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Sample records for bedsonia chlamydia group

  1. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... STI test if you are at risk. 6 Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  2. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea . Symptoms may include: Burning feeling during urination Discharge ... of sexually transmitted infection (STIs). Common STIs are gonorrhea, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and herpes . Even if you ...

  3. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... of testing for chlamydia. NAAT is a molecular test that detects the genetic material ( DNA ) of Chlamydia trachomatis . It is generally more sensitive and specific than other chlamydia tests and can be performed on a vaginal swab ...

  4. Enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in diverse patient groups.

    PubMed

    Bakir, T M; Hossain, A; De-Silva, S; Siddiqui, A; Sengupta, B S; el-Sheikh, M M; Bakir, A F

    1989-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in parallel with cell culture was used to investigate the extent of infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis. EIA reactive confirmed in cell culture was taken as positive. C. trachomatis was found in 6 (26.0%) of 23 men with symptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), ten (17.2%) of 58 symptom-free males and in three of 4 with postgonococcal urethritis. Among 106 asymptomatic pregnant women studied the incidence of C. trachomatis was 8.5% while a higher incidence (16.7%) was found in those with symptoms. C. trachomatis positivity in asymptomatic and symptomatic post-natal screening were 11.4% and 7.7%. Of 43 symptomatic non-pregnant females investigated, 7 (16.3%) were found to be positive for C. trachomatis. Of 3 women with PID, 2 (66.7%) harboured C. trachomatis in their cervix while in another 29 infertile women, C. trachomatis was positive in 3 (8.1%). Contraceptives appeared to have an effect on the chlamydial positivity. Comparative testing of EIA with the standard cell culture method in this study indicate EIA as a suitable alternative for the definitive diagnosis of chlamydial infection in high prevalence settings and with caution in low prevalence settings.

  5. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  6. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cayla M; Fisher, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma) has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla) mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla) insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(-) mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla) mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  7. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better.

  8. [Chlamydia and other sexually transmitted bacterial infections].

    PubMed

    Clad, A

    2002-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterium worldwide. In Western Europe, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased by more than 95% since the 1970ies; "tripper" and syphilis are essentially confined to high-risk groups while genital chlamydial infections affect people of all social classes, but information about chlamydia is still scarce in many European countries. Clinically genital chlamydial infections resemble gonorrhoea (dysuria, discharge, irregular bleeding, dyspareunia, perihepatitis) and may be mistaken for appendicitis. However, Chlamydia trachomatis persists longer and more often asymptomatic than Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the urogenital tract of men and women. About 20% of all chlamydia infected women suffer from partial or complete tubal occlusion. Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of female infertility, but most of these women never experienced any clinical sign of pelvic inflammatory disease. Since particle concentrations are often very low in urine and cervical secretions only DNA-amplification tests, e.g. PCR or LCR, exhibit sufficient sensitivity for direct detection Chlamydia trachomatis. While Neisseria gonorrhoeae is eradicated by single-shot treatment with commonly used antibiotics like penicillins or cephalosporins Chlamydia trachomatis affords treatment for at least 10 days with doxycyline or macrolides. Partner treatment is essential to avoid reinfections. Condoms not only protect against HIV, but also against chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis.

  9. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  10. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    Chlamydia – CDC Fact Sheet Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can be easily cured. If left ... DSTDP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www. cdc. gov/ std CDC-INFO Contact Center 1-800- ...

  11. Chlamydia Screening Decision Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    uncomplicated chlamydia infection can be treated with an inexpensive course of oral antibiotics taken on an outpatient basis, while pelvic inflammatory disease... contraception , I would screen for chlamydia . Chlamydia Screening 31 I would say intuition doesn’t play into my decision making because there are high risk...or inconsistent barrier contraception Chlamydia Screening 34 practice. This view was not supported by the data obtained from the review of patient

  12. Chlamydia Screening Decision Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    has relevance to the military as an uncomplicated chlamydia infection can be treated with an inexpensive course of oral antibiotics taken on an...lifetime, or inconsistent barrier contraception practice. Problem Statement Chlamydia infection is a significant problem for young women. Current...records had risk factors for chlamydia documented. Four records documented imperfect barrier contraception use. One documented multiple sex partners

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in African American women who exclusively have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina A; Kapil, Richa; Austin, Erika L; Brown, LaDraka; Hook, Edward W; Geisler, William M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about whether Chlamydia trachomatis can be sexually transmitted between women or how often it occurs in women who have sex with women (WSW). We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and serum Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibody responses among African American WSW who reported a lifetime history of sex only with women (exclusive WSW) (n = 21) vs. an age-matched group of women reporting sex with women and men (WSWM) (n = 42). Participants completed a survey, underwent a pelvic examination in which a cervical swab was collected for Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), and had serum tested for anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body-based ELISA. No exclusive WSW had a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT vs. 5 (11.9%) WSWM having a positive Chlamydia trachomatis NAAT (p = 0.16). Compared with WSWM, WSW were significantly less likely to be Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive (7 [33.3%] vs. 29 [69%], p = 0.007). Among Chlamydia trachomatis seropositive women, all were seropositive by IgG1, and the magnitude of Chlamydia trachomatis-specific IgG1 responses did not differ in Chlamydia trachomatis-seropositive WSW vs. WSWM. In conclusion, Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity was relatively common in exclusive African American WSW, though significantly less common than in African American WSWM.

  14. Similarity in Pathogenic Features in Lung and Peritoneal Infection by Coxiella burnetii, Typhus Group Rickettsiae, and Chlamydiae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-26

    onset of infection. 4 Current data on Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) suggest that for its agent, R. rickettsii , another member of the Rickettsia ...Continue on reverse it necessary anid identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Proteobacteria; Coxiella burnetii; Typhus group rickettsiae ...New York Academy of Sciences June 26, 1990 Similarity in Pathogenic Features in Lung and Peritoneal Infection by Coxiella burdi, T"hus Group Rickettsiae

  15. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

  16. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePlus

    ... other types of STIs. Most common STIs are: Gonorrhea HIV/AIDS Syphilis Hepatitis Herpes Even if you ... you from passing the STIs back and forth. Gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia. Therefore, treatment for gonorrhea ...

  17. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

    2010-09-01

    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure.

  18. Can chlamydia be stopped?

    PubMed

    Ojcius, David M; Darville, Toni; Bavoil, Patrik M

    2005-05-01

    Chlamydia is a rampant sexually transmitted disease, the world's leading cause of preventable blindness and a possible contributor to heart disease. Recent discoveries are suggesting new ways to curtail its spread

  19. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  20. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ... > For Parents > Chlamydia Print A A A What's in this ...

  1. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  2. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  3. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  4. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  5. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  6. [Morphological semen changes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Dziecielski, H; Swierczyński, W; Semmler, G

    1989-06-01

    Semen was examined in 150 men patients of the Andrology Clinic for demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis and for analysis of the effect of this infection on semen quality depression. A correlation was noted between the degree of infection (large number of organisms per field of vision) and such changes as cryptozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia. Of interest was a high proportion of infection (56%) with Ch. trachomatis in this group.

  7. Screening for genital chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Low, Nicola; Redmond, Shelagh; Uusküla, Anneli; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects and safety of chlamydia screening in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in men, compared with standard care, on chlamydia transmission and on complications of infection.

  8. Immunoreactivity and differential developmental expression of known and putative Chlamydia trachomatis membrane proteins for biologically variant serovars representing distinct disease groups.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João P; Hsia, Ru-ching; Mead, Sally; Borrego, Maria J; Dean, Deborah

    2005-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium that causes ocular and urogenital diseases worldwide. Membrane proteins have only been partially characterized, and the discovery of a nine-member polymorphic membrane protein gene family has enhanced interest in defining their function. We previously reported two putative insertion sequence-like elements in pmpC for biovariant Ba and one each for G and L2, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Because of this and the tissue tropism differences for these biovariants, we analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR pmpC expression relative to immunogenic protein genes ompA, groEL and gseA throughout development. Sera from infected adolescents were reacted by immunoblot against recombinant (r)PmpC and rMOMP. ompA and groEL revealed different developmental transcriptome profiles among the biovariants. pmpC expression occurred at 2 h, peaked at 18 for L2 (at 24 for Ba and G), with the highest mRNA levels throughout development for L2. pmpC expression as a function of time paralleled ompA expression with higher mRNA levels compared with groEL later in development. Only sera from D-, E- and G-infected patients reacted to rPmpC; all infected patients reacted to rMOMP. pmpC expression during logarithmic growth suggests a role in membrane building and/or integrity, which is supported by the presence of a signal peptidase and C-terminal phenylalanine in PmpC. Because phylogenetic analyses of pmpC segregate serovars according to tissue tropism, we speculate that biovariant transcriptome differences may contribute to this tropism. The heterogeneous biovariant pmpC expression throughout development and differential PmpC immunoreactivity also suggest a role for pmpC in antigenic variation.

  9. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens. PMID:27108705

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Catherine M.; Ferone, Morgan E.

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days). However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal. PMID:28357377

  11. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  12. Detection of novel Chlamydiae and Legionellales from human nasal samples of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiae are intracellular bacterial parasites of eukaryotes, ranging from amoebae to humans. They comprise many novel members and are investigated as emerging pathogens. Environmental studies highlighted similarities between the ecologies of chlamydiae and legionellae, both groups being important agents of respiratory infections. Herein, we analyzed nasal samples from healthy persons, searching for the presence of amoebae, chlamydiae and legionellae. From a total of 25 samples, we recovered by PCR eight samples positive to chlamydiae and six samples positive to legionellae. Among these samples, four were positive to both organisms. The sequencing of 16S rDNAs allowed to identify (i) among Chlamydiae: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydophila felis, and members of Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and E6 lineage and (ii) among Legionellaceae: Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii and Legionella impletisoli. Unexpectedly, we also recovered Diplorickettsia sp. Amoebae collected from nasal mucosae, Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba, were endosymbiont-free, and chlamydiae revealed refractory to amoeba coculture. This study shows common exposure to chlamydiae and legionellae and suggests open air activities like gardening as a probable additional source of infection.

  13. Recovery of an environmental Chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp.

    PubMed

    Collingro, Astrid; Poppert, Sven; Heinz, Eva; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Essig, Andreas; Schweikert, Michael; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are a unique group of obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of vertebrates as well as symbionts of free-living amoebae. Although there is ample molecular evidence for a huge diversity and wide distribution of chlamydiae in nature, environmental chlamydiae are currently represented by only few isolates. This paper reports the recovery of a novel environmental chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp. The recovered environmental chlamydia strain UV-7 showed the characteristic morphology of chlamydial developmental stages as revealed by electron microscopy and was identified as a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae (98.7 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Parachlamydia acanthamoebae). Infection studies suggested that Parachlamydia sp. UV-7 is not confined to amoeba hosts but is also able to invade mammalian cells. These findings outline a new straightforward approach to retrieving environmental chlamydiae from nature without prior, tedious isolation and cultivation of their natural host cells, and lend further support to suggested implications of environmental chlamydiae for public health.

  14. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  15. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  16. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    PubMed

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  17. Do the factors associated with successful contact tracing of patients with gonorrhoea and Chlamydia differ?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. D.; Sukthankar, A.; Radcliffe, K. W.; Andre, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare factors which may be associated with successful contact tracing in patients with gonorrhoea and chlamydia. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic with a diagnosis of gonorrhoea or chlamydia. Multivariate analysis model including demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural variables. RESULTS: The attendance of at least one sexual contact was associated with naming more contacts for patients with gonorrhoea (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.01). A history of gonorrhoea was associated with successful contact tracing for patients with chlamydia (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.9). Successful contact tracing, as defined by at least one confirmed contact attendance after the index case, was not associated with age, sex, sexual orientation, history of chlamydia, use of condoms, marital status, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status for either gonorrhoea or chlamydia. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the composition of the core groups infected with gonorrhoea and chlamydia are not explained by differences in contact tracing success. In the clinic setting studied, the outcome of contact tracing was not associated with a variety of demographic, socioeconomic, and behaviour factors. 


 PMID:10448364

  18. Non-participation in chlamydia screening in the Netherlands: determinants associated with young people’s intention to participate in chlamydia screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, a national chlamydia screening program started in 2008, but the participation was low and the screening was not cost-effective. This study aimed to explore unconscious and conscious associations with chlamydia screening (16-29 year-olds). In addition, we examined whether information presented in chlamydia screening invitation letters had an effect on the evaluation of these determinants compared to a no-letter group. Methods An Internet survey was conducted that included self-report measures of attitude, susceptibility, severity, unrealistic optimism, subjective, moral, and descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, outcome expectations, barriers, intention, and a response time measure to assess unconscious associations of chlamydia screening with annoyance, threat and reassurance. Results On the unconscious level, participants (N = 713) who received no information letter associated testing for chlamydia with annoyance and threat, but also with reassurance (all p’s < .001). On the self-report measures, participants showed a low intention towards chlamydia screening (M = 1.42, range 1–5). Subjective norm, moral norm, perceived susceptibility and attitude were the most important predictors of the intention to screen (R2 = .56). Participants who rated their susceptibility as high also reported more risky behaviors (p < .001). In the groups that received a letter (N = 735), a weaker unconscious association of chlamydia screening with annoyance was found compared with the no-letter group (p < .001), but no differences were found in reassurance or threat. Furthermore, the letters caused a higher intention (p < .001), but intention remained low (M = 1.74). On a conscious level, giving information caused a more positive attitude, higher susceptibility, a higher subjective and moral norm, and more positive outcome expectations (all p’s < .001). Conclusion Subjective norm, moral norm

  19. Quantitative culture of endocervical Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R C; Katz, B P; Rolfs, R T; Batteiger, B; Caine, V; Jones, R B

    1990-04-01

    We examined the number of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions produced in the initial passage of cell cultures of endocervical specimens from 1,231 women with positive chlamydial cultures who attended a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Youth, white race, oral contraceptive use, and concurrent infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae were associated with high chlamydial inclusion counts. Youth, white race, and oral contraceptive use were independent determinants of a high chlamydial inclusion count in women without concurrent gonorrhea but not in women with gonorrhea. Results of our study suggest that the degree of chlamydial excretion from the infected cervix may be influenced by characteristics of the patient being tested and may affect the ability to detect C. trachomatis in different patient groups.

  20. Advances in sampling and screening for chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Jane S; Guy, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world, with diagnosis rates continuing to increase each year. As chlamydia is largely asymptomatic, screening and treatment is the main way to detect cases and reduce transmission. Recent advances in self-collected specimens and laboratory tests has made chlamydia screening easier to implement as well as possible in nonclinical settings. This review will discuss new approaches to specimen collection and how these have expanded opportunities for reaching target populations for chlamydia screening. Furthermore, it will discuss how advanced molecular microbiological methods can be used with self-collected specimens to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of chlamydia and the dynamics of transmission.

  1. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Bavoil, Patrik M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Stephens, Richard S; Kuo, Cho-Chou; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Horn, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) comprises important, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Subdivision of the family into the two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila has been discussed controversially during the past decade. Here, we have revisited the current classification in the light of recent genomic data and in the context of the unique biological properties of these microorganisms. We conclude that neither generally used 16S rRNA sequence identity cut-off values nor parameters based on genomic similarity consistently separate the two genera. Notably, no easily recognizable phenotype such as host preference or tissue tropism is available that would support a subdivision. In addition, the genus Chlamydophila is currently not well accepted and not used by a majority of research groups in the field. Therefore, we propose the classification of all 11 currently recognized Chlamydiaceae species in a single genus, the genus Chlamydia. Finally, we provide emended descriptions of the family Chlamydiaceae, the genus Chlamydia, as well as the species Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia caviae and Chlamydia felis.

  2. Pregnancy outcome in serologically indicated active Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, O P; Shaia, M; Rosenman, H; Livshin, Y; Choukroun, C; Barr, I; Diamant, Y Z

    1993-05-01

    A serological test for chlamydial infection was administered to 281 Jerusalem women in order to determine the rate and influence of Chlamydia on pregnancy outcome. Serological indication of active infection was present in 7.8% of the tested women, while 15.3% were shown to be positive for Chlamydia. Among the ultraorthodox subpopulation of Mea Shearim, serological indication of active infection was present among 5.9% of the women, and 12.3% of this population tested positive. In comparison, women from the secular subpopulation had 12.7% serological indication of active infection and 22.95% tested positive (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between pregnancy duration, birthweight, incidence of premature uterine contractions, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum febrile morbidity in the infected and noninfected groups. Women with a previous history of induced abortions showed a significantly higher evidence of past Chlamydia infection (9.3%) when compared with the women who did not have an infection (1.4%) (P < 0.006). Among the ultraorthodox women with positive or active infection, 41% had suffered at least one spontaneous abortion, as compared with 25% of the religious women who had no serological evidence of infection.

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  4. Risk profile for Chlamydia infection in women from public health clinics in New York State.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Morse, D L; Lawrence, C E; Murphy, D; Hipp, S

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of chlamydial infection and associated risk factors were studied in 1531 women from ten clinics in New York State excluding New York City. Overall Chlamydia infection rates were 13.6%; 17.6% in eight high risk family planning and STD clinics, and 5.7% in two low risk college and private clinics. Risk factors for Chlamydia infection included: age < 20 years (odds ratio 1.6), use of oral contraceptives (odds ratio 2.0), a history of having more than one sexual partner (odds ratio 1.7) and, in one clinic where data was available, inflammation on Papanicolaou smears (odds ratio 2.1). These data helped secure funding for Chlamydia preventive services and permitted development of a risk profile (score card) of Chlamydia for each age group. Use of such a score card can be most helpful in assigning which patients could benefit most from Chlamydia cultures, especially in those areas where testing is unavailable or too costly to screen all patients.

  5. Sociodemography of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Coventry, UK, 1992–6

    PubMed Central

    Winter, A; Sriskandabalan, P; Wade, A; Cummins, C; Barker, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and geographic risk factors for incident Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. Design: Cross sectional retrospective study of cases diagnosed in local genitourinary clinics. Setting: Coventry, West Midlands, from 1992 to 1996. Subjects: 582 female and 620 male Coventry residents aged 15–64 years diagnosed with one or more episodes of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection by enzyme immunoassay. Subjects were assigned a Townsend deprivation score based on residence. The denominator population aged 15–64 years was derived from 1991 census data. Results: The mean annual incidence of genital chlamydia was 151 episodes (95% CI 140–163) per 100 000 population in men and 138 episodes (95% CI 128–149) per 100 000 population in women. Highest subgroup incidence was observed in 15–19 year old black women (2367 (95% CI 1370–4560) per 100 000), and 20–24 year old black men (1951 (95% CI 1158–3220) per 100 000). In univariate analyses, the most important risk factor for chlamydia infection in males was being black (incidence 1377 (95% CI 1137–1652) per 100 000 for black v 133 (95% CI 122–145) per 100 000 for white; RR 10.4, p<0.0001) and for women was young age (incidence 475 (95% CI 415–540) per 100 000 for age group 15–19 years v 52 (95% CI 45–60) per 100 000 for age group 25–64 years; RR 9.1, p<0.0001). In Poisson regression models of first episodes of genital chlamydia, for both males and females the effect of ethnic group could not be fully explained by socioeconomic confounding. There were significant interactions between age and ethnic group for both sexes and between age and level of deprivation for men. Geographical analysis revealed a high incidence of genital chlamydia in estates on the edge of the city as well as the urban core. Conclusions: There is a complex interaction between geographical location, age, ethnic group, and social deprivation on the risk of acquiring genital Chlamydia

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  7. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci–positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance. PMID:26501593

  8. [Cervicitis--epidemiological and clinical risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university students].

    PubMed

    Schilling, A; Stevenson, M

    1994-01-01

    Fifty volunteer, asymptomatic sexually active university female students were examined and inquired, in order to find risk factors predictive of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Epidemiologic and behavioral factors (age, number of sexual partners, oral contraceptives use and history of previous sexually transmitted diseases) were found to be similar among the studied group and published data for North American female college students, but barrier contraceptive methods use was found to be different. Twenty two per cent of the sample had clinical cervicitis, and 30% had subclinical. If the screening models proposed by different authors would have been applied, between a 32% and 72% of the sample would have been selectively for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is concluded that international sugerences about Chlamydia trachomatis screening should be adopted until national experiences are made.

  9. The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced infection in women suffering from cervicovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Pungetti, D; Calderara, M A; Panozzo, M; Pignataro, R; Selleri, M C; Travisani, D; Cantiero, D; Mazzoli, F; Maurizio, G; Zanardi, E

    1988-01-01

    The results of a research on Chlamydia T. (direct survey of both the antigen in the uterine cervix and plasmatic antibodies) in a group of subjects suffering for cervico-vaginitis are provided. The incidence of the Chlamydia infection (proved by either the presence of this bacterium or antibody positivity) is not different from the values reported in literature. Conversely, the presence of neither specific cytological or colposcopic patterns nor of priviledged comites at vaginal level could be demonstrated. Our data, however, confirm a greater incidence of this infection in women reporting early sexual life and a high number of partners. As for the relationship between Chlamydia and contraceptives a slightly higher incidence of positivity in the cervix of patients using oestro-progestinics was registered, whereas no significant difference was noted in the use of other contraceptives IUD included.

  10. Isolation of Chlamydia psittaci involved in abortion of goats in Mexico: first report.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Ochoa, C; Díaz-Aparicio, E; Segundo-Zaragoza, C; Suárez-Güemes, F

    1997-01-01

    A group of 35 healthy adult goats ranging from two to six years old were bought from a chlamydiosis and brucellosis-free flock; they were vaccinated against Brucella melitensis with Rev1 vaccine at reduced doses, and one month later placed in isolation units. The animals were one month pregnant at the moment of purchase, and during the third month of pregnancy 10 out of the 35 dams aborted. Necropsy of the aborted fetus and examination of the foetal membranes was performed where no macroscopic lesions were observed. Abomasal liquid, foetal lung and liver, and placenta samples were taken for bacteriological analysis while sera from the goats that aborted was collected for serological investigation. Chlamydia psittaci was isolated in all cases, while no Brucella was detected. All sera reacted positive to anti-Chlamydia antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence test. This represents the first report of Chlamydia psittaci isolation from cases of goat abortion in Mexico.

  11. Efficacy of a vaccine to prevent Chlamydia- or Campylobacter-induced abortions in ewes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D E; Hedstrom, O R; Sonn, R J; Snyder, S P

    1990-03-01

    In a sheep flock, Chlamydia psittaci, Campylobacter fetus, Ca jejuni, and Salmonella dublin caused abortions. A vaccine that contained C psittaci type I from 2 sources: a cow with pneumonia and an aborted ovine fetus, Ca fetus, Ca jejuni, and 4 strains of K99 Escherichia coli was given to 240 ewes before they were bred. All fetuses, placentas, and lambs, that died within 36 hours of birth were examined for infectious agents. Of 55 abortions, 30 (55%) were caused by Chlamydia or Campylobacter spp; 25 of the 30 (83%) abortions took place in the nonvaccinated group (n = 240). Forty-five more lambs survived in the vaccinated group than in the nonvaccinated group. Abortion rates for Chlamydia and Campylobacter spp (2.1 vs 10.4% in vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups, respectively) were significantly different (P = 0.003). Abortion rates for S dublin were not significantly different between groups. The Salmonella epizootic was controlled quickly by sanitation and treatment procedures. The vaccine was at least 80% efficacious against Chlamydia and Campylobacter spp and appeared to be protective.

  12. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H.; Elborgy, Ebrahim S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. CONCLUSION Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value. PMID:27803864

  13. Health-related quality of life and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually experienced female inner-city students: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Eleanor; Kerry, Sarah R; Nightingale, Claire; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) in women with and without undiagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis infection. We analysed data from 2401 multi-ethnic sexually active female students aged 16–27 years who were recruited to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening – the prevention of pelvic infection trial in 2004–2006. At recruitment, all participants were asked to provide self-taken vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing and to complete a sexual health questionnaire including quality of life (EQ-5D). Most women (69%) had an EQ-5D of one representing ‘perfect health’ in the five dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. We therefore compared the proportion of women with an EQ-5D score < 1 implying ‘less than perfect health’ in women with and without chlamydia infection, and women with symptomatic chlamydia versus the remainder. The proportion of women with EQ-5D score < 1 was similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia: 34% (47/138) versus 31% (697/2263; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.41). However, more women with symptomatic chlamydia had EQ-5D score < 1 than the remainder: 45% (25/55) versus 31% (714/2319; RR 1.47, CI 1.10 to 1.98). In this community-based study, EQ-5D scores were similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia. However, a higher proportion of women with symptomatic chlamydia infection had ‘less than perfect health’. Undiagnosed chlamydia infection may not have a major short-term effect on health-related quality of life, but EQ-5D may not be the best tool to measure it in this group. PMID:27154958

  14. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Chlamydia serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to chlamydia in serum. Additionally... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form...

  16. Monoclonal antibody typing of Chlamydia psittaci strains derived from avian and mammalian species.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushi, H; Nojiri, K; Hirai, K

    1987-01-01

    A total of 77 Chlamydia psittaci strains of avian, human, and mammalian origin were grouped into four serovars with 11 monoclonal antibodies recognizing the lipopolysaccharide and the major outer membrane protein antigens. The avian and human strains, which were closely related to each other, were distinct from the mammalian strains. Immunological typing of C. psittaci with monoclonal antibodies seems practical. PMID:3667918

  17. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  18. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  19. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macer, Matthew; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures. PMID:27747116

  20. [Chlamydia trachomatis infections in teenagers].

    PubMed

    Gille, G; Klapp, C

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents enter puberty early and many have sexual intercourse at a young age. That sexual intercourse can have side effects with life-long consequences is still a taboo field. In Germany, we do not have figures about the prevalence of the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted diseases in young people. Therefore the Medical Association for the Promotion of Women's Health (AGGF) initiated a prevalence study on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in girls younger than 18 years in Berlin (n=266). After informed consent, information was given in 92 school classes. Thereafter in 30 offices of gynecologists the girls were offered a PCR test for the detection of CT free of charge. The results--10% of the 17-year-old girls had an acute chlamydial infection after an average of 19 months of sexual activity--suggest that in Germany there is a hidden epidemic among adolescents. Adolescents are not adequately informed about the risks of CT infection; medical counseling is both desired and effective.

  1. MRI as a Novel In Vivo Approach for Assessing Structural Changes of Chlamydia Pathology in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shubing; Meng, Xiangjun; Skinner, Julie M.; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Boddicker, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent of sexually transmitted diseases. While Chlamydia infection is a reportable event and screening has increased over time, enhanced surveillance has not resulted in a reduction in the rate of infections, and Chlamydia infections frequently recur. The development of a preventative vaccine for Chlamydia may be the only effective approach for reducing infection and the frequency of pathological outcomes. Current vaccine research efforts involve time consuming and/or invasive approaches for assessment of disease state, and MRI presents a clinically translatable method for assessing infection and related pathology both quickly and non-invasively. Longitudinal T2-weighted MRI was performed over 63 days on both control or Chlamydia muridarum challenged mice, either with or without elementary body (EB) immunization, and gross necropsy was performed on day 65. A scoring system was developed to assess the number of regions affected by Chlamydia pathology and was used to document pathology over time and at necropsy. The scoring system documented increasing incidence of pathology in the unimmunized and challenged mice (significantly greater compared to the control and EB immunized-challenged groups) by 21 days post-challenge. No differences between the unchallenged and EB immunized-challenged mice were observed. MRI scores at Day 63 were consistently higher than gross necropsy scores at Day 65, although two of the three groups of mice showed no significant differences between the two techniques. In this work we describe the application of MRI in mice for the potential evaluation of disease pathology and sequelae caused by C. muridarum infection and this technique’s potential for evaluation of vaccines for Chlamydia. PMID:27467585

  2. Anti-chlamydial immunity in ewes conferred by vaccination with a combination of three live chlamydia, brucella and salmonella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Souriau, A; Bosseray, N; Rodolakis, A; Lantier, F; Plommet, M

    1988-07-02

    Live attenuated vaccines against Chlamydia psittaci var ovis, Brucella melitensis and Salmonella abortus ovis have previously been shown to be compatible in mice by subcutaneous administration. Immunity against challenge with virulent chlamydia was, however, slightly decreased in associations including the B melitensis Rev 1 vaccine. The chlamydia strain 1B vaccine was administered to four- to five-month-old female lambs, either alone or in combination with the B melitensis Rev1 and the S abortus ovis Rv6 vaccines. Clinical, serological and bacteriological observations demonstrated the compatibility of the three vaccines. Control, singly and triply vaccinated ewes were challenged with a virulent strain of chlamydia during their second pregnancy, 15 months after vaccination. Five of the 12 control ewes lambed normally and 10 of them were infected, as shown by the excretion of the challenge chlamydia in genital secretions. Sixteen of the 17 ewes in the triple vaccine group lambed normally and none was infected. All 12 in the single vaccine group lambed normally and three of the 12 were infected. In spite of this unusually poor protection by the single vaccine, antichlamydial immunity was clearly not decreased by the association with the two other vaccines.

  3. A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K; de la Maza, Luis M

    2010-11-10

    Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-γ both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks following the immunization, all mice were challenged in the meatus urethra. The urethra, urinary bladder, testes and epididymides were harvested at weekly intervals and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis. Based on the culture results from these four organs both groups of Chlamydia-immunized mice showed significant protection. In the group immunized i.u., 10% (5/50) had positive cultures, while in the group immunized i.n. 28% (14/50) had positive cultures during the 5 weeks of observation. In contrast, in the sham-immunized animals 47% (47/100) had positive cultures (P<0.005) during the study period. In addition, the number of positive organs, the length of time that the animal had positive cultures, and the total number of inclusion forming units (IFU) recovered were overall significantly lower in the i.u. or i.n. groups in comparison with the sham-immunized animals. However, in relation to the i.u. immunized group, the protection elicited in the i.n. group was delayed and not as robust. In conclusion, immunization of mice in the meatus urethra may provide the gold standard for testing Chlamydia vaccines in a male model.

  4. Conservation of extrusion as an exit mechanism for Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Meghan; Sherrid, Ashley; Suchland, Robert; Ellis, Tisha; Hybiske, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed. The key parameters investigated in this study were: (i) the conservation of extrusion across the Chlamydia genus, (ii) the functional requirement for candidate Chlamydia genes in extrusion formation i.e. IncA and CT228 and (iii) extrusion-mediated uptake, and consequent survival of Chlamydia inside macrophages. Inclusion morphology was characterized by live fluorescence microscopy, using an inverted GFP strategy, at early and mid-stages of infection. Enriched extrusions were used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages, and bacterial viability was measured following macrophage engulfment. Our results demonstrate that extrusion is highly conserved across chlamydiae, including ocular, STD and LGV biovars and divergent Chlamydia species. Consequently, this exit mechanism for Chlamydia may fulfill common advantages important for pathogenesis.

  5. Laboratory surveillance of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Denmark 1988-2007.

    PubMed

    Lind, Inga; Bollerup, Anne Cathrine; Farholt, Stense; Hoffmann, Steen

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 laboratory reporting of urogenital chlamydia was integrated in the countrywide notification system for infectious diseases. Previously (1988-1993), laboratory confirmed cases had been reported on a voluntary basis. The applied laboratory technologies changed significantly: in 1988, 48% of cases were diagnosed by culture; in 1994, 88% by enzyme immunoassays; and since 2004 more than 99% by nucleic acid amplification tests. The proportions of chlamydia-positive men diagnosed by testing urine were <1% in 1994, 10% in 2001 and 75% in 2007. From 1994 to 2002 the annual incidence rates of chlamydia per 100,000 population among women were around 350-400 and then increased to 586 in 2007. Among men the incidence rate rose from 125 in 1994 to 358 in 2007. In conclusion, the annual incidence rates of urogenital chlamydia remained high and possibly increasing during a 14-y period (1994-2007), with a high testing activity, improving technologies and countrywide information campaigns. The observed increase is likely to be associated with the introduction of more sensitive diagnostic methods and with increasing testing of men. A possible change in target groups from low- to high-prevalence could not be assessed due to lack of information about persons being tested.

  6. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  7. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Chlamydia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department ...

  8. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure

    PubMed

    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert

    2000-05-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

  10. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra spp. selectively inhibit the growth of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena; Uvell, Hanna; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Elofsson, Mikael; Vuorela, Pia Maarit

    2015-10-01

    Lignans from Schisandra chinensis berries show various pharmacological activities, of which their antioxidative and cytoprotective properties are among the most studied ones. Here, the first report on antibacterial properties of six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans found in Schisandra spp. is presented. The activity was shown on two related intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis upon their infection in human epithelial cells. All six lignans inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation and infectious progeny production. Schisandrin B inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation even when administered 8 h post infection, indicating a target that occurs relatively late within the infection cycle. Upon infection, lignan-pretreated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies had impaired inclusion formation capacity. The presence and substitution pattern of methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxyl groups of the lignans had a profound impact on the antichlamydial activity. In addition our data suggest that the antichlamydial activity is not caused only by the antioxidative properties of the lignans. None of the compounds showed inhibition on seven other bacteria, suggesting a degree of selectivity of the antibacterial effect. Taken together, the data presented support a role of the studied lignans as interesting antichlamydial lead compounds.

  11. Identification and Characterization of the Chlamydia trachomatis L2 S-Adenosylmethionine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Rachel; Fernandez, Reinaldo E.; Fisher, Derek J.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methylation is essential to the physiology of all cells, including the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia. Nevertheless, the methylation cycle is under strong reductive evolutionary pressure in Chlamydia. Only Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila genome sequences harbor homologs to metK, encoding the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase required for synthesis of SAM, and to sahH, which encodes the S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase required for detoxification of SAH formed after the transfer of the methyl group from SAM to the methylation substrate. Transformation of a conditional-lethal ΔmetK mutant of Escherichia coli with a genomic library of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 identified CTL843 as a putative SAM transporter based on its ability to allow the mutant to survive metK deficiency only in the presence of extracellular SAM. CTL843 belongs to the drug/metabolite superfamily of transporters and allowed E. coli to transport S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-14C]methionine with an apparent Km of 5.9 µM and a Vmax of 32 pmol min−1 mg−1. Moreover, CTL843 conferred a growth advantage to a Δpfs E. coli mutant that lost the ability to detoxify SAH, while competition and back-transport experiments further implied that SAH was an additional substrate for CTL843. We propose that CTL843 acts as a SAM/SAH transporter (SAMHT) serving a dual function by allowing Chlamydia to acquire SAM from the host cell and excrete the toxic by-product SAH. The demonstration of a functional SAMHT provides further insight into the reductive evolution associated with the obligate intracellular lifestyle of Chlamydia and identifies an excellent chemotherapeutic target. PMID:21558433

  12. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine and (/sup 35/S)cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, S N; Joshi, S G; Zodpey, S P; Saoji, A M

    1995-04-01

    The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and some epidemiologic factors associated with it were studied in 273 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients attending Gynaecologic clinic, Government Medical College, Nagpur. For detection of chlamydial antigen Pharmacia Diagnostics Chlamydia EIA test was used. This study revealed an overall positivity rate of 33% for C. trachomatis infection in PID patients. Of the hypothesised risk factors low socioeconomic status, history of sexual contacts with multiple partners and use of intrauterine devices (IUD) were significantly associated with C. trachomatis infections. However, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and increasing age were found to be protective factors for C. trachomatis infection. Thus considering the significant contribution of C. trachomatis in etiology of PID and its independent association with some epidemiologic risk factors, extensive epidemiologic measures are recommended for prevention of these infections.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis control requires a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Brunham, Robert C; Rappuoli, Rino

    2013-04-08

    As the most common reported communicable disease in North America and Europe, Chlamydia trachomatis is the focus of concerted public health control efforts based on screening and treatment. Unexpectedly control efforts are accompanied by rising reinfection rates attributed in part to arresting the development of herd immunity. Shortening the duration of infection through the testing and treatment program is the root cause behind the arrested immunity hypothesis and because of this a vaccine will be essential to control efforts. Advances in Chlamydia vaccinomics have revealed the C. trachomatis antigens that can be used to constitute a subunit vaccine and a vaccine solution appears to be scientifically achievable. We propose that an accelerated C. trachomatis vaccine effort requires coordinated partnership among academic, public health and private sector players together with a commitment to C. trachomatis vaccine control as a global public health priority.

  15. Selenium and vitamin E effect on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against enzootic abortion (Chlamydia psittaci).

    PubMed

    Giadinis, N; Koptopoulos, G; Roubles, N; Siarkou, V; Papasteriades, A

    2000-03-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vit E) on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against Chlamydia psittaci (ovis) was investigated. Thirty-two sheep, one year old, seronegative to Chlamydia infection, vaccinated against enterotoxemia and dewormed were used. Injectable sodium selenite (0.1 mg/kg b.w.) was given twice to animals of the first group (gSe), with a three week interval. The sheep of the second group (gE) received 1 g vit E each orally, six times at weekly intervals. The animals of the third group (gSeE) were given Se and vit E in doses and routes of administration as in gSe and gE. The animals of the fourth group served as controls (gC) and injected normal saline. The first vaccination was made at the time that the second Se injection was given. Revaccination was made two weeks later. The experiment lasted 29 weeks. The results indicated that Se alone led to a significant increase of Chlamydia antibody response (P < 0.05), but not when it was given in combination with vit E. Animals that received vit E (gE) had much lower titres, just above of those of the controls.

