bedrock, weighted according to the riverine suspended sediment flux, is significantly younger (˜336 Myr) than the age of global bedrock weighted according to water discharge (394 Myr), which is younger than the average bedrock age of the nonglaciated, exorheic portions of the continents (453 Myr). The observation that the bedrock age weighted according to Sr flux is younger (339 Myr) than that weighted according to water flux reflects the disproportionate contribution from young sedimentary and volcanic rocks to the dissolved Sr load. Neither the isotope

  16. Controls on bedrock bedform development beneath the Uummannaq Ice Stream onset zone, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Timothy P.; Roberts, David H.; Rea, Brice R.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Vieli, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the controls on the formation of subglacially eroded bedrock bedforms beneath the topographically confined region upstream of the Uummannaq Ice Stream (UIS). During the last glacial cycle, palaeoglaciological conditions are believed to have been similar for all sites in the study, characterised by thick, fast-flowing ice moving over a rigid bedrock bed. Classic bedrock bedforms indicative of glacially eroded terrain were mapped, including p-forms, roches moutonnées, and whalebacks. Bedform long axes and plucked face orientations display close correlation (parallel and perpendicular) to palaeo-ice flow directions inferred from striae measurements. Across all sites, elongation ratios (length to width) varied by an order of magnitude between 0.8:1 and 8.4:1. Bedform properties (length, height, width, and long axis orientation) from four subsample areas, form morphometrically distinct populations, despite their close proximity and hypothesised similarity in palaeoglaciological conditions. Variations in lithology and geological structures (e.g., joint frequency; joint dip; joint orientation; bedding plane thickness; and bedding plane dip) provide lines of geological weakness, which focus the glacial erosion, in turn controlling bedform geometries. Determining the relationship (s) between bedding plane dip relative to palaeo-ice flow and bedform shape, relative length, amplitude, and wavelength has important ramifications for understanding subglacial bed roughness, cavity formation, and likely erosion style (quarrying and/or abrasion) at the ice-bed interface. This paper demonstrates a direct link between bedrock bedform geometries and geological structure and emphasises the need to understand bedrock bedform characteristics when reconstructing palaeoglaciological conditions.

  17. Direct and Indirect Influence of Parental Bedrock on Streambed Microbial Community Structure in Forested Streams▿

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Findlay, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    A correlative study was performed to determine if variation in streambed microbial community structure in low-order forested streams can be directly or indirectly linked to the chemical nature of the parental bedrock of the environments through which the streams flow. Total microbial and photosynthetic biomass (phospholipid phosphate [PLP] and chlorophyll a), community structure (phospholipid fatty acid analysis), and physical and chemical parameters were measured in six streams, three located in sandstone and three in limestone regions of the Bankhead National Forest in northern Alabama. Although stream water flowing through the two different bedrock types differed significantly in chemical composition, there were no significant differences in total microbial and photosynthetic biomass in the sediments. In contrast, sedimentary microbial community structure differed between the bedrock types and was significantly correlated with stream water ion concentrations. A pattern of seasonal variation in microbial community structure was also observed. Further statistical analysis indicated dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality, which was previously shown to be influenced by geological variation, correlated with variation in bacterial community structure. These results indicate that the geology of underlying bedrock influences benthic microbial communities directly via changes in water chemistry and also indirectly via stream water DOM quality. PMID:21926206

  18. Map of bedrock-surface topography in parts of the Paterson and Pompton Plains quadrangles, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Duran, Philip B.

    1988-01-01

    A seismic-refraction survey was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE), to define the altitudes of the bedrock surface beneath part of a proposed water diversion tunnel to control periodic heavy flooding along parts of the Passaic and Pompton Rivers in northeastern New Jersey. The altitude of the top of the tunnel is planned to be approximately at sea level. The ACOE would like to have a minimum of 40 ft of bedrock above the top of the tunnel for construction and engineering purposes. The results of the study show that the bedrock ranges in altitude from 40 to 140 ft above sea level, and that there is a northeast trending bedrock valley that overlies the proposed tunnel alignment. (USGS)

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED BEDROCK FOR STEAM INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most difficult setting in which to conduct groundwater remediation is that where chlorinated solvents have penetrated fractured bedrock. To demonstrate the potential viability of steam injection as a means of groundwater clean-up in this type of environment, steam will be in...

  20. The bedrock electrical conductivity structure of Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, David

    2013-08-01

    An airborne geophysical survey of the whole of Northern Ireland has provided over 4.8 M estimates of the bedrock conductivity over the wide range of geological formations present. This study investigates how such data can be used to provide additional knowledge in relation to existing digital geological map information. A by-product of the analysis is a simplification of the spatially aggregated information obtained in such surveys. The methodology used is a GIS-based attribution of the conductivity estimates using a lithological classification of the bedrock formations. A 1:250k geological classification of the data is performed leading to a 56 unit lithological and geostatistical analysis of the conductivity information. The central moments (medians) of the classified data are used to provide a new digital bedrock conductivity map of Northern Ireland with values ranging from 0.32 to 41.36 mS m-1. This baseline map of conductivities displays a strong correspondence with an existing 4 quadrant, chrono-geological description of Northern Ireland. Once defined, the baseline conductivity map allows departures from the norm to be assessed across each specific lithological unit. Bulk electrical conductivity is controlled by a number of petrophysical parameters and it is their variation that is assessed by the procedures employed. The igneous rocks are found to display the largest variability in conductivity values and many of the statistical distributions are multi-modal. A sequence of low-value modes in these data are associated with intrusives within volcanic complexes. These and much older Neoproterzoic rocks appear to represent very low porosity formations that may be the product of rapid cooling during emplacement. By way of contrast, extensive flood basalts (the Antrim lavas) record a well-defined and much higher median value (12.24 mS m-1) although they display complex spatial behaviour in detail. Sedimentary rocks appear to follow the broad behaviours anticipated

  1. Comparison of planform multi-channel network characteristics of alluvial and bedrock constrained large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, P. A.; Meshkova, L.; Robinson, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Mekong River in northern Cambodia is an multi-channel mixed bedrock-alluvial river but it was poorly researched until present. Preliminary study of the Mekong geomorphology was conducted by gathering existing knowledge of its geological and tectonic settings, specific riparian vegetation and ancient alluvial terraces in which the river has incised since the Holocene. Altogether this process has allowed a geomorphological portrait of the river to be composed within the Quaternary context. Following this outline, the planform characteristics of the Mekong River network are compared, using analysis of channel network and islands configurations, with the fluvial patterns of the Orange River (South Africa), Upper Columbia River (Canada) and the Ganga River (India, Bangladesh). These rivers are selected as examples of multi-channel mixed bedrock alluvial, anastomosed alluvial and braided alluvial rivers respectively. Network parameters such as channel bifurcation angles asymmetry, sinuosity, braid intensity and island morphometric shape metrics are compared and contrasted between bedrock and alluvial systems. In addition, regional and local topographic trend surfaces produced for each river planform help explain the local changes in river direction and the degree of anastomosis, and distinguish the bedrock-alluvial rivers from the alluvial rivers. Variations between planform characteristics are to be explained by channel forming processes and in the case of mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers mediated by structural control. Channel metrics (derived at the reach-scale) provide some discrimination between different multi-channel patterns but are not always robust when considered singly. In contrast, island shape metrics (obtained at subreach-scale) allow robust discrimination between alluvial and bedrock systems.

  2. Steeply dipping heaving bedrock, Colorado: Part 3 - Environmental controls and heaving processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.; Higgins, J.D.; Olsen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental processes and mechanisms that govern differential heaving in steeply dipping claystone bedrock near Denver, Colorado. Three potential heave mechanisms and causal processes were evaluated: (1) rebound expansion, from reduced overburden stress; (2) expansive gypsum-crystal precipitation, from oxidation of pyrite; and (3) swelling of clay minerals, from increased ground moisture. First, we documented the effect of short-term changes in overburden stress, atmospheric exposure, and ground moisture on bedrock at various field sites and in laboratory samples. Second, we documented differential heaving episodes in outcrops and at construction and developed sites. We found that unloading and exposure of the bedrock in construction-cut areas are essentially one-time processes that result in drying and desiccation of the near-surface bedrock, with no visible heaving response. In contrast, wetting produces a distinct swelling response in the claystone strata, and it may occur repeatedly as natural precipitation or from lawn irrigation. We documented 2.5 to 7.5 cm (1 to 3 in.) of differential heaving in 24 hours triggered by sudden infiltration of water at the exposed ground surface in outcrops and at construction sites. From these results, we interpret that rebound and pyrite weathering, both of which figure strongly into the long-term geologic evolution of the geologic framework, do not appear to be major heave mechanisms at these excavation depths. Heaving of the claystone takes two forms: (1) hydration swelling of dipping bentonitic beds or zones, and (2) hydration swelling within bedrock blocks accommodated by lateral, thrust-shear movements, along pre-existing bedding and fracture planes.

  3. Quality of water in the fractured-bedrock aquifer of New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard Bridge

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few decades, New Hampshire has experienced considerable population growth, which is forcing some communities to look for alternative public and private water supplies in the bedrock aquifer. Because the quality of water from the aquifer can vary, the U.S. Geological Survey statistically analyzed well data from 1,353 domestic and 360 public-supply bedrock wells to characterize the ground water. The domestic-well data were from homeowner-collected samples analyzed by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) Environmental Laboratory from 1984 to 1994. Bedrock water in New Hampshire often contains high concentrations of iron, manganese, arsenic, and radon gas. Water samples from 21 percent of the domestic bedrock wells contained arsenic above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) drinking-water standard for public-water supplies, and 96 percent had radon concentrations greater than the USEPA-proposed 300 picocurie per liter (pCi/L) standard for public-water supplies. Some elevated fluoride concentrations (2 percent of samples) were above the 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) USEPA drinking-water standard for public-water supplies. Water from the bedrock aquifer also typically is soft to moderately hard, and has a pH greater than 7.0. Variations in bedrock water quality were discernable when the data were compared to lithochemical groupings of the bedrock, indicating that the type of bedrock has an effect on the quality of water in the bedrock aquifer of New Hampshire. Ground-water samples from the metasedimentary lithochemical group have greater concentrations of total iron and total manganese than do the felsic and mafic igneous lithochemical groups. Ground-water samples from the felsic igneous group have higher concentrations of total fluoride than do those from the other lithochemical groups. For arsenic, the calcareous metasedimentary group was identified, using the public-supply database, as

  4. Bedrock, Borehole, and Water-Quality Characterization of a Methane-Producing Water Well in Wolfeboro, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Flanagan, Sarah; Burruss, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2004, a commercial drill rig was destroyed by ignition of an explosive gas released during the drilling of a domestic well in granitic bedrock in Tyngsborough, MA. This accident prompted the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) to sample the well water for dissolved methane - a possible explosive fuel. Water samples collected from the Tyngsborough domestic well in 2004 by the MassDEP contained low levels of methane gas (Pierce and others, 2007). When the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled this well in 2006, there was no measurable amount of methane remaining in the well water (Pierce and others, 2007). Other deep water wells in nearby south-central New Hampshire have been determined to have high concentrations of naturally occurring methane (David Wunsch, New Hampshire State Geologist, 2004, written commun.). Studying additional wells in New England crystalline bedrock aquifers that produce methane may help to understand the origin of methane in crystalline bedrock. Domestic well NH-WRW-37 was chosen for this study because it is a relatively deep well completed in crystalline bedrock, it is not affected by known anthropogenic sources of methane, and it had the highest known natural methane concentration (15.5 mg/L, U.S. Geological Survey, 2007) measured in a study described by Robinson and others (2004). This well has been in use since it was drilled in 1997, and it was originally selected for study in 2000 as part of a 30 well network, major-aquifer study by the USGS' New England Coastal Basins (NECB) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Dissolved methane in drinking water is not considered an ingestion health hazard, although the occurrence in ground water is a concern because, as a gas, its buildup in confined spaces can cause asphyxiation, fire, or explosion hazards (Mathes and White, 2006). Methane occurrence in the fractured crystalline bedrock is not widely reported or well understood

  5. Planetary science: bedrock formation at Meridiani Planum.

    PubMed

    Squyres, S W; Aharonson, O; Arvidson, R E; Bell, J F; Christensen, P R; Clark, B C; Crisp, J A; Farrand, W; Glotch, T; Golombek, M P; Grant, J; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K E; Johnson, J R; Jolliff, B L; Knoll, A H; McLennan, S M; McSween, H Y; Moore, J M; Rice, J W; Tosca, N

    2006-09-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered sulphate-rich sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum on Mars, which are interpreted by McCollom and Hynek as altered volcanic rocks. However, their conclusions are derived from an incorrect representation of our depositional model, which is upheld by more recent Rover data. We contend that all the available data still support an aeolian and aqueous sedimentary origin for Meridiani bedrock.

  6. Is the Profile of the Colorado River in the Colorado Plateau in Equilibrium With Bedrock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackley, R. D.; Pederson, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Colorado River sets the pace for the erosion of the Colorado Plateau and part of the Rocky Mountains, and the evolution of its long-profile may hold the key to resolving debate over the region's late Cenozoic erosional and tectonic history. Significant reach (10 km) and canyon-scale (100 km) gradient variations occur along the modern profile of this mixed bedrock-alluvial river, and there are multiple hypotheses for the controls on its gradient: 1) knickzones related to active tectonics in western Grand Canyon, 2) coarse bed material from tributary side-canyons, and 3) bedrock resistance as a direct control with respect to channel substrate or an indirect control in terms of hillslope processes in tributary catchments and the production and comminution of bed material. The goal of this study is to test for a spatial relation between hydraulic driving forces and bedrock resisting forces at reach and canyon-scales within and between Glen and Grand canyons. The river encounters diverse rock types that vary in hardness and fracture density. Field and GIS results aimed at testing the bedrock resistance hypothesis for Glen and Grand canyons indicate a spatial relation between rock-mass strength (RMS) and channel gradient. Reach-scale gradients vary as much as a factor of 20 through Grand Canyon, with steep reaches having significantly higher compressive strengths and wide fracture spacings. Glen Canyon, on the other hand, has dramatically lower channel gradient, weaker RMS properties, and reaches with steep gradients that do not correlate to either debris fans or changes in bedrock type but do coincide with geologic structures. The presence of a bedrock or debris-fan frequency correlation to the majority of gradient variations argues against tectonic origins of knickzones and suggests a relation between bedrock resistance and the profile of the Colorado River exists. However, when these results are combined with the distribution of tributary debris fans and their

  7. River terrace sand and gravel deposit reserve estimation using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography for bedrock surface detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Penn, S.; Meldrum, P. I.; Kuras, O.; Loke, M. H.; Gunn, D. A.

    2013-06-01

    We describe the application of 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to the characterisation and reserve estimation of an economic fluvial sand and gravel deposit. Due to the smoothness constraints used to regularise the inversion, it can be difficult to accurately determine the geometry of sharp interfaces. We have therefore considered two approaches to interface detection that we have applied to the 3D ERT results in an attempt to provide an accurate and objective assessment of the bedrock surface elevation. The first is a gradient-based approach, in which the steepest gradient of the vertical resistivity profile is assumed to correspond to the elevation of the mineral/bedrock interface. The second method uses an intrusive sample point to identify the interface resistivity at a location within the model, from which an iso-resistivity surface is identified that is assumed to define the interface. Validation of these methods has been achieved through direct comparison with observed bedrock surface elevations that were measured using real-time-kinematic GPS subsequent to the 3D ERT survey when quarrying exposed the bedrock surface. The gradient-based edge detector severely underestimated the depth to bedrock in this case, whereas the interface resistivity method produced bedrock surface elevations that were in close agreement with the GPS-derived surface. The failure of the gradient-based method is attributed to insufficient model sensitivity in the region of the bedrock surface, whereas the success of the interface resistivity method is a consequence of the homogeneity of the mineral and bedrock, resulting in a consistent interface resistivity. These results highlight the need for some intrusive data for model validation and for edge detection approaches to be chosen on the basis of local geological conditions.

  8. Factors related to well yield in the fractured-bedrock aquifer of New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard Bridge; Schwartz, Gregory E.; Clark, Stewart F.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Degnan, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The New Hampshire Bedrock Aquifer Assessment was designed to provide information that can be used by communities, industry, professional consultants, and other interests to evaluate the ground-water development potential of the fractured-bedrock aquifer in the State. The assessment was done at statewide, regional, and well field scales to identify relations that potentially could increase the success in locating high-yield water supplies in the fractured-bedrock aquifer. statewide, data were collected for well construction and yield information, bedrock lithology, surficial geology, lineaments, topography, and various derivatives of these basic data sets. Regionally, geologic, fracture, and lineament data were collected for the Pinardville and Windham quadrangles in New Hampshire. The regional scale of the study examined the degree to which predictive well-yield relations, developed as part of the statewide reconnaissance investigation, could be improved by use of quadrangle-scale geologic mapping. Beginning in 1984, water-well contractors in the State were required to report detailed information on newly constructed wells to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). The reports contain basic data on well construction, including six characteristics used in this study?well yield, well depth, well use, method of construction, date drilled, and depth to bedrock (or length of casing). The NHDES has determined accurate georeferenced locations for more than 20,000 wells reported since 1984. The availability of this large data set provided an opportunity for a statistical analysis of bedrock-well yields. Well yields in the database ranged from zero to greater than 500 gallons per minute (gal/min). Multivariate regression was used as the primary statistical method of analysis because it is the most efficient tool for predicting a single variable with many potentially independent variables. The dependent variable that was explored in this study was the

  9. Atmospheric Methane Contributions From Fractured Bedrock Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater is not normally considered as an important contributor of atmospheric methane because the organic carbon content of aquifers is too low to sustain significant methanogenesis. Also, groundwater-generated methane partitions into the gas phase of the overlying soil, where it either dissolves in the pore water or is oxidized to carbon dioxide by methanotrophs. There are, however, localized conditions (related to human activities and hydrogeologic conditions) under which atmospheric contributions of groundwater-generated methane occur at the ground surface. Storing and transporting liquid petroleum products in the subsurface has resulted in the local introduction of high concentrations of degradable organic carbon and the creation of redox conditions that favor methanogenesis over more oxidative biodegradation pathways. Groundwater overlain by fractured bedrock, rather than by unconsolidated porous media, creates a situation where CH4 migrates through discrete fractures, thus limiting the soil volume and the surface area available for methanotrophic activity. The spatial distribution of methane in thin surface soils overlying bedrock suggests that CH4 migrates via fracture networks and that CH4 oxidation is a factor of about 50 less than that measured in typical unconsolidated soils. Atmospheric flux rates associated with contaminated bedrock aquifers were on the order of several grams of carbon (as CH4) per square meter, which is less than that reported for well documented sources (e.g., rice paddies) and probably represents a minor worldwide contribution. Nonetheless, these aquifers can represent an important localized source, can shift soils from a sink to a source of methane, and can permit petroleum products to load carbon (as biogenic CH4 and CO2) to the atmosphere without ever being combusted.

  10. Bacterial Transport Experiments in Fractured Crystalline Bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, M.W.; Metge, D.W.; Collins, S.A.; Shapiro, A.M.; Harvey, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of contaminant biodegradation in ground water depends, in part, on the transport properties of the degrading bacteria. Few data exist concerning the transport of bacteria in saturated bedrock, particularly at the field scale. Bacteria and microsphere tracer experiments were conducted in a fractured crystalline bedrock under forced-gradient conditions over a distance of 36 m. Bacteria isolated from the local ground water were chosen on the basis of physicochemical and physiological differences (shape, cell-wall type, motility), and were differentially stained so that their transport behavior could be compared. No two bacterial strains transported in an identical manner, and microspheres produced distinctly different breakthrough curves than bacteria. Although there was insufficient control in this field experiment to completely separate the effects of bacteria shape, reaction to Gram staining, cell size, and motility on transport efficiency, it was observed that (1) the nonmotile, mutant strain exhibited better fractional recovery than the motile parent strain; (2) Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria exhibited higher fractional recovery relative to the Gram-positive rod-shaped strain of similar size; and (3) coccoidal (spherical-shaped) bacteria transported better than all but one strain of the rod-shaped bacteria. The field experiment must be interpreted in the context of the specific bacterial strains and ground water environment in which they were conducted, but experimental results suggest that minor differences in the physical properties of bacteria can lead to major differences in transport behavior at the field scale.

  11. Bacterial transport experiments in fractured crystalline bedrock.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew W; Metge, David W; Collins, Samantha A; Shapiro, Allen M; Harvey, Ronald W

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of contaminant biodegradation in ground water depends, in part, on the transport properties of the degrading bacteria. Few data exist concerning the transport of bacteria in saturated bedrock, particularly at the field scale. Bacteria and microsphere tracer experiments were conducted in a fractured crystalline bedrock under forced-gradient conditions over a distance of 36 m. Bacteria isolated from the local ground water were chosen on the basis of physicochemical and physiological differences (shape, cell-wall type, motility), and were differentially stained so that their transport behavior could be compared. No two bacterial strains transported in an identical manner, and microspheres produced distinctly different breakthrough curves than bacteria. Although there was insufficient control in this field experiment to completely separate the effects of bacteria shape, reaction to Gram staining, cell size, and motility on transport efficiency, it was observed that (1) the nonmotile, mutant strain exhibited better fractional recovery than the motile parent strain; (2) Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria exhibited higher fractional recovery relative to the Gram-positive rod-shaped strain of similar size; and (3) coccoidal (spherical-shaped) bacteria transported better than all but one strain of the rod-shaped bacteria. The field experiment must be interpreted in the context of the specific bacterial strains and ground water environment in which they were conducted, but experimental results suggest that minor differences in the physical properties of bacteria can lead to major differences in transport behavior at the field scale.

  12. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics across a bedrock-regulated subarctic pH gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, N.; Heim, E. W.; Sadowsky, J.; Remiszewski, K.; Varner, R. K.; Bryce, J. G.; Frey, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Bedrock geochemistry has been shown to influence landscape evolution due to nutrient limitation on primary production. There may also be less direct interactions between bedrock-derived chemicals and ecosystem function. Effects of calcium (Ca) and pH on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling have been shown in acid impacted forests o f North America. Understanding intrinsic factors that affect C and nutrient dynamics in subarctic ecosystems has implications for how these ecosystems will respond to a changing climate. How the soil microbial community allocates enzymes to acquire resources from the environment can indicate whether a system is nutrient or energy limited. This study examined whether bedrock geochemistry exerts pressure on nutrient cycles in the overlying soils. In thin, weakly developed soils, bedrock is the primary mineral material and is a source of vital nutrients. Nitrogen (N) and C are not derived from bedrock, but their cycling is still affected by reactions with geologically-derived chemicals. Our study sites near Abisko, Sweden (~68°N) were selected adjacent to five distinct bedrock outcrops (quartzite, slate, carbonate, and two different metasedimenty units). All sites were at a similar elevation (~700 m a.s.l.) and had similar vegetation (subarctic heath). Nutrient concentrations in bedrock and soils were measured in addition to soil microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity. We found a statistically significant correlation between soil Ca concentrations and soil pH (r = 0.88, p < 0.01). There were also significant relationships between soil pH and the ratio of C-acquiring to N-acquiring enzyme activity (r = -0.89, p < 0.01), soil pH and soil C-to-N ratio (r = -0.76, p < 0.01), and the ratio of C-acquiring to N-acquiring enzyme activity and soil C-to-N ratio (r = 0.78, p < 0.01). These results suggest that soil Ca concentrations influence C and N cycling dynamics in these soils through their effect on soil pH.

  13. New insights into the mechanics of fluvial bedrock erosion through flume experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Michael P.; Finnegan, Noah J.; Scheingross, Joel S.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2015-09-01

    River incision into bedrock drives the topographic evolution of mountainous terrain and may link climate, tectonics, and topography over geologic time scales. Despite its importance, the mechanics of bedrock erosion are not well understood because channel form, river hydraulics, sediment transport, and erosion mechanics coevolve over relatively long time scales that prevent direct observations, and because erosive events occur intermittently and are difficult and dangerous to measure. Herein we synthesize how flume experiments using erodible bedrock simulants are filling these knowledge gaps by effectively accelerating the pace of landscape evolution under reduced scale in the laboratory. We also build on this work by providing new theory for rock resistance to abrasion, thresholds for plucking by vertical entrainment, sliding and toppling, and by assessing bedrock-analog materials. Bedrock erosion experiments in the last 15 years reveal that the efficiency of rock abrasion scales inversely with the square of rock tensile strength, sediment supply has a dominant control over bed roughness and abrasion rates, suspended sediment is an efficient agent of erosion, and feedbacks with channel form and roughness strongly influence erosion rates. Erodibility comparisons across rock, concrete, ice, and foam indicate that, for a given tensile strength, abrasion rates are insensitive to elasticity. The few experiments that have been conducted on erosion by plucking highlight the importance of block protrusion height above the river bed, and the dominance of block sliding and toppling at knickpoints. These observations are consistent with new theory for the threshold Shields stress to initiate plucking, which also suggests that erosion rates in sliding- and toppling-dominated rivers are likely transport limited. Major knowledge gaps remain in the processes of erosion via plucking of bedrock blocks where joints are not river-bed parallel; waterfall erosion by toppling and

  14. Localized bedrock aquifer distribution explains discharge from a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Fujimoto, Masamitsu; Katsura, Shin'ya; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sando, Yoshiki; Mizuyama, Takahisa

    2011-07-01

    Understanding a discharge hydrograph is one of the leading interests in catchment hydrology. Recent research has provided credible information on the importance of bedrock groundwater on discharge hydrographs from headwater catchments. However, intensive monitoring of bedrock groundwater is rare in mountains with steep topography. Hence, how bedrock groundwater controls discharge from a steep headwater catchment is in dispute. In this study, we conducted long-term hydrological observations using densely located bedrock wells in a headwater catchment underlain by granitic bedrock. The catchment has steep topography affected by diastrophic activities. Results showed a fairly regionalized distribution of bedrock aquifers within a scale of tens of meters, consisting of upper, middle, and lower aquifers, instead of a gradual and continuous decline in water level from ridge to valley bottom. This was presumably attributable to the unique bedrock structure; fault lines developed in the watershed worked to form divides between the bedrock aquifers. Spatial expanse of each aquifer and the interaction among aquifers were key factors to explain gentle and considerable variations in the base flow discharge and triple-peak discharge responses of the observed hydrograph. A simple model was developed to simulate the discharge hydrograph, which computed each of the contributions from the soil mantle groundwater, from the lower aquifer, and from the middle aquifer to the discharge. The modeling results generally succeeded in reproducing the observed hydrograph. Thus, this study demonstrated that understanding regionalized bedrock aquifer distribution is pivotal for explaining discharge hydrograph from headwater catchments that have been affected by diastrophic activities.

  15. Effects of increased pumpage on a fractured-bedrock aquifer system in central Orange County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garber, Murray

    1985-01-01

    The bedrock in central Orange County consists of highly indurated siltstone, shale, and conglomerate containing two major fault systems and extensive fracturing; it is overlain by 50 to 100 feet of till. The fracturing permits unusually high well yields. Wells tapping the bedrock yield 75 to 200 gallons per minute; those tapping bedrock in adjacent areas yield only a few tens of gallons per minute. The bedrock aquifer is recharged mainly by percolation of water from precipitation through the till. In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydrologic effects of increased pumpage on the fractured bedrock aquifer system near the Village of Kiryas Joel, in the Town of Monroe. Water levels were measured in several wells in the village 's two well fields from February to October 1983, and pumpage data from the same period were tabulated. Water levels responded to variations in both pumpage and precipitation. Pumping tests and water levels in the southeastern well field in 1983 had no effect on the northwestern well field. An observation well between the two fields shows about 20 feet of seasonal fluctuation from recharge and the effects of pumping at the northwestern well field. Aquifer-test data indicate a transmissivity of 900 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0001. (USGS)

  16. Geologic investigations for Ohio SSC proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Pavey, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will be the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator for high-energy particle physics research. The primary feature of this scientific instrument is a 10-ft diameter tunnel, 53 mi in circumference. The geologic setting for such a tunneling effort is of paramount importance for selection of the SSC site. The SSC study area comprises portions of 16 quadrangles within Marion, Union, Delaware, and Morrow Counties, Ohio. Very little modern geologic information was available for this area. However, the Ohio Division of Geological Survey's existing mapping and drilling programs were ideally suited to produce the geologic framework needed to determine an optimum SSC site. Thus, the Survey's commitment to the state of Ohio's SSC proposal has been substantial. Project results include a comprehensive series of maps, including glacial materials to 50 ft, bedrock topography, drift thickness, bedrock unit subcrop, and structure maps for several bedrock units. Also added to the knowledge base of this area are numerous field sections and cores, several gravity profiles, and an improved understanding of the area's glacial and bedrock stratigraphy.

  17. Quality of water from bedrock aquifers in the South Carolina Piedmont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.G.; Padgett, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The geographic distributions of 12 common water-quality parameters of ground water from bedrock aquifers in the Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina are presented in a series of maps. The maps are based on analyses by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control of water samples taken during the period 1972 to 1982 from 442 public and private wells developed in the Piedmont. In general, alkalinity, hardness, and concentrations of sodium, magnesium, and chloride were higher in the Carolina Slate Belt than they were in the other geologic belts of the Piedmont. (USGS)

  18. Using airborne LiDAR to investigated the bedrock incision in the Tsaoling Landslide surface, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chin-Shyong; Chen, Yi-Zhong; Hsieh, Yu-Chung; Chen, Rou-Fei; Wu, Ruo-Ying

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, a great number of studies have investigated the tectonic topographic evolution and development of active orogenic belts that cause the dynamics related to a variety of terrain features. In particular, the incision of bedrock via erosion by rivers plays a crucial research role. Erosion gullies reflect the incision of bedrock by rivers during the tectonic and topographic evolution of active orogenic zones; however, a limited amount of measurement data is currently available. Therefore, this study explored the incision erosion rate of different lithologies in the collapsed surface of a landslide induced by the 1999 Chi-chi earthquake in the Tsaoling area. This study uses the 1 m high-resolution DEM established by the Central Geological Survey via airborne LiDAR, organized by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA. In this study, we investigated the distribution of erosion gullies produced in different rock formations by the Tsaoling landslide based on an openness analysis using a red relief image map (RRIM) and calculated the bedrock incision rate for the Cholan Formation and Chishui Shale for 1999, 2011 and 2012, which was 30-40 cm/yr and 54-90 cm/yr on average, respectively. These results indicated that the Cholan Formation has a higher resistance to erosion than the Chishui Shale, where the erosion was more serious.

  19. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  20. Effects on groundwater flow of abandoned engineered structures for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockgård, Niclas; Marsic, Niko; Follin, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Effects on groundwater flow of abandoned engineered structures in relation to a potential geological repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel in fractured crystalline rock at the Forsmark site, Sweden, are studied by means of numerical modeling. The effects are analyzed by means of particle tracking, and transport-related performance measures are calculated. The impacts of abandoned, partially open repository tunnels are studied for two situations with different climate conditions: a "temperate" climate case with present-day boundary conditions, and a generic future "glacial" climate case with an ice sheet covering the repository. Then, the impact of abandoned open boreholes drilled through the repository is studied for present-day climate conditions. It is found that open repository tunnels and open boreholes can act as easy pathways from repository level to the ground surface; hence, they can attract a considerable proportion of particles released in the model at deposition hole positions within the repository. The changed flow field and flow paths cause some changes in the studied performance measures, i.e., increased flux at the deposition holes and decreased transport lengths and flow-related transport resistances. However, these effects are small and the transport resistance values are still high.

  1. Alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin; eastern Colorado's dual ground-water resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1989-01-01

    Large volumes of ground water are contained in alluvial and bedrock aquifers in the semiarid Denver basin of eastern Colorado. The bedrock aquifer, for example, contains 1.2 times as much water as Lake Erie of the Great Lakes, yet it supplies only about 9 percent of the ground water used in the basin. Although this seems to indicate underutilization of this valuable water supply, this is not necessarily the case, for many factors other than the volume of water in the aquifer affect the use of the aquifer. Such factors as climatic conditions, precipitation runoff, geology and water-yielding character of the aquifers, water-level conditions, volume of recharge and discharge, legal and economic constraints, and water-quality conditions can ultimately affect the decision to use ground water. Knowledge of the function and interaction of the various parts of this hydrologic system is important to the proper management and use of the ground-water resources of the region. The semiarid climatic conditions on the Colorado plains produce flash floods of short duration and large peak-flow rates. However, snowmelt runoff from the Rocky Mountains produces the largest volumes of water and is typically of longer duration with smaller peak-flow rates. The alluvial aquifer is recharged easily from both types of runoff and readily stores and transmits the water because it consists of relatively thin deposits of gravel, sand, and clay located in the valleys of principal streams. The bedrock aquifer is recharged less easily because of its greater thickness (as much as 3,000 feet) and prevalent layers of shale which retard the downward movement of water in the formations. Although the bedrock aquifer contains more than 50 times as much water in storage as the alluvial aquifer, it does not store and transmit water as readily as the alluvial aquifer. For example, about 91 percent of the water pumped from wells is obtained from the alluvial aquifer, yet water-level declines generally have

  2. The geomorphological characteristics of the Mekong River in northern Cambodia: A mixed bedrock-alluvial multi-channel network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkova, Liubov V.; Carling, Paul A.

    2012-04-01

    The controls on the development of channel morphology of bedrock-constrained rivers are poorly known. The relative importance of lithological and structural control on channel alignment and character in comparison with the role of hydraulic erosion of the substratum is unclear. In addition, bedrock rivers often have a variable sediment fill and can be described as mixed bedrock-alluvial systems. The Mekong River in northern Cambodia is an anastomosed mixed bedrock-alluvial channel, but little and poorly researched. In this paper information has been gathered from diverse literature sources; digital data sets showing topography, hydrology, geology and land cover; past aerial photographs; and maps. Such data, together with field survey, provide a clear picture of the Mekong River in this region. The channels may be classified into three types: primary, secondary, cross channels. The varying characteristics of these three help towards understanding the evolution of the modern Mekong. Similarly the two-fold classification of the islands reveals the relationship between island inundation characteristics and the annual monsoon flood cycle. The associated riparian vegetation ecotones include a rare and unusual seasonally-inundated forest. Spatial variations in lithology and structure, when combined with maps of river networks, reveals that the channel alignments locally reflect the geological factors that cause the regional topographical gradient. Fault-line constraints on the local slopes of the channel may induce backwater effects and consequent sedimentation patterns (alluvial overprints) or alternatively, steepening of the channels with concomitant reduction in sedimentation. These structural constraints, taken together, lead to the identification of a mixed bedrock-alluvial five-fold geomorphological zonation within the study area. The general absence of paleochannels, and terraces close to the modern river, indicates that the Mekong is laterally stable with a

  3. Bedrock composition regulates mountain ecosystems and landscape evolution.

    PubMed

    Hahm, W Jesse; Riebe, Clifford S; Lukens, Claire E; Araki, Sayaka

    2014-03-01

    Earth's land surface teems with life. Although the distribution of ecosystems is largely explained by temperature and precipitation, vegetation can vary markedly with little variation in climate. Here we explore the role of bedrock in governing the distribution of forest cover across the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Our sites span a narrow range of elevations and thus a narrow range in climate. However, land cover varies from Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), the largest trees on Earth, to vegetation-free swaths that are visible from space. Meanwhile, underlying bedrock spans nearly the entire compositional range of granitic bedrock in the western North American cordillera. We explored connections between lithology and vegetation using measurements of bedrock geochemistry and forest productivity. Tree-canopy cover, a proxy for forest productivity, varies by more than an order of magnitude across our sites, changing abruptly at mapped contacts between plutons and correlating with bedrock concentrations of major and minor elements, including the plant-essential nutrient phosphorus. Nutrient-poor areas that lack vegetation and soil are eroding more than two times slower on average than surrounding, more nutrient-rich, soil-mantled bedrock. This suggests that bedrock geochemistry can influence landscape evolution through an intrinsic limitation on primary productivity. Our results are consistent with widespread bottom-up lithologic control on the distribution and diversity of vegetation in mountainous terrain.

  4. Bedrock composition regulates mountain ecosystems and landscape evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, W. Jesse; Riebe, Clifford S.; Lukens, Claire E.; Araki, Sayaka

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s land surface teems with life. Although the distribution of ecosystems is largely explained by temperature and precipitation, vegetation can vary markedly with little variation in climate. Here we explore the role of bedrock in governing the distribution of forest cover across the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Our sites span a narrow range of elevations and thus a narrow range in climate. However, land cover varies from Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), the largest trees on Earth, to vegetation-free swaths that are visible from space. Meanwhile, underlying bedrock spans nearly the entire compositional range of granitic bedrock in the western North American cordillera. We explored connections between lithology and vegetation using measurements of bedrock geochemistry and forest productivity. Tree-canopy cover, a proxy for forest productivity, varies by more than an order of magnitude across our sites, changing abruptly at mapped contacts between plutons and correlating with bedrock concentrations of major and minor elements, including the plant-essential nutrient phosphorus. Nutrient-poor areas that lack vegetation and soil are eroding more than two times slower on average than surrounding, more nutrient-rich, soil-mantled bedrock. This suggests that bedrock geochemistry can influence landscape evolution through an intrinsic limitation on primary productivity. Our results are consistent with widespread bottom-up lithologic control on the distribution and diversity of vegetation in mountainous terrain. PMID:24516144

  5. Plan of study for the Ohio-Indiana carbonate-bedrock and glacial- aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugliosi, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The major aquifers of 35,000 sq mi area in western Ohio and eastern Indiana consist of Silurian and Devonian carbonate bedrock and Quaternary glacial deposits. These bedrock units and glacial deposits have been designated for study as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Regional Aquifer System Analysis program, a nationwide program to assess the regional hydrology, geology and water quality of the Nation 's most important aquifers. The purpose of the study is to define the hydrology, geochemistry, and geologic framework of the aquifer system within the Silurian and Devonian rocks and glacial deposits, with emphasis on describing the groundwater flow patterns and characterizing the water quality. The study, which began in 1988 , is expected to be completed in 1993. In 1980, the aquifers in the study area supplied more than 280 million gallons of water/day to industry, agriculture, and a population of more than 6.3 million people. With a projected future population growth to 7.1 million in 1990, and with intensified agricultural and industrial uses, water withdrawals from these bedrock and glacial aquifers are expected to be increased. The most significant groundwater problems in the study area result from the pronounced areal differences in availability and quality of the groundwater. These differences are related to the lateral discontinuity of many of the glacial deposits and to variations in secondary permeability of the bedrock aquifers associated with patterns of fracturing. Planned activities of the study include compilation of available geohydrologic and water quality data, such as groundwater levels, geohydrologic properties of aquifers, chemical analyses, land use and water use data, and ancillary data such as digital satellite images. Additional geohydrologic and water quality data may be collected from existing wells or wells that may be drilled for this study. A computerized, geographic information system will be used as a data base management tool and

  6. Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding

  7. Shear Wave Velocity, Depth to Bedrock, and Fundamental Resonance Applied to Bedrock Mapping using MASW and H/V Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsiewski, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping bedrock depth is useful for earthquake hazard analysis, subsurface water transport, and other applications. Recently, collaborative experimentation provided an opportunity to explore a mapping method. Near surface glacial till shear wave velocity (Vs) where data is available from an array of 3-component seismometers were studied for this experiment. Vs is related to depth to bedrock (h) and fundamental resonance (Fo); Fo = Vs/(4h). The H/V spectral peak frequency of recordings from a 3-component seismometer yields a fundamental resonance estimate. Where a suitable average Vs is established, the depth to bedrock can be calculated at every seismometer. 3-component seismometer data was provided by Spectraseis. Geophones, seismographs, and an extra 3-component seismometer were provided by Wright State University for this study. For Vs analysis, three MASW surveys were conducted near the seismometer array. SurfSeis3© was used for processing MASW data. Overtones from complicated bedrock structure and great bedrock depth are improved by combining overtones from multiple source offsets from each survey. From MASW Vs and depth to bedrock results, theoretical fundamental resonance (Fo) was calculated and compared with the H/V peak spectral frequency measured by a seismometer at selected sites and processed by Geopsy processing software. Calculated bedrock depths from all geophysical data were compared with measured bedrock depths at nearby water wells and oil and gas wells provided by ODNR. Vs and depth to bedrock results from MASW produced similar calculated fundamental resonances to the H/V approximations by respective seismometers. Bedrock mapping was performed upon verifying the correlation between the theoretical fundamental resonance and H/V peak frequencies. Contour maps were generated using ArcGIS®. Contour lines interpolated from local wells were compared with the depths calculated from H/V analysis. Bedrock depths calculated from the seismometer array

  8. Floor Plans Foundation Plan at Bedrock and Subgrade Level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Foundation Plan at Bedrock and Subgrade Level Plan - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Extreme Flood-Driven Dynamics of a mixed bedrock-alluvial Influenced Semi-Arid River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.; Tooth, S.; Milan, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    increased exposure to fluid forces. The ephemeral nature of the sediment infill is also supported by OSL dating, with preliminary ages from remnant bars, islands and floodplains suggesting that no deposits older than around 500 years can be found along the rivers. Together, the results imply that although periods of extensive alluviation may have been witnessed historically, on a longer (late Quaternary) timescale the alluvial morphologies are frequently reworked, with the geological setting and extreme climatic influence creating conditions conducive to the continuing erosion and development of the bedrock macrochannel template.

  10. Depth to bedrock in the upper San Pedro Valley, Cochise County, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Houser, Brenda B.

    2000-01-01

    to bedrock over this high is 200-500 m and the basin-fill unit ranges from 100 to 200 m thick there. A number of previously unrecognized faults were identified and the lengths of some of the known faults were extended based on reconnaissance geologic mapping, study of driller's logs, interpretation of aerial photographs and thematic mapper satellite images, and inspection of contoured gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data. Many faults that segment the main San Pedro basin and shape the boundaries of the subbasins are apparently pre-existing faults that have been reactivated by Basin and Range extension.

  11. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  12. Geologic information from satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photo-interpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familiar shapes and patterns. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  13. Carbon storage in Swedish bedrock - current status regarding potential storage areas and geophysical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, B.; Juhojuntti, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly considered as an option to reduce the release of CO2 to the atmosphere. There is today a significant interest from Swedish heavy industry in CCS-technology. Large point sources are found within process industry related to e.g. production of paper and steel (operating under European Union regulations). There is also significant emission of CO2 from burning of biomass for energy production. However, this process is considered to be climate neutral and thus the emissions are not included in the carbon trading schemes. Based on recent work at the Geological Survey of Sweden and by other organizations we discuss the possibilities for geological storage of CO2 in Sweden, including the locations of the potential storage sites and the main CO2 emitters. In this context, we also review the relevant geophysical data available at the Geological Survey, focusing on the seismic data but also including gravity and magnetic data. Deep saline aquifers are presently considered as the most realistic storage alternative in Sweden. Sedimentary bedrock containing such layers and which could be suitable for CO2 storage is mainly found within the southern Baltic Sea and around southernmost Sweden, close to Denmark. The knowledge about the sedimentary bedrock in these areas is mainly based on seismic measurements and drilling in connection with hydrocarbon prospecting during the 70’s and the 80’s. Approximately 40.000 km’s of seismic reflection profiles were acquired, mostly in the potential CO2 storage areas mentioned above. Data from these profiles are now archived at the Geological Survey, and currently the magnetic tapes (8000-9000 reels) are being transcribed to modern storage media, a work that will likely be finished during 2011. Despite the hydrocarbon prospecting in these areas there are remaining uncertainties regarding the suitability of the sedimentary bedrock for CO2 storage, in particular related to the porosity and

  14. Experiments on Bedrock Cover in a Highly Sinuous Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, G.; Fernandez, R.; Stark, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    One of several mechanisms by which bedrock rivers can incise is abrasion of the bedrock surface by colliding sediment particles. This effect has been captured in terms of a "cover factor" corresponding to the areal fraction p of the bed that is covered with sediment. According to this formulation, a value of p equal to 1 corresponds to complete alluvial cover: sediment particles strike each other and no bedrock abrasion is accomplished. Correspondingly, a value of p equal to 0 corresponds to the absence of sediment: no particles are available to strike the bed, and again no bedrock abrasion is accomplished. Thus the condition 0 < p < 1 is hypothesized to be the condition for incision driven by abrasion. At the microscopic level, however, p can take only the binary values 0 and 1: either a point on the bedrock surface is covered or is not covered. Therefore, the value of p that enters into any morphodynamic formulation of cover must represent an average over some spatiotemporal window. Here we consider the case of a highly sinuous meandering flume. The bed is set in concrete to take the topography corresponding to purely alluvial mobile-bed equilibrium. The recirculation of sediment over this bed at below-capacity conditions leads to a complex pattern of free and forced bars that only partially cover the bed. At certain locations, such as near the inside of bends, the bed is always covered, where at other locations, such as right near the apexes of the very tight bends in the flume, the bed is almost never covered. At other locations, the instantaneous cover fluctuates between the binary values 0 and 1, reflecting the migration of bars of various sizes over the bedrock surface. The averaging of these binary values over appropriate time windows allows determination of the local spatial variation of p that can serve as input to a numerical model of the evolution of bedrock meandering channels.

  15. Bedrock composition limits mountain ecosystem productivity and landscape evolution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, C. S.; Hahm, W.; Lukens, C.

    2013-12-01

    We used measurements of bedrock geochemistry, forest productivity and cosmogenic nuclides to explore connections among lithology, ecosystem productivity and landscape evolution across a lithosequence of 21 sites in the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Our sites span a narrow range in elevations and thus share similar climatic conditions. Meanwhile, underlying bedrock varies from granite to diorite and spans nearly the entire range of geochemical compositions observed in Cordilleran granitoids. Land cover varies markedly, from groves of Giant Sequoia, the largest trees on Earth, to pluton-spanning swaths of little or no soil and vegetative cover. This is closely reflected in measures of forest productivity, such as remotely sensed tree-canopy cover, which varies by more than an order of magnitude across our sites and often changes abruptly at mapped contacts between rock types. We find that tree-canopy cover is closely correlated with the concentrations in bedrock of major and minor elements, including several plant-essential nutrients. For example, tree-canopy cover is virtually zero where there is less than 0.3 mg/g phosphorus in bedrock. Erosion rates from these nearly vegetation-free, nutrient deserts are more than 2.5 times slower on average than they are from surrounding, relatively nutrient-rich, soil-mantled bedrock. Thus by influencing soil and forest cover, bedrock nutrient concentrations may provoke weathering-limited erosion and thus may strongly regulate landscape evolution. Our analysis suggests that variations in bedrock nutrient concentrations can also provoke an intrinsic limitation on primary productivity. These limitations appear to apply across all our sites. To the extent that they are broadly representative of conditions in granitic landscapes elsewhere around the world, our results are consistent with widespread, but previously undocumented lithologic control of the distribution and diversity of vegetation in mountainous terrain.