  16. Evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Alexandra; Gomes, João P

    2014-04-01

    The Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular bacteria characterized by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. It encompasses the single genus Chlamydia, which involves nine species that affect a wide range of vertebral hosts, causing infections with serious impact on human health (mainly due to Chlamydia trachomatis infections) and on farming and veterinary industries. It is believed that Chlamydiales originated ∼700mya, whereas C. trachomatis likely split from the other Chlamydiaceae during the last 6mya. This corresponds to the emergence of modern human lineages, with the first descriptions of chlamydial infections as ancient as four millennia. Chlamydiaceae have undergone a massive genome reduction, on behalf of the deletional bias "use it or lose it", stabilizing at 1-1.2Mb and keeping a striking genome synteny. Their phylogeny reveals species segregation according to biological properties, with huge differences in terms of host range, tissue tropism, and disease outcomes. Genome differences rely on the occurrence of mutations in the >700 orthologous genes, as well as on events of recombination, gene loss, inversion, and paralogous expansion, affecting both a hypervariable region named the plasticity zone, and genes essentially encoding polymorphic and transmembrane head membrane proteins, type III secretion effectors and some metabolic pathways. Procedures for molecular typing are still not consensual but have allowed the knowledge of molecular epidemiology patterns for some species as well as the identification of outbreaks and emergence of successful clones for C. trachomatis. This manuscript intends to provide a comprehensive review on the evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis in gynecologic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1978-12-01

    Symptoms suggestive of a lower genital tract infection (LGTI) are common complaints in women who consult gynecologists. Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, are responsible for a substantial proportion of LGTI. This study was performed to establish the frequency of LGTI caused by C trachomatis in women attending a gynecologic outpatient clinic. Of 170 women with LGTI, 32.9% harbored one or more of these organisms: C trachomatis was found in 19.3%, N gonorrhoeae in 4.7%, and T vaginalis in 25.9%. The results of the isolation studies were correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. In women under 25 years of age, chlamydial cervicitis was found significantly more often in users of oral contraceptives than in nonusers. In women not taking such drugs, cervical erosion was found more often in Chlamydia-positive than Chlamydia-negative women. Since clinical examination failed to reveal any characteristic signs in cases of chlamydial infection, it was not possible to distinguish a chlamydial from a gonococcal infection. This study also reports the successful treatment of 15 women affected by chlamydial cervicitis with doxycycline or trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole.

  18. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  19. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  20. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  1. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides. PMID:27681924

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted. PMID:27672303

  3. Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, V M; Ata, F A; Storz, J

    1976-01-01

    Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method. PMID:1000377

  4. Seroepidemiology of chlamydia in Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, K M; Barnes, R C; Oberle, M W; Rosero-Bixby, L; Schachter, J

    1990-01-01

    A population-based study of the sero-epidemiology of chlamydia was performed among a nationally representative sample of 760 Costa Rican women aged 25 to 59 years. Interviews and sera collection were completed between September 1984 and February 1985. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among these women was 56.1%. Women 25 to 39 years of age had a seroprevalence of 51.1%, while women 40 to 59 years of age had a seroprevalence of 64.2%. Women who reported no prior sexual activity had a seroprevalence rate of 48.6%, compared with a seroprevalence rate of 80.7% among women who reported three or more lifetime sexual partners. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of seropositive women ranged from 34.4 among the women who reported no prior sexual activity to 155.0 among the women with three or more lifetime sexual partners. Sero-positivity was more consistently associated with sexual activity than with age. Women with serological evidence of past Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or syphilis infection were more likely to be seropositive than were women without evidence of exposure to these sexually transmitted diseases, even when controlled for age and the number of lifetime sexual partners. The seropositivity among never sexually active women indicates the probable presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, while the high seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among the sexually active women suggests that sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent a public health problem not previously quantified in Costa Rica. Further seroepidemiological and/or culture studies are warranted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection among men and younger women. PMID:2370061

  5. Rectal chlamydia - should screening be recommended in women?

    PubMed

    Andersson, Nirina; Boman, Jens; Nylander, Elisabet

    2017-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe and has large impacts on patients' physical and emotional health. Unidentified asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis could be a partial explanation for the high Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence. In this study, we evaluated rectal Chlamydia trachomatis testing in relation to symptoms and sexual habits in women and men who have sex with men. Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was 9.1% in women and 0.9% in men who have sex with men. None of the patients reported any rectal symptoms; 59.0% of the women with a rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection denied anal intercourse and 18.8% did not have a urogenital infection; 9.4% did neither have a urogenital infection nor reported anal sex. We suggest that rectal sampling should be considered in women visiting sexually transmitted infection clinics regardless of rectal symptoms and irrespective of anal intercourse, since our data suggest that several cases of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis otherwise would be missed, thus enabling further disease transmission.

  6. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  7. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    PubMed

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  8. Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, J W

    1991-01-01

    The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

  9. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Cory Ann; Dewez, Frederic; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate). Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence) and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis. PMID:26997956

  10. Tracing the primordial Chlamydiae: extinct parasites of plants?

    PubMed

    Subtil, Agathe; Collingro, Astrid; Horn, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria found as symbionts and pathogens in a wide range of eukaryotes, including protists, invertebrates, and vertebrates. It was recently proposed that an ancient chlamydial symbiont facilitated the establishment of primary plastids in a tripartite symbiosis with cyanobacteria and early eukaryotes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the lifestyle and the evolutionary history of extant Chlamydiae. We reconstruct and describe key features of the ancient chlamydial symbiont. We propose that it was already adapted to an intracellular lifestyle before the emergence of Archaeplastida, and that several observations are compatible with an essential contribution of Chlamydiae to the evolution of algae and plants.

  11. Estimating the positive predictive value of opportunistic population testing for gonorrhoea as part of the English Chlamydia Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Fowler, T; Edeghere, O; Inglis, N; Bradshaw, S

    2013-03-01

    Advances in technology have raised the possibility of including gonorrhoea testing as part of chlamydia screening. In England this is recommended only where the positive predictive value (PPV) of the test is ≥90%. This study assessed the PPV for gonorrhoea testing using routine testing data. Routine data (including gonorrhoea testing) from the Greater Manchester Chlamydia Screening Programme (GMCSP) in 2009/2010, were used to estimate the PPV for gonorrhoea testing. Of those screened, 0.3% (59/18044) of men and 0.4% (174/41873) of women tested positive for gonorrhoea. The PPV was 82.3% in women and 73.6% in men, in those who also tested positive for chlamydia. For women and men testing negative for chlamydia the PPV for a positive gonorrhoea test was incalculable. The low PPV observed in most groups suggests that where population testing for gonorrhoea occurs there is a need for further confirmatory testing of positive results before treatment decisions are made. Clinicians should be aware of screening test result limitations in this context.

  12. Analysis of laboratory testing results collected in an enhanced chlamydia surveillance system in Australia, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydial infection is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, Europe and the US. Australian notifications of chlamydia rose four-fold from 20,274 cases in 2002 to 80,846 cases in 2011; the majority of cases were among young people aged less than 29 years. Along with test positivity rates, an understanding of the number of tests performed and the demographics of individuals being tested are key epidemiological indicators. The ACCESS Laboratory Network was established in 2008 to address this issue. Methods The ACCESS Laboratory Network collected chlamydia testing data from 15 laboratories around Australia over a three-year period using data extraction software. All chlamydia testing data from participating laboratories were extracted from the laboratory information system; patient identifiers converted to a unique, non-reversible code and de-identified data sent to a single database. Analysis of data by anatomical site included all specimens, but in age and sex specific analysis, only one testing episode was counted. Results From 2008 to 2010 a total of 628,295 chlamydia tests were referred to the 15 laboratories. Of the 592,626 individual episodes presenting for testing, 70% were from female and 30% from male patients. In female patients, chlamydia positivity rate was 6.4% overall; the highest rate in 14 year olds (14.3%). In male patients, the chlamydia positivity rate was 9.4% overall; the highest in 19 year olds (16.5%). The most common sample type was urine (57%). In 3.2% of testing episodes, multiple anatomical sites were sampled. Urethral swabs gave the highest positivity rate for all anatomical sites in both female (7.7%) and male patients (14%), followed by urine (7.6% and 9.4%, respectively) and eye (6.3% and 7.9%, respectively). Conclusions The ACCESS Laboratory Network data are unique in both number and scope and are representative of chlamydia testing in both general practice and high-risk clinics. The findings from these data

  13. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Linan

    Chlamydia trachomatis is detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a mouse monoclonal IgG2a anti-MOMP antibody immobilized onto a Si electrode. Two types of electrochemical cells are used in this study, one with the electrode at the bottom and the other will the electrode on the side. Control experiments with Escherichia coli demonstrate this biosensor is not selective to Chlamydia trachomatis. Another control experiment with Chlamydia trachomatis immobilized onto mouse monoclonal IgG2a isotype antibody coated electrode obtains an increased charge transfer resistance (Rct) which is inversely proportional to the rate of electron transfer. These results demonstrate further investigations are needed to develop the Chlamydia trachomatis impedance biosensor.

  14. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed

    Skulnick, M; Small, G W; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; Fraser, S; Chua, R

    1991-09-01

    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificity of 99.6%. The results show that the Clearview Chlamydia test is comparable to Chlamydiazyme for the detection of C. trachomatis from endocervical specimens in a population with a low prevalence of infection.

  15. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Skulnick, M; Small, G W; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; Fraser, S; Chua, R

    1991-01-01

    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificity of 99.6%. The results show that the Clearview Chlamydia test is comparable to Chlamydiazyme for the detection of C. trachomatis from endocervical specimens in a population with a low prevalence of infection. PMID:1774342

  16. Using urinary leucocyte esterase tests as an indicator of infection with gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic males in a primary health care setting.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Saifur; Beever, Warwick; Skov, Steven; Boffa, John

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate a leucocyte esterase test as a predictor of gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic Aboriginal males at the Central Australian Aboriginal Congress Male Clinic (Ingkintja), first-void urine samples and clinical information were collected from consecutive asymptomatic males presenting to the Ingkintja in Alice Springs between March 2008 and December 2009. Urine was tested immediately with a leucocyte esterase test dipstick and then by polymerase chain reaction for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Among the 292 specimens from asymptomatic males, 15.4% were positive for gonorrhoea or chlamydia. In this group, compared with polymerase chain reaction result for gonorrhoea or chlamydia, leucocyte esterase test alone and in combination with age ≤35 years showed sensitivities of 66.7% and 60%, specificities of 90.7% and 94.7%, positive predictive values of 56.6% and 67.5%, negative predictive values of 93.7% and 92.8% and the area under receiver operating characteristics curve values of 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. Leucocyte esterase tests can reasonably be used as a basis for immediate empirical treatment for gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic central Australian Aboriginal men under 35 years of age.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis’ struggle to keep its host alive

    PubMed Central

    Sixt, Barbara S.; Valdivia, Raphael H.; Kroemer, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiae infect a diverse range of eukaryotic host species, including vertebrate animals, invertebrates, and even protozoa. Characteristics shared by all Chlamydiae include their obligate intracellular lifestyle and a biphasic developmental cycle. The infectious form, the elementary body (EB), invades a host cell and differentiates into the replicative form, the reticulate body (RB), which proliferates within a membrane-bound compartment, the inclusion. After several rounds of division, RBs retro-differentiate into EBs that are then released to infect neighboring cells. The consequence of this obligatory transition between replicative and infectious forms inside cells is that Chlamydiae absolutely depend on the viability and functionality of their host cell throughout the entire infection cycle. We recently conducted a forward genetic screen in Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted human pathogen, and identified a mutant that caused premature death in the majority of infected host cells. We employed emerging genetic tools in Chlamydia to link this cytotoxicity to the loss of the protein CpoS (Chlamydia promoter of survival) that normally localizes to the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole. CpoS-deficient bacteria also induced an exaggerated type-1 interferon response in infected cells, produced reduced numbers of infectious EBs in cell culture, and were cleared faster from the mouse genital tract in a transcervical infection model in vivo. The analysis of this CpoS-deficient mutant yielded unique insights into the nature of cell-autonomous defense responses against Chlamydia and highlighted the importance of Chlamydia-mediated control of host cell fate for the success of the pathogen. PMID:28357396

  18. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  19. Characterization and intracellular localization of putative Chlamydia pneumoniae effector proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nicole; Sattelmacher, Florian; Lugert, Raimond

    2008-01-01

    We here describe four proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, which might play a role in host-pathogen interaction. The hypothetical bacterial proteins CPn0708 and CPn0712 were detected in Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected host cells by indirect immunofluorescence tests with polyclonal antisera raised against the respective proteins. While CPn0708 was localized within the inclusion body, CPn0712 was identified in the inclusion membrane and in the surrounding host cell cytosol. CPn0712 colocalizes with actin, indicating its possible interaction with components of the cytoskeleton. Investigations on CPn0809 and CPn1020, two Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins previously described to be secreted into the host cell cytosol, revealed colocalization with calnexin, a marker for the ER. Neither CPn0712, CPn0809 nor CPn1020 were able to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Furthermore, transient expression of CPn0712, CPn0809 and CPn1020 by the host cell itself had no effect on subsequent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. However, microarray analysis of CPn0712-expressing host cells revealed six host cell genes which were regulated as in host cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae, indicating the principal usefulness of heterologous expression to study the effect of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins on host cell modulation. PMID:18449565

  20. The link between contraceptive methods and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Pery, J; Kitai, E

    1988-09-01

    The effect of various contraceptive methods on Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection was examined in a group of 158 women, with a mean age of 26.9 years, patients of a family planning clinic. Their symptoms were mild abdominal pain or vaginal discharge. Antibodies to CT were examined by an indirect immunoperoxidase assay, with a commercial kit. From each patient a vaginal smear was collected for bacteriologic and mycologic study. In group I, consisting of 30 married women with a mean age of 31 years, 5 (16.7%) IUD users had a positive test for CT antibodies. In group II, comprising 57 women, with a mean age of 23.3 years, 22 (38.6%) oral contraceptive (OC) users, of whom 94.7% were unmarried, had positive tests for CT antibodies. The difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p less than 0.05). In group III, comprising 71 women with a mean age of 28.1 years, 62% unmarried and using other contraceptive methods, 15 (21.1%) had a positive test for CT antibodies. The incidence of CT infection was not different in the 3 groups under study, when the factors of age and marital status were taken into consideration (p greater than 0.30). Bacterial vaginal infection was found in 43.3% of the IUD users, compared with only 14% of the OC users (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the OC users, candidiasis was predominant, the difference from the other groups being statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The women with positive antibodies also more frequently had colonies of bacterial and mycological vaginal infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia psittaci infection in dogs].

    PubMed

    Kocianová, E; Lisák, V; Kopcok, M

    1992-03-01

    The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia psittaci antibodies was investigated in 530 dog specimens divided into six groups, i. e. A = private watch dogs, B1 = service dogs from Bratislava, B2 = service dogs from other localities of Slovakia and Moravia, C = watch dogs from farms, I = household dogs, T = stray dogs. The dogs demonstrated the higher seropositivity to C. burnetii (11.7%) than to Ch. psittaci (5.5%). The highest percentage of antibodies to C. burnetii was found in stray dogs (23.7%), less prevalence of antibodies was observed in the animals in group C (13.6%), almost the same positivity was proved in the dogs of group B1 and B2 (10.5 and 10.6%). The highest positivity to Ch. psittaci was demonstrated in the dogs of group A (8.7%), less in group B2 (6.6%) and the least number in group B1 (1.9%). The stray dogs occupied the intermediate position in this data (Tab. I). Ninety four localities were tested, from which 38 were seropositive. Neither acute coxiellosis nor chlamydiosis were proved in any animals examined. Ninety per cent of dogs were found healthy, but 10% of dogs demonstrated hepatopathia and gastroenteritis. Two of them (category A and I) were seropositive to C. burnetii (titer 1:8 to 1:16) and one to Ch. psittaci (titer 1:16). Both C. burnetii and Ch. psittaci attack dogs parallely with the agents of other zoonoses, of which the most common is Toxoplasma gondii (Tab. II). Several dogs demonstrated seropositivity to three up to five zoonotic agents (Tab. III).

  2. Saccamoeba lacustris, sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Lobosea: Hartmannellidae), a new lobose amoeba, parasitized by the novel chlamydia 'Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris' (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae).

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Michel, Rolf; Walochnik, Julia; Müller, Karl-Dieter; Greub, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    An amoeba isolated from an aquatic biotope, identified morphologically as Saccamoeba limax, was found harbouring mutualistic rod-shaped gram-negative bacteria. During their cultivation on agar plates, a coinfection also by lysis-inducing chlamydia-like organisms was found in some subpopulations of that amoeba. .Here we provide a molecular-based identification of both the amoeba host and the two bacterial endosymbionts. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene revealed that this strain is the sister-group to Glaeseria, for which we proposed the name Saccamoeba lacustris. The rod-shaped endosymbiont was identified as a member of Variovorax paradoxus group (Comamonadaceae, Beta-Proteobacteria). No growth on bacteriological agars was recorded, hence this symbiont might be strictly intracellular. The chlamydia-like parasite was unable to infect Acanthamoeba and other amoebae in coculture, showing high host specificity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA indicated that it is a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales), for which we proposed the name 'Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris'.

  3. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Activates Immune Function to Decrease Chlamydia trachomatis Shedding in a Murine Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Belay, Tesfaye; Fu, Chih-lung; Woart, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A cold-induced stress mouse model for investigating chlamydia genital infection and immune response analysis was established in our laboratory. Previous results showed that cold-induced stress results in suppression of the immune response and increased intensity of chlamydia genital infection in the mouse model. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) against chlamydia genital infection in mice. AHCC is an extract of mushroom commonly used as a dietary supplement is known to boost the immune system. Mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis after a 24-day cold-stress application. Oral administration of AHCC to stressed or non-stressed mice was carried out seven days before infection and during the course of infection along with cervicovaginal swabbing. Cytokine production by peritoneal and splenic T cells isolated from AHCC-fed stressed mice and non-stressed mice was measured ELISA. Splenic T cells from both animal groups were co-cultured with mouse monocyte J774.2 cell line or cultured by addition of supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line for 24 hours. Infection studies showed that AHCC-feeding compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-feeding to stressed mice resulted in reduced Chlamydia trachomatis shedding from the genital tract. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly increased in stressed mice receiving AHCC compared to stressed mice receiving PBS. Production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the AHCC group was significantly high compared to production in PBS-fed group. Splenic T cells from stressed and non-stressed cultured with supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line resulted in significantly increased TNF-α or IFN-γ production. Results obtained in this study show that AHCC improves the function of immune cells as indicated by the restoration of levels of cytokines

  4. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  5. Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: Role of TLRs, NLRs, and the Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. PMID:22985781

  6. [Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Chlamydia trachomatis and other co-factors].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Troconis, J T

    1995-09-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in patients with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) was studied in one hundred eighty patients. The Chlamydiazyme test was performed in all of them. Endocervical samples were taken from 103 patients with CIN and 77 women who sought medical attention for different gynecological reasons (CG). Twenty three tests (12.8%) were positive; 15 of them had CIN (14.6%) and 8 were from the control group (10.4%). It was found a statistical significant difference between NIC III and early intercourse, NIC III and age, NIC and vaginal douches and, among NIC and number of pregnancies and deliveries. There was not a significant difference among Ct and early intercourse, number of sexual partners, pregnancies, deliveries, vaginal douches, oral contraceptives (OC), and vaginal discharge. No statistically significant differences were found between NIC and number of sexual partners, and OC and vaginal discharge. The low incidence of Ct in patients with CIN does not mean that Ct does not play a role in the origin and development of the cervical pathology.

  7. Stimulation of the cytosolic receptor for peptidoglycan, Nod1, by infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Ojcius, David M; Viala, Jérôme; Girardin, Stéphane; Liu, Wei; Delarbre, Christiane; Philpott, Dana; Kelly, Kathleen A; Darville, Toni

    2006-06-01

    Infection of epithelial cells by the intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, leads to activation of NF-kappaB and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We find that overexpression of a dominant-negative Nod1 or depletion of Nod1 by RNA interference inhibits partially the activation of NF-kappaB during chlamydial infection in vitro, suggesting that Nod1 can detect the presence of Chlamydia. In parallel, there is a larger increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes following Chlamydia infection when primary fibroblasts are isolated from wild-type mice than from Nod1-deficient mice. The Chlamydia genome encodes all the putative enzymes required for proteoglycan synthesis, but proteoglycan from Chlamydia has never been detected biochemically. Since Nod1 is a ubiquitous cytosolic receptor for peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria, our results suggest that C. trachomatis and C. muridarum do in fact produce at least the rudimentary proteoglycan motif recognized by Nod1. Nonetheless, Nod1 deficiency has no effect on the efficiency of infection, the intensity of cytokine secretion, or pathology in vaginally infected mice, compared with wild-type controls. Similarly, Rip2, a downstream mediator of Nod1, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, and TLR4, increases only slightly the intensity of chlamydial infection in vivo and has a very mild effect on the immune response and pathology. Thus, Chlamydia may not produce sufficient peptidoglycan to stimulate Nod1-dependent pathways efficiently in infected animals, or other receptors of the innate immune system may compensate for the absence of Nod1 during Chlamydia infection in vivo.

  8. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection.

  9. The roles of unfolded protein response pathways in Chlamydia pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    George, Zenas; Omosun, Yusuf; Azenabor, Anthony A; Partin, James; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; He, Qing; Eko, Francis; Bandea, Claudiu; Svoboda, Pavel; Pohl, Jan; Black, Carolyn M; Igietseme, Joseph U

    2016-12-08

    Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium that relies on host cell for essential nutrients and ATP for a productive infection. Although the unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a major role in certain microbial infectivity, its role in chlamydial pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that Chlamydia induces UPR and exploits it to upregulate host cell uptake and metabolism of glucose, production of ATP, phospholipids and other molecules required for its replicative development and host survival. Using a combination of biochemical and pathway inhibition assays, we showed that the three UPR pathway transducers: Protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), Inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α), and Activating transcription factor-6α (ATF6α) were activated during Chlamydia infection. The kinase activity of PERK and RNase of IRE1α mediated the upregulation of Hexokinase II and production of ATP via substrate level phosphorylation. In addition, the activation of PERK and IRE1α promoted autophagy formation and apoptosis resistance or host survival. Moreover, the activation of IRE1α resulted in the generation of spliced XBP1 and upregulation of lipid production. The vital role of UPR pathways in Chlamydia development and pathogenesis could lead to the identification of potential molecular targets for therapeutics against Chlamydia.

  10. Detection and Differentiation of Chlamydiae by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Poppert, Sven; Essig, Andreas; Marre, Reinhard; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens of humans and animals but diagnosis of chlamydial infections is still hampered by inadequate detection methods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes is widely used for the investigation of uncultured bacteria in complex microbial communities and has recently also been shown to be a valuable tool for the rapid detection of various bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens. Here we report on the development and evaluation of a hierarchic probe set for the specific detection and differentiation of chlamydiae, particularly C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and the recently described chlamydia-like bacteria comprising the novel genera Neochlamydia and Parachlamydia. The specificity of the nine newly developed probes was successfully demonstrated by in situ hybridization of experimentally infected amoebae and HeLa 229 cells, including HeLa 229 cells coinfected with C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. FISH reliably stained chlamydial inclusions as early as 12 h postinfection. The sensitivity of FISH was further confirmed by combination with direct fluorescence antibody staining. In contrast to previously established detection methods for chlamydiae, FISH was not susceptible to false-positive results and allows the detection of all recognized chlamydiae in one single step. PMID:12147510

  11. Chemical, biological, and immunochemical properties of the Chlamydia psittaci lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Brade, L; Schramek, S; Schade, U; Brade, H

    1986-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chlamydia psittaci was extracted from yolk sac-grown elementary bodies, purified, and characterized chemically, immunochemically, and biologically. The LPS contained D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine, phosphorus, long-chain fatty acids, and 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid in the molar ratio of approximately 1:2:2:6:5. The antigenic properties of the isolated LPS were compared with those of the LPS from Chlamydia trachomatis and Salmonella minnesota Re by the passive hemolysis and passive hemolysis inhibition tests, absorption, hydrolysis kinetics, and Western blot analysis with rabbit polyclonal antisera against chlamydiae and with a mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing a genus-specific epitope of chlamydial LPS. Two antigenic determinants were identified, one of which was chlamydia specific and the other of which was cross-reactive with Re LPS. Both determinants were destroyed during acid hydrolysis, whereby a third antigen specificity was exposed which was indistinguishable from the lipid A antigenicity. In rabbit polyclonal antisera prepared against Formalin-killed elementary bodies or detergent-solubilized membranes, two antibody specificities were differentiated. One of these was chlamydia specific, and the other was cross-reactive with Re LPS. The LPS of C. psittaci was inactive within typical endotoxin parameters (lethal toxicity, pyrogenicity, local Shwartzman reactivity); it was, however, active in some in vitro assays, such as those testing for mouse B-cell mitogenicity and the induction of prostaglandin E2 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Images PMID:3770953

  12. Chlamydiaphage φCPG1 Capsid Protein Vp1 Inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis Growth via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanli; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Quan; Sun, Changgui; Zhang, Xinmei; Liu, Yuanjun; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-04-14

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Although the pathogen is well established, the pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Given the current challenges of antibiotic resistance and blocked processes of vaccine development, the use of a specific chlamydiaphage may be a new treatment solution. φCPG1 is a lytic phage specific for Chlamydia caviae, and shows over 90% nucleotide sequence identity with other chlamydiaphages. Vp1 is the major capsid protein of φCPG1. Purified Vp1 was previously confirmed to inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis growth. We here report the first attempt at exploring the relationship between Vp1-treated C. trachomatis and the protein and gene levels of the mitogen-activated/extracellular regulated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after Vp1 treatment. After 48 h of incubation, the p-ERK level of the Vp1-treated group decreased compared with that of the Chlamydia infection group. Accordingly, ERK1 and ERK2 mRNA expression levels of the Vp1-treated group also decreased compared with the Chlamydia infection group. IL-8 and IL-1 levels were also decreased after Vp1 treatment compared with the untreated group. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition effect of the chlamydiaphage φCPG1 capsid protein Vp1 on C. trachomatis is associated with the MAPK pathway, and inhibits production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1. The bacteriophages may provide insight into a new signaling transduction mechanism to influence their hosts, in addition to bacteriolysis.

  13. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Katir K; Webley, Wilmore C

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  14. Chlamydia Serine Protease Inhibitor, targeting HtrA, as a New Treatment for Koala Chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Amba; Fraser, Tamieka; Gillett, Amber; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Huston, Wilhelmina M.

    2016-01-01

    The koala, an iconic marsupial native to Australia, is a threatened species in many parts of the country. One major factor in the decline is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia. Current therapeutic strategies to treat chlamydiosis in the koala are limited. This study examines the effectiveness of an inhibitor, JO146, which targets the HtrA serine protease for treatment of C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae in vitro and ex vivo with the aim of developing a novel therapeutic for koala Chlamydia infections. Clinical isolates from koalas were examined for their susceptibility to JO146. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with JO146 during the mid-replicative phase of C. pecorum or C. pneumoniae infections resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. Ex vivo primary koala tissue cultures were used to demonstrate the efficacy of JO146 and the non-toxic nature of this compound on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary cell lines established from koala tissues collected at necropsy. Our results suggest that inhibition of the serine protease HtrA could be a novel treatment strategy for chlamydiosis in koalas. PMID:27530689

  15. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    PubMed

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered.

  16. [Abortive infection of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with Chlamydia ovis].

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A

    1976-01-01

    A mouse adaptated strain of Chlamydia ovis, when inoculated in the peritoneal cavity, caused the death of both pregnant and non pregnant mice. In addition, mice inoculated late in pregnancy (12 to 16 days after breeding) aborted 4 to 6 days after inoculation. Chlamydia was recovered from foetuses and from the organs of the mice (Liver, Spleen, Lungs). The severity of the disease was related to the inoculum concentration, so it was possible to induce late abortions with a rapid recovery of the females, like in the natural infection of the ewes. In the same conditions, the original Chlamydia strain maintained by passage on yolk sac, induced only an inapparent disease transmissible to the young mice.

  17. Subversion of Cell-Autonomous Host Defense by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Annette; Rudel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Obligate intracellular bacteria entirely depend on the metabolites of their host cell for survival and generation of progeny. Due to their lifestyle inside a eukaryotic cell and the lack of any extracellular niche, they have to perfectly adapt to compartmentalized intracellular environment of the host cell and counteract the numerous defense strategies intrinsically present in all eukaryotic cells. This so-called cell-autonomous defense is present in all cell types encountering Chlamydia infection and is in addition closely linked to the cellular innate immune defense of the mammalian host. Cell type and chlamydial species-restricted mechanisms point a long-term evolutionary adaptation that builds the basis of the currently observed host and cell-type tropism among different Chlamydia species. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the strategies pathogenic Chlamydia species have developed to subvert and overcome the multiple mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells defend themselves against intracellular pathogens.

  18. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia.

  19. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections. PMID:27681919

  20. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  1. [Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections and contraception].

    PubMed

    Aloisio, T; Rullo, F; Smeraglia, R; Giorgio, A; Lettieri, G; Sannino, F; Martinelli, A

    1988-01-01

    330 women with a median age of 30.15 (+- 9.5) years sought gynecological consultation for advice on contraception and for cervical carcinoma screening. Anamnesis explored the presence of dysuria, dyspareunia, secretions, and pelvic pain, the number of partners, and type of contraceptive used. Endocervical samples were collected by means of tampon and the specimens were analyzed for 48 to 120 hours to find antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) by a solid phase immunoenzymatic test. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from all women to look for antibodies of C.T. and also the indirect immunoperoxidase test was used to search for specific antibodies of C.T. (IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG). The chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. None of the women who used oral hormonal contraceptives or condoms were infected (presence of antigens and positivity for IgM and/or IgE and/or IgA), however, 36 of 90 IUD users (40%) were infected, 18 of 132 women who used no contraceptives whatsoever (13.7%) were also infected. 91% of the subjects had a single partner. In view of these findings the use of the condom and oral contraceptives is recommended with proper instruction about their potential side effects.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis: its role in tubal infertility.

    PubMed

    Brunham, R C; Maclean, I W; Binns, B; Peeling, R W

    1985-12-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis among 88 women undergoing an evaluation for infertility and 49 women attending an antenatal clinic. Demographic data regarding sexual behavior were also collected. Eighteen women had tubal infertility and 70 had infertility due to a variety of other reasons. In comparison with women who had other causes for infertility, women with tubal infertility began coitus sooner (17.7 +/- 2.2 years vs. 19.5 +/- 3.4 years, P less than .05) and had more lifetime sex partners (4.5 vs. 1.33, P less than .001). Women with tubal infertility had a higher prevalence of antibody to C. trachomatis (13 of 18) than did women with nontubal causes for infertility (6 of 70, P less than .0001) or pregnant women (11 of 49, P = .0003). This high prevalence of antibody to C. trachomatis among women with tubal infertility was independent of sexual experience. By immunoblot analysis, an antigen of approximately 57,000 Da was immunodominant in 11 of 13 seropositive subjects with tubal infertility vs. 2 of 6 seropositive subjects with nontubal infertility (P = .046) and 1 of 11 seropositive pregnant women (P = .0003). Thus, women with tubal infertility frequently have serological evidence of prior infection with C. trachomatis and have a distinctive antigen-specific humoral immune response. These results further support the etiologic role of infection with C. trachomatis in tubal infertility.

  3. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  4. Experimental rabbit models of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, T. C.; Kuo, C.; Patton, D. L.; Grayston, J. T.; Campbell, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR), a common cause of acute respiratory disease in humans, has recently been associated with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated rabbit models of chlamydial infection to investigate the pathogenesis of C. pneumoniae infection. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with C. pneumoniae, strain AR-39, and primary and repeated infection were assessed. After a single inoculation, lung pathology was characterized by a moderate self-resolving interstitial pneumonia with bronchiolitis of 21 days in duration. Chlamydial DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) intermittently in the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue through day 21 postinoculation, spleen tissue at day 14, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells at days 3 and 21. After repeated inoculations, chlamydial DNA was detected by PCR in the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue through day 42. Lung lesions consisted of multifocal interstitial mononuclear cell aggregates that persisted up to day 42. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were less susceptible to C. pneumoniae infection. After multiple inoculations of Watanabe rabbits, C. pneumoniae was detected by PCR and/or immunocytochemistry until day 21. In conclusion, C. pneumoniae induced a moderate respiratory infection in these rabbit models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8579129

  5. Contemporary approaches to designing and evaluating vaccines against Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Eko, Francis O; Black, Carolyn M

    2003-02-01

    The clinically relevant pathologic consequences of primary ocular, genital, or respiratory human infection by members of the genus Chlamydia are conjunctivitis, cervicitis, urethritis and sinusitis. The major complications and sometimes debilitating evolutionary outcomes of these infections include: trichiasis and cicatrizing trachoma, endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease and involuntary tubal factor infertility and bronchopulmonary pneumonia. These diseases, in addition to other chlamydia-associated chronic syndromes (e.g., artherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), pose serious public healthcare and huge budgetary concerns. The current medical opinion is that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is a sine qua non--to control the morbidity of chiamydial infection in the human population. The research goal for an efficacious human chlamydial vaccine has faced key challenges to define the elements of protective immunity to facilitate vaccine evaluation, the judicious selection of appropriate vaccine candidates that possess stable antigenic and immunologic properties and the development of effective delivery vehicles and adjuvants to boost immune effectors to achieve long-term protective immunity. Progress in the functional immunobiology of Chlamydia has established the essential immunologic paradigms for vaccine selection and evaluation, including the obligatory requirement for a vaccine to induce T-helper Type 1 immune response that controls chlamydiae. Recent advances in chlamydial genomics and proteomics should enhance the identification of likely chlamydial gene products that fulfill the antigenic requirements of putative vaccine candidates. Major inroads are however needed in the construction and development of novel and effective delivery systems, such as vectors and adjuvants. This review summarizes the status of contemporary chlamydial vaccine research and promising trends fueling the growing optimism for an efficacious vaccine. The

  6. Chlamydia genomics: providing novel insights into chlamydial biology.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have successfully evolved to colonize a diverse range of hosts. There are currently 11 described species of Chlamydia, most of which have a significant impact on the health of humans or animals. Expanding chlamydial genome sequence information has revolutionized our understanding of chlamydial biology, including aspects of their unique lifecycle, host-pathogen interactions, and genetic differences between Chlamydia strains associated with different host and tissue tropisms. This review summarizes the major highlights of chlamydial genomics and reflects on the considerable impact these have had on understanding the biology of chlamydial pathogens and the changing nature of genomics tools in the 'post-genomics' era.

  7. Danger signals, inflammasomes, and the intricate intracellular lives of chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Pettengill, Matthew A; Abdul-Sater, Ali; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Ojcius, David M

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, and as such are sensitive to alterations in the cellular physiology of their hosts. Chlamydial infections often cause pathologic consequences due to prolonged localized inflammation. Considerable advances have been made in the last few years regarding our understanding of how two key inflammation-associated signaling pathways influence the biology of Chlamydia infections: inflammation regulating purinergic signaling pathways significantly impact intracellular chlamydial development, and inflammasome activation modulates both chlamydial growth and infection mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We review here elements of both pathways, presenting the latest developments contributing to our understanding of how chlamydial infections are influenced by inflammasomes and purinergic signaling.

  8. Serotyping of Chlamydia I. Isolates of Ovine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, Julius; Banks, Joyce; Sugg, Nancy; Sung, Minnie; Storz, J.; Meyer, Karl F.

    1974-01-01

    Eight chlamydial isolates of ovine origin were tested in a plaque reduction system using homologous and heterologous rooster antisera. The eight isolates could be separated into two separate immunotypes. Type 1 included isolates associated with ovine abortion and one agent recovered from the feces of an apparently normal sheep. Type 2 isolates were associated with polyarthritis and conjunctivitis. These two serotypes were not cross-reactive with several chlamydiae of avian origin. Further application of the plaque reduction test may provide a useful means of typing chlamydiae. PMID:4855560

  9. Antigenic diversity of Chlamydia psittaci of mammalian origin determined by microimmunofluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Martinez, J A; Storz, J

    1985-01-01

    A group of twenty-five isolates of Chlamydia psittaci representing at least seven different biotypes of bovine, ovine, caprine, equine, feline, porcine, and guinea pig origin were immunotyped by an indirect microimmunofluorescence test. Different groups of chlamydia-free BALB/c mice received two weekly intravenous inoculations with chicken embryo-propagated, partially purified elementary bodies of each strain. Antisera for immunotyping were collected 4 days after the first inoculation and 3 to 4 days after the second inoculation and tested for antichlamydial immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies by the indirect microimmunofluorescence test with cell culture-propagated, partially purified homologous and heterologous antigens. Nine immunotypes of C. psittaci were distinguished. The correlation between immunotypes and biotypes was close, and a pattern of either disease or host specificity could be associated with each immunotype. Most immunotypes identified induced cross-reacting antibodies against each other, but no significant cross-reactions were observed with elementary bodies of the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. Findings from this study should provide the necessary background for the rational selection of prototype strains of C. psittaci for further antigenic analysis at the molecular level. PMID:3905618

  10. Risk for HIV following a diagnosis of syphilis, gonorrhoea or chlamydia: 328,456 women in Florida, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Thomas A; Newman, Daniel R; Maddox, Lorene; Schmitt, Karla; Shiver, Stacy

    2015-02-01

    Several effective interventions are available for preventing HIV in women. Targeting interventions requires understanding their risk of acquiring HIV. We used surveillance data to estimate risks of HIV acquisition for 13-59-year-old women following a diagnosis of syphilis, gonorrhoea or chlamydia in Florida during 2000-2009. We excluded women reported with HIV before their STI, and measured HIV reported subsequent to STI (through 2011). Rates were compared to women with no reported STI. A total of 328,456 women had: syphilis (3325), gonorrhoea (67,784) or chlamydia (257,347). During 2,221,944 person-years of follow-up, 2118 of them were diagnosed with HIV. For women with no STI reported, during 64,763,832 person-years, 19,531 were reported with HIV. The crude rate of subsequent HIV diagnosis (per 100,000 person-years) was higher for women diagnosed with syphilis (597.9), gonorrhoea (171.3) or chlamydia (66.3) than women with no STI (30.2). Annual rates of HIV decreased over-all by 61.8% between 2001 and 2011. Women with syphilis or gonorrhoea were at highest risk for HIV and therefore might benefit from intensive counselling. However, they represented only a small fraction of the women who acquired HIV. Most cases of HIV infection among women occurred among the large group of women who were not at highest risk.

  11. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages.

  12. The chlamydial functional homolog of KsgA confers kasugamycin sensitivity to Chlamydia trachomatis and impacts bacterial fitness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background rRNA adenine dimethyltransferases, represented by the Escherichia coli KsgA protein, are highly conserved phylogenetically and are generally not essential for growth. They are responsible for the post-transcriptional transfer of two methyl groups to two universally conserved adenosines located near the 3'end of the small subunit rRNA and participate in ribosome maturation. All sequenced genomes of Chlamydia reveal a ksgA homolog in each species, including C. trachomatis. Yet absence of a S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase in Chlamydia, the conserved enzyme involved in the synthesis of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine, raises a doubt concerning the activity of the KsgA homolog in these organisms. Results Lack of the dimethylated adenosines following ksgA inactivation confers resistance to kasugamycin (KSM) in E. coli. Expression of the C. trachomatis L2 KsgA ortholog restored KSM sensitivity to the E. coli ksgA mutant, suggesting that the chlamydial KsgA homolog has specific rRNA dimethylase activity. C. trachomatis growth was sensitive to KSM and we were able to isolate a KSM resistant mutant of C. trachomatis containing a frameshift mutation in ksgA, which led to the formation of a shorter protein with no activity. Growth of the C. trachomatis ksgA mutant was negatively affected in cell culture highlighting the importance of the methylase in the development of these obligate intracellular and as yet genetically intractable pathogens. Conclusion The presence of a functional rRNA dimethylase enzyme belonging to the KsgA family in Chlamydia presents an excellent chemotherapeutic target with real potential. It also confirms the existence of S-adenosyl-methionine - dependent methylation reactions in Chlamydia raising the question of how these organisms acquire this cofactor. PMID:20043826

  13. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. PMID:26507799

  14. Characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal Chlamydia pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bliven, Kimberly A; Fisher, Derek J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC), AaxB, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine. In contrast, most Chlamydia trachomatis serovars carry a missense or nonsense mutation in aaxB abrogating activity. The G115R missense mutation was not predicted to impact AaxB functionality, making it unclear whether AaxB variations in other Chlamydia species also result in enzyme inactivation. To address the impact of gene polymorphism on functionality, we investigated the activity and production of the Chlamydia AaxB variants. Because ArgDC plays a critical role in the Escherichia coli acid stress response, we studied the ability of these Chlamydia variants to complement an E. coli ArgDC mutant in an acid shock assay. Active AaxB was detected in four additional species: Chlamydia caviae, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia muridarum. Of the C. trachomatis serovars, only E appears to encode active enzyme. To determine when functional enzyme is present during the chlamydial developmental cycle, we utilized an anti-AaxB antibody to detect both uncleaved and cleaved enzyme throughout infection. Uncleaved enzyme production peaked around 20 h postinfection, with optimal cleavage around 44 h. While the role ArgDC plays in Chlamydia survival or virulence is unclear, our data suggest a niche-specific function.

  15. No causal association between inflammation and Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with chronic ischemic arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Altman, Raúl; Rouvier, Jorge; Scazziota, Alejandra; Gonzalez, Claudio

    2002-02-01

    The C-reactive protein, Chlamydia-specific IgG antibody, and fibrinogen were assayed in the serum of 159 patients with arterial disease (the arterial group) and 203 patients with heart valve prostheses (the valvular group) and no demonstrable coronary disease. In the arterial group, the Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody was > or = 1:32 for 67.3% (107/159) of the patients, the C-reactive protein was elevated in 41.5% (66/159), and the fibrinogen was elevated in 27.7% (44/159). In the valvular group, the C. pneumoniae antibody was > or = 1:32 for 59.1% (120/203) of the patients; the C-reactive protein was elevated in 34.0% (69/203), and the fibrinogen was elevated in 17.2% (35/203). Of 107 patients in the arterial group with C. pneumoniae titers > or = 1:32, only 26 (24.3%) had elevated fibrinogen (426 +/- 29 mg/dL) and 44 (41.1%) had elevated C-reactive protein (1.06 +/- 0.52 mg/dL). Similarly, of the 120 patients in the valvular group with C. pneumoniae titers > or = 1:32, 17 (14.2%) had elevated fibrinogen (409 +/- 29 mg/dL) and 34 had elevated C-reactive protein (0.99 +/- 1.1 mg/dL). Correlated poorly was C. pneumoniae with C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels. Only the fibrinogen level could be discriminated between the arterial and the valvular group. These results suggest that no causal association exists between inflammation and C. pneumoniae. A highly significant correlation between C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels was found.

  16. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis and emerging Chlamydia-related bacteria in ectopic pregnancy in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hornung, S; Thuong, B C; Gyger, J; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C; Vasilevsky, S; Greub, G; Baud, D

    2015-09-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the seroprevalence and molecular evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Waddlia chondrophila in ectopic pregnancies (EP) and uneventful control pregnancies in 343 women from Vietnam. Whereas presence of C. trachomatis IgG was strongly associated with EP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5·41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·58-11·32], its DNA remained undetected in all tubal lesions. We confirmed an independent association between antibodies against Waddlia and previous miscarriage (aOR 1·87, 95% CI 1·02-3·42). Further investigations are needed to understand the clinical significance of Waddlia's high seroprevalence (25·9% in control pregnancies) in this urban population.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  20. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  1. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats.

  2. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  3. Characterization and evolution of cell division and cell wall synthesis genes in the bacterial phyla Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes and phylogenetic comparison with rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Pilhofer, Martin; Rappl, Kristina; Eckl, Christina; Bauer, Andreas Peter; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Petroni, Giulio

    2008-05-01

    In the past, studies on the relationships of the bacterial phyla Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Lentisphaerae, and Verrucomicrobia using different phylogenetic markers have been controversial. Investigations based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses suggested a relationship of the four phyla, showing the branching order Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia/Lentisphaerae. Phylogenetic analyses of 23S rRNA genes in this study also support a monophyletic grouping and their branching order--this grouping is significant for understanding cell division, since the major bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is absent from members of two of the phyla Chlamydiae and Planctomycetes. In Verrucomicrobia, knowledge about cell division is mainly restricted to the recent report of ftsZ in the closely related genera Prosthecobacter and Verrucomicrobium. In this study, genes of the conserved division and cell wall (dcw) cluster (ddl, ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ) were characterized in all verrucomicrobial subdivisions (1 to 4) with cultivable representatives (1 to 4). Sequence analyses and transcriptional analyses in Verrucomicrobia and genome data analyses in Lentisphaerae suggested that cell division is based on FtsZ in all verrucomicrobial subdivisions and possibly also in the sister phylum Lentisphaerae. Comprehensive sequence analyses of available genome data for representatives of Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes strongly indicate that their last common ancestor possessed a conserved, ancestral type of dcw gene cluster and an FtsZ-based cell division mechanism. This implies that Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae may have shifted independently to a non-FtsZ-based cell division mechanism after their separate branchings from their last common ancestor with Verrucomicrobia.

  4. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines.

  5. Inhibitory effect of the natural product betulin and its derivatives against the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Salin, Olli; Alakurtti, Sami; Pohjala, Leena; Siiskonen, Antti; Maass, Viola; Maass, Matthias; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Vuorela, Pia

    2010-10-15

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a universal pathogen that has been indicated to play a part in the development of asthma, atherosclerosis and lung cancer. The complete eradication of this intracellular bacterium is in practice impossible with the antibiotics that are currently in use and studies on new antichlamydial compounds is challenging because Chlamydia research lacks the tools required for the genetic modification of this bacterium. Betulin is a natural lupane-class triterpene derived from plants with a wide variety of biological activities. This compound group thus has wide medical potentials, and in fact has been shown to be active against intracellular pathogens. For this reason, betulin and its derivatives were selected to be assayed against C. pneumoniae in the present study. Thirty-two betulin derivatives were assayed against C. pneumoniae using an acute infection model in vitro. Five promising compounds with potential lead compound characteristics were identified. Compound 24 (betulin dioxime) gave a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1 microM against strain CWL-029 and showed activity in nanomolar concentrations, as 50% inhibition was achieved at 290 nM. The antichlamydial effect of 24 was confirmed with a clinical isolate CV-6, showing a MIC of 2.2 microM. Previous research on betulin and its derivatives has not identified such a remarkable inhibition of Gram-negative bacterial growth. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that this antichlamydial activity was not due to PLA(2) (EC 3.1.1.4) inhibition caused by the betulin derivatives.

  6. Abortion due to infection with Chlamydia psittaci in a sheep farmer's wife.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F W; Matheson, B A; Williams, H; Laing, A G; Jandial, V; Davidson-Lamb, R; Halliday, G J; Hobson, D; Wong, S Y; Hadley, K M

    1985-01-01

    A farmer's wife who had helped with lambing aborted spontaneously in March after a short febrile illness in the 28th week of her pregnancy. She developed disseminated intravascular coagulation post partum with acute renal failure and pulmonary oedema. Recovery was complete after two weeks of hospital care. A strain of Chlamydia psittaci, probably of ovine origin, was isolated from the placenta and fetus. The patient's serum showed rising titres of antibody against chlamydia group antigen; the placental and fetal isolates; and a known ovine abortion, but not a known avian, strain of C psittaci. IgG against both ovine abortion and enteric strains of C psittaci was detected, but IgM against only an abortion strain was detected. Histological examination showed pronounced intervillus placentitis with chlamydial inclusions in the trophoblast but no evidence of fetal infection or amnionitis. Laboratory evidence of chlamydial infection was found in an aborting ewe on the farm in January and in remaining sheep and lambs in July. Doctors should recognise the possible risk to pregnant women in rural areas where chlamydial infections in farm animals are widespread. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:3918685

  7. Azithromycin, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol resistance of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria in rural community of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abera, Bayeh; Kibret, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine profiles of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility from adults who underwent trachomatous trichiasis surgery in rural areas of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural districts in West Gojjam administrative zone. Conjunctival swabs were collected during surgery and transported using Stuart transport broth (Oxoid, UK). Antibiotic susceptibility of conjunctival isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. Results: Non-chlamydia pathogenic bacteria were recovered from conjunctiva of 438 (31%) participants before treatment. The isolated conjunctival bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus group (A, C, F and G), Enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. Overall, resistance rates of 57.8% to azithromycin and 68.5% to chloramphenicol were found. However, 86-94.4% sensitivity was demonstrated to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Moderate sensitivity rates (61.8-78.4%) were observed to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones that have activity against the majority of bacterial isolates were potent at in vitro. However, unacceptably high levels of resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol in rural community indicated a need for further study and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. PMID:23571246

  8. Pathogenesis of genital tract disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; Hiltke, Thomas J

    2010-06-15

    Although the pathologic consequences of C. trachomatis genital infection are well-established, the mechanism(s)that result in chlamydia-induced tissue damage are not fully understood. We reviewed in vitro, animal, and human data related to the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease to better understand how reproductive sequelae result from C. trachomatis infection. Abundant in vitro data suggest that the inflammatory response to chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected nonimmune host epithelial cells. The mouse model indicates a critical role for chlamydia activation of the innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor 2, and subsequent inflammatory cell influx and activation, which contributes to the development of chronic genital tract tissue damage. Data from recent vaccine studies in the murine model and from human immunoepidemiologic studies support a role for chlamydia-specific CD4 Th1-interferon-g-producing cells in protection from infection and disease. However, limited evidence obtained using animal models of repeated infection indicates that, although the adaptive T cell response is a key mechanism involved in controlling or eliminating infection, it may have a double-edged nature and contribute to tissue damage. Important immunologic questions include whether anamnestic CD4 T cell responses drive disease rather than protect against disease and the role of specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators in the induction of tissue damage with primary and repeated infections. Continued study of the complex molecular and cellular interactions between chlamydiae and their host and large-scale prospective immunoepidemiologic and immunopathologic studies are needed to address gaps in our understanding of pathogenesis that thwart development of optimally effective control programs, including vaccine development.

  9. The presence of Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in patients infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyue; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yuanjun; Li, Lingjie; Hou, Shuping; Gao, Xibo; Qi, Manli; Liu, Quanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia phage PhiCPG1 has been found in Chlamydia caviae in a guinea pig model for inclusion conjunctivitis, raising the possibility that Chlamydia phage is also present in patients infected with C. trachomatis (Ct). In the present study, we assayed for presence of Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 genes and antibodies in 84 non-Ct controls and 206 Ct patients using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), followed by verification with Western blot. None of the subjects were exposed to an antibiotic treatment or had a C. pneumoniae infection. The VP1 antibody test was positive in both, the ELISA and Western blot assay, in 4 Ct patients. PCR amplification experiments revealed presence of the VP1 gene in 5 Ct patients. The results suggest that Chlamydia phage capsid protein VP1 may exist in some Ct patients.

  10. Isolation of Chlamydia from women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Burns, D C; Darougar, S; Thin, R N; Lothian, L; Nicol, C S

    1975-10-01

    Cervical swabs for Chlamydia culture were collected from 638 unselected women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic with a fresh complaint. Chlamydia were isolated from 76 (12 per cent.) of the women. When the results were related to the patients' diagnoses, Chlamydia were present in 44 per cent. of women with gonorrhoea and in 22 per cent. of women who were contacts of men with nonspecific urethritis (women who may be regarded as having non-specific genital infection). Chlamydia were uncommon in women with no evidence of genital infection. Significant correlations were found between the presence of Chlamydia and cervical erosion, cervical cytological inflammatory change, and absence of symptoms. Isolates were obtained more frequently from women with non-specific genital infection who were primary contacts than from women who were secondary contacts. These findings support the concept that Chlamydia are pathogens in the genital tract and are sexually transmitted.

  11. [Immunohistochemical determination of Chlamydia psittaci/pecorum and C.trachomatis in the piglet gut].

    PubMed

    Zahn, I; Szeredi, L; Schiller, I; Straumann Kunz, U; Bürgi, E; Guscetti, F; Heinen, E; Corboz, L; Sydler, T; Pospischil, A

    1995-07-01

    The jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon of 200 piglets were investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of Chlamydia psittaci and C. trachomatis using a vitelline IgY. Positive samples were later labelled using a commercial C. trachomatis polyclonal antiserum. Chlamydia were present in 33 (16.4%) of the animals, and 30 out of 33 were labelled by C. trachomatis polyclonal antiserum. Inclusions occurred predominantly (67%) in the large intestine. The serological results (CFT, ELISA) did not correlate well with immunohistochemical labelling in the gut. The incidence of Chlamydia rose from 6.9% in animals up to 4 weeks, to 41.8% in those over 4 weeks of age. A correlation between chlamydia and enteric disease was not obvious. Besides chlamydia, most of the diseased animals harboured other additional agents. In conclusion, intestinal chlamydiae in piglets, predominantly C. trachomatis, exist in Switzerland, although their pathogenic potential seems to be low.

  12. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  13. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  14. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  15. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  16. Frequency of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in infertile women referred to Tabriz Al-Zahra hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sattari, Mahtab; Ghiami Rad, Mehdi; Ghasemzadeh, Aaliye; Mohammadoghli Reihan, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infertility is one of the major issues in society and its incidence is estimated to be almost 10-15%. Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to infertility. Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies in infertile women at Al-zahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples were collected randomly from 184 infertile women (case group) and 100 pregnant women (control group). The frequency of specific IgG and IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibodies were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: The frequency of IgG anti-C. trachomatis antibody in the control and case groups was 18% and 35.88%, respectively. IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibody was found in 2% of controls and 5.44% of infertile women. Our results showed the significant differences between the case and control groups in anti-C. trachomatis antibodies (IgG, p=0.035 and IgM, p=0.004). Also, no significant relation was seen between the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies and age, location, and tubal factor infertility in our two study groups. Conclusion: According to high frequency of antibody anti-C. trachomatis among infertile women in competition to the control group, evaluation and treatment of Chlamydia infections is necessary in these patients. PMID:28280796

  17. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n = 663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n = 654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P = 0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n = 3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis and oral contraceptive use: a quantitative review.

    PubMed Central

    Cottingham, J; Hunter, D

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Chlamydia trachomatis is now recognised as a major sexually transmitted disease; oral contraceptive use is rapidly increasing particularly in developing countries. There are thus important public health implications of the many reports that isolation of C trachomatis is more frequent among users of oral contraceptives. The aim of this analysis was to assess the strength and consistency of this association by summarising published studies between 1972 and 1990. DESIGN--Studies identified were grouped according to whether they were prospective or case-control studies. Data were extracted and pooled estimates of the unadjusted odds ratios were made for all studies, as well as for sub-groups defined by an index of study quality, background prevalence of C trachomatis, and the contraceptive comparison being made. LOCATION--Studies in the analysis were mainly conducted in Europe and North America; the meta-analysis was done at the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. RESULTS--The pooled estimated unadjusted odds ratio for 29 case-control studies examined was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.77-2.11), indicating an almost twofold increased risk of chlamydial infection for oral contraceptive users. Neither study quality nor prevalence of C trachomatis modified this risk. When compared to the use of barrier contraceptives, however, the risk of infection for women using oral contraceptives increased to 2.91 (95% CI, 1.86-4.55). The pooled estimated protective effect of barrier methods in these studies was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.22-0.54). CONCLUSIONS--Cross-study comparisons of the relationship between oral contraceptive use and chlamydial infection are limited by the design and analysis of many component studies which did not control for confounding factors such as sexual behaviour and age. The almost twofold risk of increased chlamydial infection for oral contraceptive users, supported by the findings of two prospective studies, however, points to the importance of

  19. Characteristics of chlamydia-like organisms pathogenic to fish.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria from the Chlamydiales order have been long known, especially as pathogenic bacteria to humans and many animal species, principally including birds and mammals. But for slightly over 20 years, they have been identified in the aquatic environment as endosymbionts of amoebas and sea worms. For several years, they have also been recorded as a cause of diseases among fish, causing respiratory system infections in the form of epitheliocystis of the gill. At present, 11 chlamydia-like organisms pathogenic to fish have been described, including nine new ones, classified into six families, four of which are already known (Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae, Candidatus Clavichlamydiaceae) and two newly created families, namely Candidatus Actinochlamydiaceae and Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae. This paper characterises 11 chlamydia-like organisms, as well as seven isolates not classified into families, which are pathogenic to fish, presenting their genetical properties allowing for their classification, as well as morphological properties and diseases caused.

  20. Two-step polymerase chain reactions and restriction endonuclease analyses detect and differentiate ompA DNA of Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, B; Kousoulas, K G; Storz, J

    1992-01-01

    Specific and sensitive amplification of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene (ompA) DNA sequences of Chlamydia species with various MOMP genotypes was achieved by a two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Degenerate, inosine-containing oligonucleotide primers homologous to the 5' and 3' ends of the translated regions of all chlamydial MOMP genes were used in a PCR to amplify a DNA fragment of approximately 1,120 bp. A portion of this DNA fragment was amplified in a second genus-specific reaction that yielded a DNA fragment of approximately 930 bp. A pair of degenerate oligonucleotide primers homologous to internal sequences of the primary DNA fragment was used in this PCR. This method detected three cognate chlamydial genomes in a background of 1 microgram of unrelated DNA. MOMP genes of 13 representative chlamydial MOMP genotypes of the species C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci were amplified. In a secondary PCR, group-specific detection was achieved by the simultaneous use of one genus-specific primer and three primers derived from different fingerprint regions of three major groups of chlamydiae. This multiplex PCR differentiated the groups by the length of the amplified DNA fragments and detected the simultaneous presence of DNA sequences of the Chlamydia spp. with different MOMP genotypes. Further differentiation as ompA restriction fragment length polymorphism types among all chlamydial strains with the various MOMP genotypes analyzed here was achieved by restriction endonuclease analysis of the secondary PCR products. DNA sequences corresponding to the ompA restriction fragment length polymorphism type B577 of C. psittaci were detected in two of seven milk samples from cases of bovine mastitis. Images PMID:1349899

  1. Fluorescent labeling reliably identifies Chlamydia trachomatis in living human endometrial cells and rapidly and accurately quantifies chlamydial inclusion forming units.

    PubMed

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Henschel, Kevin J; Dueñas Lopez, Fiorela C; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia replication requires host lipid acquisition, allowing flow cytometry to identify Chlamydia-infected cells that accumulated fluorescent Golgi-specific lipid. Herein, we describe modifications to currently available methods that allow precise differentiation between uninfected and Chlamydia trachomatis-infected human endometrial cells and rapidly and accurately quantify chlamydial inclusion forming units.

  2. Vouchers versus Lotteries: What works best in promoting Chlamydia screening? A cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Niza, Claudia; Rudisill, Caroline; Dolan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this cluster randomised trial (N=1060), we tested the impact of financial incentives (£5 voucher vs. £200 lottery) framed as a gain or loss to promote Chlamydia screening in students aged 18–24 years, mimicking the standard outreach approach to student in halls of residence. Compared to the control group (1.5%), the lottery increased screening to 2.8% and the voucher increased screening to 22.8%. Incentives framed as gains were marginally more effective (10.5%) that loss-framed incentives (7.1%). This work fundamentally contributes to the literature by testing the predictive validity of Prospect Theory to change health behaviour in the field. PMID:25061507

  3. In Vitro Activity of AZD0914, a Novel DNA Gyrase Inhibitor, against Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhoff, Stephan A.; Huband, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro activities of AZD0914, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline against 10 isolates each of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae were tested. For AZD0914, the MIC90s for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were 0.25 μg/ml (range, 0.06 to 0.5 μg/ml) and 1 μg/ml (range, 0.25 to 1 μg/ml), respectively, and the minimal bactericidal concentrations at which 90% of the isolates were killed (MBC90s) were 0.5 μg/ml for C. trachomatis (range, 0.125 to 1 μg/ml) and 2 μg/ml for C. pneumoniae (range, 0.5 to 2 μg/ml). PMID:25288086

  4. Detection and genotyping of Chlamydia species responsible for reproductive disorders in Algerian small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Merdja, Salah-Eddine; Khaled, Hamza; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Bertin, Claire; Dahmani, Ali; Bouyoucef, Abdallah; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydiosis in small ruminants is a zoonotic disease mainly related to Chlamydia abortus. This bacterium is responsible for abortions and reproductive disorders in sheep and goats. Stillbirth and infertility, leading to important economic losses, are also associated with this pathology. In Algeria, abortion cases are frequently reported by veterinarians but, except for brucellosis which is a notifiable disease in this country, abortive diseases are in general poorly studied. In order to detect and genotype Chlamydia species in small ruminants in different areas of Algeria, a study was conducted on samples collected from females (164 blood samples and 199 vaginal swabs) between October 2011 and March 2013. Serum samples were tested with a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA test. Fourteen samples (8.5 %), from six farms (6/20, 30 %) were tested positive. Vaginal swabs were analysed with a real-time PCR targeting all Chlamydiaceae spp. Thirty samples (15 %) were diagnosed positive in 16 farms (16/25, 64 %). Positive samples were all re-tested with a C. abortus- and a C. pecorum-specific real-time PCR. Finally, 13/30 (43.3 %) and 6/30 (20 %) were identified as C. abortus and C. pecorum, respectively. Enough concentrated C. abortus samples were genotyped by multi-loci variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), and all were related to the genotype [2] group which mainly includes French C. abortus isolates. C. pecorum-positive samples were genotyped by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Interestingly, two of them were successfully genotyped and showed identical MLST sequences to VB2, AB10, E58 and SBE, a group which includes C. pecorum isolates considered as highly pathogenic. These findings suggest a possible role of C. abortus and C. pecorum strains in the aetiology of abortion in Algerian small ruminants.

  5. A proposed mouse model to study male infertility provoked by genital serovar E, Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Hanen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Mabrouk, Imed; Frikha-Gargouri, Olfa; Keskes, Leila; Mallek, Zohair; Aouni, Mahjoub; Hammami, Adnane

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen. The impact of chlamydial infection on male infertility is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the role of C trachomatis human genital serovar E on sperm function, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and reproductive performance, using the Swiss male mice model. Fertile mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with 10(6) C trachomatis inclusion-forming units at day 0. The studied parameters were evaluated 7, 15, 21, and 30 days postinoculation (pi) in infected and sham-infected controls. Semen parameters of the infected mice groups were significantly lower than those of the control groups at the different days pi. DNA fragmentation study indicated that the mean percentages of apoptotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control groups 7 and 15 days pi, whereas the mean percentages of necrotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control group on the 30th day pi. A decrease in reproductive performance was observed at different days pi in infected male mice groups when compared to the control groups. Furthermore, a statistically significant decrease in the mean number of infant mice was observed at 21 and 30 days pi. In conclusion, our data showed that inoculation of fertile male Swiss mice in the meatus urethra with C trachomatis could lead to alteration of semen parameters, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and decrease of the reproductive performance of male mice.

  6. A phylogenomic and molecular markers based analysis of the phylum Chlamydiae: proposal to divide the class Chlamydiia into two orders, Chlamydiales and Parachlamydiales ord. nov., and emended description of the class Chlamydiia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Radhey S; Naushad, Sohail; Chokshi, Chirayu; Griffiths, Emma; Adeolu, Mobolaji

    2015-09-01

    The phylum Chlamydiae contains nine ecologically and genetically diverse families all placed within a single order. In this work, we have completed a comprehensive comparative analysis of 36 sequenced Chlamydiae genomes in order to identify shared molecular characteristics, namely conserved signature insertions/deletions (CSIs) and conserved signature proteins (CSPs), which can serve as distinguishing characteristics of supra-familial clusters within the phylum Chlamydiae. Our analysis has led to the identification of 32 CSIs which are specific to clusters within the phylum Chlamydiae at various phylogenetic depths. Importantly, 17 CSIs and 98 CSPs were found to be specific for the family Chlamydiaceae while another 3 CSI variants and 15 CSPs were specific for a grouping of the families Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and Waddliaceae. These two clusters were also found to be distinguishable in 16S rRNA based phylogenetic trees, concatenated protein based phylogenetic trees, character compatibility based phylogenetic analyses, and on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and average amino acid identity values. On the basis of the identified molecular characteristics, branching in phylogenetic trees, and the genetic distance between the two clusters within the phylum Chlamydiae we propose a division of the class Chlamydiia into two orders: an emended order Chlamydiales, containing the family Chlamydiaceae and the closely related Candidatus family Clavichlamydiaceae, and the novel order Parachlamydiales ord. nov. containing the families Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and Waddliaceae and the Candidatus families Criblamydiaceae, Parilichlamydiaceae, Piscichlamydiaceae, and Rhabdochlamydiaceae. We also include a brief discussion of the reunification of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila.

  7. Two more species of Chlamydia-does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-02-01

    The recent description of Chlamydia (C.) avium and C. gallinacea as new species of the reunited genus Chlamydia can be expected to have implications on the perception of avian chlamydiosis. We discuss possible effects on epidemiology, diagnosis and our understanding of aetiopathogenesis resulting from this discovery.

  8. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In addition, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  9. Mechanism of T-cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen.

  10. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: a cross-national survey

    PubMed Central

    Sfetcu, Otilia; van der Sande, Marianne A.; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, Björn; Ward, Helen; Götz, Hannelore M.; Uusküla, Anneli; Woodhall, Sarah C.; Redmond, Shelagh M.; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J.; Low, Nicola; van Bergen, Jan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the levels of chlamydia control activities including primary prevention, effective case management with partner management and surveillance were assessed in 2012 across countries in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), on initiative of the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) survey, and the findings were compared with those from a similar survey in 2007. Methods: Experts in the 30 EU/EEA countries were invited to respond to an online questionnaire; 28 countries responded, of which 25 participated in both the 2007 and 2012 surveys. Analyses focused on 13 indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention activities and case management guidelines addressing partner management, compared with 44% (11/25) of countries in 2007. Conclusion: Overall, chlamydia control activities in EU/EEA countries strengthened between 2007 and 2012. Several countries still need to develop essential chlamydia control activities, whereas others may strengthen implementation and monitoring of existing activities. PMID:26498953

  11. Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: role of TLRs, NLRs, and the inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against C. pneumoniae infection.

  12. Male sex predominance in Chlamydia trachomatis sexually acquired reactive arthritis: are women more protected by anti-chlamydia antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Bas, S; Scieux, C; Vischer, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether the humoral anti-chlamydia antibody response might be related to the ineffective bacterial elimination seen in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis reactive arthritis, particularly in men, who have a higher prevalence of the disease than women.
METHODS—The number and specificity of the antibody responses to 27 different C trachomatis antigens were determined by western blots in serum samples from patients with C trachomatis urogenital infection, with and without reactive arthritis, with a special regard to the sex of the patients.
RESULTS—Patients with reactive arthritis had antibodies to significantly fewer chlamydia antigens than those with urethritis only. Antibodies from men recognised significantly fewer antigens than antibodies from women. The IgA class antibodies were slightly more relevant than those of the IgG class for differentiation of patients with reactive arthritis from those with uncomplicated genitourinary infection.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with acute C trachomatis infection the development of reactive arthritis may be related, particularly in men, to a deficient humoral response, to antigens which perhaps play a part in the clearance of the bacteria. Men who cannot generate antibodies to a large number of antigens may be less able to contain the local infection, allowing a wide systemic dissemination of the organisms to the joints.

 PMID:11350850

  13. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  14. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    PubMed

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide smooth-rough phase variation in bacteria of the genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed Central

    Lukácová, M; Baumann, M; Brade, L; Mamat, U; Brade, H

    1994-01-01

    In two strains of Chlamydia psittaci and in Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L1, we have detected a so-far-unknown antigen which (i) is resistant to heat and proteolytic digestion, (ii) can be extracted with phenol-water into the water phase, (iii) gives a ladder-like banding pattern in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, (iv) is immunogenic in rabbits and mice, and (v) contains immunoreactivity of lipid A, a common and characteristic component of gram-negative lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Thus, chlamydiae contain, in addition to the known rough-type LPS, another LPS type which is phenotypically smooth (S-LPS). S-LPS was observed preferentially in chlamydiae grown in the yolk sac of embryonated eggs; it was, however, also detected by immunofluorescence in tissue culture-grown chlamydiae with a monoclonal antibody against S-LPS. Images PMID:8188348

  16. Evidence of a conserved role for Chlamydia HtrA in the replication phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pooja; De Boer, Leonore; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina May

    2014-08-01

    Identification of the HtrA inhibitor JO146 previously enabled us to demonstrate an essential function for HtrA during the mid-replicative phase of the Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle. Here we extend our investigations to other members of the Chlamydia genus. C. trachomatis isolates with distinct replicative phase growth kinetics showed significant loss of viable infectious progeny after HtrA was inhibited during the replicative phase. Mid-replicative phase addition of JO146 was also significantly detrimental to Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia cavie. These data combined indicate that HtrA has a conserved critical role during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle.

  17. Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones control Chlamydia muridarum replication in epithelial cells by nitric oxide-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jayarapu, Krupakar; Kerr, Micah; Ofner, Susan; Johnson, Raymond M

    2010-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K are sexually transmitted intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate in epithelial cells lining the human reproductive tract. It is clear from knockout mice and T cell depletion studies using Chlamydia muridarum that MHC class II and CD4 T cells are critical for clearing bacteria from the murine genital tract. It is not clear how CD4 T cells interact with infected epithelial cells to mediate bacterial clearance in vivo. Previous work using an epithelial tumor cell line showed that a Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clone was able to inhibit C. muridarum replication in vitro via induction of epithelial NO production. We have previously shown that Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones can recognize and be activated by infected reproductive tract epithelial cells and block Chlamydia replication in them. We extend those observations by investigating the mechanism used by a panel of CD4 T cell clones to control Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. We found that Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones were cytolytic, but that cytolysis was not likely critical for controlling C. muridarum replication. For one, CD4 T cell clone-induced epithelial NO production was critical for controlling replication; however, the most potent CD4 T cell clones were dependent on T cell degranulation for replication control with only a minor additional contribution from NO production. We discuss our data as they relate to existing knockout mouse studies addressing mechanisms of T cell-mediated control of Chlamydia replication and their implications for intracellular epithelial pathogens in mouse models.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis among Youth - Testing Behaviour and Incidence of Repeat Testing in Stockholm County, Sweden 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Gaetano; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Background Widespread testing and screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis is often advocated as an important method to halt the epidemic. Sweden has long tradition of opportunistic screening services. Nevertheless infections rates have continued to rise over the past two decades, despite increased access to testing and treatment services. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we describe the testing behavior for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among youth in Stockholm County, with a focus on repeated testing. Specifically we (a) study positivity rates among single and repeat testers, we (b) estimate the incidence of repeat testing and the rates of infection in repeat testing episodes, and we (c) estimate time to repeat testing and factors associated with repeat testing. All youth (aged ≥12 and <26) that tested for Chlamydia trachomatis in one of 33 Youth Health Clinics in Stockholm County between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Results The cohort comprised a total of 65,951 individuals who did 119,699 tests during the study period. 42% of youth were repeat testers, the incidence of repeat testing was 35.0/100 person years. The overall baseline prevalence was 7.9%. Positivity rates of baseline tests among repeat testers were nearly twice as high among single testers of either sex. These were 17.1% and 9.8% among male repeat and single testers respectively. The corresponding rates for women were 9.4% and 4.3%. Positivity rates among repeat tests did not decline compared to the overall baseline positivity. Baseline test result and sex significantly influenced the occurrence of repeat testing. Conclusion Among repeat testers we found high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis both at baseline and at repeat tests which suggests the possibility that this group might be continuing to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Given the extent of repeat testing and the high positivity rates on repeat testing, further research among this group is

  19. Mannose-binding lectin 2 (Mbl2) gene polymorphisms are related to protein plasma levels, but not to heart disease and infection by Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, M.A.F.; Gomes, S.T.M.; Almeida, N.C.C.; Souza, M.I.M.; Costa, S.R.C.F.; Hermes, R.B.; Lima, S.S.; Zaninotto, M.M.; Fossa, M.A.A.; Maneschy, M.A.; Martins-Feitosa, R.N.; Azevedo, V.N.; Machado, L.F.A.; Ishak, M.O.G.; Ishak, R.; Vallinoto, A.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 1 of the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene was evaluated in a sample of 159 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (71 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery and 300 control subjects) to investigate a possible association between polymorphisms and heart disease with Chlamydia infection. The identification of the alleles B and D was performed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and of the allele C was accomplished through PCR assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the three groups did not reveal any significant difference, even when related to previous Chlamydia infection. Variations in the MBL plasma levels were influenced by the presence of polymorphisms, being significantly higher in the group of cardiac patients, but without representing a risk for the disease. The results showed that despite MBL2 gene polymorphisms being associated with the protein plasma levels, the polymorphisms were not enough to predict the development of heart disease, regardless of infection with both species of Chlamydia. PMID:27982280

  20. Gene Deletion by Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Konrad E.; Wolf, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although progress in Chlamydia genetics has been rapid, genomic modification has previously been limited to point mutations and group II intron insertions which truncate protein products. The bacterium has thus far been intractable to gene deletion or more-complex genomic integrations such as allelic exchange. Herein, we present a novel suicide vector dependent on inducible expression of a chlamydial gene that renders Chlamydia trachomatis fully genetically tractable and permits rapid reverse genetics by fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM). We describe the first available system of targeting chlamydial genes for deletion or allelic exchange as well as curing plasmids from C. trachomatis serovar L2. Furthermore, this approach permits the monitoring of mutagenesis by fluorescence microscopy without disturbing bacterial growth, a significant asset when manipulating obligate intracellular organisms. As proof of principle, trpA was successfully deleted and replaced with a sequence encoding both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-lactamase. The trpA-deficient strain was unable to grow in indole-containing medium, and this phenotype was reversed by complementation with trpA expressed in trans. To assess reproducibility at alternate sites, FRAEM was repeated for genes encoding type III secretion effectors CTL0063, CTL0064, and CTL0065. In all four cases, stable mutants were recovered one passage after the observation of transformants, and allelic exchange was limited to the specific target gene, as confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Deleted sequences were not detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) from isogenic mutant populations. We demonstrate that utilization of the chlamydial suicide vector with FRAEM renders C. trachomatis highly amenable to versatile and efficient genetic manipulation. PMID:26787828

  1. Investigation of a Chlamydia pneumoniae Outbreak in a Federal Correctional Facility in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Laura; Adjemian, Jennifer; Loo, Jennifer; Mandal, Sema; Davis, Carol; Parks, Sharyn; Parsons, Tina; McDonough, Brian; Partida, Jorge; Thurman, Kathleen; Diaz, Maureen H.; Benitez, Alvaro; Pondo, Tracy; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Kendig, Newton; Van Beneden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia pneumoniae illness is poorly characterized, particularly as a sole causative pathogen. We investigated a C. pneumoniae outbreak at a federal correctional facility. Methods We identified inmates with acute respiratory illness (ARI) from 1 November 2009 to 24 February 2010 through clinic self-referral and active case finding. We tested oropharyngeal and/or nasopharyngeal swabs for C. pneumoniae by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and serum samples by microimmunofluorescence. Cases were inmates with ARI and radiologically confirmed pneumonia, positive qPCR, or serological evidence of recent infection. Swabs from 7 acutely ill inmates were tested for 18 respiratory pathogens using qPCR TaqMan Array Cards (TACs). Follow-up swabs from case patients were collected for up to 8 weeks. Results Among 33 self-referred and 226 randomly selected inmates, 52 (20.1%) met the case definition; pneumonia was confirmed in 4 by radiology only, in 9 by qPCR only, in 17 by serology only, and in 22 by both qPCR and serology. The prison attack rate was 10.4% (95% confidence interval, 7.0%–13.8%). White inmates and residents of housing unit Y were at highest risk. TAC testing detected C. pneumoniae in 4 (57%) inmates; no other causative pathogens were identified. Among 40 inmates followed prospectively, C. pneumoniae was detected for up to 8 weeks. Thirteen (52%) of 25 inmates treated with azithromycin continued to be qPCR positive >2 weeks after treatment. Conclusions Chlamydia pneumoniae was the causative pathogen of this outbreak. Higher risk among certain groups suggests that social interaction contributed to transmission. Persistence of C. pneumoniae in the oropharynx creates challenges for outbreak control measures. PMID:23723194

  2. COX-2 inhibition affects growth rate of Chlamydia muridarum within epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Dubinett, Steven; Patterson, Simie Lavern A; Kelly, Kathleen A

    2006-02-01

    Chlamydiae alter apoptosis of host target cells, which regulates their growth. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, modulates epithelial cell survival. We addressed whether endogenous PGE2 alters chlamydial growth or apoptosis of epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia muridarum. PGE2 is secreted by infected host cells in the genital tract (GT). Using immunohistochemical techniques, we found that COX-2 enzyme was localized to epithelial cells in the GT in vivo. Pellets of the COX-2 enzyme inhibitor, NS-398, and placebo were implanted in mice subcutaneously and released a constant amount of these chemicals throughout the infection. NS-398-treated mice were found to exhibit 10-fold lower bacterial load than the placebo group on day 3 post infection, suggesting disruption of the chlamydial developmental cycle. To prove this, the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was then infected with different MOIs of C. muridarum in the presence of multiple concentrations of NS-398 in vitro. There was no difference in inclusion forming units (IFUs) between NS-389-treated and untreated cells. We also found no alterations in C. muridarum IFUs in A549 cells transfected with a 2.0 kb cDNA fragment of human COX-2 cloned in the sense (S) or anti-sense (AS) orientation. However, the inclusion size was reduced and the number of EB was significantly diminished during reinfection in AS-transfected cells. In addition, the absence of COX-2 did not significantly modify apoptosis in infected cells. In total, COX-2 deficiency reduces the infectious burden in vivo and may modulate transmission of the organism.