  16. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    The upper Santa Cruz Basin is an important groundwater basin containing the regional aquifer for the city of Nogales, Arizona. This report provides data and interpretations of data aimed at better understanding the bedrock morphology and structure of the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area which encompasses the Rio Rico and Nogales 1:24,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles. Data used in this report include the Arizona Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data referred to here as the 1996 Patagonia Aeromagnetic survey, Bouguer gravity anomaly data, and conductivity-depth transforms (CDTs) from the 1998 Santa Cruz transient electromagnetic survey (whose data are included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this report).Analyses based on magnetic gradients worked well to identify the range-front faults along the Mt. Benedict horst block, the location of possibly fault-controlled canyons to the west of Mt. Benedict, the edges of buried lava flows, and numerous other concealed faults and contacts. Applying the 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey data using the horizontal gradient method produced results that were most closely correlated with the observed geology.The 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey was used to estimate depth to bedrock in the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area. Three different depth estimation methods were applied to the data: Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient magnitude, and analytic signal. The final depth to bedrock map was produced by choosing the maximum depth from each of the three methods at a given location and combining all maximum depths. In locations of rocks with a known reversed natural remanent magnetic field, gravity based depth estimates from Gettings and Houser (1997) were used.The depth to bedrock map was supported by modeling aeromagnetic anomaly data along six profiles. These cross sectional models demonstrated that by using the depth to bedrock map generated in this study, known and concealed faults, measured and estimated magnetic

  17. Spatial bedrock erosion distribution in a natural gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, A. R.; Turowski, J. M.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of morphological evolution both in terrestrial and planetary landscapes is of increasing interest in the geosciences. In mountainous regions, bedrock channel formation as a consequence of the interaction of uplift and erosion processes is fundamental for the entire surface evolution. Hence, the accurate description of bedrock channel development is important for landscape modelling. To verify existing concepts developed in the lab and to analyse how in situ channel erosion rates depend on the interrelations of discharge, sediment transport and topography, there is a need of highly resolved topographic field data. We analyse bedrock erosion over two years in a bedrock gorge downstream of the Gorner glacier above the town of Zermatt, Switzerland. At the study site, the Gornera stream cuts through a roche moutonnée in serpentine rock of 25m length, 5m width and 8m depth. We surveyed bedrock erosion rates using repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) with an average point spacing of 5mm. Bedrock erosion rates in direction of the individual surface normals were studied directly on the scanned point clouds applying the M3C2 algorithm (Lague et al., 2013, ISPRS). The surveyed erosion patterns were compared to a simple stream erosivity visualisation obtained from painted bedrock sections at the study location. Spatially distributed erosion rates on bedrock surfaces based on millions of scan points allow deduction of millimeter-scale mean annual values of lateral erosion, incision and downstream erosion on protruding streambed surfaces. The erosion rate on a specific surface point is shown to depend on the position of this surface point in the channel's cross section, its height above the streambed and its spatial orientation to the streamflow. Abrasion by impacting bedload was likely the spatially dominant erosion process, as confirmed by the observed patterns along the painted bedrock sections. However, a single plucking event accounted for the half

  18. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  19. Hydrogeological bedrock inferred from electrical resistivity model in Taichung Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C. W.; Chang, P. Y.; Chang, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    The four-year project of the study of groundwater hydrogeology and recharge model was indicated by Central Geological Survey, MOEA, Taiwan (R.O.C.) to evaluate recharge groundwater areas in Taiwan where included Taipei, Taichung Basins, Lanyang and Chianan Plains. The groundwater recharge models of Lanyang Plain and Taipei Basin have successfully been estimated in two years ago (2013-2014). The third year of the project integrates with geophysical, geochemistry, and hydrogeology models to estimate the groundwater recharge model in Taichung Basin region. Taichung Basin is mainly covered by Pre-Pleistocene of thick gravel, sandy and muddy sediment rocks within a joint alluvial fan, whereas the depth of the hydrological bedrock remains uncertain. Two electrical resistivity geophysical tools were carried out utilizing direct current resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) explorations, which could ideally provide the depth resolutions from shallow to depth for evaluating the groundwater resources. The study has carried out 21 AMT stations in the southern Taichung Basin in order to delineate hydrological bedrock in the region. All the AMT stations were deployed about 24 hours and processed with remote reference technique to reduce culture noises. The quality of most stations shows acceptable in the area which two stations were excluded due to near-field source effect in the southwestern basin. The best depth resolution is identified in 500 meters for the model. The preliminary result shows that the depths of the bedrock gradually changes from southern ~20 m toward to ~400 m in central, and eastern ~20 m to 180 m in the western basin inferred from the AMT model. The investigation shows that AMT method could be a useful geophysical tool to enhance the groundwater recharge model estimation without dense loggings in the region.

  20. The role of bedrock topography on subsurface storm flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freer, J.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Beven, K.J.; Peters, N.E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Hooper, R.P.; Aulenbach, B.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a detailed study of subsurface flow and water table response coupled with digital terrain analysis (DTA) of surface and subsurface features at the hillslope scale in Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), Georgia. Subsurface storm flow contributions of macropore and matrix flow in different sections along an artificial trench face were highly variable in terms of timing, peak flow, recession characteristics, and total flow volume. The trench flow characteristics showed linkages with the spatial tensiometer response defining water table development upslope. DTA of the ground surface did not capture the observed spatial patterns of trench flow or tensiometric response. However, bedrock surface topographic indices significantly improved the estimation of spatial variation of flow at the trench. Point-scale tensiometric data were also more highly correlated with the bedrock surface-based indices. These relationships were further assessed for temporal changes throughout a rainstorm. Linkages between the bedrock indices and the trench flow and spatial water table responses improved during the wetter periods of the rainstorm, when the hillslope became more hydrologically connected. Our results clearly demonstrate that in developing a conceptual framework for understanding the mechanisms of runoff generation, local bedrock topography may be highly significant at the hillslope scale in some catchments where the bedrock surface acts as a relatively impermeable boundary.

  1. Bedrock Channels: Towards a Process-Based Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Nicholas, A. P.; Aalto, R. E.; Horn, C. A. P. T., III; Thy, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms in large rivers have focused on aggradational bedforms within alluvial sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. Detailed understanding of the processes within bedrock reaches of river channels is vital if an improved understanding of formation and evolution of bedrock scours and bedforms are to be elucidated. The paper presents high-resolution bathymetry and sidescan derived from multibeam sonar (MBES) and detailed flow mapping by acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) to illustrate, in intricate detail, relations between morphology, flow and sediment transport processes through a bedrock reach of the Mekong River (Cambodia) during a large flood event. A 2 by 5 km reach of the Mekong river near Sambor was surveyed with a RESON 7125 MBES system revealing incredible >40 m scour features within the bedrock substrate, with sidescan imagery also revealing the routing of alluvial sediment through the scours. A series of ADCP transects were obtained, both transverse and perpendicular to the primary downstream flow, that map the flows into, around and within these scour features. The paper will conclude by looking at how advances in measurement capability have permitted the detailed processes in such channels to be investigated for the first time at this scale.

  2. Geology and plate-tectonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault is a transform fault along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Bedrock along the fault includes various lithologic units that range in age from Precambrian to Tertiary and younger. Some bedrock units that can be matched across the fault suggest strike-slip displacement of as much as 560 km. This chapter describes geologic formations of northern and central California, including Franciscan rocks, Coast Range ophiolite, Great Valley sequence, Coast Range thrust, Salinian block, displacement of pre-Quaternary rocks by the San Andreas fault, and the relation of geologic structure to seismic behavior. Formations of southern California which are described are the Transverse Ranges and the Salton Trough and displacement of basement rocks by the San Andreas fault. Plate-tectonic development of the San Andreas fault is also discussed.

  3. Lithologic controls on AIRSAR signatures of bedrock and alluvium, at Lunar Crater, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivard, Benoit; Diorio, Marc; Budkewitsch, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Radar backscatter intensity as measured by calibrated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems is primarily controlled by three factors: local incidence angle, wavelength-scale roughness, and dielectric permittivity of surface materials. In order to make adequate use of radar observations for geological investigations of surface type, the relationships between lithology and the above characteristics must be adequately understood. In arid terrains weathering signatures (e.g. fracturing, debris grain size and shape, slope characteristics) are controlled to some extent by lithologic characteristics of the parent bedrock. These textural features of outcrops and their associated debris control radar backscatter to varying degrees. The quad-polarization JPL AIRSAR system allows sampling of textures at three distinct wavelength scales: C-band (5.66 cm), L-band (23.98 cm), and P-band (68.13 cm). This paper presents a discussion of AIRSAR data using recent field observations of weathered felsic and basaltic volcanic rock units exposed in the southern part of the Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, in the Pancake Range of central Nevada. The focus is on the relationship of radar backscatter at multiple wavelengths to weathering style and parent bedrock lithology.

  4. Lithogeochemical character of the near-surface bedrock in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Peper, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    1999-01-01

    This data layer shows the generalized lithologic and geochemical (lithogeochemical) character of near-surface bedrock in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins and several other small basins that drain into Long Island Sound from Connecticut. The area includes most of Connecticut, western Massachusetts, eastern Vermont, western New Hampshire, and small parts of Rhode Island, New York, and Quebec, Canada.Bedrock geologic rock units are classified into 29 lithogeochemical rock units, on the basis of the relative reactivity of their constituent minerals to dissolution and other weathering reactions and the presence of carbonate or sulfide minerals. The 29 lithogeochemical units (28 of which can be found in the study area) can be grouped into 6 major categories: (1) carbonate-rich rocks, (2) carbonate-poor, clastic sedimentary rocks restricted to distinct depositional basins, (3) metamorphosed, clastic sedimentary rocks (primarily noncalcareous), (4) mafic igneous rocks and their metamorphic equivalents, (5) ultramafic rocks, and (6) felsic igneous and plutonic rocks and their metamorphic equivalents. The lithogeochemical rock units also are grouped into nine lithologic and physiographic provinces (lithophysiographic domains), which can be further grouped into three major regions: (1) western highlands and lowlands, (2) central lowlands, and (3) eastern highlands.

  5. Rapid formation of a modern bedrock canyon by a single flood event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Michael P.; Fonstad, Mark A.

    2010-07-01

    Deep river canyons are thought to form slowly over geological time (see, for example, ref. 1), cut by moderate flows that reoccur every few years. In contrast, some of the most spectacular canyons on Earth and Mars were probably carved rapidly during ancient megaflood events. Quantification of the flood discharge, duration and erosion mechanics that operated during such events is hampered because we lack modern analogues. Canyon Lake Gorge, Texas, was carved in 2002 during a single catastrophic flood. The event offers a rare opportunity to analyse canyon formation and test palaeo-hydraulic-reconstruction techniques under known topographic and hydraulic conditions. Here we use digital topographic models and visible/near-infrared aerial images from before and after the flood, discharge measured during the event, field measurements and sediment-transport modelling to show that the flood moved metre-sized boulders, excavated ~7m of limestone and transformed a soil-mantled valley into a bedrock canyon in just ~3days. We find that canyon morphology is strongly dependent on rock type: plucking of limestone blocks produced waterfalls, inner channels and bedrock strath terraces, whereas abrasion of cemented alluvium sculpted walls, plunge pools and streamlined islands. Canyon formation was so rapid that erosion might have been limited by the ability of the flow to transport sediment. We suggest that our results might improve hydraulic reconstructions of similar megafloods on Earth and Mars.

  6. Bedrock structures controlling the spatial occurrence and geometry of 1.8 Ga younger glacifluvial deposits - Example from First Salpausselkä, southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyttä, Pietari; Kinnunen, Jussi; Palmu, Jukka-Pekka; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti

    2015-12-01

    The glacifluvial deposits within formerly glaciated areas of southern Finland comprise the predominance of well-sorted subglacial and ice marginal sediments. The deposits are less than 100 m thick and form significant aquifers utilized by the respective areas. The spatial correlation of subglacial deposits with bedrock structures, particularly the deformation zones, has been long recognized, but most often not systematically investigated. The purpose of this study was to understand how specific bedrock structures control the position and processes of formation of glacifluvial deposits, using the First Salpausselkä area of southern Finland as a model area. We apply a means of structural analysis to compile structural interpretations (form lines and 3D-surfaces) of the bedrock and correlate the results with the patterns of the glacifluvial deposits and the topography of the underlying bedrock surface. Two major E-W striking shear zones defining abrupt breaks at the bedrock surface along with secondary SW-NE striking splays, originating from the horsetail-like termination of the Somero shear zone, control the deposition of eskers and ice marginal deposits. Based on correlations between the bedrock topography, glacial erosion and sedimentation, we infer that laterally extensive shear zones may have indirectly affected the glacial dynamics within the areas of areal scour more than previously considered. Recognized deformation zones are important for modelling the internal stratigraphy of glacifluvial deposits, their hydrogeological properties and for mapping fresh water supplies within the Nordic countries and other glaciated areas which have undergone substantial tectonic deformation. The development of 3D geologic models is essential for understanding regional-scale correlations between Quaternary sediments and bedrock structures.

  7. Lineaments: Their value in assessing regional groundwater availability and quality in bedrock aquifers of glaciated metamorphic terrains--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mabee, S.B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A lineament analysis was performed for Georgetown, Maine, a 44 km[sup 2] island community on the central Maine coast in order to evaluate the relationship between mapped lineaments and (1) outcrop fractures, (2) the productivity of 35 existing bedrock wells, and (3) groundwater quality determined from a sample of 87 bedrock wells. Lineaments were drawn by three observers using two scales of imagery (SLAR and 1:80,000 Aerial Photograph). However, the extent of the overlap is not uniform. Some lineament domains (165[degree]), although reproducible, exhibit no correlation with fracture fabric whereas other lineament domains (120[degree]) only show a correlation with fracture fabric in a very limited geographic area. The productivity of wells located on'' lineaments, particularly those that geographically overlap similar-trending fracture domains, are generally more productive than non-lineament wells. However, in this, other geologic factors exhibit strong influences on high productivity in bedrock wells. Bedrock type (amphibolite) is the dominant and only statistically significant influence on well productivity followed by depth to the water table (shallow depths), proximity to lineaments (specifically those that correlate geographically with outcrop fractures), topographic position, and proximity to surface water bodies, in order of decreasing importance. Groundwater chemistry is controlled primarily by bedrock type, topographic setting, structural position, and overburden type and thickness, and not by a well's position with respect to lineaments. In this particular area of Maine, lineament analyses are generally ineffective for characterizing bedrock aquifers over large regions when more obvious and simpler explanations for the variations in chemical character of groundwater and water-bearing properties of the bedrock appear appropriate.

  8. Detection of Seismic Bedrock Using Radial Receiver Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Huey-Chu

    2016-06-01

    The receiver function (RF) method has been widely applied to estimate velocity structures of Earth's crust and mantle using teleseismic data. In this study, we perform a RF iterative deconvolution method to detect the depth variations of seismic bedrock in the Taipei basin and Chiayi area. We use strong motion data recorded by five and seven stations in the Taipei basin and Chiayi area, respectively. The Ps-P times appear at about 0.235-0.93 s for the Taipei basin and 1.015-1.685 s for the Chiayi area. The time differences imply gradually increases of the bedrock depth from southeast to northwest in the Taipei basin and from east to west in the Chiayi area. Our results show that the method can efficiently detect depth variations of seismic bedrock which are consistent with those from other geophysical observations as well.

  9. Geophysical imaging reveals topographic stress control of bedrock weathering.

    PubMed

    St Clair, J; Moon, S; Holbrook, W S; Perron, J T; Riebe, C S; Martel, S J; Carr, B; Harman, C; Singha, K; Richter, D deB

    2015-10-30

    Bedrock fracture systems facilitate weathering, allowing fresh mineral surfaces to interact with corrosive waters and biota from Earth's surface, while simultaneously promoting drainage of chemically equilibrated fluids. We show that topographic perturbations to regional stress fields explain bedrock fracture distributions, as revealed by seismic velocity and electrical resistivity surveys from three landscapes. The base of the fracture-rich zone mirrors surface topography where the ratio of horizontal compressive tectonic stresses to near-surface gravitational stresses is relatively large, and it parallels the surface topography where the ratio is relatively small. Three-dimensional stress calculations predict these results, suggesting that tectonic stresses interact with topography to influence bedrock disaggregation, groundwater flow, chemical weathering, and the depth of the "critical zone" in which many biogeochemical processes occur. PMID:26516279

  10. Geophysical imaging reveals topographic stress control of bedrock weathering.

    PubMed

    St Clair, J; Moon, S; Holbrook, W S; Perron, J T; Riebe, C S; Martel, S J; Carr, B; Harman, C; Singha, K; Richter, D deB

    2015-10-30

    Bedrock fracture systems facilitate weathering, allowing fresh mineral surfaces to interact with corrosive waters and biota from Earth's surface, while simultaneously promoting drainage of chemically equilibrated fluids. We show that topographic perturbations to regional stress fields explain bedrock fracture distributions, as revealed by seismic velocity and electrical resistivity surveys from three landscapes. The base of the fracture-rich zone mirrors surface topography where the ratio of horizontal compressive tectonic stresses to near-surface gravitational stresses is relatively large, and it parallels the surface topography where the ratio is relatively small. Three-dimensional stress calculations predict these results, suggesting that tectonic stresses interact with topography to influence bedrock disaggregation, groundwater flow, chemical weathering, and the depth of the "critical zone" in which many biogeochemical processes occur.

  11. Dredged bedrock samples from the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumley, K. J.; Mukasa, S. B.; O'Brien, T. M.; Mayer, L. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008-2012, as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf project in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, 17 dredges were successfully collected sampling the first rock outcrops in the Chukchi Borderland and surrounding regions for the purpose of describing the geologic nature of the bathymetric features in this area. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the specimens were collected from submarine rock exposures and were not samples of ice rafted debris, common in the ice covered waters of the Arctic Ocean. Using the USCGC Healy, each dredge was collected along very steep slopes (>35 degrees) measured with high resolution multibeam swath bathymety data. Each haul yielded samples of similar lithologies and identical metamorphic grade with manganese crusts on the surfaces exposed to seawater and fresh surfaces where the rocks were broken from outcrop. High tension pulls on the dredge line also indicated sampling of bedrock exposures. Dredged samples from a normal fault scarp in the central Chukchi Borderland consisted of Silurian (c. 430 Ma) orthogneisses that intruded older (c. 487-500 Ma) gabbros and luecogranties that were all metamorphosed to amphibolite grade (Brumley et al., 2011). Samples from the northern Northwind Ridge consisted of metasediments (greenschist facies) interpreted to have been deposited in a proximal arc setting with detrital zircon U-Pb age peaks at 434, 980 Ma with lesser peaks between 500-600, 1100-2000 Ma, and rare 2800 Ma grains (Brumley et al, 2010). Other dredges in the region of the Northwind Ridge yielded deformed and metamorphosed calcareous sandstones and low-grade phyllites (O'Brien et al., 2013). Taken together these rocks indicate a relationship to the Pearya Terrane of northern Ellesmere Island and S.W. Svalbard that were thought to represent a Cambro-Ordovician volcanic arc terrane that was involved in Caledonian orogenesis (Brumley et al., 2011). These findings constrain plate tectonic reconstruction models and bring

  12. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  13. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  14. The use of surface geophysical techniques to detect fractures in bedrock; an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Mark R.; Haeni, F.P.

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography compiles references about the theory and application of surface geophysical techniques to locate fractures or fracture zones within bedrock units. Forty-three publications are referenced, including journal articles, theses, conference proceedings, abstracts, translations, and reports prepared by private contractors and U.S. Government agencies. Thirty-one of the publications are annotated. The remainder are untranslated foreign language articles, which are listed only as bibliographic references. Most annotations summarize the location, geologic setting, surface geophysical technique used, and results of a study. A few highly relevant theoretical studies are annotated also. Publications that discuss only the use of borehole geophysical techniques to locate fractures are excluded from this bibliography. Also excluded are highly theoretical works that may have little or no known practical application.

  15. Comparing spatial patterns of thrust belt architecture and bedrock river morphology across the southern Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrek, J. F.; Barnes, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers set the pace of mountain landscape evolution, but their ability to incise into rock is often governed by numerous factors. The degree to which variations in lithology, relief, rock uplift rates, and climate may affect the form of channel profiles remain largely open questions. Empirical models of bedrock river incision, such as stream power (E = KAmSn), oversimplify these potentially important factors. For example, the influence of many factors such as channel geometry, hydraulic roughness, sediment flux, and substrate erodibility are combined into the coefficient of erosion, K. Here we investigate the spatial patterns of rock erodibility, bedrock river slope, concavity, and stream power-based estimates of incision across the southern Bolivian Andes. We hypothesize that bedrock river morphology correlates with the thrust-belt geology. For example, channels cutting through the strongest and least fractured rock units will exhibit the highest steepness values. We estimate rock erodibility by measuring (a) compressive rock strength with a Schmidt hammer and (b) fracture density from exposures proximal to river channels at ~80 total sites from all the major rock units exposed throughout the study area. We use a hydrologically-conditioned 90 m digital elevation model to map patterns of channel steepness (ksn) and concavity (θ) indices. Furthermore, we use the stream power model, combined with a previous local calibration of K, to estimate patterns of river incision along the study area rivers. The combined strength and fracture density measurements suggest the Neogene volcanics, Cretaceous sediments, and Devonian metasediments are the least erodible units and the Silurian and Ordovician metasediments are the weakest. In general, changes in channel steepness often correlate with (1) changes in rock erodibility, (2) high rock uplift rates associated with active structures in the Subandes, and (3) the major hinterland structural transition between the Eastern

  16. Conceptual uncertainty in crystalline bedrock: Is simple evaluation the only practical approach?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geier, J.; Voss, C.I.; Dverstorp, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple evaluation can be used to characterise the capacity of crystalline bedrock to act as a barrier to releases of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository. Physically plausible bounds on groundwater flow and an effective transport-resistance parameter are estimated based on fundamental principles and idealised models of pore geometry. Application to an intensively characterised site in Sweden shows that, due to high spatial variability and uncertainty regarding properties of transport paths, the uncertainty associated with the geological barrier is too high to allow meaningful discrimination between good and poor performance. Application of more complex (stochastic-continuum and discrete-fracture-network) models does not yield a significant improvement in the resolution of geologic-barrier performance. Comparison with seven other less intensively characterised crystalline study sites in Sweden leads to similar results, raising a question as to what extent the geological barrier function can be characterised by state-of-the art site investigation methods prior to repository construction. A simple evaluation provides a simple and robust practical approach for inclusion in performance assessment.

  17. Conceptual uncertainty in crystalline bedrock: Is simple evaluation the only practical approach?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geier, J.; Voss, C.I.; Dverstorp, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple evaluation can be used to characterize the capacity of crystalline bedrock to act as a barrier to release radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository. Physically plausible bounds on groundwater flow and an effective transport-resistance parameter are estimated based on fundamental principles and idealized models of pore geometry. Application to an intensively characterized site in Sweden shows that, due to high spatial variability and uncertainty regarding properties of transport paths, the uncertainty associated with the geological barrier is too high to allow meaningful discrimination between good and poor performance. Application of more complex (stochastic-continuum and discrete-fracture-network) models does not yield a significant improvement in the resolution of geological barrier performance. Comparison with seven other less intensively characterized crystalline study sites in Sweden leads to similar results, raising a question as to what extent the geological barrier function can be characterized by state-of-the art site investigation methods prior to repository construction. A simple evaluation provides a simple and robust practical approach for inclusion in performance assessment.

  18. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

  19. Managing Geological Profiles in Databases for 3D Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Grøtan, B. O.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Iversen, S.; Khloussy, E.; Nordahl, B.; Rindstad, B. I.

    2016-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. GIS and databases are common tools used by geologists to interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. 3D geology is usually described by geological profiles, or vertical sections through a map, where you can look at the rock structure below the surface. The goal is to gradually expand the usability of existing and new geological profiles to make them more available in the retail applications as well as build easier entry and registration of profiles. The project target is to develop the methodology for acquisition of data, modification and use of data and its further presentation on the web by creating a user-interface directly linked to NGU's webpage. This will allow users to visualise profiles in a 3D model.

  20. Relation of arsenic, iron, and manganese in ground water to aquifer type, bedrock lithogeochemistry, and land use in the New England coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Moore, Richard B.

    1999-01-01

    In a study of arsenic concentrations in public-supply wells in the New England Coastal Basins, concentrations at or above 0.005 mg/L (milligrams per liter) were detected in more samples of water from wells completed in bedrock (25 percent of all samples) than in water from wells completed in stratified drift (7.5 percent of all samples). Iron and manganese were detected (at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) at approximately the same frequency in water from wells in both types of aquifers. Concentrations of arsenic in public-supply wells drilled in bedrock (in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program New England Coastal Basins study unit) vary with the bedrock lithology. Broad groups of lithogeochemical units generalized from bedrock lithologic units shown on state geologic maps were used in the statistical analyses. Concentrations of arsenic in water from public-supply wells in metasedimentary bedrock units that contain slightly to moderately calcareous and calcsilicate rocks (lithogeochemical group Mc) were significantly higher than the concentrations in five other groups of bedrock units in the study unit. Arsenic was detected, at or above 0.005 mg/L, in water from 44 percent of the wells in the lithogeochemical group M c and in water from less than 28 percent of wells in the five other groups. Additionally, arsenic concentrations in ground water were the lowest in the metasedimentary rocks that are characterized as variably sulfidic (group Ms ). Generally, concentrations of arsenic were low in water from bedrock wells in the felsic igneous rocks (group If ) though locally some bedrock wells in granitic rocks are known to have ground water with high arsenic concentrations, especially in New Hampshire. The concentrations of arsenic in ground water also correlate with land-use data; significantly higher concentrations are found in areas identified as agricultural land use than in undeveloped areas. There is, however, more agricultural land in

  1. Modelling radionuclide transport in large fractured-media systems: the example of Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2012-06-01

    The planned high-level nuclear waste repository at Forsmark, Sweden, will accommodate 6,824 containers with a total of 13,920 tonnes of uranium in burnt fuel at approximately 400 m depth in a fractured-granite aquifer. The transport of radionuclides, which may be released from the disposed waste, is simulated with the TOUGHREACT code for a three-dimensional model with 305,571 elements. The model performs coupled flow-transport simulations. It aims to achieve more realistic simulations of contaminant transport than the commonly used decoupled procedure consisting of three-dimensional flow and one-dimensional transport simulations. The model has a relatively small problem size because it is designed as a double-porosity model (one matrix continuum) that is the parameterised equivalent of a much larger multiple-interacting continua (MINC) model, i.e. a model with a finely discretised matrix (several matrix continua). The parameterisation is performed with two-dimensional models. Only one or two variables among three variables (diffusive transport distance between fracture and matrix, retardation factor and effective diffusivity) have to be parameterised. The results obtained with the parameterised three-dimensional model are very close to those that can be obtained with a much larger MINC model but may be quite different from those that can be obtained with the conventional decoupled procedure.

  2. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for geological sensing over the diverse geological terrains of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Film positives of ERTS-1 imagery, both as received from NASA and photographically reprocessed, are analyzed by conventional and color additive viewing methods. The imagery reveals bedrock and surficial geological information at various scales. Features which can be identified to varying degrees include boundaries between major tectonic provinces, lithological contacts, foliation trends within massive gneisses, faults, and topographic lineaments. In the present imagery the greatest amount of spectral geology is displayed in the Adirondack region where bedrock geology is strongly linked to topography. Within this basement complex, the most prominantly displayed features are numerous north-northeast trending faults and topographic lineaments, and arcuate east-west valleys developed in some of the weaker metasedimentary rocks. The majority of the faults and lineaments shown on the geologic Map of New York at 1:250,000 appear in the ERTS imagery.

  3. Landscape evolution and bedrock incision in the northern Alpine Foreland since the last 2 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claude, Anne; Akçar, Naki; Schlunegger, Fritz; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Dehnert, Andreas; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Rahn, Meinert; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The landscape evolution of the Swiss Alpine Foreland since the early Pleistocene is of utmost importance for modelling the long-term safety of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste disposal in the northern Alpine Foreland. The oldest Quaternary sediments in the northern foreland are proximal glaciofluvial sediments lying unconformably on Tertiary Molasse or Mesozoic carbonate bedrock. These deposits form topographically distinct and discontinuous isolated plateaus. Terrace morphostratigraphy has a reversed stratigraphic relationship, i.e. today older sediments are located at higher altitudes and vice versa. In this study, we focus on the landscape evolution and long-term bedrock incision in the Swiss Alpine Foreland. We reconstruct the terrace chronology in the foreland at six key locations at different altitudes ranging from 433 m a.s.l. to 675 m a.s.l. by applying cosmogenic depth-profile and isochron-burial dating techniques. First results from these sites indicate that the gravels at studied sites were accumulated in the foreland between 1 and 2 Ma. Based on this reconstructed chronology, long-term bedrock incision rates between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/a were calculated. Thus, we inferred a landscape at that time that was most likely characterized by smoother hillslopes than at present. During the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution (ca. 0.95 Ma), a re-organization of the drainage systems occurred in the Alpine Foreland with a significant lowering of the base level of stream channels. Existing data suggest slightly increased incision rates after this drainage network re-organisation compared to our results. The reconstruction of the chronology at the remaining sites may allow quantifying a pronounced incision as well as the exact timing of the acceleration in the incision rates. REFERENCES Heuberger, S. & Naef, H. (2014). NAB 12-35: Regionale GIS-Kompilation und -Analyse der Deckenschotter-Vorkommen im nördlichen Alpenvorland. Nagra Arbeitsbericht. Kuhlemann, J. & Rahn

  4. 10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  5. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Keiswetter, D.; Black, R.; Steeples, D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick glacial till are clearly observable on field files at around 45 to 50 ms two-way traveltime and possess a dominant frequency of around 100 Hz. The bedrock reflection is confirmed by drill data. The seismic data are of sufficient quality to detect local bedrock topographic changes and to interpret discontinuities along the till-bedrock interface. Finite-difference synthetic seismograms substantiate the interpreted reflections and the diffraction signatures from faults observed on the field files. At some locations along the seismic line, intra-till reflections are apparent on the field files. These intra-till features are on the order of tens of meters in length along the line traverse and reflections from them are not enhanced by common depth point processing. Intra-till reflections could be indicative of gravels or other alluvial materials that may serve as local aquifers.

  6. Geology of central Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Wold, R.J.; Paull, R.A.; Wolosin, C.A.; Friedel, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    The geology beneath Lake Michigan between 43/sup 0/00' and 44/sup 0/00'N and between 86/sup 0/30' and 87/sup 0/40' W is interpreted from a synthesis of 1,700 km of continuous seismic reflection profile data, bathymetry, grab samples, and onshore surface and subsurface information. The continuous seismic reflection profiles and bathymetry provided information for maps of unconsolidated sediment thickness and Paleozoic bedrock topography. Two structural-stratigraphic cross sections of the study area were constructed by utilizing a composite subsurface-surface section for eastern Wisconsin and two control wells in western Michigan. The cross sections, grab samples previously described in the literature, the bedrock topographic map, and published maps were used to construct a Paleozoic geologic map for central Lake Michigan. Rocks from Middle Silurian through Early Mississippian age form subcrops beneath the study area, whereas rocks of Early Silurian, Ordovician, and Late Cambrian age are present at greater depth. The Upper Cambrian rocks unconformably overlie Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks. The structural-stratigraphic cross sections also allow speculation about the petroleum potential beneath Lake Michigan. The possibility of oil occurrences within the Silurian is enhanced by major east-west facies changes, and other horizons with promise are present in Devonian and Ordovician rocks. Although Michigan and Wisconsin laws currently prohibit petroleum exploration in Lake Michigan, it is an area with future potential.

  7. Field measurements of incision rates following bedrock exposure: Implications for process controls on the long profiles of valleys cut by rivers and debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Jonathan D.; Montgomery, David R.; Collins, Brian D.; Dietrich, William E.; Sklar, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, published rates of incision of bedrock valleys came from indirect dating of incised surfaces. A small but growing literature based on direct measurement reports short-term bedrock lowering at geologically unsustainable rates. We report observations of bedrock lowering from erosion pins monitored over 1–7 yr in 10 valleys that cut indurated volcanic and sedimentary rocks in Washington, Oregon, California, and Taiwan. Most of these channels have historically been stripped of sediment. Their bedrock is exposed to bed-load abrasion, plucking, and seasonal wetting and drying that comminutes hard, intact rock into plates or equant fragments that are removed by higher flows. Consequent incision rates are proportional to the square of rock tensile strength, in agreement with experimental results of others. Measured rates up to centimeters per year far exceed regional long-term erosion-rate estimates, even for apparently minor sediment-transport rates. Cultural artifacts on adjoining strath terraces in Washington and Taiwan indicate at least several decades of lowering at these extreme rates. Lacking sediment cover, lithologies at these sites lower at rates that far exceed long-term rock-uplift rates. This rate disparity makes it unlikely that the long profiles of these rivers are directly adjusted to either bedrock hardness or rock-uplift rate in the manner predicted by the stream power law, despite the observation that their profiles are well fit by power-law plots of drainage area vs. slope. We hypothesize that the threshold of motion of a thin sediment mantle, rather than bedrock hardness or rock-uplift rate, controls channel slope in weak bedrock lithologies with tensile strengths below ∼3–5 MPa. To illustrate this hypothesis and to provide an alternative interpretation for power-law plots of area vs. slope, we combine Shields' threshold transport concept with measured hydraulic relationships and downstream fining rates. In contrast to fluvial

  8. Yield of bedrock wells in the Nashoba terrane, central and eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The yield of bedrock wells in the fractured-bedrock aquifers of the Nashoba terrane and surrounding area, central and eastern Massachusetts, was investigated with analyses of existing data. Reported well yield was compiled for 7,287 wells from Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection and U.S. Geological Survey databases. Yield of these wells ranged from 0.04 to 625 gallons per minute. In a comparison with data from 103 supply wells, yield and specific capacity from aquifer tests were well correlated, indicating that reported well yield was a reasonable measure of aquifer characteristics in the study area. Statistically significant relations were determined between well yield and a number of cultural and hydrogeologic factors. Cultural variables included intended water use, well depth, year of construction, and method of yield measurement. Bedrock geology, topography, surficial geology, and proximity to surface waters were statistically significant hydrogeologic factors. Yield of wells was higher in areas of granites, mafic intrusive rocks, and amphibolites than in areas of schists and gneisses or pelitic rocks; higher in valleys and low-slope areas than on hills, ridges, or high slopes; higher in areas overlain by stratified glacial deposits than in areas overlain by till; and higher in close proximity to streams, ponds, and wetlands than at greater distances from these surface-water features. Proximity to mapped faults and to lineaments from aerial photographs also were related to well yield by some measures in three quadrangles in the study area. Although the statistical significance of these relations was high, their predictive power was low, and these relations explained little of the variability in the well-yield data. Similar results were determined from a multivariate regression analysis. Multivariate regression models for the Nashoba terrane and for a three-quadrangle subarea included, as significant variables, many of the cultural and

  9. Approach to estimating the maximum depth for glacially induced hydraulic jacking in fractured crystalline rock at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönnqvist, M.; Hökmark, H.

    2013-09-01

    Hydraulic jacking is a significant dilation of a fracture that occurs when the pore pressure within it exceeds the sum of the fracture's normal stress and tensile strength. This phenomenon may occur during a glacial period because of changes in hydraulic and mechanical boundary conditions. Since hydraulic jacking may alter flow patterns and the transport capacity of the rock mass, its possible effects on the long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository should be considered. We develop an approach to assess glacially induced hydraulic jacking in fractured crystalline rock and establish bounding estimates of the maximum jacking depth for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB) repository site at Forsmark. The pore pressure is estimated using mechanically uncoupled two-dimensional poroelastic continuum models with hydraulic and mechanical conditions based on SKB's reconstruction of the Weichselian glaciation at this site (120-0 ka B.P.). For warm-based conditions, the water pressure at the ice/bed interface is set at 98% of the mechanical load, whereas for glacial conditions with extensive proglacial permafrost, the corresponding water pressure is set at a (lower) annual average value. We demonstrate that the pore pressure within the uppermost kilometer of rock is mainly governed by the water pressure at the ice/bed interface and that the mechanical impact of the ice load on the pore pressure is sufficiently small to be ignored. Given the current and estimated future stress conditions at Forsmark, hydraulic jacking is mainly of concern for subhorizontal fractures, i.e., it is sufficient to consider situations when the pore pressure exceeds the vertical stress. We conclude that hydraulic jacking at Forsmark will be confined to the uppermost 200 m of the rock mass.

  10. The impact of dynamic topography on the bedrock elevation and volume of the Pliocene Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Pollard, David; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro M.; DeConto, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructions of the Antarctic ice sheet over long timescales (i.e. Myrs) require estimates of bedrock elevation through time. Ice sheet models have accounted, with varying levels of sophistication, for changes in the bedrock elevation due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), but they have neglected other processes that may perturb topography. One notable example is dynamic topography, the deflection of the solid surface of the Earth due to convective flow within the mantle. Numerically predicted changes in dynamic topography have been used to correct paleo shorelines for this departure from eustasy, but the effect of such changes on ice sheet stability is unknown. In this study we use numerical predictions of time-varying dynamic topography to reconstruct bedrock elevation below the Antarctic ice sheet during the mid Pliocene warm period (~3 Ma). Moreover, we couple this reconstruction to a three-dimensional ice sheet model to explore the impact of dynamic topography on the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet since the Pliocene. Our modeling indicates significant uplift in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the adjacent Wilkes basin. This predicted uplift, which is at the lower end of geological inferences of uplift of the TAM, implies a lower elevation of the basin in the Pliocene. Relative to simulations that do not include dynamic topography, the lower elevation leads to a smaller Antarctic Ice Sheet volume and a more significant retreat of the grounding line in the Wilkes basin, both of which are consistent with offshore sediment core data. We conclude that reconstructions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the mid-Pliocene warm period should be based on bedrock elevation models that include the impact of both GIA and dynamic topography.

  11. Lineaments: Their value in assessing groundwater availability and quality in bedrock aquifers of glaciated metamorphic terrains. A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mabee, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    A lineament analysis for Georgetown, Maine, a 44 km[sup 2] island community situated on the central Maine coast, was performed to evaluate the relationship between mapped lineaments and (1) outcrop fractures, (2) well productivity (35 wells), and (3) groundwater quality determined from a sample of 87 existing bedrock wells. Lineaments were drawn by three observers using two scales of imagery (SLAR and a 1:80,000 Aerial Photograph). Rigorous reproducibility testing indicates that the ability of individual observers to reproduce lineaments at the same geographic location is low; more than 55% of all lineaments mapped by any observer were not reproducible. This casts doubt as to how many lineaments may be considered real features. In addition, when azimuthal sets of near-vertical outcrop fractures are compared with reproducible lineament domains of similar azimuth on a regional basis, distinct areas of overlap are defined across the island. The extent of this overlap is not uniform. In regard to well productivity, wells located [open quotes]on[close quotes] lineaments, specifically those lineaments showing a geographic correlation with similar-trending fracture domains, are generally more productive than non-lineament wells. If the same analysis is repeated, but is performed without considering whether or not the lineaments used in the analysis are geographically correlative with fracture domains, no differences are observed between the productivities of lineament and non-lineament wells. However, in this study, other geologic factors exhibit strong influences on high productivity in bedrock wells. Groundwater chemistry is controlled primarily by bedrock type, topographic setting, structural position, and overburden type and thickness. The chemical character of groundwater sampled from bedrock wells is generally not influenced by the proximity of a well to a lineament.

  12. Coincidence and spatial variability of geology, soils, and vegetation, Mill Run watershed, Virginia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, C.G.; Hupp, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Mill Run watershed is a structurally-controlled synclinal basin on the eastern limb of the Massanutten Mountain complex of NW Virginia. Bedrock contacts are obscured by coarse sandstone debris from exposures near basin divides. Colluvium blankets more than half the basin, masking geomorphic surfaces, affecting vegetation patterns, and contributing to the convexity of the alluvial, terrace, pediment and erosion surfaces. Vegetation is strongly interdependent with geomorphology, bedrock geology, and soils. - from Authors

  13. Altitude, depth, and thickness of the Galena-Platteville Bedrock Unit in the subcrop area of Illinois and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Timothy A.; Dunning, Charles P.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2000-01-01

    The report series will enable investigators involved in site-specific studies within the subcrop area to understand the regional geologic framework of the unit and to find additional reference sources. This report consists of four sheets that show the altitude (sheet 1), depth from land surface (sheet 2), total thickness (sheet 3), and location of altitude data (sheet 4) of the lithologic units that constitute the Galena-Platteville bedrock unit within the subcrop area. The sheets also show major known geologic features within the Galena-Platteville study area in Illinois and Wisconsin. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to generate data layers (coverages) from point data and from published and unpublished contour maps at various scales and detail. Standard GIS procedures were used to change the coverages into the maps shown on the sheets presented in this report. A list of references for the data used to prepare the maps is provided. 

  14. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  15. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  16. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  17. Hydrogeologic Framework of Bedrock Units and Initial Salinity Distribution for a Simulation of Groundwater Flow for the Lake Michigan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lampe, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is assessing groundwater availability in the Lake Michigan Basin. As part of the assessment, a variable-density groundwater-flow model is being developed to simulate the effects of groundwater use on water availability throughout the basin. The hydrogeologic framework for the Lake Michigan Basin model was developed by grouping the bedrock geology of the study area into hydrogeologic units on the basis of the functioning of each unit as an aquifer or confining layer within the basin. Available data were evaluated based on the areal extent of coverage within the study area, and procedures were established to characterize areas with sparse data coverage. Top and bottom altitudes for each hydrogeologic unit were interpolated in a geographic information system for input to the model and compared with existing maps of subsurface formations. Fourteen bedrock hydrogeologic units, making up 17 bedrock model layers, were defined, and they range in age from the Jurassic Period red beds of central Michigan to the Cambrian Period Mount Simon Sandstone. Information on groundwater salinity in the Lake Michigan Basin was compiled to create an input dataset for the variable-density groundwater-flow simulation. Data presented in this report are referred to as 'salinity data' and are reported in terms of total dissolved solids. Salinity data were not available for each hydrogeologic unit. Available datasets were assigned to a hydrogeologic unit, entered into a spatial database, and data quality was visually evaluated. A geographic information system was used to interpolate salinity distributions for each hydrogeologic unit with available data. Hydrogeologic units with no available data either were set equal to neighboring units or were vertically interpolated by use of values from units above and below.

  18. Controls on the geometry of potholes in bedrock channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Sweeney, Kristin E.; Roering, Joshua J.; Finnegan, Noah J.

    2015-02-01

    Potholes (circular depressions carved into bedrock) are the dominant roughness elements in many bedrock channels. Here we show, using data from previous studies and new data from the Smith River, Oregon, that pothole depths increase in proportion to both the mean pothole radius (such that the most common pothole depth-to-radius ratio is 2) and the diameter of the largest clasts episodically stored in potholes. We present a theory for these observations based on computational fluid dynamics and sediment transport modeling of vortices in cylindrical cavities of different shapes and sizes. We show that the shear stress at the bottom of a pothole (which controls the rate of pothole growth) is maximized for potholes with a depth-to-radius ratio of approximately 1 and decreases nonlinearly with increasing depth-to-radius ratio such that potholes with depth-to-radius ratios larger than 3 are uncommon. Our model provides a mechanistic explanation for pothole shapes and sizes.

  19. A predictive geologic model of radon occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, L.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Earlier work by LeGrand on predictive geologic models for radon focused on hydrogeologic aspects of radon transport from a given uranium/radium source in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer, and included submodels for bedrock lithology (uranium concentration), topographic slope, and water-table behavior and characteristics. LeGrand's basic geologic model has been modified and extended into a submodel for crystalline rocks (Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces) and a submodel for sedimentary rocks (Valley and Ridge and Coastal Plain Provinces). Each submodel assigns a ranking of 1 to 15 to the bedrock type, based on (a) known or supposed uranium/thorium content, (b) petrography/lithology, and (c) structural features such as faults, shear or breccia zones, diabase dikes, and jointing/fracturing. The bedrock ranking is coupled with a generalized soil/saprolite model which ranks soil/saprolite type and thickness from 1 to 10. A given site is thus assessed a ranking of 1 to 150 as a guide to its potential for high radon occurrence in the upper meter or so of soil. Field trials of the model are underway, comparing model predictions with measured soil-gas concentrations of radon.

  20. Effects of land use on recharge potential of surficial and shallow bedrock aquifers in the upper Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Friedel, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    The upper Illinois River Basin (UIRB) is the 10,949-square-mile drainage area upstream from Ottawa, Illinois on the Illinois River and is one of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program study units. To assist in the interpretation of groundwater data that will be collected during the courseof the UIRB study, the study-unit team designed a spatial model to describe recharge potential of surficial and shallow bedrock aquifers. The following factors, identified as having an effect on recharge potential, were incorporated into the model: land use, soil permeability, type and thickness of surficial deposits, and uppermost bedrock geology. Other models designed to simulate recharge potential and the potential for contamination that were examined during the preparation of this model included factors similar to those included in this model, with the exception of land use. Land use and changes in land use over time, however, can affect recharge potential. The UIRB model was used to simulate recharge potential with and without incorporating land use. A comparison of the simulation results showed that recharge potential was overestimated in some areas and underestimated in other areas when land use was not included in the model. Comparisons of simulations that used 1970 and estimated 1990 land use showed changes in recharge potential over time.

  1. MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, CONCRETE FLOWS FROM TRUCK INTO DRUM, WHICH IS LOWERED INTO CAISSON AND RELEASED AT BOTTOM OF HOLE. BEYOND, TRUCK-MOUNTED DRILLING RIG DRILLS HOLE FOR ANOTHER CAISSON NEAR EDGE OF EXCAVATION. MATERIAL REMOVED FROM HOLE IS CARRIED BY CONVEYOR TO WAITING TRUCK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 307. Unknown Photographer, 6/1950. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Climate-Driven Bedrock Incision in an Active Mountain Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, Karen; Hovius, Niels; Dade, W. Brian; Slingerland, Rudy L.