  3. Molecular Signatures for the PVC Clade (Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Lentisphaerae) of Bacteria Provide Insights into Their Evolutionary Relationships.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Radhey S; Bhandari, Vaibhav; Naushad, Hafiz Sohail

    2012-01-01

    The PVC superphylum is an amalgamation of species from the phyla Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae, along with the Lentisphaerae, Poribacteria, and two other candidate divisions. The diverse species of this superphylum lack any significant marker that differentiates them from other bacteria. Recently, genome sequences for 37 species covering all of the main PVC groups of bacteria have become available. We have used these sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree based upon concatenated sequences for 16 proteins and identify molecular signatures in protein sequences that are specific for the species from these phyla or those providing molecular links among them. Of the useful molecular markers identified in the present work, six conserved signature indels (CSIs) in the proteins Cyt c oxidase, UvrD helicase, urease, and a helicase-domain containing protein are specific for the species from the Verrucomicrobia phylum; three other CSIs in an ABC transporter protein, cobyrinic acid ac-diamide synthase, and SpoVG protein are specific for the Planctomycetes species. Additionally, a 3 aa insert in the RpoB protein is uniquely present in all sequenced Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, and Lentisphaerae species, providing evidence for the shared ancestry of the species from these three phyla. Lastly, we have also identified a conserved protein of unknown function that is exclusively found in all sequenced species from the phyla Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, and Planctomycetes suggesting a specific linkage among them. The absence of this protein in Poribacteria, which branches separately from other members of the PVC clade, indicates that it is not specifically related to the PVC clade of bacteria. The molecular markers described here in addition to clarifying the evolutionary relationships among the PVC clade of bacteria also provide novel tools for their identification and for genetic and biochemical studies on these organisms.

  4. Molecular Signatures for the PVC Clade (Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Lentisphaerae) of Bacteria Provide Insights into Their Evolutionary Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhey S.; Bhandari, Vaibhav; Naushad, Hafiz Sohail

    2012-01-01

    The PVC superphylum is an amalgamation of species from the phyla Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae, along with the Lentisphaerae, Poribacteria, and two other candidate divisions. The diverse species of this superphylum lack any significant marker that differentiates them from other bacteria. Recently, genome sequences for 37 species covering all of the main PVC groups of bacteria have become available. We have used these sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree based upon concatenated sequences for 16 proteins and identify molecular signatures in protein sequences that are specific for the species from these phyla or those providing molecular links among them. Of the useful molecular markers identified in the present work, six conserved signature indels (CSIs) in the proteins Cyt c oxidase, UvrD helicase, urease, and a helicase-domain containing protein are specific for the species from the Verrucomicrobia phylum; three other CSIs in an ABC transporter protein, cobyrinic acid ac-diamide synthase, and SpoVG protein are specific for the Planctomycetes species. Additionally, a 3 aa insert in the RpoB protein is uniquely present in all sequenced Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, and Lentisphaerae species, providing evidence for the shared ancestry of the species from these three phyla. Lastly, we have also identified a conserved protein of unknown function that is exclusively found in all sequenced species from the phyla Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, and Planctomycetes suggesting a specific linkage among them. The absence of this protein in Poribacteria, which branches separately from other members of the PVC clade, indicates that it is not specifically related to the PVC clade of bacteria. The molecular markers described here in addition to clarifying the evolutionary relationships among the PVC clade of bacteria also provide novel tools for their identification and for genetic and biochemical studies on these organisms. PMID:23060863

  5. Chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Borel, N; Thoma, R; Spaeni, P; Weilenmann, R; Teankum, K; Brugnera, E; Zimmermann, D R; Vaughan, L; Pospischil, A

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the first case of bovine chlamydial abortion was reported in canton Graubunden, Switzerland. In this region, Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus is endemic in small ruminants. Hence, we aimed to investigate the incidence of chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden. During breeding seasons of 2003-2004, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placenta specimens (n = 235) from late-term abortions in cattle were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry with a Chlamydiaceae-specific monoclonal antibody against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and 2 different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods (16 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid [rRNA] PCR, intergenic spacer [IGS-S] PCR), followed by PCR product sequencing. In 149 of 235 cases (63.4%), histopathologic lesions such as purulent and/or necrotizing placentitis were observed. Chlamydial antigen was clearly demonstrated in immunohistochemistry in only 1 of 235 cases (0.4%). Cp. abortus or Cp. psittaci was found in 12 of 235 (5.1%) and 10 of 235 cases (4.2%) by 16 S rRNA PCR and IGS-S PCR, respectively. However, we detected, by 16 S rRNA PCR, 43 of 235 cases (18.3%) to be positive for chlamydia-like organisms. In contrast to the situation in small ruminants in the canton Graubunden, bovine abortion from Cp. abortus seems not to play an important role. Nevertheless, zoonotic potential should be taken into account when handling abortion material from cattle. The significance of chlamydia-like isolates other than Waddlia chondrophila remains an open question in abortion and needs further investigation.

  6. A prediction rule for selective screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Gotz, H; van Bergen, J E A M; Veldhuijzen, I; Broer, J; Hoebe, C; Richardus, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections is aimed at the reduction of these infections and subsequent complications. Selective screening may increase the cost effectiveness of a screening programme. Few population based systematic screening programmes have been carried out and attempts to validate selective screening criteria have shown poor performance. This study describes the development of a prediction rule for estimating the risk of chlamydial infection as a basis for selective screening. Methods: A population based chlamydia screening study was performed in the Netherlands by inviting 21 000 15–29 year old women and men in urban and rural areas for home based urine testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for chlamydial infection among 6303 sexually active participants, and the discriminative ability was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with bootstrap resampling techniques. Results: The prevalence of C trachomatis (CT) infection was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 3.2) in women and 2.0% (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) in men. Chlamydial infection was associated with high level of urbanisation, young age, Surinam/Antillian ethnicity, low/intermediate education, multiple lifetime partners, a new contact in the previous two months, no condom use at last sexual contact, and complaints of (post)coital bleeding in women and frequent urination in men. A prediction model with these risk factors showed adequate discriminative ability at internal validation (AUC 0.78). Conclusion: The prediction rule has the potential to guide individuals in their choice of participation when offered chlamydia screening and is a promising tool for selective CT screening at population level. PMID:15681717

  7. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  8. Chlamydia screening and positivity in juvenile detention centers, United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Newman, Daniel; Collins, Dayne; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.9 million new chlamydia infections occur in the United States each year. Among women, chlamydia can lead to serious adverse outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Chlamydia prevalence is highest among females aged 15-19 years. Despite long-standing recommendations directed at young, sexually active females, screening remains sub-optimal. Juvenile detention centers (JDCs) are uniquely situated to screen and treat high-risk adolescents. From 2009-2011, performance measure data on chlamydia screening coverage (proportion of eligible females screened) and positivity (proportion of females tested who were positive) were available from 126 geographically-dispersed JDCs in the United States. These facilities reported screening 55.2% of females entering the facilities (149,923), with a facility-specific median of 66.4% (range: 0-100%). Almost half (44.4%) of facilities had screening coverage levels of 75-100%. This screening resulted in the detection of 12,305 chlamydial infections, for an overall positivity of 14.7% (facility-specific median = 14.9%, range: 0-36.9%). In linear regression analysis, chlamydia positivity was inversely associated with screening coverage: as coverage increased, positivity decreased. The burden of chlamydia in JDCs is substantial; facilities should continue to deliver recommended chlamydia screening and treatment to females and identify mechanisms to increase coverage.

  9. Evaluation of five immunoassays for detection of Chlamydia psittaci in cloacal and conjunctival specimens from turkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Vanrompay, D; Van Nerom, A; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

    1994-01-01

    Five commercially available immunoassays were evaluated for the detection of Chlamydia psittaci in cloacal and conjunctival swabs from industrially raised turkeys: IMAGEN (DAKO Diagnostics, Ely, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), Chlamydia CEL-VET IF (Cellabs, Brookvale, Australia), IDEIA (DAKO Diagnostics), CELISA (Cellabs), and CLEARVIEW (Unipath, Bedford, United Kingdom). Results were compared with isolation in Buffalo Green Monkey cells as a reference method. For the conjunctival samples, the sensitivities of the IMAGEN test, the Chlamydia CEL-VET IF test, the IDEIA, the CELISA, and the CLEARVIEW test were found to be 100, 66, 0, 0, and 0%, respectively, as compared to the reference test. Also for the conjunctival samples, the specificities of the IMAGEN test, the Chlamydia CEL-VET IF test, and the IDEIA were found to be 100, 11, and 92.8%, respectively. For the cloacal specimens, the sensitivities of the IMAGEN test, the Chlamydia CEL-VET IF test, the IDEIA, the CELISA, and the CLEARVIEW test were found to be 100, 93.3, 26.6, 0, and 53.3%, respectively. Also for the cloacal specimens, the specificities of the IMAGEN test, the Chlamydia CEL-VET IF test, the IDEIA, and the CLEARVIEW test were found to be 92, 12, 100, and 88%, respectively. The IMAGEN test was the most sensitive and specific direct chlamydia antigen detection test for cloacal and conjunctival samples from turkeys. PMID:8077391

  10. Investigating the potential public health benefit of jail-based screening and treatment programs for chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K

    2013-03-01

    Observational studies have found mixed results on the impact of jail-based chlamydia screen-and-treat programs on community prevalence. In the absence of controlled trials or prospectively designed studies, dynamic mathematical models that incorporate movements in and out of jail and sexual contacts (including disease transmission) can provide useful information. We explored the impact of jail-based chlamydia screening on a hypothetical community's prevalence with a deterministic compartmental model focusing on heterosexual transmission. Parameter values were obtained from the published literature. Two analyses were conducted. One used national values (large community); the other used values reported among African Americans--the population with the highest incarceration rates and chlamydia burden (small community). A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was carried out. For the large-community analysis, chlamydia prevalence decreased by 13% (from 2.3% to 2.0%), and based on the ranges of parameter values (including screening coverage of 10%-100% and a postscreening treatment rate of 50%-100%) used in the sensitivity analysis, this decrease ranged from 0.1% to 58%. For the small-community analysis, chlamydia prevalence decreased by 54% (from 4.6% to 2.1%). Jail-based chlamydia screen-and-treat programs have the potential to reduce chlamydia prevalence in communities with high incarceration rates. However, the magnitude of this potential decrease is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  11. Chlamydia in women: a case for more action?

    PubMed

    1986-04-19

    The 1985 Communicable Disease Surveillance Center figures for sexually transmitted diseases document over 14,000 confirmed cases of genital chlamydial infection in women. Yet, this figure seriously underestimates the size of the problem as many chlamydial infections are silent. The mainstay of diagnosis until recently has been isolation of C. trachomatis in cell culture, which is time consuming, technically demanding, expensive, and available in only a few centers. A firm diagnosis of chlamydial infection cannot be based on serology alone. Antibodies can be detected in 78-100% of womn with C. trachomatis in the cervix, but in those who are culture negative 31-87% also will have antibodies. More support is given to the diagnosis by demonstration of a rising titre of IgG antibody or by detection of IgM, but because of the late presentation of most women with chlamydia this is seldom possible. Newer tests include direct immunofluorescence statining of genital secretions which is rapid and simple. Results of this method compare favorably with those of cell culture, but screening large numbers of smears is expensive and tedious. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays also give good results. C trachomatis is a well known cause of cervicitis and salpingitis and is consequently a major factor in infertility. The frequency of chlamydial infection is influenced by sexual activity and promiscuity, but the effect of contraceptive choice is more difficult to determine. An IUD can provide a nidus for many infections, but the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) is more controversial. Instrumentation of the endocervical canal provides a route for introduction of infection, which is therefore a frequent and important complication of induced abortion. Westergaard et al. in a study of women having 1st trimester abortions found that 10% had symptomless cervical chlamydia; postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease developed in 28% of these patients by comparison with 10% in culture

  12. [Importance of Chlamydia pneumoniae as a new respiratory pathogen].

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, C; Mata, M; Bernárdez, I

    1996-03-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae as a cause of respiratory tract infection was evaluated in a one-year prospective study in 142 patients with community-acquired pneumonia. An indirect immunofluorescence method which detects antibodies in acute and convalescent serum samples was used. Serological evidence of current infection was a four-fold rise in IgG antibody titer or a positive IgM fraction. C. pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in nine patients. This result is similar to those obtained in other studies and suggests that C. pneumoniae is a common etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia in the studied area.

  13. A gold standard of treatment and cure for chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Herman

    2003-01-01

    With the number of sexually transmitted disease (STD) cases on the rise, STDs have proved to be costly to the health of men and women who suffer from them, as well as to the nation's healthcare budget. Individuals afflicted with a STD, such as syphilis, herpes, gonorrhea, or chlamydia, are at a greater risk of contracting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Because managing the STD epidemic may be among the best tools for preventing the spread of HIV, managed care must focus its efforts on prevention, early detection, and effective treatment.

  14. Chlamydia psittaci infection and associated infertility in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, J R; Shewen, P E; Gartley, C J

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen ewes were injected subcutaneously with the agent of enzootic ovine abortion, Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1, at 50 days gestation. Placental and fetal tissues were examined at 15 days postinfection and thereafter at ten day intervals. Placental infection was detected at 15 days postinfection. Only postinoculation sera collected from postinfected ewes contained antibodies reactive to C. psittaci. Five (26%) chlamydial infected ewes experienced inapparent fetal loss before day 105 of gestation. This finding is significant since C. psittaci infection in sheep is commonly associated with abortion and not infertility. PMID:8358679

  15. Tissue-Resident T Cells as the Central Paradigm of Chlamydia Immunity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Brunham, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    For almost 2 decades, results from Chlamydia pathogenesis investigations have been conceptualized using a cytokine polarization narrative. Recent viral immunity studies identifying protective tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) suggest an alternative paradigm based on localized immune networks. As Chlamydia vaccines enter the preclinical pipeline and, in the case of an attenuated trachoma vaccine, are given to human subjects, it may be useful to ask whether cytokine polarization is the appropriate framework for understanding and evaluating vaccine efficacy. In this review, we revisit C. trachomatis pathogenesis data from mice and humans using a Trm narrative and note a comfortable concordance with the Chlamydia pathogenesis literature.

  16. A qualitative study of pharmacists' views on offering chlamydia screening to women requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G; Humphris, G; Ozakinci, G; O'Brien, K; Roberts, S A; Hopkins, M; Brabin, L

    2010-01-01

    This was a qualitative study to understand why pharmacists, asked to offer free chlamydia postal screening to Emergency Hormonal Contraception clients, had not offered screening to all eligible women. Twenty-six pharmacists completed exit interviews and 12 agreed to semi-structured in-depth interviews. Although pharmacists were keen to expand their services, they were reluctant to offer chlamydia screening to women who were married or in a long term relationship. To avoid offence they selected women based on age, education and ethnicity. The rationale for chlamydia screening in pharmacy-based EHC schemes is compromised if pharmacists do not offer screening comprehensively.

  17. Tissue-Resident T Cells as the Central Paradigm of Chlamydia Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    For almost 2 decades, results from Chlamydia pathogenesis investigations have been conceptualized using a cytokine polarization narrative. Recent viral immunity studies identifying protective tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) suggest an alternative paradigm based on localized immune networks. As Chlamydia vaccines enter the preclinical pipeline and, in the case of an attenuated trachoma vaccine, are given to human subjects, it may be useful to ask whether cytokine polarization is the appropriate framework for understanding and evaluating vaccine efficacy. In this review, we revisit C. trachomatis pathogenesis data from mice and humans using a Trm narrative and note a comfortable concordance with the Chlamydia pathogenesis literature. PMID:26787715

  18. [The Dutch Health Council report on screening for Chlamydia: too reserved].

    PubMed

    Dekker, J H

    2005-04-16

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increased in the Netherlands in the years 2000-2003. A recent population-based study showed that Chlamydia infections were a problem in urbanised areas; prevalence in rural areas was low. In 2004, the Dutch Health Council advised against a national screening programme for Chlamydia. However, the newest figures on the distribution of Chlamydia infections suggest that screening in large cities might be cost-effective. Much can be learned from the screening programme in the United Kingdom.

  19. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  20. The potential influence of a social media intervention on risky sexual behavior and Chlamydia incidence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Baldwin, Kathleen A; Lewis, Patricia Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was to evaluate an evidence-based social-networking intervention aimed at reducing the incidence of Chlamydia among 15- to 24-year-olds. The intervention consists of a Facebook site that addresses signs, symptoms, treatment, screening, and prevention of Chlamydia infection. Findings included a 23% self-reported increase in condom utilization, and a 54% reduction in positive Chlamydia cases among 15- to 17-year-olds. Study results support that social media may be an effective mechanism for information dissemination and the promotion of positive behavioral changes among this population.

  1. [Mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus persistence during viral-bacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Bekhalo, V A; Sysoliatina, E V; Nagurskaia, E V

    2009-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of persistence on the example of Chlamydia trachomatis in conditions of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) superinfection in vitro and in vivo are described. Emergence of persisting forms of Chlamydia as well as factors influencing on this process are considered. Contemporary views on pathogenesis of viral-bacterial infection with HSV-2 and C. trachomatis as well as interactions of the agents with local immunity factors are described. It was suggested that there are signaling pathways through which HSV-2 changes life cycle of Chlamydia.

  2. Asthmatic persons are prone to the persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies.

    PubMed

    Paldanius, Mika; Juvonen, Raija; Leinonen, Maija; Bloigu, Aini; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, Sylvi; Saikku, Pekka

    2007-10-01

    Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may initiate asthma or worsen asthmatic symptoms. In crowded conditions, such as military service, young men are susceptible to respiratory infections, including C. pneumoniae. We recruited 127 asthmatic and 391 nonasthmatic military conscripts, followed up their respiratory tract infections and the kinetics of serum C. pneumoniae antibodies, and assessed the association between C. pneumoniae and asthma during 6 months of military service in 2 intake groups. During the 6-month period, in the July intake group, IgG antibody prevalence decreased from 60.3% to 43.8% in asthmatic and from 55.6% to 22.6% in nonasthmatic conscripts. In the January intake group, IgG antibody prevalence increased from 38.3% to 48.4% in asthmatic and from 37.2% to 43% in nonasthmatic recruits. IgG and IgA antibodies persisted more often in the asthmatic groups. In conclusion, the prevalence of IgG antibodies showed seasonal variation. Military recruits seem to be most vulnerable to C. pneumoniae infections during the period from January to June. The antibody titer changes were more rapid than previously thought.

  3. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-03-23

    Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur.

  4. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment <10% of PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15–10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26–4.45); screened-arm POPI-RCT: 0.99%(0.00–29.06)). In the absence of active chlamydia treatment 26.44%(11.57–46.32) of PID at 12-months was attributable to untreated (baseline) chlamydia infections (deferred-arm POPI-RCT). The PEFs suggest that eradicating baseline chlamydia infections could prevent 484 cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for

  5. Predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women in general practice.

    PubMed

    Bro, F; Juul, S

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in order to suggest indications for culture among women in general practice. In a multi-practice study 29 general practitioners examined 352 women complaining of vaginal discharge and 225 women having a pelvic examination for other reasons. Information from patient history, pelvic examination, and laboratory tests was recorded, and a culture for C. trachomatis was performed. C. trachomatis was isolated from 30 women (8.5%) with complaints of vaginal discharge and from nine (4.0%) without complaints. The predictive value for chlamydial infection of the information obtained was examined by logistic regression. Complaints of vaginal discharge, age under 25 years, use of oral contraception, suspected exposure to sexually transmitted disease, increased amount of discharge on pelvic examination, pH of discharge above 5.0 and the presence of leucocytes on wet smear microscopy were predictive of infection with C. trachomatis. Using information from patient history alone it was possible to discriminate between patients with low and high risk for chlamydia infection, the range being from 2% to 37%. Indications for culture for C. trachomatis, based upon easily obtained information from the patient history, are suggested.

  6. Infertility after acute salpingitis with special reference to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1983-09-01

    Of 552 women with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis (AS), 299 were reviewed 2.5 to 7.5 years later. Cervical secretions from these women had been cultured for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. For 49 of 82 women with visually normal pelvic organs, such cultures were also performed; these women served as control subjects. In women exposing themselves to pregnancy, 50 (23.3%) of 197 AS patients and 2 (6.7%) of 30 control women were infertile for at least 1 year (P less than 0.02). After one episode of AS, women harboring chlamydiae, gonococci, both, or neither of these microorganisms in the cervix on admission seemed to have the same fertility prognosis. Infertility was correlated with the number of AS episodes, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (millimeters per hour) at admission, and the severity of the inflammatory reactions of the tubes. The use of oral contraceptives at admission was found to be a positive prognostic factor regarding fertility. Oral contraceptives might protect the patient from severe tubal inflammatory reactions.

  7. Chlamydia causes fragmentation of the Golgi compartment to ensure reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Dagmar; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Machuy, Nikolaus; Karlas, Alexander; Wehrens, Andrea; Siedler, Frank; Brinkmann, Volker; Meyer, Thomas F

    2009-02-05

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis survives and replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion, which intercepts host exocytic pathways to obtain nutrients. Like many other intracellular pathogens, C. trachomatis has a marked requirement for host cell lipids, such as sphingolipids and cholesterol, produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. However, the mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens acquire host cell lipids are not well understood. In particular, no host cell protein responsible for transporting Golgi-derived lipids to the chlamydial inclusions has yet been identified. Here we show that Chlamydia infection in human epithelial cells induces Golgi fragmentation to generate Golgi ministacks surrounding the bacterial inclusion. Ministack formation is triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of the Golgi matrix protein golgin-84. Inhibition of golgin-84 truncation prevents Golgi fragmentation, causing a block in lipid acquisition and maturation of C. trachomatis. Golgi fragmentation by means of RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of distinct Golgi matrix proteins before infection enhances bacterial maturation. Our data functionally connect bacteria-induced golgin-84 cleavage, Golgi ministack formation, lipid acquisition and intracellular pathogen growth. We show that C. trachomatis subverts the structure and function of an entire host cell organelle for its own advantage.

  8. Identification of immunodominant antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis using proteome microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Douglas M.; Pal, Sukumar; Kayala, Mathew A.; Teng, Andy; Kim, Paul J.; Baldi, Pierre; Felgner, Philip L.; Liang, Xiaowu; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen in the world. In order to control this infection, there is an urgent need to formulate a vaccine. Identification of protective antigens is required to implement a subunit vaccine. To identify potential antigen vaccine candidates, three strains of mice, BALB/c, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6, were inoculated with live and inactivated C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) by different routes of immunization. Using a protein microarray, serum samples collected after immunization were tested for the presence of antibodies against specific chlamydial antigens. A total of 225 open reading frames (ORF) of the C. trachomatis genome were cloned, expressed, and printed in the microarray. Using this protein microarray, a total of seven C. trachomatis dominant antigens were identified (TC0052, TC0189, TC0582, TC0660, TC0726, TC0816 and, TC0828) as recognized by IgG antibodies from all three strains of animals after immunization. In addition, the microarray was probed to determine if the antibody response exhibited a Th1 or Th2 bias. Animals immunized with live organisms mounted a predominant Th1 response against most of the chlamydial antigens while mice immunized with inactivated Chlamydia mounted a Th2-biased response. In conclusion, using a high throughput protein microarray we have identified a set of novel proteins that can be tested for their ability to protect against a chlamydial infection. PMID:20044059

  9. Treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Karnak, Demet; Beder, Sumru

    2002-10-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a general term for chronic, irreversible lung disease that combines qualities of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The standard definition of chronic bronchitis is a productive cough for three months per year (for at least two consecutive years) without an underlying aetiology. Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) represents a common complaint that leads patients to seek medical attention. COPD and AECB are directly responsible for the overuse of antibiotics in the developed world. Fifty per cent of exacerbations have either viral or non-infectious origin. For this reason, antibiotic use remains controversial. Among other bacteria, Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for 4 - 16% of AECB in hospitalised or out-patients, although among smokers and people using steroids, the incidence is 34%. C. pneumoniae may either be the sole causative agent or a co-agent in AECB. This paper reviews the management of COPD/AECB with respect to antibiotic use. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy relevant to Chlamydia in the management of AECB are also evaluated in this review.

  10. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis: Protective Adaptive Responses and Prospects for a Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Poston, Taylor B; Darville, Toni

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection globally. These infections translate to a significant public health burden, particularly women's healthcare costs due to serious disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. There is no evidence that natural immunity can provide complete, long-term protection necessary to prevent chronic pathology, making human vaccine development critical. Vaccine design will require careful consideration of protective versus pathological host-response mechanisms in concert with elucidation of optimal antigens and adjuvants. Evidence suggests that a Th1 response, facilitated by IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells, will be instrumental in generating long-term, sterilizing immunity. Although the role of antibodies is not completely understood, they have exhibited a protective effect by enhancing chlamydial clearance. Future work will require investigation of broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-augmented cellular immunity to successfully design a vaccine that potently elicits both arms of the immune response. Sterilizing immunity is the ultimate goal. However, vaccine-induced partial immunity that prevents upper genital tract infection and inflammation would be cost-effective compared to current screening and treatment strategies. In this chapter, we examine evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating protective adaptive immune responses to Chlamydia and discuss future challenges and prospects for vaccine development.

  12. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of interferon gamma in response to natural Chlamydia infection in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Marina; Pavasovic, Ana; Prentis, Peter J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-09-25

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a key Th1 cytokine, with a principal role in the immune response against intracellular organisms such as Chlamydia. Along with being responsible for significant morbidity in human populations, Chlamydia is also responsible for wide spread infection and disease in many animal hosts, with reports that many Australian koala subpopulations are endemically infected. An understanding of the role played by IFNγ in koala chlamydial diseases is important for the establishment of better prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against chlamydial infection in this host. A limited number of IFNγ sequences have been published from marsupials and no immune reagents to measure expression have been developed. Through preliminary analysis of the koala transcriptome, we have identified the full coding sequence of the koala IFNγ gene. Transcripts were identified in spleen and lymph node tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that koala IFNγ is closely related to other marsupial IFNγ sequences and more distantly related to eutherian mammals. To begin to characterise the role of this important cytokine in the koala's response to chlamydial infection, we developed a quantitative real time PCR assay and applied it to a small cohort of koalas with and without active chlamydial disease, revealing significant differences in expression patterns between the groups. Description of the IFNγ sequence from the koala will not only assist in understanding this species' response to its most important pathogen but will also provide further insight into the evolution of the marsupial immune system.

  13. Role of proapoptotic BAX in propagation of Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis) and the host inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Ojcius, David M; Andrews, Charles W; Korsmeyer, Stanley J; Rank, Roger G; Darville, Toni

    2003-03-14

    The BCL-2 family member BAX plays a critical role in regulating apoptosis. Surprisingly, bax-deficient mice display limited phenotypic abnormalities. Here we investigate the effect of BAX on infection by the sexually transmitted pathogen, Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis). Bax(-/-) cells are relatively resistant to Chlamydia-induced apoptosis, and fewer bacteria are recovered after two infection cycles from Bax(-/-) cells than from wild-type cells. These results suggest that BAX-dependent apoptosis may be used to initiate a new round of infection, most likely by releasing Chlamydia-containing apoptotic bodies from infected cells that could be internalized by neighboring uninfected cells. Nonetheless, infected Bax(-/-) cells die through necrosis, which is normally associated with inflammation, more often than infected wild-type cells. These studies were confirmed in mice infected intravaginally with C. muridarum; since the infection disappears more quickly from Bax(-/-) mice than from wild-type mice, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in Bax(-/-) mice, and large granulomas are present in the genital tract of Bax(-/-) mice. Taken together, these data suggest that chlamydia-induced apoptosis via BAX contributes to bacterial propagation and decreases inflammation. Bax deficiency results in lower infection and an increased inflammatory cytokine response associated with more severe pathology.

  14. Inhibition of apoptosis by gamma interferon in cells and mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis).

    PubMed

    Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Darville, Toni; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Rank, Roger G; Ojcius, David M

    2002-05-01

    The effect of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) on apoptosis due to infection by Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis) was studied in epithelial cells in culture and in the genital tracts of mice. IFN-gamma concentrations that induce the formation of aberrant, persistent chlamydiae inhibit apoptosis due to C. muridarum infection. In cells treated with an IFN-gamma concentration that leads to the development of a heterogenous population of normal and aberrant Chlamydia vacuoles, apoptosis was inhibited preferentially in cells that contained the aberrant vacuoles. The inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma appears to be due in part to expression of host cell indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, since inhibition of apoptosis could be partially reversed through coincubation with exogenous tryptophan. Apoptotic cells were observed in the genital tracts of wild-type mice infected with C. muridarum, and a significantly larger number of apoptotic cells was detected in infected IFN-gamma-deficient mice. These results suggest that IFN-gamma may contribute to pathogenesis of persistent Chlamydia infections in vivo by preventing apoptosis of infected cells.

  15. Establishment of a voluntary electronic Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory surveillance system in Germany, 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Haar, Karin; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Hamouda, Osamah; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Tiemann, Carsten; Pape, Eberhard; Bremer, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are not reportable in Germany and limited data on prevalence are available. CT screening has been offered free of charge to pregnant women since 1995 and to all women under 25 years since 2008. For symptomatic women and men, diagnostic testing is covered by statutory health insurance. We describe the establishment of a nationwide, laboratory-based, voluntary sentinel that electronically collects information on all performed CT tests with test results, test reason and patient information. The sentinel represents one third of all performed CT tests in Germany. In the period from 2008 to 2014, 3,877,588 CT tests were reported, 93% in women. Women aged 20–24 years and men aged 25–29 years were the most frequently tested age groups. The overall proportion of positive tests (PPT) among women was 3.9% and among men 11.0%. The highest PPT among women was in the age groups 15–19 (6.8%) and 20–24 years (5.9%), and among men in the age groups 20–24 (19.2%), 15–19 (15.4%) and 25–29 years (14.8%). The PPT for CT was high among women and men younger than 25 years. Prevention is urgently needed. Monitoring of CT infection in Germany should be continued. PMID:28205505

  16. Emancipating Chlamydia: Advances in the Genetic Manipulation of a Recalcitrant Intracellular Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, Robert J; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia species infect millions of individuals worldwide and are important etiological agents of sexually transmitted disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. Historically, the genetic intractability of this intracellular pathogen has hindered the molecular dissection of virulence factors contributing to its pathogenesis. The obligate intracellular life cycle of Chlamydia and restrictions on the use of antibiotics as selectable markers have impeded the development of molecular tools to genetically manipulate these pathogens. However, recent developments in the field have resulted in significant gains in our ability to alter the genome of Chlamydia, which will expedite the elucidation of virulence mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges affecting the development of molecular genetic tools for Chlamydia and the work that laid the foundation for recent advancements in the genetic analysis of this recalcitrant pathogen.

  17. Emancipating Chlamydia: Advances in the Genetic Manipulation of a Recalcitrant Intracellular Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Bastidas, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia species infect millions of individuals worldwide and are important etiological agents of sexually transmitted disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. Historically, the genetic intractability of this intracellular pathogen has hindered the molecular dissection of virulence factors contributing to its pathogenesis. The obligate intracellular life cycle of Chlamydia and restrictions on the use of antibiotics as selectable markers have impeded the development of molecular tools to genetically manipulate these pathogens. However, recent developments in the field have resulted in significant gains in our ability to alter the genome of Chlamydia, which will expedite the elucidation of virulence mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges affecting the development of molecular genetic tools for Chlamydia and the work that laid the foundation for recent advancements in the genetic analysis of this recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:27030552

  18. Detection of Chlamydiae from freshwater environments by PCR, amoeba coculture and mixed coculture.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2009-10-01

    Water systems have been shown to be a potential source of Chlamydiae, intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes. However, their diversity is likely underestimated, and natural hosts remain undetermined in many cases. In this study, we combined PCR-based and cultivation approaches to search for chlamydiae in different freshwaters, including natural ponds, garden pots and fountains. From a total of 40 samples, we recovered 16 phylotypes, clustered into nine species-level taxa belonging to the Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, cvE6 lineage and a novel lineage. Parachlamydiaceae (four species) were recovered by amoeba coculture, while the other chlamydiae were maintained in mixed eukaryotic cultures. This study confirms the widespread occurrence of novel chlamydiae in the environment and enlarges our knowledge of their biodiversity in freshwater habitats.

  19. Causality of Chlamydiae in Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: a Plea for Increased Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-02-01

    Current molecular genetic understanding of the metabolically active persistent infection state of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae in the synovium in patients with arthritis and spondyloarthritis favors a causal relationship. Here, we examine how adequately the accepted criteria for that etiologic relationship are fulfilled, emphasizing the situation in which these microorganisms cannot be cultivated by standard or other means. We suggest that this unusual situation of causality by chlamydiae in rheumatic disease requires establishment of a consensus regarding microorganism-specific terminology as well as the development of new diagnostic and classification criteria. Recent studies demonstrate the value of molecular testing for diagnosis of reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis, and undifferentiated arthritis caused by C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae in clinical practice. Data regarding combination antibiotic therapy is consistent with the causative role of chlamydiae for these diseases. Observations of multiple intra-articular coinfections require more research to understand the implications and to respond to them.

  20. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  1. Uncivil engineers: Chlamydia, Salmonella and Shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Joe Dan; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2010-08-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. Like the enteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella, Chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. Numerous Salmonella and Shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating Rho GTPases and tyrosine kinase signaling cascades and by directly manipulating actin dynamics. Recent studies indicate that similar host-cell alterations occur during Chlamydia invasion, but few effectors are known. The identification of additional Chlamydia effectors and the elucidation of their modes of function are critical steps towards an understanding of how this clinically important pathogen breaches epithelial surfaces and causes infection.