    2002-09-01

    Measurements of fluvial bedrock incision were made with submillimeter precision in the East Central Range of Taiwan, where long-term exhumation rates and precipitation-driven river discharge are independently known. They indicate that valley lowering is driven by relatively frequent flows of moderate intensity, abrasion by suspended sediment is an important fluvial wear process, and channel bed geometry and the presence of widely spaced planes of weakness in the rock mass influence erosion rate and style.

  3. Magnesium and calcium in carbonate bedrock and groundwaters, Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, J.

    Groundwaters draining Kuala Lumpur Limestone, Kinta Limestone and limestones of the Setul Formation were monitored over a 1 yr period. The closeness of the mean Mg:Ca + Mg ratios of the groundwaters (12.8%) and bedrock (13.3%) indicates calcium and magnesium dissolution to be broadly congruent. Ratios < 2.5and> 35% are much less common in groundwaters than in bedrock because of: (i) heterogeneity in bedrock mineralogy within groundwater catchments; (ii) differential solubilities of calcium and magnesium in calcites, high magnesium calcites and dolomites; and (iii) preferential precipitation of calcium in secondary carbonate deposits. In groundwaters with variable discharges, Mg:Ca + Mg correlates negatively with discharge, as calcium deposition per unit volume of water diminishes at higher flows. Use of groundwater survey data to locate areas of dolomitization and make specific inferences about the mineralogy of limestone formations is discussed, and estimates of net chemical denudation rates (range, 56.6-70.9m 3/km 2/yr) are presented.

  4. Bedrock incision by bedload: insights from direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Guilhem; Langlois, Vincent J.; Allemand, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Bedload sediment transport is one of the main processes that contribute to bedrock incision in a river and is therefore one of the key control parameters in the evolution of mountainous landscapes. In recent years, many studies have addressed this issue through experimental setups, direct measurements in the field, or various analytical models. In this article, we present a new direct numerical approach: using the classical methods of discrete-element simulations applied to granular materials, we explicitly compute the trajectories of a number of pebbles entrained by a turbulent water stream over a rough solid surface. This method allows us to extract quantitatively the amount of energy that successive impacts of pebbles deliver to the bedrock, as a function of both the amount of sediment available and the Shields number. We show that we reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed experimentally by Sklar and Dietrich (2001) and observe both a "tool effect" and a "cover effect". Converting the energy delivered to the bedrock into an average long-term incision rate of the river leads to predictions consistent with observations in the field. Finally, we reformulate the dependency of this incision rate with Shields number and sediment flux, and predict that the cover term should decay linearly at low sediment supply and exponentially at high sediment supply.

  5. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  6. Surficial Geologic Map of The Loop and Druid Arch Quadrangles, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Block, Debra L.; Felger, Tracey J.

    2002-01-01

    This geologic map is a product of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. National Park Service to provide geologic information about this part of Canyonlands National Park, Utah. This digital map database contains bedrock data from previously published data that has been modified by the author. New mapping of the surficial deposits represents the general distribution of surficial deposits of the Druid Arch and The Loop 7.5-minute quadrangles.

  7. A methodology to constrain the parameters of a hydrogeological discrete fracture network model for sparsely fractured crystalline rock, exemplified by data from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follin, Sven; Hartley, Lee; Rhén, Ingvar; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steven; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben

    2014-03-01

    The large-scale geological structure of the crystalline rock at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden, has been classified in terms of deformation zones of elevated fracture frequency. The rock between deformation zones was divided into fracture domains according to fracture frequency. A methodology to constrain the geometric and hydraulic parameters that define a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for each fracture domain is presented. The methodology is based on flow logging and down-hole imaging in cored boreholes in combination with DFN realizations, fracture connectivity analysis and pumping test simulations. The simulations suggest that a good match could be obtained for a power law size distribution where the value of the location parameter equals the borehole radius but with different values for the shape parameter, depending on fracture domain and fracture set. Fractures around 10-100 m in size are the ones that typically form the connected network, giving inflows in the simulations. The report also addresses the issue of up-scaling of DFN properties to equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) bulk flow properties. Comparisons with double-packer injection tests provide confidence that the derived DFN formulation of detailed flows within individual fractures is also suited to simulating mean bulk flow properties and their spatial variability.

  8. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  9. Bedrock erosion by sliding wear in channelized granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Smith, B.; Maia, H. T.; Li, L.; Reitz, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Boundary forces generated by debris flows can be powerful enough to erode bedrock and cause considerable damage to infrastructure during runout. Bedrock wear can be separated into impact and sliding wear processes. Here we focus on sliding wear. We have conducted experiments with a 40-cm-diameter grainflow-generating rotating drum designed to simulate dry channelized debris flows. To generate sliding erosion, we placed a 20-cm-diameter bedrock plate axially on the back wall of the drum. The rotating drum was half filled with 2.3-mm-diameter grains, which formed a thin grain-avalanching layer with peak flow speed and depth close to the drum axis. The whole experimental apparatus was placed on a 100g-ton geotechnical centrifuge and, in order to scale up the stress level, spun to a range of effective gravity levels. Rates and patterns of erosion of the bedrock plate were mapped after each experiment using 3d micro-photogrammetry. High-speed video and particle tracking were employed to measure granular flow dynamics. The resulting data for granular velocities and flow geometry were used to estimate impulse exchanges and forces on the bedrock plate. To address some of the complexities of granular flow under variable gravity levels, we developed a continuum model framed around a GDR MiDi rheology. This model allowed us to scale up boundary forcing while maintaining the same granular flow regime, and helped us to understand important aspects of the flow dynamics including e.g. fluxes of momentum and kinetic energy. In order to understand the detailed processes of boundary forcing, we performed numerical simulations with a new contact dynamics model. This model confirmed key aspects of our continuum model and provided information on second-order behavior such as fluctuations in the forces acting on the wall. By combining these measurements and theoretical analyses, we have developed and calibrated a constitutive model for sliding wear that is a threshold function of

  10. Fractured Bedrock Storm Flow: a New Pathway for Runoff Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshun, J.; Salve, R.; Rempe, D. M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Fung, I.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater dynamics in the fractured weathered bedrock underlying hillslopes may dominate storm runoff in many hilly and mountainous areas Few studies, however, have explored this runoff generation process. Here we use an intensively monitored site to study the spatial relationships between fractured bedrock and hydraulic properties in the weathered zone below a forested hillslope. The study site, Rivendell, is a 4000 m2 catchment draining directly into Elder Creek in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve (ACRR) in Northern California. The site is underlain by highly fractured and weak mudstones and boudinaged, ridge-forming sandstones that are turbidite sequences of the Coastal Franciscan Belt. The site receives an average of 1800mm of precipitation annually, with the vast majority falling between October and May. Rivendell has a thinly mantled soil layer underlain by a fractured rock zone, which thickens upslope to a depth of up to 30 m. Standard penetration tests show a consistent increase in bedrock resistance at depth before an abrupt lower boundary upon which the water table is perched. We use seven monitoring wells, precipitation data, soil moisture data, a steam gauge in Elder Creek, and well pump tests to characterize water movement through the fractured rock zone.. We analyze the lag time between peak rainfall and peak response at seven wells and Elder Creek from 2007-2010. The water table varies across the slope between 4 and 25 m below the ground surface, and the dynamic range of well water level increases with distance from Elder Creek. The magnitude and timing of well response shows a relationship to depth, magnitude of rainfall and antecedent moisture conditions. Although nearly all runoff is generated through fractured bedrock, we observe that Elder Creek consistently shows the shortest lag times compared to the wells on the hillslope. Wells show different trends in magnitude and timing of response throughout the rainy season. Pump tests reveal a

  11. The influence of geology and land use on arsenic in stream sediments and ground waters in New England, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Ayotte, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Population statistics for As concentrations in rocks, sediments and ground water differ by geology and land use features in the New England region, USA. Significant sources of As in the surficial environment include both natural weathering of rocks and anthropogenic sources such as arsenical pesticides that were commonly applied to apple, blueberry and potato crops during the first half of the 20th century in the region. The variation of As in bedrock ground water wells has a strong positive correlation with geologic features at the geologic province, lithology group, and bedrock map unit levels. The variation of As in bedrock ground water wells also has a positive correlation with elevated stream sediment and rock As chemistry. Elevated As concentrations in bedrock wells do not correlate with past agricultural areas that used arsenical pesticides on crops. Stream sediments, which integrate both natural and anthropogenic sources, have a strong positive correlation of As concentrations with rock chemistry, geologic provinces and ground water chemistry, and a weaker positive correlation with past agricultural land use. Although correlation is not sufficient to demonstrate cause-and-effect, the statistics favor rock-based As as the dominant regional source of the element in stream sediments and ground water in New England. The distribution of bedrock geology features at the geologic province, lithology group and map unit level closely correlate with areas of elevated As in ground water, stream sediments, and rocks. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geologic Map of the Cane Quadrangle, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Wellmeyer, Jessica L.

    2001-01-01

    This digital map database is compiled from unpublished data and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of surficial and bedrock geology in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying pamphlet, it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area. The database delineate map units that are identified by age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  13. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  14. Practical Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Geology is an ideal subject in which to introduce the "discovery" method of learning. Available from: National Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales), 35 Queen Anne St., London W1M OBL England. (BP)

  15. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  16. Quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Whitlock, Cathy; Cannon, Kenneth P.; Meyer, Grant A.; Morgan, Lisa; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology, ecology, paleoecology, caldera unrest, and archeology in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks and vicinity (Fig. 1). Some previous field guides of Yellowstone are Locke et al. (1995) for the Yellowstone valley, Fournier et al. (1994) for hydrothermal and volcanic geology of Yellowstone, and Pierce and Good (1992) for the Quaternary of Jackson Hole. Non–technical overviews of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks are Good and Pierce (1996) and Smith and Siegel (2000). Geologic maps are: Grand Teton (Love et al., 1992), and Yellowstone (bedrock and surficial geology (USGS, 1972a; 1972b). Christiansen (2001) extensively describes Yellowstone’s volcanic geology, and Pierce (1979) describes the glacial geology of the northern Yellowstone region. We suggest that you obtain detailed maps.

  17. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hart, Dirk

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  18. Natural attenuation of trichloroethylene in fractured shale bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenczewski, M.; Jardine, P.; McKay, L.; Layton, A.

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes one of the first well-documented field examples of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater in a fractured shale bedrock. The study was carried out adjacent to a former waste burial site in Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. A contaminant plume containing TCE and its daughter products were detected downgradient from the buried waste pits, with most of the contamination occurring in the upper 6 m of the bedrock. The monitoring well array consists of a 35-m-long transect of multilevel sampling wells, situated along a line between the waste pits and a seep which discharges into a small stream. Concentrations of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) were highest in the waste trenches and decreased with distance downgradient towards the seep. Sampling wells indicated the presence of overlapping plumes of TCE, cis-dichloroethylene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC), ethylene, ethane, and methane, with the daughter products extending further downgradient than the parent (TCE). This type of distribution suggests anaerobic biodegradation. Measurements of redox potential at the site indicated that iron-reduction, sulfate reduction, and potentially methanogensis were occurring and are conducive to dechlorination of TCE. Bacteria enrichment of groundwater samples revealed the presence of methanotrophs, methanogens, iron-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria, all of which have previously been implicated in anaerobic biodegradation of TCE. 16S rDNA sequence from DNA extracted from two wells were similar to sequences of organisms previously implicated in the anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents. The combined data strongly suggest that anaerobic biodegradation of the highly chlorinated compounds is occurring. Aerobic biodegradation may also be occurring in oxygenated zones, including near a seep where groundwater exits the site, or in the upper bedrock during seasonal fluctuations in water

  19. Effects of Bedrock Landsliding on Cosmogenically Determined Erosion Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemi, Nathan; Oskin, Mike; Burbank, Douglas; Heimsath, Arjun

    2005-01-01

    The successful quantification of long-term erosion rates underpins our understanding of landscape. formation, the topographic evolution of mountain ranges, and the mass balance within active orogens. The measurement of in situ-produced cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs) in fluvial and alluvial sediments is perhaps the method with the greatest ability to provide such long-term erosion rates. In active orogens, however, deep-seated bedrock landsliding is an important erosional process, the effect of which on CRN-derived erosion rates is largely unquantified. We present a numerical simulation of cosmogenic nuclide production and distribution in landslide-dominated catchments to address the effect of bedrock landsliding on cosmogenic erosion rates in actively eroding landscapes. Results of the simulation indicate that the temporal stability of erosion rates determined from CRN concentrations in sediment decreases with increased ratios of landsliding to sediment detachment rates within a given catchment area, and that larger catchment areas must be sampled with increased frequency of landsliding in order to accurately evaluate long-term erosion rates. In addition, results of this simulation suggest that sediment sampling for CRNs is the appropriate method for determining long-term erosion rates in regions dominated by mass-wasting processes, while bedrock surface sampling for CRNs is generally an ineffective means of determining long-term erosion rates. Response times of CRN concentrations to changes in erosion rate indicate that climatically driven cycles of erosion may be detected relatively quickly after such changes occur, but that complete equilibration of CRN concentrations to new erosional conditions may take tens of thousands of years. Simulation results of CRN erosion rates are compared with a new, rich dataset of CRN concentrations from the Nepalese Himalaya, supporting conclusions drawn from the simulation.

  20. Natural attenuation of trichloroethylene in fractured shale bedrock.

    PubMed

    Lenczewski, M; Jardine, P; McKay, L; Layton, A

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes one of the first well-documented field examples of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater in a fractured shale bedrock. The study was carried out adjacent to a former waste burial site in Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. A contaminant plume containing TCE and its daughter products were detected downgradient from the buried waste pits, with most of the contamination occurring in the upper 6 m of the bedrock. The monitoring well array consists of a 35-m-long transect of multilevel sampling wells, situated along a line between the waste pits and a seep which discharges into a small stream. Concentrations of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) were highest in the waste trenches and decreased with distance downgradient towards the seep. Sampling wells indicated the presence of overlapping plumes of TCE, cis-dichloroethylene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC), ethylene, ethane, and methane, with the daughter products extending further downgradient than the parent (TCE). This type of distribution suggests anaerobic biodegradation. Measurements of redox potential at the site indicated that iron-reduction, sulfate reduction, and potentially methanogensis were occurring and are conducive to dechlorination of TCE. Bacteria enrichment of groundwater samples revealed the presence of methanotrophs, methanogens, iron-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria, all of which have previously been implicated in anaerobic biodegradation of TCE. 16S rDNA sequence from DNA extracted from two wells were similar to sequences of organisms previously implicated in the anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents. The combined data strongly suggest that anaerobic biodegradation of the highly chlorinated compounds is occurring. Aerobic biodegradation may also be occurring in oxygenated zones, including near a seep where groundwater exits the site, or in the upper bedrock during seasonal fluctuations in water

  1. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  2. Bedrock fracture by ice segregation in cold regions.

    PubMed

    Murton, Julian B; Peterson, Rorik; Ozouf, Jean-Claude

    2006-11-17

    The volumetric expansion of freezing pore water is widely assumed to be a major cause of rock fracture in cold humid regions. Data from experiments simulating natural freezing regimes indicate that bedrock fracture results instead from ice segregation. Fracture depth and timing are also numerically simulated by coupling heat and mass transfer with a fracture model. The depth and geometry of fractures match those in Arctic permafrost and ice-age weathering profiles. This agreement supports a conceptual model in which ice segregation in near-surface permafrost leads progressively to rock fracture and heave, whereas permafrost degradation leads episodically to melt of segregated ice and rock settlement.

  3. Status report on the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Lemiszki, P.J.; Foreman, J.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Dreier, R.B.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Lee, Suk Young ); Lietzke, D.A. , Rutledge, TN ); McMaster, W.M. , Heiskell, TN )

    1992-10-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR (Plate 1), which remains in progress. An understanding of the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. Therefore, this report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the available data that provide the basic framework for additional geologic mapping, subsurface geologic, and geohydrologic studies. In addition, some recently completed, detailed work on soils and other surficial materials is included because of the close relationships to bedrock geology and the need to recognize the weathered products of bedrock units. Weathering processes also have some influence on hydrologic systems and processes at depth.

  4. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  5. Hematite Helium Dating of Bedrock Fractures and Faults (HeHe BFF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    Despite their importance for hydrologic and geophysical properties of the shallow crust, the age and origins of bedrock-hosted fractures, faults, and veins are often difficult to determine. This is partly because existing geochronologic methods are not very good at dating the limited range of secondary phases that form in them. Fe(III)-oxides, especially hematite, are extremely common in such features in shallow crustal rocks, where their formation is associated with fluid flow and deformation episodes occurring long after host rock formation. The (U-Th)/He system poses potential for dating these secondary Fe-oxides because they contain variable but often high (often tens to hundreds of ppm) concentrations of U and/or Th and little to no initial He. Hematite (U-Th)/He (HeHe) dates from bedrock faults and fractures (BFF) (and veins) in several geologic settings illustrate the potential of this approach for understanding a range of phenomena related to fluid flow and deformation. For example, thin (~1-5 mm) hematite veins in Proterozoic crystalline basement from four locations in central Arizona have ages of HeHe dates of 425-525 Ma, 570-630 Ma, 750-930 Ma, and 800-900 Ma. These could be interpreted as the timing of vein formation during the penultimate near-surface exhumation episode (the last one being that which exhumed them in the late Cenozoic) that exposed these rocks to migrating oxidized groundwater. Not all hematite veins in crystalline basement are that old, however, and in some cases their ages may be easier to associate with regional tectonic events. A thin hematite vein in the Boulder Creek batholith just below the basal Fountain Formation yields HeHe ages of 171 ± 4.6 Ma. This corresponds to a major unconformity in the overlying sedimentary sequence, and a sharp increase in basin subsidence and magmatic input in the Utah-Idaho trough/Arapien basin several hundred kilometers to the west. Similarly, in the Galiuro Mountains of southern Arizona, 1.1-Ga

  6. Geologic controls of subdivision damage near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    This case study investigates the geologic controls on damaging ground deformations in a residential subdivision near Denver, Colo. Moderate to severe damage has occurred in certain areas where linear, parallel heave features with up to 0.3 in (1 ft) of differential displacement have formed across roads and under houses. Other areas have small, localized depressions that have formed in the roadsides with no discernable damage to nearby houses. Still other areas show no evidence of ground movements. The bedrock beneath the subdivision consists of steeply dipping Cretaceous strata of the Benton Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Pierre Shale. Quaternary soil deposits and fill, 0-16 m (0-53 ft) thick, overlie the bedrock. The most pronounced and damaging linear-heave features are coincident with steeply dipping, silty claystone with thin layers of very highly plastic bentonite. These heave features diminish as the depth to bedrock increases, and become small to negligible where the bedrock is overlain by 3 m (10 ft) or more of overburden soil deposits or fill. In contrast, areas having no visible damage and those having localized surface depressions are typically underlain by 1-12 m (3-39 ft) of alluvial-terrace deposits or fill. The depressions appear to have been caused by settlement over improperly filled water-and-sewer line trenches. The overall relationship between geology and ground deformations as seen in this subdivision may be useful for predicting, and thereby reducing, damage for future subdivision projects. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ?? ASCE.

  7. Constraining local subglacial bedrock erosion rates with cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirsig, Christian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Reitner, Jürgen; Reindl, Martin; Bichler, Mathias; Vockenhuber, Christof; Akcar, Naki; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The constant buildup of cosmogenic nuclides, most prominently 10Be, in exposed rock surfaces is routinely employed for dating various landforms such as landslides or glacial moraines. One fundamental assumption is that no cosmogenic nuclides were initially present in the rock, before the event to be dated. In the context of glacially formed landscapes it is commonly assumed that subglacial erosion of at least a few meters of bedrock during the period of ice coverage is sufficient to remove any previously accumulated nuclides, since the production of 10Be ceases at a depth of 2-3 m. Insufficient subglacial erosion leads to overestimation of surface exposure ages. If the time since the retreat of the glacier is known, however, a discordant concentration of cosmogenic nuclides delivers information about the depth of subglacial erosion. Here we present data from proglacial bedrock at two sites in the Alps. Goldbergkees in the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria and Gruebengletscher in the Grimsel Pass area in Switzerland. Samples were taken inside as well as outside of the glaciers' Little Ice Age extent. Measured nuclide concentrations are analyzed with the help of a MATLAB model simulating periods of exposure or glacial cover of user-definable length and erosion rates.

  8. Field Verification of Stable Perched Groundwater in Layered Bedrock Uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.T.; Gotkowitz, M.B.; Anderson, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Data substantiating perched conditions in layered bedrock uplands are rare and have not been widely reported. Field observations in layered sedimentary bedrock in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, provide evidence of a stable, laterally extensive perched aquifer. Data from a densely instrumented field site show a perched aquifer in shallow dolomite, underlain by a shale-and-dolomite aquitard approximately 25 m thick, which is in turn underlain by sandstone containing a 30-m-thick unsaturated zone above a regional aquifer. Heads in water supply wells indicate that perched conditions extend at least several kilometers into hillsides, which is consistent with published modeling studies. Observations of unsaturated conditions in the sandstone over a 4-year period, historical development of the perched aquifer, and perennial flow from upland springs emanating from the shallow dolomite suggest that perched groundwater is a stable hydrogeologic feature under current climate conditions. Water-table hydrographs exhibit apparent differences in the amount and timing of recharge to the perched and regional flow systems; steep hydraulic gradients and tritium and chloride concentrations suggest there is limited hydraulic connection between the two. Recognition and characterization of perched flow systems have practical importance because their groundwater flow and transport pathways may differ significantly from those in underlying flow systems. Construction of multi-aquifer wells and groundwater withdrawal in perched systems can further alter such pathways. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  9. A probabilistic framework for the cover effect in bedrock erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turowski, Jens; Hodge, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Bedrock erosion rates in mountain rivers are driven by impacting bedload particles and are modulated by two conflicting affects. Rising sediment flux leads to an increasing number of impacts and thus larger erosion rates (the tools effect). However, when sediment supply gets too large, sediment particles sit on the bed protecting it from impacts and thereby decreasing the erosion rate (the cover effect). Previous flume experiments and numerical models have predicted a wide range of formulations for the relationship between sediment flux and sediment cover. Here, we propose a simple probabilistic framework to mathematically describe the cover effect, in which the development of cover is as a function of the probability of sediment deposition on bedrock or sediment-covered areas of the bed. The framework can incorporate empirical or modelling results and provides a neat link to process interpretations. We compare model predictions with results from both a cellular automaton model of grain dynamics, and from flume experiments. The framework is able to reproduce many of the observed behaviours, and thus provides a way of unifying the range of different results that have previously been reported. Further, we present a simple first order model for the dynamic evolution of bed cover over time that could be incorporated into channel morphodynamic models.

  10. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  11. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle. PMID:11554245

  12. Determination of Bedrock Variations and S-wave Velocity Structure in the NW part of Turkey for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, A. O.; Arslan, M. S.; Aksahin, B. B.; Genc, T.; Isseven, T.; Tuncer, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tekirdag region (NW Turkey) is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. Therefore, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are important for the urban areas close to the major faults. From this point of view, integration of different geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. On the other hand, geological mapping and determining the subsurface structure, which is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards can be performed by integrated geophysical methods. This study has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the cooperative project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education". With this principal aim, this study is focused on Tekirdag and its surrounding region (NW of Turkey) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth, thickness of quaternary sediments, basin geometry and seismic velocity structure,) need to be resolved. Several geophysical methods (microgravity, magnetic and single station and array microtremor measurements) are applied and the results are evaluated to characterize lithological changes in the region. Array microtremor measurements with several radiuses are taken in 30 locations and 1D-velocity structures of S-waves are determined by the inversion of phase velocities of surface waves, and the results of 1D structures are verified by theoretical Rayleigh wave modelling. Following the array measurements, single-station microtremor measurements are implemented at 75 locations to determine the predominant frequency distribution. The predominant frequencies in the region range from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz in study area. On the other hand, microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on

  13. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  14. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  15. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  16. Geology of the Huntsville quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, T.H.; Malmberg, G.T.; West, L.R.

    1961-01-01

    The 7 1/2-minute Huntsville quadrangle is in south-central Madison County, Ala., and includes part of the city of Hunstville. The south, north, east, and west boundaries of the quadrangle are about 3 miles north of the Tennessee River, 15 1/2 miles south of the Tennessee line, 8 miles west of the Jackson County line, and 9 miles east of the Limestone County line. The bedrock geology of the Huntsville quadrangle was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Hunstville and the Geological Survey of Alabama as part of a detailed study of the geology and ground-water resources of Madison County, with special reference to the Huntsville area. G. T. Malmberg began the geologic mapping of the county in July 1953, and completed it in April 1954. T. H. Sanford, Jr., assisted Malmberg in the final phases of the county mapping, which included measuring geologic sections with hand level and steel tape. In November 1958 Sanford, assisted by L. R. West, checked contacts and elevations in the Hunstville quadrangle; made revisions in the contact lines; and wrote the text for this report. The fieldwork for this report was completed in April 1959.

  17. Using Predictions from Bedrock Lithology to Improve Geochemical Reconstruction of Migratory Movements in Salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegg, J. C.; Kennedy, B. P.; Fremier, A. K.; Zabel, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical fingerprinting methods using isotopic or trace elemental signatures have enabled more detailed understanding of migratory behavior across animal taxa. These methods are limited by geographic variation in geochemical signatures and by the resolution of baseline sampling within study systems. In particular, isotopes of strontium have been used to reconstruct detailed migration history in fish using the high resolution temporal and spatial records stored in otoliths, biogenic aragonite structures in the inner ear of fish. This technique allows reconstruction of migratory movements at fine spatial scales due to a close relationship between watershed lithology and the strontium ratios present in stream water, provided that enough isotopic variation exists to resolve movement at a useful scale. We present data indicating that predictions based on bedrock lithology can be used to improve the spatial resolution and extent of otolith migration studies in some systems. Based on our research of fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River of Idaho, we show that watershed lithology can be used to accurately predict stream water strontium ratio, and reconstruct fish migration, using relatively simple predictive models. In addition, this technique may allow researchers to quantitatively assess the feasibility of strontium isotope studies before studies begin, allowing researchers to focus on studies with a high probability of success. We discuss the limits of this method imposed by watershed scale and geologic diversity, as well as methods for assessing these limits quantitatively.

  18. Application of advanced geophysical logging methods in the characterization of a fractured-sedimentary bedrock aquifer, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Lane, Jr., John W.; Singha, Kamini; Haeni, F. Peter

    2002-01-01

    An integrated suite of advanced geophysical logging methods was used to characterize the geology and hydrology of three boreholes completed in fractured-sedimentary bedrock in Ventura County, California. The geophysical methods included caliper, gamma, electromagnetic induction, borehole deviation, optical and acoustic televiewer, borehole radar, fluid resistivity, temperature, and electromagnetic flowmeter. The geophysical logging 1) provided insights useful for the overall geohydrologic characterization of the bedrock and 2) enhanced the value of information collected by other methods from the boreholes including core-sample analysis, multiple-level monitoring, and packer testing. The logged boreholes, which have open intervals of 100 to 200 feet, penetrate a sequence of interbedded sandstone and mudstone with bedding striking 220 to 250 degrees and dipping 15 to 40 degrees to the northwest. Fractures intersected by the boreholes include fractures parallel to bedding and fractures with variable strike that dip moderately to steeply. Two to three flow zones were detected in each borehole. The flow zones consist of bedding-parallel or steeply dipping fractures or a combination of bedding-parallel fractures and moderately to steeply dipping fractures. About 75 to more than 90 percent of the measured flow under pumped conditions was produced by only one of the flow zones in each borehole.

  19. Methane in Crystalline Bedrock: the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietäväinen, R.; Ahonen, L.; Niinikoski, P.; Itävaara, M.; Kukkonen, I. T.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon is a key element for life. One of the most interesting forms of carbon is methane, as it is both consumed and produced by microorganisms. Methane has also several possible ways of abiotic origin, some of which could provide understanding of the origin of life itself. The study of methane is thus important in order to understand deep subsurface ecosystems such as those found in the 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole within the Precambrian Fennoscandian Shield in eastern Finland. There rock types differ from graphite-bearing mica schist and black schist to serpentinite and pegmatitic granodiorite and saline, gas-rich water, with up to 32 mmol l-1 of methane, and residence times of tens of millions of years occupies the fracture zones which host diverse microbial life, including methanogenic archaea. In order to understand methane systematics in crystalline bedrock, we analysed several forms of carbon, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), methane and ethane from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole for their isotopic composition. In addition, isotopic compositions of water and hydrogen were determined. The results show that hydrogen is in isotopic equilibrium in the system H2O-H2-CH4 at ambient temperatures, which could either indicate equilibration due to long residence time or relatively recent production of methane in situ. Therefore hydrogen is not a very useful indicator for the origin of methane in this case. Carbon isotope analysis shows that both methane and DIC becomes generally more enriched in 13C with depth, which could indicate higher amounts of microbial methane in the upper part of the bedrock. Based on carbon isotope composition, two types of ethane can be discerned. Taken all the evidence together, this leads us to suggest that at least two mechanisms are responsible for the methane production in Outokumpu: 1) Biotic which comprise most of methane and 2) abiotic which dominates in the deeper parts of the bedrock. The former type may include

  20. A Volcanic Environment for Bedrock Diagenesis at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Exposed bedrocks at Meridiani Planum on Mars display chemical and mineralogical evidence suggesting interaction with liquid water. Based on the observed bedding morphology, crystal vugs, varying Br:Cl ratios, as well as high abundances of hematite and sulfate minerals, the rocks have been interpreted by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) team as sedimentary/evaporite deposits. However, the composition of the Meridiani bedrocks indicates that the formation model advocated by the MER team is not plausible. If the sulfates were attributable to precipitation of salts from an evaporating brine the rocks would be enriched in a balancing cation (e.g., Ca, Mg, or Fe) but this is not observed. Ratios of cations including Fe, Mg, Ca, and Na to (Si + Al) in the rocks are nearly identical to the basaltic martian meteorite Shergotty, and also very similar to unweathered basaltic rocks at Meridiani and Gusev Crater. The compositional data strongly suggest that the Meridiani rocks represent typical martian basalt with a sulfur component added. Here, we propose an alternative model for diagenesis of Meridiani bedrock that involves deposition of volcanic ash followed by reaction with condensed SO2- and H2O-bearing vapors in a solfatara-like setting. We suggest that volcanic deposition may account for the textures observed in Meridiani rocks since morphologic bedding features including sorted grains, planar bedding, low-angle cross-stratification, festoon bedding, and ripple lamination are common in base surge deposits of ash on Earth. The lath-shaped vugs may be the remains of ferrous sulfates (or mixed Fe-Mg-Ca sulfates) formed in the early stages of alteration that became unstable during oxidation. Widely varying Br:Cl ratios are also common in solfatara environments on Earth. In this scenario, most of the alteration of the rocks likely occurred at high temperatures (~100° C or higher), possibly soon after the volcaniclastic deposits were emplaced and still retained their original

  1. Relationships of soil, grass, and bedrock over the Kaweah Serpentinite Melange through spectral mixture analysis of AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.

    1993-01-01

    A linear mixing model is used to model the spectral variability of an AVIRIS scene from the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada and calibrate these radiance data to reflectance. Five spectral endmembers from the AVIRIS data, plus an ideal 'shade' endmember were required to model the continuum reflectance of each pixel in the image. Three of the endmembers were interpreted to model the surface constituents green vegetation, dry grass, and illumination. Comparison of the fraction images to the bedrock geology maps indicates that substrate composition must be a factor contributing to the spectral properties of these endmembers. Detailed examination of the reflectance spectra of the three soil endmembers reveals that differences in the amount of ferric and ferrous iron and/or organic constituents in the soils is largely responsible for the differences in spectral properties of these endmembers.

  2. Thermally-controlled luminescence signals from bedrock K-feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, N.; Rhodes, E. J.; Harrison, M.

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of electron-trapping sites within the crystal lattice of K-feldspar which are naturally filled by ionizing radiation is strongly dependent on temperature. Given that optically or thermally stimulated luminescence derives from these trapped electrons, luminescence signals from bedrock K-feldspar can be measured to determine whether a sample is in thermal steady state or disequilibrium. We therefore examine the natural degree of saturation for samples taken from: a) drill cores in regions which have been thermally static for most of the Cenozoic Era; b) a transect across a glacial valley which was excavated during the Last Glacial Maximum; and c) a rapidly-uplifting tectonic block along the San Andreas Fault. Finally, the utility of these signals for the purpose of low-temperature thermochronology is considered in terms of closure dynamics.

  3. Amplified Erosion above Waterfalls and Oversteepened Bedrock Reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Stone, J.; Matmon, A.; Fifield, K. L.

    2005-12-01

    Although waterfalls are abundant along steep bedrock channels, none of the conventional erosion laws can predict incision at the lip of a waterfall where flow is non-uniform and bed slope can be vertical. Considering the expected increase in flow velocity and shear stress at the lip of a vertical waterfall we determine erosion amplification at a waterfall lip as: Elip/Enormal= (1+0.4/Fr2)3n, where Fr is the Froude number and n ranges between 0.5-1.7. This amplification expression suggests that erosion at the lip could be as much as 2-5 times higher than normally expected in a setting with identical hydraulic geometry. It also demonstrates that a freefall is expected to amplify upstream incision rates even when the flow approaching the waterfall is highly supercritical. Utilizing this erosion amplification expression in numerical simulations in conjunction with a standard detachment-limited incision model we demonstrate its impact on reach-scale morphology above waterfalls. These simulations indicate that amplified erosion at the lip of a waterfall can trigger the formation of an oversteepened reach whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone, provided incision velocity (Vi) at the edge of the flow acceleration zone is higher than the retreat velocity of the waterfall face. Such an oversteepened reach is expected to be more pronounced when Vi increases with increasing slope. The simulations also suggest that oversteepening can eventually lead to quasi steady-state gradients upstream from a waterfall provided Vi decreases with increasing slope. Flow acceleration above waterfalls can thus account, at least partially, for oversteepened bedrock reaches that are prevalent above waterfalls. Such reaches have been reported for the escarpments of southeast Australia, western Dead Sea, and at Niagara Falls. Using the cosmogenic isotope 36Cl we demonstrate that Vi upstream of a waterfall at the Dead Sea western escarpment is high enough for freefall

  4. Geomorphology of the Alluvial Sediments and Bedrock in an Intermontane Basin: Application of Variogram Modeling to Electrical Resistivity Soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Farid, Asam; Akhter, Gulraiz; Munir, Khyzer; Small, James; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2016-05-01

    The study describes a methodology used to integrate legacy resistivity data with limited geological data in order to build three-dimensional models of the near subsurface. Variogram analysis and inversion techniques more typically found in the petroleum industry are applied to a set of 1D resistivity data taken from electrical surveys conducted in the 1980s. Through careful integration with limited geological data collected from boreholes and outcrops, the resultant model can be visualized in three dimensions to depict alluvium layers as lithological and structural units within the bedrock. By tuning the variogram parameters to account for directionality, it is possible to visualize the individual lithofacies and geomorphological features in the subsurface. In this study, an electrical resistivity data set collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Peshawar basin in Pakistan has been re-examined. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with local outcrop information to calibrate the data. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny has caused uplift in the area and generated significant faulting in the bedrock resulting in the formation of depressions which are identified by low resistivity values representing clays. Paleo-streams have reworked these clays which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along paleo-channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan-shaped bodies and lacustrine deposits with interlayered gravel-sand and clay-silt facies. The Naranji area aquifer system has thus been formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition and is characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities.

  5. The evolution of stream coupled hillslopes by bedrock landsliding in a rapidly eroding mountain belt, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenske, Dirk; Jen, Chia-Hung; Böse, Margot; Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2010-05-01

    dataset collected allows estimations for the erosion depth of the bedrock landslide derived material. A comparison between the two study sites allows to study the mechanisms of hillslope channel coupling under the influence of different fluvial dynamics. References Hovius,N., Stark,C.P., Chu, H.-T.,& Lin, J.-C. (2000): The Journal of Geology, 2000 (108), 73-89 Lin, J.-C., Petley, D., Jen, C.-H., Koh, A. & Hsu, M.-L. (2006): Slope movements in a dynamic environment - A case study of Tachia River, Central Taiwan. - Quaternary International 147 (1), 103-112

  6. Preconditioning of the Eibsee rock avalanche by deglaciation and development of critical bedrock stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Hofmayer, Felix; Kessler, Barbara; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The impact of glacier retreat on rock slope instability since the Last Glacial Maximum is the subject of ongoing debate. Rock slope activity since ice retreat is typically attributed to increased kinematic freedom as a result of erosion during glaciation, debuttressing of valley walls which may have been supported by glacier ice, specific patterns of Holocene seismicity, or an exposure of rock slopes to increased chemical and biological weathering during the present interglacial. Here, rather than looking for a particular driver or trigger for rock slope instability, we evaluate the potential for rock mass degradation in response to an increase in tensile stress or micro-cracking in critically stressed near-surface bedrock (0 - 2 km depth). Instead of focusing on a specific driver, this allows us to identify regions in which fracture development is likely to be ongoing, and slope stability is therefore decreasing with time. Combining two orthogonal cross-sections, we evaluate stress changes and fracture development in the Zugspitze region of the Wetterstein Mountains (southern Germany) using an elasto-plastic 2-D FEM model (Phase2 from Rocscience). Based on geological evidence, we reconstruct the 3-D topography of the former Zugspitze peak, prior to what we estimate to be a 165 Mm3 collapse (previously dated at 3700 B.P.). We then impose initial stress conditions consistent with the tectonic and exhumation history of the region, as well as rock mechanical attributes derived from a fracture survey of the Zugspitzplatt and results of standard laboratory testing of Wettersteinkalk, the dominant lithology in the region. By imposing ice loading through a series of glacial-interglacial cycles, we are able to generate, and maintain critical stresses and low levels of fracture propagation beneath the Zugspitzplatt and at the location of the rock avalanche release throughout deglaciation, supporting our field observations. We then simulate weathering near the model surface

  7. Bedrock Nitrogen and Hydrothermal Ammonium in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, J. M.; Bohlke, J. K.; Nordstrom, D. K.

    2003-12-01

    High ammonium concentrations in some of the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (up to 880 mg L-1 as N at Washburn Hot Springs) have been attributed to leaching of sedimentary rock by hydrothermal solutions. However, relatively little is known about the direct relationship between rock geochemistry in volcanic centers and nitrogen in thermal waters. For this study, a suite of core samples from US Geological Survey drill holes in Yellowstone National Park were characterized for nitrogen and carbon in different lithologies. These data were related to the aqueous geochemistry and δ 15N-NH4+ of thermal waters in different hot spring basins in the park to better understand the water-rock interactions. Core samples selected for study included tuff, water-reworked volcanic sediments, glacial sediment, lacustrine sedimentary rock, and marine sedimentary rock. Substantial amounts of nitrogen were present in all bedrock types, with the highest nitrogen concentrations measured in marine sedimentary rocks (430-830 mg N kg-1) from Y10, which is located at Mammoth Hot Springs. Although the underlying bedrock has elevated nitrogen concentrations, hydrothermal ammonium concentrations at Mammoth Hot Springs are relatively low (~1 mg L-1 as N). These solutions are buffered by carbonate (pH >8) and may have lost some N by volatilization as ammonia gas. Thermal waters in Norris Geyser Basin are acid to circumneutral with ammonium concentrations ranging from <0.03 to 80 mg L-1 as N. Nitrogen in tuffs (400-620 mg N kg-1) from drill holes Y9 and Y12 at Norris Geyser Basin may be present as a result of ammonium partitioning from solution to zeolites or other secondary minerals. Thermal waters sampled at Mammoth, Norris, and other geyser basins in the park varied widely in ammonium concentrations and isotopic compositions (δ 15N), from <0.3 to 450 mg L-1 as N and -5 to +25‰ , respectively. The isotope data are interpreted to reflect multiple processes, including leaching of

  8. Landscape Attributes in the Santa Cruz Mountains Reflect Underlying Bedrock Lithology Rather Than Tectonic Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsdottir, M. H.; Levine, N. M.; Hilley, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    This contribution explores the impact of tectonic deformation and exposure of different lithologies on the topographic structure of the Santa Cruz Mountains (SCM), CA. The asymmetric topography of the SCM has been ascribed to the advection of material southwest of the right-lateral San Andreas Fault through a restraining bend, while material northwest of the fault remains trapped in the zone of contraction resulting from the fault’s restraining geometry. Low-temperature thermochronology of samples from this range, as well as catchment-averaged 10Be-derived denudation rates, are consistent with this tectonic model. We used a 10-m-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) created from 1:24,000 Digital Line Graphs of topography and hydrography of the SCM and a 2-m-resolution Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) dataset for a portion of the SCM to calculate topographic metrics such as channel steepness, mean hillslope angle, mean hillslope concavity, local relief, and residual relief. Catchment-averaged 10Be-derived denudation rates from basins southwest of the fault decrease systematically from 0.60 to 0.15 mm/yr with distance north of the bend; these rates correlate well with available measures of uplift rate. Channel steepness throughout catchments of the SCM ranges from 1 x 10-2 km to 1 km and is not strongly correlated with denudation rates. In contrast, channel steepness can be differentiated according to bedrock lithology based on visual inspection and a two-sided Student's t-test, with abrupt changes in steepness sometimes occurring across pronounced lithologic boundaries. Additionally, local hillslope values in the range vary strongly over small length-scales, but can be generally differentiated according to the underlying geologic substrates. In some cases, bands of near-constant hillslope correspond to the extent and location of individual strata within geologic units. While millennial time-scale denudation rates are unavailable for the Sierra Azul portion

  9. Reconnaissance geologic mapping in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using the Earth Resources Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Zochol, F. W.; Smithson, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reconnaissance geologic mapping can be done with 60-70% accuracy in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using ERTS-1 imagery. Bedrock geology can be mapped much better than unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. Mapping of bedrock geology is facilitated by lack of vegetation, whereas mapping of Quaternary deposits is hindered by lack of vegetation. Antarctic images show remarkable clarity and under certain conditions (moderate relief, selection of the optimum band for specific rock types, stereo-viewing) irregular contacts can be mapped in local areas that are amazing like those mapped at a scale of 1:25,000, but, of course, lack details due to resolution limitations. ERTS-1 images should be a valuable aid to Antarctic geologists who have some limited ground truth and wish to extend boundaries of geologic mapping from known areas.

  10. GEOCHEMICAL PATTERNS OF ARSENIC-ENRICHED GROUND WATER IN FRACTURED, CRYSTALLINE BEDROCK, NORTHPORT, MAINE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    High arsenic concentrations of up 26.6 µmol/L (1990 µg/L) occur in ground water collected from a fractured-bedrock system composed of sulfidic schist with granitic to dioritic intrusions. The bedrock is the source of the As within the ground water, but the presence of arsenopyrit...

  11. Geology of Damon Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    Geological investigation of the stratigraphy, cap-rock characteristics, deformation and growth history, and growth rate of a shallow coastal diapir. Damon Mound salt dome, located in Brazoria County, has salt less than 600 feet and cap rock less than 100 feet below the surface; a quarry over the dome provides excellent exposures of cap rock as well as overlying Oligocene to Pleistocene strata. These conditions make it ideal as a case study for other coastal diapirs that lack bedrock exposures. Such investigations are important because salt domes are currently being considered by chemical waste disposal companies as possible storage and disposal sites. In this book, the author reviews previous research, presents additional data on the subsurface and surface geology at Damon Mound, and evaluates Oligocene to post-Pleistocene diapir growth.

  12. Geological map of the vineyards of southern Burgenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Maria; Untersweg, Thomas; Reitner, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    During the study a detailed geological map of the vineyards of southern Burgenland was created. The detailed fieldwork was carried out with hand augers and boreholes, augmented by sampling of soil and bedrock and mineralogical, clay mineralogical, sedimentological and geochemical analysis of the samples, to amend existing small-scale maps on soil and geology. With these results the variation of chemical composition and grain size distribution can be described. These will support winegrowers and consultants in taking viticultural measures such as choosing stock and varieties and provide means to enhance the delineation of the vineyards.

  13. Landslides and engineering geology of the Seattle, Washington, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    This volume brings together case studies and summary papers describing the application of state-of-the-art engineering geologic methods to landslide hazard analysis for the Seattle, Washington, area. An introductory chapter provides a thorough description of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of Seattle. Nine additional chapters review the history of landslide mapping in Seattle, present case studies of individual landslides, describe the results of spatial assessments of landslide hazard, discuss hydrologic controls on landsliding, and outline an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides.

  14. Digital geologic map of Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Wahl, Ronald R.

    1999-01-01

    The geology coverage was developed from the 1972 USGS Geologic Map of Yellowstone National Park. It contains polygons of bedrock formations, dikes, and faults. Errors in the 1972 map were corrected and an area outside the Park boundary on the west and south was added. Attributes attached to each polygon include a formation code, formation name, formation age, and a generalized unit name. Line attributes include water, contacts, and faults. Updated information includes a break down of Tertiary, and Quaternary volcanic rock units.

  15. The Natural Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Potential of Rocky Mountain Soils Derived From Volcanic Bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, D. B.; Burchell, A.; Johnson, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    The possible economic and environmental ramifications of climate change have stimulated a range of atmospheric carbon mitigation actions, as well as, studies to understand and quantify potential carbon sinks. However, current carbon management strategies for reducing atmospheric emissions underestimate a critical component. Soils represent between 18 - 30% of the terrestrial carbon sink needed to prevent atmospheric doubling of CO2 by 2050 and a crucial element in mitigating climate change, natural terrestrial sequestration (NTS), is required. NTS includes all naturally occurring, cumulative, biologic and geologic processes that either remove CO2 from the atmosphere or prevent net CO2 emissions through photosynthesis and microbial fixation, soil formation, weathering and adsorption or chemical reactions involving principally alumino- ferromagnesium minerals, volcanic glass and clays. Additionally, NTS supports ecosystem services by improving soil productivity, moisture retention, water purification and reducing erosion. Thus, 'global climate triage' must include the protection of high NTS areas, purposeful enhancement of NTS processes and reclamation of disturbed and mined lands. To better understand NTS, we analyzed soil-cores from Colorado, Rocky Mountain Cordillera sites. North-facing, high-plains to alpine sites in non-wetland environments were selected to represent temperate soils that may be less susceptible to carbon pool declines due to global warming than soils in warmer regions. Undisturbed soils sampled have 2 to 6 times greater total organic soil carbon (TOSC) than global TOSC averages (4 - 5 Wt. %). Forest soils derived from weathering of intermediate to mafic volcanic bedrock have the highest C (34.15 Wt. %), C:N (43) and arylsulfatase (ave. 278, high 461 μg p-nitrophenol/g/h). Intermediate TOSC was identified in soils derived from Cretaceous shale (7.2 Wt. %) and Precambrian, felsic gneiss (6.2 Wt. %). Unreclaimed mine-sites have the lowest C (0

  16. Using domestic well records to determine fractured bedrock watersheds and recharge rates.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Meredith J; Robbins, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an approach for delineating groundwater basins and estimating rates of recharge to fractured crystalline bedrock. It entailed the use of completion report data (boring logs) from 2500 domestic wells in bedrock from the Coventry Quadrangle, which is located in northeastern Connecticut and characterized by metamorphic gneiss and schist. Completion report data were digitized and imported into ArcGIS(®) for data analysis. The data were processed to delineate groundwater drainage basins for the fractured rock based on flow conditions and to estimate groundwater recharge to the bedrock. Results indicate that drainage basins derived from surface topography, in general, may not correspond with bedrock drainage basins due to scale. Estimates of recharge to the bedrock for the study area indicate that only a small fraction of the precipitation or the amount of water that enters the overburden recharges the rock. The approach presented here can be a useful method for water resource-related assessments that involve fractured rock aquifers.

  17. Climate and lithological control on fluvial bedrock incision in an active mountain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, K.; Hovius, N.; Dade, W. B.; Slingerland, R.

    2003-04-01

    Of all geomorphological processes, the creation of mountain landscapes is among the most spectacular. Tectonic uplift, climate, and denudation of active mountain belts are in themselves large-scale processes, but the link between these, bedrock river channel incision, can be measured at the rate of millimetres per year. Fluvial bedrock incision creates relief, controls local base-level, and drives mass wasting of adjacent hillslopes. Key questions in the study of fluvial bedrock incision include the mechanisms and processes driving fluvial bedrock incision, and how bedrock incision shapes relief and affects local hillslopes. The focus of this study is on precise real-time measurement of bedrock incision rates, observation of wear styles, processes and distribution in bedrock channels, and connection between bedrock channel erosion and the surrounding landscapes. Erosion rates were measured in three lithologies over two wet seasons and two dry seasons in a catchment in the eastern Central Mountain Range in Taiwan. As well as keeping pace with longer-term estimations of uplift and denudation, our results show variable patterns of wear style and distribution under different flow conditions. Rare, large floods tend to widen the channel, while common low to moderate flows incise and deepen the channel. We also observe a strong lithological control on process and style of wear, which in turn affects the resulting geometry of the bedrock channel. Narrower, steeper channels tend to be associated with massive lithologies, and wider channels with foliated or jointed lithologies. Both of these observations have implications for connection of the bedrock channel to the adjacent hillslopes, and therefore control in some part the process of hillslope mass-wasting.

  18. Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along an emergent coastline as elucidated by repetitive sonar surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Fregoso, T.A.; Golden, N.E.; Finlayson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important siliclastic bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, 45.8% of which was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analyses of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing wave-induced near-bed shear stress, seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to sedimentation and erosion burying or exhuming bedrock, respectively. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to changes in sediment grain size when scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or the burial of coarser-grained sand and gravel by fine-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) burial and exhumation of nearshore bedrock reefs along rocky, energetic inner shelves occurs over seasonal timescales and appears related to intrinsic factors such as seabed morphology and extrinsic factors such as wave forces, and (b) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphologic and sedimentologic nature of these types of environments that typify most of the Pacific Ocean and up to 50% of the world's coastlines.

  19. Geologic Map of the Atlin Quadrangle, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Ford, Arthur B.

    2009-01-01

    This map presents the results of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geologic bedrock mapping studies in the mostly glacier covered Atlin 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, northern southeastern Alaska. These studies are part of a long-term systematic effort by the USGS to provide bedrock geologic and mineral-resource information for all of southeastern Alaska, covering all of the Tongass National Forest (including Wilderness Areas) and Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Some contributions to this effort are those concerned with southwesternmost part of the region, the Craig and Dixon Entrance quadrangles (Brew, 1994; 1996) and with the Wrangell-Petersburg area (Brew, 1997a-m; Brew and Grybeck, 1997; Brew and Koch, 1997). As shown on the index map (fig. 1), the study area is almost entirely in the northern Coast Mountains adjacent to British Columbia, Canada. No previous geologic map has been published for the area, although Brew and Ford (1985) included a small part of it in a preliminary compilation of the adjoining Juneau quadrangle; and Brew and others (1991a) showed the geology at 1:500,000 scale. Areas mapped nearby in British Columbia and the United States are also shown on figure 1. All of the map area is in the Coast Mountains Complex as defined by Brew and others (1995a). A comprehensive bibliography is available for this and adjacent areas (Brew, 1997n).

  20. Generalizing geological maps with the GeoScaler software: The case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnoff, Alex; Huot-Vézina, Gabriel; Paradis, Serge J.; Boivin, Ruth

    2012-03-01

    Map generalization is rapidly becoming an important task in surficial and bedrock geology as broader regional and cross-boundary compilations are made from maps originally describing more specific areas. However, the entire process is still not defined in sufficient detail and relatively few automated tools are available. Moreover, the existing tools are primarily designed for generalization of topographic maps and do not address the needs specific to geology. Here we present two case studies describing our approach to the generalization of surficial and bedrock geology maps, respectively. To accomplish the task, we employed the GeoScaler software developed at the Laboratoire de cartographie numérique et de photogrammétrie (LCNP) of the Quebec division of the Geological Survey of Canada (Version 2009). The software is free over the Internet but requires an ArcGIS (ArcInfo) license. Four surficial geology maps at 1:250,000 scale were produced from 14 maps scaled at 1:100,000, while a single compilation of six bedrock maps was generalized from 1:125,000 to 1:500,000 scale. We describe the general considerations required to approach any generalization exercise, applied software, objectives, input data, major generalization steps, and the final results. All generalized maps were favorably evaluated by experts in geological mapping and the surficial maps have been published.

  1. On the reliability of manually produced bedrock lineament maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Jarna, Alexandra; Gasser, Deta; Łapinska-Viola, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Manual extraction of topographic features from digital elevation models (DEMs) is a commonly used technique to produce lineament maps of fractured basement areas. There are, however, several sources of bias which can influence the results. In this study we investigated the influence of the factors (a) scale, (b) illumination azimuth and (c) operator on remote sensing results by using a LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) DEM of a fractured bedrock terrain located in SW Norway. Six operators with different backgrounds in Earth sciences and remote sensing techniques mapped the same LiDAR DEM at three different scales and illuminated from three different directions. This resulted in a total of 54 lineament maps which were compared on the basis of number, length and orientation of the drawn lineaments. The maps show considerable output variability depending on the three investigated factors. In detail: (1) at larger scales, the number of lineaments drawn increases, the line lengths generally decrease, and the orientation variability increases; (2) Linear features oriented perpendicular to the source of illumination are preferentially enhanced; (3) The reproducibility among the different operators is generally poor. Each operator has a personal mapping style and his/her own perception of what is a lineament. Consequently, we question the reliability of manually produced bedrock lineament maps drawn by one person only and suggest the following approach: In every lineament mapping study it is important to define clear mapping goals and design the project accordingly. Care should be taken to find the appropriate mapping scale and to establish the ideal illumination azimuths so that important trends are not underrepresented. In a remote sensing project with several persons included, an agreement should be reached on a given common view on the data, which can be achieved by the mapping of a small test area. The operators should be aware of the human perception bias. Finally

  2. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  3. Anthropogenic impacts on a bedrock aquifer at the village scale.

    PubMed

    Kozuskanich, John C; Novakowski, Kent S; Anderson, Bruce C; Crowe, Allan S; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on assessing groundwater potability in a highly complex and heterogeneous fractured bedrock aquifer having variable overburden cover. Eight monitoring wells were installed in a privately serviced lakeside village, and groundwater was routinely sampled over a 2-year timeframe for concentration analysis of nitrate, fecal indicator bacteria, stable isotopes, and a total of 41 pharmaceutical compounds. While pollutant concentrations remained low throughout the study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria and pharmaceuticals was noted at least once (but not always consistently) in most sampling intervals. An interpretation based on the integration of chemical, bacterial, and site characterization datasets suggests that: (1) the fracture network is complex and heterogeneous with limited vertical connectivity; (2) existing pathways are sufficient for the quick and widespread migration of surface contaminants to depth; (3) anthropogenic contaminants from both septic systems and agriculture are likely sourced in the surrounding uplands where overburden is thin; and (4) fecal contamination, as observed over the long term, is ubiquitous at the village scale. Groundwater quality is continually changing in this hydrogeologic environment and the determination of potability on the larger scale is not likely to be adequately captured with infrequent domestic well sampling (i.e., voluntary annual sampling by homeowners).

  4. Fluoride concentrations in a crystalline bedrock aquifer Marathon County, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsvath, David L.

    2006-05-01

    Water samples from 2,789 private water-supply wells in Marathon County, Wisconsin reveal that fluoride concentrations in the crystalline bedrock range from <0.01 to 7.60 mg/L, with 0.6% of the values exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) maximum contaminant level of 4 mg/L, and 8.6% exceeding the EPA’s secondary maximum contaminant level of 2.0 mg/L. Roughly a quarter of the wells contain dissolve fluoride within the range considered optimal for human health (between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L), whereas 63.3% fall below 0.5 mg/L. Consistent with studies conducted in other regions, felsic rocks have significantly higher fluoride concentrations than mafic and metasedimentary rocks. Syenites yield the most fluoriferous groundwaters, but the highest median concentration occurs in a sodium-plagioclase granite. A relationship between plagioclase composition and fluoride concentrations suggests that dissolved fluoride levels are controlled by fluorite solubility and that higher fluoride concentrations are found in soft, sodium-rich groundwater.

  5. Protistan predation affects trichloroethene biodegradation in a bedrock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Joseph J; Kinner, Nancy E; Lewis, Maureen

    2009-12-01

    Despite extensive research on the bottom-up force of resource availability (e.g., electron donors and acceptors), slow biodegradation rates and stalling at cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride continue to be observed in aquifers contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE). The objective of this research was to gauge the impact of the top-down force of protistan predation on TCE biodegradation in laboratory microcosms. When indigenous bacteria from an electron donor-limited TCE-contaminated bedrock aquifer were present, the indigenous protists inhibited reductive dechlorination altogether. The presence of protists during organic carbon-amended conditions caused the bacteria to elongate (length:width, > or =10:1), but reductive dechlorination was still inhibited. When a commercially available dechlorinating bacterial culture and an organic carbon amendment were added in he presence of protists, the elongated bacteria predominated and reductive dechlorination stalled at cDCE. When protists were removed under organic carbon-amended conditions, reductive dechlorination stalled at cDCE, whereas in the presence organic carbon and bacterial amendments, the total chlorinated ethene concentration decreased, indicating TCE was converted to ethene and/or CO2. The data suggested that indigenous protists grazed dechlorinators to extremely low levels, inhibiting dechlorination altogether. Hence, in situ bioremediation/bioaugmentation may not be successful in mineralizing TCE unless the top-down force of protistan predation is inhibited.

  6. Vegetation and wildfire controls on sediment yield in bedrock landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibiase, Roman A.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2013-03-01

    rocky landscapes commonly exhibit high sediment yields and are especially sensitive to climate, tectonics, and wildfire. Predicting landscape response to these perturbations demands a quantitative understanding of erosion processes. However, existing models for hillslope sediment production and transport do not apply to landscapes with patchy soil and slopes that exceed the angle for sediment stability. Here we present field measurements in southern California, USA, which indicate that sediment storage on steep slopes is enabled by vegetation that traps sediment upslope. We find that the storage capacity of unburned vegetation dams follows a geometric scaling model with a cubic dependence on effective plant width and an inverse dependence on local slope. Measured sediment volumes behind burned vegetation dams indicate a loss of at least 75% relative to unburned dams, and when expanded to the catchment scale, our measurements match records of postfire sediment yield from nearby retention basins. Contrary to existing models, our observations indicate that wildfire-induced sediment yield is driven by transient storage and release of sediment by vegetation dams, rather than increased bedrock-to-soil conversion rates. Without a feedback between soil production and wildfire, fire may play little role in long-term landscape evolution, and increasing fire frequency in response to climate change may not result in heightened sedimentation hazards due to supply limitations.

  7. Application of shuttle imaging radar to geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labotka, T. C.

    1986-01-01

    Images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar - B (SIR-B) experiment covering the area of the Panamint Mountains, Death Valley, California, were examined in the field and in the laboratory to determine their usefulness as aids for geologic mapping. The covered area includes the region around Wildrose Canyon where rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Cenozoic form a moderately rugged portion of the Panamint Mountains, including sharp ridges, broad alluviated upland valleys, and fault-bounded grabens. The results of the study indicate that the available SIR-B images of this area primarily illustrate variations in topography, except in the broadly alluviated areas of Panamint Valley and Death Valley where deposits of differing reflectivity can be recognized. Within the mountainous portion of the region, three textures can be discerned, each representing a different mode of topographic expression related to the erosion characteristics of the underlying bedrock. Regions of Precambrian bedrock have smooth slopes and sharp ridges with a low density of gullies. Tertiary monolithologic breccias have smooth, steep slopes with an intermediate density of gullies with rounded ridges. Tertiary fanglomerates have steep rugged slopes with numerous steep-sided gullies and knife-sharp ridges. The three topographic types reflect the consistancy and relative susceptibility to erosion of the bedrock; the three types can readily be recognized on topographic maps. At present, it has not been possible to distinguish on the SIR-B image of the mountainous terrain the type of bedrock, independent of the topographic expression.

  8. Investigation of the structure and lithology of bedrock concealed by basin fill, using ground-based magnetic-field-profile data acquired in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the Earth’s total-intensity magnetic field acquired near ground level and at measurement intervals as small as 1 m include information on the spatial distribution of nearsurface magnetic dipoles that in many cases are unique to a specific lithology. Such spatial information is expressed in the texture (physical appearance or characteristics) of the data at scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers. These magnetic textures are characterized by several descriptive statistics, their power spectrum, and their multifractal spectrum. On the basis of a graphical comparison and textural characterization, ground-based magnetic-field profile data can be used to estimate bedrock lithology concealed by as much as 100 m of basin fill in some cases, information that is especially important in assessing and exploring for concealed mineral deposits. I demonstrate that multifractal spectra of ground-based magnetic-field-profile data can be used to differentiate exposed lithologies and that the shape and position of the multifractal spectrum of the ground-based magnetic-field-profile of concealed lithologies can be matched to the upward-continued multifractal spectrum of an exposed lithology to help distinguish the concealed lithology. In addition, ground-based magnetic-field-profile data also detect minute differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks over small horizontal and vertical distances and so can be used for precise modeling of bedrock geometry and structure, even when that bedrock is concealed by 100 m or more of nonmagnetic basin fill. Such data contain valuable geologic information on the bedrock concealed by basin fill that may not be so visible in aeromagnetic data, including areas of hydrothermal alteration, faults, and other bedrock structures. Interpretation of these data in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona, has yielded results for estimating concealed lithologies, concealed structural geology, and a concealed potential mineral

  9. Geologic information from satellite images. [geological interpretation of ERTS-1 and Skylab multispectral photography of Rocky Mountain areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photointerpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familar shapes and patterns. It is possible to optimize the scale, format, spectral bands, conditions of acquisition, and sensor systems for best geologic interpretation. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  10. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  11. Simulation of bedrock groundwater dynamics in a distributed rainfall-runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayama, T.; Iwami, Y.; Kosugi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies have shown that bedrock groundwater may play an important role to control the dynamics of the saturated subsurface flow in humid and steep mountainous regions. However many of existing hydrologic models typically assume impermeable bedrock and simulate saturated subsurface flow as a dominant runoff process. The objective of this study is to develop a simple groundwater model for mountainous bedrock aquifer incorporated to a distributed rainfall-runoff model to assess the importance of the bedrock groundwater for hydrologic simulations. The proposed model assumes the exponential-decline hydraulic conductivity in the bedrock to avoid defining the unknown bottom boundary. For the soil layer, it employs a stage-discharge relationship to simulate the unsaturated and saturated subsurface flows and surface flow. The developed model was applied to two Japanese catchments with weathered granite and sedimentary bedrock. We evaluated the simulation not only by the agreement with observed hydrographs but also in terms of the characteristics of their recessions and dynamic storage changes. Compared to the sedimentary rock catchment, the granite rock catchment showed stronger hysteresis in the recession and also dynamic storage change and discharge relationship estimated from the observed discharge. The original model with only surface soil layer failed to simulate these patterns, while the proposed model with groundwater component improved significantly the representation of the special patterns. Our study indicated the importance of bedrock groundwater for controlling lateral subsurface flow in particular the granite catchment we studied here.

  12. Case study: Hydrogeology, contaminant transport, and remediation in an anisotropic, fractured bedrock ground-water system

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, L.F.; Robertson, C.G. )

    1993-10-01

    The site has a 30-year history of low-volume halogenated solvent usage and is located in an area of New York underlain by mica schist bedrock which is covered by glacial deposits. Dilute waste-water releases resulted in a 2,000-foot long plume of dissolved volatile organic compounds, the shape of which reflects the control of bedrock fractures on ground-water flow conditions. The site has a large number of bedrock monitoring points with 34 bedrock monitoring wells located in or near the plume, including nine bedrock monitoring well clusters. Constant rate aquifer tests of at least 36-hour duration were conducted at five bedrock wells at various positions within the plume. Remediation to date consists of three years of bedrock ground-water withdrawal at near-source and downgradient locations for hydraulic control and areal reduction of the plume. The combined drawdown produced by these two pumping centers conforms to the drawdown predicted by the additive drawdowns observed in individual aquifer tests. VOC concentrations within the plume are decreasing rapidly with some wells experiencing a reduction in VOC concentrations of greater than 90%. The plume area has been reduced by approximately 50%.

  13. Isotopic Evidence for Microbial Activity in Crystalline Bedrock Fractures - a Case Study from Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlstedt, E. K.; Karhu, J.; Pitkänen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the geochemical environment in crystalline bedrock fractures were investigated using the stable isotopes of C, O and S in fracture filling minerals as tracers. Of special interest were the possible changes which may occur in the subsurface at low temperatures. Especially, the influence of microbial activity was recognized as a catalyst for inducing changes in the geochemical environment. The study site is the Olkiluoto island located on the western coast of Finland, planned to host a geological repository for nuclear waste. Fracture surfaces were investigated to recognize the latest mineralizations at the site. These fillings were comprised of thin plates or small euhedral crystals of calcite and pyrite. The carbon and sulfur isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite were measured from bulk material by conventional IRMS, and in situ by secondary ion mass spectrometry. A notable feature of the late-stage fillings was high variabilities in the δ13C values of calcite and the δ34S values of pyrite, which ranged from -53.8 ‰ to +31.6 ‰ and from -50.4 ‰ to +77.7 ‰, respectively. Based on the isotopic compositions of the fillings, several features in the past hydrogeochemical environment could be recognized. The isotopic composition of the fracture fillings indicate an environment which was stratified with respect to depth. Characteristic features include bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) occurring at depths <111 m (bsl), and a methanogenetic environment at depths >50 m. It appears that methanic conditions were replaced by sulfate reduction at depths >50 m likely due to infiltration of SO42--rich brackish waters. Sulfate reducing bacteria used mainly surface derived organic carbon as electron donors. Some indication of minor methanotrophic activity was recognized in anomalously low δ13C values of calcite, down to -53.8 ‰, at the depth range of 34-54 m. This methanotrophic activity may have been related to bacteria using CH4 as an electron donor in

  14. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the bedrock beneath the East Antarctic ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.S.; Hackney, R.I.; Bannister, S.; Stern, T.A.; Makovsky, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), the largest noncontractional mountain belt in the world, have become the focus of modelers who explained their uplift by a variety of isostatic and thermal mechanisms. A problem with these models is a lack of available data to compare with model predictions. We report here the results of a 312-km-long geophysical traverse conducted in 1993/1994 in the hinterland of the TAM. Using detailed subglacial topography and gravity measurements, we confirm the origin of the TAM as a flexural uplift of the edge of East Antarctica. Using an elastic model with a free edge, we can jointly fit the topography and the gravity with a plate having an elastic thickness of 85 ?? 15 km and a preuplift elevation of 700 ?? 50 m for East Antarctica. Using a variety of evidence, we argue that the uplift is coincident with a relatively minor tectonic event of transtensional motion between East and West Antarctica during the Eocene rather than the Late Cretaceous rifting event that created the Ross Embayment. We suggest that this transtensional motion caused the continuous plate to break, which created an escarpment that significantly increased the rates of erosion and exhumation. Results from the geophysical traverse also extend our knowledge of the bedrock geology from the exposures within the TAM to the ice covered interior. Our interpretation suggests that the Ferrar flood basalts extend at least 100 km westward under the ice. The Beacon Supergroup of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments thins gradually under the ice and its reconstructed thickness is reminiscent of profiles of foreland basins. Finally, there is no indication in the gravity field for an incomplete rebound due to significant melting of the East Antarctic ice sheet since the last glacial period.

  15. Interpreting tracer breakthrough tailing from different forced-gradient tracer experiment configurations in fractured bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, M.W.; Shapiro, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual and mathematical models are presented that explain tracer breakthrough tailing in the absence of significant matrix diffusion. Model predictions are compared to field results from radially convergent, weak-dipole, and push-pull tracer experiments conducted in a saturated crystalline bedrock. The models are based upon the assumption that flow is highly channelized, that the mass of tracer in a channel is proportional to the cube of the mean channel aperture, and the mean transport time in the channel is related to the square of the mean channel aperture. These models predict the consistent -2 straight line power law slope observed in breakthrough from radially convergent and weak-dipole tracer experiments and the variable straight line power law slope observed in push-pull tracer experiments with varying injection volumes. The power law breakthrough slope is predicted in the absence of matrix diffusion. A comparison of tracer experiments in which the flow field was reversed to those in which it was not indicates that the apparent dispersion in the breakthrough curve is partially reversible. We hypothesize that the observed breakthrough tailing is due to a combination of local hydrodynamic dispersion, which always increases in the direction of fluid velocity, and heterogeneous advection, which is partially reversed when the flow field is reversed. In spite of our attempt to account for heterogeneous advection using a multipath approach, a much smaller estimate of hydrodynamic dispersivity was obtained from push-pull experiments than from radially convergent or weak dipole experiments. These results suggest that although we can explain breakthrough tailing as an advective phenomenon, we cannot ignore the relationship between hydrodynamic dispersion and flow field geometry at this site. The design of the tracer experiment can severely impact the estimation of hydrodynamic dispersion and matrix diffusion in highly heterogeneous geologic media.

  16. Impact of modeling Choices on Inventory and In-Cask Criticality Calculations for Forsmark 3 BWR Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S.; Ade, Brian J.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Gauld, Ian C.; Ilas, Germina; Marshall, William BJ J.

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel depletion poses a challenge for nuclide inventory validation and nuclear criticality safety analyses. This challenge is due to the complex operating conditions and assembly design heterogeneities that characterize these nuclear systems. Fuel depletion simulations and in-cask criticality calculations are affected by (1) completeness of design information, (2) variability of operating conditions needed for modeling purposes, and (3) possible modeling choices. These effects must be identified, quantified, and ranked according to their significance. This paper presents an investigation of BWR fuel depletion using a complete set of actual design specifications and detailed operational data available for five operating cycles of the Swedish BWR Forsmark 3 reactor. The data includes detailed axial profiles of power, burnup, and void fraction in a very fine temporal mesh for a GE14 (10×10) fuel assembly. The specifications of this case can be used to assess the impacts of different modeling choices on inventory prediction and in-cask criticality, specifically regarding the key parameters that drive inventory and reactivity throughout fuel burnup. This study focused on the effects of the fidelity with which power history and void fraction distributions are modeled. The corresponding sensitivity of the reactivity in storage configurations is assessed, and the impacts of modeling choices on decay heat and inventory are addressed.

  17. A bottom-up control on fresh-bedrock topography under landscapes.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Daniella M; Dietrich, William E

    2014-05-01

    The depth to unweathered bedrock beneath landscapes influences subsurface runoff paths, erosional processes, moisture availability to biota, and water flux to the atmosphere. Here we propose a quantitative model to predict the vertical extent of weathered rock underlying soil-mantled hillslopes. We hypothesize that once fresh bedrock, saturated with nearly stagnant fluid, is advected into the near surface through uplift and erosion, channel incision produces a lateral head gradient within the fresh bedrock inducing drainage toward the channel. Drainage of the fresh bedrock causes weathering through drying and permits the introduction of atmospheric and biotically controlled acids and oxidants such that the boundary between weathered and unweathered bedrock is set by the uppermost elevation of undrained fresh bedrock, Zb. The slow drainage of fresh bedrock exerts a "bottom up" control on the advance of the weathering front. The thickness of the weathered zone is calculated as the difference between the predicted topographic surface profile (driven by erosion) and the predicted groundwater profile (driven by drainage of fresh bedrock). For the steady-state, soil-mantled case, a coupled analytical solution arises in which both profiles are driven by channel incision. The model predicts a thickening of the weathered zone upslope and, consequently, a progressive upslope increase in the residence time of bedrock in the weathered zone. Two nondimensional numbers corresponding to the mean hillslope gradient and mean groundwater-table gradient emerge and their ratio defines the proportion of the hillslope relief that is unweathered. Field data from three field sites are consistent with model predictions.

  18. A bottom-up control on fresh-bedrock topography under landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Rempe, Daniella M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The depth to unweathered bedrock beneath landscapes influences subsurface runoff paths, erosional processes, moisture availability to biota, and water flux to the atmosphere. Here we propose a quantitative model to predict the vertical extent of weathered rock underlying soil-mantled hillslopes. We hypothesize that once fresh bedrock, saturated with nearly stagnant fluid, is advected into the near surface through uplift and erosion, channel incision produces a lateral head gradient within the fresh bedrock inducing drainage toward the channel. Drainage of the fresh bedrock causes weathering through drying and permits the introduction of atmospheric and biotically controlled acids and oxidants such that the boundary between weathered and unweathered bedrock is set by the uppermost elevation of undrained fresh bedrock, Zb. The slow drainage of fresh bedrock exerts a “bottom up” control on the advance of the weathering front. The thickness of the weathered zone is calculated as the difference between the predicted topographic surface profile (driven by erosion) and the predicted groundwater profile (driven by drainage of fresh bedrock). For the steady-state, soil-mantled case, a coupled analytical solution arises in which both profiles are driven by channel incision. The model predicts a thickening of the weathered zone upslope and, consequently, a progressive upslope increase in the residence time of bedrock in the weathered zone. Two nondimensional numbers corresponding to the mean hillslope gradient and mean groundwater-table gradient emerge and their ratio defines the proportion of the hillslope relief that is unweathered. Field data from three field sites are consistent with model predictions. PMID:24760824

  19. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age underlie the entire northern Great Plains of the United States. These rocks form 5 artesian aquifer systems that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming and extend more than 600 miles to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in the Canadian Province of Manitoba. Generally, the principal direction of flow in each aquifer is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of geologic structure, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Major fracture systems or lineaments traverse the geologic section and are either vertical or horizontal conduits, or barriers to, groundwater flow. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale of minimal permeability, halite beds, and stratigraphic traps or minimal-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. Interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments. During the Pleistocene Epoch, thick ice sheets completely covered the discharge areas of the bedrock aquifers. This effectively blocked flow northeastward from the system and, at some locations, it may have caused a reversal of flow. The existing flow, system therefore, may not have reached hydrologic equilibrium with the stress of the last glacial period. (USGS)

  20. Land-Surface Subsidence and Open Bedrock Fractures in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackett, William R.; Gleason, Gayle C.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Open bedrock fractures were mapped in and near two brine field areas in Tully Valley, New York. More than 400 open fractures and closed joints were mapped for dimension, orientation, and distribution along the east and west valley walls adjacent to two former brine fields. The bedrock fractures are as much as 2 feet wide and over 50 feet deep, while linear depressions in the soil, which are 3 to 10 feet wide and 3 to 6 feet deep, indicate the presence of open bedrock fractures below the soil. The fractures are probably the result of solution mining of halite deposits about 1,200 feet below the land surface.

  1. Map showing depth to bedrock in the Seattle 30' by 60' Quadrangle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yount, J.C.; Dembroff, G.R.; Barats, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Bedrock throughout the Seattle quadrangle is presumed to be volcanic rock, conglomerate, Sandstone, or Shale and is Tertiary in age. With the exception of a few reports of age or lithology collected from oil wells (Livingston, 1958), the subsurface information used for this map sheds little light on the nature and distribution of the various Tertiary rocks in the subsurface. It is assumed, on the basis of pronounced lithologic differences in drill holes and widespread unconformable relationships with underlying bedrock units seen in marine seismic reflection profiles, that the deposits overlying bedrock are Quaternary in age, but no direct dating of materials has been done to confirm this assumption.

  2. Gravity survey and depth to bedrock in Carson Valley, Nevada-California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity data were obtained from 460 stations in Carson Valley, Nevada and California. The data have been interpreted to obtain a map of approximate depth to bedrock for use in a ground-water model of the valley. This map delineates the shape of the alluvium-filled basin and shows that the maximum depth to bedrock exceeds 5,000 feet, on the west side of the valley. A north-south trending offset in the bedrock surface shows that the Carson-Valley/Pine-Nut-Mountain block has not been tilted to the west as a simple unit, but is comprised of several smaller blocks. (USGS)

  3. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  4. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant to groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.

  5. Ultramafic-derived arsenic in a fractured bedrock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, P.C.; Kim, J.; Wall, A.J.; Moen, J.C.; Corenthal, L.G.; Chow, D.R.; Sullivan, C.M.; Bright, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    In the fractured bedrock aquifer of northern Vermont, USA, As concentrations in groundwater range from <1 to 327??g/L (<13-4360nm/L) and these elevated occurrences have a general spatial association with ultramafic rock bodies. The ultramafic rocks in this region are comprised mainly of serpentinites and talc-magnesite rocks with average As concentration of 93ppm and a range from 1 to 1105ppm. By comparison, the other main lithologies in the study area are depleted in As relative to the ultramafics: the average As concentration in metabasaltic rocks is 4.1ppm with a range of <1-69ppm, and mean As concentration in meta-sedimentary phyllites and schists is 22ppm with a range of <1-190ppm. In the ultramafic rocks, As is correlated with Sb and light rare earth elements, indicating that As was introduced to the ultramafic rocks during metasomatism by fluids derived from the subducting slab. Evidence from sequential chemical extraction, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stoichiometric analysis indicates that the majority of the As is located in antigorite and magnesite (MgCO3) with lesser amounts in magnetite (Fe3O4). Hydrochemistry of monitoring wells drilled into fractured ultramafic rock in a groundwater recharge area with no anthropogenic As source reveals above background As (2-9??g/L) and an Mg-HCO3 hydrochemical signature that reflects dissolution of antigorite and magnesite, confirming that As in groundwater can be derived from ultramafic rock dissolution. Arsenic mobility in groundwater affected by ultramafic rock dissolution may be enhanced by alkaline pH values and relatively high HCO3- concentrations. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Soil phosphate stable oxygen isotopes across rainfall and bedrock gradients.

    PubMed

    Angert, Alon; Weiner, Tal; Mazeh, Shunit; Sternberg, Marcelo

    2012-02-21

    The stable oxygen isotope compositions of soil phosphate (δ(18)O(p)) were suggested recently to be a tracer of phosphorus cycling in soils and plants. Here we present a survey of bioavailable (resin-extractable or resin-P) inorganic phosphate δ(18)O(p) across natural and experimental rainfall gradients, and across soil formed on sedimentary and igneous bedrock. In addition, we analyzed the soil HCl-extractable inorganic δ(18)O(p), which mainly represents calcium-bound inorganic phosphate. The resin-P values were in the range 14.5-21.2‰. A similar range, 15.6-21.3‰, was found for the HCl-extractable inorganic δ(18)O(p), with the exception of samples from a soil of igneous origin that show lower values, 8.2-10.9‰, which indicate that a large fraction of the inorganic phosphate in this soil is still in the form of a primary mineral. The available-P δ(18)O(p) values are considerably higher than the values we calculated for extracellular hydrolysis of organic phosphate, based on the known fractionation from lab experiments. However, these values are close to the values expected for enzymatic-mediated phosphate equilibration with soil-water. The possible processes that can explain this observation are (1) extracellular equilibration of the inorganic phosphate in the soil; (2) fractionations in the soil are different than the ones measured at the lab; (3) effect of fractionation during uptake; and (4) a flux of intercellular-equilibrated inorganic phosphate from the soil microbiota, which is considerably larger than the flux of hydrolyzed organic-P.

  7. Simulation of ground-water flow to assess geohydrologic factors and their effect on source-water areas for bedrock wells in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J. Jeffrey; Stone, Janet Radway

    2005-01-01

    Generic ground-water-flow simulation models show that geohydrologic factors?fracture types, fracture geometry, and surficial materials?affect the size, shape, and location of source-water areas for bedrock wells. In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Public Health, ground-water flow was simulated to bedrock wells in three settings?on hilltops and hillsides with no surficial aquifer, in a narrow valley with a surficial aquifer, and in a broad valley with a surficial aquifer?to show how different combinations of geohydrologic factors in different topographic settings affect the dimensions and locations of source-water areas in Connecticut. Three principal types of fractures are present in bedrock in Connecticut?(1) Layer-parallel fractures, which developed as partings along bedding in sedimentary rock and compositional layering or foliation in metamorphic rock (dips of these fractures can be gentle or steep); (2) unroofing joints, which developed as strain-release fractures parallel to the land surface as overlying rock was removed by erosion through geologic time; and (3) cross fractures and joints, which developed as a result of tectonically generated stresses that produced typically near-vertical or steeply dipping fractures. Fracture geometry is defined primarily by the presence or absence of layering in the rock unit, and, if layered, by the angle of dip in the layering. Where layered rocks dip steeply, layer-parallel fracturing generally is dominant; unroofing joints also are typically well developed. Where layered rocks dip gently, layer-parallel fracturing also is dominant, and connections among these fractures are provided only by the cross fractures. In gently dipping rocks, unroofing joints generally do not form as a separate fracture set; instead, strain release from unroofing has occurred along gently dipping layer-parallel fractures, enhancing their aperture. In nonlayered and variably

  8. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  9. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  10. Experimental study of bedrock channel alluviation under varied sediment supply and hydraulic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatanantavet, Phairot; Parker, Gary

    2008-12-01

    Channel incision into bedrock plays a critical role in mountain landscape evolution. A bed that is completely alluviated cannot undergo incision. As a result, incision driven by the collision of bedload grains and bedrock requires transport at below-capacity conditions (for example, where the bed is partially covered by alluvium). In a mechanistic model of bedrock incision, it is important to have a formula describing the relationship between the bedload transport rate and the degree to which the bed is covered by sediment. The purpose of this work is to understand the mechanisms underlying the degree of bed exposure in bedrock rivers by means of an experimental study. A number of experiments with various hydraulic and morphological bed conditions were performed in order to characterize this model. Here we focus on planar bedrock beds with some roughness. The results suggest that the sediment supply, channel slope, hydraulic bed roughness, the degree of areal coverage, and thickness of antecedent gravel in the channel, as well as the presence of boulders in the channel are major factors controlling bedrock exposure. For sufficiently low ratios of sediment supply to transport capacity, it was found that bedrock roughness can play a role in determining the degree of bedrock exposure. For higher sediment ratios, on the other hand, the composite roughness associated with grain roughness, bars, and/or antidunes dominates, so that the underlying bedrock roughness no longer affects the degree of exposure of the bed. For lower bed slopes (i.e., less than 0.015, based on our experimental setting), bedrock exposure decreases more or less linearly with increasing values of the ratio of sediment supply rate to capacity rate. For higher bed slopes (i.e., more than 0.015), there is a range of lower values of the ratio of sediment supply rate to capacity rate where a bedrock surface becomes fully exposed without any alluvial deposit. For a given bedrock roughness, this range

  11. Graffiti for science: Qualitative detection of erosional patterns through bedrock erosion painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Alexander R.; Kirchner, James W.; Turowski, Jens M.

    2016-04-01

    Bedrock erosion is a crucial constraint on stream channel incision, and hence whole landscape evolution, in steep mountainous terrain and tectonically active regions. Several interacting processes lead to bedrock erosion in stream channels, with hydraulic shear detachment, plucking, and abrasion due to sediment impacts generally being the most efficient. Bedrock topography, together with the sediment tools and cover effects, regulate the rate and spatial pattern of in situ surface change. Measurements of natural bedrock erosion rates are valuable for understanding the underlying process physics, as well as for modelling landscape evolution and designing engineered structures. However, quantifying spatially distributed bedrock erosion rates in natural settings is challenging and few such measurements exist. We studied spatial bedrock erosion in a 30m-long bedrock gorge in the Gornera, a glacial meltwater stream above Zermatt. This stream is flushed episodically with sediment-laden streamflow due to hydropower operations upstream, with negligible discharge in the gorge in between these flushing events. We coated several bedrock surface patches with environmentally safe, and water-insoluble outdoor paint to document the spatial pattern of surface abrasion, or to be more precise, to document its driving forces. During four consecutive years, the change of the painted areas was recorded repeatedly with photographs before the painting was renewed. These photographs visually documented the spatial patterns of vertical erosion (channel incision), of lateral erosion (channel widening) and of downstream-directed erosion (channel clearance). The observed qualitative patterns were verified through comparison to quantitative change detection analyses based on annual high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning surveys of the bedrock surfaces. Comparison of repeated photographs indicated a temporal cover effect and a general height limit of the tools effect above the streambed

  12. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  13. Denitrification and dilution along fracture flowpaths influence the recovery of a bedrock aquifer from nitrate contamination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonathan J; Comstock, Jeff; Ryan, Peter; Heindel, Craig; Koenigsberger, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    In 2000, elevated nitrate concentrations ranging from 12 to 34mg/L NO3N were discovered in groundwater from numerous domestic bedrock wells adjacent to a large dairy farm in central Vermont. Long-term plots and contours of nitrate vs. time for bedrock wells showed "little/no", "moderate", and "large" change patterns that were spatially separable. The metasedimentary bedrock aquifer is strongly anisotropic and groundwater flow is controlled by fractures, bedding/foliation, and basins and ridges in the bedrock surface. Integration of the nitrate concentration vs. time data and the physical and chemical aquifer characterization suggest two nitrate sources: a point source emanating from a waste ravine and a non-point source that encompasses the surrounding fields. Once removed, the point source of NO3 (manure deposited in a ravine) was exhausted and NO3 dropped from 34mg/L to <10mg/L after ~10years; however, persistence of NO3 in the 3 to 8mg/L range (background) reflects the long term flux of nitrates from nutrients applied to the farm fields surrounding the ravine over the years predating and including this study. Inferred groundwater flow rates from the waste ravine to either moderate change wells in basin 2 or to the shallow bedrock zone beneath the large change wells are 0.05m/day, well within published bedrock aquifer flow rates. Enrichment of (15)N and (18)O in nitrate is consistent with lithotrophic denitrification of NO3 in the presence of dissolved Mn and Fe. Once the ravine point-source was removed, denitrification and dilution collectively were responsible for the down-gradient decrease of nitrate in this bedrock aquifer. Denitrification was most influential when NO3N was >10mg/L. Our multidisciplinary methods of aquifer characterization are applicable to groundwater contamination in any complexly-deformed and metamorphosed bedrock aquifer. PMID:27355518

  14. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  15. Topographic roughness as a signature of the emergence of bedrock in eroding landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milodowski, D. T.; Mudd, S. M.; Mitchard, E. T. A.

    2015-10-01

    Rock is exposed at the Earth surface when rates of erosion locally exceed rates of soil production. The thinning of soils and emergence of bedrock has implications spanning geomorphology, ecology and hydrology. Soil-mantled hillslopes are typically shaped by diffusion-like sediment transport processes that act to smooth topography through time, generating the familiar smooth, convex hillslope profiles that are common in low relief landscapes. Other processes, however, can roughen the landscape. Bedrock emergence can produce rough terrain; in this contribution we exploit the contrast between rough patches of bedrock outcrop and smooth, diffusion-dominated soil to detect bedrock outcrops. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local variability of surface normal vectors, measured from 1 m resolution airborne LiDAR data, can be used as a topographic signature to identify areas within landscapes where rock exposure is present. We then use this roughness metric to investigate the transition from soil-mantled to bedrock hillslopes as erosion rates increase in two transient landscapes, Bald Rock Basin, which drains into the Middle Fork Feather River, California, and Harrington Creek, a tributary of the Salmon River, Idaho. Rather than being abrupt, as predicted by traditional soil production models, in both cases the transition from fully soil-mantled to bedrock hillslopes is gradual and spatially heterogeneous, with rapidly eroding hillslopes supporting a patchwork of bedrock and soil that is well documented by changes in topographic roughness, highlighting the utility of this metric for testing hypotheses concerning the emergence of bedrock and adding to a growing body of evidence that indicates the persistence of partial soil mantles in steep, rapidly eroding landscapes.

  16. Denitrification and dilution along fracture flowpaths influence the recovery of a bedrock aquifer from nitrate contamination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonathan J; Comstock, Jeff; Ryan, Peter; Heindel, Craig; Koenigsberger, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    In 2000, elevated nitrate concentrations ranging from 12 to 34mg/L NO3N were discovered in groundwater from numerous domestic bedrock wells adjacent to a large dairy farm in central Vermont. Long-term plots and contours of nitrate vs. time for bedrock wells showed "little/no", "moderate", and "large" change patterns that were spatially separable. The metasedimentary bedrock aquifer is strongly anisotropic and groundwater flow is controlled by fractures, bedding/foliation, and basins and ridges in the bedrock surface. Integration of the nitrate concentration vs. time data and the physical and chemical aquifer characterization suggest two nitrate sources: a point source emanating from a waste ravine and a non-point source that encompasses the surrounding fields. Once removed, the point source of NO3 (manure deposited in a ravine) was exhausted and NO3 dropped from 34mg/L to <10mg/L after ~10years; however, persistence of NO3 in the 3 to 8mg/L range (background) reflects the long term flux of nitrates from nutrients applied to the farm fields surrounding the ravine over the years predating and including this study. Inferred groundwater flow rates from the waste ravine to either moderate change wells in basin 2 or to the shallow bedrock zone beneath the large change wells are 0.05m/day, well within published bedrock aquifer flow rates. Enrichment of (15)N and (18)O in nitrate is consistent with lithotrophic denitrification of NO3 in the presence of dissolved Mn and Fe. Once the ravine point-source was removed, denitrification and dilution collectively were responsible for the down-gradient decrease of nitrate in this bedrock aquifer. Denitrification was most influential when NO3N was >10mg/L. Our multidisciplinary methods of aquifer characterization are applicable to groundwater contamination in any complexly-deformed and metamorphosed bedrock aquifer.

  17. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  18. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model of the regional flow system and incorporates the results of geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic studies. Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age form at least five artesian aquifers that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The aquifers extend for more than 600 mi to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in Manitoba. In general, the direction of flow in each aquifer is east to northeast, but flow is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of brine (200,000-350,000 mg/l), halite beds, geologic structures, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Fracture systems and lineaments transverse the entire area and act either as conduits or as barriers to ground-water flow, depending on their hydrogeologic and geochemical history. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale with low permeability, by halite beds, and by stratigraphic traps or low-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. However, interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments and fractures. Interaquifer leakage may be a major consideration in determining the quality of water produced from wells.

  19. Rate estimates for lateral bedrock erosion based on radiocarbon ages, Duck River, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Brakenridge, G.R.

    1985-02-01

    Rates of bedrock erosion in ingrown meandering rivers can be inferred from the location of buried relict flood-plain and river-bank surfaces, associated paleosols, and radiocarbon dates. Two independent methods are used to evaluate the long-term rates of limestone bedrock erosion by the Duck River. Radiocarbon dates on samples retrieved from buried Holocene flood-plain and bank surfaces indicate lateral migration of the river bank at average rates of 0.6-1.9 m/100 yr. Such rates agree with lateral bedrock cliff erosion rates of 0.5-1.4 m/100 yr, as determined from a comparison of late Pleistocene and modern bedrock cliff and terrace scarp positions. These results show that lateral bedrock erosion by this river could have occurred coevally with flood-plain and terrace formation and that the resulting evolution of valley meander bends carved into bedrock is similar in many respects to that of channel meanders cut into alluvium. 11 references, 5 figures.

  20. Modeling of strategies for performance monitoring of groundwater contamination at sites underlain by fractured bedrock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaming; Smith, Leslie; Beckie, Roger

    2012-06-01

    A three dimensional flow and transport modeling using FRAC3DVS was undertaken to examine factors which influence plume detection in a performance monitoring network for a site where an unconfined aquifer composed of uniform unconsolidated sediments overlies fractured bedrock. The bedrock is assumed to contain a fracture system with three orthogonal fracture sets embedded in a low permeable homogeneous rock matrix. A dissolved phase, non-reactive contaminant is released from a source zone located at the ground surface. The processes which influence plume geometry, and probabilities of plume detection for a performance monitoring network located between the contaminant source and a downstream compliance boundary, are evaluated. Factors considered include the hydraulic conductivity of the unconfined aquifer, the geometric properties of the fracture network and the matrix permeability of the bedrock, and the contaminant detection threshold concentration. The simulations demonstrate that the character of the fracture network not only controls contaminant transport and plume detection in the bedrock but also influences plume detection in the overlying unconfined aquifer. The ratio of the hydraulic conductivity of the unconfined aquifer to the effective hydraulic conductivity of the fractured bedrock, and the contaminant detection threshold concentration, are principal factors influencing detection probability in the performance monitoring network. Results suggest that in many instances encountered in field practice, the unconfined aquifer and fractured bedrock should be viewed as an integrated hydrogeologic system from a monitoring perspective.

  1. Geologic Map of the House Rock Quadrangle, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Wellmeyer, Jessica L.; Block, Debra L.

    2001-01-01

    This digital map database is compiled from unpublished data and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of surficial and bedrock geology in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying pamphlet, it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area. The database dilineate map units that are identified by age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  2. Geologic Map of the House Rock Spring Quadrangle, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Hampton, Haydee M.