  2. False-positive prostate cancer markers in a man with symptomatic urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Smelov, V; Novikov, A; Brown, L J; Eklund, C; Strokova, L; Ouburg, S; Morre, S A; Dillner, J

    2013-06-01

    Symptomatic male urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection resulted in inflammation of the prostate, with associated increases in both prostate-specific (PSA) and prostate cancer-specific (PCA3) markers with prostate biopsies showing no evidence of malignancy.

  3. Intranasal Infection with Chlamydia abortus Induces Dose-Dependent Latency and Abortion in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×103, 5×105 and 5×107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50–67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for

  4. Interaction of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 with the host autophagic pathway.

    PubMed

    Al-Younes, Hesham M; Brinkmann, Volker; Meyer, Thomas F

    2004-08-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that replicate within a membrane-bound compartment (the inclusion) and are associated with important human diseases, such as trachoma, pneumonia, and atherosclerosis. We have examined the interaction of the host autophagic pathway with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by using the specific autophagosomal stain monodansylcadaverine, antibodies to autophagosome-associated markers, and traditionally used autophagic inhibitors, particularly 3-methyladenine and amino acids. Chlamydial inclusions did not sequester monodansylcadaverine, suggesting absence of fusion with autophagosomes. Interestingly, exposure of cultures infected for 19 h to 3-methyladenine or single amino acids until the end of infection (44 h) caused various degrees of abnormalities in the inclusion maturation and in the progeny infectivity. Incubation of host cells with chemicals throughout the entire period of infection modulated the growth of Chlamydia even more dramatically. Remarkably, autophagosomal markers MAP-LC3 and calreticulin were redistributed to the inclusion of Chlamydia, a process that appears to be sensitive to 3-methyladenine and some amino acids. The present data indicate the lack of autophagosomal fusion with the inclusion because it was devoid of monodansylcadaverine and no distinct rim of autophagosomal protein-specific staining around the inclusion could be observed. However, high sensitivity of Chlamydia to conditions that could inhibit host autophagic pathway and the close association of MAP-LC3 and calreticulin with the inclusion membrane still suggest a potential role of host autophagy in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia.

  5. Pathogenic potential of novel Chlamydiae and diagnostic approaches to infections due to these obligate intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-04-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exhibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology.

  6. Prevalence and characterization of Chlamydia DNA in zoo animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-09-01

    Because many people visit zoos, prevention of zoonoses is important from the standpoint of public health. This study examined the prevalence of Chlamydia among zoo animals in Japan by PCR and characterized these bacteria by performing phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of the variable domain (VD) 2 and VD4 regions of the ompA gene, which encodes the Chlamydia major outer membrane protein. Fecal samples were collected from 1150 zoo animals in five zoos and examined for Chlamydia DNA. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was found in 3.9% of mammals, 7.2% of birds and 8.1% of reptiles. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was significantly higher in reptiles (5.8%) than in mammals (0.3%) and birds (0.3%). Phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD2 region from 18 samples showed that nine were in three different clusters containing C. psittaci strains, six were in a cluster containing C. pneumoniae strains and three each formed a distinct branch. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD4 region showed that C. pneumoniae DNAs from reptiles were close to those from human patients. The C. pneumoniae DNAs from the European glass lizard, Emerald tree boa, and Panther chameleon were classified in clusters that were distinct from other strains, suggesting that these reptiles had each been infected with a specific C. pneumoniae genotype. This study showed that diverse Chlamydia strains have been prevalent among a variety of zoo animals.

  7. Abortion and subsequent excretion of chlamydiae from the reproductive tract of sheep during estrus.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, J R; Shewen, P E; Gartley, C J

    1994-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 infection in pregnant sheep typically causes abortion or the birth of weak lambs. Eight sheep that experienced chlamydia-induced abortion during their first pregnancy were successfully rebred yearly for the past 2 years. Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide was detectable for approximately 3 weeks in vaginal swabs taken from the experimentally infected sheep following abortion. There was no evidence of chlamydiae in vaginal, placental, or neonatal samples obtained immediately after each subsequent successful pregnancy. Sera collected from the experimentally infected sheep had persistent, high antibody levels to C. psittaci, suggesting continued exposure of the immune system to the organism. Examination of vaginal specimens obtained during various stages of the estrus cycle revealed detectable levels of chlamydiae only when the animal was near ovulation. Chlamydiae were not detected in swabs from sheep that did not experience abortion. Enhanced chlamydial excretion during the periovulation period of sheep may provide sufficient stimulation of the immune system to account for the persistent antibody response. Furthermore, the association between estrus and chlamydial shedding has important implications for transmission of infection to other ewes during breeding. PMID:8063395

  8. Oral Uptake of Chlamydia psittaci by Ducklings Results in Systemic Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Christelle; Scharf, Sabine; Sachse, Konrad; Berthon, Patricia; Durand, Benoit; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Borel, Nicole; Laroucau, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Enteric infections caused by Chlamydia (C.) psittaci are frequent in ducks, but mostly remain subclinical under field conditions. To emulate natural infection, we investigated the pathogenic potential of a C. psittaci field strain in orally inoculated 4-day-old ducklings. Three different challenge doses were tested and seven contact animals were also mock-inoculated with buffer in each group. Over the course of ten days, the birds were monitored for clinical symptoms and chlamydial dissemination before final examination of tissues using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. While the challenge strain disseminated systemically to all internal organs, mild signs of diarrhea were confined to ducklings inoculated with the highest dose (4.3 x 108 IFU/mL, Group 1). No other clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions were seen. The chlamydial load in internal organs as measured by PCR depended on the challenge dose and was unevenly distributed, i.e. high loads in spleen, liver, and distal small and large intestinal tract (ileum, cecum and rectum) vs. ten times lower values in lungs and proximal small intestinal tract (duodenum and jejunum). Notably, the C. psittaci infection of contact birds became evident on day 10 post-infection, with bacterial loads comparable to those of experimentally-infected animals, thus suggesting rapid bird-to-bird transmission of the challenge strain. PMID:27168325

  9. Comparison of avian Chlamydia psittaci isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis and serovar-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A A

    1991-01-01

    Avian Chlamydia psittaci isolates were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis and serovar-specific monoclonal antibodies and compared with ovine abortion and polyarthritis isolates. The avian isolates were divided into four serovars (turkey, psittacine, pigeon, and duck) based on their reactivity to the monoclonal antibodies. The DNA digest patterns were similar across the four avian serovars; most bands were identical when the isolates were tested with PstI, BamHI, and EcoRI restriction endonuclease enzymes. The turkey group restriction endonuclease analysis patterns were distinguished from those of the other avian strains by three to four band differences with all enzymes. The duck and pigeon isolates showed only minor DNA pattern differences when compared with the psittacine isolates. Four psittacine isolates from various locations in Texas had an extra band with the EcoRI restriction enzyme, suggesting that they were from a common source; however, they were indistinguishable from the other psittacine isolates when examined with the monoclonal antibodies. The avian isolates were distinctly different from either abortion or polyarthritis isolates by both restriction endonuclease analysis and monoclonal antibody analysis. The data demonstrate that the avian isolates form a distinct group or separate biovar with at least four serovars. Images PMID:1848867

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis: the role of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, M; Schiavoni, G; Del Piano, M; Shaik, Y; Boscolo, P; Caraffa, A; Grano, M; Teté, S; Conti, F; Sessa, R

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), a respiratory pathogen, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, an inflammatory progressive disease, characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Among several types of inflammatory cells involved in the atherogenesis process, recently particular attention has been directed toward the mast cells. Experimental studies have provided several mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae and mast cells could play a role in all stages of atherosclerosis, from initial inflammatory lesions to plaque rupture. C. pneumoniae, as well as mast cells, may actively participate both through the production of cytokines and matrix-degrading metalloproteinases and by provoking apoptosis of atheroma-associated vascular cells, key events in plaque rupture. This mini-review provides a brief overview on adventitial inflammatory effects of C. pneumoniae and mast cells and their potential role in plaque instability. In addition, in this paper we review the role of mast cells in innate immunity.

  11. [Infection and coronary atherosclerosis: the role Chlamydia pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Paz, M; de Otero, J; Codinach, P; Ferrer-Ruscalleda, F; Gayà, M; Ibernón, M

    1998-11-01

    The role of inflammatory reactions in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is widely accepted. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has linked infections to atherosclerosis. It is hypothesized that infections could interact with other risk factors of vascular disease, enhancing the endothelial damage and the production of atherosclerotic plaques. Several different infectious agents have been related to the atherosclerosis genesis: mainly herpesvirus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Several lines of evidence strongly link C. pneumoniae to atherosclerosis. Consequently, several studies evaluating the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment in the reduction of cardiac ischemic events in patients with C. pneumoniae seropositivity have been performed. These studies support a causative role for C. pneumoniae. This article reviews the recent evidence linking infections to atherosclerosis, with emphasis on the role of C. pneumoniae on the atherosclerotic plaque.

  12. Complex kinase requirements for Chlamydia trachomatis Tarp phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Banhart, Sebastian; Hess, Simone; Selbach, Matthias; Meyer, Thomas F

    2008-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis translocates the effector protein Tarp (translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein) into the host cell cytoplasm where it is quickly tyrosine phosphorylated. Abl and Src kinases have been implicated in Tarp phosphorylation; however, we observed that the situation is more complex. Chemical inhibition of Src family kinases confirmed a role for these kinases in Tarp phosphorylation. Infection of Src, Yes, Fyn (SYF)-deficient cells showed a dampened, but incompletely blocked, Tarp phosphorylation. Inhibition of Abl in an SYF background still did not completely block Tarp phosphorylation. Consequently, we tested additional kinases and found that Syk, but not Btk or Jak2, is a potent kinase of Tarp in vitro. Inhibition of Syk in an SYF background further blocked Tarp phosphorylation. Under these conditions, inclusion formation still proceeded normally. These data reveal a highly promiscuous substrate property of Tarp and set the stage for further functional characterization of Tarp phosphorylation during host cell infection.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis tarp is phosphorylated by src family tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Travis J; Dooley, Cheryl A; Mead, David J; Hackstadt, Ted

    2008-06-27

    The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) is injected into the cytosol shortly after Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to a target cell and subsequently phosphorylated by an unidentified tyrosine kinase. A role for Tarp phosphorylation in bacterial entry is unknown. In this study, recombinant C. trachomatis Tarp was employed to identify the host cell kinase(s) required for phosphorylation. Each tyrosine rich repeat of L2 Tarp harbors a sequence similar to a Src and Abl kinase consensus target. Furthermore, purified p60-src, Yes, Fyn, and Abl kinases were able to phosphorylate Tarp. Mutagenesis of potential tyrosines within a single tyrosine rich repeat peptide indicated that both Src and Abl kinases phosphorylate the same residues suggesting that C. trachomatis Tarp may serve as a substrate for multiple host cell kinases. Surprisingly, chemical inhibition of Src and Abl kinases prevented Tarp phosphorylation in culture and had no measurable effect on bacterial entry into host cells.

  14. Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This Unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis in a male teenager: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sulis, Giorgia; Urbinati, Lucia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Franco; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Matteelli, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    An 18 year old man was seen at a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) clinic for counselling and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection which had been diagnosed during a screening survey of high school students. For two months he had reported conjunctival hyperaemia, increased tearing, itching, and mucopurulent secretions, predominantly on the left eye. His ophthalmologist had made a diagnosis of follicular conjunctivitis and lower superficial punctate keratitis (left eye more than right eye), irresponsive to topical treatment. Chlamydial conjunctivitis was suspected and confirmed by a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) performed on conjunctival scraping. The patient was treated with azithromycin 1 g single dose orally and tetracycline/betamethasone eye ointment for one month. A complete resolution of symptoms was observed three months after aetiological treatment. This case highlights the need to include C. trachomatis infection in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic follicular conjunctivitis among sexually active young individuals.

  16. Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Geisler, William M; Corey, Lawrence

    2002-03-27

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients; however, its role as a respiratory pathogen in immunocompromised hosts has been infrequently recognized. We describe C. pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infection in a 19-year-old male after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The patient developed fever on day +14, and a subsequent computed tomography scan of the chest revealed a right lateral pleural-based opacity, which was then resected during thoracoscopy. Diagnosis was made by culture and staining of the resected tissue with C. pneumoniae-specific monoclonal antibodies, and azithromycin was administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. pneumoniae respiratory infection after stem cell or marrow transplantation. C. pneumoniae often coexists with other etiologic agents of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Considering the infrequency of infections from this organism in this clinical setting, one must still rule out other more likely respiratory pathogens.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Kakar, S; Bhalla, P; Maria, A; Rana, M; Chawla, R; Mathur, N B

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31%) neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae promotes dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Annette R; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Witt, Colleen M; Yu, Jieh-Juen; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Chambers, James P; Perry, George; Guentzel, M Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-06-01

    The human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate pancreatic beta cells and mast cells during chlamydial infection. Our study revealed that C. pneumoniae infected mast cells significantly (p<0.005) decreased beta cell ATP and insulin production, in contrast to uninfected mast cells co-cultured with beta cells. Infected mast cells exhibited pyknotic nuclei and active caspase-3 and caspase-1 expression. Additionally, ex vivo analyses of tissues collected from C. pneumoniae infected mice showed increased interleukin-1β production in splenocytes and pancreatic tissues as was observed with in vitro mast cell-beta cell co-cultures during C. pneumoniae infection. Notably, infected mast cells promoted beta cell destruction. Our findings reveal the negative effect of C. pneumoniae on mast cells, and the consequential impact on pancreatic beta cell function and viability.

  19. Zoonotic infection with Chlamydia psittaci at an avian refuge centre.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle D; Dicxk, Veerle; Dossche, Liesbeth; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci at a wild bird refuge centre resulting in the infection of members of the staff. Pharyngeal swabs were culture positive in 26% (11/42) of the sampled birds, and molecular characterisation of isolates revealed genotypes A, B, D, and E/B. The finding reflects multiple distinct infections and highlights the endemic nature of this pathogen in avian wildlife. Two clinically normal birds being prepared for release were found to be excreting C. psittaci genotype B or E/B and viable genotype B was detected in pharyngeal swabs from 30% (3/10) of the human workers tested. The findings suggest there should be enhanced surveillance and control measures in place in bird rehabilitation centres in order to minimise the risk of both zoonoses and of re-introduction of infection back into wildlife populations.

  20. Prenatal Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Catherine L.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Panum, Inge; Uldum, Soren A.; Bass, Debra C.; Olsen, Jorn; Roberts, James M.; Ness, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and preeclampsia was examined longitudinally among 205 cases and 423 normotensive controls nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Antibodies were analyzed at a first prenatal visit (mean 14.2 weeks) and at delivery. Prenatal infections were identified as IgG/IgM seroconversion or a four-fold rise in IgG antibody titers. Although serological evidence of incident prenatal CT infection was uncommon (n=9, 1.4%) in this general pregnant population, infected women were more likely to develop preeclampsia, after adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, race and time between blood draws (ORadj 7.2, 95% CI 1.3 – 39.7). PMID:24058897

  1. [A child with iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection].

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Tsumura, N; Nagai, K; Yamada, T; Sakata, Y; Tominaga, K; Kato, H; Motohiro, T; Masunaga, N; Mochizuki, M

    1994-12-01

    A case of uncommon iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is reported. The patient was a 9-year-old boy who had suffered from cough, pharyngeal pain, and low grade fever. The symptoms persisted for more than 1 month in spite of an oral cephem antibiotic. Ophthalmalgia, congestion around the iris and cough had lasted with alleviation and exacerbation. A diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection was made by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and microimmunofluorescence test (MIF). The symptoms subsided with administration of clarithromycin (CAM: 300 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Because of the simultaneous alleviation of iritis, C. pneumoniae infection was considered to introduce the iritis. Much remains to be clarified about this pathogenesis of iritis and more detailed evaluations are required.

  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis among Women Reporting Extragenital Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Trebach, Joshua D.; Chaulk, C. Patrick; Page, Kathleen R.; Tuddenham, Susan; Ghanem, Khalil G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The CDC recommends pharyngeal screening of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and rectal screening of GC and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in HIV-infected and at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). There are currently no recommendations to routinely screen women at extragenital sites. We define the prevalence of extragenital GC and CT in women attending two urban STD clinics in Baltimore City and compare it to the prevalence of extragenital infections in MSM and men who have sex with women (MSW). Methods All patients who reported extragenital exposures in the preceding 3 months, who presented for care between 6/1/2011 and 5/31/2013, and were tested for GC and CT using nucleic acid amplification tests at all sites of exposure were included in the analyses. We used logistic regression models to identify risk factors for extragenital infections. Results 10,389 patients were included in this analysis (88% African American, mean age 29 years, 42% women, 7% MSM, 2.5% HIV infected). The prevalence estimates of any extragenital GC and CT were: 2.4% GC and 3.7% CT in women; 2.6% GC and 1.6% CT in MSW; 18.9% GC and 11.8% CT in MSM. Among women, 30.3% of GC infections and 13.8% of CT infections would have been missed with urogenital-only testing. Unlike MSM, age ≤ 18 years was the strongest predictor of extragenital infections in women. Conclusions Although the prevalence of extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia is highest in MSM, a significant number of GC and CT infections in young women would be missed with genital-only testing. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to help inform national guidelines on extragenital screening in young women. PMID:25868133

  3. Cell death, BAX activation, and HMGB1 release during infection with Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Jungas, Thomas; Verbeke, Philippe; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2004-11-01

    Infection by a number of Chlamydia species leads to resistance of the host cell to apoptosis, followed by induction of host-cell death. In a population of infected cells that displays protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis among the adherent cells, we find that cells that had been recovered from the supernatant share characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis, as assayed by the propidium iodide (PI)-annexin V double-labeling technique. Cell death was observed in both an epithelial cell line and primary fibroblasts, although the primary cells had a higher propensity to die through apoptosis than the immortalized cell line. Staurosporine-mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member, BAX, was inhibited in the epithelial cell line infected for 32 h with the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV/L2) but not the murine pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of C. trachomatis, but inhibition of staurosporine-mediated BAX activation disappeared after 48 h of infection with the LGV/L2 strain. Conversely, infection with MoPn (C. muridarum) but not LGV/L2 led to BAX activation after 72 h, as previously reported for shorter (48 h) infection with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) serovar of C. psittaci (C. caviae). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit staurosporine-mediated BAX activation or to activate BAX due to the infection itself may vary as a function of the chlamydial strain. Interestingly, both the epithelial cells and the fibroblasts also released high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) during infection, although much less HMGB1 was released from fibroblasts, consistent with the higher level of apoptosis observed in the primary cells. HMGB1 is released preferentially by necrotic or permeabilized viable cells, but not apoptotic cells. In the extracellular space, HMGB1 promotes inflammation through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. Higher levels of HMGB1 were also measured in the genital-tract secretions of mice

  4. Defining species-specific immunodominant B cell epitopes for molecular serology of Chlamydia species.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U; Poudel, Anil; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Urgently needed species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. have been elusive due to high cross-reactivity of chlamydial antigens. To identify Chlamydia species-specific B cell epitopes for such assays, we ranked the potential epitopes of immunodominant chlamydial proteins that are polymorphic among all Chlamydia species. High-scoring peptides were synthesized with N-terminal biotin, followed by a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer, immobilized onto streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, and tested with mono-specific mouse hyperimmune sera against each Chlamydia species in chemiluminescent ELISAs. For each of nine Chlamydia species, three to nine dominant polymorphic B cell epitope regions were identified on OmpA, CT618, PmpD, IncA, CT529, CT442, IncG, Omp2, TarP, and IncE proteins. Peptides corresponding to 16- to 40-amino-acid species-specific sequences of these epitopes reacted highly and with absolute specificity with homologous, but not heterologous, Chlamydia monospecies-specific sera. Host-independent reactivity of such epitopes was confirmed by testing of six C. pecorum-specific peptides from five proteins with C. pecorum-reactive sera from cattle, the natural host of C. pecorum. The probability of cross-reactivity of peptide antigens from closely related chlamydial species or strains correlated with percent sequence identity and declined to zero at <50% sequence identity. Thus, phylograms of B cell epitope regions predict the specificity of peptide antigens for rational use in the genus-, species-, or serovar-specific molecular serology of Chlamydia spp. We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. Our approach also lends itself to the identification of relevant epitopes of other microbial pathogens.

  5. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  6. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Lonks, John R.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; Kojic, Erna M.; Hardy, Erica J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  7. The prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis among patients with acute conjunctivitis in Kasr Alainy ophthalmology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mowafy, Maha Abdelrahman; Saad, Nagwa Eid; El-Mofty, Hala Mohamed; ElAnany, Mervat Gaber; Mohamed, Marwa Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Trachoma is a leading cause of avoidable blindness and endemic conjunctivitis in 57 countries. It infects approximately 84 million people globally, and continues to threaten over 10% of the world's population with the risk of blindness. Methods This is a cross sectional descriptive study assessing patients presenting with acute conjunctivitis. A full history was taken from patients followed by examination of both eyes. A conjunctival swab was taken and a sample of tears was collected and handled at the central laboratory unit at Kasr AlAiny hospital for culture and sensitivity of the swab and ELISA for tears searching for Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M of chlamydia trachomatis. Results The prevalence of bacterial conjunctivitis encounted for 45.7% and non-bacterial 54.3% of the studied group. The anti-chlamydial antibodies were positive in the tears of 31.1% of patients. While the other bacterial organisms responsible for 14.6%. Conclusion The study concluded that trachoma accounts for one third of the cases of acute conjunctivitis while the other bacterial organisms responsible for about 14.6%. More than half of the cases have other causes as viral, allergic, mechanical or chemical induced conjunctivitis. PMID:25374648

  8. Cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university women: relationship to history, contraception, ectopy, and cervicitis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, H R; Costin, M; Meder, J B; Bownds, L M; Sim, D A; Lewis, M; Alexander, E R

    1985-10-01

    Endocervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was found in 13 of 162 volunteer female university students (8%). Infection was correlated with younger age (p less than 0.05), less than or equal to 4 years of intercourse (p less than 0.05), a history of gonorrhea (p less than 0.01), and exposure to a partner with urethritis (p less than 0.01). Women who used intrauterine or barrier contraception had less infection (2%) than did women who used oral contraception (14.3%, p less than 0.05) or none at all (10.7%, p less than 0.05). Infection was strongly associated with a cervicitis score calculated from erythema, ectopy, discharge, and secretions that contained white blood cells (p less than 0.0001). By multivariate analysis, a proposed clinical approach was arrived at for testing for chlamydial organisms all women with cervicitis who were not using barrier contraception. The positive predictive value of this approach for chlamydial infection was 28%, and the negative predictive value 98.4%. Cervical ectopy was increased in women who used oral contraception (p less than 0.01), and infection was increased in women with ectopy, regardless of their contraceptive method (p less than 0.001). These results will aid in more rapid diagnosis of endocervical chlamydial infection and in the choice of contraception in young women and high-prevalence groups.

  9. Contraceptive methods and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young women.

    PubMed

    Park, B J; Stergachis, A; Scholes, D; Heidrich, F E; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between contraceptive methods and cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the authors studied a population-based sample of 1,779 nonpregnant women aged 15-34 years who underwent cell culture diagnostic testing for the detection of C. trachomatis at a health maintenance organization. Barrier contraceptive method users were classified as those who reported using one of the following methods at time of testing: condom, diaphragm, cervical cap, spermicidal sponge, foam, or vaginal spermicidal suppositories. Barrier methods were associated with a reduction in the risk of chlamydial infection in women aged 25 years or older when compared with all other women in the same age category (adjusted prevalence odds ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.66). When compared with only noncontracepting women, the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.34 (95% CI 0.06-1.99). The protective effect of barrier methods was not evident in women younger than age 25 years. Oral contraceptive use was not associated with the risk of C. trachomatis infection using either referent group; the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.99 (95% CI 0.57-1.73) compared with all other women, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.44-1.79) compared with noncontracepting women. These findings suggest that present patterns of use of barrier methods differ by age and afford only selective protection against cervical C. trachomatis infections.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Tarp and correlation with clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Erika I; Bonner, Christine; Holland, Martin J; Suchland, Robert J; Stamm, Walter E; Jewett, Travis J; McClarty, Grant; Hackstadt, Ted

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide and is the most commonly reported pathogen causing sexually transmitted infections. Tarp (translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein), a type III secreted effector that mediates actin nucleation, is central to C. trachomatis infection. The phylogenetic analysis of tarP from reference strains as well as ocular, genital, and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) clinical isolates demonstrated an evolutionary relationship with disease phenotype, with LGV and ocular isolates branched into clades that were separate from the urogenital isolates. The sequence analysis of Tarp indicated a high degree of variability and identified trends within clinical groupings. Tarps from LGV strains contained the highest number of tyrosine-rich repeat regions (up to nine) and the fewest (two) predicted actin binding domains. The converse was noted for Tarp proteins from ocular isolates that contained up to four actin binding domains and as few as one tyrosine-rich repeat region. The results suggest that Tarp is among the few known genes to play a role in C. trachomatis adaptations to specific niches within the host.

  11. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: prevalence and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in adults.

    PubMed

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Németh, István; Balázs, Andrea; Balla, Eszter

    2015-09-01

    The extragenital manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection frequently results in non-specific conjunctivitis among sexually active adults. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, to describe the distribution of serovars among patients with conjunctivitis and to characterize the relationship between the prevalence and patient demographics such as age and gender. A total of 245 conjunctival specimens were screened for C. trachomatis DNA targeting the plasmid gene. Serovar determination of the C. trachomatis-positive specimens was carried out by an omp1 PCR-based RFLP analysis method. Statistical analysis was done using a generalized linear model. C. trachomatis was detected in 53 cases (21.6 %) of adult conjunctivitis. Molecular genotyping differentiated seven distinct urogenital serovars, the most prevalent being serovar E (16/53), followed by F (15/53), D (6/53), K (6/53), G (4/53), H (4/53) and J (2/53). Statistical analysis showed higher C. trachomatis prevalence in the younger age groups, and this peaked at younger age in women than in men. The high prevalence of this pathogen found in ocular samples should alert ophthalmologists to focus on the role of C. trachomatis in adult conjunctivitis. The serovar distribution indicated that ocular chlamydial infections usually have a genital source. Nevertheless, conjunctivitis might be the only sign of this sexually transmitted infection. Further comparative genotyping of C. trachomatis in ocular and genital specimens might give more detailed epidemiological information about the aetiology of the disease.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Chlamydia abortus Isolates from Yaks in Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaocai; Cao, Xiaoan; Fu, Baoquan; Chao, Yilin; Cai, Jinshan; Zhou, Jizhang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the yak population has exhibited reproductive disorders, which are considered to be associated with Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) in Qinghai, China. In this study, a total of 9 aborted fetuses (each from a different herd) and 126 vaginal swab samples from the 9 herds were collected and analyzed. C. abortus DNA was detected from all of the 9 aborted fetuses and 30 of the 126 vaginal swab samples (23.81%) from yak cows in the selected herds. Four C. abortus strains were isolated from embryonated egg yolk sacs inoculated with foetal organ suspensions. The isolated C. abortus strains were further identified, which showed identical restriction profiles with the C. abortus reference strain using AluI restriction enzyme in the RFLP test. Moreover, the isolated C. abortus strains and C. abortus-positive vaginal swab samples were genotyped by multiple loci variable number tandem repeat analysis and all belonged to the genotype 2 group. These findings suggested that C. abortus played a substantial role in yak abortion in Qinghai, China. PMID:26060818

  13. Twenty years of research into Chlamydia-like organisms: a revolution in our understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of members of the phylum Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Vaughan, Lloyd; Greub, Gilbert; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that share a unique but remarkably conserved biphasic developmental cycle that relies on a eukaryotic host cell for survival. Although the phylum was originally thought to only contain one family, the Chlamydiaceae, a total of nine families are now recognized. These so-called Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs) are also referred to as 'environmental chlamydiae', as many were initially isolated from environmental sources. However, these organisms are also emerging pathogens, as many, such as Parachlamydia sp., Simkania sp. and Waddlia sp., have been associated with human disease, and others, such as Piscichlamydia sp. and Parilichlamydia sp., have been documented in association with diseases in animals. Their strict intracellular nature and the requirement for cell culture have been a confounding factor in characterizing the biology and pathogenicity of CLOs. Nevertheless, the genomes of seven CLO species have now been sequenced, providing new information on their potential ability to adapt to a wide range of hosts. As new isolation and diagnostic methods advance, we are able to further explore the richness of this phylum with further research likely to help define the true pathogenic potential of the CLOs while also providing insight into the origins of the 'traditional' chlamydiae.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Patrick J.; Craig, Rachel; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Gary; McClure, Myra O.; Soldan, Kate; Nardone, Anthony; Johnson, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody. Methods Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE) were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16–44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey) (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men). Seroprevalence trends among 16–24 year-old women (n = 3,361) were investigated over ten time points from 1994–2012. Results In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16–44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0–27.1) in women and 13.9% (11.8–16.2) in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5–40.2] in 30–34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4–25.6] in 35–39 year-old men); years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16–24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16–24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008–2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84–1.05]). Conclusion Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes. PMID:28129328

  15. Chlamydia screening among sexually active young female enrollees of health plans--United States, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-17

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States, with more than 2.8 million new cases estimated to occur each year. During 2007, approximately 1.1 million cases of chlamydia were reported to CDC; more than half of these were in females aged 15-25 years. Untreated chlamydia can progress to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In 1989, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended routine chlamydia screening of sexually active young women. To evaluate the rates of chlamydia screening among sexually active young females, CDC analyzed data reported by commercial and Medicaid health plans to the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) during 2000-2007. The percentage of enrolled sexually active females who were screened for chlamydia was estimated for each of 41 states that had at least five health plans reporting HEDIS chlamydia screening data and for four U.S. geographic regions. Nationally, the annual screening rate increased from 25.3% in 2000 to 43.6% in 2006, and then decreased slightly to 41.6% in 2007. The regional rate of chlamydia screening in 2007 was highest in the Northeast (45.5%) and lowest in the South (37.3%). Increased screening by health-care providers is necessary to reduce the burden of chlamydial infection in the United States.

  16. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies and inflammatory reaction in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zdrenghea, D; Bodizs, G; Taloş, C; Stanciu, A; Roşu, R; Timiş, D; Aluaş, D

    We studied the relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukine 8 (IL-8) in 87 patients with ischemic heart disease: 29 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 18 patients with unstable angina pectoris and 40 patients with stable effort angina. We determined in all patients IgG and IgA antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, CRP and IL-8. Species specific antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (IgG and IgA) were detected by indirect ELISA technique (Savyon Diagnostics Ltd, Israel). Interleukine-8 measured by a commercially available ELISA kit (CLB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). CRP was determined by radial immunodiffusion (Mancini). The IgG antibodies were present in 25 patients (29%), the greatest percentage being noted in patients with unstable angina pectoris (50%). The IgA antibodies were present, as a sign of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, in 56% of the patients with IgG antibodies. CRP was positive in 52% of the 25 patients with positive IgG antibodies, but in only 34% of the 62 patients without IgG antibodies (p < 0.01). IL-8 was positive in 12% of the patients with IgG antibodies, and in 21% of the patients without IgG antibodies but the difference is not significant (p > 0.05). It is concluded that there is a relationship between the presence of the Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and inflammatory reaction in patients with ischemic heart disease, but the neutrophils are not implied in this process.

  18. A Coming of Age Story: Chlamydia in the Post-Genetic Era

    PubMed Central

    Hooppaw, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are ubiquitous, obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the infectious, extracellular elementary body and the replicative, intracellular reticulate body. The primary Chlamydia species associated with human disease are C. trachomatis, which is the leading cause of both reportable bacterial sexually transmitted infections and preventable blindness, and C. pneumoniae, which infects the respiratory tract and is associated with cardiovascular disease. Collectively, these pathogens are a significant source of morbidity and pose a substantial financial burden on the global economy. Past efforts to elucidate virulence mechanisms of these unique and important pathogens were largely hindered by an absence of genetic methods. Watershed studies in 2011 and 2012 demonstrated that forward and reverse genetic approaches were feasible with Chlamydia and that shuttle vectors could be selected and maintained within the bacterium. While these breakthroughs have led to a steady expansion of the chlamydial genetic tool kit, there are still roads left to be traveled. This minireview provides a synopsis of the currently available genetic methods for Chlamydia along with a comparison to the methods used in other obligate intracellular bacteria. Limitations and advantages of these techniques will be discussed with an eye toward the methods still needed, and how the current state of the art for genetics in obligate intracellular bacteria could direct future technological advances for Chlamydia. PMID:26667838

  19. In vitro and in vivo activities of azithromycin, a new azalide antibiotic, against chlamydia.

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Y; Kimura, M; Miyashita, N; Soejima, R

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of azithromycin against chlamydia were investigated. The MIC of azithromycin for five standard strains of different species of chlamydia and six wild-type strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae was 0.125 microgram/ml, which was superior to that of erythromycin but inferior to those of clarithromycin and minocycline. However, the therapeutic effect of a 7-day course of azithromycin at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight administered orally once daily to mice with experimental Chlamydia psittaci pneumonia was excellent, with a 100% survival rate at 14 days after infection, which was the same as that for treatment with minocycline administered at 10 mg/kg twice daily; all erythromycin treated animals died within 10 days. When treatment was discontinued 3 days after the infection, the survival rate for mice treated with azithromycin was 90% and that for mice administered minocycline was 30%. These results suggest that azithromycin may be useful in the treatment of respiratory infections caused by intracellular pathogens, including chlamydia because of its excellent accumulation within host cells. PMID:7840560

  20. Brief Report: Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing Increasing but Still Lagging in HIV Clinics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Berry, Stephen A; Ghanem, Khalil G; Mathews, William Christopher; Korthuis, Philip Todd; Yehia, Baligh R; Agwu, Allison L; Lehmann, Christoph U; Moore, Richard D; Allen, Sara L; Gebo, Kelly A

    2015-11-01

    Screening persons living with HIV for gonorrhea and chlamydia has been recommended since 2003. We compared annual gonorrhea/chlamydia testing to syphilis and lipid testing among 19,368 adults (41% men who have sex with men, 30% heterosexual men, and 29% women) engaged in HIV care. In 2004, 22%, 62%, and 70% of all patients were tested for gonorrhea/chlamydia, syphilis, and lipid levels, respectively. Despite increasing steadily [odds ratio per year (95% confidence interval): 1.14 (1.13 to 1.15)], gonorrhea/chlamydia testing in 2010 remained lower than syphilis and lipid testing (39%, 77%, 76%, respectively). Interventions to improve gonorrhea/chlamydia screening are needed. A more targeted screening approach may be warranted.

  1. Protection against an intranasal challenge by vaccines formulated with native and recombinant preparations of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guifeng; Pal, Sukumar; Weiland, Joseph; Peterson, Ellena M.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    To compare the ability of a native and a recombinant preparation of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn; Ct-nMOMP and Ct-rMOMP) to protect against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by the intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes using CpG-1826 and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants. Animals inoculated i.n. with live elementary bodies (EB) of Chlamydia served as a positive control. Negative control groups were immunized with either Neisseria gonorrhoeae recombinant porin B (Ng-rPorB) or with minimal essential medium (MEM-0). Mice immunized with Ct-rMOMP, Ct-nMOMP and EB developed a strong immune response as shown by high levels of Chlamydia specific antibodies in serum and a strong T-cell lymphoproliferative response. Following the i.n. challenge with 104 inclusion forming units (IFU) of C. trachomatis. mice immunized with Ct-nMOMP or Ct-rMOMP lost significantly less weight than the negative control animals immunized with Ng-rPorB or MEM-0 (P<0.05). However, mice vaccinated with the Ct-nMOMP lost less weight than those immunized with the Ct-rMOMP (P<0.05). Mice were euthanized at 10 days following the challenge, their lungs weighed and the number of IFU of Chlamydia determined. Based on the lung weight and number of IFU recovered, significant protection was observed in the groups of mice immunized with both Ct-nMOMP and the Ct-rMOMP (P<0.05). Nevertheless, significantly better protection was achieved with the Ct-nMOMP in comparison with the Ct-rMOMP (P<0.05). In conclusion, vaccination with a preparation of the nMOMP elicited a more robust protection than immunization with rMOMP suggesting that the conformational structure of MOMP is critical for inducing strong protection. PMID:19446590

  2. Protection against an intranasal challenge by vaccines formulated with native and recombinant preparations of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guifeng; Pal, Sukumar; Weiland, Joseph; Peterson, Ellena M; de la Maza, Luis M

    2009-08-06

    To compare the ability of a native and a recombinant preparation of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn; Ct-nMOMP and Ct-rMOMP) to protect against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by the intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes using CpG-1826 and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants. Animals inoculated i.n. with live elementary bodies (EB) of Chlamydia served as a positive control. Negative control groups were immunized with either Neisseria gonorrhoeae recombinant porin B (Ng-rPorB) or with minimal essential medium (MEM-0). Mice immunized with Ct-rMOMP, Ct-nMOMP and EB developed a strong immune response as shown by high levels of Chlamydia specific antibodies in serum and a strong T-cell lymphoproliferative response. Following the i.n. challenge with 10(4) inclusion forming units (IFU) of C. trachomatis, mice immunized with Ct-nMOMP or Ct-rMOMP lost significantly less weight than the negative control animals immunized with Ng-rPorB or MEM-0 (P<0.05). However, mice vaccinated with the Ct-nMOMP lost less weight than those immunized with the Ct-rMOMP (P<0.05). Mice were euthanized at 10 days following the challenge, their lungs weighed and the number of IFU of Chlamydia determined. Based on the lung weight and number of IFU recovered, significant protection was observed in the groups of mice immunized with both Ct-nMOMP and the Ct-rMOMP (P<0.05). Nevertheless, significantly better protection was achieved with the Ct-nMOMP in comparison with the Ct-rMOMP (P<0.05). In conclusion, vaccination with a preparation of the nMOMP elicited a more robust protection than immunization with rMOMP, suggesting that the conformational structure of MOMP is critical for inducing strong protection.