    2001-01-01

    This digital map database is compiled from unpublished data and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of surficial and bedrock geology in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying pamphlet, it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area. The database delineate map units that are identified by age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  3. Quantifying fluvial bedrock erosion using repeat terrestrial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kristen

    2013-04-01

    The Da'an River Gorge in western Taiwan provides a unique opportunity to observe the formation and evolution of a natural bedrock gorge. The 1.2 km long and up to 20 m deep gorge has formed since 1999 in response to uplift of the riverbed during the Chi-Chi earthquake. The extremely rapid pace of erosion enables us to observe both downcutting and channel widening over short time periods. We have monitored the evolution of the gorge since 2009 using repeat RTK GPS surveys and terrestrial Lidar scans. GPS surveys of the channel profile are conducted frequently, with 24 surveys to date, while Lidar scans are conducted after major floods, or after 5-9 months without a flood, for a total of 8 scans to date. The Lidar data are most useful for recording erosion of channel walls, which is quite episodic and highly variable along the channel. By quantifying the distribution of wall erosion in space and time, we can improve our understanding of channel widening processes and of the development of the channel planform, particularly the growth of bends. During the summer of 2012, the Da'an catchment experienced two large storm events, a meiyu (plum rain) event on June 10-13 that brought 800 mm of rain and a typhoon on August 1-3 that brought 650 mm of rain. The resulting floods had significant geomorphic effects on the Da'an gorge, including up to 10s of meters of erosion in some sections of the gorge walls. We quantify these changes using Lidar surveys conducted on June 7, July 3, and August 30. Channel wall collapses also occur in the absence of large floods, and we use scans from August 23, 2011 and June 7, 2012 to quantify erosion during a period that included a number of small floods, but no large ones. This allows us to compare the impact of 9 months of normal conditions to the impact of short-duration extreme events. The observed variability of erosion in space and time highlights the need for 3D techniques such as terrestrial Lidar to properly quantify erosion in this

  4. Laboratory measurements of grain-bedrock interactions using inertial sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Hodge, Rebecca; Valyrakis, Manousos; Drysdale, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Sediment transport in steep mountain streams is characterized by the movement of coarse particles (diameter c.100 mm) over beds that are not fully sediment-covered. Under such conditions, individual grain dynamics become important for the prediction of sediment movement and subsequently for understanding grain-bedrock interaction. Technological advances in micro-mechanical-electrical systems now provide opportunities to measure individual grain dynamics and impact forces from inside the sediments (grain inertial frame of reference) instead of trying to infer them indirectly from water flow dynamics. We previously presented a new prototype sensor specifically developed for monitoring sediment transport [Maniatis et al. EGU 2014], and have shown how the definition of the physics of the grain using the inertial frame and subsequent derived measurements which have the potential to enhance the prediction of sediment entrainment [Maniatis et al. 2015]. Here we present the latest version of this sensor and we focus on beginning of the cessation of grain motion: the initial interaction with the bed after the translation phase. The sensor is housed in a spherical case, diameter 80mm, and is constructed using solid aluminum (density = 2.7 kg.m-3) after detailed 3D-CAD modelling. A complete Inertial Measurement Unit (a combination of micro- accelerometer, gyroscope and compass) was placed at the center of the mass of the assembly, with measurement ranges of 400g for acceleration, and 1200 rads/sec for angular velocity. In a 0.9m wide laboratory flume, bed slope = 0.02, the entrainment threshold of the sensor was measured, and the water flow was then set to this value. The sensor was then rolled freely from a static cylindrical bar positioned exactly on the surface of the flowing water. As the sensor enters the flow we record a very short period of transport (1-1.5 sec) followed by the impact on the channel bed. The measured Total Kinetic Energy (Joules) includes the

  5. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  6. Geologic map of the Yacolt quadrangle, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evarts, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    . The largest glacier(s) covered the entire map area north of the East Fork Lewis River except for the summit of Yacolt Mountain. As the ice receded, it left behind a sculpted bedrock topography thickly mantled by drift, and deposited outwash in the fault-bounded valley at Yacolt and along the East Fork Lewis River valley. This map is a contribution to a program designed to improve geologic knowledge of the Portland Basin region of the Pacific Northwest urban corridor, the densely populated Cascadia forearc region of western Washington and Oregon. More detailed information on the bedrock and surficial geology of the basin and its surrounding area is necessary to refine assessments of seismic risk, ground-failure hazards and resource availability in this rapidly growing region.

  7. Reconnaissance geologic map and geochemical analyses of stream-sediment and rock samples of the Anchorage A-6 quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.; Yount, Martha E.

    1972-01-01

    Grateful acknowledgement is given to several persons who made valuable contributions to this report. They include Henry R. Schmoll and Ernest Dobrovolny who mapped the contacts between bedrock and surficial deposits shown in figure 1, David L. Jones who did the paleontological studies, and Susan R. Bartsch and Pamela S. Morse who participated in the geologic mapping and geochemical sampling.

  8. Computation of bedrock-aquifer recharge in northern Westchester County, New York, and chemical quality of water from selected bedrock wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolcott, Stephen W.; Snow, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An empirical technique was used to calculate the recharge to bedrock aquifers in northern Westchester County. This method requires delineation of ground-water divides within the aquifer area and values for (1) the extent of till and exposed bedrock within the aquifer area, and (2) mean annual runoff. This report contains maps and data needed for calculation of recharge in any given area within the 165square-mile study area. Recharge was computed by this technique for a 93-square-mile part of the study area and used a ground-water-flow model to evaluate the reliability of the method. A two-layer, steady-state model of the selected area was calibrated. The area consists predominantly of bedrock overlain by small localized deposits of till and stratified drill Ground-water-level and streamflow data collected in mid-November 1987 were used for model calibration. The data set approximates average annual conditions. The model was calibrated from (1) estimates of recharge as computed through the empirical technique, and (2) a range of values for hydrologic properties derived from aquifer tests and published literature. Recharge values used for model simulation appear to be reasonable for average steady-state conditions. Water-quality data were collected from 53 selected bedrock wells throughout northern Westchester County to define the background ground-water quality. The constituents and properties for which samples were analyzed included major cations and anions, temperature, pH, specific conductance, and hardness. Results indicate little difference in water quality among the bedrock aquifers within the study area. Ground water is mainly the calcium-bicarbonate type and is moderately hard. Average concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, iron, and manganese were within acceptable limits established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for domestic water supply.

  9. Logic tree-based GIS inference of geologic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, Charles C.; Anderson, Thomas S.

    2007-10-01

    We describe the concept for a logic-tree based geographic information system (GIS) that can infer subsurface geology and material properties using geoinformatics concepts. A proof-of-concept system was devised and tested integrating the capabilities of traditional terrain- and image-analysis procedures with a GIS to manipulate geospatial data. Structured logic trees were developed to guide an analyst through an interactive, geologic analysis based on querying and mentoring heuristic logic. The hypotheses were that a GIS can be programmed to 1) follow the fundamental logic sequence developed for traditional terrain- and image analysis procedures; 2) augment that sequence with correlative geospatial data from a variety of sources; and 3) integrate the inferences and data to develop "best-guess" estimates. We also developed a method to estimate depth to bedrock, and expanded an existing method to determine water table depth. Blind evaluations indicate that an analyst can infer the correct geologic conditions 70-80% of the time using this method. This geologic analysis technique can be applied wherever an estimate of subsurface geology is needed. We apply the results of our geological analysis to the prediction of local site specific seismic propagation. Comparisons are made with synthetic seismograms computed from a limited set of geological vignettes.

  10. Bedrock erosion surface beneath the rocky flats alluvial fan, Jefferson and Boulder counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    The early Pleistocene Rocky Flats alluvial fan formed at the mouth of unglaciated Coal Creek Canyon along the eastern flank of the Colorado Front Range. The fan consists of boulder, cobble, and pebble gravel deposited on an erosional surface cut on tilted Mesozoic sedimentary strata. A north-trending hogback of steeply dipping Cretaceous Laramie Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone is exposed through the gravel across the central portion of the fan. Elevations on the gravel-bedrock contact were used in a GIS to reconstruct the bedrock surface at the base of the gravel, providing a glimpse of the geomorphology of the early Pleistocene Colorado Piedmont. The reconstructed erosional bedrock surface portrays a landscape carved by a series of easterly flowing streams that eroded headward to the resistant hogback units, creating a bedrock step up to 37 m high. East-trending ridges on the bedrock surface are remnants of drainage divides between the Pleistocene streams. Water gaps in the bedrock step allowed the streams access to the upper surface of the step. This entire surface, except the hogback, was covered by gravel about 1.35 to 1.5 Ma ago. Subsequent erosion of the alluvial fan has been by headward (westward) erosion of easterly flowing streams incising into the eastern portion of the fan. Because the gravel is more resistant than the underlying bedrock, modern streams are established over the Pleistocene drainage divides, where the gravel was thinnest. Thicker gravel in the Pleistocene paleovalleys now caps modern drainage divides, producing an inverted topography.

  11. Bedform genesis and evolution in bedrock substrates: a new experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Yin, N.; Peakall, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms have focused on aggradational bedforms within cohesionless sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform genesis and evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. The study presented here details experiments that involve the genesis and formation of erosional bedform features within natural (soft clay) cohesive sediment beds and analogue bedrock substrates by modelling clay under the effect of both open-channel plain water flows, and sediment-laden flows. A new approach without using plaster-of-Paris or real bedrock developed provides a feasible method to simulate the genesis and evolution of the erosional bedforms in cohesive sediment beds and sculpted forms in bedrock channels on relatively short time-scales in the laboratory by using a realistic substrate substitute.A series of flume experiments are presented herein where the undrained shear strength of two different kinds of substrate material is systematically varied under constant flow conditions. Experiments using plain water flow indicated that erosive bedforms in cohesive sediment substrate cannot be produced only under the effect of sediment-free flow. Particulate-laden flows do form erosional bedforms in both kinds of clay beds and the shear strength of the bed material plays a key role in determining the diversity of erosional features forming on such substrates. Optimisation of modelling clay beds has enabled us to successfully replicate a suite of bedrock bedforms, including potholes, flutes, longitudinal furrows, etc., that have clear equivalents to those observed in bedrock rivers and contributed to investigate the genesis and evolution process of them and explore the flow structures within and above them in experimental analogue bedrock substrate for the first time.

  12. Channel form and processes in bedrock and alluvial reaches of the Raritan River, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Gail M.; Renwick, William H.; Haag, Gary H.

    1988-05-01

    Fluvial geomorphologists have generally considered alluvial and bedrock channels to be fundamentally different in character, alluvial channels being shaped by sediment-transport processes and bedrock channels being shaped by structural and lithologic controls. This study examines a 12-km bedrock-floored reach of the Raritan River that separates two gravel-bed reaches, above and below. The bedrock channel has a patchy veneer of sandy gravel that covers the bed in areas of low slope but elsewhere consists of lateral bars and discrete, two-dimensional gravel bed forms perched on bedrock. Mean B-axes of the 25 largest clasts on the crests of these bed forms range from 10.4 to 13.8 cm. Shear stresses estimated from measured velocity profiles and depth-slope calculations indicate that most clasts on the bed forms are entrained by the bankfull discharge (290 m/s) which is equaled or exceeded about 1%of the time. The thalweg of the 80-m-wide channel is incised about 0.5 to 0.7 m, and it meanders with a wavelength of about 750 m, or approximately 10 times channel width. This thalweg meander wavelength is consistent with reference to drainage area when compared to channel meander wavelengths in other locations within the basin and is similar to that in other rivers of comparable dimensions and discharge. The bedrock-alluvial reach is similar to alluvial channels with reference to meander geometry and sediment distribution. It occupies an intermediate position on a continuum of channels-of varying sediment supply in relation to transport capacity, ranging from alluvial channels to those completely formed in bedrock.

  13. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  14. Practical petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

  15. Gusev Crater Geology as Seen from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to explore the 'Columbia Hills' within Gusev Crater, scientists are planning to take a closer look for layered rocks in a steep valley straight ahead before directing the rover to turn south toward the summit of 'Husband Hill.' Two of the geologic formations the six-wheeled robotic geologist has discovered during 2004 are shown here. One is labeled 'Columbia Hills material,' representing bedrock of the higher slopes and peaks, and one is labeled 'transition zone material,' representing rocks that are gradational in character and composition between the hills to the east and the plains to the west. The map also shows Spirit's line of travel through the rover's 344th martian day, or sol (Dec. 21, 2004), beginning on the left edge at about the 182nd sol (July 7, 2004).

  16. Constraining bedrock erosion during extreme flood events: case study of Jökulsá á Fjöllum, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baynes, E.; Attal, M.; Dugmore, A.; Kirstein, L. A.; Niedermann, S.; Lague, D.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme flood events are characterised by very high discharges, potentially exceeding 10^6 m^3/s, over a short period of time. They can result from varied causes including landslide dam failure, glacial lake outbursts, subglacial volcanic eruptions and powerful typhoons. While these events are rare on a human timescale, they are common over geological time. During these events, the energy transferred to the land surface has the potential to significantly modify the shape of the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the impact of such events is thus crucial to understand the genesis and evolution of landscapes that bear the evidence of shaping by flowing fluids, in either terrestrial or extra-terrestrial contexts. This study aims to constrain the amounts, spatial distribution and processes of bedrock erosion during extreme flood events using three complementary approaches: topographic analysis, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (3He, 21Ne) dating and experimental analogue modelling. The Jökulsá á Fjöllum is a major river that flows north from the Vatnajökull icecap, Iceland. This river has experienced numerous outburst floods, termed ';jökulhlaups', of varying magnitude during the Holocene, the largest one reaching a modelled peak discharge of ~0.9 x 10^6 m^3/s. The route of Jökulsá á Fjöllum, particularly the Jökulsárgljúfur gorge system and Ásbyrgi, a large dry canyon (3 km long, ~0.5 km wide, up to 90 m deep), exhibits numerous topographic features that testify to the action of such extreme flood events. Detailed topographic survey of the gorge and landforms associated with the jökulhlaups, such as cataracts, mega-dunes and scablands, combined with the dating of abandoned strath terrace surfaces will allow quantification of the amount and spatial distribution of erosion during jökulhlaups and thus give some insight into the mechanisms of gorge formation and knickpoint migration. Different strath terrace surfaces within the Jökulsárgljúfur gorge

  17. Connecting streamlined subglacial bedforms with the geological/geographical environment in which they are located.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Tom; Möller, Per; Greenwood, Sarah; Spagnolo, Matteo; Åkesson, Maria; Fraser, Stephen; Hughs, Anna; Clark, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Much work has qualitatively shown that there appears to be a relationship between the morphology of streamlined subglacial bedforms (drumlinoids) and the geological/geographical environment in which said bedforms are located upon, particularly in terms of bedrock influence. However, the one quantitative study that has been carried out on this connectivity (Greenwood and Clark, 2010) found that there appears to be a connection between bedrock type and morphology only at a local scale. At a regional scale the most important geological factor seemed to be the properties of the substrate, usually till. In order to investigate these connections further, self-organising maps (SOM) are used to investigate the role of contextual geology/geography in drumlinoid morphology. The SOM method allows the statistical exploration of data that cannot normally be evaluated by traditional means; categorical data (e.g. bedrock type) can be used in the same analysis as continuous/vector data (e.g. drift depth). Here, three large morphological data sets from Sweden (20 041), Britain (36 104) and Ireland (13 454) are combined with bedrock type, drift depth, basal elevation and distance to esker to see if there are any relationships to be found between them. The results indicate that there are pervasive, statistically significant, and weak to very weak correlations between contextual geological/geographical factors and drumlinoid morphology. The most important contextual factor appears to be 'drift depth', followed by 'distance to esker'. Therefore, models of drumlinoid formation and any efforts to use such features for palaeo-ice reconstruction must take into account the geological and geographical environment in which they are situated. The logical extension of this is that models of ice-sheet growth and retreat must also take into account and be sensitive to the type of substratum present beneath the ice. Further research into the effect of drift properties on the flow of ice is needed.

  18. What about the regolith, the saprolite and the bedrock? Proposals for classifying the subsolum in WRB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juilleret, Jérôme; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Hissler, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since soil surveys in the past were mainly conducted in support of agriculture, soil classification tended to focus on the solum representing mainly the upper part of the soil cover that is exploited by crops; the subsolum was largely neglected. When dealing with environmental issues - such as vegetation ecology, groundwater recharge, water quality or waste disposal - an integrated knowledge of the solum to subsolum continuum is required. In the World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB), the lower boundary for soil classification is set at 2 m, including both loose parent material as well as weathered and continuous rock. With the raised concern for environmental issues and global warming, classification concepts in WRB have been widened over the last decades. Cryosols were included as a separate Reference Soil Group to account for soils affected by perennial frost; Technosols were included to account for soils dominated by technical human activity. Terms for describing and classifying the subsolum are however still lacking. Nevertheless, during soil surveys a wealth of information on the subsolum is also collected. In Luxembourg, detailed soil surveys are conducted according to a national legend which is correlated to WRB. Quantitative data on characteristics of the subsolum, such as bedding, cleavage, fractures density and dipping of the layer, are recorded for their importance in relation to subsurface hydrology. Drawing from this experience, we propose defining four "subsolum materials" and which could be integrated into WRB as qualifiers. Regolitic materials are composed of soil and rock fragments deposited by water, solifluction, ice or wind; Paralithic materials consist of partly weathered rock with geogenic structural features; Saprolitic materials are formed from in situ weathering of the underlying geological deposits; Lithic materials correspond to unaltered bedrock. We discuss how these characteristics could be integrated into WRB and how additional

  19. Do Titan's river channels carve into ice bedrock or loose regolith?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. C.; Sklar, L. S.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Final results from our experiments investigating the abrasion resistance and strength of polycrystalline ice and ice/contaminant mixtures at Titan temperatures allow us to update the calculations of Collins (2005), which examined the ease of fluvial incision into ice bedrock on Titan. If Titan’s stream channels run over exposed bedrock, the rate of channel downcutting is limited by the supply of sediment particles to abrade the bedrock surface, or by the production of pluckable blocks from joints in the bedrock. By adapting the equations of Sklar and Dietrich (2004) to Titan, we estimate the relative rate of bedrock incision caused by abrasion of sediment particles, and find that bedrock on Titan responds like a welded tuff or a quartzite on Earth, rather than the weak sandstone-like response found initially by Collins (2005). Using the range of values for the HLS drainage basins used by Perron et al. (2006) and the sediment sizes observed by Keller et al. (2008), we adjust the unknown sediment supply rate into the channels to find the upper limit of the bedrock incision rate during rainstorm-runoff events. Maximum incision rates are about 1 micron per hour. If typical peak runoff events only last for a few hours, it would take on the order of 105 to 106 rainstorms for a channel to incise one meter into the solid bedrock. However, the mass flux of sediment from farther upstream required to erode this much bedrock implies that transportation of loose sediment would lower the entire catchment area 100 times faster than the bedrock in the channel is lowered. This is logically unsustainable, and leaves us with two options for erosion of the stream channels. One option is that the stream channels are even more supply limited than they are in our maximization calculation, and channel incision on Titan is an even slower process than outlined above. A more likely explanation is that Titan’s streams are instead primarily cutting into bedrock that is pre-fractured into

  20. Characterization of ground-water discharge from bedrock aquifers to the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers at three areas, Minneapolis-St. Paul area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrogeology at three areas along the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area were studied to characterize ground-water discharge from bedrock aquifers to the two rivers. Along the Mississippi River between Fridley and Brooklyn Center, a buried valley underlying the Mississippi River cuts through the overlying terrace deposits and glacial-drift deposits into two underlying bedrock hydro- geologic units: the St Peter aquifer, and a rubble zone between the St. Peter and Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifers. Shallow ground-water flow in the near-surface gray and upper red tills and sand and gravel outwash aquifer discharges to springs along the edge of the river. Ground water flowing through the rubble zone and upper part of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer probably discharges through alluvial deposits to the river. In study area 2, along the Minnesota River between Eagan and Bloomington, almost 200 feet of post-glacial alluvium, glaciofluvial sand and gravel, Pleistocene lake deposits, and peat fill a bedrock valley under the present-day Minnesota River. As much as 40 feet of post-glacial peat, silty clay, clay, and muck lie near the river-valley walls. Confining units beneath the river channel impede the discharge of ground water from the underlying Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer to the river. Ground water discharges to wetlands, lakes, and springs along both the north and south side of the river. Along the Mississippi River at Minneapolis about 5 miles upstream of the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers, the Mississippi River lies in a post-glacial valley cut through thin glacial drift into the St. Peter aquifer. Beneath the river, ground water flows from the St. Peter aquifer through the overlying post-glacial ailuvium to the Mississippi River. No confining unit separates the St. Peter aquifer and the river.

  1. Using domestic well records to determine fractured bedrock watersheds and recharge rates.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Meredith J; Robbins, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an approach for delineating groundwater basins and estimating rates of recharge to fractured crystalline bedrock. It entailed the use of completion report data (boring logs) from 2500 domestic wells in bedrock from the Coventry Quadrangle, which is located in northeastern Connecticut and characterized by metamorphic gneiss and schist. Completion report data were digitized and imported into ArcGIS(®) for data analysis. The data were processed to delineate groundwater drainage basins for the fractured rock based on flow conditions and to estimate groundwater recharge to the bedrock. Results indicate that drainage basins derived from surface topography, in general, may not correspond with bedrock drainage basins due to scale. Estimates of recharge to the bedrock for the study area indicate that only a small fraction of the precipitation or the amount of water that enters the overburden recharges the rock. The approach presented here can be a useful method for water resource-related assessments that involve fractured rock aquifers. PMID:24102252

  2. A Froude-scaled model of a bedrock-alluvial channel reach: 1. Hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Rebecca A.; Hoey, Trevor B.

    2016-09-01

    The controls on hydraulics in bedrock-alluvial rivers are relatively poorly understood, despite the importance of the flow in determining rates and patterns of sediment transport and consequent erosion. To measure hydraulics within a bedrock-alluvial channel, we developed a 1:10 Froude-scaled laboratory model of an 18 × 9 m bedrock-alluvial river reach using terrestrial laser scanning and 3-D printing. In the reported experiments, water depth and velocity were recorded at 18 locations within the channel at each of five different discharges. Additional data from runs with sediment cover in the flume were used to evaluate the hydraulic impact of sediment cover; the deposition and erosion of sediment patches in these runs are analyzed in the companion paper. In our data (1) spatial variation in both flow velocity and Froude number increases with discharge; (2) bulk flow resistance and Froude number become independent of discharge at higher discharges; (3) local flow velocity and Reynolds stress are correlated to the range of local bed topography at some, but not most, discharges; (4) at lower discharges, local topography induces vertical flow structures and slower velocities, but these effects decrease at higher discharges; and (5) there is a relationship between the linear combination of bed and sediment roughness and local flow velocity. These results demonstrate the control that bedrock topography exerts over both local and reach-scale flow conditions, but spatially distributed hydraulic data from bedrock-alluvial channels with different topographies are needed to generalize these findings.

  3. Episodic bedrock erosion by gully-head migration, Colorado High Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rengers, Francis; Tucker, G.E.; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the frequency of bedrock exposure in a soil-mantled low-relief (i.e. non-mountainous) landscape. In the High Plains of eastern Colorado, gully headcuts are among the few erosional features that will incise through the soil mantle to expose bedrock. We measured the last time of bedrock exposure using optically stimulated luminescence dating of alluvial sediment overlying bedrock in gully headcuts. Our dating suggests that headcuts in adjacent gullies expose bedrock asynchronously, and therefore, the headcuts are unlikely to have been triggered by a base-level drop in the trunk stream. This finding supports the hypothesis that headcuts can develop locally in gullies as a result of focused scour in locations where hydraulic stress during a flash flood is sufficiently high, and/or ground cover is sufficiently weak, to generate a scour hole that undermines vegetation. Alluvium dating also reveals that gullies have been a persistent part of this landscape since the early Holocene. 

  4. Paraglacial fluvial bedrock incision in postglacial landscapes: the NW Scottish Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitbread, Katie; Jansen, John; Bishop, Paul; Fabel, Derek

    2010-05-01

    Glacial landscape forms are inherited by rivers following deglaciation. Hillslopes and valley floors configured by glacial erosion control the distribution of bedrock channels and potential sites for fluvial incision. The importance of 'stream power' parameters, channel slope and drainage area (discharge), in controlling the rate of incision is widely accepted, but the rate, timing and mechanisms of incision have yet to be quantified in these settings. The dual controls of glacially conditioned bedrock slopes and sediment supply set two of the key boundary conditions for temporally and spatially dynamic fluvial bedrock incision. Measurement of incision rates in these settings is key to understanding the influence of controls on fluvial erosion, and the role of the process in long-term evolution of deglaciated landscapes. In tectonically-passive, hard-rock terrains, such as the Scottish Highlands, incisional fluvial features such as bedrock channels, gorges and waterfalls are common on glacially carved valley steps. Here we report preliminary data on fluvial incision rates measured with cosmogenic 10Be. Our results confirm a postglacial age of bedrock straths in the NW Scottish Highlands and indicate a vertical incision rate of 0.3 mm/yr into resistant quartzites. Further work will explore erosion mechanisms and rates of incision across the Scottish Highlands, and assess controls on fluvial incision, including the potential role of paraglacial sediment.

  5. Geological and geophysical survey of a building site: the "European Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manstein, Y. A.; Lavrov, S. N.; Scozzari, A.

    2012-04-01

    Geological and geophysical surveys are an essential aspect to determine irregularities in the bedrock surface caused by tectonic faults and active weathering process. Such kind of investigation is particularly important when dealing with the design of foundations for living block infrastructures. In the particular case presented in this work, the bedrock is covered by sediments that form quite a flat surface, thus requiring some kind of sub-surface study. The solely use of drilling in this situation can not be enough for civil engineering purposes. Also, the option to drill at a denser grid would increase the price drastically. On the other hand, an insufficient sampling grid is prone to the risk of missing potentially dangerous anomalies. In addition to that, the urban environment makes the choice of geophysical techniques difficult. In order to obtain a continuous picture of the cross-section, the 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) was chosen. Geomorphology of the site is quite typical for the Ob river floodplain. The Paleozoic bedrock is covered by Paleogene alluvial sediments; modern alluvial, biogene and artificial sediments are on the top. As a result of the survey, the geological elements of the cross-section, such as bedrock and sediments were determined. The combined use of geophysical techniques, together with drilling, in-situ testing and laboratory analysis have drastically decreased the time and costs of the exploration work, improving its quality and informational content, thus providing essential information for the design of the infrastructure.

  6. Estimated Quantity of Water in Fractured Bedrock Units on Mt. Desert Island, and Estimated Ground-Water Use, Recharge, and Dilution of Nitrogen in Septic Waste in the Bar Harbor Area, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the town of Bar Harbor, Maine, and the National Park Service, conducted a study to assess the quantity of water in the bedrock units underlying Mt. Desert Island, and to estimate water use, recharge, and dilution of nutrients from domestic septic systems overlying the bedrock units in several watersheds in rural Bar Harbor. Water quantity was calculated as the static volume of water in the top 600 feet of saturated thickness of the bedrock units. Volumes of water were estimated on the basis of effective fracture porosities for the five different rock types found on Mt. Desert Island. Values of porosities for the various bedrock units from the literature range more than five orders of magnitude, although the possible range in porosities for most individual rock types is on the order of three orders of magnitude. The static volume of water in the various units may range from a low of 4,000 gallons per acre for intrusive igneous rocks (primarily granites) to 20 million gallons per acre for the Cranberry Island Volcanics, but given the range in porosity estimates, these numbers can vary by orders of magnitude. Water-use data for the municipal water supply in the Town of Bar Harbor (1998-2000) indicate that residential usage averages 225 gallons per household per day. Recharge to the bedrock units in rural Bar Harbor was bracketed using low, medium, and high estimates, which were 3, 9, and 14 inches per year, respectively. Water use in 2001 was about 2.5 percent of the total estimated medium recharge (9 inches per year) in the study area. Dilution of nitrogen in septic effluent discharging to the bedrock aquifer was evaluated for the development density in 2001. On the basis of an assumed concentration of 47 mg/L of nitrogen in septic system discharge, dilution factors in populated rural Bar Harbor watersheds ranged from 4 to 151, for the housing density in 2001. Understanding that ground water in this fractured

  7. Crystalline Bedrock Geology, Faulting, and Crustal Architecture in the Larse Region of the Transverse Ranges, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    Spanning the Transverse Ranges (TR) between the northern Los Angeles Basin and the western Mojave Desert (MD), the LARSE lines transect several distinct crystalline blocks: western Transverse Ranges (WTR), San Gabriel Mts-Soledad Basin (SGM), Sierra Pelona (SP), and Liebre Mtn. Juxtaposition of disparate blocks evolved during late Cenozoic (Cz) plate-margin reorganization of early Miocene and older paleogeologic and paleotectonic patterns. Crystalline basement rocks, ranging in age from Proterozoic to mid-Cz, constrain tectonic and near-surface crustal evolution of the region in various ways: (1) by their spatial distribution, (2) by basement-derived clast-types in Cz deposits, and (3) by the age and distribution of weathered zones developed on exhumed basement. Reassembly of paleogeologic patterns in the crystalline terrane of S California provides measurements of overall displacement on strike-slip faults of the San Andreas system. In the LARSE region, right-lateral displacements are demonstrable for the San Gabriel fault (SGF) in the SGM (22-23 km), the Vasquez Creek fault (5-15 km), and the SGF NW of the SGM (42-43 km). Displacement on the San Andreas fault NW of the TR (295 km) is partitioned onto the San Andreas-San Francisquito-Fenner-Clemens Well fault (100 km) and the SGF in the TR, and the post-5 Ma San Andreas fault in and south of the TR (ranging from 160 km along the MD-TR segment to 180 km along the Salton Trough segment). Left-lateral displacement has been demonstrated for the Santa Monica-Raymond fault (11-15 km), the Santa Ynez fault (0 km at its E end to as much as 37 km), and the Garlock fault (48-64 km along its central reach and perhaps as little as 12 km along its western reach). The Vasquez Creek and Santa Monica-Raymond faults are conjugate. Pre-Late Miocene extensional deformation is associated with exhumation of the Pelona Schist in SP and the Chocolate Mts and with ENE-trending left-separation faults in SGM. Reverse displacements are evident on the Sawpit Canyon, Mt Lukens, Verdugo Mts, and other faults in SGM and on the Santa Susana, San Cayetano, Pine Mtn, and other faults in the WTR. The complex spatial and temporal interaction between strike-slip and first extensional then reverse faulting in the LARSE region presents a challenge for relating near-surface crustal structure to deep-seated crustal features.

  8. The bedrock and structural geology of Tuckerman Ravine and Boott Spur in the Presidential Range, N. H

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.H.; Maconochie, J.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Detailed mapping has been done of the polydeformed, lower sillimanite grade, Silurian and Devonian metasedimentary rocks in the southeast part of the Presidential Range, N.H. These rocks are part of the cover sequence in the Central Maine Terrane of the northern Appalachians. Folding and associated metamorphism is thought to be related to the Acadian and Alleghanian( ) orogenics. The Silurian Rangeley Formation, the oldest unit, is a schist and quartzite which has been subdivided into two members based on the presence or absence of calc-silicate pods. In places it is highly migmitized due to the intrusion of the Glen Boulder granite in the southern section of the field area. The Silurian Smalls Falls Formation, a rusty schist, highly susceptible to weathering, overlies the Rangeley Formation. Overlying this is the Silurian Madrid Formation, a well layered calc-silicate granofels. On top of the sequence lies a thick section of schists and quartzites of varying thicknesses and relative abundances. This section has been sub-divided into ten members that collectively form the lower Devonian Littleton Formation. The area has undergone three phases of deformation. Field data and structural analysis indicate that an early macroscopic fold, F1, dominates the area and has an average trend of 325[degree] and plunge of 25[degree]. The axial surface, S1, strikes north and dips moderately west. This fold exposes inverted beds in the northwest limb and up-right beds in the southeast limb. Asymmetric, east vergent, F2 folds are abundant. These folds have an average trend of 112[degree] and plunge of 53[degree], with associated axial planar cleavage, S2, striking north and dipping moderately to the west. Pegmatite veins are folded by F2 indicating that they and similar igneous bodies likely predate F2 folding. Evidence for later stage F3 folding also exists.

  9. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1° x 2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J. I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Vermiculite produced from a large deposit near Tigerville, S.C-, in the Inner Piedmont. Deposit worked out and mine backfilled. Smaller deposits associated with ultramafic rocks in the east flank of the Blue Ridge are now uneconomic and have not been worked in the past 20 years. C. Metals: Copper in three deposits, the Fontana and Hazel Creek mines in the Great Smoky Mountains Abstract Figure 1.

  10. Map Showing Principal Coal Beds and Bedrock Geology of the Ucross-Arvada Area, Central Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ucross-Arvada area is part of the Powder River Basin, a large, north-trending structural depression between the Black Hills on the east and the Bighorn Mountains on the west. Almost all of the study area is within Sheridan and Johnson Counties, Wyoming. Most of the Ucross-Arvada area lies within the outcrop of the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age; the extreme northeast corner falls within the outcrop of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Within the Powder River Basin, both the Wasatch Formation and the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation contain significant coal resources. The map includes locations and elevations of coal beds at 1:50,000 scale for an area that includes ten 7½-minute quadrangles covering some 500 square miles. The Wasatch Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Monument Peak, Walters (also called Ulm 1), Healy (also called Ulm 2), Truman, Felix, and Arvada. The Fort Union Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Roland (of Baker, 1929) and Smith.

  11. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1° x 2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J. I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Vermiculite produced from a large deposit near Tigerville, S.C-, in the Inner Piedmont. Deposit worked out and mine backfilled. Smaller deposits associated with ultramafic rocks in the east flank of the Blue Ridge are now uneconomic and have not been worked in the past 20 years. C. Metals: Copper in three deposits, the Fontana and Hazel Creek mines in the Great Smoky Mountains Abstract Figure 1. Location of the Knoxville 1ºx2º quadrangle, with state and county boundaries National Park in the Central Blue Ridge, and the Cullowhee mine in the east flank of the Blue Ridge. D. Organic fuels: The rocks of the quadrangle contain no coal and probably lie outside the maximum range in thermal maturity permitting the survival of oil. The rocks in the Valley and Ridge and for a short distance eastward below the west flank of the Blue Ridge probably lie within a zone of thermal maturity permitting the survival of natural gas. Consequently the western part of the quadrangle is an area of high risk for hydrocarbon exploration. No exploration drilling has been done in this belt.

  12. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Headwaters Region of the Cullasaja River, Macon and Jackson Counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The headwaters region of the Cullasaja River is underlain by metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks of the Neoproterozoic Ashe Metamorphic Suite, including gneiss, schist, and amphibolite, that were intruded during Ordovician time by elongate bodies of trondhjemite, a felsic plutonic rock. Deformation, metamorphism, and intrusion occurred roughly simultaneously during the Taconic orogeny, about 470 million years ago, under upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions. Two generations of foliation and three major phases of folds are recognized. The second- and third-generation folds trend northeast and exert the most control on regional foliation trends. Since the orogeny, the region has undergone uplift, fracturing, and erosion. Resistance to erosion by the plutonic rock may be the primary reason for the relatively gentle relief of the high-elevation basin, compared to surrounding areas. Amphibolite is the most highly fractured lithology, followed by trondhjemite; the latter may have the best ground-water potential of the mapped lithologies by virtue of its high fracture density and high proportion of subhorizontal fractures.

  13. Applications of Landsat imagery to geological research in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiblen, P. W.; Morey, G. B.; Walton, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    A large part of northeastern Minnesota north of Lake Superior was studied using Landsat images. The area is being studied for its intercontinental rift and for large, low grade, copper-nickel deposits. By using Landsat imagery in conjunction with field data, it is possible to develop a much higher level of continuity and structural resolution in interpretations of the bedrock geology. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to distinguish various surficial morphological features such as the Vermilion and Highland moraines, the Toimi drumlin field, and an unnamed drumlin field apparently associated with the Highland moraine.

  14. Relationships of soil, grass, and bedrock over the Kaweah serpentine melange through spectral mixture analysis of AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.

    1991-01-01

    A linear mixing model is used to model the spectral variability of an AVIRIS scene from the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada and calibrate these radiance data to reflectance. Five spectral endmembers from the AVIRIS data, plus an ideal 'shade' endmember were required to model the continuum reflectance of each pixel in the image. Three of the endmembers were interpreted to model the surface constituents green vegetation, dry grass, and illumination. These are the main transient surface constituents that are expected to change with shifts in land use or climatic influences and viewing conditions ('shade' only). The spectral distinction between the other three endmembers is very small, yet the spatial distributions are coherent and interpretable. These distributions cross anthropogenic and vegetation boundaries and are best interpreted as different soil types. Comparison of the fraction images to the bedrock geology maps indicates that substrate composition must be a factor contributing to the spectral properties of these endmembers. Detailed examination of the reflectance spectra of the three soil endmembers reveals that differences in the amount of ferric and ferrous iron and/or organic constituents in the soils is largely responsible for the differences in spectral properties of these endmembers.

  15. Buried bedrock topography, evidence of overdeepening of Winimusset Brook bedrock valley, and reinterpretation of the extent of glacial Lake Winimusset, Ware quadrangle, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, W.W.; Maevsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    Results from 15 test borings and 8 seismic-refraction surveys in the northeastern quarter of the Ware quadrangle, Massachusetts, provide information on the buried-bedrock topography, evidence of overdeepening of Winimusset Brook valley, information on the thickness and lithology of lacustrine deposits in glacial Lake Winimusset, and indicate a need for reinterpretation of the areal extent of the lake. Glacial Lake Winimusset, which occupied this bedrock valley during the last stages of deglaciation, was more extensive and accumulated thicker lacustrine deposits than previously postulated. Lacustrine silt and clay deposited in this lake are as much as 100 feet thick. The lake extended at least 1 mile north of the Town of Wheelwright. -from Authors

  16. Seismic-refraction study of suspected drift-filled bedrock valleys in Ramsey County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    A drift-filled bedrock valley was thought to incise the St. Peter aquifer to an altitude between 770 and 800 feet above sea level at the Koppers site. The interpretation of a seismic profile just east of the Koppers site is not conclusive, but suggests that a bedrock valley may be present near the middle of the line. The interpretation of a second seismic profile across the westward extension of the same suspected valley also is not conclusive, but suggests that a bedrock valley may be present at the north end of the line. The optimal field layout for each line at the site (longer shot offsets) could not be obtained because of limited space available in the densely developed residential neighborhoods.

  17. Influences on 87Sr/86Sr in the British biosphere beyond bedrock.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jane; Warham, Joseph; Ander, Louise; Montgomery, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Strontium enters the biosphere thought the uptake of the element by plants through their roots. Where the soil is derived by the erosion of underlying bedrock there is a relationship between the isotope compositions of the biosphere and the bedrock. This makes it possible to estimate biosphere Sr in places where the relationship exists and the isotope properties of the underlying rock are understood. Direct mapping, however, of the biosphere is preferable and increasingly undertaken and this is particularly important when non bedrock influences exist. For example, a layer of peat that detaches the isotope domain of the biosphere from the underlying rocks. This poster presents studies on the effect of altitude, sea and rainwater influences, superficial deposits such as peat, glacial till and dust, in order to refine the understanding of factors influencing biosphere Sr values and show how we are trying to develop the online British biosphere dataset (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/nigl/SBA_Maps.htm).

  18. Water chemistry at Snowshoe Mountain, Colorado: mixed processes in a common bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At Snowshoe Mountain the primary bedrock is quite homogeneous, but weathering processes vary as waters moves through the soils, vadose zone and phreatic zone of the subsurface. In the thin soil, physical degradation of tuff facilitates preferential dissolution of potassium ion from glass within the rock matrix, while other silicate minerals remain unaltered. In the vadose zone, in the upper few meters of fractured bedrock, dilute water infiltrates during spring snowmelt and summer storms, leading to preferential dissolution of augite exposed on fracture surfaces. Deeper yet, in the phreatic zone of the fractured bedrock, Pleistocene calcite fracture fillings dissolve, and dioctahedral and trioctahedral clays form as penetrative weathering alters feldspar and pyroxene. Alkalinity is generated and silica concentrations are buffered by mineral alteration reactions.

  19. New constraining datasets for Eurasian ice sheet modelling: chronology, fjords and bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyllencreutz, R.; Tarasov, L.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, Ø. S.

    2009-04-01

    The increasing resolution of ice sheet models demands more detailed data for constraining and for comparison of results. Important data for this include ice sheet chronology, bed conditions and topography. We address this by compiling published data into three new constraining data sets. The Eurasian ice sheet chronology is reconstructed in our database-GIS solution (called DATED; Gyllencreutz et al., 2007). In DATED, we are building a database with all available dates, and a GIS with all geomorphologic features, that are relevant for the ice configuration through the Last Glacial Maximum and the following deglaciation, based on results from the literature. Reconstructions of the ice sheet configuration are presented as thousand-year time slices of the advance and decay of the Eurasian ice sheet between 25 and 10 thousand calendar years ago, based on chronologic, geomorphologic and stratigraphic data from the literature. To facilitate handling of error estimates in ice sheet modeling using our reconstructions, we made three reconstructions for every time slice: a maximum, a minimum and a "probable" ice sheet configuration, based on the limitations of the data at hand. The estimated uncertainty for the reconstructions was calculated in the GIS, and amounts to about 1 million km2 (about 1/5 of the maximum area) for most of the record before the Younger Dryas, indicating significant gaps in the knowledge of the Eurasian ice sheet configuration. In order to facilitate modeling of fast ice flow and ice streams, we compiled information about exposed bedrock from digital Quaternary maps in scale 1:1 million by the geological surveys in Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK and Ireland, together with published drift thickness estimates. The bed conditions data set was generalized to a grid resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 degrees. The Norwegian fjords are important for topographic steering; especially for fast glacier flow and draw-down from more central parts of the ice sheet. However

  20. Geologic Map of the Big Spring Quadrangle, Carter County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; McDowell, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The bedrock exposed in the Big Spring quadrangle of Missouri comprises Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician aged dolomite, sandstone, and chert. The sedimentary rocks are nearly flat lying except where they are adjacent to faults. The carbonate rocks are karstified, and the area contains numerous sinkholes, springs, caves, and losing streams. This map is one of several being produced under the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program to provide geologic data applicable to land-use problems in the Ozarks of south-central Missouri. Ongoing and potential industrial and agricultural development in the Ozarks region has presented issues of ground-water quality in karst areas. A national park in this region (Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri) is concerned about the effects of activities in areas outside of their stewardship on the water resources that define the heart of this park. This task applies geologic mapping and karst investigations to address issues surrounding competing land use in south-central Missouri. This task keeps geologists from the USGS associated with the park and allows the park to utilize USGS expertise and aid the NPS on how to effectively use geologic maps for park management. For more information, see: http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/Karst/index.html

  1. Geologic map of the Winona Quadrangle, Shannon County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orndorff, R.C.; Harrison, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The bedrock exposed in the Winona Quadrangle, Missouri, comprises Mesoproterozoic aged volcanic rocks overlain by Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician aged dolomite, sandstone, and chert. The sedimentary rocks are nearly flat-lying except where they drape around knobs of the volcanic rocks or where they are adjacent to faults. The carbonates are karstified and the area contains numerous sinkholes, springs, caves, and losing-streams. This map is one of several being produced under the U.S. Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program to provide geologic data applicable to land-use problems in the Ozarks of south-central Missouri. Ongoing and potential industrial and agricultural development in the Ozarks region has presented issues of ground-water quality in karst areas. A National Park in this region (Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri ) is concerned about the effects of activities in areas outside of their stewardship on the water resources that define the heart of this Park. This task applies geologic mapping and karst investigations to address issues surrounding competing land use in south-central Missouri. This task keeps geologists from the USGS associated with the park and allows the Parks to utilize USGS expertise and aid the NPS on how to effectively use geologic maps for Park management. For more information see: http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/Karst/index.html

  2. Geological evaluation and applications of ERTS-1 imagery over Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, S. M.; Jones, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 70mm and 9 x 9 film negatives are being used by conventional and color enhancement methods as a tool for geologic investigation. Geologic mapping and mineral exploration by conventional methods is very difficult in Georgia. Thick soil cover and heavy vegetation cause outcrops of bed rock to be small, rare and obscure. ERTS imagery, and remote sensing in general have helped delineate: (1) major tectonic boundaries; (2) lithologic contacts; (3) foliation trends; (4) topographic lineaments; and (5) faults. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery yields the greatest amount of geologic information on the Piedomont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Provinces of Georgia where topography is strongly controlled by the bedrock geology. ERTS imagery, and general remote sensing techniques, have provided us with a powerful tool to assist geologic research; have significantly increased the mapping efficiency of our field geologists; have shown new lineaments associated with known shear and fault zones; have delineated new structural features; have provided a tool to re-evaluate our tectonic history; have helped to locate potential ground water sources and areas of aquifer recharge; have defined areas of geologic hazards; have shown areas of heavy siltation in major reservoirs; and by its close interval repetition, have aided in monitoring surface mine reclamation activities and the environmental protection of our intricate marshland system.

  3. Delineating depth to bedrock beneath shallow unconfined aquifers: a gravity transect across the Palmer River Basin.

    PubMed

    Bohidar, R N; Sullivan, J P; Hermance, J F

    2001-01-01

    In view of the increasing demand on ground water supplies in the northeastern United States, it is imperative to develop appropriate methods to geophysically characterize the most widely used sources of ground water in the region: shallow unconfined aquifers consisting of well-sorted, stratified glacial deposits laid down in bedrock valleys and channels. The gravity method, despite its proven value in delineating buried bedrock valleys elsewhere, is seldom used by geophysical contractors in this region. To demonstrate the method's effectiveness for evaluating such aquifers, a pilot study was undertaken in the Palmer River Basin in southeastern Massachusetts. Because bedrock is so shallow beneath this aquifer (maximum depth is 30 m), the depth-integrated mass deficiency of the overlying unconsolidated material was small, so that the observed gravity anomaly was on the order of 1 milligal (mGal) or less. Thus data uncertainties were significant. Moreover, unlike previous gravity studies elsewhere, we had no a priori information on the density of the sediment. Under such circumstances, it is essential to include model constraints and weighted least-squares in the inversion procedure. Among the model constraints were water table configuration, bedrock outcrops, and depth to bedrock from five water wells. Our procedure allowed us to delineate depth to bedrock along a 3.5 km profile with a confidence interval of 1.8 m at a nominal depth of 17 m. Moreover, we obtained a porosity estimate in the range of 39% to 44%. Thus the gravity method, with appropriate refinements, is an effective tool for the reconnaissance of shallow unconfined aquifers. PMID:11554251

  4. Debris flow boundary stresses and bedrock erosion: large scale laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2008-12-01

    Field observations indicate that debris flows can cause erosional wear of bedrock channels. On steep slopes, where debris flows are dominant, this wear may be the primary means of long-term channel incision. However, we presently lack a large-scale, experimentally tested theory to predict bedrock erosion by debris flows. Here, we hypothesize that impact erosion by particles colliding with the bed removes more bedrock than sliding erosion from the bulk weight of the flow. To develop and test a process-based theory for bedrock incision by debris flows, we study the erosional processes of granular flows in a 4-meter diameter, 80-cm wide vertically rotating drum. Debris flow slurries are created with mixtures of natural sediment from clay-sized to 20-cm diameter combined with varying amounts of water. During the experimental runs, the normal force on the bed is directly measured by a 225-cm2 load plate and the corresponding longitudinal profile and plan-view velocity field of the debris slurry is measured with a laser profiler and video camera, respectively. The erosion volume is obtained by repeated topographic measurement of 60 cm by 60 cm synthetic and natural rock samples embedded in the floor of the drum. By varying the grain size distribution, water content, and flow volume, we created both impact-dominated and sliding-dominated erosion conditions. The erosion of the bedrock, instead of scaling with the mean bulk stress of the flow, scaled with the stress deviations from the mean, which are caused by impacts of individual grains on the bed. This result supports the hypothesis that for bedrock erosion, dynamic stresses caused by individual clasts are more important than mean stress at the bed of the flow. Stress deviations from the mean depend on grain size distribution and particle trajectories, and therefore these properties should be measured in natural debris flows and included in modeling efforts of dynamics and erosion.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Water Levels in Bedrock Wells in New Hampshire, 1984 to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Kernen, Brandon M.; Wunsch, David R.; Argue, Denise M.; Bennett, Derek S.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    These data provided an opportunity to examine groundwater-level conditions across the state; however, the bedrock wells used in this study would not be suitable for rigorous evaluation of trends in SWL across the state because the locations and characteristics of the wells vary with time. Further, these wells cannot substitute for a carefully designed network of wells selected for the sole purpose of monitoring trends in water levels over time. The SWL data may be useful in the design of a monitoring network, and continued collection of water-level data from the bedrock wells could be used to augment data from monitoring wells.

  6. Influence of bedrock lithology on strath terrace formation in the Willapa River watershed, SW Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, S. A.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    River terraces in tectonically active regions such as the Cascadia subduction margin have been utilized as late Quaternary markers of rock uplift and climate, yet the important role of bedrock lithology as a control on terrace formation is rarely considered. This study investigates lithologic controls on strath terrace formation in the Willapa River basin, situated halfway between the Olympic and Oregon Coast Ranges along the Cascadia subduction zone. The Willapa River and its tributaries alternate flow through easily erodible marine sedimentary and resistant basalt bedrock. We estimate rates of fluvial incision and infer patterns of rock uplift through a combination of field mapping, surveying terrace tread and strath elevations, and radiocarbon dating of terrace abandonment. A long-term steady state between incision and rock uplift is assumed for the basin, and incision rates are calculated as the strath elevation above present thalweg divided by the age of strath abandonment. Radiocarbon dates reveal two extensive terrace sets approximately 150 and 10,000 years old, resulting in a regional rock uplift rate of 0.4×0.1 mm/yr. Terraces are present only in sedimentary bedrock whereas basalt bedrock reaches run through deep, narrow valleys lacking extensive floodplains or terraces. The marine sedimentary units erode easily both laterally and vertically with active erosion of millimeter thick flakes on subaerially exposed bedrock. In contrast, basalt bedrock erodes preferentially in large blocks along fracture planes, resulting in less laterally erodible banks and higher vertical than lateral incision rates. We estimate rock uplift rates of less than 0.5 mm/yr are high enough to initiate strath terrace formation following large, long cycle impetuses such as climatic changes, provided the bedrock lithology is weak enough to allow lateral erosion as well as vertical incision. Thus, disturbances from large climatic or base level changes initiate terrace formation, but

  7. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  8. Terroir, the Relationship of Geology, Soils, and Climate to Wine: An Example from the Northern Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    Wines differ from each other based on seven different factors: the type of grape; the bedrock geology and resulting soils; the climate; the soil hydrology; the physiography of the site; the winemaker; and the vineyard management techniques. The first five of these factors make up what the French call terroir, "the taste of the place". Bedrocks weather into soils which then liberate chemical nutrients to the grape vines. Twelve of the sixteen essential elements for wine grapes come from the soil. All around the world the geology and soils make up an important component of the terroir of the wine. Using examples from the Willamette Valley of Oregon, terroir of the region will be discussed because it is strongly influenced by the bedrock geology and soils. The four dominant groups are the volcanic soils, the Jory Soil Series, which developed on the Columbia River Basalts, the Willakenzie Soil Series, developed on uplifted marine sedimentary rocks in the foothills of the Oregon Coast Range, the Laurelwood Soil Series, developed from loess soils developed on basalt bedrock, and Woodburn Soil Series developed in Missoula Flood deposits on the valley bottoms. The wines made from the grapes of these four soils are very different.

  9. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  10. Geologic spatial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  11. Geologic map of the Battle Ground 7.5-minute quadrangle, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits of the Battle Ground 7.5 minute quadrangle. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  12. Gravitational signature and apparent mass changes in Amundsen Embayment caused by low viscosity GIA model constrained by rapid bedrock displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, V. R.; Bevis, M.; Smith, B. E.; Wilson, T. J.; Willis, M. J.; Brown, A.; Bordoni, A.; Khan, S. A.; Smalley, R., Jr.; Kendrick, E. C.; Konfal, S. A.; Caccamise, D.; Aster, R.; Chaput, J. A.; Heeszel, D.; Wiens, D.; Lloyd, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Amundsen Embayment sector of West Antarctica is experiencing some of the fastest sustained bedrock uplift rates in the world. These motions, recorded by the Antarctic GPS Network (ANET), cannot be explained in terms of the earth's elastic response to contemporary ice loss, and the residues are far too rapid to be explained using traditional GIA models. We use 13 years of very high resolution DEM-derived ice mass change fields over the Amundsen sector to compute the elastic signal and remove it from the observed geodetic time series. We obtain a very large residual - up to 5 times larger than the computed elastic response. Low or very low mantle viscosities are expected in this area based on existing heat flow estimates, seismic velocity anomalies, thin crust, and active volcanism, all of which are associated with geologically recent rifting. We hypothesize that the rapid crustal displacement manifests a low viscosity short-time-scale response to post- Little Ice Age ice mass changes, including ice losses developed in the last decade or so. A plausible ice history for the last hundred years is made by using the actual measurements from 2002 to 2014, and 25% of the present day melting rate before 2002. We then simulate and fit the bedrock displacement - both vertical and horizontal - with a spherical compressible viscoelastic Earth model having a low viscosity shallow upper mantle. We show that we can constrain the shallow upper mantle viscosity very well and also explain most of the signal (amplitude and direction) by using 2 x10^18 Pa s. However we are not able to precisely constrain the thickness of the lithosphere (the preferred thickness is more than 50 km, quite thick for that region) or ice history. By using our preferred set up (earth model + ice history) we compute the GIA gravitational signature and convert it in equivalent superficial water density (see figure) that can be directly used to correct the mass changes observed by GRACE.For the Amundsen

  13. Gravitational signature and apparent mass changes in Amundsen Embayment caused by low viscosity GIA model constrained by rapid bedrock displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, V. R.; Bevis, M.; Smith, B. E.; Wilson, T. J.; Willis, M. J.; Brown, A.; Bordoni, A.; Khan, S. A.; Smalley, R., Jr.; Kendrick, E. C.; Konfal, S. A.; Caccamise, D.; Aster, R.; Chaput, J. A.; Heeszel, D.; Wiens, D.; Lloyd, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Amundsen Embayment sector of West Antarctica is experiencing some of the fastest sustained bedrock uplift rates in the world. These motions, recorded by the Antarctic GPS Network (ANET), cannot be explained in terms of the earth's elastic response to contemporary ice loss, and the residues are far too rapid to be explained using traditional GIA models. We use 13 years of very high resolution DEM-derived ice mass change fields over the Amundsen sector to compute the elastic signal and remove it from the observed geodetic time series. We obtain a very large residual - up to 5 times larger than the computed elastic response. Low or very low mantle viscosities are expected in this area based on existing heat flow estimates, seismic velocity anomalies, thin crust, and active volcanism, all of which are associated with geologically recent rifting. We hypothesize that the rapid crustal displacement manifests a low viscosity short-time-scale response to post- Little Ice Age ice mass changes, including ice losses developed in the last decade or so. A plausible ice history for the last hundred years is made by using the actual measurements from 2002 to 2014, and 25% of the present day melting rate before 2002. We then simulate and fit the bedrock displacement - both vertical and horizontal - with a spherical compressible viscoelastic Earth model having a low viscosity shallow upper mantle. We show that we can constrain the shallow upper mantle viscosity very well and also explain most of the signal (amplitude and direction) by using 2 x10^18 Pa s. However we are not able to precisely constrain the thickness of the lithosphere (the preferred thickness is more than 50 km, quite thick for that region) or ice history. By using our preferred set up (earth model + ice history) we compute the GIA gravitational signature and convert it in equivalent superficial water density (see figure) that can be directly used to correct the mass changes observed by GRACE.For the Amundsen

  14. Estimating Bedrock Topography beneath Ice and Sediment Fillings in High Mountain Valleys: Preliminary Results from a Method Comparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mey, J.; Scherler, D.; Strecker, M. R.; Zeilinger, G.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge about the thickness distribution of ice and sediment fillings in high mountain valleys is important for many applications in the fields of Hydrology, Geology, Glaciology, Geohazards and Geomorphology. However, direct geophysical measurements of ice/sediment thickness are laborious and require infrastructure and logistics that is often not available, particularly in remote mountain regions. In the past years, several methods have been developed to approximate the valley fill thicknesses primarily based on digital elevation data. In the case of sediment fillings, the thickness estimates are mostly based on simple morphometric considerations, whereas in the case of ice, more complex methods have been established using glacier mass balance and ice-flow dynamics. In this study we compare three of these methods that have been frequently applied in the past. These include a physically based approach for estimating ice-thickness distribution of valley glaciers using mass fluxes and flow mechanics. Further we adopt a method that uses the prediction capability of artificial neural networks (ANN) and we investigate a method that is based on the extrapolation of the slopes of the valley walls into the subsurface. We set up a test series in which all methods are applied to four glaciers and two sediment-filled valleys in the European Alps. The resulting bedrock topography derived from each method is checked against available ground truth data, comprising ground penetrating radar-, seismic reflection- and borehole measurements. Obviously, the method developed for estimation of ice-thickness is applicable only to the cases where valleys are occupied by ice, whereas the ANN approach and the slope extrapolation method are independent of the sort of valley fill. Thus a direct comparison is restricted to glacier settings. First results show that all methods can qualitatively reconstruct bedrock topography with typical overdeepenings and trough-shaped cross-profiles. Due to

  15. Geology and ground-water resources of southeastern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Edward

    1964-01-01

    The continued growth and development of southeastern New Hampshire, an area of about 390 square miles adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, will depend partly on effectively satisfying the demand for water, which has increased rapidly since World War II. The report identifies and describes the principal geologic units with respect to the occurrence of ground water. These units include bedrock and the various unconsolidated deposits that mantle the bedrock surface discontinuously throughout the area. The bedrock formations, consisting of igneous and metamorphic rocks, chiefly of Paleozoic age, form a single water-bearing unit. Ground water is in joints and fractures. The fractures are small and scattered and therefore impart only a low permeability to the rocks. Wells in the bedrock commonly produce small but reliable supplies of ground water at depths of less than 150 feet. The yields of about 80 wells inventoried for this report ranged from 1? to 100 gpm (gallons per minute) and the median was 912 gpm. Depths ranged from 45 to 600 feet. The unconsolidated deposits consist of glacial drift of Pleistocene age; swamp deposits, alluvium, and beach deposits of Recent age; and eolian deposits of Pleistocene -and Recent age. For this report the glacial drift is divided into till, ice-contact deposits, marine deposits, and outwash and shore deposits. Glacial till forms a discontinuous blanket, commonly less than 15 but in some hills (drumlins) as much as about 200 feet thick. It has a low permeability but, because of its widespread outcrop area, it has been utilized as a source of water for numerous domestic supplies. Because most wells in till are shallow, many fail to meet modern demands during dry summers. Ice-contact deposits locally form kames, kame terraces, kame plains, and ice-channel fillings throughout the area. They overlie bedrock and till and range in thickness from less than 1 foot to as much as 190 feet. In general, the ice-contact deposits are coarse textured

  16. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Kennard B.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights geological history activities during 1982. These include formation of The History of Earth Sciences Societies, publication of a new journal ("Earth Sciences History: The Journal of the History of Earth Sciences Societies"), and presentation of the first history of geology award. Comments on geological history publications are also…

  17. Spatial variability in floodplain resistance to erosion on a large meandering, mixed bedrock-alluvial river

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial heterogeneities of the erosion-resistance properties of the channel banks and floodplains, such as grain size characteristics and the presence of vegetation and bedrock, can have a substantial influence on river morphodynamics, resulting in complex planform geometries and highly variable rat...

  18. Microbial co-occurrence patterns in deep Precambrian bedrock fracture fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkamo, Lotta; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Salavirta, Heikki; Nyyssönen, Mari; Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Itävaara, Merja

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial and archaeal community composition and the possible carbon assimilation processes and energy sources of microbial communities in oligotrophic, deep, crystalline bedrock fractures is yet to be resolved. In this study, intrinsic microbial communities from groundwater of six fracture zones from 180 to 2300 m depths in Outokumpu bedrock were characterized using high-throughput amplicon sequencing and metagenomic prediction. Comamonadaceae-, Anaerobrancaceae- and Pseudomonadaceae-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) form the core community in deep crystalline bedrock fractures in Outokumpu. Archaeal communities were mainly composed of Methanobacteriaceae-affiliating OTUs. The predicted bacterial metagenomes showed that pathways involved in fatty acid and amino sugar metabolism were common. In addition, relative abundance of genes coding the enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways in predicted metagenomes was low. This indicates that heterotrophic carbon assimilation is more important for microbial communities of the fracture zones. Network analysis based on co-occurrence of OTUs revealed possible "keystone" genera of the microbial communities belonging to Burkholderiales and Clostridiales. Bacterial communities in fractures resemble those found in oligotrophic, hydrogen-enriched environments. Serpentinization reactions of ophiolitic rocks in Outokumpu assemblage may provide a source of energy and organic carbon compounds for the microbial communities in the fractures. Sulfate reducers and methanogens form a minority of the total microbial communities, but OTUs forming these minor groups are similar to those found in other deep Precambrian terrestrial bedrock environments.

  19. Seaweed attachment to bedrock: biophysical evidence for a new geophycology paradigm.

    PubMed

    Morrison, L; Feely, M; Stengel, D B; Blamey, Nigel; Dockery, P; Sherlock, A; Timmins, E

    2009-09-01

    Seaweeds are amongst the most obvious and ecologically important components of rocky shore communities worldwide but until now little has been known about the processes involved in their attachment. This multidisciplinary study investigated for the first time the interactions between marine macroalgal holdfasts and their underlying substrata, requiring the development of specialized sample preparation techniques to maintain the structural integrity of the holdfast-bedrock interface. Transmitted plane polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and structured light illumination microscopy were used in the examination of the interface between Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Heterokontophyta) and crustose red algae Lithothamnion sp. (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) on granite and limestone substrates. The new evidence presented here represents a paradigm shift in the way we view seaweed attachment because results show that the holdfasts exploit the physical characteristics of the rock-forming minerals in order to penetrate the bedrock and thus facilitate the attachment process. Mineral cleavage planes together with intercrystalline and intracrystalline boundaries and fractures provide penetration pathways for the holdfast tissue. This process causes disaggregation of rock-forming minerals to depths <10 mm and therefore assists in the bioerosion of coastal bedrock. It is concluded that seaweeds are able to cause weathering of natural rock and the term 'geophycology' is introduced to describe seaweed-bedrock interactions, including seaweed-induced weathering.

  20. A preliminary study of the distribution of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryling, Roy W.

    1961-01-01

    The occurrence of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin has been known for many years. Because of the ready availability of fresh water from other sources, little has been known of the extent of the saline-water area. Saline ground water is a potential source of contamination to wells if it moves into fresh-water zones.

  1. Special bedrock buried hill and the reservoiring process in Qijia-Yitong basin in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenlin; Yin, Hongfu; Miao, Hongbo; Qiu, Yuchao; Zou, Yu

    2011-06-01

    The bedrock buried hill is a mountainous peak formed by the arching up of the basement rocks in a sedimentary basin. The mountainous peak could be the ancient buried hill, known as buried-hill drape structure, present before the formation of sedimentary cover. In contrast, the late-formed buried hill comes into being after the deposition of the sedimentary cover due to the fold, fracture, volcanic eruption and other tectonic events in later stages. No matter what type of buried-hills, the reservoiring is comparable, with the dissolved pores formed by weathering and leaching of bedrocks as the reservoir, and the overlying sedimentary rocks as the source rocks and cover rocks. These are known as ancient reservoir but newborn sources. We present here, however, a different situation of the buried hill in Yitong basin in northeastern China. The bedrock in Yitong basin is the Yanshanian granite, which occurs as a sill underlain by Paleozoic marine strata of low electric resistivity. A right-lateral strike-slip extrusion of Yitong basin in Himalayan period leads to the diapiric ascent of the Lower Paleozoic argillite, which in turn causes the arching up of the granite bedrock to form the buried hill. It is concluded, on the basis of drill No. Chang 37, that the natural gas is sourced from Carboniferous-Permian argillite, and reservoirs in the cracks developed beneath 300m of the granite sill, with the upper part of granite as the cover.

  2. Seaweed attachment to bedrock: biophysical evidence for a new geophycology paradigm.

    PubMed

    Morrison, L; Feely, M; Stengel, D B; Blamey, Nigel; Dockery, P; Sherlock, A; Timmins, E

    2009-09-01

    Seaweeds are amongst the most obvious and ecologically important components of rocky shore communities worldwide but until now little has been known about the processes involved in their attachment. This multidisciplinary study investigated for the first time the interactions between marine macroalgal holdfasts and their underlying substrata, requiring the development of specialized sample preparation techniques to maintain the structural integrity of the holdfast-bedrock interface. Transmitted plane polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and structured light illumination microscopy were used in the examination of the interface between Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Heterokontophyta) and crustose red algae Lithothamnion sp. (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) on granite and limestone substrates. The new evidence presented here represents a paradigm shift in the way we view seaweed attachment because results show that the holdfasts exploit the physical characteristics of the rock-forming minerals in order to penetrate the bedrock and thus facilitate the attachment process. Mineral cleavage planes together with intercrystalline and intracrystalline boundaries and fractures provide penetration pathways for the holdfast tissue. This process causes disaggregation of rock-forming minerals to depths <10 mm and therefore assists in the bioerosion of coastal bedrock. It is concluded that seaweeds are able to cause weathering of natural rock and the term 'geophycology' is introduced to describe seaweed-bedrock interactions, including seaweed-induced weathering. PMID:19624752

  3. MICROFRACTURE SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY AND ADHERENT MICROBIAL POPULATION METABOLISM IN TCE-CONTAMINATED COMPETENT BEDROCK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A TCE-contaminated competent bedrock site in Portsmouth, NH was used to determine if a relation existed between microfracture (MF) surface geochemistry and the ecology and metabolic activity of attached microbes relative to terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) and TCE bi...

  4. Bedrock refractive-flow cells: A passive treatment analog to funnel-and-gate

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, V.; Edwards, D.

    1997-12-31

    Funnel-and-gate technology provides a mechanism to passively treat groundwater contaminant plumes, but depends on placement of a sufficient barrier ({open_quotes}funnel{close_quotes}) in the plume flow path to channel the plume to a pass-through treatment zone ({open_quotes}gate{close_quotes}). Conventional barrier technologies limit funnel-and-gate deployment to unconsolidated overburden applications. A method has been developed which allows similar passive treatment to be applied to bedrock plumes. Rather than use barriers as the funnel, the method uses engineered bedrock zones, installed via precision blasting or other means, to refract groundwater flow along a preferred path to treatment (gate). The method requires orienting the refractive cell based on the Tangent Law and extending refractive cell limbs down gradient of the gate to disperse head and control flow. A typical Refractive-Flow cell may be{open_quotes}Y{close_quotes}shaped, with each limb 3-10 ft [1-3 m] wide and several tens to a few hundred feet [10 - 100 m] in length. Treatment takes place at the center of the X. MODFLOW modeling has been used to successfully simulate desired flow. Engineered blasting has been used at full scale application to create bedrock rubble zones for active collection/flow control for several years. The method provides a previously unavailable method to passively treat contaminated groundwater in bedrock at low cost.

  5. Geophysical characterization of fractured bedrock at Site 8, former Pease Air Force Base, Newington, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Degnan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Borehole-geophysical logs collected from eight wells and direct-current resistivity data from three survey lines were analyzed to characterize the fractured bedrock and identify transmissive fractures beneath the former Pease Air Force Base, Newington, N.H. The following logs were used: caliper, fluid temperature and conductivity, natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, optical and acoustic televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter. The logs indicate several foliation and fracture trends in the bedrock. Two fracture-correlated lineaments trending 28? and 29?, identified with low-altitude aerial photography, are coincident with the dominant structural trend. The eight boreholes logged at Site 8 generally have few fractures and have yields ranging from 0 to 40 gallons per minute. The fractures that probably resulted in high well yields (20?40 gallons per minute) strike northeast-southwest or by the right hand rule, have an orientation of 215?, 47?, and 51?. Two-dimensional direct-current resistivity methods were used to collect detailed subsurface information about the overburden, bedrock-fracture zone depths, and apparent-dip directions. Analysis of data inversions from data collected with dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays indicated electrically conductive zones in the bedrock that are probably caused by fractured rock. These zones are coincident with extensions of fracture-correlated lineaments. The fracture-correlated lineaments and geophysical-survey results indicate a possible northeast-southwest anisotropy to the fractured rock.

  6. Emergence of pediments, tors, and piedmont junctions from a bedrock weathering regolith thickness feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strudley, Mark W.; Murray, A. Brad; Haff, P. K.

    2006-10-01

    Sediment erosion laws form the basis for most landscape evolution models and guide geomorphologists in the pursuit of understanding how landscapes evolve. This focus on the alluvial surface, however, ignores the role of intrinsic feedbacks between sediment transport and bedrock weathering in shaping Earth's landforms. Here, we present a new, parsimonious explanation for the origin and maintenance of pediments, piedmont junctions, and tors, which emerge spontaneously in a numerical model coupling bedrock weathering and sediment transport. The spatial uniformity of the thin regolith mantle that often characterizes pediments is a manifestation of a negative feedback between bedrock weathering and regolith thickness: if regolith thins (thickens) by sediment transport, the regolith production rate will increase (decrease), maintaining an equilibrium regolith thickness on the piedmont. We propose that high infiltration capacities and the instability of ephemeral channel banks in arid and semiarid environments suppress fluvial incision and promote the smoothness of pediments. A positive feedback between bedrock weathering and regolith thickness causes tor growth: if regolith thins locally below a critical value, regolith production slows while surrounding areas continue to weather and erode more rapidly. We suggest that many pedimented and tor-studded landscapes may therefore be a consequence of intrinsic sediment transport weathering feedbacks mediated by climatic and tectonic conditions, not by lithologic templates.

  7. The keystone species of Precambrian deep bedrock biosphere belong to Burkholderiales and Clostridiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkamo, L.; Bomberg, M.; Kietäväinen, R.; Salavirta, H.; Nyyssönen, M.; Nuppunen-Puputti, M.; Ahonen, L.; Kukkonen, I.; Itävaara, M.

    2015-11-01

    The bacterial and archaeal community composition and the possible carbon assimilation processes and energy sources of microbial communities in oligotrophic, deep, crystalline bedrock fractures is yet to be resolved. In this study, intrinsic microbial communities from six fracture zones from 180-2300 m depths in Outokumpu bedrock were characterized using high-throughput amplicon sequencing and metagenomic prediction. Comamonadaceae-, Anaerobrancaceae- and Pseudomonadaceae-related OTUs form the core community in deep crystalline bedrock fractures in Outokumpu. Archaeal communities were mainly composed of Methanobacteraceae-affiliating OTUs. The predicted bacterial metagenomes showed that pathways involved in fatty acid and amino sugar metabolism were common. In addition, relative abundance of genes coding the enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways in predicted metagenomes was low. This indicates that heterotrophic carbon assimilation is more important for microbial communities of the fracture zones. Network analysis based on co-occurrence of OTUs revealed the keystone genera of the microbial communities belonging to Burkholderiales and Clostridiales. Bacterial communities in fractures resemble those found from oligotrophic, hydrogen-enriched environments. Serpentinization reactions of ophiolitic rocks in Outokumpu assemblage may provide a source of energy and organic carbon compounds for the microbial communities in the fractures. Sulfate reducers and methanogens form a minority of the total microbial communities, but OTUs forming these minor groups are similar to those found from other deep Precambrian terrestrial bedrock environments.

  8. Distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels in forested mountain drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Abbe, Tim B.; Buffington, John M.; Peterson, N. Phil; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Stock, Jonathan D.

    1996-06-01

    MOUNTAIN river networks often consist of both bedrock and alluvial channels1-5, the spatial distribution of which controls several fundamental geomorphological and ecological processes6,7. The nature of river channels can influence the rates of river incision and landscape evolution1,2, as well as the stream habitat characteristics affecting species abundance and aquatic ecosystem structure8-11. Studies of the factors controlling the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels have hitherto been limited to anthropogenic badlands12. Here we investigate the distribution of channel types in forested mountain drainage basins, and show that the occurrence of bedrock and alluvial channels can be described by a threshold model relating local sediment transport capacity to sediment supply. In addition, we find that valley-spanning log jams create alluvial channels- hospitable to aquatic life-in what would otherwise be bedrock reaches. The formation of such jams depends critically on the stabilizing presence of logs derived from the largest trees in the riverside forests, suggesting that management strategies that allow harvesting of such trees can have a devastating influence on alluvial habitats in mountain drainage basins.

  9. INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT SUPPLY, LITHOLOGY, AND WOOD DEBRIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BEDROCK AND ALLUVIAL CHANNELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field surveys in the Willapa River basin, Washington State, indicate that the drainage area?channel slope threshold describing the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels is influenced by the underlying lithology and that local variations in sediment supply can overwhelm ba...

  10. Recharge and pumping hydraulics in a till drumlin above fractured bedrock (Massachusetts, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.; Lukas, William G.; Rotaru, Camelia

    2015-02-01

    Recharge and pumping hydraulics of a till-mantled bedrock are analyzed with existing closed-form theory and 12 years of monthly water levels in cluster wells from Scituate Hill, a glacial till drumlin in eastern Massachusetts (USA). The weathered brown till atop Scituate Hill is an unconfined aquifer, delivering steady recharge and a seasonally varying recharge-head fluctuation to the unweathered gray till aquitard beneath it. The water-table fluctuations generate no seasonally varying flow field in the gray till, due to the relatively low hydraulic diffusivity of the brown till. Nearby irrigation pumps drilled into the underlying Dedham Granite in 2011 have introduced seasonal drawdown, and the gray till leaks into the fractured bedrock aquifer. The leakage reflects the moderate diffusivity of the gray till and the relatively high hydraulic diffusivity of the fractured bedrock. Both seasonal disturbances are mildly attenuated across the gray till, so that the Dedham Granite senses recharge, while the water table in Scituate Hill is drawn down by irrigation pumping. Steady and seasonal gray till data are accordingly used to calibrate the transmissivity and storativity of the fractured bedrock and specific yield of the brown till, with physically plausible values.

  11. Bedrock infiltration estimates from a catchment water storage-based modeling approach in the rain snow transition zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of bedrock infiltration from mountain catchments in the western U.S. are essential to water resource managers because they provide an estimate of mountain block recharge to regional aquifers. On smaller scales, bedrock infiltration is an important term in water mass balance studies, which...

  12. Piezometric response in shallow bedrock at CB1: Implications for runoff generation and landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Dietrich, William E.; Heffner, John T.

    2002-12-01

    Experimental observations comparing two steep unchanneled valleys in the Oregon Coast Range, one intensively instrumented (CB1) and the other monitored for runoff but which produced a debris flow (CB2), shed light on the mechanisms of shallow flow in bedrock, its interaction with the vadose zone, and its role in generating landslides. Previous work at CB1 led to the proposal that during storms pulses of rainfall transmit pressure waves through the vadose zone and down to the saturated zone to create rapid pore pressure response and runoff [, 1998]. Here, we document the associated rapid pore pressure response in the shallow fractured bedrock that underlies these colluvium-mantled sites and examine its influence on the generation of storm flow, seasonal variations in base flow, and slope stability in the overlying colluvial soil. Our observations document rapid piezometric response in the shallow bedrock and a substantial contribution of shallow fracture flow to both storm flow and seasonal variations in base flow. Saturated hydraulic conductivity in the colluvial soil decreases with depth below the ground surface, but the conductivity of the near-surface bedrock displays no depth dependence and varies over five orders of magnitude. Analysis of runoff intensity and duration in a series of storms that did and did not trigger debris flows in the surrounding area shows that the landslide inducing storms had the greatest intensity over durations similar to those predicted by a simple model of piezometric response. During a monitored storm in February 1992, the channel head at the base of the neighboring CB2 site failed as a debris flow. Automated piezometric measurements document that the CB2 debris flow initiated several hours after peak discharge, coincident with localized development of upward spikes of pressure head from near-surface bedrock into the overlying colluvial soil in CB1. Artesian flow observed exfiltrating from bedrock fractures on the failure surfaces

  13. Effects of bedrock nutrient density on vegetation and topography in the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, W.; Riebe, C. S.; Araki, S.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation harnesses solar energy to promote soil stability and regolith production. Mechanistically, vegetation encourages chemical weathering both directly, by releasing organic acids, and indirectly, by stabilizing soils and increasing their contact time with corrosive natural waters. Empirically, global compilations indicate that millennial-scale erosion rates are an order of magnitude faster on average in soil-mantled landscapes compared to bare, exposed-bedrock surfaces. Hence, connections between vegetation and soil cover are central to long-term questions of landscape evolution and short-term issues of sustainability. Yet the factors that regulate the distribution of vegetation, and by extension the soil mantle, are not fully understood. The unglaciated, granitic plutons of the western Sierra Nevada host an unexplained landscape dichotomy, in which forested, soil-mantled hillslopes are juxtaposed with bare, exposed-bedrock hillslopes. Here we present new measurements of bedrock nutrient density that correlate strongly with tree canopy cover within a narrow band of elevation and climate. Bedrock phosphorus concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude and change abruptly at plutonic contacts. These same contacts frequently mark transitions between vegetated, soil-mantled terrain and exposed bedrock surfaces, similar to sharp vegetative contacts around ultramafic substrates elsewhere in California. Major and minor element enrichment of soil relative to bedrock point to dust as a probable source of nutrients in at least one phosphorus-poor pluton, where sparse stunted forests persist in a landscape otherwise devoid of vegetation. This is consistent with an intrinsic nutrient deficiency that is partly offset by allocthonous nutrient inputs. Our observations are consistent with nutrient availability serving as a regulator that drives landscapes into two stable states. If nutrient availability is sufficient, vegetation takes hold, stabilizing soils

  14. An episode of rapid bedrock channel incision during the last glacial cycle, measured with 10Be

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reusser, L.; Bierman, P.; Pavich, M.; Larsen, J.; Finkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We use 10Be to infer when, how fast, and why the Susquehanna River incised through bedrock along the U.S. Atlantic seaboard, one of the world's most prominent and ancient passive margins. Although the rate at which large rivers incise rock is a fundamental control on the development of landscapes, relatively few studies have directly measured how quickly such incision occurs either in tectonically active environments or along passive margins. Exposure ages of fluvially carve d, bedrock strath terraces, preserved along the lower Susquehanna River, demonstrate that even along a passive margin, large rivers are capable of incising through rock for short periods of time at rates approaching those recorded in tectonically active regions, such as the Himalayas. Over eighty samples, collected along and between three prominent levels of strath terraces within Holtwood Gorge, indicate that the Susquehanna River incised more than 10 meters into the Appalachian Piedmont during the last glacial cycle. Beginning ???36 ka, incision rates increased dramatically, and remained elevated until ???14 ka. The northern half of the Susquehanna basin was glaciated during the late Wisconsinan; however, similar rates and timing of incision occurred in the unglaciated Potomac River basin immediately to the south. The concurrence of incision periods on both rivers suggests that glaciation and associated meltwater were not the primary drivers of incision. Instead, it appears that changing climatic conditions during the late Pleistocene promoted an increase in the frequency and magnitude of flood events capable of exceeding thresholds for rock detachment and bedrock erosion, thus enabling a short-lived episode of rapid incision into rock. Although this study has constraine d the timing and rate of bedrock incision along the largest river draining the Atlantic passive margin, the dates alone cannot explain fully why, or by what processes, this incision occurred. However, cosmogenic dating offers

  15. Threshold bedrock channels in tectonically active mountains with frequent mass wasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Codilean, A.; Oguchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of how mountain belts grow and erode through time largely rely on the paradigm of fluvial bedrock incision as the main motor of response to differences in rock uplift, thus setting base levels of erosion in tectonically active landscapes. Dynamic feedbacks between rock uplift, bedrock river geometry, and mass wasting have been encapsulated within the concept of threshold hillslopes that attain a mechanically critical inclination capable of adjusting to fluvial incision rates via decreased stability and commensurately more frequent landsliding. Here we provide data that challenge the widely held view that channel steepness records tectonic forcing more faithfully than hillslope inclination despite much robust empirical evidence of such links between bedrock-river geometry and hillslope mass wasting. We show that the volume mobilized by mass wasting depends more on local topographic relief and the sinuosity of bedrock rivers than their mean normalized channel steepness. We derive this counterintuitive observation from an unprecedented inventory of ~300,000 landslides covering the tectonically active Japanese archipelago with substantial differences in seismicity, lithology, vertical surface deformation, topography, and precipitation variability. Both total landslide number and volumes increase nonlinearly with mean local relief even in areas where the fraction of steepest channel segments attains a constant threshold well below the maximum topographic relief. Our data document for the first time that mass wasting increases systematically with preferential steepening of flatter channel segments. Yet concomitant changes in mean channel steepness are negligible such that it remains a largely insensitive predictor of landslide denudation. Further, minute increases in bedrock-river sinuosity lead to substantial reduction in landslide abundance and volumes. Our results underline that sinuosity (together with mean local relief) is a key morphometric variable for

  16. Reconnaissance of Arsenic Concentrations in Ground Water From Bedrock and Unconsolidated Aquifers in Eight Northern-Tier Counties of Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of ground water for analysis of total-arsenic concentrations were collected in eight counties--Potter, Tioga, Bradford, Susquehanna, Wayne, Pike, Sullivan, and Wyoming--and from eight bedrock formations (bedrock aquifers) and overlying glacial aquifers in the north-central and northeastern parts of Pennsylvania in July 2005 and from March through June 2006. The samples were collected from a total of 143 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 4 non-community wells, 2 community water-system wells, and 3 domestic springs by well or spring owners using sampling kits provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). An additional 15 domestic wells were sampled by the USGS for analysis of total arsenic. These 15 samples were collected using the same methods and sampling kits provided to the homeowners. Samples were analyzed for total arsenic by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Laboratory using a minimum reporting level of 4.0 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). Arsenic was detected in water from 18 domestic wells in four counties--Bradford (3 wells), Sullivan (1 well), Tioga (13 wells), and Wayne (1 well). The median concentration of total arsenic was less than 4.0 ?g/L, and the maximum concentration was 188 ?g/L. Water from 10 wells had concentrations of total arsenic greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ?g/L. Detectable concentrations of total arsenic were measured in water from wells that ranged in depth from 29 to 400 feet, and that were completed in three aquifers--Lock Haven Formation, Catskill Formation, and unconsolidated glacial sediments; no springs had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the Lock Haven Formation were collected from 60 wells; water from 12 of these wells had detectable concentrations of total arsenic. Water samples representing the Catskill Formation were collected from 57 wells; water from 4 wells had detectable concentrations of total arsenic

  17. Combination of Geophysical Methods to Support Urban Geological Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabàs, A.; Macau, A.; Benjumea, B.; Bellmunt, F.; Figueras, S.; Vilà, M.

    2014-07-01

    Urban geological mapping is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards. Geophysics can have a pivotal role to yield subsurface information in urban areas provided that geophysical methods are capable of dealing with challenges related to these scenarios (e.g., low signal-to-noise ratio or special logistical arrangements). With this principal aim, a specific methodology is developed to characterize lithological changes, to image fault zones and to delineate basin geometry in the urban areas. The process uses the combination of passive and active techniques as complementary data: controlled source audio-magnetotelluric method (CSAMT), magnetotelluric method (MT), microtremor H/V analysis and ambient noise array measurements to overcome the limitations of traditional geophysical methodology. This study is focused in Girona and Salt surrounding areas (NE of Spain) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth and the isopach maps of thickness of quaternary sediments) need to be resolved to carry out the 1:5000 urban geological mapping. These parameters can be estimated using this proposed methodology. (1) Acoustic impedance contrast between Neogene sediments and Paleogene or Paleozoic bedrock is detected with microtremor H/V analysis that provides the soil resonance frequency. The minimum value obtained is 0.4 Hz in Salt city, and the maximum value is the 9.5 Hz in Girona city. The result of this first method is a fast scanner of the geometry of basement. (2) Ambient noise array constrains the bedrock depth using the measurements of shear-wave velocity of soft soil. (3) Finally, the electrical resistivity models contribute with a good description of lithological changes and fault imaging. The conductive materials (1-100 Ωm) are associated with Neogene Basin composed by unconsolidated detrital sediments; medium resistive materials (100-400 Ωm) correspond to

  18. Meteoritic and bedrock constraints on the glacial history of Frontier Mountain in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Folco, L.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Grimberg, A.; Meier, M. M. M.; Kober, F.

    2008-06-01

    In 2001, a small H4 chondrite, Frontier Mountain (FRO) 01149, was found on a glacially eroded surface near the top of Frontier Mountain, Antarctica, about 600 m above the present ice level. The metal and sulphides are almost completely oxidized due to terrestrial weathering. We used a chemical leaching procedure to remove weathering products, which contained atmospheric 10Be and 36Cl in a ratio similar to that found in Antarctic ice. The FRO 01149 meteorite has a terrestrial age of 3.0 ± 0.3 Myr based on the concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl. This age implies that FRO 01149 is the oldest stony meteorite (fossil meteorites excluded) discovered on Earth. The noble gas cosmic ray exposure age of FRO 01149 is ~ 30 Myr. The meteorite thus belongs to the 33 Myr exposure age peak of H-chondrites. The bedrock surface on which FRO 01149 was found has wet-based glacial erosional features recording a former high-stand of the East Antarctic ice sheet. This ice sheet evidently overrode the highest peaks (> 2800 m a.s.l.) of the inland sector of the Transantarctic Mountains in northern Victoria Land. We argue that FRO 01149 was a local fall and that its survival on a glacially eroded bedrock surface constrains the age of the last overriding event to be older than ~ 3 Myr. The concentrations of in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al and 21Ne in a glacially eroded bedrock sample taken from near the summit of Frontier Mountain yield a surface exposure age of 4.4 Myr and indicate that the bedrock was covered by several meters of snow. The exposure age is also consistent with bedrock exposure ages of other summit plateaus in northern Victoria Land.

  19. Hydrogeology of a drift-filled bedrock valley near Lino Lakes, Anoka County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Pfannkuch, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    The bedrock surface of east-central Minnesota is dissected by an intricate network of valleys. Outside the bedrock valley at site B, 3 mi (4. 8 km) from site A, 100 ft (30 m) of drift overlies the bedrock surface. Observation wells were installed at the two sites to determine the vertical ground-water movement between the various aquifer units and the lateral movement between the two sites. An aquifer test of the lowest valley-fill aquifer at site A showed that the observation well completed in the same aquifer as the pumping well responded immediately; whereas a lag of about 100 min occurred between the lower valley fill and uppermost body of sand and gravel. This indicates that the hydraulic connection between these two layers is poor at the immediate site. Test results show that the lower sand-and-gravel aquifer has a transmissivity between 14,000 and 27,000 ft2/d (1,300 and 2,500 m2/d). Although the hydraulic gradient is vertically downward in the valley, much of the drift fill is poorly permeable. This suggests that the quantity of downward-percolating water reaching the lowest valley-fill aquifer is relatively small at the test site. Because valley cut through a number of bedrock aquifers in the region, they could potentially be an important avenue of contamination from land-surface waste. In addition, the vast network of bedrock valleys in the Twin Cities area might cause contaminants to disseminate rather rapidly throughout a large area.

  20. Glacial erosion of bedrock and preliminary Quaternary stratigraphy in the western Lake Erie coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shideler, G.I. ); Stone, B.D. )

    1994-04-01

    An analysis of 120 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and onshore well records in the southwestern Lake Erie coastal zone shows a highly dissected bedrock surface. Regional subsurface data confirm extensive glacial modification of the preglacial landscape and the differential erosion of bedrock units. Areas of deep glacial scour coincide with shale and dolostone subcrop belts, in which bedrock strike direction was subparallel to glacial flow directions during early and late phases of glaciation. Locally, deep scouring also occurred over zones of fractured bedrock. In southeastern Michigan, large bedrock valleys, widened and deepened by glacial erosion, are preserved on the north side of the area of the Erie ice lobe. To the south in areas of axial flow of the Erie lobe and southerly ice flow during glacial maxima, traces of preglacial valleys have been more severely modified by glacial erosion in diverging directions. Striations in the region record three such diverging ice-flow directions of the last ice sheet. In one quarry, the position and cross-cutting erosional relationships of the three striation sets indicate their relative ages, from oldest to youngest: SSW, SW, and W. The SSW-trending set is overlain by a compact, loamy till containing abundant Canadian-shield crystalline gravel clasts. The till and the striations record the initial Late Wisconsinan ice advance into the region. The younger striation sets are overlain by the clayey, shale-rich till of the Erie lobe. Onshore, glaciolacustrine massive silty clay overlies the clayey till and fills broad troughs between areas of till at the surface. Offshore, seismic profiles reveal stratification in the clay, which is overlain by late Holocene mud. A nearby test hole through the beach west of Turtle Creek suggests a valley-fill sequence consisting of Late Wisconsinan till overlain by 5 m of organic mud deposited during the late Holocene transgression of Late Erie.

  1. OneGeology-Europe and the new EC Directive INSPIRE - A matter of semantic subtlety?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, K.

    2009-04-01

    The EC INSPIRE Directive which came into force in May 2007 set out how the Member States of the European Union would describe, discover and provide access to spatial environmental data in a harmonised way. Amongst the data sets specified in INSPIRE is geology. A fundamental question is just what is meant by ‘geology'? The question must be answered, and in some detail, if the intentions of the INSPIRE Directive to provide consistency of access are to be realised The Directive itself provides very little constraint on this definition. In it geology is described as "Geology characterised according to composition and structure. Includes bedrock, aquifers and geomorphology". The challenge for the EC and its Member States - more specifically for the geological survey community - is to convert this single line into a precise and practical specification that will deliver the outcomes intended by INSPIRE. The geological survey community is attempting to develop this specification through two complementary routes. Theme Working Groups - a generic procedure adopted by the EC that will start in May 2009 - and a new EC eContentplus project, OneGeology-Europe. Within OneGeology-Europe is a Work Package whose task is to deliver a semantic specification of "geology" at 1:1 million scale. While the initial reaction of some would be to question whether defining geology at this scale poses any significant challenges the reality is somewhat different. Fundamental questionsare: Should we specify the geology at the surface or restrict it to "bedrock" geology? Do we attempt to define the rocks chronostratigraphically, or by their lithology, perhaps even by the more regional lithostratigraphy or by genetic aspect? To what extent do we include tectonic features? How to cope with th ecomplexity of metamorphic rocks etc? These are only some of the high level questions - the devil, however, comes in the detail. How should we deal with the classification of the Pre-Cambrian rocks? What

  2. Seafloor geology and benthic habitats, San Pedro Shelf, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.

    2012-01-01

    Seafloor samples, videography, still photography, and real-time descriptions of geologic and biologic constituents at or near the seafloor of the San Pedro Shelf, southern California, advance the study of natural and man-made processes on this coastal area off the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Multibeam echo-sounder data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1998 and 1999 guided sampling and camera work in 2004 resulting in a new seafloor character map that shows possible benthic habitats in much higher resolution (4- and 16-m pixels) than previously available. The seafloor is characterized by primarily muddy sand and sand with outcrops of Miocene and Pliocene bedrock along the Palos Verdes Fault Zone. Observed benthic populations indicate low abiotic complexity, low biotic complexity, and low biotic coverage. The data are provided for use in geographic information systems (GIS).

  3. Analytical data for geologic units in Missouri and parts of Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boerngen, Josephine G.; VanTrump, George; Ebens, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    This report lists the geochemical data collected during the course of a reconnaissance study of compositional variation in the bedrock and surficial gelogic untis exposed in Missouri and adjoining parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.  The primar object of the study was to assess scale-related components of geochemical variance with a view of determining the importance of regional geochemical variation in these units (cf. Connor and other, 1972).  Geologic evaluation, geochemical interpretation and summaries, and sampling designs employed in the collection of most of these data may be found in U.S. Geological Survey (1972a-1972f, 1973) and Connor and Shacklette (1975).

  4. Geologic map and map database of western Sonoma, northernmost Marin, and southernmost Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C.; Graymer, R.W.; Stamski, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (wsomf.ps, wsomf.pdf, wsomf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  5. Geologic map of the Grand Canyon 30' x 60' quadrangle, Coconino and Mohave Counties, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data as well as new mapping by the author, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the map area. Together with the accompanying pamphlet, it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the Grand Canyon area. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:100,000 or smaller.