  3. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Poston, Taylor B; Gottlieb, Sami L; Darville, Toni

    2017-01-19

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. Ascension of chlamydial infection to the female upper genital tract can cause acute pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Shortcomings of current chlamydia control strategies, especially for low- and middle-income countries, highlight the need for an effective vaccine. Evidence from animal models, human epidemiological studies, and early trachoma vaccine trials suggest that a C. trachomatis vaccine is feasible. Vaccine development for genital chlamydial infection has been in the preclinical phase of testing for many years, but the first Phase I trials of chlamydial vaccine candidates are underway, and scientific advances hold promise for additional candidates to enter clinical evaluation in the coming years. We describe the clinical and public health need for a C. trachomatis vaccine, provide an overview of Chlamydia vaccine development efforts, and summarize current vaccine candidates in the development pipeline.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies possess proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wenman, W.M.; Meuser, R.U.

    1986-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis proteins were electrophoresed and then transferred to nitrocellulose paper to detect chlamydial proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes. Resolved polypeptides of C. trachomatis serovars J and L/sub 2/ were reacted with iodinated HeLa cell membranes and autoradiographed. Infectious elementary bodies of both serovars possess 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins which bind to HeLa cells. In contrast, noninfectious reticulate bodies do not possess eucaryotic cell-binding proteins. Both proteins are antigenic when reacted with hyperimmune rabbit antisera in immunoblots and antisera raised against the 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins are inhibitory to chlamydia-host cell association. In addition, these antisera exhibit neutralizing activity. These data suggest that these putative chlamydial adhesions play a key role in the early steps of chlamydia-host cell interaction and that antibody directed against them may be protective.

  5. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  6. CDC Grand Rounds: Chlamydia prevention: challenges and strategies for reducing disease burden and sequelae.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    hlamydia, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most commonly reported nationally notifiable disease. A total of 1,244,180 cases were reported in 2009. However, many infections are not detected, and an estimated 2.8 million infections occur each year. The burden of infection is greatest among sexually active adolescents and young adults; chlamydia prevalence among sexually active persons aged 14--24 years is nearly three times the prevalence among those aged 25--39 years (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008 [NHANES], unpublished data, 2011). Substantial racial/ethnic disparities in chlamydial infection exist, with prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks approximately five times the prevalence among non-Hispanic whites. Among sexually active females aged 14--19 years, chlamydia prevalence is 6.8% overall (4.4% among non-Hispanic whites and 16.2% among non-Hispanic blacks).

  7. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in a young, sexually-active population.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, G T; Westcott, M; Rusden, J; Asche, V; King, H; Haynes, S E; Moore, E K; Ketelbey, J W

    A prospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among 1000 sexually-active women at the Family Planning Association Clinic in Melbourne. This organism was isolated from the cervices of 5.1% of screened women. The women were surveyed about their sexual and gynaecological history, and symptoms of discharge or pain. It was found that women who gave positive results for the presence of Chlamydia were younger, and had commenced intercourse at an earlier age. Risk factors of multiple sexual partners, cervical ectopy and symptoms of urethritis were identified. We recommend that women who have more than one sexual partner should ask their partners to use condoms or, failing this, undergo annual screening for Chlamydia by immunofluorescent staining.

  8. Structure and Protein-Protein Interaction Studies on Chlamydia trachomatis Protein CT670 (YscO Homolog)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzini, Emily; Singer, Alexander; Singh, Bhag; Lam, Robert; Skarina, Tatiana; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.; Savchenko, Alexei; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2010-07-28

    Comparative genomic studies have identified many proteins that are found only in various Chlamydiae species and exhibit no significant sequence similarity to any protein in organisms that do not belong to this group. The CT670 protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the proteins whose genes are in one of the type III secretion gene clusters but whose cellular functions are not known. CT670 shares several characteristics with the YscO protein of Yersinia pestis, including the neighboring genes, size, charge, and secondary structure, but the structures and/or functions of these proteins remain to be determined. Although a BLAST search with CT670 did not identify YscO as a related protein, our analysis indicated that these two proteins exhibit significant sequence similarity. In this paper, we report that the CT670 crystal, solved at a resolution of 2 {angstrom}, consists of a single coiled coil containing just two long helices. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation studies showed that in solution CT670 exists in both monomeric and dimeric forms and that the monomer predominates at lower protein concentrations. We examined the interaction of CT670 with many type III secretion system-related proteins (viz., CT091, CT665, CT666, CT667, CT668, CT669, CT671, CT672, and CT673) by performing bacterial two-hybrid assays. In these experiments, CT670 was found to interact only with the CT671 protein (YscP homolog), whose gene is immediately downstream of ct670. A specific interaction between CT670 and CT671 was also observed when affinity chromatography pull-down experiments were performed. These results suggest that CT670 and CT671 are putative homologs of the YcoO and YscP proteins, respectively, and that they likely form a chaperone-effector pair.

  9. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Vuorela, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target. PMID:27916800

  10. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, J.K.

    1982-03-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of (3H)uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism.

  11. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production.

  12. Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal Connection?

    PubMed

    Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6-15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervicitis and urethritis in women.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, J; Vesterinen, E

    1982-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries today, Chlamydia trachomatis seems to be the most important cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is most prevalent in symptomatic women and in persons visiting venereal disease clinics, the asymptomatic carrier rate, particularly in young women, appears to be surprisingly high. In addition to young age and level of sexual activity, the use of oral contraceptives and the presence of cervical ectopy are important risk factors for chlamydial infection. Chlamydial cervicitis often is characterized by a hypertrophic follicular appearance, with severe edema, erythema, friability, and endocervical mucopurulent discharge. On colposcopy, an atypical transformation zone is frequently observed. Papanicolaou smears taken from C. trachomatis culture-positive patients often reveal benign atypias and dyskaryotic changes. C. trachomatis, therefore, being a venereally transmitted intracellular organism, may well play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Future studies on patients with cytological atypias, therefore, also should include tests for C. trachomatis. Prospective studies are needed to determine the natural history and outcome of C. trachomatis-associated atypias and their behavior after adequate therapy. A large proportion of C. trachomatis-infected women also are culture-positive from the urethra. The demonstration that C. trachomatis is a common causative agent of acute urethral syndrome (also called abacterial urethritis, dysuria-pyuria syndrome) in women has been a valuable contribution. The diagnosis of pyuria in a patient with abacterial dysuria is of critical importance, since it suggests a chlamydial etiology and thus is a potentially treatable condition.

  14. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Herrmann, Bjørn; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2009-03-01

    A historical review is provided of the various methods used for half a century to differentiate and type Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Typing of C. trachomatis is an important tool for revealing transmission patterns in sexual networks, and enabling association with clinical manifestations and pathogenicity. Serotyping using the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) has been the mainstay of epidemiological work for several decades. However, the development of nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) and easy access to sequencing have shifted the focus from MOMP serotypes to omp1 genotypes. However, insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems at hand to further simplify and automate the high-resolution genotyping method based on NAAT and sequencing of various targets in the C. trachomatis genome. Thereby, a high throughput can be achieved and more epidemiological information can be obtained. However, it is important to realize that culture of C. trachomatis may still be needed to detect and characterize new variants of C. trachomatis.

  15. Oral Chlamydia trachomatis in Patients with Established Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan G.; Lopatin, Dennis E.; Foxman, Betsy; Burt, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is considered a consequence of a pathogenic microbial infection at the periodontal site and host susceptibility factors. Periodontal research supports the association of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Bacteroides forsythus, and periodontitis; however causality has not been demonstrated. In pursuit of the etiology of periodontitis, we hypothesized that the intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, may play a role. As a first step, a cross-sectional study of dental school clinic patients with established periodontitis were assessed for the presence of C. trachomatis in the oral cavity, and in particular from the lining epithelium of periodontal sites. C. trachomatis was detected using a direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody (DFA) in oral specimens from 7% (6/87) of the patients. Four patients tested positive in specimens from the lining epithelium of diseased periodontal sites, one patient tested positive in healthy periodontal sites, and one patient tested positive in the general mucosal specimen. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence of C. trachomatis in the periodontal sites. Planned studies include the use of a more precise periodontal epithelial cell collection device, the newer nucleic acid amplification techniques to detect C. trachomatis, and additional populations to determine the association of C. trachomatis and periodontitis. PMID:11218493

  16. Effects of Mentha suaveolens essential oil on Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Rosa; Di Pietro, Marisa; De Santis, Fiorenzo; Filardo, Simone; Ragno, Rino; Angiolella, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS) can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae.

  17. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  18. Chlamydia-secreted protease CPAF degrades host antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingli; Chen, Jianlin; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yu, Ping; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the lower genital tract, if untreated, can ascend to the upper genital tract, potentially leading to complications such as tubal factor infertility. The ascension involves cell-to-cell spreading, which may require C. trachomatis organisms to overcome mucosal extracellular effectors such as antimicrobial peptides. We found that among the 8 antimicrobial peptides tested, the cathelicidin LL-37 that is produced by both urogenital epithelial cells and the recruited neutrophils possessed a most potent antichlamydial activity. Interestingly, this antichlamydial activity was completely inhibited by CPAF, a C. trachomatis-secreted serine protease. The inhibition was dependent on CPAF's proteolytic activity. CPAF selectively degraded LL-37 and other antimicrobial peptides with an antichlamydial activity. CPAF is known to secrete into and accumulate in the infected host cell cytoplasm at the late stage of chlamydial intracellular growth and may be released to confront the extracellular antimicrobial peptides before the intra-inclusion organisms are exposed to extracellular environments during host cell lysis and chlamydial spreading. Thus, the finding that CPAF selectively targets host antimicrobial peptides that possess antichlamydial activities for proteolysis suggests that CPAF may contribute to C. trachomatis pathogenicity by aiding in ascending infection.

  19. Quantifying promoter activity during the developmental cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yanguang; Gao, Leiqiong; Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Hua, Ziyu; Elaasar, Hiba; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that undergoes a characteristic development cycle correlating with stage-specific gene expression profiles. Taking advantage of recent developments in the genetic transformation in C. trachomatis, we constructed a versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to study the development-dependent function of C. trachomatis promoters in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism that controls C. trachomatis adaptability. We validated the use of the GFP reporter system by visualizing the activity of an early euo gene promoter. Additionally, we uncovered a new ompA promoter, which we named P3, utilizing the GFP reporter system combined with 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), in vitro transcription assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), and flow cytometry. Mutagenesis of the P3 region verifies that P3 is a new class of C. trachomatis σ66-dependent promoter, which requires an extended −10 TGn motif for transcription. These results corroborate complex developmentally controlled ompA expression in C. trachomatis. The exploitation of genetically labeled C. trachomatis organisms with P3-driven GFP allows for the observation of changes in ompA expression in response to developmental signals. The results of this study could be used to complement previous findings and to advance understanding of C. trachomatis genetic expression. PMID:27263495

  20. Endothelial Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes oxidation of LDL.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ralf; Dragonas, Charalampos; Mueller, Andreas; Maltaris, Theodoros; Rupp, Jan; Beckmann, Matthias W; Maass, Matthias

    2004-06-25

    The bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae chronically infects atheromatous lesions and is linked to atherosclerosis by modifying inflammation, proliferation, and the lipid metabolism of blood monocytes. As continuous LDL modification in the vascular intima is crucial for atherogenesis we investigated the impact of endothelial infection on LDL oxidation. HUVEC were infected with a vascular C. pneumoniae strain. Supernatants of infected cells but not cell lysates increased lipid peroxidation products (6.44 vs 6.14 nmol/ml, p<0.05) as determined by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances assay. Moreover, supernatants rendered human LDL more susceptible to oxidation as shown in a copper-ion catalysed LDL oxidation assay by a 16% reduction of LDL resistance against pro-oxidative stimuli (p<0.05). Chlamydial infection of vascular endothelial cells releases acellular components that convert LDL to its proatherogenic form and reduce its resistance against oxidation. Foci of chronic endothelial chlamydial infection may thus continuously contribute to the dysregulated lipid metabolism that promotes atherogenesis.

  1. Trachoma: Protective and Pathogenic Ocular Immune Responses to Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Victor H.; Holland, Martin J.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), is the leading infectious blinding disease worldwide. Chronic conjunctival inflammation develops in childhood and leads to eyelid scarring and blindness in adulthood. The immune response to Ct provides only partial protection against re-infection, which can be frequent. Moreover, the immune response is central to the development of scarring pathology, leading to loss of vision. Here we review the current literature on both protective and pathological immune responses in trachoma. The resolution of Ct infection in animal models is IFNγ-dependent, involving Th1 cells, but whether this is the case in human ocular infection still needs to be confirmed. An increasing number of studies indicate that innate immune responses arising from the epithelium and other innate immune cells, along with changes in matrix metalloproteinase activity, are important in the development of tissue damage and scarring. Current trachoma control measures, which are centred on repeated mass antibiotic treatment of populations, are logistically challenging and have the potential to drive antimicrobial resistance. A trachoma vaccine would offer significant advantages. However, limited understanding of the mechanisms of both protective immunity and immunopathology to Ct remain barriers to vaccine development. PMID:23457650

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni

    2005-10-01

    In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN). Mothers of affected infants were found to have inclusions in their cervical epithelial cells, fathers of such infants had inclusions in their urethral cells, and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections was revealed. Fifty years later, chlamydial isolation procedures were developed, and studies again demonstrated Chlamydia trachomatis as an etiology of ICN and the female birth canal as the reservoir. In the late 1970s, a report by Beem and Saxon described respiratory tract colonization and a distinct pneumonia syndrome in infected infants. Genital chlamydial infection is recognized as the world's most common sexually transmitted disease, with estimates of greater than 4 million new infections occurring annually in the United States. Although most C. trachomatis infections in men and women are asymptomatic, infection can lead to severe reproductive complications in women. The high prevalence in women of child-bearing age results in exposure of an estimated 100,000 neonates in the United States annually. Many of these infants develop conjunctivitis, pneumonia, or both in the first few months of life. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and approaches to prevention of conjunctivitis and pneumonia in the newborn and young infant are reviewed here. Appropriate testing for chlamydial infection in a pediatric victim of sexual assault and the implications of identifying C. trachomatis in suspected cases of childhood sexual abuse also are reviewed.

  3. Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

  4. The effect of penicillin on Chlamydia trachomatis DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lambden, Paul R; Pickett, Mark A; Clarke, Ian N

    2006-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis L2 was used to infect BGMK cells at an m.o.i. of 1.0, and the developmental cycle was followed by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative PCR (QPCR) for both chromosomal and plasmid DNA. Samples were taken at sequential 6 h time points. Subsequent analysis by QPCR showed that there was an initial slow replication period (0-18 h), followed by a rapid phase (18-36 h) coinciding with exponential division when the DNA doubling time was 4.6 h. Chromosomal DNA was amplified 100-200-fold corresponding to 7-8 generations for the complete developmental cycle. Penicillin (10 and 100 units ml(-1)) was added to cultures at 20 h post-infection (p.i.). This blocked binary fission and also prevented reticulate body (RB) to elementary body transition. However, exposure to penicillin did not prevent chromosomal or plasmid DNA replication. After a short lag period, following the addition of penicillin, chlamydial chromosomal DNA replication resumed at the same rate as in control C. trachomatis-infected cells. C. trachomatis-infected host cells exposed to penicillin did not lyse, but instead harboured large, aberrant RBs in massive inclusions that completely filled the cell cytoplasm. In these RBs, the DNA continued to replicate well beyond the end of the normal developmental cycle. At 60 h p.i. each aberrant RB contained a minimum of 16 chromosomal copies.

  5. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  6. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    PubMed

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  7. Unity in Variety—The Pan-Genome of the Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Collingro, Astrid; Tischler, Patrick; Weinmaier, Thomas; Penz, Thomas; Heinz, Eva; Brunham, Robert C.; Read, Timothy D.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Sachse, Konrad; Kahane, Simona; Friedman, Maureen G.; Rattei, Thomas; Myers, Garry S. A.; Horn, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiae are evolutionarily well-separated bacteria that live exclusively within eukaryotic host cells. They include important human pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis as well as symbionts of protozoa. As these bacteria are experimentally challenging and genetically intractable, our knowledge about them is still limited. In this study, we obtained the genome sequences of Simkania negevensis Z, Waddlia chondrophila 2032/99, and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae UV-7. This enabled us to perform the first comprehensive comparative and phylogenomic analysis of representative members of four major families of the Chlamydiae, including the Chlamydiaceae. We identified a surprisingly large core gene set present in all genomes and a high number of diverse accessory genes in those Chlamydiae that do not primarily infect humans or animals, including a chemosensory system in P. acanthamoebae and a type IV secretion system. In S. negevensis, the type IV secretion system is encoded on a large conjugative plasmid (pSn, 132 kb). Phylogenetic analyses suggested that a plasmid similar to the S. negevensis plasmid was originally acquired by the last common ancestor of all four families and that it was subsequently reduced, integrated into the chromosome, or lost during diversification, ultimately giving rise to the extant virulence-associated plasmid of pathogenic chlamydiae. Other virulence factors, including a type III secretion system, are conserved among the Chlamydiae to variable degrees and together with differences in the composition of the cell wall reflect adaptation to different host cells including convergent evolution among the four chlamydial families. Phylogenomic analysis focusing on chlamydial proteins with homology to plant proteins provided evidence for the acquisition of 53 chlamydial genes by a plant progenitor, lending further support for the hypothesis of an early interaction between a chlamydial ancestor and the primary photosynthetic eukaryote. PMID:21690563

  8. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W

    1983-03-01

    The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.

  9. The importance of interferon-gamma in an early infection of Chlamydia psittaci in mice.

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, M C; Maley, S W; Entrican, G; Buxton, D

    1994-01-01

    Athymic mice (nu/nu) and their hairy littermates (nu/+) were infected experimentally with Chlamydia psittaci and the role of endogenous interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on the resolution of the infection was studied. The pathological changes produced in the spleen, liver and lung were exacerbated by administration of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to IFN-gamma and an increased number of viable chlamydiae were recovered from the tissues of both nu/+ and nu/nu mice treated in this way. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8039814

  10. Selective Pressure Promotes Tetracycline Resistance of Chlamydia Suis in Fattening Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Hoffmann, Karolin; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Marti, Hanna; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level. Swab samples (n = 158) identified as C. suis originating from 24 farms were further processed for isolation, which was successful in 71% of attempts with a significantly higher success rate from fecal swabs compared to conjunctival swabs. The farms were divided into three treatment groups: A) farms without antibiotic treatment, B) farms with prophylactic oral antibiotic treatment of the whole herd consisting of trimethoprime, sulfadimidin and sulfathiazole (TSS), or C) farms giving herd treatment with chlortetracycline with or without tylosin and sulfadimidin (CTS). 59 isolates and their corresponding clinical samples were selected and tested for the presence or absence of the tetracycline resistance class C gene [tet(C)] by conventional PCR and isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro. The phenotype of the investigated isolates was either classified as tetracycline sensitive (Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 2 μg/ml), intermediate (2 μg/ml ≤ MIC < 4 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Results of groups and individual pigs were correlated with antibiotic treatment and time of sampling (beginning/end of the fattening period). We found clear evidence for selective pressure as absence of antibiotics led to isolation of only tetracycline sensitive or intermediate strains whereas tetracycline treatment

  11. Selective Pressure Promotes Tetracycline Resistance of Chlamydia Suis in Fattening Pigs.

    PubMed

    Wanninger, Sabrina; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Hoffmann, Karolin; Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Marti, Hanna; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level. Swab samples (n = 158) identified as C. suis originating from 24 farms were further processed for isolation, which was successful in 71% of attempts with a significantly higher success rate from fecal swabs compared to conjunctival swabs. The farms were divided into three treatment groups: A) farms without antibiotic treatment, B) farms with prophylactic oral antibiotic treatment of the whole herd consisting of trimethoprime, sulfadimidin and sulfathiazole (TSS), or C) farms giving herd treatment with chlortetracycline with or without tylosin and sulfadimidin (CTS). 59 isolates and their corresponding clinical samples were selected and tested for the presence or absence of the tetracycline resistance class C gene [tet(C)] by conventional PCR and isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro. The phenotype of the investigated isolates was either classified as tetracycline sensitive (Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 2 μg/ml), intermediate (2 μg/ml ≤ MIC < 4 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Results of groups and individual pigs were correlated with antibiotic treatment and time of sampling (beginning/end of the fattening period). We found clear evidence for selective pressure as absence of antibiotics led to isolation of only tetracycline sensitive or intermediate strains whereas tetracycline treatment

  12. Pregnancy failure following vaginal infection of sheep with Chlamydia psittaci prior to breeding.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, J R; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    Enzootic abortion in sheep, caused by Chlamydia psittaci, has been associated with pregnancy failure in most sheep-producing countries. Late-term abortions or the birth of weak low-birth-weight lambs occurred following primary C. psittaci infection in pregnant ewes. However, the mode by which C. psittaci can be transmitted among sheep has not been established. The present study was designed to determine whether the vaginal tracts of nonpregnant ewes were susceptible to C. psittaci infection and whether such infections had an impact during the next pregnancy. At day 0 of the estrus cycle, the vaginal tracts of 10 nonpregnant ewes were inoculated with C. psittaci and 10 ewes were exposed by subcutaneous injection. The ewes were bred 6 weeks postinfection. Five ewes from the vaginally infected group and four from the subcutaneously infected group were reinfected by subcutaneous injection at day 60 of gestation. Pregnancy outcomes and antibody responses to infection were compared with that of ewes that were infected with C. psittaci, either subcutaneously or intravaginally, for the first time during pregnancy and with that of noninfected control ewes. Subcutaneous infection of nonpregnant ewes did not cause subsequent pregnancy failure; rather, this provided protection against abortion following reinfection during pregnancy. As expected, abortions or the birth of weak lambs was observed in those ewes that received primary C. psittaci infection by either route during pregnancy. Similarly, abortion or the birth of weak lambs was a consequence of vaginal inoculation prior to breeding, thereby confirming the susceptibility of the vaginal mucosa to infection and demonstrating the potential for venereal transmission. PMID:8606067

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females. Methods C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables. Results Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis. Conclusions The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26807957

  14. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  15. Metabolic adaptation of Chlamydia trachomatis to mammalian host cells.

    PubMed

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Eylert, Eva; Huber, Claudia; Lindner, Buko; Vollmuth, Nadine; Karunakaran, Karthika; Goebel, Werner; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Rudel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic adaptation is a key feature for the virulence of pathogenic intracellular bacteria. Nevertheless, little is known about the pathways in adapting the bacterial metabolism to multiple carbon sources available from the host cell. To analyze the metabolic adaptation of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, we labeled infected HeLa or Caco-2 cells with (13) C-marked glucose, glutamine, malate or a mix of amino acids as tracers. Comparative GC-MS-based isotopologue analysis of protein-derived amino acids from the host cell and the bacterial fraction showed that C. trachomatis efficiently imported amino acids from the host cell for protein biosynthesis. FT-ICR-MS analyses also demonstrated that label from exogenous (13) C-glucose was efficiently shuffled into chlamydial lipopolysaccharide probably via glucose 6-phosphate of the host cell. Minor fractions of bacterial Ala, Asp, and Glu were made de novo probably using dicarboxylates from the citrate cycle of the host cell. Indeed, exogenous (13) C-malate was efficiently taken up by C. trachomatis and metabolized into fumarate and succinate when the bacteria were kept in axenic medium containing the malate tracer. Together, the data indicate co-substrate usage of intracellular C. trachomatis in a stream-lined bipartite metabolism with host cell-supplied amino acids for protein biosynthesis, host cell-provided glucose 6-phosphate for cell wall biosynthesis, and, to some extent, one or more host cell-derived dicarboxylates, e.g. malate, feeding the partial TCA cycle of the bacterium. The latter flux could also support the biosynthesis of meso-2,6-diaminopimelate required for the formation of chlamydial peptidoglycan.

  16. Epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Simms, I; Catchpole, M; Brugha, R; Rogers, P; Mallinson, H; Nicoll, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the recent epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in England and Wales. DESIGN: Retrospective study of routinely available surveillance datasets and ad hoc prevalence studies. METHODS: Numbers of new cases of genital C trachomatis infection, obtained from the Department of Health and Welsh Office, were combined with the estimated mid-year resident population of England and Wales. Rates were analysed for trend over time using a log linear age period model in GLIM4. Ad hoc prevalence and case finding studies carried out over the past 20 years were critically assessed in terms of study design and testing methodologies. RESULTS: Attendance rates at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics were higher for women than men over the period 1989 to 1994 as were the number of laboratory reports. The highest rate of attendance (GUM clinic data) was for women aged 16 to 19 years. There was an overall significant linear decrease in the attendance rates over time for both men (p = 0.0172) and women (p = 0.0000) between 1989 and 1994. There was considerable variation in the prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection detected within different clinical settings, together with a substantial level of asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Genital C trachomatis infection is broadly distributed throughout the sexually active population, with a substantial reservoir of asymptomatic infection among those generally perceived to be at low risk of a sexually transmitted infection. Young people, particularly women aged 16 to 19 years, are at highest risk of genital C trachomatis infection. This is of concern since younger women are more susceptible than older women to developing complications of chlamydial infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The broad distribution of infection across all sexually active health service attenders and the high level of asymptomatic infection suggest that a new, screening based, approach to the control of genital C

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis oculotropic and genitotropic strains.

    PubMed

    Carlson, John H; Porcella, Stephen F; McClarty, Grant; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2005-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is an important cause of preventable blindness and sexually transmitted disease (STD) in humans. C. trachomatis exists as multiple serovariants that exhibit distinct organotropism for the eye or urogenital tract. We previously reported tissue-tropic correlations with the presence or absence of a functional tryptophan synthase and a putative GTPase-inactivating domain of the chlamydial toxin gene. This suggested that these genes may be the primary factors responsible for chlamydial disease organotropism. To test this hypothesis, the genome of an oculotropic trachoma isolate (A/HAR-13) was sequenced and compared to the genome of a genitotropic (D/UW-3) isolate. Remarkably, the genomes share 99.6% identity, supporting the conclusion that a functional tryptophan synthase enzyme and toxin might be the principal virulence factors underlying disease organotropism. Tarp (translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein) was identified to have variable numbers of repeat units within the N and C portions of the protein. A correlation exists between lymphogranuloma venereum serovars and the number of N-terminal repeats. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis between the two genomes highlighted the minimal genetic variation. A disproportionate number of SNPs were observed within some members of the polymorphic membrane protein (pmp) autotransporter gene family that corresponded to predicted T-cell epitopes that bind HLA class I and II alleles. These results implicate Pmps as novel immune targets, which could advance future chlamydial vaccine strategies. Lastly, a novel target for PCR diagnostics was discovered that can discriminate between ocular and genital strains. This discovery will enhance epidemiological investigations in nations where both trachoma and chlamydial STD are endemic.

  18. A case control study of active genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients with tubal infertility in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Shittu, S O; Abdul, A M

    2006-01-01

    A case-controlled study of the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 120 patients with tubal infertility (study group) and 120 clients of the family planning clinic (control group) attending the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria in northern Nigeria is reported. The prevalence was 38.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (29.6-47.6%) in the study group and 13.3%, 95% CI (7.8-20.7%) in the control group. There was a fourfold risk of having genital Chlamydial infection among the cases compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] = 4.04, 95% CI (2.04 < OR < 8.09). Tubal infertility was found to be significantly associated with genital C. trachomatis infection (P < 0.001). Out of the 58 cases of primary infertility, 22(37.9%) tested positive for genital C. trachomatis compared with 24 of the 62 (38.7%) that had secondary infertility. The infection was not found to be significantly associated with a particular type of infertility (primary or secondary), number of sexual partners or previous sexually transmitted disease (P < 0.05). There is need for provision of facilities to enable screening for genital C. trachomatis infection in view of its high prevalence in the study population.

  19. Evidence for the existence of two new members of the family Chlamydiaceae and proposal of Chlamydia avium sp. nov. and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine; Riege, Konstantin; Wehner, Stefanie; Dilcher, Meik; Creasy, Heather Huot; Weidmann, Manfred; Myers, Garry; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Ruettger, Anke; Bavoil, Patrik M; Hufert, Frank T; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Marz, Manja

    2014-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae with the recombined single genus Chlamydia currently comprises nine species, all of which are obligate intracellular organisms distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. Anecdotal evidence from epidemiological surveys in flocks of poultry, pigeons and psittacine birds have indicated the presence of non-classified chlamydial strains, some of which may act as pathogens. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA and ompA genes, as well as multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 field isolates were conducted. All independent analyses assigned the strains into two different clades of monophyletic origin corresponding to pigeon and psittacine strains or poultry isolates, respectively. Comparative genome analysis involving the type strains of currently accepted Chlamydiaceae species and the designated type strains representing the two new clades confirmed that the latter could be classified into two different species as their average nucleotide identity (ANI) values were always below 94%, both with the closest relative species and between themselves. In view of the evidence obtained from the analyses, we propose the addition of two new species to the current classification: Chlamydia avium sp. nov. comprising strains from pigeons and psittacine birds (type strain 10DC88(T); DSMZ: DSM27005(T), CSUR: P3508(T)) and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov. comprising strains from poultry (type strain 08-1274/3(T); DSMZ: DSM27451(T), CSUR: P3509(T)).

  20. The EU FP6 EpiGenChlamydia Consortium: contribution of molecular epidemiology and host-pathogen genomics to understanding Chlamydia trachomatis-related disease.

    PubMed

    Morré, S A; Ouburg, S; Peña, A S; Brand, A

    2009-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are responsible for the world's leading cause of blindness (trachoma) and its most prevalent sexually transmitted disease, which is strongly associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Twin study-based findings of members of EpiGenChlamydia Consortium estimate that there is a 40% genetic predisposition to C. trachomatis infections. It is likely that the advances in human genomics will help to unravel the genetic predisposition at the gene level and will help to define a genetic fingerprint that can be used as a marker for this predisposition. The information gathered to date suggests that this predisposition and the factors contributing to prognosis are multifactorial. The EpiGenChlamydia Consortium aims to structure transnational research to such a degree that comparative genomics and genetic epidemiology can be performed in large numbers of unrelated individuals. Biobanking and data-warehouse building are the most central deliverables of the Coordination Action of the Consortium in Functional Genomics Research. In addition, the collective synergy acquired in this Coordination Action will allow for the generation of scientific knowledge on the C. trachomatis-host interaction, knowledge on the genetic predisposition to C. trachomatis infection and the development of tools for early detection of a predisposition to C. trachomatis infection and its complications. This review summarizes the consortium aims and progress, and future perspectives and directions.

  1. Comparative proteome analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A, D and L2.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Allan C; Gevaert, Kris; Demol, Hans; Hoorelbeke, Bart; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Larsen, Martin R; Roepstorff, Peter; Holm, Arne; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis represents a group of human pathogenic obligate intracellular and gram-negative bacteria. The genome of C. trachomatis D comprises 894 open reading frames (ORFs). In this study the global expression of genes in C. trachomatis A, D and L2, which are responsible for different chlamydial diseases, was investigated using a proteomics approach. Based on silver stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), gels with purified elementary bodies (EB) and auto-radiography of gels with 35S-labeled C. trachomatis proteins up to 700 protein spots were detectable within the range of the immobilized pH gradient (IPG) system used. Using mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing followed by database searching we identified 250 C. trachomatis proteins from purified EB of which 144 were derived from different genes representing 16% of the ORFs predicted from the C. trachomatis D genome and the 7.5 kb C. trachomatis plasmid. Important findings include identification of proteins from the type III secretion apparatus, enzymes from the central metabolism and confirmation of expression of 25 hypothetical ORFs and five polymorphic membrane proteins. Comparison of serovars generated novel data on genetic variability as indicated by electrophoretic variation and potentially important examples of serovar specific differences in protein abundance. The availability of the complete genome made it feasible to map and to identify proteins of C. trachomatis on a large scale and the integration of our data in a 2-D PAGE database will create a basis for post genomic research, important for the understanding of chlamydial development and pathogenesis.

  2. Evaluation of a High Resolution Genotyping Method for Chlamydia trachomatis Using Routine Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Skilton, Rachel J.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Andrews, Emma; Clarke, Ian N.; Marsh, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Background Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the genitourinary genotypes D–K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA) sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing. Principal Findings We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or “MLVA-ompA”) to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche) PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43%) were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59%) were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D) in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types. Conclusions Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks. PMID:21347295

  3. Development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Stephen, Hannah; Alexander, Sarah; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    We have developed and validated a nested real-time PCR (NRT-PCR) for the genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis and used it specifically for the typing of either eight genovars from D to K or three genovars of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). The 11 probes used in the NRT-PCR correctly identified the DNA from D to K and LGV reference strains and did not cross-react with the DNA from 26 strains representing the bacterial pathogens and commensals of the oropharynx, genital tract, and rectum. The NRT-PCR had a 95% probability of detection at four genome copies (confidence interval, three to six copies) of C. trachomatis per reaction. One hundred cervical and urethral swab specimens containing C. trachomatis DNA from 63 women and 37 men were used to validate the method. The results from the NRT-PCR and the DNA sequencing of amplicons generated from the omp1 gene showed 100% correlation for these samples. The assay also identified the LGV-II genotype in 24 of 48 rectal swab specimens containing C. trachomatis DNA that were obtained from men having sex with men. The Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Laboratory, London, independently confirmed these results using group-specific LGV real-time PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Compared with the NRT-PCR, non-NRT-PCR was found to be less sensitive: it typed C. trachomatis DNA in only 80% of the genital samples and 90% of the rectal swab samples. This is the first successful demonstration of the use of real-time PCR for the genotype-specific typing of C. trachomatis strains that cause sexually transmitted diseases.

  4. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening…

  5. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  6. Interferon-induced inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis: dissociation from antiviral and antiproliferative effects.

    PubMed Central

    de la Maza, L M; Peterson, E M; Goebel, J M; Fennie, C W; Czarniecki, C W

    1985-01-01

    The yield of infectious Chlamydia trachomatis was analyzed in human (HeLa) and mouse (McCoy) cell lines treated with the human interferon (IFN) subtypes IFN-alpha A and IFN-alpha D, with their hybrids [IFN-alpha AD (BglII), IFN-alpha AD (PvuII), and IFN-alpha DA (BglII)] constructed in vitro from their expression plasmids, or with IFN-beta 1 or buffy coat IFN. In HeLa cells, a significant inhibition of Chlamydia infectivity was obtained with IFN-alpha D, IFN-alpha DA (BglII), and buffy coat IFN. In McCoy cells, IFN-alpha AD (BglII) and IFN-alpha AD (PvuII) induced a strong degree of inhibition of Chlamydia infectivity. In McCoy cells, there was a correlation among the antichlamydial, antiviral, and antiproliferative activities of the different IFNs tested. In HeLa cells, however, the ability of a particular IFN subtype to inhibit Chlamydia infectivity did not always correlate with its inhibitory effects on encephalomyocarditis virus replication or with its antiproliferative activity. PMID:3972450

  7. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis: important relationships to race, contraception, lower genital tract infection, and Papanicolaou smear.

    PubMed

    Shafer, M A; Beck, A; Blain, B; Dole, P; Irwin, C E; Sweet, R; Schachter, J

    1984-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease in adolescent girls. Of 366 adolescent patients screened, 15.3% were found to have chlamydial endocervical infections, with an infection rate of 23.3% in blacks, 14.3% in Hispanics, and 10.3% in whites (P = 0.01, excess for blacks). Of Chlamydia-positive patients, 63.6% had a diagnosis of lower genital tract infection, compared with 35.4% of Chlamydia-negative patients (P = 0.004). Oral contraceptive users had a higher prevalence of infection (23.8%) compared with those using a barrier method (16.2%) or with nonusers (9.3%) (P = 0.004). Inflammatory changes on Papanicolaou smears were associated with chlamydial infection (P = 0.0001). Other variables identified as risk factors for chlamydial infection included both a younger age at first intercourse (P = 0.02) and more years of sexual activity (P = 0.02). Chronologic, menarchal, and gynecologic age, biologic age of the cervix, the number of sexual partners in the last month and during a lifetime, and parity were not found to be associated with recovery of Chlamydia.

  9. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women: relationship to history, contraception, and cervicitis.