  6. Geologic map of the Cerro Gordo Peak 7.5' Quadrangle, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Dunne, George C.; Conrad, James E.; Swanson, Brian J.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2004-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying pamphlet, it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  7. Indoor radon mapping and its relation to geology in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minda, Mihály; Tóth, György; Horváth, István; Barnet, Ivan; Hámori, Krisztián; Tóth, Eszter

    2009-04-01

    Indoor radon mapping may show stronger dependence on geological formations if the measured homes are one-storied houses with no basement. In Hungary, 17,244 homes were investigated on the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations; among these homes, there were 6,154, one-storied, no-basement houses. In Hungary, 21 geological units were created relevant for indoor radon index characterized by lithology, the position of the ground water table, and the gas permeability. Maps were drawn of different topography (counties, grid, geological units) and different values (maximum, mean, indoor radon indexes). A kind of standardization of houses was that only the one-storied, no-basement ones were chosen, but from geological point of view some more information was gained when the wall materials (bricks or adobe) were also taken into account. (“Adobe” is made of clay and straw in Hungary, and not burned as brick, just dried on sunshine). Enhanced indoor radon values can be observed on the bedrock of Cenozoic volcanic rocks and their eroded materials deposited on the local alluvial valleys. Another group with relatively increased indoor radon values can be connected to granite bodies. The grid method is useful for covering large state or even continental areas. For practical public use and detailed radon risk mapping geological or administrative unit-systems could yield more reasonable and useful results.

  8. Geologic map of the Clifton Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Clifton 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Colorado River/I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides interpretations of the Quaternary stratigraphy and geologic hazards in this area of the Grand Valley. The Clifton 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 16 different Quaternary units. Five prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains a large landslide deposit on the southern slopes of Mount Garfield. The landslide developed in the Mancos Shale and contains large blocks of the overlying Mesaverde Group. In addition, the landslide is a source of debris flows that have closed I-70 in the past. The major bedrock unit in the quadrangle is the Mancos Shale of Upper Cretaceous age. The map is accompanied by text containing unit descriptions, and sections on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and economic geology (including sand and gravel). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately 20 references are cited at the end of the report.

  9. Mineralogical sources of groundwater fluoride in Archaen bedrock/regolith aquifers: mass balances from the Peninsular Granite Complex, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Bethan; Burgess, William; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-05-01

    Fluoride in groundwater-sourced drinking water is a widespread concern in India, particularly in the granitic gneiss bedrock/regolith catchments of Andhra Pradesh, one of the most severely affected states. Mobilisation of F- to groundwater is ultimately the consequence of bedrock weathering and regolith development, yet in crystalline bedrock/regolith terrain of the Peninsular Granite Complex, which constitutes a strategically important aquifer environment in India, uncertainties persist in relation to the relative contribution of the different F-bearing minerals and their distribution between the bedrock and the regolith. Even the relative significance of the bedrock and regolith as sources of fluoride to groundwater is disputed, as are explanations of seasonal and/or secular trends in groundwater F-. There are important implications for management of the groundwater resource. Understanding the mechanisms and progress of chemical weathering of the granitic gneiss is key to these questions, ie how effectively is F removed from its primary source(s) as the bedrock weathers? And, to what extent is F- flushed from the weathering profile and/or re-sequestered by secondary mineral phases as the regolith develops? To address these questions we have applied optical petrography, XRD, scanning electron microprobe analysis, whole-rock chemical analysis and leaching experiments to samples of bedrock and regolith from two catchments in Andhra Pradesh. We have quantified the distribution of F between its individual mineralogical sources, and between bedrock and regolith. Experiments show there is no straightforward relationship between whole-rock F content and leached [F-]; in some instances regolith samples leach higher F- concentrations than the fresh granitic gneiss. Results shed light on conflicting conceptual models of F release to groundwater in gneissic bedrock/regolith aquifers. Accounting for groundwater [F-], simple estimates of groundwater flux in the catchments

  10. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is

  11. Geology and ground shaking: The April 25--26, 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquake sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Moley, K.; Dengler, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The authors present a simplified geologic map of Humboldt and Del Norte Counties, California and compare it to Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) produced by the April 25, 1992 M[sub S] = 7.1, and April 26 Ms = 6.6, and Ms = 6.7 Cape Mendocino earthquakes. The generalized geology was compiled from California Division of Mines and Geology Regional Geology Maps, and area geologic mapping by the USGS and Humboldt State University. Six rock/sediment groups are distinguished by considering lithology, consolidation, compaction, bedding orientation and degree of shearing: (1) landslides and glacial deposits; (2) bay muds and fill, alluvium, lake deposits and beach sand; (3) quaternary marine and non-marine deposits; (4) unstable bedrock; (5) moderately stable bedrock; (6) intrusions. Intensity values for the Saturday earthquake were calculated from over 2,000 surveys to individuals and businesses in the northcoast area by an algorithm based on a weighted sum of survey responses. Numerical data was compiled for over 100 locations in the region. The intensity VIII and greater zone encompassed an area of about 500 km[sup 2] including the communities of Petrolia, Ferndale and Rio Dell. Ground motion generally decays with distance in a roughly radial pattern. A different approach was taken to estimate the pattern of shaking in the two Sunday earthquakes. These earthquakes occurred when most respondents were sleeping and their perception of ground motion was likely to be affected.

  12. Estimated hydraulic properties for the surficial-and bedrock-aquifer system, Meddybemps, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.; Garabedian, Stephen P.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical and numerical-modeling methods were used to estimate hydraulic properties of the aquifer system underlying the Eastern Surplus Company Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine. Estimates of hydraulic properties are needed to evaluate pathways for contaminants in ground water and to support evaluation and selection of remediation measures for contaminated ground water at this site. The hydraulic conductivity of surficial materials, determined from specific-capacity tests, ranges from 17 to 78 feet per day for wells completed in coarse-grained glaciomarine sediments, and from about 0.1 to 1.Ofoot per day for wells completed in till. The transmissivity of fractured bedrock determined from specific-capacity tests and aquifer tests in wells completed in less than 200 feet of bedrock ranges from about 0.09 to 130 feet squared per day. Relatively high values of transmissivity at the south end of the study area appear to be associated with a high-angle fracture or fracture zone that hydraulically connects two wells completed in bedrock. Transmissivities at six low-yielding (less than 0.5 gallon per minute) wells, which appear to lie within a poorly transmissive block of the bedrock, are consistently in a range of about 0.09 to 0.5 foot squared per day. The estimates of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity in the southern half of the study area are supported by results of steady-state calibration of a numerical model and simulation of a 24-hour pumping test at a well completed in bedrock. Hydraulic conductivity values for the surficial aquifer used in the model were 30 feet per day for coarse-grained glaciomarine sediments, 0.001 to 0.01 foot per day for fine-grained glaciomarine sediments, and 0.1 to 0.5 foot per day for till. As part of model calibration, a relatively transmissive zone in the surficial aquifer was extended beyond the hypothesized extent of coarse-grained sediments eastward to the Dennys River. Hydraulic conductivity values used for bedrock in

  13. The influence of variable sediment supply and bed roughness on the spatial distribution of incision in a laboratory bedrock channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, G. I.; Sklar, L. S.; Davis, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Numerical models of river incision into bedrock typically predict incision rates averaged across the channel width and over a substantial reach length. However, at-a-point rates of bedrock wear are not likely to be spatially uniform but rather should depend strongly on local conditions, including the degree of partial bed alluviation, patterns of bedrock bed roughness, and variations in local shear stress. We report results of laboratory experiments in which we measured the spatial distribution of erosion under varying sediment supply, bedrock roughness and average boundary shear stress. The experiments utilized a tilting flume 8 m long and 0.3 m wide with an erodible bedrock bed made of sand and cement. We varied bedrock roughness, starting initially with a planar bed, which was roughened by chiseling and then allowed to evolve by repeated and sustained erosion. For a second set of runs we created an extreme initial bedrock roughness bed using egg-carton style mold, which then evolved as erosion significantly modified the bed surface. Digital elevation maps of the bedrock beds were made with a laser microtopography scanning device that has a resolution of 0.2 mm vertical and 5 mm horizontal. We calculated the local rate of bedrock wear by differencing the pre- and post-run local elevations. For each degree of bedrock roughness we systematically varied the rate of supply of uniform 5 mm gravel and measured sediment flux out the downstream end of the flume with a pair of submerged baskets suspended from load cells. Transient alluvial patches, if any, were repeatedly mapped by hand using a 5 cm grid transparent overlay. We also used the laser scanner to map the alluvial deposits left at the end of several runs. We found that high sediment feed rates tend to cover low points and erode the high points preferentially. In contrast, low sediment feed rates favor a positive feedback in which eroded low points capture bedload and erode more rapidly than neighboring high

  14. Organic Carbon Stabilization of Soils Formed on Acidic and Calcareous Bedrocks in Neotropical Alpine Grassland, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Songyu; Cammeraat, Erik; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence shows that Neotropical alpine ecosystems are vulnerable to global change. Since soils in the alpine grasslands of the Peruvian Andean region have large soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, profound understanding of soil organic matter (OM) stabilization mechanisms will improve the prediction of the feedback between SOC stocks and global change. It is well documented that poor-crystalline minerals and organo-metallic complexes significantly contribute to the OM stabilization in volcanic ash soils, including those in the Andean region. However, limited research has focused on non-ash soils that also express significant SOC accumulation. A pilot study of Peruvian Andean grassland soils suggests that lithology is a prominent factor for such carbon accumulation. As a consequence of contrasting mineral composition and pedogenic processes in soils formed on different non-volcanic parent materials, differences in OM stabilization mechanisms may be profound and consequently may respond differently to global change. Therefore, our study aims at a further understanding of carbon stocks and OM stabilization mechanisms in soils formed on contrasting bedrocks in the Peruvian Andes. The main objective is to identify and compare the roles that organo-mineral associations and aggregations play in OM stabilization, by a combination of selective extraction methods and fractionations based on density, particle size and aggregates size. Soil samples were collected from igneous acidic and calcareous sedimentary bedrocks in alpine grassland near Cajamarca, Peru (7.17°S, 78.63°W), at around 3700m altitude. Samples were taken from 3 plots per bedrock type by sampling distinguishable horizons until the C horizons were reached. Outcomes confirmed that both types of soil accumulate large amounts of carbon: 405.3±41.7 t/ha of calcareous bedrock soil and 226.0±5.6 t/ha of acidic bedrock soil respectively. In addition, extremely high carbon contents exceeding 90g carbon per

  15. How does sediment affect the hydraulics of bedrock-alluvial rivers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Rebecca; Hoey, Trevor; Maniatis, George; Leprêtre, Emilie

    2016-04-01

    Relationships between flow, sediment transport and channel morphology are relatively well established in coarse-grained alluvial channels. Developing equivalent relationships for bedrock-alluvial channels is complicated by the two different components that comprise the channel morphology: bedrock and sediment. These two components usually have very different response times to hydraulic forcing, meaning that the bedrock morphology may be inherited from previous conditions. The influence of changing sediment cover on channel morphology and roughness will depend on the relative magnitudes of the sediment size and the spatial variations in bedrock elevation. We report results from experiments in a 0.9m wide flume designed to quantify the interactions between flow and sediment patch morphology using two contrasting bedrock topographies. The first topography is a plane bed with sand-scale roughness, and the second is a 1:10 scale, 3D printed, model of a bedrock channel with spatially variable roughness (standard deviation of elevations = 12 mm in the flume). In all experiments, a sediment pulse was added to the flume (D50 between 7 and 15 mm) and sediment patches were allowed to stabilise under constant flow conditions. The flow was then incrementally increased in order to identify the discharges at which sediment patches and isolated grains were eroded. In the plane bed experiments ˜20% sediment cover is sufficient to alter the channel hydraulics through the increased roughness of the bed; this impact is expressed as the increased discharge at which isolated grains are entrained. In the scaled bed experiments, partial sediment cover decreased local flow velocities on a relatively smooth area of the bed. At the scale of the entire channel, the bed morphology, and the hydraulics induced by it, was a primary control on sediment cover stability at lower sediment inputs. At higher inputs, where sediment infilled the local bed topography, patches were relatively more stable

  16. Reach-Scale Hydraulic Influence on Sediment Dynamics and Morphological Development in a Bedrock Influenced River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.; Milan, D. J.; Tooth, S.

    2014-12-01

    Many large rivers in southern Africa are characterised by a macro-channel cut 10 - 20 m into the ancient planation surface. This has resulted in a variable channel morphology strongly influenced by bedrock outcrops. The influence of bedrock upon flow hydraulics and sediment transport often results in a repeat sequence of alluvial channel types behind bedrock obstructions. This study investigates the hydraulic controls on channel type sequencing on the Sabie River, which drains a 6500 km2 semi-arid catchment of the Lowveld of South Africa and Mozambique. Aerial LIDAR data within the Kruger National Park was interrogated to isolate a bedrock influenced anastomosing reach, together with its associated alluvial sequences up- and downstream. These data were used to create a 2m DEM and a 2D flow model (JFLOW) was used to simulate a sequence of flows from 20 m3s-1 to 5000 m3s-1, with spatial data on water surface, flow depth and channel velocity extracted from the model. Water surface data revealed the strong gradient control exerted by the bedrock influenced anastomosed channel, creating hydraulic conditions suitable for deposition upstream and restricting sedimentation downstream. Steepening of the gradient through the anastomosing reach resulted in altered hydraulics and a changed pattern of sedimentation. At moderate discharges, flow is distributed efficiently across numerous interconnected channels, over low berms and islands, promoting sedimentation. Similarly the backwater effect encourages deposition of fine sediments upstream to create and maintain the alluvial sequence. Under higher flows, water levels rise significantly in the confined upstream reach and shear stress exceeds the threshold necessary to strip stored sediment. In contrast, conditions within the anastomosed reach remain less energetic due to the continued effect of flow distribution. Under extreme flow conditions the bedrock influence is drowned out resulting in dramatically increased energy levels

  17. The Salzach Valley overdeeping: A most precise bedrock model of a major alpine glacial basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomper, Johannes; Salcher, Bernhard; Eichkitz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Overdeepenings are impressive phenomena related to the erosion in the ablation zone of major glaciers. They are common features in glaciated and deglaciated regions worldwide and their sedimentary fillings may act as important archives for regional environmental change and glaciation history. Sedimentary fillings are also important targets of geotechnical exploration and construction including groundwater resource management, shallow geothermal exploitation, tunneling and the foundation of buildings. This is especially true in densely populated areas such as the European Alps and their foreland areas, regions which have been multiply glaciated during the last million years. However, due depths often exceeding some hundreds of meters, the overall knowledge on their geometry, formation and sedimentary content is still poor and commonly tied to some local spots. Here we present a bedrock model of the overall lower Salzach Valley, one of the largest glacial overdeepings in the European Alps. We utilized seismic sections from hydrocarbon exploration surveys and deep drillings together with topographic and modelling data to construct a 3D bedrock model. Through the existence of seismic inline and crossline valley sections, multiple drillings reaching the bedrock surface, log and abundant outcrop data we were, as far to our knowledge, able to create the most accurate digital bedrock topography of an alpine major overdeepening. We furthermore analyzed the sedimentary content of the valley as recorded by driller's lithologic logs. Our results suggest that the valley is far from being a regular U-shaped trough with constant depth, rather highlighting highs and lows of different magnitude and underground valley widths of variable extent. Data also indicates that the largest overdeepening of bedrock, reaching around 450 m below the alluvial fill, is not situated after a major glacial confluence following a prominent bedrock gorge but shifted several km down the valley. The

  18. Geologic map of the Priest Rapids 1:100,000 quadrangle, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Fecht, K.R.

    1993-09-01

    This map of the Priest Rapids 1:100,000-scale quadrangle, Washington, shows the geology of one of fifteen complete or partial 1:100,000-scale quadrangles that cover the southeast quadrant of Washington. Geologic maps of these quadrangles have been compiled by geologists with the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER) and Washington State University and are the principal data sources for a 1:250,000scale geologic map of the southeast quadrant of Washington, which is in preparation. Eleven of those quadrangles are being released as DGER open-file reports (listed below). The map of the Wenatchee quadrangle has been published by the US Geological Survey (Tabor and others, 1982), and the Moses Lake (Gulick, 1990a), Ritzville (Gulick, 1990b), and Rosalia (Waggoner, 1990) quadrangles have already been released. The geology of the Priest Rapids quadrangle has not previously been compiled at 1:100,000 scale. Furthermore, this is the first 1:100,000 or smaller scale geologic map of the area to incorporate both bedrock and surficial geology. This map was compiled in 1992, using published and unpublished geologic maps as sources of data.

  19. Using Muon Radiography to map the Bedrock Geometry underneath an active Glacier: A Case Study in the Central Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, muon radiography has been successfully applied to tackle geological issues and has enjoyed an increasing interest, mainly because this methodology enriches the geophysical arsenal by another shallow subsurface imaging tool that may give independent constraints on material density. Muons that originate from the collision of cosmic particles with Earth's atmosphere are able to penetrate the material in question and can finally be recorded by a detector. The irradiation intensity can then be inverted to the density of the traversed material. Various successful two-dimensional attempts have already been made to image e.g. magma chambers inside volcanoes (Lesparre et al., 2012; Nishiyama et al., 2014; Tanaka et al., 2005), but this method has yet to be applied for mapping the base of glaciers, where the density contrasts between ice and underlying bedrock are even greater than those between magma and host rock. While a high Alpine setup limits the possibilities to deploy traditional geophysical methods for surveying the base of glaciers (because of inaccessible terrain, poor infrastructure or the presence of water in the ice), muon radiography might prove to be a promising alternative. The muon intensity data from stereo observation can be related to the three-dimensional geometry of the interface between the glacier and its bedrock. Given a suitable input model, this relation can be solved within the framework of geophysical inverse problems. The final model then gives geologists invaluable information on erosional mechanisms underneath active glaciers, as this has not yet been observed. We test this methodology for a site within the Jungfrau region, situated in the central Swiss Alps. Our first goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, starting from a toy model in a first phase and continuing with real data in a second phase. For this purpose, we installed cosmic-ray detectors at two sites inside

  20. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Buxton 7.5' Quadrangle, Washington County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinterman, Philip A.; Duvall, Alison R.

    2009-01-01

    This map, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits of the Buxton 7.5-minute quadrangle. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller. This plot file and accompanying database depict the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:24,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains new information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

  1. Groundwater contaminant science activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Aquifers in New England provide water for human needs and natural ecosystems. In some areas, however, aquifers have been degraded by contaminants from geologic and human sources. In recent decades, the U.S. Geological Survey has been a leader in describing contaminant occurrence in the bedrock and surficial aquifers of New England. In cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey has also studied the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants, the factors affecting the geographic distribution of contaminants, and the geochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate. This fact sheet describes some of the major science needs in the region related to groundwater contaminants and highlights recent U.S. Geological Survey studies that provide a foundation for future investigations.

  2. Groundwater contaminant science activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2016-03-23

    Aquifers in New England provide water for human needs and natural ecosystems. In some areas, however, aquifers have been degraded by contaminants from geologic and human sources. In recent decades, the U.S. Geological Survey has been a leader in describing contaminant occurrence in the bedrock and surficial aquifers of New England. In cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey has also studied the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants, the factors affecting the geographic distribution of contaminants, and the geochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate. This fact sheet describes some of the major science needs in the region related to groundwater contaminants and highlights recent U.S. Geological Survey studies that provide a foundation for future investigations.

  3. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  4. Geometry of structures within crystalline bedrock constrained in 3D and their relevance for present day water infiltration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Raphael; de la Varga, Miguel; Florian Wellmann, J.; Kober, Florian; Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Fluid circulation in crystalline rocks is of key importance when exploring crystalline basement in light of, for example, deep-seated geothermal energy projects or selection of sites for nuclear waste repositories. Due to their enhanced permeability, fluid circulation within crystalline bedrock is mainly controlled by fault zones, which may originate from ductile mylonites but show a strong brittle overprint. In order to better constrain 3D flow paths, a well-founded knowledge on the 3D nature of the fault zone pattern is indispensable. We attempt to constrain the geometry of a complex 3D fault zone pattern in a case study of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS, central Switzerland). The constraints are based on mapping of both the surface as well as the GTS underground tunnel system, offering a unique opportunity to test the 3D model and associated uncertainties. We investigate the effect of increasing geoinformation on the quality and accuracy of the 3D model by using: (i) remote sensing surface data only, (ii) field surface mapping in combination with (i), and (iii) underground data combined with (i) and (ii). This approach allows for defining different steps in 3D geological modelling of a specific area, including a measure of the remaining uncertainty after each step. We obtain a best-estimate model by fitting results between surface and underground data by using a combination of field data and orientation obtained by Delaunay triangulation. We incorporate novel approaches to uncertainty analysis of fault orientations and investigate different fault planes showing the possible variation range of the structures investigated.

  5. An investigation into the bedrock depth in the Eskisehir Quaternary Basin (Turkey) using the microtremor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, M.; Pekkan, E.; Özel, O.; Guney, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Amplification can occur in a graben as a result of strong earthquake-induced ground motion. Thus, in seismic hazard and seismic site response studies, it is of the utmost importance to determine the geometry of the bedrock depth. The main objectives of this study were to determine the bedrock depth and map the depth-to-bedrock ratio for use in land use planning in regard to the mitigation of earthquake hazards in the Eskişehir Basin. The fundamental resonance frequencies (fr) of 318 investigation sites in the Eskişehir Basin were determined through case studies, and the 2-D S-wave velocity structure down to the bedrock depth was explored. Single-station microtremor data were collected from the 318 sites, as well as microtremor array data from nine sites, seismic reflection data from six sites, deep-drilling log data from three sites and shallow drilling log data from ten sites in the Eskişehir Graben. The fundamental resonance frequencies of the Eskişehir Basin sites were obtained from the microtremor data using the horizontal-to vertical (H/V) spectral ratio (HVSR) method. The phase velocities of the Rayleigh waves were estimated from the microtremor data using the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method. The fundamental resonance frequency range at the deepest point of the Eskişehir Basin was found to be 0.23-0.35 Hz. Based on the microtremor array measurements and the 2-D S-wave velocity profiles obtained using the SPAC method, a bedrock level with an average velocity of 1300 m s-1 was accepted as the bedrock depth limit in the region. The log data from a deep borehole and a seismic reflection cross-section of the basement rocks of the Eskişehir Basin were obtained and permitted a comparison of bedrock levels. Tests carried out using a multichannel walk-away technique permitted a seismic reflection cross-section to be obtained up to a depth of 1500-2000 m using an explosive energy source. The relationship between the fundamental resonance frequency in the

  6. Bedrock Denudation on Titan: Estimates of Vertical Extent and Lateral Debris Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    Methane rainfall and runoff, along with aeolian activity, have dominated the sculpting of Titan s landscape. A knowledge of the vertical extent of bedrock erosion and the lateral extent of the resulting sediment is useful for several purposes [1]. For instance, what is the magnitude and expression of modification of constructional landforms (e.g., mountains)? Does highland denudation and the filling of basins with sediment cause adjustments (uplift and subsidence) in the crustal ice shell? Here we report preliminary findings of putative eroded craters and the results of landform evolution modeling (Fig. 1) that suggest that approx. 250 m of net bedrock erosion has at least locally taken place and approx.1 km of maximum local erosion.

  7. Recent advances in the hydrostratigraphy of paleozoic bedrock in the midwestern united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, K.R.; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent hydrostratigraphic researches have made it possible to acquire knowledge about the relatively undeformed Paleozoic bedrock that forms the most widely used aquifers in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Ongoing evaluation of the Cambrian Eau Claire Formation in southern Wisconsin has caused the formation to be considered a major regional aquitard. Subsurface logs indicate that its thickness ranges from absent to <75 m, and parts of the formation yield significant amounts of water to wells. A key part of modern aquitard hydrogeology is the integration of multi-level hydraulic head measurements into hydrostratigraphic analysis. In south-central Wisconsin, regional groundwater withdrawals from the confined Mount Simon aquifer have created a regional cone of depression. Regional groundwater modeling has demonstrated that this relatively thin unit exerts a major control on regional groundwater flow in the ??300-m-thick bedrock aquifer system and that it is critical in protecting deep wells from contamination.

  8. Global distribution of bedrock exposures on Mars using THEMIS high-resolution thermal inertia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, C.S.; Bandfield, J.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Fergason, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate high thermal inertia surfaces using the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) nighttime temperature images (100 m/pixel spatial sampling). For this study, we interpret any pixel in a THEMIS image with a thermal inertia over 1200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 as "bedrock" which represents either in situ rock exposures or rock-dominated surfaces. Three distinct morphologies, ranked from most to least common, are associated with these high thermal inertia surfaces: (1) valley and crater walls associated with mass wasting and high surface slope angles; (2) floors of craters with diameters >25 km and containing melt or volcanics associated with larger, high-energy impacts; and (3) intercrater surfaces with compositions significantly more mafic than the surrounding regolith. In general, bedrock instances on Mars occur as small exposures (less than several square kilometers) situated in lower-albedo (<0.18), moderate to high thermal inertia (>350 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), and relatively dust-free (dust cover index <0.95) regions; however, there are instances that do not follow these generalizations. Most instances are concentrated in the southern highlands, with very few located at high latitudes (poleward of 45oN and 58oS), suggesting enhanced mechanical breakdown probably associated with permafrost. Overall, Mars has very little exposed bedrock with only 960 instances identified from 75oS to 75oN with likely <3500 km2 exposed, representing???1% of the total surface area. These data indicate that Mars has likely undergone large-scale surface processing and reworking, both chemically and mechanically, either destroying or masking a majority of the bedrock exposures on the planet. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Hitting rock bottom: morphological responses of bedrock-confined streams to a catastrophic flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggs Sargood, M.; Cohen, T. J.; Thompson, C. J.; Croke, J.

    2015-06-01

    The role of extreme events in shaping the Earth's surface is one that has held the interests of Earth scientists for centuries. A catastrophic flood in a tectonically quiescent setting in eastern Australia in 2011 provides valuable insight into how semi-alluvial channels respond to such events. Field survey data (3 reaches) and desktop analyses (10 reaches) with catchment areas ranging from 0.5 to 168 km2 show that the predicted discharge for the 2011 event ranged from 415 to 933 m3 s-1, with unit stream power estimates of up to 1077 W m-2. Estimated entrainment relationships predict the mobility of the entire grain-size population, and field data suggest the localised mobility of boulders up to 4.8 m in diameter. Analysis of repeat lidar data demonstrates that all reaches (field and desktop) were areas of net degradation via extensive scouring of coarse-grained alluvium with a strong positive relationship between catchment area and normalised erosion (R2 = 0.72-0.74). The extensive scouring in the 2011 flood decreased thalweg variance significantly removing previous step pools and other coarse-grained in-channel units, forming lengths of plane-bed (cobble) reach morphology. This was also accompanied by the exposure of planar bedrock surfaces, marginal bedrock straths and bedrock steps. Post-flood field data indicate a slight increase in thalweg variance as a result of the smaller 2013 flood rebuilding the alluvial overprint with pool-riffle formation. However, the current form and distribution of channel morphological units does not conform to previous classifications of bedrock or headwater river systems. This variation in post-flood form indicates that in semi-alluvial systems extreme events are significant for re-setting the morphology of in-channel units and for exposing the underlying lithology to ongoing erosion.

  10. Waterfall formation driven by interacting flow hydraulics, sediment cover, and erosion in an experimental bedrock canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, Joel; Lamb, Michael; Fuller, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous in steep landscapes and have been documented to retreat upstream at rates far outpacing standard fluvial incision into bedrock. While the formation of waterfalls following changes in climate and base-level lowering have been well-documented, little work has explored the formation of waterfalls via the internal dynamics from interacting flow hydraulics, sediment flux, and evolving channel morphology. Distinguishing between waterfalls formed via external versus internal forcing is important, as waterfall formation and retreat rate is often applied in inverse to determine the timing of external forcing. Here, we present results from a laboratory experiment designed to explore channel incision and waterfall formation. We fed water and sediment at constant rates over an initially planar surface tilted to 19.5% slope. A channel rapidly incised into the artificial bedrock substrate, and small-wavelength variations in erosion rate created steps and pools which grew in amplitude. As pools deepened, sediment cover at the downstream portion of pools locally limited erosion, while erosion in the upstream portion of the pool created steep faces. At the topographic breaks between these steep segments and their upstream treads, water detached from the bed forming ventilated waterfall jets which impacted the plunge pools below. Individual waterfalls were short-lived as pool-deepening promoted alluviation which prevented further pool-incision, while amplified erosion at the waterfall lip incised a new pool into the bedrock previously composing the waterfall face. Repetition of this process in our experiment suggests that interactions between bedrock erosion and sediment cover can result in the formation of a series of plunge pools which retreat upstream.

  11. Baseline geochemistry of soil and bedrock Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff at MDA-P

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.G.; McDonald, E.V.; Ryti, R.T.

    1997-08-01

    This report provides baseline geochemistry for soils (including fill), and for bedrock within three specific areas that are planned for use in the remediation of Material Disposal Area P (MDA-P) at Technical Area 16 (TA-16). The baseline chemistry includes leachable element concentrations for both soils and bedrock and total element concentrations for all soil samples and for two selected bedrock samples. MDA-P operated from the early 1950s to 1984 as a landfill for rubble and debris generated by the burning of high explosives (HE) at the TA-16 Burning Ground, HE-contaminated equipment and material, barium nitrate sand, building materials, and trash. The aim of this report is to establish causes for recognizable chemical differences between the background and baseline data sets. In many cases, the authors conclude that recognizable differences represent natural enrichments. In other cases, differences are best attributed to analytical problems. But most importantly, the comparison of background and baseline geochemistry demonstrates significant contamination for several elements not only at the two remedial sites near the TA-16 Burning Ground, but also within the entire region of the background study. This contamination is highly localized very near to the surface in soil and fill, and probably also in bedrock; consequently, upper tolerance limits (UTLs) calculated as upper 95% confidence limits of the 95th percentile are of little value and thus are not provided. This report instead provides basic statistical summaries and graphical comparisons for background and baseline samples to guide strategies for remediation of the three sites to be used in the restoration of MDA-P.

  12. Numerical modelling of permafrost in bedrock in northern Fennoscandia during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Šafanda, J.

    2001-06-01

    The occurrence of permafrost in bedrock in northern Fennoscandia and its dependence on past and presently ongoing climatic variations was investigated with one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) numerical models by solving the transient heat conduction equation with latent heat effects included. The study area is characterized by discontinuous permafrost occurrences such as palsa mires and local mountain permafrost. The ground temperature changes during the Holocene were constructed using climatic proxy data. This variation was used as a forcing function at the ground surface in the calculations. Several versions of the present ground temperature were applied, resulting in different subsurface freezing-thawing conditions in the past depending on the assumed porosity and geothermal conditions. Our results suggest that in high altitude areas with a cold climate (present mean annual ground temperature between 0°C and -3°C), there may have been considerable variations in permafrost thickness (ranging from 0 to 150 m), as well as periods of no permafrost at all. The higher is the porosity of bedrock filled with ice, the stronger is the retarding effect of permafrost against climatic variations. Two-dimensional models including topographic effects with altitude-dependent ground temperatures and slope orientation and inclination dependent solar radiation were applied to a case of mountain permafrost in Ylläs, western Finnish Lapland, where bedrock permafrost is known to occur in boreholes to a depth of about 60 m. Modelling suggests complicated changes in permafrost thickness with time as well as contrasting situations on southern and northern slopes of the mountain. Extrapolating the climatic warming of the last 200 years to the end of the next century when the anticipated increase in the annual average air temperature is expected to be about 2 K indicates that the permafrost occurrences in bedrock in northern Fennoscandia would be thawing rapidly in low

  13. 3D Mapping of Glacially-Sculpted Bedrock in Central Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderman, L.; Stark, C. P.; Creyts, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    The movement of glaciers and ice sheets through sliding over bedrock depends on the configuration of the subglacial hydrological system. Over time, the glacier erodes the bedrock, which in turn changes water drainage pathways, the overall interaction with the ice, and potentially sliding rates. Drainage can take many forms. At the largest scale, subglacial lakes tens of kilometers in length store water, but the individual pathways are often on the order of meters or smaller. Studies at such a fine scale are only possible by looking at deglaciated beds to infer water drainage. 3D mapping can resolve centimeter scale features and inform studies of the processes that created them. In this survey, Agisoft Photoscan's structure from motion algorithm is used to create a map of Umpire Rock in New York's Central Park from digital photographs. Over 3300 photographs are taken at a separation of roughly half a meter to cover the 1000 square meter survey area. The surface is imaged in separate sections and the resulting point clouds are each aligned with a central section using Photoscan's Align Chunks tool. This process allows additional areas to easily be added to the 3D map. The scale of the final model is accurate to 1mm across the survey area and 3D meshes with a surface resolution of up to 5mm can be created. The distribution of striation directions and sizes on surfaces across the outcrop gives the overall flow direction of the ice and, more locally, illustrates how ice deforms around bedrock features. In addition to striations, we identify cavities and subtle drainage features that are oblique to ice flow. This study demonstrates the relative ease of 3D mapping bedrock outcrops from digital photographs, and indicates the utility of applying this process to more recently deglaciated areas.

  14. Geochemical patterns of arsenic-enriched ground water in fractured, crystalline bedrock, Northport, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipfert, G.; Reeve, A.S.; Sidle, W.C.; Marvinney, R.

    2006-01-01

    High mean As concentrations of up to 26.6 ??mol/L (1990 ??g/L) occur in ground water collected from a fractured-bedrock system composed of sulfidic schist with granitic to dioritic intrusions. Sulfides in the bedrock are the primary source of the As in the ground water, but the presence of arsenopyrite in rock core retrieved from a borehole with As concentrations in the ground water barely above the detection limit of 2.0 ??mol/L, shows that there are complicating factors. Chemical analyses of water from 35 bedrock wells throughout a small watershed reveal spatial clustering of wells with high As concentrations. Stiff diagrams and box plots distinguish three distinct types; calcium-bicarbonate-dominated water with low As concentrations (CaHCO 3 type), sodium-bicarbonate-dominated water with moderately high As concentrations (NaHCO3 type), and calcium-bicarbonate-dominated water with very high As concentrations (High-As type). It is proposed that differences in recharge area and ground-water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference are responsible for the chemical distinctions within the watershed. Lack of correlation of As concentrations with pH indicates that desorption of As is an insignificant control on As concentration. Correlations of As concentrations with Fe and redox parameters indicates that reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides may play a role in the occurrence of high As concentrations in the NaHCO3 and High-As type water. The oxidation of sulfide minerals occurs within the ground-water system and is ultimately responsible for the existence of As in the ground water, but there is no correlation between As and SO4 concentrations, probably due to precipitation of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and adsorption of As under oxidizing conditions. Crown Copyright ?? 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rivers meandering in bedrock: Lithologic, climatic, and process controls on form and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunka, J. P.; Lancaster, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Whereas meander wavelengths of alluvial rivers characteristically scale with bankfull discharge, bedrock meander wavelengths are typically 5-10 times greater than the scaling relationship for alluvial rivers would suggest, a fact that has led some to conclude that bedrock meanders are "underfit." Others, however, have reasoned that larger dominant discharges should be expected for bedrock meanders to erode bank toes and mobilize sediment in bank-shielding scree piles, which often accompany steep, even vertical, outside banks capable of supplying coarse debris via landslide, debris flow, and rockfall. We attempt to test this hypothesis by finding dominant discharges for the Buffalo National River, Arkansas, by several methods. First, assuming that, as with alluvial meanders, bedrock meander wavelengths are 7-15 times hydraulic width at dominant discharge, we use cross-sections extracted from LiDAR-derived DEMs to find discharges corresponding to objectively-determined meander wavelengths. Second, assuming that dominant discharge must mobilize scree mantling outer-bank toe slopes, we use measured grain size distributions and cross sections to determine this discharge. For each of these calculated discharges, we use flow-duration curves to find corresponding recurrence intervals. Third, assuming that mean residence times of scree are similar to dominant discharge recurrence intervals, we use measured scree volumes and flux rates inferred from lateral migration rates to find those residence times. Preliminary results for the site with the longest gauge record yield a mean recurrence interval of 26 yrs corresponding to a meander wavelength-to-width scaling ratio of 11 (9-139 yrs for scaling ratios of 7-15). Recurrence intervals found by the other methods await field and cosmogenic isotope concentration measurements.

  16. Autocyclic Formation, Retreat, and Destruction of Waterfalls in an Experimental Bedrock Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Fuller, B. M.; Lamb, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous in steep landscapes and have been documented to retreat upstream at rates far outpacing standard fluvial incision into bedrock. While the formation of waterfalls following changes in climate and base-level lowering have been well-documented, little work has explored the formation of waterfalls via the internal dynamics from interacting flow hydraulics, sediment flux, and evolving channel morphology. Distinguishing between waterfalls formed via external versus internal forcing is important, as waterfall formation and retreat rate is often applied in inverse to determine the timing of external forcing. Here, we present results from a laboratory experiment designed to explore channel incision and waterfall formation. We fed water and sediment at constant rates over an initially planar surface at 19.5% slope. A channel rapidly incised into the artificial bedrock substrate, and small-wavelength variations in erosion rate created steps and pools which grew in amplitude. As pools deepened, erosion was focused on the upstream pool faces creating steep segments in the channel bed. At the topographic breaks between these steep segments and their upstream treads, water detached from the bed forming ventilated waterfall jets which impacted the plunge pools below. Continued pool deepening led to sediment deposition on the pool floors, locally inhibiting vertical incision while the upstream and downstream surfaces were free to erode. Amplified erosion at the waterfall lip incised a new pool into the bedrock previously composing the waterfall face while simultaneous lowering of the downstream pool lip resulted in the destruction of the original pool. Repetition of this process in our experiment suggests that interactions between bedrock erosion and sediment cover can result in the formation of a series of plunge pools which retreat upstream, and that care must be taken to distinguish between autocyclic versus allocyclic waterfall formation in studies

  17. Modeling single-well injection experiments with delayed extraction in fractured bedrock aquifers - applications in CO2 geosequestration research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Stute, M.; Zakharova, N. V.; Matter, J.; Takahashi, T.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Goldberg, D.

    2013-12-01

    Characterization of the solute transport of anthropogenically introduced solutions in fractured bedrock aquifers has practical implications on environmental problems related to CO2 geological sequestration, hydraulic fracturing, and environmental fracturing remediation. Tracer tests using conservative chemicals, such as push-pull experiments in single borehole, provide a direct and reliable method to estimate the solute transport and have been used as a basis for further understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Obtaining analytical solutions often requires simplification of the hydrogeological processes and usually is not practical or very difficult. For example, environmental studies often require a delayed extraction to increase the reaction time and amplify the biogeochemical signals during the push-pull experiments. Simulating these processes by numerical models demands large computation resources, but can reveal the complexity and heterogeneity of aquifer and hydrological processes. Testing the sensitivity of model parameters in such simulations allows for an understanding of the most significant parameters of these processes. In this study, seven push-pull experiments with delayed extraction after the introduction of chemical salts (e.g. NaCl and KBr), gases (SF6, SF5CF3), or isotopic tracers (18O, 13C) were conducted in a test well in the Newark Basin at two different depths. Fracture zones at these depths correspond to the contact zone (232-240 m) between the Palisades diabase sill and the underlying Newark Basin sand and clay sediments and an interval (362-366 m) within the sedimentary rock formations. This study investigates the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration and the potential environmental impact in the event of CO2 leakage into overlying groundwater aquifers in sedimentary formations. Analytical solutions were adapted using non-Fickian models to fit the observed tracer breakthrough curves. Normalized tracer

  18. Stochastic Seismic Response of an Algiers Site with Random Depth to Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Badaoui, M.; Mebarki, A.; Berrah, M. K.

    2010-05-21

    Among the important effects of the Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 21{sup st} 2003) was that, within the same zone, the destructions in certain parts were more important than in others. This phenomenon is due to site effects which alter the characteristics of seismic motions and cause concentration of damage during earthquakes. Local site effects such as thickness and mechanical properties of soil layers have important effects on the surface ground motions.This paper deals with the effect of the randomness aspect of the depth to bedrock (soil layers heights) which is assumed to be a random variable with lognormal distribution. This distribution is suitable for strictly non-negative random variables with large values of the coefficient of variation. In this case, Monte Carlo simulations are combined with the stiffness matrix method, used herein as a deterministic method, for evaluating the effect of the depth to bedrock uncertainty on the seismic response of a multilayered soil. This study considers a P and SV wave propagation pattern using input accelerations collected at Keddara station, located at 20 km from the epicenter, as it is located directly on the bedrock.A parametric study is conducted do derive the stochastic behavior of the peak ground acceleration and its response spectrum, the transfer function and the amplification factors. It is found that the soil height heterogeneity causes a widening of the frequency content and an increase in the fundamental frequency of the soil profile, indicating that the resonance phenomenon concerns a larger number of structures.

  19. Modelling Incision in Mixed Bedrock-Alluvial Rivers: The Role of Sediment Waves (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, G.; Zhang, L.; Stark, C. P.; Viparelli, E.; Fu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The delineation of the Sklar-Dietrich (S-D) model for bedrock incision due to wear has allowed modeling to move beyond phenomenological models to treatments with both measurable and physically interpretable input parameters. The S-D model assumes that incision is due to abrasion caused by bedload particles striking the bedrock surface, and that the ratio of the bedload supply rate to the capacity transport rate controls the areal fraction of bed surface available for abrasion. The model does not, however, route the alluvium itself downstream. As such, it cannot track the spatiotemporal evolution of downstream-migrating sediment waves created by such episodic events such as landslides and debris flows. The passage of these waves can cause complete alluviation of the bed, thus shutting down incision. The absence of these events can also shut down incision due to a paucity of tools. We introduce a new model which ties an 'Exner' equation for mass balance of bedrock with an Exner equation for conservation of alluvium. As a first step, we apply the model to a 1D configuration with temporally varying sediment input at the upstream end. Model results illustrate the competing roles of advection (which causes deviation from the results of S-D) and diffusion (which drives the process toward S-D). The model is adaptable to a) 2D meandering channels and b) distributed landscape evolution models.

  20. Characterisation of tree root penetration in bedrock and its impact on slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhun, Mao; Selli, Lavinia; Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico

    2014-05-01

    The anchorage effect of tree root penetration in bedrock against shallow landslides has uniquely been discussed in conceptual models, but seldom been measured and characterised in fieldsite. Using both the ARBORADIX™ and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) techniques, we aims at (i) mapping the spatial distribution of tree roots penetrating in bedrock in situ, (ii) estimating their contributions to slope stabilization and (iii) comparing the two detection methods. The experimental site is located on Pomezzana (Lu), Tuscany Apennine, Italy, where a great shallow landslide occurred in 1996 following periods of intense precipitation events. On aslope of45°, the studied forest has a density of 1800 trees/ha, mainly composed of black alder Alnus glutinosa L. (95%). Root mapping was conducted in two plots close to each other: one within an intact zone with no landslide damage; the other within a restored zone since the landslide. In each plot, two repetitions were conducted in dense tree clusters and in gaps, respectively. Preliminary results showed that the density and spatial distribution of roots penetrating into bedrock were significantly associated to the site chronology (intact vs restored), stand density and tree positions. Thicker roots had much higher probability of penetrating into rocks. Each of detection methods showed it advantages and drawbacks. This study, highlighting the importance of the mechanical role of thick roots in slope stabilization, may significantly improve our understanding in the use of vegetation in ecological engineering.

  1. Chemical weathering in active mountain belts controlled by stochastic bedrock landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, Robert; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Marc, Odin

    2016-01-01

    A link between chemical weathering and physical erosion exists at the catchment scale over a wide range of erosion rates. However, in mountain environments, where erosion rates are highest, weathering may be kinetically limited and therefore decoupled from erosion. In active mountain belts, erosion is driven by bedrock landsliding at rates that depend strongly on the occurrence of extreme rainfall or seismicity. Although landslides affect only a small proportion of the landscape, bedrock landsliding can promote the collection and slow percolation of surface runoff in highly fragmented rock debris and create favourable conditions for weathering. Here we show from analysis of surface water chemistry in the Southern Alps of New Zealand that weathering in bedrock landslides controls the variability in solute load of these mountain rivers. We find that systematic patterns in surface water chemistry are strongly associated with landslide occurrence at scales from a single hillslope to an entire mountain belt, and that landslides boost weathering rates and river solute loads over decades. We conclude that landslides couple erosion and weathering in fast-eroding uplands and, thus, mountain weathering is a stochastic process that is sensitive to climatic and tectonic controls on mass wasting processes.

  2. Seismic refraction and GPR measurements of depth to bedrock: A case study from Randolph College, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, A.; Pokharel, R.; Toteva, T.

    2007-12-01

    Randolph College is located in Lynchburg, VA, in the eastern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Lynchburg city lies in the James River Synclinorium and consists of metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks. As part of College's plan to expand, a new soccer field will be build. For that purpose, part of a hill has to be excavated. Information was needed on the depth to the bedrock at the site. We conducted a seismic refraction experiment as part of an eight week summer research program for undergraduate students. We used 24 vertical geophones, spaced at 1.5 m interval. Our recording device was a 12 channel Geometrics geode (ES 3000). The source was an 8 pound sledge hummer. Source positions were chosen to be at 5, 10, 15 and 20 m on both sides of the array. We collected data along a tree line (in two segments) and across a hockey field. The data collected from the hockey field had very low signal to noise ratio and clear refraction arrivals. The other two acquisition lines were much noisier and difficult to interpret. Our results are consistent with data from seven bore holes in close proximity to the field site. We interpreted depth to bedrock to be between 4 and 12 m. The bedrock velocities are consistent with weathered gneiss. To improve the interpretation of the tree line records, we conducted a GPR survey. The preliminary radar images are showing highly heterogeneous subsurface with multiple point reflectors.

  3. Chemical weathering as a mechanism for the climatic control of bedrock river incision.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brendan P; Johnson, Joel P L; Gasparini, Nicole M; Sklar, Leonard S

    2016-04-14

    Feedbacks between climate, erosion and tectonics influence the rates of chemical weathering reactions, which can consume atmospheric CO2 and modulate global climate. However, quantitative predictions for the coupling of these feedbacks are limited because the specific mechanisms by which climate controls erosion are poorly understood. Here we show that climate-dependent chemical weathering controls the erodibility of bedrock-floored rivers across a rainfall gradient on the Big Island of Hawai'i. Field data demonstrate that the physical strength of bedrock in streambeds varies with the degree of chemical weathering, which increases systematically with local rainfall rate. We find that incorporating the quantified relationships between local rainfall and erodibility into a commonly used river incision model is necessary to predict the rates and patterns of downcutting of these rivers. In contrast to using only precipitation-dependent river discharge to explain the climatic control of bedrock river incision, the mechanism of chemical weathering can explain strong coupling between local climate and river incision.