    PubMed

    Bontis, J; Vavilis, D; Panidis, D; Theodoridis, T; Konstantinidis, T; Sidiropoulou, A

    1994-12-01

    The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was examined in 400 endocervical samples collected from an equal number of asymptomatic sexually active women. The overall prevalence was found to be 4%, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chlamydia infection was correlated with younger age (5.8%, p < 0.05), a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (30%, p < 0.0001), and more than four lifetime sexual partners (7.9%, p < 0.01). Women who used oral contraception had more infections (9.7%), than did women who used the intrauterine contraceptive device (4.8%, p > 0.05), condom (0%, p < 0.01) or no contraception (3.1%, p < 0.05). Infection was strongly associated with cervical erythema (8.2%, p < 0.0001), ectopy (7%, p < 0.05), friability (20%, p < 0.0001), and endocervical discharge (100%, p < 0.0001). These results support the view that Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with younger age, intense sexual life, and use of oral contraceptives. Given that the majority of infected women revealed cervical pathology, the detection of chlamydia in the high-risk female population with cervical changes seems to be essential.

  10. Sexual behavior and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic students in Germany and Spain.

    PubMed

    Stock, C; Guillén-Grima, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L; Serrano-Monzo, I; Marin-Fernandez, B; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Krämer, A

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess patterns of sexual activity, preventive behaviors, contraceptive use, and the prevalence of chlamydia infection in student populations from two countries. 188 asymptomatic students of the University of Bielefeld, Germany and 590 students of the Navarra Public University, Spain were surveyed using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Urine samples were analyzed by ligase chain reaction technique for chlamydia infection. Compared to German students, Spanish students were less likely to have more than one sex partner within the last 12 months (OR: 0.62; CI: 0.46-0.83), to have sexual intercourse more than one time per week (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to use oral contraceptives (OR: 0.16; CI: 0.10-0.26). They reported a higher use of condoms (OR: 2.93; CI: 2.01-4.27) and were more likely to always use condoms with a new sex partner (OR: 2.47; CI: 1.72-3.53). The prevalence of chlamydia infection was considerably higher in German students (5.8% [corrected] in females; 2.2% in males) than in Spanish students, where no case was found. The higher frequency of sexual activity, a higher engagement in risk-taking sexual behavior and the lower use of barrier contraceptives may contribute to the higher prevalence of chlamydia infection in German students.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  12. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Federal Prisoners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    urine collection and pelvic examination. Specimens were analyzed at the Johns Hopkins University Chlamydia laboratory using strand displacement... urine were also compared between the two sites. Results: CT infection was found in 1.3% of the participants at one site where women are screened ...89 Table 2: Results of Laboratory Tests at the Screening And Non- Screening Prison

  13. Enhanced Direct Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Self-Antigen Presentation Induced by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Cram, Erik D; Simmons, Ryan S; Palmer, Amy L; Hildebrand, William H; Rockey, Daniel D; Dolan, Brian P

    2015-11-23

    The direct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway ensures intracellular peptides are displayed at the cellular surface for recognition of infected or transformed cells by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and, as such, should be targeted by CD8(+) T cells. It is likely that Chlamydia spp. have evolved mechanisms to avoid the CD8(+) killer T cell responses by interfering with MHC class I antigen presentation. Using a model system of self-peptide presentation which allows for posttranslational control of the model protein's stability, we tested the ability of various Chlamydia species to alter direct MHC class I antigen presentation. Infection of the JY lymphoblastoid cell line limited the accumulation of a model host protein and increased presentation of the model-protein-derived peptides. Enhanced self-peptide presentation was detected only when presentation was restricted to defective ribosomal products, or DRiPs, and total MHC class I levels remained unaltered. Skewed antigen presentation was dependent on a bacterial synthesized component, as evidenced by reversal of the observed phenotype upon preventing bacterial transcription, translation, and the inhibition of bacterial lipooligosaccharide synthesis. These data suggest that Chlamydia spp. have evolved to alter the host antigen presentation machinery to favor presentation of defective and rapidly degraded forms of self-antigen, possibly as a mechanism to diminish the presentation of peptides derived from bacterial proteins.

  14. Resistance to a novel antichlamydial compound is mediated through mutations in Chlamydia trachomatis secY.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Eriksen, Steven G; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Suchland, Robert J; Putman, Timothy E; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert; Rockey, Daniel D

    2012-08-01

    A novel and quantitative high-throughput screening approach was explored as a tool for the identification of novel compounds that inhibit chlamydial growth in mammalian cells. The assay is based on accumulation of a fluorescent marker by intracellular chlamydiae. Its utility was demonstrated by screening 42,000 chemically defined compounds against Chlamydia caviae GPIC. This analysis led to the identification of 40 primary-hit compounds. Five of these compounds were nontoxic to host cells and had similar activities against both C. caviae GPIC and Chlamydia trachomatis. The inhibitory activity of one of the compounds, (3-methoxyphenyl)-(4,4,7-trimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-[1,2]dithiolo[3,4-C]quinolin-1-ylidene)amine (MDQA), was chlamydia specific and was selected for further study. Selection for resistance to MDQA led to the generation of three independent resistant clones of C. trachomatis. Amino acid changes in SecY, a protein involved in Sec-dependent secretion in Gram-negative bacteria, were associated with the resistance phenotype. The amino acids changed in each of the resistant mutants are located in the predicted central channel of a SecY crystal structure, based on the known structure of Thermus thermophilus SecY. These experiments model a process that can be used for the discovery of antichlamydial, anti-intracellular, or antibacterial compounds and has led to the identification of compounds that may have utility in both antibiotic discovery and furthering our understanding of chlamydial biology.

  15. Enhanced Direct Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Self-Antigen Presentation Induced by Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Erik D.; Simmons, Ryan S.; Palmer, Amy L.; Hildebrand, William H.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The direct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway ensures intracellular peptides are displayed at the cellular surface for recognition of infected or transformed cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and, as such, should be targeted by CD8+ T cells. It is likely that Chlamydia spp. have evolved mechanisms to avoid the CD8+ killer T cell responses by interfering with MHC class I antigen presentation. Using a model system of self-peptide presentation which allows for posttranslational control of the model protein's stability, we tested the ability of various Chlamydia species to alter direct MHC class I antigen presentation. Infection of the JY lymphoblastoid cell line limited the accumulation of a model host protein and increased presentation of the model-protein-derived peptides. Enhanced self-peptide presentation was detected only when presentation was restricted to defective ribosomal products, or DRiPs, and total MHC class I levels remained unaltered. Skewed antigen presentation was dependent on a bacterial synthesized component, as evidenced by reversal of the observed phenotype upon preventing bacterial transcription, translation, and the inhibition of bacterial lipooligosaccharide synthesis. These data suggest that Chlamydia spp. have evolved to alter the host antigen presentation machinery to favor presentation of defective and rapidly degraded forms of self-antigen, possibly as a mechanism to diminish the presentation of peptides derived from bacterial proteins. PMID:26597986

  16. Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Nicole; Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydophila abortus and Waddlia chondrophila cause abortion in ruminants. We investigated the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion. Results of immunohistochemical analyses were positive in 30 (70%) of 43 placentas from which Chlamydia-like DNA was amplified, which supports the role of Parachlamydia spp. in bovine abortion. PMID:18258043

  17. Detection of the surface-exposed 18-kilodalton binding protein in Chlamydia trachomatis by immunogold staining.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G J; Kaul, R; Sherburne, R; Wenman, W M

    1990-01-01

    Dot-blot analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs) with monospecific polyclonal antibodies demonstrated that the 18-kilodalton binding protein is surface exposed. Immunoelectron microscopy with whole serovar L2 EBs and ultrathin sections confirmed this finding. In addition, only the extracellular EBs and not the intracellular reticulate bodies were labeled with immunogold. Images PMID:2160947

  18. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5–11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent. PMID:26778053

  19. Management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults: evidence reviewed for the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Geisler, William M

    2007-04-01

    In April 2005, in preparation for the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines, the CDC convened an advisory group to examine recent abstracts and published literature addressing management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults. Key questions were posed and answered on the basis of quality of evidence and expert opinion. Clinical trials continue to demonstrate equivalent efficacy and tolerability of azithromycin and doxycycline regimens, and both remain recommended as first-line therapy in nonpregnant individuals. More data and clinical experience are available to support the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azithromycin in pregnant women, and, in the upcoming guidelines, azithromycin will be recommended as first-line therapy for such patients. Evidence is building that expedited partner therapy (EPT), with provision of treatment or a prescription, may be just as effective as or more effective than standard partner referral in ensuring partner treatment and preventing chlamydia recurrence in women. Although there are more studies needed and barriers to be addressed before its widespread use, EPT will be recommended as an option for partner management.

  20. Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses to Surface and Virulence-Associated Chlamydia abortus Proteins in Ovine and Human Abortions by Use of a Newly Developed Line Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Simnacher, Ulrike; Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maile, Julia; Soutschek, Erwin; Walder, Gernot; Boden, Katharina; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus is the causative agent of enzootic abortion of ewes and poses a significant zoonotic risk for pregnant women. Using proteomic analysis and gene expression library screening in a previous project, we identified potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis, of which nine were scrutinized here with a strip immunoassay. We have shown that aborting sheep exhibited a strong antibody response to surface (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G) and virulence-associated (CPAF, TARP, SINC) antigens. While the latter disappeared within 18 weeks following abortion in a majority of the animals, antibodies to surface proteins persisted beyond the duration of the study. In contrast, nonaborting experimentally infected sheep developed mainly antibodies to surface antigens (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G), all of which did not persist. We were also able to detect antibodies to these surface antigens in C abortus-infected women who had undergone septic abortion, whereas a group of shepherds and veterinarians with occupational exposure to C abortus-infected sheep revealed only sporadic immune responses to the antigens selected. The most specific antigen for the serodiagnosis of human C abortus infections was Pmp13G, which showed no cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae infecting humans. We suggest that Pmp13G-based serodiagnosis accomplished by the detection of antibodies to virulence-associated antigens such as CPAF, TARP, and SINC may improve the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal C abortus infections.

  1. Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses to Surface and Virulence-Associated Chlamydia abortus Proteins in Ovine and Human Abortions by Use of a Newly Developed Line Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Simnacher, Ulrike; Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maile, Julia; Soutschek, Erwin; Walder, Gernot; Boden, Katharina; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus is the causative agent of enzootic abortion of ewes and poses a significant zoonotic risk for pregnant women. Using proteomic analysis and gene expression library screening in a previous project, we identified potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis, of which nine were scrutinized here with a strip immunoassay. We have shown that aborting sheep exhibited a strong antibody response to surface (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G) and virulence-associated (CPAF, TARP, SINC) antigens. While the latter disappeared within 18 weeks following abortion in a majority of the animals, antibodies to surface proteins persisted beyond the duration of the study. In contrast, nonaborting experimentally infected sheep developed mainly antibodies to surface antigens (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G), all of which did not persist. We were also able to detect antibodies to these surface antigens in C. abortus-infected women who had undergone septic abortion, whereas a group of shepherds and veterinarians with occupational exposure to C. abortus-infected sheep revealed only sporadic immune responses to the antigens selected. The most specific antigen for the serodiagnosis of human C. abortus infections was Pmp13G, which showed no cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae infecting humans. We suggest that Pmp13G-based serodiagnosis accomplished by the detection of antibodies to virulence-associated antigens such as CPAF, TARP, and SINC may improve the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal C. abortus infections. PMID:27194684

  2. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the Chlamydia caviae elementary body and reticulate body forms.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Derek J; Adams, Nancy E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for significant diseases in humans and economically important domestic animals. These pathogens undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the environmentally stable elementary body (EB) and the replicative intracellular reticulate body (RB), a conversion that appears to require extensive regulation of protein synthesis and function. However, Chlamydia possess a limited number of canonical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation of proteins in bacteria has been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of post-translational control of protein function. We utilized 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with phosphoprotein staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to map the phosphoproteome of the EB and RB forms of Chlamydia caviae. Forty-two non-redundant phosphorylated proteins were identified (some proteins were present in multiple locations within the gels). Thirty-four phosphorylated proteins were identified in EBs, including proteins found in central metabolism and protein synthesis, Chlamydia-specific hypothetical proteins and virulence-related proteins. Eleven phosphorylated proteins were identified in RBs, mostly involved in protein synthesis and folding and a single virulence-related protein. Only three phosphoproteins were found in both EB and RB phosphoproteomes. Collectively, 41 of 42 C. caviae phosphoproteins were present across Chlamydia species, consistent with the existence of a conserved chlamydial phosphoproteome. The abundance of stage-specific phosphoproteins suggests that protein phosphorylation may play a role in regulating the function of developmental-stage-specific proteins and/or may function in concert with other factors in directing EB-RB transitions.

  3. Human guanylate binding proteins potentiate the anti-chlamydia effects of interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Tietzel, Illya; El-Haibi, Christelle; Carabeo, Rey A

    2009-08-04

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that are sensitive to pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. IFN-gamma-inducible murine p47 GTPases have been demonstrated to function in resistance to chlamydia infection in vivo and in vitro. Because the human genome does not encode IFN-gamma-inducible homologues of these proteins, the significance of the p47 GTPase findings to chlamydia pathogenesis in humans is unclear. Here we report a pair of IFN-gamma-inducible proteins, the human guanylate binding proteins (hGBPs) 1 and 2 that potentiate the anti-chlamydial properties of IFN-gamma. hGBP1 and 2 localize to the inclusion membrane, and their anti-chlamydial functions required the GTPase domain. Alone, hGBP1 or 2 have mild, but statistically significant and reproducible negative effects on the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis, whilst having potent anti-chlamydial activity in conjunction with treatment with a sub-inhibitory concentration of IFN-gamma. Thus, hGBPs appear to potentiate the anti-chlamydial effects of IFN-gamma. Indeed, depletion of hGBP1 and 2 in cells treated with IFN-gamma led to an increase in inclusion size, indicative of better growth. Interestingly, chlamydia species/strains harboring the full-length version of the putative cytotoxin gene, which has been suggested to confer resistance to IFN-gamma was not affected by hGBP overexpression. These findings identify the guanylate binding proteins as potentiators of IFN-gamma inhibition of C. trachomatis growth, and may be the targets of the chlamydial cytotoxin.

  4. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Scot P.; Rueden, Kelsey J.; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Cox, John V.; Belland, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g., FtsZ) and late (e.g., FtsI/Pbp3) components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with Escherichia coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components. PMID:26617598

  5. Impact of rapid diagnostic testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea on appropriate antimicrobial utilization in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Kaitlyn R; Dumkow, Lisa E; Draper, Heather M; Brandt, Kasey L; Whalen, David W; Egwuatu, Nnaemeka E

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged turnaround time of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) test results may delay time to notification and treatment of test-positive patients and result in unnecessary antimicrobial use in test-negative patients. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the impact of NG/CT rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) in an urban emergency department (ED) on treatment appropriateness, time to notification, and cost. Patients tested in December 2013-January 2014 (traditional group, n=200) were compared with those in December 2014-January 2015 (RDT group, n=200). There was a significant increase in treatment appropriateness in the RDT group, 72.5% versus 60% (P=0.008) and time to results notification was significantly faster (median 17.4 versus 51.5hours, P=0.010). Availability of test result prior to discharge was associated with increased treatment appropriateness (odds ratio, 22.65 [95% confidence interval, 2.86-179.68]). The RDT would save approximately $37,000 annually. These results support the use of NG/CT RDT to expand antimicrobial stewardship efforts within the ED.

  6. Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    PubMed Central

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs. PMID:20852194

  7. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    PubMed

    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  8. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    R. R. Ingalls, C. W. Andrews, Jr., A. M. Scurlock, and T. Darville . 2007. Plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce immune pathology...and protect against oviduct disease. J. Immunol. 179:4027-4034. 49 8. Darville , T., C. W. Andrews, Jr., and R. G. Rank. 2000. Does inhibition of...Sufficient IFN-gamma to Mediate Robust Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Infection. J. Immunol. 180:3375-3382. 19. Darville , T

  9. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men). Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019); fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p < 0.001). The asymptomatic nature of the infection resonated with respondents and was the commonest piece of information they picked up from their participation in the study. Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection. PMID:21192793

  10. CTL0511 from Chlamydia trachomatis Is a Type 2C Protein Phosphatase with Broad Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Claywell, Ja E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphorylation has become increasingly recognized for its role in regulating bacterial physiology and virulence. Chlamydia spp. encode two validated Hanks'-type Ser/Thr protein kinases, which typically function with cognate protein phosphatases and appear capable of global protein phosphorylation. Consequently, we sought to identify a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase partner for the chlamydial kinases. CTL0511 from Chlamydia trachomatis L2 434/Bu, which has homologs in all sequenced Chlamydia spp., is a predicted type 2C Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP2C). Recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged CTL0511 (rCTL0511) hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), a generic phosphatase substrate, in a MnCl2-dependent manner at physiological pH. Assays using phosphopeptide substrates revealed that rCTL0511 can dephosphorylate phosphorylated serine (P-Ser), P-Thr, and P-Tyr residues using either MnCl2 or MgCl2, indicating that metal usage can alter substrate preference. Phosphatase activity was unaffected by PP1, PP2A, and PP3 phosphatase inhibitors, while mutation of conserved PP2C residues significantly inhibited activity. Finally, phosphatase activity was detected in elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB) lysates, supporting a role for protein dephosphorylation in chlamydial development. These findings support that CTL0511 is a metal-dependent protein phosphatase with broad substrate specificity, substantiating a reversible phosphorylation network in C. trachomatis. IMPORTANCE Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and economically important animal species. Our work demonstrates that Chlamydia spp. produce a PP2C capable of dephosphorylating P-Thr, P-Ser, and P-Tyr and that Chlamydia trachomatis EBs and RBs possess phosphatase activity. In conjunction with the chlamydial Hanks'-type kinases Pkn1 and PknD, validation of CTL0511 fulfills the enzymatic requirements for a

  11. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally

    PubMed Central

    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  12. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally.

    PubMed

    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  13. Clinic‐based evaluation of Clearview Chlamydia MF for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal and cervical specimens from women at high risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Y‐P; Peeling, R W; Chen, X‐S; Gong, K‐L; Zhou, H; Gu, W‐M; Zheng, H‐P; Wang, Z‐S; Yong, G; Cao, W‐L; Shi, M‐Q; Wei, W‐H; Dai, X‐Q; Gao, X; Chen, Q; Mabey, D

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the performance of a rapid Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) test (Clearview Chlamydia MF) compared to the current “gold standard” (Roche Amplicor CT assay) test, and to assess acceptability of the tests to patients. Methods A total of 1497 women at sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics or re‐education centres in six urban cities (Shanghai, Nanjing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Fuzhou) in China participated in the study. Three vaginal and three cervical swabs were collected from each participant. Rapid CT tests were performed locally on the first vaginal and cervical swabs and the results were read independently by two staff members. The second and third swabs were randomised for performing the Roche CT assay at the National STD Reference Laboratory. Acceptability of the rapid tests to patients was determined by asking patients in clinics about their willingness to wait for the results. Results The prevalence of CT was 13.2% (197/1497), as determined by the Roche assay with cervical specimens. CT was detected in 78 vaginal and 127 cervical specimens by the rapid test and the positive rates determined with cervical specimens were significantly higher than those with vaginal specimens (p<0.001). There was good agreement between the results read by two independent staff for either vaginal or cervical specimens (both κ = 0.98, p<0.001). Sensitivities for vaginal and cervical specimens were 32.8% and 49.7%, respectively, and specificities were 99.2% and 97.9%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 85.7% for vaginal and 78.4% for cervical specimens. The vast majority of the patients (99.1%) were willing to wait up to two hours for the results. Conclusion Clearview Chlamydia MF, while yielding a rapid result and requiring minimal laboratory facilities, had unacceptably low sensitivity compared to a nucleic acid amplification test. Rapid tests yielding results within one hour are generally accepted by the clients. PMID

  14. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P < 0.001), as well as in retrospective studies (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.74–2.74, P < 0.001). Additionally, with a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for HPV and age, C. trachomatis infection was identified as an independent predictor of cervical cancer in 11 studies (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03–3.01, P = 0.04). Coinfection of human papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P < 0.001). A subgroup analysis based on histological type indicated an elevated risk for both squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 2.00–2.45, P < 0.001), and adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21–2.15, P = 0.001), in associated with C. trachomatis. Subgroup analysis by where C. trachomatis infection was detected showed a significantly higher risk of cervical cancer associated with C. trachomatis infection detected in serum (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 2.01–2.42, P < 0.001), cervical tissue blocks (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.21–6.83, P = 0

  15. Staining of surface antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 in tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, M; Brade, L; Fasske, E; Brade, H

    1992-01-01

    Surface labeling of chlamydial elementary and reticulate bodies in L929 cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L2 was monitored by using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against the major outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Different staining and fixation procedures were used to detect these surface antigens during the developmental cycle. Anti-major outer membrane protein MAb yielded a clear staining pattern of exclusively chlamydial inclusions independent of the fixation or staining technique used. Anti-LPS MAb gave a faint staining pattern of reticulate bodies when methanol fixation was used and showed that LPS was released from chlamydiae into the host cell cytoplasm and into the surroundings of the infected host cell. However, when paraformaldehyde-glutardialdehyde fixation was used, extracellular LPS staining was not observed. The data show that chlamydial LPS is loosely bound in the bacterial outer membrane but suggest that shedding of LPS is a fixation artifact. Images PMID:1398957

  16. Chlamydia felis: Lack of association between clinical signs and the presence of the cryptic plasmid.

    PubMed

    Gonsales, F F; Brandão, P E; Melville, P A; Zuniga, E; Benites, N R

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydia felis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects cats, causing severe conjunctivitis associated with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). In the present study, 186 cats from three non-commercial catteries in São Paulo, SP, Brazil were evaluated. The detection of Chlamydia felis was performed by PCR. The clinical severity was scored from 1 to 4, with a score of 4 as the most severe manifestation. The total occurrence of C. felis was of 18.82% (35/186) of cats overall, but notably, 58.06% (18/31) of infected cats originated from a single cattery. All animals harboring C. felis had URTD clinical signs and higher scores (3 and 4). In addition, C. felis occurrence was associated with the presence of cryptic plasmid. However, the virulence and clinical severity were not correlated.

  17. [Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1983-05-01

    1080 nonpregnant women ages 16-34 years, presenting for the 1st time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for Chlamydia trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptives (OCs). This was not because OC users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking OCs is greater. (author's)

  18. Localization by immunoelectron microscopy of antigens of Chlamydia psittaci suitable for diagnosis or vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Buendia, A J; Salinas, J; Sánchez, J; Gallego, M C; Rodolakis, A; Cuello, F

    1997-05-01

    Two different antigens of serotype 1 Chlamydia psittaci were localized using three immunoelectron microscopy techniques: non-embedding, pre-embedding and post-embedding. The antigens had previously been described as being of potential use in diagnosis (80-90 kDa protein region) and vaccine development (110 kDa protein). The results show a direct relationship between the protective capacity of the antigens and their surface localization on the elementary bodies, which are the infectious form of Chlamydia. The 80-90 kDa protein region is located on the surface of reticulate bodies but not of elementary bodies, where it was located periplasmically, while the 110 kDa protein occurs on the surface of both elementary and reticulate bodies.

  19. Improved isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from a low-prevalence population by using polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J P; Egerer, R M; Wiedbrauk, D L

    1993-02-01

    The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis was evaluated in our laboratory. Initial range-finding experiments demonstrated that the number of chlamydial inclusion bodies increased with increasing PEG concentrations. However, PEG concentrations above 10.5% became progressively more toxic to the McCoy cell monolayers. When 50 frozen clinical Chlamydia isolates were inoculated onto McCoy cell cultures with and without 7% PEG, the PEG-treated cultures produced three- to fivefold more chlamydial inclusions than cultures without PEG. This enhancement was also observed when 1,144 fresh clinical specimens from a low-prevalence population were tested. With fresh clinical specimens, PEG-treated cultures produced two- to sixfold more inclusions than standard cultures. The addition of 7% PEG to the chlamydial overlay medium significantly increased the number of inclusions in each culture, improved the sensitivity of the culture, and decreased the probability of missing a weakly positive specimen.

  20. Infrequent detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in a longitudinal study of women with treated cervical infection.

    PubMed Central

    Munday, P E; Thomas, B J; Gilroy, C B; Gilchrist, C; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine how often Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections are detected in women following completion of a currently recommended treatment regimen and the reason for recurrence. METHODS--A longitudinal follow-up study of 43 initially C trachomatis-positive women for periods of up to two years. RESULTS--C trachomatis was detected in three women, 19, 16 and about four months, respectively after completion of treatment. All specimens from the other 40 women which were taken during visits two to seven, that is periods of three to 700 days after treatment, were chlamydia-negative. CONCLUSION--Although C trachomatis is usually eradicated from the genital tract by conventional treatment, occasionally it may be found again. It is difficult to determine whether detection after treatment is due to persistence or reinfection and further studies are required. PMID:7750948

  1. [Genitourethral infections caused by D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Holló, Péter; Jókai, Hajnalka; Herszényi, Krisztina; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2015-01-04

    Sexually transmitted infections of the urogenital tract are most commonly caused by the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide, resulting the clinical picture of acute urethritis in men as well as urethritis and endocervicitis in women. As women often present with few symptoms only or a completely symptom-free disease course, one of the most important long-term complications is chronic pelvic inflammatory disease often followed by the development of infertility caused by chronic scar formation. Well-organized screening programs are considered to have a leading role in the prevention of disease spreading and long lasting unwanted complications. Antibiotic treatment options are often influenced by special circumstances, such as pregnancy and several complicated clinical forms. The aims of the authors are to give a concise review on the current knowledge regarding Chlamydia trachomatis infections and summarize typical clinical signs, modern diagnostic techniques as well as accepted treatment protocols and basic aspects of screening.

  2. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  3. Waddlia: An emerging pathogen and a model organism to study the biology of chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Fréderic; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila is an emerging pathogen associated with abortion in cattle. In humans, a growing body of evidence supports its pathogenic role in miscarriage and in respiratory tract infection. The human pathogenicity of W. chondrophila is further supported by the presence of several virulence factors including a catalase, a functional T3SS and several adhesins. Despite this medical importance, no commercial tests are available and diagnostic of this strict intracellular bacterium mainly relies on serology, PCR and immunohistochemistry. So far, the epidemiology of W. chondrophila remains largely unexplored and zoonotic, waterborne or interhuman transmission has been considered. Apart from its pathogenic role, chlamydiologists are also interested in W. chondrophila in order to better understand biological mechanisms conserved and shared with Chlamydia spp. Indeed, W. chondrophila proved to be a useful model organism to study the pathobiology of chlamydiae thanks to its rapid replication, its large size allowing precise subcellular protein localization, as well as its growth in Dictyostelium amoebae.

  4. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up.

  5. Behavioral and Community Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Chlamydia Rates in Rural Counties in Minnesota1

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Methods Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15–19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota’s 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n=66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Findings Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. Conclusions This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  6. Unknown sequence amplification: Application to in vitro genome walking in Chlamydia trachomatis L2

    SciTech Connect

    Copley, C.G.; Boot, C.; Bundell, K.; McPheat, W.L. )

    1991-01-01

    A recently described technique, Chemical Genetics' unknown sequence amplification method, which requires only one specific oligonucleotide, has broadened the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction to DNA of unknown sequence. The authors have adapted this technique to the study of the genome of Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, and describe modifications that significantly improve the utility of this approach. These techniques allow for rapid genomic analysis entirely in vitro, using DNA of limited quantity of purity.

  7. AP-1 Transcription Factor Serves as a Molecular Switch between Chlamydia pneumoniae Replication and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, S.; Crauwels, P.; Bohn, R.; Radzimski, C.; Szaszák, M.; Klinger, M.; Rupp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes acute or chronic respiratory infections. As obligate intracellular pathogens, chlamydiae efficiently manipulate host cell processes to ensure their intracellular development. Here we focused on the interaction of chlamydiae with the host cell transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and its consequence on chlamydial development. During Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, the expression and activity of AP-1 family proteins c-Jun, c-Fos, and ATF-2 were regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We observed that the c-Jun protein and its phosphorylation level significantly increased during C. pneumoniae development. Small interfering RNA knockdown of the c-Jun protein in HEp-2 cells reduced the chlamydial load, resulting in smaller inclusions and significantly lower chlamydial recovery. Furthermore, inhibition of the c-Jun-containing AP-1 complexes using tanshinone IIA changed the replicative infection phenotype into a persistent one. Tanshinone IIA-dependent persistence was characterized by smaller, aberrant inclusions, a strong decrease in the chlamydial load, and significantly reduced chlamydial recovery, as well as by the reversibility of the reduced recovery after the removal of tanshinone IIA. Interestingly, not only was tanshinone IIA treatment accompanied by a significant decrease of ATP levels, but fluorescence live cell imaging analysis by two-photon microscopy revealed that tanshinone IIA treatment also resulted in a decreased fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NAD(P)H inside the chlamydial inclusion, indicating that chlamydial reticulate bodies have decreased metabolic activity. In all, these data demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor is involved in C. pneumoniae development, with tanshinone IIA treatment resulting in persistence. PMID:25895972

  8. Tryptophan Codon-Dependent Transcription in Chlamydia pneumoniae during Gamma Interferon-Mediated Tryptophan Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Rueden, Kelsey J.; Rucks, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In evolving to an obligate intracellular niche, Chlamydia has streamlined its genome by eliminating superfluous genes as it relies on the host cell for a variety of nutritional needs like amino acids. However, Chlamydia can experience amino acid starvation when the human host cell in which the bacteria reside is exposed to interferon gamma (IFN-γ), which leads to a tryptophan (Trp)-limiting environment via induction of the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The stringent response is used to respond to amino acid starvation in most bacteria but is missing from Chlamydia. Thus, how Chlamydia, a Trp auxotroph, responds to Trp starvation in the absence of a stringent response is an intriguing question. We previously observed that C. pneumoniae responds to this stress by globally increasing transcription while globally decreasing translation, an unusual response. Here, we sought to understand this and hypothesized that the Trp codon content of a given gene would determine its transcription level. We quantified transcripts from C. pneumoniae genes that were either rich or poor in Trp codons and found that Trp codon-rich transcripts were increased, whereas those that lacked Trp codons were unchanged or even decreased. There were exceptions, and these involved operons or large genes with multiple Trp codons: downstream transcripts were less abundant after Trp codon-rich sequences. These data suggest that ribosome stalling on Trp codons causes a negative polar effect on downstream sequences. Finally, reassessing previous C. pneumoniae microarray data based on codon content, we found that upregulated transcripts were enriched in Trp codons, thus supporting our hypothesis. PMID:27400720

  9. Identifying a need for more focused treatment of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sean P; Knych, McKenna; Iordanova, Rossitza; Mahan, Meredith; Vohra, Taher

    2016-10-01

    The indolent nature of chlamydia and gonorrhoea, along with the time delay associated with current diagnostic testing, makes definitive diagnosis while in the emergency department impossible. We therefore sought to determine the proportion of patients who receive accurate, presumptive antimicrobial treatment for these infections. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patient encounters that underwent chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing at an urban emergency department during a single month in 2012. Each encounter was reviewed for nucleic acid amplification test results and whether presumptive antibiotics were given during the initial visit. A total of 639 patient encounters were reviewed; 87.2% were female and the mean age was 26.7 years. Chlamydia was present in 11.1%, with women and men having similar infection rates: 10.6% vs. 14.6% (p = 0.277). Gonorrhoea was present in 5.0%, with a lower prevalence among women than men: 3.2% vs. 17.1% (p < 0.001). Women received presumptive treatment less often than men: 37.7% vs. 82.9% (p < 0.001). Presumptive treatment was less accurate in women than men: 7.9% vs. 25.6% (p < 0.001). After combining genders, 10.2% received accurate presumptive treatment; 33.3% were overtreated and 4.4% missed treatment. Presumptive treatment for chlamydia and gonorrhoea was more frequent and more accurate in men than in women. Overall, one-third of patients received unnecessary antibiotics, yet nearly 5% missed treatment. Better methods are needed for identifying patients who need treatment.

  10. Use of monoclonal antibodies to facilitate identification, cloning, and purification of Chlamydia trachomatis hsp10.

    PubMed Central

    LaVerda, D; Byrne, G I

    1997-01-01

    As a requisite for a physiological and immunological investigation, reagents were developed that facilitated the identification and purification of Chlamydia trachomatis hsp10 (chsp10). Monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize chsp10 were generated with multiple-antigen peptides (MAPs) to promote recognition of Chlamydia-specific epitopes. MAP2, containing amino acids 54 to 69 of the hsp10 sequence, elicited strong antibody responses after immunization of BALB/c mice. Monoclonal antibodies from several cloned hybridomas reacted on immunoblots with an approximately 15-kDa chlamydial protein and recombinant chsp10. Because of its strict specificity for chsp10, monoclonal antibody M1.2 was selected for routine use. M1.2 reacted by immunoblot with the hsp10s of several C. trachomatis strains but not with Chlamydia psittaci hsp10 or Escherichia coli homolog GroES, suggesting that M1.2 recognizes a species-specific epitope. Recombinant chsp10 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with M1.2. For large-scale purification, chsp10 was appended with a C-terminal six-histidine tag for purification by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. The hypA gene encoding the chsp10 of C. trachomatis serovar E/Bour was cloned into the pQE-60 vector (QIAGEN, Inc.) following PCR amplification from genomic DNA. E. coli DH5 transformants were screened for chsp10 expression by colony immunoblotting with M1.2, were tested for nickel matrix binding, and were sequenced. The sequence of serovar E/Bour chsp10 was found to be closely homologous to those of hsp10s of other chlamydiae. Purified chsp10 and specific anti-chsp10 monoclonal antibodies will be useful for investigating the biological and immunological roles of hsp10 in chlamydial infections. PMID:9114409

  11. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M.; Marriott, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically using a Framework approach. Results: Perceived benefits of self-testing included its being convenient, anonymous and not requiring physical examination. There was concern about test accuracy and some participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independently of formal health care systems may no more negatively impact people than being tested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions. PMID:27417613

  12. Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis vacuole correlates with host-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Philippe; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Ying, Songmin; Hansen, Jon; Häcker, Georg; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2006-05-01

    Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly in a vacuole called an inclusion. Chlamydial-infected host cells are protected from mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, partly due to degradation of BH3-only proteins. The host-cell adapter protein 14-3-3beta can interact with host-cell apoptotic signaling pathways in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells, 14-3-3beta co-localizes to the inclusion via direct interaction with a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion membrane protein. We therefore explored the possibility that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway may contribute to resistance of infected cells to apoptosis. We found that inhibition of PI3K renders C. trachomatis-infected cells sensitive to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, which is accompanied by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. 14-3-3beta does not associate with the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion, and inhibition of PI3K does not affect protection against apoptosis of C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, the PI3K pathway activates AKT/protein kinase B, which leads to maintenance of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD in a phosphorylated state. Phosphorylated BAD is sequestered via 14-3-3beta to the inclusion, but it is released when PI3K is inhibited. Depletion of AKT through short-interfering RNA reverses the resistance to apoptosis of C. trachomatis-infected cells. BAD phosphorylation is not maintained and it is not recruited to the inclusion of Chlamydia muridarum, which protects poorly against apoptosis. Thus, sequestration of BAD away from mitochondria provides C. trachomatis with a mechanism to protect the host cell from apoptosis via the interaction of a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion protein with a host-cell phosphoserine-binding protein.

  13. The effect of financial incentives on chlamydia testing rates: evidence from a randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    Financial incentives have been used in a variety of settings to motivate behaviors that might not otherwise be undertaken. They have been highlighted as particularly useful in settings that require a single behavior, such as appointment attendance or vaccination. They also have differential effects based on socioeconomic status in some applications (e.g. smoking). To further investigate these claims, we tested the effect of providing different types of non-cash financial incentives on the return rates of chlamydia specimen samples amongst 16-24 year-olds in England. In 2011 and 2012, we ran a two-stage randomized experiment involving 2988 young people (1489 in Round 1 and 1499 in Round 2) who requested a chlamydia screening kit from Freetest.me, an online and text screening service run by Preventx Limited. Participants were randomized to control, or one of five types of financial incentives in Round 1 or one of four financial incentives in Round 2. We tested the effect of five types of incentives on specimen sample return; reward vouchers of differing values, charity donation, participation in a lottery, choices between a lottery and a voucher and including vouchers of differing values in the test kit prior to specimen return. Financial incentives of any type, did not make a significant difference in the likelihood of specimen return. The more deprived individuals were, as calculated using Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), the less likely they were to return a sample. The extent to which incentive structures influenced sample return was not moderated by IMD score. Non-cash financial incentives for chlamydia testing do not seem to affect the specimen return rate in a chlamydia screening program where test kits are requested online, mailed to requestors and returned by mail. They also do not appear more or less effective in influencing test return depending on deprivation level.