  4. Methodology of delineating wellhead protection zones in crystalline bedrock in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipfert, G.; Tolman, A.L.; Loiselle, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Delineation of contributing areas for wellhead protection around supply wells drilled into bedrock in Maine, USA, is currently achieved by assigning a fixed radius circle around the well. This project develops a methodology that incorporates hydrogeologic processes and ground water modeling (MODFLOW) and accounts for variable data availability to estimate the areas that contribute water to 26 bedrock supply wells. Outcrop fracture mapping and lineament analysis are used to characterize the fracture system. Multiple simulations are constructed of each site using ranges of values for recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and anisotropy. Uncertainty in the delineation process is accounted for by portraying the delineated areas as confidence zones that are constructed by overlapping the capture zones from the multiple simulations. The results are variable and depend on the ability to characterize a site in a way that can be easily modeled. Sites with complex hydrogeology tend to have larger contributing areas that reflect the greater uncertainty in the parameters. The majority of the sites, however, produce reasonable results that provide a much more accurate depiction of the area likely to contribute to a bedrock well than the fixed radius circle.

  5. The influence of bedrock hydrogeology on catchment-scale nitrate fate and transport in fractured aquifers.

    PubMed

    Orr, Alison; Nitsche, Janka; Archbold, Marie; Deakin, Jenny; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Flynn, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Characterising catchment scale biogeochemical processes controlling nitrate fate in groundwater constitutes a fundamental consideration when applying programmes of measures to reduce risks posed by diffuse agricultural pollutants to water quality. Combining hydrochemical analyses with nitrate isotopic data and physical hydrogeological measurements permitted characterisation of biogeochemical processes influencing nitrogen fate and transport in the groundwater in two fractured bedrock aquifers with contrasting hydrogeology but comparable nutrient loads. Hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples collected from moderately fractured, diffusely karstified limestone indicated nitrification controlled dissolved nitrogen fate and delivery to aquatic receptors. By contrast nitrate concentrations in groundwater were considerably lower in a low transmissivity highly lithified sandstone and pyrite-bearing shale unit with patchy subsoil cover. Geophysical and hydrochemical investigations showed shallower intervals contained hydraulically active fractures where denitrification was reflected through lower nitrogen levels and an isotopic enrichment ratio of 1.7 between δ(15)N and δ(18)O. Study findings highlight the influence of bedrock hydrogeological conditions on aqueous nitrogen mobility. Investigation results demonstrate that bedrock conditions need to be considered when implementing catchment management plans to reduce the impact of agricultural practices on the quality of groundwater and baseflow in receiving rivers. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the groundwater of a freely draining catchment underlain by a karstified aquifer and a poorly draining aquifer with a low transmissivity aquifer. PMID:27432726

  6. Interpreting Urban Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…

  7. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  8. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  9. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  10. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  11. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  12. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  13. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  14. Modeling flow and sediment transport dynamics in the lowermost Mississippi River, Louisiana, USA, with an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition: Implications for land building using engineered diversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, Enrica; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Parker, Gary

    2015-03-01

    The lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the river segment downstream of the Old River Control Structure and hydrodynamically influenced by the Gulf of Mexico, extends for approximately 500 km. This segment includes a bedrock (or more precisely, mixed bedrock-alluvial) reach that is bounded by an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical formulation for the long-term evolution of lowland rivers that is able to reproduce the morphodynamics of both the alluvial-bedrock and the bedrock-alluvial transitions. Model results show that the magnitude of the alluvial equilibrium bed slope relative to the bedrock surface slope and the depth of bedrock surface relative to the water surface base level strongly influence the mobile bed equilibrium of low-sloping river channels. Using data from the lowermost Mississippi River, the model is zeroed and validated at field scale by comparing the numerical results with field measurements. The model is then applied to predict the influence on the stability of channel bed elevation in response to delta restoration projects. In particular, the response of the river bed to the implementation of two examples of land-building diversions to extract water and sediment from the main channel is studied. In this regard, our model results show that engineered land-building diversions along the lowermost Mississippi River are capable of producing equilibrated bed profiles with only modest shoaling or erosion, and therefore, such diversions are a sustainable strategy for mitigating land loss within the Mississippi River Delta.

  15. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  16. Analysis of Geological Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Neville J.; Cosgrove, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.

  17. Maps out, models in at the British Geological Survey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; Kessler, Holger

    2013-04-01

    BGS has stopped its' systematic onshore geological surveying programme and the litho-printing of geological maps will cease after a final batch of completed maps are published. In future BGS will undertake integrated mapping and 3D modelling in user defined target areas considering all our available geospatial data (map, boreholes, geophysics etc) assessed in a single 3D workspace. The output will be 3D geological framework models that capture the understanding and interpretation of the survey geologist and honour all available data at the time. As well as building new models in these strategic areas, BGS is collating all existing models assembled over the last 25 years into a common framework to produce a multi-scaled National Geological Model of Britain. comprising crustal, bedrock and quaternary and anthropocene themes (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/UKGeology/nationalgeologicalmodel/home.html). Different to the traditional geological map, the national model will not be completed at any specific scale, but at every point in the model there may be a different geological resolution available, depending on the purpose mof the original model or the strategic national need for subsurface information. The need for a complete and robust nested stratigraphic framework (BGS Lexicon) is becoming more important as we advance this model. Archive copies of all legacy models will be approved and stored in their native formats. In addition a newly designed Geological Object Store will hold geological objects such as coverages, surfaces and cross-sections from these models inside a relational database to ensure versioning and long-term security of the National Geological Model. In the mid-term these models will be attributed with physical properties such as porosity and density and form inputs to process models such as groundwater and landslide models to help predict and simulate environmental change. A key challenge for geologists and their systems building the geological

  18. HIGH ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS AND ENRICHED SULFUR AND OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN A FRACTURED-BEDROCK GROUND-WATER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated arsenic concentrations are coincident with enriched sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in bedrock ground water within Kelly's Cove watershed, Northport, Maine, USA. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the lack of correlations between sulfate concentrations an...

  19. Practical Estimates of Field-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Bedrock Outcrops using a Modified Bottomless Bucket Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirus, B. B.; Perkins, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The bottomless bucket (BB) approach (Nimmo et al., VZJ, 2009) is a cost-effective method for rapidly characterizing field-saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs of soils and alluvial deposits. This practical approach is of particular value for quantifying infiltration rates in remote areas with limited accessibility. A similar approach for bedrock outcrops is also of great value for improving quantitative understanding of infiltration and recharge in rugged terrain. We develop a simple modification to the BB method for application to bedrock outcrops, which uses a non-toxic, quick-drying silicone gel to seal the BB to the bedrock. These modifications to the field method require only minor changes to the analytical solution for calculating Kfs on soils. We investigate the reproducibility of the method with laboratory experiments on a previously studied calcarenite rock and conduct a sensitivity analysis to quantify uncertainty in our predictions. We apply the BB method on both bedrock and soil for sites on Pahute Mesa, which is located in a remote area of the Nevada National Security Site. The bedrock BB tests may require monitoring over several hours to days, depending on infiltration rates, which necessitates a cover to prevent evaporative losses. Our field and laboratory results compare well to Kfs values inferred from independent reports, which suggests the modified BB method can provide useful estimates and facilitate simple hypothesis testing. The ease with which the bedrock BB method can be deployed should facilitate more rapid in-situ data collection than is possible with alternative methods for quantitative characterization of infiltration into bedrock. Typical deployment of bedrock bottomless buckets (BBB's) on an outcrop of volcanic tuff before the application of water.

  20. Quantitative extraction of bedrock exposed rate based on unmanned aerial vehicle data and TM image in Karst Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wang, hongyan; li, qiangzi; du, xin; zhao, longcai

    2016-04-01

    In the karst regions of Southwest China, rocky desertification is one of the most serious problems of land degradation. The bedrock exposed rate is one of the important indexes to assess the degree of rocky desertification in the karst regions. Because of the inherent merits of macro scale, frequency, efficiency and synthesis, remote sensing is the promising method to monitor and assess karst rocky desertification on large scale. However, the actual measurement of bedrock exposed rate is difficult and existing remote sensing methods cannot directly be exploited to extract the bedrock exposed rate owing to the high complexity and heterogeneity of karst environments. Therefore, based on the UAV and TM data, the paper selected Xingren County as the research area, and the quantitative extraction of the bedrock exposed rate based on the multi scale remote sensing data was developed. Firstly, we used the object oriented method to carry out the accurate classification of UAV image and based on the results of rock extraction, the bedrock exposed rate was calculated in the 30m grid scale. Parts of the calculated samples were as training data and another samples were as the model validation data. Secondly, in each grid the band reflectivity of TM data was extracted and we also calculated a variety of rock index and vegetation index (NDVI, SAVI etc.). Finally, the network model was established to extract the bedrock exposed rate, the correlation coefficient (R) of the network model was 0.855 and the correlation coefficient (R) of the validation model was 0.677, the root mean square error (RMSE) was 0.073. Based on the quantitative inversion model, the distribution map of the bedrock exposed rate in Xingren County was obtained. Keywords: Bedrock exposed rate, quantitative extraction, UAV and TM data, Karst rocky desertification.

  1. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    . Paleontologists and stratigraphers of the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated closely with the program. Paleontologic studies were concentrated in the Ordovician of central Kentucky, the Pennsylvanian of eastern and western Kentucky, and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic of westernmost Kentucky. In addition to financial support, the Kentucky Geological Survey provided economic data, stratigraphic support, and drillhole records to the field offices. Geologists of the State Survey made subsurface structural interpretations, constructed bedrock topography maps, and mapped several quadrangles. Some of the problems encountered were the inadequacy of much of the existing stratigraphic nomenclature, the uneven quality of some of the mapping, and the effects of relative isolation on the professional development of some of the geologists. The program cost a total of $20,927,500. In terms of 1960 dollars, it cost $16,035,000; this compares with an original estimate of $12,000,000. Although it is difficult to place a monetary value on the geologic mapping, the program has contributed to newly discovered mineral wealth, jobs, and money saved by government and industry. The maps are used widely in the exploration for coal, oil and gas, fluorspar, limestone, and clay. The maps are also used in planning highways and locations of dams, in evaluating foundation and excavation conditions, in preparing environmental impact statements, and in land-use planning.

  2. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  3. Quantifying the role of forest soil and bedrock in the acid neutralization of surface water in steep hillslopes.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yuko; Uchida, Taro

    2005-02-01

    The role of soil and bedrock in acid neutralizing processes has been difficult to quantify because of hydrological and biogeochemical uncertainties. To quantify those roles, hydrochemical observations were conducted at two hydrologically well-defined, steep granitic hillslopes in the Tanakami Mountains of Japan. These paired hillslopes are similar except for their soils; Fudoji is leached of base cations (base saturation <6%), while Rachidani is covered with fresh soil (base saturation >30%), because the erosion rate is 100-1000 times greater. The results showed that (1) soil solution pH at the soil-bedrock interface at Fudoji (4.3) was significantly lower than that of Rachidani (5.5), (2) the hillslope discharge pH in both hillslopes was similar (6.7-6.8), and (3) at Fudoji, 60% of the base cations leaching from the hillslope were derived from bedrock, whereas only 20% were derived from bedrock in Rachidani. Further, previously published results showed that the stream pH could not be predicted from the acid deposition rate and soil base saturation status. These results demonstrate that bedrock plays an especially important role when the overlying soil has been leached of base cations. These results indicate that while the status of soil acidification is a first-order control on vulnerability to surface water acidification, in some cases such as at Fudoji, subsurface interaction with the bedrock determines the sensitivity of surface water to acidic deposition.

  4. Questa Baseline and Premining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a field-based characterization of fractured and faulted crystalline bedrock in the southern portion of the Questa caldera and its margin. The focus is (1) the identification and description of brittle geological structures and (2) speculation on the potential effects and controls that these structures might have on the potential fluxes of paleo to present-day ground water in relation to natural or mining-related metal and acid loads to surface and ground water. The entire study area is pervasively jointed with a few distinctive patterns such as orthogonal, oblique orthogonal, and conjugate joint sets. Joint intensity, the number of joints measured per unit line length, is high to extreme. Three types of fault zones are present that include partially silicified, low- and high-angle faults with well-developed damage zones and clay-rich cores and high-angle, unsilicified open faults. Conceptually, the joint networks can be thought of as providing the background porosity and permeability structure of the bedrock aquifer system. This background is cut by discrete entities such as the faults with clay-rich cores and open faults that may act as important hydrologic heterogeneities. The southern caldera margin runs parallel to the course of the Red River Valley, whose incision has left an extreme topographic gradient at high angles to the river. Many of the faults and fault intersections run parallel to this assumed hydraulic gradient; thus, these structures have great potential to provide paleo and present-day, discrete and anisotropic pathways for solute transport within the otherwise relatively low porosity and permeability bedrock background aquifer system. Although brittle fracture networks and faults are pervasive and complex, simple Darcy calculations are used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and potential ground-water discharges of the bedrock aquifer, caldera margin, and other faults in order to gain insight into the potential

  5. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  6. Geological mapping of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lemiszki, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly known as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) is located in the southern Appalachian Valley and Ridge province of east Tennessee and overlies an area of folded and faulted Cambrian through Ordovician sedimentary rocks in the footwall of the Whiteoak Mountain fault. Environmental restoration plans for the area require that the geology of the site be well understood because various aspects of the groundwater system are directly influenced by stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the bedrock. This study involved mapping the bedrock geology of an 18-square mile area in and around the plant site. Field mapping focused on: (1) checking the accuracy of previously mapped stratigraphic and fault contacts, (2) dividing the bedrock into distinct stratigraphic units based on field criteria, (3) determining the geometry of map-scale folds and faults, and (4) documenting various aspects of the local fracture system. Besides accomplishing all of the above tasks, results from this study have led to a number of new hypotheses regarding various aspects of the site geology. First, faulting and folding within carbonates of the Chickamauga Supergroup in the plant area has repeated certain rock units, which requires that there be a thrust fault in the subsurface below them. This thrust fault may project to the surface with the Carters Limestone. Second, thrust slices of the Rome Formation that overlie the Chickamauga carbonates may be extremely thin and have a limited aerial extent. Third, part of the Knox Group on McKinney Ridge is folded into an anticline. Evaluating the above hypotheses will require information about the subsurface that can only be acquired through drilling and surface geophysical surveys. The geologic map produced from this study can be used to evaluate the location of coreholes that will more effectively intersect a combination of stratigraphic, structural, and hydrologic targets.

  7. Occurrence of Uranium and 222Radon in Glacial and Bedrock Aquifers in the Northern United States, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Morrow, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from 1,426 wells during 1993-2003 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program were evaluated to characterize the water quality in glacial and bedrock aquifers of the northern United States. One of the goals of the NAWQA program is to synthesize data from individual studies across the United States to gain regional- and national-scale information about the behavior of contaminants. This study focused on the regional occurrence and distribution of uranium and 222radon in ground water in the glacial aquifer system of the United States as well as in the Cambrian-Ordovician and the New York and New England crystalline aquifer systems that underlie the glacial aquifer system. The occurrence of uranium and 222radon in ground water has long been a concern throughout the United States. In the glacial aquifers, as well as the Cambrian-Ordovician and the New York and New England crystalline aquifer systems of the United States, concentrations of uranium and 222radon were highly variable. High concentrations of uranium and 222radon affect ground water used for drinking water and for agriculture. A combination of information or data on (1) national-scale ground-water regions, (2) regional-scale glacial depositional models, (3) regional-scale geology, and (4) national-scale terrestrial gamma-ray emissions were used to confirm and(or) refine the regions used in the analysis of the water-chemistry data. Significant differences in the occurrence of uranium and 222radon, based primarily on geologic information were observed and used in this report. In general, uranium was highest in the Columbia Plateau glacial, West-Central glacial, and the New York and New England crystalline aquifer groups (75th percentile concentrations of 22.3, 7.7, and 2.9 micrograms per liter (ug/L), respectively). In the Columbia Plateau glacial and the West-Central glacial aquifer groups, more than 10 percent of wells sampled had

  8. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  9. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  10. Case study for delineating a contributing area to a well in a fractured siliciclastic-bedrock aquifer near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    A supply well used by the North Penn Water Authority near Lansdale, Pa., was selected as a case study for delineating a contributing area in a fractured siliciclastic-bedrock aquifer. The study emphasized the importance of refining the understanding of factors that control ground-water movement to the well by conducting (1) geophysical logging and flow measurements, (2) ground-water level monitoring, (3) aquifer testing, and (4) geochemical sampling. This approach could be applicable for other wells in siliciclastic-bedrock terranes, especially those of Triassic age in southeastern Pennsylvania. The principal methods for refining the understanding of hydrology at supply well MG-1125 were aquifer testing, water-level measurements, and geophysical logging. Results of two constant-discharge aquifer tests helped estimate the transmissivity of water-producing units and evaluate the anisotropy caused by dipping beds. Results from slug tests provided estimates of transmissivity that were used to evaluate the results from the constant-discharge aquifer tests. Slug tests also showed the wide distribution of transmissivity, indicating that ground-water velocities must vary considerably in the well field. Water-level monitoring in observation wells allowed maps of the potentiometric surface near the well field to be drawn. The measurements also showed that the hydraulic gradient can change abruptly in response to pumping from nearby supply wells. Water levels measured at a broader regional scale in an earlier study also provided a useful view of the potentiometric surface for purposes of delineating the contributing area. Geophysical logging and measurements of flow within wells showed that about 60 percent of water from supply well MG-1125 probably is contributed from relatively shallow water-producing fractures from 60 to 125 feet below land surface, but measurable amounts of water are contributed by fractures to a depth of 311 feet below land surface. Chemical samples

  11. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude symbols display over the geographic extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette 1973-1977 and published in 1979 (U.S. Geological Survey Map I-856-H) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999), was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (see cross-reference). In general, the mountainous areas in the west part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  12. Groundwater flow modeling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Follin, Sven; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Näslund, Jens-Ove

    2014-09-01

    The impact of periglacial and glacial climate conditions on groundwater flow in fractured crystalline rock is studied by means of groundwater flow modeling of the Forsmark site, which was recently proposed as a repository site for the disposal of spent high-level nuclear fuel in Sweden. The employed model uses a thermal-hydraulically coupled approach for permafrost modeling and discusses changes in groundwater flow implied by the climate conditions found over northern Europe at different times during the last glacial cycle (Weichselian glaciation). It is concluded that discharge of particles released at repository depth occurs very close to the ice-sheet margin in the absence of permafrost. If permafrost is included, the greater part discharges into taliks in the periglacial area. During a glacial cycle, hydraulic gradients at repository depth reach their maximum values when the ice-sheet margin passes over the site; at this time, also, the interface between fresh and saline waters is distorted the most. The combined effect of advances and retreats during several glaciations has not been studied in the present work; however, the results indicate that hydrochemical conditions at depth in the groundwater flow model are almost restored after a single event of ice-sheet advance and retreat.

  13. The role of geostatistics in medical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since its development in the mining industry, geostatistics has emerged as the primary tool for spatial data analysis in various fields, ranging from earth and atmospheric sciences, to agriculture, soil science, remote sensing, and more recently environmental exposure assessment. In the last few years, these tools have been tailored to the field of medical geography or spatial epidemiology, which is concerned with the study of spatial patterns of disease incidence and mortality and the identification of potential 'causes' of disease, such as environmental exposure, diet and unhealthy behaviors, economic or socio-demographic factors. On the other hand, medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health. This paper provides an introduction to the field of medical geology with an overview of geostatistical methods available for the analysis of geological and health data. Key concepts are illustrated using the mapping of groundwater arsenic concentrations across eleven Michigan counties and the exploration of its relationship to the incidence of prostate cancer at the township level. Arsenic in drinking-water is a major problem and has received much attention because of the large human population exposed and the extremely high concentrations (e.g. 600 to 700 μg/L) recorded in many instances. Few studies have however assessed the risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic (say < 50 μg/L) most commonly found in drinking water in the United States. In the Michigan thumb region, arsenopyrite (up to 7% As by weight) has been identified in the bedrock of the Marshall Sandstone aquifer, one of the region's most productive aquifers. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a possible associationbetween exposure to inorganic arsenic and prostate cancer mortality, including a study of populations residing in Utah. The information available for the

  14. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  15. Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hynek, B. M.

    2008-01-01

    The light toned bedrock that has been observed at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landing site is an upper layer in a sequence >600 m thick in places. These outcrops contain mineral and textural signatures that require interaction of, and possibly formation from, water. Many distinct layers are visible in the remote sensing data (e.g. Figure 1) and no work has ever characterized the full set of these materials that cover an area >3 105 km2 spanning 20 of longitude. Thus, whatever water-related process( es?) altered, and possibly formed, the rocks at the Opportunity landing site extended over a vast region of Mars. Yet many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) in what capacity did water form and alter the deposits?, (2) what are the temporal and spatial relations with other major events known from ancient Mars?, and (3) would this type of environment have been conducive to the development of life? To address these questions we are completing a detailed geologic, stratigraphic, and thermophysical properties study of this widespread terrain. Specifically, we are drafting a 1:2M-scale geological map covering the full extent of these water-related deposits. In tandem with the mapping, Hynek and Phillips [1] have conducted a preliminary stratigraphic analysis of the stack of materials. After mapping is complete, we will study the thermophysical properties of the varied layers to derive possible compositional information of the materials. These tasks serve several purposes including gaining an understanding of the complex nature of these materials, their potential source region(s), and their timing of emplacement. All of these efforts are necessary to place the observations by the Opportunity Rover in a broader context and prepare for potential future landed missions to the region. Understanding the large-scale paleohydrology of Mars is central to NASA s goals and vital for determining if life ever arose on the planet.

  16. Climatically-Driven Changes in Bedrock Erosion Rate and Process on Semiarid to Hyperarid Hillslopes in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Amundson, R.; Dietrich, W. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Sutter, B.; Finkel, R.

    2006-12-01

    How does bedrock become soil on hillslopes? How does climate affect the rate of that conversion? How does the soil mantle change if there is almost no water? We are approaching these questions using cosmogenic radionuclide analyses and field observations of granitic hillslopes along a precipitation gradient in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. At our study sites, annual precipitation decreases from ~100 mm in the south to <2 mm in the north. We have measured a large decrease in the rate of bedrock erosion (using ^{26}Al and 10Be) and observed a dramatic shift in the processes driving that erosion (from biotic to salt- dominated) with this change in climate. At the wettest site, the hillslopes are mantled by a relatively thick (~20 cm) soil which is underlain by 10-20 cm of saprolite. The saprolite is being incorporated into the soil via animal burrowing and root disruption at a rate of 20 m/Myr. The middle site is profoundly different: aridity limits plant cover to a few fog-adapted species, and the soil mantle is a few cm of bedrock and dust-derived material. Inspection of the soil-bedrock interface suggests that rock conversion to soil is driven by slow chemical/salt weathering of fractured bedrock within the upper few cm of the soil mantle where fog is the key moisture source. Animal burrowing and trampling is still an important mechanism for soil transport but not bedrock erosion. The calculated erosion rates in this nearly abiotic setting average 2.7 m/Myr. The driest hillslopes are completely lifeless due to hyperaridity, yet they are soil-mantled. The soils are dominated by sulfates and silicate dust which infiltrate the fractured bedrock by unsaturated flow. Physical expansion of the salts pries apart the bedrock and lofts it into the salt- and dust-rich soil mantle. The resulting bedrock lowering rate in this salt-driven environment is 0.83 m/Myr, among the lowest bedrock erosion rates measured on earth. Ample evidence indicates that the Atacama Desert

  17. Transient response of bedrock channel networks to sea-level forcing in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santaniello, D. J.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although sea level has fluctuated repeatedly over the Pleistocene by up to 120 meters, how (or whether) this cyclic base level forcing impacts the development of bedrock river profiles in tectonically active settings is poorly understood. A major reason for this uncertainty is that bedrock river channels in unglaciated locations are typically buried at their mouths under sediment resulting from the Holocene marine transgression, making direct observations impossible. Here we present a novel approach to constraining the influence of cyclical sea-level forcing on the development of bedrock river profiles in the Oregon Coast Range. Using a 1 m LiDAR DEM, we estimate the depth to the buried bedrock longitudinal profile using measurements of valley width, elevation, wall slope, and present day river width for the Smith River and its tributaries where the river is currently buried by Holocene fluvial and marine sediments. Assuming the current river width is spatially and temporally constant, we calculate the depth to bedrock based on a trapezoidal geometry. In an effort to reduce the noise in our signal, we calculate linear regressions for valley and river width and hold the valley wall slope constant at its average value (~ 30 degrees) for all our calculations. Several important observations stem from this analysis. First, the bedrock profile of the Smith River projects to the same elevation (~ -110 m) as the bench cut into the continental shelf by the sea-level low stand of the last glacial maximum, suggesting the river is currently graded to the low-stand elevation. Second, almost all of the tributary bedrock profiles plot at the same elevation (~ 40 m below sea-level), which is much higher than the mainstem bedrock profile. One key exception is the significantly larger North Fork of the Smith River, which falls directly on the projected bedrock curve for the Smith. These observations suggest that sea-level low stands force incision of the entire bedrock river network

  18. Geology of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The geology of the major icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is discussed in terms of the four major processes that shape icy satellite surfaces: impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and interactions with planetary magnetospheres and solar radiation. The role of these processes in creating the differences that exist among the satellites, in particular the orderly progression of geological properties in the Jovian satellites, is emphasized. Important questions left open after the Voyager missions are summarized.

  19. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  20. Spatial variability in bank resistance to erosion on a large meandering, mixed bedrock-alluvial river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsoer, Kory M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Langendoen, Eddy J.; Best, James L.; Ursic, Mick E.; Abad, Jorge D.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in the erosion-resistance properties of the channel banks and floodplains associated with sediment characteristics, vegetation, or bedrock can have a substantial influence on the morphodynamics of meandering rivers, resulting in highly variable rates of bank erosion and complex patterns of planform evolution. Although past studies have examined the spatial variability in bank erodibility within small rivers, this aspect of the erosion-resistance properties for large rivers remains poorly understood. Furthermore, with the exception of recent numerical modeling that incorporates stochastic variability of floodplain erosional resistance, most models of meandering river dynamics have assumed uniform erodibility of the bank and floodplain materials. The present paper investigates the lateral and vertical heterogeneity in bank material properties and riparian vegetation within two elongate meander loops on a large mixed bedrock-alluvial river using several geotechnical field and laboratory methods. Additionally, the bank stability and toe-erosion numerical model (BSTEM) and repeat terrestrial LiDAR surveys are used to evaluate the capacity of the bank material properties to modify the rates and mechanisms of bank retreat. Results show that the textural properties of the bank materials, soil cohesion, and critical shear stress necessary for sediment entrainment differ substantially between the two bends and are also highly variable within each bend - laterally and vertically. Trees growing along the banks increase the resistance to erosion by contributing to the shear strength of the bank materials and are capable of increasing bank stability along a large river. Locally outcropping bedrock also influences bank erodibility in both bends. The results of this study demonstrate that spatial variability in the erosion-resistance properties of the channel banks is an important factor contributing to spatial variability in the rates and mechanisms of bank

  1. Is Frost Cracking By Segregation Ice Growth One of the Mechanisms That Erode Bedrock River Margins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alden, L. L.; Sklar, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers cut vertically and laterally into bedrock. However, control on the width of bedrock rivers is an unsolved problem. In alpine settings, frost cracking is one of the mechanisms that break down bedrock. Segregation ice drives growth of ice lenses within rock masses. When the temperature of the rock is within the "frost cracking window" of -3 to -8 °C, ice lenses can attract liquid water. Expanding ice lenses can exert sufficient pressure to fracture the rock. We hypothesize that alpine rivers may promote segregation ice growth at the river margin by supplying water, but also may inhibit frost cracking by supplying heat. We find support for this hypothesis in data collected along the Tuolumne and Mokelumne rivers in the Sierra Nevada, California. A 1D heat flow model predicts that frost cracking should occur above 2325 masl in this area. To test for a river effect, we measured fracture density along the Tuolumne River at ~2600 masl, finding that density at the river margin is significantly greater than on adjacent hillslopes in the Cathedral Peak granodiorite. We then deployed data loggers on the Mokelumne River (at 2486 masl) over the winter of 2013/2014 to record water, surface and subsurface rock temperatures at varying depths and distances from the river. Temperatures within the frost cracking window were only recorded at a distance of ~5 m from the river, suggesting an insulating effect from the river and snow cover. Rock temperatures 1 m deep equilibrated at ~ 2 °C, significantly colder than predicted by the 1D model. Ongoing work includes terrestrial LIDAR scans to detect erosion of the river bank at the Mokelumne site, and development of a 2D heat flow model to predict subsurface rock temperatures for varying surface boundary conditions and channel morphology. We expect that further analysis will reveal systematic relationships between the surface boundary conditions and rock temperature at depth, enabling predictive modeling of frost cracking

  2. Preliminary analysis of lineaments and engineering properties of bedrock, Penobscot Bay area, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    1977-01-01

    A remote sensing study of coastal and near coastal Maine was undertaken to identify bedrock features of possible importance to construction. Major lineaments were identified that separate the region into four distinct terrains. Within each terrain, smaller lineaments and other physiographic features show distinctive and consistent patterns, reflecting similarities in bedrock lithology and structure. The major linear features are given the following provisional geographic names: I. Lewiston line 2. Merrymeeting lineament 3. Dover-Foxcroft line 4. Orland lineament 5. Union lineament These linear or curvilinear trends are caused by lithologic contrasts, joints, faults, or foliation in the middle and lower Paleozoic phyllites, schists, gneisses, and granite intrusives. Initial field and laboratory results from a pilot study of bedrock engineering conditions indicate that variations in rock strength and fracture spacing are controlled by lithology, intensity of structural deformation, and alteration. At several locations in the study area faults and major joints are alined with a major lineament. Strength anisotropy ratios are as high as 10 in the foliated rocks but near 1 in the granites. The higher compressive strength direction commonly is perpendicular to foliation and to lineament trends which, in turn, are parallel to faults, major joints, or foliation. Fracture spacing in rocks in the field study area averages 0.5 m for granite and ranges from 0.2 cm to 0.75 m, with an average of 0.15 m, in metamorphic rocks. Diagnostic indications useful for estimating certain construction conditions are shown by point-load and uniaxial compressive strengths. Values for fresh rock range from less than 30 MN/m 2 for weakly bonded phyllite to more than 350 MN/m 2 for dense andesite and metasiltstone. Rock workability is directly related to compressive strength and spacing of joints.

  3. Bedrock knobs, San Francisco Bay: Do navigation hazards outweigh other environment problems?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.; Chin, J.L.; Wong, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Three bedrock knobs (Arch, Harding, and Shag rocks) rise above the unconsolidated sediment of central San Francisco Bay to a water depth of less than -12 m (<-39.4 ft MLLW). These rocks are within the westbound vessel traffic area, and the northernmost, Harding Rock, is ~300 m (984 ft) from the two-way deep water traffic lane. The rocks pose a hazard to deep-draft vessels. Large ships with drafts deeper than -17 m (-55.8 ft) cross central San Francisco Bay bound for and returning from major port cities of the Bay estuary. Acoustic profiling data show that bedrock extends at a gentle to moderate slope away from the knobs. These data also show that two of the knobs, Harding and Shag, may be part of a bedrock ridge that extends to Alcatraz Island and perhaps southeast to Blossom Rock. The tops of these rocks should be lowered to a depth of -17 m (-55.8 ft), with a total volume of as much as 245,000 m3 (320,460 yd3), at an estimated cost of nearly 27 million dollars, to eliminate the possibility that a tanker would strike one and rupture. A resulting large oil spill would likely cost many times more than the 10 million dollars needed to clean up a small 1996 spill. If the rocks were removed, local habitat for striped bass and other game fish would be altered, with potential negative impact on sport fishing. Currently, public officials are studying the benefits to the Bay environment of lowering the rock knobs.

  4. Hydrogeologic controls on radon-222 in a buried valley-fractured bedrock aquifer system

    SciTech Connect

    Veeger, A.I.; Ruderman, N.C.

    1998-07-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and the hydrogeologic controls on its occurrence in the glacial and fractured rock aquifers of the Pawcatuck River Basin, Rhode Island. A total of 91 ground water samples were collected and analyzed for major chemical constituents as well as uranium and {sup 222}Rn. The three bedrock types underlying the study area include the Proterozoic Esmond and Sterling gneisses, and the Devonian Scituate Granite, each having average uranium contents of 1.9 ppm, 3.3 ppm, and 4.1 ppm, respectively. All wells sampled in this study yielded radon levels above the proposed US EPA limit of 300 pCi/L. Wells in areas underlain by the Esmond Suite had the lowest radon content (range 500 to 30,400 pCi/L, median 1400 pCi/L), areas underlain by the Sterling Suite were not significantly different but showed slightly higher concentrations, and the areas underlain by the Scituate Suite had significantly higher levels. High fluoride and alkalinity concentrations in ground water were found to be hydrogeochemical markers for elevated radon concentrations. These markers are believed to represent chemical reactions that produce remobilization of uranium in the host crystalline rock to more favorable siting along grain and fracture boundaries. Physical characteristics such as porosity and the location of uranium are controlling factors in the distribution of radon between surficial and bedrock wells, with bedrock aquifers exhibiting higher radon concentrations than surficial-materials aquifers in this basin.

  5. Hydrologic effects of pumpage from the Denver basin bedrock aquifers of northern El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Denver groundwater basin underlies a 6,700 sq-mi area in eastern Colorado. To assess current conditions of the four bedrock aquifers in the basin, water levels, streamflow gain and loss, and other data were collected. Current aquifer conditions in the southern part of the basin and likely response to various 100-year pumping scenarios were analyzed using a digital finite-difference model. Simulated predevelopment flow through the bedrock aquifers was about 59 cu ft/sec. Water level changes between 1978 and 1985, likely caused by variations in precipitation and in pumping and by lowering of the water table in the overlying Black Squirrel Creek alluvial aquifer, ranged from rises of more than 40 ft to declines of as much as 80 ft. In 1985, pumping from the bedrock aquifers was about 56 cu ft/sec. Simulations indicate that 43% of the pumpage came from a decrease in volume of groundwater in storage; 37% came from induced recharge and captured discharge. The remaining 20% came from a transient high rate of recharge from precipitation. A baseline 100-yr simulation, beginning in 1985, indicated minimal drawdowns for constant pumping at 1985 rates in the southern part of the basin. Other simulations indicated that the pumpage required to supply the needs of the projected population would be accompanied by drawdowns of as much as 1,300 ft and by large decreases in amount of groundwater in storage. Pumpage from a hypothetical well field, located where the aquifers are thickest , and from the aquifers underlying Colorado Springs also was simulated. (USGS)

  6. Aspect Controls on Bedrock Fracturing and Seismic Velocity within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, A.; Magill, C.; Hendricks, S.; Singha, K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the controls of slope aspect on groundwater flow and geomorphic weathering within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory by studying the orientation and density of bedrock fracturing. Based on a series of seismic refraction surveys, we compare the seismic velocities and anisotropy of the subsurface soil and regolith with the distribution of fractures observed in 7 geophysical borehole logs. Conflicting hypotheses exist as to whether bedrock fracturing, and thus hydraulic conductivity, is controlled more by the regional tectonic stress field or by slope aspect. We examine bedrock fracturing on north- and south-facing slopes via the relationship between fracture orientation and seismic velocity, and find that our south-facing slope demonstrates pronounced seismic anisotropy, with velocities of up to 2,000 m/s in the E-W direction, and approximately 1,000 m/s in the N-S direction. By contrast, the north-facing aspect demonstrates no significant anisotropy, with velocities ranging from approximately 800-1,500 m/s. Similarly, borehole logs show conjugate sets of fractures on south-facing slopes striking in a general E-W direction, while north-facing borehole data reveal a high density of fracturing with less pronounced directional dependence. Based on current models of hillslope weathering, we interpret the slower and more isotropic velocities of the north-facing slope to be a more random orientation of fractures, caused primarily by more intense weathering processes. On the south-facing slope, we interpret the conjugate fracture sets and pronounced anisotropy to be fracturing resulting from tectonic stress. Assuming that both slopes experience similar tectonic stress, results suggest that slope aspect controls weathering and groundwater flow, and north-facing slopes demonstrate a more advanced state of weathering.

  7. Plucking in Mixed Alluvial-Bedrock Rivers: The Incipient Motion Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, A. A.; Furbish, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bedrock river channel erosion is an important factor in the evolution of landscapes, driving the relief of mountainous drainage basins and setting the lowest erosional positions of terrestrial landscapes. The mechanics behind erosional processes (predominantly plucking and abrasion) in these rivers are only recently being explored in depth. Plucking, the fracture and extraction of jointed blocks, is observationally an order of magnitude more efficient than abrasion, but if a river cannot provide the force necessary to move the plucked block, erosion by plucking cannot proceed. Therefore, incipient motion of blocks starting at rest on a solid surface is an important factor in erosion by plucking. Calculations of forces necessary for incipient motion require values of drag coefficients, which do not exist for bedrock contact geometry. We discovered from experiments on a flume that drag coefficients (CD) are inversely proportional to aspect ratios (RA), defined as the frontal block height to width. We used the relationship with field data from plucked blocks at a stream at Montgomery Bell State Park in Burns, TN, a mixed-alluvial bedrock channel with an actively incising knick zone, to support our theory and experimental data. Sizes of plucked blocks were compared to the velocities needed to move them, and then calculations done for bankfull velocities at the stream at Montgomery Bell to determine if it could attain these velocities. It was discovered that this stream has a bankfull depth-averaged velocity of 1.26 m s-1 and is capable of moving a large range of plucked block sizes. Therefore, erosion of this particular stream is plucking-limited, not transport-limited.

  8. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community. PMID:26106376

  9. Geological Assessment of Cores from the Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Montgomery, Denise L.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.

    2007-01-01

    Geological sources of metals (especially arsenic and zinc) in aquifer bedrock were evaluated for their potential to contribute elevated values of metals to ground and surface waters in and around Rockingham County, New Hampshire. Ayotte and others (1999, 2003) had proposed that arsenic concentrations in ground water flowing through bedrock aquifers in eastern New England were elevated as a result of interaction with rocks. Specifically in southeastern New Hampshire, Montgomery and others (2003) established that nearly one-fifth of private bedrock wells had arsenic concentrations that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contamination level for public water supplies. Two wells drilled in coastal New Hampshire were sited to intersect metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks in the Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Bulk chemistry, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry data were obtained on representative samples of cores extracted from the two boreholes in the Kittery and Eliot Formations. The results of this study have established that the primary geologic source of arsenic in ground waters sampled from the two well sites was iron-sulfide minerals, predominantly arsenic-bearing pyrite and lesser amounts of base-metal-sulfide and sulfosalt minerals that contain appreciable arsenic, including arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite, and cobaltite. Secondary minerals containing arsenic are apparently limited to iron-oxyhydroxide minerals. The geologic source of zinc was sphalerite, typically cadmium-bearing, which occurs with pyrite in core samples. Zinc also occurred as a secondary mineral in carbonate form. Oxidation of sulfides leading to the liberation of acid, iron, arsenic, zinc, and other metals was most prevalent in open fractures and vuggy zones in core intervals containing zones of high transmissivity in the two units. The presence of significant calcite and lesser amounts of other acid-neutralizing carbonate and silicate minerals, acting as a natural

  10. Geophysical logging of bedrock wells for geothermal gradient characterization in New Hampshire, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Barker, Gregory; Olson, Neil; Wilder, Leland

    2014-01-01

    Maximum groundwater temperatures at the bottom of the logs ranged from 11.2 to 15.4 degrees Celsius. Geothermal gradients were generally higher than those typically reported for other water wells in the United States. Some of the high gradients were associated with high natural gamma emissions. Groundwater flow was discernible in 4 of the 10 wells studied but only obscured the part of the geothermal gradient signal where groundwater actually flowed into, out of, or through the well. Temperature gradients varied by mapped bedrock type but can also vary by localized differences in mineralogy or rock type within the wells.

  11. Temperature logging of groundwater in bedrock wells for geothermal gradient characterization in New Hampshire, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James; Barker, Gregory; Olson, Neil; Wilder, Leland

    2012-01-01

    Maximum groundwater temperatures at the bottom of the logs were between 11.7 and 17.3 degrees Celsius. Geothermal gradients were generally higher than typically reported for other water wells in the United States. Some of the high gradients were associated with high natural gamma emissions. Groundwater flow was discernible in 5 of the 10 wells studied but only obscured the portion of the geothermal gradient signal where groundwater actually flowed through the well. Temperature gradients varied by mapped bedrock type but can also vary by differences in mineralogy or rock type within the wells.

  12. Implications Of Fault Damaged Bedrock To Tectonic and Landscape Evolution In Coastal Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, A.; Koons, P. O.; Roy, S. G.; Birkel, S. D.; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Campbell, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Bedrock material strength properties heavily impact erosion rates in temperate glacial environments. We focus on the influence of localized tectonic crustal weakening in southeast Alaska on modern glacial erosion rates, thereby quantifying a primary feedback in tectonic/climatic coupling. Southeast Alaska, with its coincident high strain rates, vigorous glacial erosion and rapid sedimentation rates, provides an excellent setting in which to evaluate this interaction. To characterize the relationship between fault damage and glacial incision, we collected data in transects across the strike-slip Fairweather Fault in Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays, in deglaciated valleys below the Mendenhall, Herbert, Ptarmigan, and Lemon Creek Glaciers on the perimeter of the Juneau Icefield, and on deglaciated nunataks on the Echo and Vaughan Lewis Glaciers in the interior of the Juneau Icefield. The mechanical properties of the bedrock are characterized by estimates of fault spacing and material cohesion. In structurally-controlled bedrock valleys exploited by glaciers, fracture spacing may vary by several orders of magnitude across fault damage zones, from more than 10 m to less than 0.1 m. Analysis of active and quiescent fault zones indicate that this variation approximates a power law relationship and correlates with a gradient in cohesive strength varying from greater than 50 MPa to less than 50 kPa between intact bedrock and the core of fault damage zones. The width and orientation of the damage zones is highly variable and we have chosen our field sites to sample zones of very large total displacement, up to kilometers along the Fairweather Fault, and substantially smaller displacements, down to centimeters for the Juneau Icefield locales. Using a Cordilleran Ice sheet model to extend our modern observations into last glacial maximum conditions, we predict both erosion rates and sediment provenance for a material strength pattern influenced by tectonically induced fault

  13. Mapping Depth to Bedrock in a Tropical Pre-Montane Wet Forest in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oien, R. P.; Burns, J. N.; Arnott, R.; Ackerson, J. P.; Morgan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accounting for all components of the water balance in a watershed includes an estimate of soil water storage, which in turn depends on the depth to bedrock. The soils in this transitional tropical forest contain large amounts of amorphous material from the saprolitic tuff thus classifying the soils as Andisols. Measuring the depth to bedrock in tropical montane environments is complicated by aspect, elevation, slope, landslides, slumping and other mass wasting events. As part of a larger study, Texas A& M Costa Rica REU aimed to close the water budget for a tropical pre-montane forest, the focus of this study is to generate a map of the depth to saprolitic tuff and topographical information for the purpose of estimating the volume of soil water storage in the Howler Monkey Watershed at Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research and Education, San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. A map of the depth to saprolitic tuff was created using 101 hand- augured holes (over 2.63 ha) spatially distributed throughout the watershed. Saprolitic tuff was defined as being 50% of the sample and containing grittiness and cobble sized chunks. To characterize the soils throughout the watershed, soil horizons at three sites were described and 22 cores for particle size. The cores consisted of over 40-55% clay classifying them as clayey or clayey loam. The samples also ranged from 50-73% water content. A map showing the slopes within the watershed also shows the relationship of soil depth above the bedrock within the watershed. The slopes across the watershed vary from 12-65 degrees but only have a 24% correlation with the depth to saprolitic tuff. Results suggest that the depth of the saprolitic tuff is quite sensitive to small scale topographic variability. Soil with such high water content becomes an integral part of the water budget since a significant portion of the water is maintained within the soil. Depth to bedrock provides necessary data to estimate the total volume

  14. Groundwater mining of bedrock aquifers in the Denver Basin - Past, present, and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.E.; Raynolds, R.G.; Barkmann, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Denver Basin bedrock aquifer system is an important source of water for municipal and agricultural uses in the Denver and Colorado Springs metropolitan areas. The Denver area is one of the fastest growing areas in the United States with a population of 1.2 million in 1960 that has increased to over 2.4 million by 2000. This rapid population growth has produced a corresponding increase in demand for potable water. Historically, the Denver area has relied on surface water, however, in the past 10 years new housing and recreation developments have begun to rely on groundwater from the bedrock aquifers as the surface water is fully appropriated and in short supply. The Denver Basin bedrock aquifer system consists of Tertiary and Cretaceous age sedimentary rocks known as the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe and Laramie-Fox Hills Aquifers. The number of bedrock wells has increased from 12,000 in 1985 to 33,700 in 2001 and the withdrawal of groundwater has caused water level declines of 76 m. Water level declines for the past 10 years have ranged from 3 to 12 m per year. The groundwater supplies were once thought to last 100 years but there is concern that the groundwater supplies may be essentially depleted in 10 to 15 years in areas on the west side of the basin. Extensive development of the aquifer system has occurred in the last 25 years especially near the center of the basin in Douglas and El Paso Counties where rapid urban growth continues and surface water is lacking. Groundwater is being mined from the aquifer system because the discharge by wells exceeds the rate of recharge. Concern is mounting that increased groundwater withdrawal will cause water level declines, increased costs to withdraw groundwater, reduced well yield, and reduced groundwater storage. As the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource is in doubt, water managers believe that the life of the Denver Basin aquifers can be extended with artificial recharge, water reuse, restrictions on

  15. Bedrock nitrogen inputs support litter nitrogen fixation and temperate forest ecosystem fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynarski, K. A.; Mitchell, S. A.; Morford, S.; Houlton, B. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most frequently limiting nutrients to terrestrial ecosystem productivity worldwide. As atmospheric carbon diox