  14. An econometric analysis of screening and treatment of patients with suspected Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Manouche; Craig, Ann-Marie; Malek, Mo

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is probably the most common sexually transmitted disease in the Western industrialised countries with devastating consequences. However, it is an infection that can be so easily treated. There are over 50 million new cases occurring each year. In the United States chlamydia is seen as the most common and costly of the bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD), with approximately 4 million new cases occurring each year at an estimated total cost of $2.4 billion. The characteristic of this infection is its difficulty of detection that promotes its spread and making its prediction rather complex. Chlamydial infections are commonly asymptomatic or cause mild or non-specific symptoms and signs, which are not easily detected. Approximately 70% of women with endocervical infections and up to 50% of men with urethral infections are asymptomatic and thus not likely to seek medical care. Chlamydia has become known as the "silent epidemic". It is the more frequently identifiable single cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), occurring in an estimated 15-40% of women. The primary objective of the study was to identify factors and quantify their contribution to the risk of being infected with Chlamydia and to construct an easy to use friendly method for early detection. The importance of developing some means of early detection is vital and previous studies suggest that selective screening might be one solution. A logit model was fitted to three broad variables: behavioural, patients' characteristics, and signs/symptoms noted by patient. The age of the women, the number of sexual partners over the past year, previous history of sexually transmitted disease, the use of barrier contraception and patients' and their partners' signs and symptoms were found to be among the most important variables. Such a model should allow patients who are in a high-risk category, allowing appropriate treatment.

  15. Influence of temperature, medium, and storage duration on Chlamydia trachomatis DNA detection by PCR.

    PubMed

    van Dommelen, Laura; Wolffs, Petra F G; van Tiel, Frank H; Dukers, Nicole; Herngreen, Selma B; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2013-03-01

    We validated the use of stored samples for Chlamydia trachomatis research. C. trachomatis DNA was detected by real-time PCR in clinical (urine and self-taken vaginal swabs) and spiked samples using six different media, five different time points (up to 2 years), and four different temperature conditions. C. trachomatis was detected in all 423 samples, and no clinically relevant degradation impact was detected.

  16. Interleukin-10 Modulates Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells through Regulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Assembly during Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Omosun, Yusuf; McKeithen, Danielle; Ryans, Khamia; Kibakaya, Caroline; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Li, Duo; Singh, Rajesh; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Eko, Francis; Black, Carolyn; Igietseme, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated in susceptibility to genital chlamydial infection and the development of tubal pathologies. IL-10 limitation also resulted in the rapid elicitation of immune responses against Chlamydia, and decreased levels of IL-10 correlated with protective anti-Chlamydia immunity. To investigate the molecular basis for these effects, we compared the reproductive pathologies and fertility rates in Chlamydia-infected wild-type (WT) and IL-10-knockout (IL-10−/−) mice; we also analyzed the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily, IL-1β production, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, and the immunostimulatory capacity and apoptotic predilection of Chlamydia-exposed dendritic cells (DCs) from WT and IL-10−/− mice. Our results revealed that, in addition to the rapid clearance of infection, genitally infected IL-10−/− mice were protected from tubal pathologies and infertility, whereas WT (IL-10+/+) mice were not. Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10−/− DCs expressed larger numbers of TLR4/IL-1R molecules and had enhanced IL-1β production. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly was suppressed in IL-10−/− DCs through the inhibition of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, and a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ levels, which inhibited DC apoptosis. Thus, the potent immunostimulatory capacity of IL-10-deficient DCs is due, at least in part, to the suppression of the intracellular inflammasome assembly, which prevents DC apoptosis, allowing efficient antigen presentation. The results indicate that IL-10 deficiency enables efficient antigen presentation by DCs for rapid and enhanced immune activation against Chlamydia, which results in rapid microbial clearance, which prevents tubal pathologies during infection. Our finding has important implications for the induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia and other infectious and noninfectious

  17. Porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 and Chlamydia suis to modelize ocular chlamydiosis.

    PubMed

    Käser, Tobias; Cnudde, Thomas; Hamonic, Glenn; Rieder, Meghanne; Pasternak, J Alex; Lai, Ken; Tikoo, Suresh K; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, François

    2015-08-15

    Human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections can lead to trachoma, the major cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Trachoma control strategies are very helpful but logistically challenging, and a trachoma vaccine is needed but not available. Pigs are a valuable large animal model for various immunological questions and could facilitate the study of human ocular chlamydial infections. In addition, a recent study identified the zoonotic potential of Chlamydia suis, the natural pathogen of pigs. In terms of the One Health Initiative, understanding the host-pathogen-interactions and finding a vaccine for porcine chlamydia infections would also benefit human health. Thus, we infected the porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 with C. suis and analyzed the chlamydial life cycle and the innate immune response of the infected cells. Our results indicate that C. suis completes its life cycle in VIDO R1 cells within 48 h, comparable to C. trachomatis in humans. C. suis infection of VIDO R1 cells led to increased levels of various innate immune mediators like pathogen recognition receptors, cytokines and chemokines including IL6, TNFα, and MMP9, also most relevant in human C. trachomatis infections. These results illustrate the first steps in the host-pathogen-interactions of ocular C. suis infections in pigs and show their similarity to C. trachomatis infections in humans, justifying further testing of pigs as an animal model for human trachoma.

  18. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.

    PubMed

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

    2014-11-13

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection.

  19. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  20. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in untreated women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a structured review.

    PubMed

    Risser, W L; Risser, J M H

    2007-11-01

    Because of the long-term consequences of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis screening depends in part on the incidence of PID in untreated, chlamydia-infected women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the original research assessing the incidence of PID following C. trachomatis infection. We conducted a thorough search of the literature and selected all available prospective cohort studies. Six studies had original data: the incidence of PID varied from 0% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] 0-12%) during one year of follow-up of 30 women to 30% (95% CI 12-54%) during 50 days of follow-up of 20 women. Studies that included asymptomatic women in other settings reported a lower incidence than those that evaluated women in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In conclusion, no study was of a size or quality to answer our research question definitively. Investigators and clinicians planning chlamydia-screening programmes need to be cognizant of the inconclusive incidence data.

  1. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Division Mode in the Bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia- Chlamydiae Superphylum.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Canosa, Inés; Devos, Damien P

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes.

  2. Architecture and host interface of environmental chlamydiae revealed by electron cryotomography

    PubMed Central

    Pilhofer, Martin; Aistleitner, Karin; Ladinsky, Mark S.; König, Lena; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chlamydiae comprise important pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria that alternate between morphologically and physiologically different life stages during their developmental cycle. Using electron cryotomography, we characterize the ultrastructure of the developmental stages of three environmental chlamydiae: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis. We show that chemical fixation and dehydration alter the cell shape of Parachlamydia and that the crescent body is not a developmental stage, but an artefact of conventional electron microscopy. We further reveal type III secretion systems of environmental chlamydiae at macromolecular resolution and find support for a chlamydial needle-tip protein. Imaging bacteria inside their host cells by cryotomography for the first time, we observe marked differences in inclusion morphology and development as well as host organelle recruitment between the three chlamydial organisms, with Simkania inclusions being tightly enveloped by the host endoplasmic reticulum. The study demonstrates the power of electron cryotomography to reveal structural details of bacteria–host interactions that are not accessible using traditional methods. PMID:24118768

  3. Targeted Disruption of Chlamydia trachomatis Invasion by in Trans Expression of Dominant Negative Tarp Effectors.

    PubMed

    Parrett, Christopher J; Lenoci, Robert V; Nguyen, Brenda; Russell, Lauren; Jewett, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis invasion of eukaryotic host cells is facilitated, in part, by the type III secreted effector protein, Tarp. The role of Tarp in chlamydiae entry of host cells is supported by molecular approaches that examined recombinant Tarp or Tarp effectors expressed within heterologous systems. A major limitation in the ability to study the contribution of Tarp to chlamydial invasion of host cells was the prior absence of genetic tools for chlamydiae. Based on our knowledge of Tarp domain structure and function along with the introduction of genetic approaches in C. trachomatis, we hypothesized that Tarp function could be disrupted in vivo by the introduction of dominant negative mutant alleles. We provide evidence that transformed C. trachomatis produced epitope tagged Tarp, which was secreted into the host cell during invasion. We examined the effects of domain specific Tarp mutations on chlamydial invasion and growth and demonstrate that C. trachomatis clones harboring engineered Tarp mutants lacking either the actin binding domain or the phosphorylation domain had reduced levels of invasion into host cells. These data provide the first in vivo evidence for the critical role of Tarp in C. trachomatis pathogenesis and indicate that chlamydial invasion of host cells can be attenuated via the introduction of engineered dominant negative type three effectors.

  4. Chlamydiae Assemble a Pathogen Synapse to Hijack the Host Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Dumoux, Maud; Clare, Daniel K; Saibil, Helen R; Hayward, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate within a specialized membrane-bound compartment, termed an ‘inclusion’. The inclusion membrane is a critical host–pathogen interface, yet the extent of its interaction with cellular organelles and the origin of this membrane remain poorly defined. Here we show that the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is specifically recruited to the inclusion, and that key rough ER (rER) proteins are enriched on and translocated into the inclusion. rER recruitment is a Chlamydia-orchestrated process that occurs independently of host trafficking. Generation of infectious progeny requires an intact ER, since ER vacuolation early during infection stalls inclusion development, whereas disruption post ER recruitment bursts the inclusion. Electron tomography and immunolabelling of Chlamydia-infected cells reveal ‘pathogen synapses’ at which ordered arrays of chlamydial type III secretion complexes connect to the inclusion membrane only at rER contact sites. Our data show a supramolecular assembly involved in pathogen hijack of a key host organelle. PMID:22901061

  5. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Division Mode in the Bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia- Chlamydiae Superphylum

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Canosa, Inés; Devos, Damien P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes. PMID:28018303

  6. Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Chlamydia muridarum Associated Inflammation in a Mouse Model Using Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manishkumar; Boddicker, Melissa A.; DeMaula, Christopher; Connolly, Brett; Bednar, Bohumil; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease with over 1.3 million cases reported to the CDC in 2010. While Chlamydia infection is easily treated with antibiotics, up to 70% of infections are asymptomatic and go untreated. The current mouse model relies on invasive upper genital tract gross pathology readouts at ~60–80 days postinfection. High throughput optical imaging through the use of biomarkers has been successfully used to quickly evaluate several disease processes. Here we evaluate Neutrophil Elastase 680 (Elastase680) for its ability to measure Chlamydia muridarum associated inflammation in live mice using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS). Optical imaging was able to distinguish with statistical significance between vaccinated and nonvaccinated mice as well as mock-challenged and challenged mice 2 weeks after challenge which was 9 weeks sooner than typical gross pathological assessment. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neutrophils and correlated well with both in vivo and ex vivo imaging. In this report we demonstrate that Elastase680 can be used as a molecular imaging biomarker for inflammation associated with chlamydial infection in a mouse model and that these biomarkers can significantly decrease the time for pathology evaluation and thus increase the rate of therapeutics discovery. PMID:26663988

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  8. Prevention of Chlamydia-Induced Infertility by Inhibition of Local Caspase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications. PMID:23303804

  9. Gamma Interferon Is Required for Optimal Antibody-Mediated Immunity against Genital Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naglak, Elizabeth K.; Morrison, Sandra G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the mechanisms of immunity conferred by the combination of antibody and CD4+ T cells is fundamental to designing an efficacious chlamydial vaccine. Using the Chlamydia muridarum genital infection model of mice, which replicates many features of human C. trachomatis infection and avoids the characteristic low virulence of C. trachomatis in the mouse, we previously demonstrated a significant role for antibody in immunity to chlamydial infection. We found that antibody alone was not protective. Instead, protection appeared to be conferred through an undefined antibody-cell interaction. Using gene knockout mice and in vivo cellular depletion methods, our data suggest that antibody-mediated protection is dependent on the activation of an effector cell population in genital tract tissues by CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cell-secreted cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was found to be a key component of the protective antibody response. The protective function of IFN-γ was not related to the immunoglobulin class or to the magnitude of the Chlamydia-specific antibody response or to recruitment of an effector cell population to genital tract tissue. Rather, IFN-γ appears to be necessary for activation of the effector cell population that functions in antibody-mediated chlamydial immunity. Our results confirm the central role of antibody in immunity to chlamydia reinfection and demonstrate a key function for IFN-γ in antibody-mediated protection. PMID:27600502

  10. Targeted Disruption of Chlamydia trachomatis Invasion by in Trans Expression of Dominant Negative Tarp Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Parrett, Christopher J.; Lenoci, Robert V.; Nguyen, Brenda; Russell, Lauren; Jewett, Travis J.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis invasion of eukaryotic host cells is facilitated, in part, by the type III secreted effector protein, Tarp. The role of Tarp in chlamydiae entry of host cells is supported by molecular approaches that examined recombinant Tarp or Tarp effectors expressed within heterologous systems. A major limitation in the ability to study the contribution of Tarp to chlamydial invasion of host cells was the prior absence of genetic tools for chlamydiae. Based on our knowledge of Tarp domain structure and function along with the introduction of genetic approaches in C. trachomatis, we hypothesized that Tarp function could be disrupted in vivo by the introduction of dominant negative mutant alleles. We provide evidence that transformed C. trachomatis produced epitope tagged Tarp, which was secreted into the host cell during invasion. We examined the effects of domain specific Tarp mutations on chlamydial invasion and growth and demonstrate that C. trachomatis clones harboring engineered Tarp mutants lacking either the actin binding domain or the phosphorylation domain had reduced levels of invasion into host cells. These data provide the first in vivo evidence for the critical role of Tarp in C. trachomatis pathogenesis and indicate that chlamydial invasion of host cells can be attenuated via the introduction of engineered dominant negative type three effectors. PMID:27602332

  11. Plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce immune pathology and protect against oviduct disease.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Catherine M; Ingalls, Robin R; Andrews, Charles W; Scurlock, Amy M; Darville, Toni

    2007-09-15

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the world. In women, genital infection can cause endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease with the severe sequelae of ectopic pregnancy or infertility. Chlamydia sp. do not damage tissues directly, but induce an injurious host inflammatory response at the infected site. In the murine model of genital disease with Chlamydia muridarum, TLR2 plays a role in both early production of inflammatory mediators and development of chronic oviduct pathology. We report the results of studies with plasmid-cured C. muridarum mutants that retain the ability to infect the murine genital tract, but fail to cause disease in the oviduct. These mutants do not stimulate TLR2-dependent cytokine production in mice, nor in innate immune cells or epithelial cells in vitro. They induce an effective Th1 immune response, with no evidence for Th1-immune-mediated collateral tissue damage. Furthermore, mice previously infected with the plasmid-deficient strains are protected against oviduct disease upon challenge with virulent C. muridarum. If plasmid-cured derivatives of human C. trachomatis biovars exhibit similar phenotypic characteristics, they have the potential to serve as vaccines to prevent human disease.

  12. Global Mapping of the Inc-Human Interactome Reveals that Retromer Restricts Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Mirrashidi, Kathleen M; Elwell, Cherilyn A; Verschueren, Erik; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Frando, Andrew; Von Dollen, John; Rosenberg, Oren; Gulbahce, Natali; Jang, Gwendolyn; Johnson, Tasha; Jäger, Stefanie; Gopalakrishnan, Anusha M; Sherry, Jessica; Dunn, Joe Dan; Olive, Andrew; Penn, Bennett; Shales, Michael; Cox, Jeffery S; Starnbach, Michael N; Derre, Isabelle; Valdivia, Raphael; Krogan, Nevan J; Engel, Joanne

    2015-07-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of genital and ocular infections for which no vaccine exists. Upon entry into host cells, C. trachomatis resides within a membrane-bound compartment—the inclusion—and secretes inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) that are thought to modulate the host-bacterium interface. To expand our understanding of Inc function(s), we subjected putative C. trachomatis Incs to affinity purification-mass spectroscopy (AP-MS). We identified Inc-human interactions for 38/58 Incs with enrichment in host processes consistent with Chlamydia's intracellular life cycle. There is significant overlap between Inc targets and viral proteins, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms among obligate intracellular microbes. IncE binds to sorting nexins (SNXs) 5/6, components of the retromer, which relocalizes SNX5/6 to the inclusion membrane and augments inclusion membrane tubulation. Depletion of retromer components enhances progeny production, revealing that retromer restricts Chlamydia infection. This study demonstrates the value of proteomics in unveiling host-pathogen interactions in genetically challenging microbes.

  13. Combination Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Prevents Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Macaques Harboring Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Radzio, Jessica; Henning, Tara; Jenkins, Leecresia; Ellis, Shanon; Farshy, Carol; Phillips, Christi; Holder, Angela; Kuklenyik, Susan; Dinh, Chuong; Hanson, Debra; McNicholl, Janet; Heneine, Walid; Papp, John; Kersh, Ellen N; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2016-05-15

    Genital inflammation associated with sexually transmitted infections increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is unclear whether the increased risk can reduce the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated whether coinfection of macaques with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis decreases the prophylactic efficacy of oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Macaques were exposed to simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) vaginally each week for up to 16 weeks and received placebo or FTC/TDF pericoitally. All animals in the placebo group were infected with SHIV, while 4 of 6 PrEP recipients remained uninfected (P= .03). Oral FTC/TDF maintains efficacy in a macaque model of sexually transmitted coinfection, although the infection of 2 macaques signals a modest loss of PrEP activity.

  14. Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Are Necessary for the Recruitment of CD8+ T Cells in the Liver in a Pregnant Mouse Model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Roberto Montes; Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Sánchez, Joaquín; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80+ cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8+ T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. PMID:10679002

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis ChxR is a transcriptional regulator of virulence factors that function in in vivo host pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfu; Kari, Laszlo; Sturdevant, Gail L; Song, Lihua; Patton, Michael John; Couch, Claire E; Ilgenfritz, Jillian M; Southern, Timothy R; Whitmire, William M; Briones, Michael; Bonner, Christine; Grant, Chris; Hu, Pinzhao; McClarty, Grant; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2017-03-22

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen characterized by a unique biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between infectious and non-infectious organisms. Chlamydial ChxR is a transcriptional activator that has been implicated in the regulation of the development cycle. We used a reverse genetics approach to generate three chxR null mutants. All three mutants grew normally in cultured mammalian cells. Whole genome sequencing identified SNPs in other genes, however, none of the mutated genes were common to all three ChxR null mutants arguing against a genetic compensatory mechanism that would explain the non-essential in vitro growth phenotype. Comparative proteomics identified five proteins, CT005, CT214, CT565, CT694 and CT695 that were significantly down regulated in all ChxR null mutants. This group includes established inclusion membrane and type III secreted proteins. ChxR transcriptional regulation of these genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Importantly, while ChxR null mutants exhibited no growth deficiencies in in vitro, they did show significant differences in in vivo growth using a mouse genital tract model. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that ChxR is a transcriptional activator that regulates the expression of virulence genes whose functions are restricted to in vivo infection.

  16. The risk of transmission of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is less than that of genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.

    PubMed

    Lycke, E; Löwhagen, G B; Hallhagen, G; Johannisson, G; Ramstedt, K

    1980-01-01

    A total of 211 men with 237 female sexual partners and a total of 155 women with 156 male consorts were examined for genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The index patients had either single chlamydial or gonococcal infections or dual infections with both microorganisms. Analysis of recovery rates for groups of sexual consorts indicated that gonorrhea was contracted more frequently than chlamydial infection. Thus, when index patients had dual infections, 45% and 28% of their female and male consorts, respectively, had chlamydial infection, but 64% and 77%, respectively, had gonorrhea. When index patients had single infections with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, chlamydial infections were observed in consorts of 45% (women) and 28% (men), but gonococcal infections were observed in 80% (women) and 81% (men). Moreover, a significantly larger proportion of consorts of patients with chlamydial infection eluded infection than did partners of patients with gonorrhea. Women who used an intrauterine contraceptive device had chlamydial and gonococcal infections more often than those who used other forms of contraception, or no contraceptive.

  17. Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection and predictive criteria among low-risk women in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ilknur; Cihanyurdu, Meral; Kaklikkaya, Nese; Topbas, Murat; Aydin, Faruk; Erturk, Murat

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young adult low-risk women attending either of two inner-city family planning clinics in Trabzon, the most densely populated city in Turkey's Black Sea region. The study group comprised 150 sexually active women attending either of two family planning clinics. Two endocervical swabs were collected from each woman and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis by tissue culture and a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the associations of clinical factors for predicting C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 19 of the samples (12.7%) by cell culture and in 15 (9.9%) by ELISA. None of the demographic characteristics could be associated with the state of infection, but the women preferring the withdrawal method for contraception accounted for a significantly higher percentage of the C. trachomatis-positive cases than women who used other contraceptive methods. The most frequent signs of cervical infection were vaginal discharge (RR = 4.86, 95% CI 1.60 and 14.79, P = 0.005) and cervical erosion (RR = 3.26, 95% CI 0.97 and 10.90, P = 0.056).

  18. Chlamydia prevalence and associated behaviours among female sex workers in Vanuatu: results from an integrated bio-behavioural survey, 2011.

    PubMed

    van Gemert, Caroline; Stoove, Mark; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bulu, Siula; Bergeri, Isabel; Wanyeki, Ian; Badman, Steve; Malverus, Jayline; Vella, Alyce; Tarivonda, Len; Johnston, Lisa Grazina

    2014-10-01

    There is insufficient data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) and related behaviours among key populations, including female sex workers (FSW), in the Pacific region. Using respondent driven sampling, we conducted an integrated bio-behavioural survey with FSW in Vanuatu (aged ≥18 years) to investigate risk behaviours associations with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Weighted population estimates and correlates of CT infection were calculated. Among 149 FSW, prevalence of CT was 36 % (95 % CI 26-48 %). Few FSW reported consistent condom use with recent transactional sex partners (TSP) (8 %; 95 % CI 2-13 %). CT infection was positively associated with increasing number of TSP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.1; 95 % CI 1.0-1.2) and group sex (AOR 2.9; 95 % CI 1.1-8.2). CT was negatively associated with increasing age of first sex (AOR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.9) and previous STI treatment (AOR 0.1; 95 % CI 0.0-0.4). A comprehensive public health strategy for prevention and treatment of STI among FSW, incorporating community empowerment strategies, FSW-targeted health services and periodic presumptive treatment, is urgently needed in Vanuatu.

  19. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population.

  20. Cell-to-cell contact of human monocytes with infected arterial smooth-muscle cells enhances growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Puolakkainen, Mirja; Campbell, Lee Ann; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Richards, Theresa; Patton, Dorothy L; Kuo, Cho-Chou

    2003-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect arterial cells. It has been shown that coculture of human monocytes (U937) and endothelial cells promotes infection of C. pneumoniae in endothelial cells and that the enhancement was mediated by a soluble factor (insulin-like growth factor 2) secreted by monocytes. In this study, it is shown that coculture of monocytes with C. pneumoniae enhances infection of C. pneumoniae in arterial smooth-muscle cells 5.3-fold at a monocyte-to-smooth-muscle cell ratio of 5. However, unlike endothelial cells, no enhancement was observed if monocytes were placed in cell culture inserts or if conditioned medium from monocyte cultures was used, which suggests that cell-to-cell contact is critical. The addition of mannose 6-phosphate or octyl glucoside, a nonionic detergent containing a sugar group, to cocultures inhibited the enhancement. These findings suggest that the monocyte-smooth-muscle cell interaction may be mediated by mannose 6-phosphate receptors present on monocytes.

  1. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in community-acquired pneumonia and exacerbations of COPD or asthma: therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Meloni, F; Paschetto, E; Mangiarotti, P; Crepaldi, M; Morosini, M; Bulgheroni, A; Fietta, A

    2004-02-01

    Rates of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were determined in 115 adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), purulent exacerbations of COPD and acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, by means of serology and molecular methods. Results were compared with those obtained in a matched control group. Common respiratory pathogens were isolated by cultures in 22.5% and 22.2% of CAP and exacerbated COPD patients, respectively. Cultures from exacerbated asthma patients were always negative. Serological and molecular evidence of current C. pneumoniae infection was obtained in 10.0%, 8.9% and 3.3% of CAP, COPD and asthma cases. The corresponding rates of acute M. pneumoniae infection were 17.5%, 6.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Finally, no difference was found between typical and atypical pathogen rates. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae infections in guiding the choice of empirical antibacterial treatment for CAP and purulent exacerbations of COPD.

  2. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction in endocervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR.

    PubMed

    Jenab, Anahita; Roghanian, Rasoul; Golbang, Naser; Golbang, Pouran; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

    2010-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the major cause of sexually transmitted disease in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the best method of DNA extraction for detecting C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in sexually active women (n = 80) attending Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women, 22 of whom were asymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Three different DNA extraction methods were used in this study (phenol-chlorophorm, proteinase K, and boiling). DNA yield was evaluated by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR. The internal control was assayed by beta-globin primers (PCO4, GH20). The DNA cryptic plasmid was selected as the target for C. trachomatis and samples were examined by PCR using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. It was shown that DNA extraction by boiling was the most sensitive with the highest yield of DNA. Of the 80 samples, 17 (21.25%) showed positivity for C. trachomatis by PCR. The highest rate of C. trachomatis infection was found in the group aged between 35 and 45 years old and those who used withdrawal or an intrauterine device as methods of contraception. It was demonstrated that DNA extraction by boiling was the least expensive and a very rapid method that gave the highest DNA yield. The infection rate in the sexually active women, including symptomatic and asymptomatic, was 21.25%, with a presumably high prevalence compared with other studies done in this field.

  3. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  4. [Serodiagnosis of chlamydiosis: "Chlamy-IgG-DS-Tr"-- the first domestic immunoenzyme recombinant test-system for determination of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis class G antibodies].

    PubMed

    Manzeniuk, I N; Vorob'eva, M S; Nikitiuk, N M; Fedosov, S A; Gorbunov, M A; Gnedoĭ, S N; Losev, V I; Krivenchuk, N A

    2000-01-01

    The first Native test-system for determination of class G antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis with chlamydia recombinant antigen was elaborated Test-system efficacy was demonstrated in clinical trials. The sensibility, specific activity and suitability of the "Chlamy-IgG-DS-Tr" were the same as for import analogous.

  5. The Influence of Two Different Invitation Letters on Chlamydia Testing Participation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoebe, Christian JPA; van Bergen, Jan EAM; Brouwers, Elfi EHG; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, screening for chlamydia (the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide) is a relatively simple and free procedure. Via an invitation letter sent by the public health services (PHS), people are asked to visit a website to request a test kit. They can then do a chlamydia test at home, send it anonymously to a laboratory, and, within two weeks, they can review their test results online and be treated by their general practitioner or the PHS. Unfortunately, the participation rates are low and the process is believed to be not (cost-) effective. Objective The objective of this study was to assess whether the low participation rate of screening for chlamydia at home, via an invitation letter asking to visit a website and request a test kit, could be improved by optimizing the invitation letter through systematically applied behavior change theories and evidence. Methods The original letter and a revised letter were randomly sent out to 13,551 citizens, 16 to 29 years old, in a Dutch municipality. Using behavior change theories, the revised letter sought to increase motivation to conduct chlamydia screening tests. The revised letter was tailored to beliefs that were found in earlier studies: risk perception, advantages and disadvantages (attitude), moral norm, social influence, and response- and self-efficacy. Revisions to the new letter also sought to avoid possible unwanted resistance caused when people feel pressured, and included prompts to trigger the desired behavior. Results No significant differences in test package requests were found between the two letters. There were also no differences between the original and revised letters in the rates of returned tests (11.80%, 581/4922 vs 11.07%, 549/4961) or positive test results (4.8%, 23/484 vs 4.1%, 19/460). It is evident that the new letter did not improve participation compared to the original letter. Conclusions It is clear that the approach of inviting the target

  6. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    PubMed

    De Puysseleyr, Kristien; De Puysseleyr, Leentje; Geldhof, Julie; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  7. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR for Chlamydia suis Diagnosis in Swine and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Geldhof, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates. PMID:24816542

  8. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to

  9. Is chlamydia screening and testing in Britain reaching young adults at risk of infection? Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H; Clifton, Soazig; Saunders, Pamela; da Silva, Filomeno; Alexander, Sarah; Wellings, Kaye; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of widespread opportunistic chlamydia screening among young adults, we aimed to quantify chlamydia testing and diagnosis among 16–24 year olds in Britain in relation to risk factors for prevalent chlamydia infection. Methods Using data from sexually experienced (≥1 lifetime sexual partner) 16-year-old to 24-year-old participants in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (conducted 2010–2012), we explored socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with prevalent chlamydia infection (detected in urine; n=1832), self-reported testing and self-reported diagnosis in the last year (both n=3115). Results Chlamydia prevalence was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2% to 4.3%) in women and 2.3% (1.5% to 3.4%) in men. A total of 12.3% of women and 5.3% men had a previous chlamydia diagnosis. Factors associated with prevalent infection were also associated with testing and diagnosis (eg, increasing numbers of sexual partners), with some exceptions. For example, chlamydia prevalence was higher in women living in more deprived areas, whereas testing was not. In men, prevalence was higher in 20–24 than 16–19 year olds but testing was lower. Thirty per cent of women and 53.7% of men with ≥2 new sexual partners in the last year had not recently tested. Conclusions In 2010–2012 in Britain, the proportion of young adults reporting chlamydia testing was generally higher in those reporting factors associated with chlamydia. However, many of those with risk factors had not been recently tested, leaving potential for undiagnosed infections. Greater screening and prevention efforts among individuals in deprived areas and those reporting risk factors for chlamydia may reduce undiagnosed prevalence and transmission. PMID:26290483

  10. The in-vitro activity of grepafloxacin against Chlamydia spp., Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma urealyticum and Legionella spp.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, G L; Salman, H; Robbins, M J; Dencer, C; Felmingham, D

    1997-12-01

    The activity of grepafloxacin, a new orally active fluoroquinolone, was compared with the activities of ofloxacin, clarithromycin and doxycycline against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, and with the activities of ofloxacin, clarithromycin and rifampicin against Legionella spp. Grepafloxacin (MIC range 0.06-0.12 mg/L) was some 8-16 times more active than ofloxacin against the chlamydiae, showing activity similar to that of doxycycline, and equal or two- to four-fold less active than clarithromycin. Grepafloxacin was four-fold more active than ofloxacin against M. pneumoniae (MIC 0.06-0.5 mg/L) and U. urealyticum (MIC 0.12-1.0 mg/L), but 16 times more active against M. hominis (MIC 0.015-0.05 mg/L). Grepafloxacin was highly active against Legionella spp. (MIC 0.008-0.03 mg/L), showing equivalent activity to ofloxacin, clarithromycin and rifampicin.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of chlamydia co-infection among patients infected with gonorrhoea at a sexual health clinic in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Templeton, David J; Manokaran, Niveditha; O'Connor, Catherine C

    2012-09-01

    Anogenital gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) is commonly diagnosed at sexual health clinics by on-site microscopy. Whether to add anti-chlamydial therapy in such situations is unclear. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea between May 2005 and April 2010 at RPA Sexual Health were reviewed. Of 165 patients diagnosed with anogenital gonorrhoea, 27 (16.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-22.9%) were co-infected with chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Compared with those only infected with anogenital gonorrhoea, there was no correlation of anogenital gonorrhoea-chlamydia co-infection with any demographic, behavioural or clinical variables examined. Anti-chlamydial therapy should be considered for all patients with gram stain diagnosed anogenital gonorrhoea at the initial clinic visit.

  12. Pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum challenge activates lung interstitial macrophages which correlate with IFN-γ production and infection control in mice.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Eric; Baglaenko, Yuriy; Prayitno, Nadia; Van Rooijen, Nico; Akram, Ali; Lin, Aifeng; Chiu, Basil; Inman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Protective immunity to the pathogen Chlamydia is dependent on a robust IFN-γ response generated by innate and adaptive lymphocytes. Here we assess the role of the macrophage in orchestrating a protective response in vivo to the murine pathogen, Chlamydia muridarum. During acute pulmonary and peritoneal infection, resident macrophages in both sites are infected with C. muridarum and adopt an inflammatory phenotype. In the lung, this activation is restricted to interstitial macrophages, which harbor higher levels of C. muridarum 16sRNA than alveolar macrophages. We examined innate and adaptive lymphocyte activation in the peritoneal cavity with macrophage depletion and with adoptive transfer of infected macrophages. These experiments demonstrate macrophage activation correlates with a protective IFN-γ response and effective control of C. muridarum. These studies suggest that a quantitative or qualitative alteration in macrophages may play a key role in the development of Chlamydia-associated diseases.

  13. Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Alexandra; Sting, Reinhard; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Tyczka, Judith; Sachse, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of chlamydiae in several mammalian host species. Clinical samples that previously tested positive in a Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR were retested using six species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify the chlamydial species involved. Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus was the agent most frequently found in cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected. DNA of two different chlamydiae was identified in 56 (12.7%) of 440 samples tested. Cp. felis was the predominant species found in cats, while in guinea pigs and rabbits only Cp. caviae was detected. Interestingly, the latter two pathogens were also identified in samples from dogs. The data show that mixed chlamydial infections are not rare and suggest an extended host range of individual species.

  14. Public health implications of molecular point-of-care testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in remote primary care services in Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, L; Guy, R J; Shephard, M; Whiley, D; Tabrizi, S N; Ward, J; Regan, D G; Badman, S G; Anderson, D A; Kaldor, J; Maher, L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives With accurate molecular tests now available for diagnosis of chlamydia and gonorrhoea (Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) at the point-of-care (POC), we aimed to explore the public health implications (benefits and barriers) of their integration into remote primary care in Australia. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants reflecting sexual health, primary care, remote Aboriginal health and laboratory expertise. Results Participants believed that POC testing may decrease community prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and associated morbidity by reducing the time to treatment and infectious period and expediting partner notification. Also, POC testing could improve acceptability of STI testing, increase testing coverage and result in more targeted prescribing, thereby minimising the risk of antibiotic resistance. Conversely, some felt the immediacy of diagnosis could deter certain young people from being tested. Participants also noted that POC testing may reduce the completeness of communicable disease surveillance data given the current dependence on reporting from pathology laboratories. Others expressed concern about the need to maintain and improve the flow of NG antibiotic sensitivity data, already compromised by the shift to nucleic acid-based testing. This is particularly relevant to remote areas where culture viability is problematic. Conclusions Results indicate a high level of support from clinicians and public health practitioners for wider access to CT/NG POC tests citing potential benefits, including earlier, more accurate treatment decisions and reductions in ongoing transmission. However, the data also highlight the need for new systems to avoid adverse impact on disease surveillance. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000808741. PMID:25922100

  15. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  16. Identification of the elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis in the electron microscope by an indirect immunoferritin technique.

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, C R; Richmond, S J; Caul, E O

    1975-01-01

    An indirect immunoferritin (IIF) technique is described for recognizing the elementary bodies (EB) of Chlamydia trachomatis in unsectioned preparations. Both the EB of a genital strain of C. trachomatis grown in irradiated McCoy cells and EB in clinical specimens obtained from patients attending a venereal disease clinic were identified by the IIF test in the electron microscope. Cell culture-grown EB were detected by ferritin staining for up to 4 weeks after the organisms had lost their infectivity for tissue cultures. The IIF test was of comparable sensitivity to isolation methods in detecting chlamydiae in clinical specimens. Other possible applications of the IIF technique are discussed. Images PMID:1102559

  17. Treatment of Chlamydia-associated ocular disease via a recombinant protein based vaccine in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Courtney; Austin, Ray; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are affected by debilitating chlamydial disease that can lead to blindness, infertility, and death. The causative agent is the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pecorum. While antibiotics can be used to treat koala chlamydial infection, they are often ineffective or cause severe dysbiosis to the animal's unique gut flora. Recent work has progressed on the development of a protective vaccine for Chlamydia in the koala. This study demonstrates that the use of a vaccine can have a positive effect in koalas already with clinical signs of ocular disease, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect and an alternative to antibiotic therapy.

  18. Dissemination and genetic diversity of chlamydial agents in Polish wildfowl: Isolation and molecular characterisation of avian Chlamydia abortus strains.

    PubMed

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Mitura, Agata; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Zaręba, Kinga; Jodełko, Agnieszka; Pluta, Aneta; Scharf, Sabine; Vitek, Bailey; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Laroucau, Karine; Schnee, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Wild birds are considered as a reservoir for avian chlamydiosis posing a potential infectious threat to domestic poultry and humans. Analysis of 894 cloacal or fecal swabs from free-living birds in Poland revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 14.8% (n = 132) with the highest prevalence noted in Anatidae (19.7%) and Corvidae (13.4%). Further testing conducted with species-specific real-time PCR showed that 65 samples (49.2%) were positive for C. psittaci whereas only one was positive for C. avium. To classify the non-identified chlamydial agents and to genotype the C. psittaci and C. avium-positive samples, specimens were subjected to ompA-PCR and sequencing (n = 83). The ompA-based NJ dendrogram revealed that only 23 out of 83 sequences were assigned to C. psittaci, in particular to four clades representing the previously described C. psittaci genotypes B, C, Mat116 and 1V. Whereas the 59 remaining sequences were assigned to two new clades named G1 and G2, each one including sequences recently obtained from chlamydiae detected in Swedish wetland birds. G1 (18 samples from Anatidae and Rallidae) grouped closely together with genotype 1V and in relative proximity to several C. abortus isolates, and G2 (41 samples from Anatidae and Corvidae) grouped closely to C. psittaci strains of the classical ABE cluster, Matt116 and M56. Finally, deep molecular analysis of four representative isolates of genotypes 1V, G1 and G2 based on 16S rRNA, IGS and partial 23S rRNA sequences as well as MLST clearly classify these isolates within the C. abortus species. Consequently, we propose an expansion of the C. abortus species to include not only the classical isolates of mammalian origin, but also avian isolates so far referred to as atypical C. psittaci or C. psittaci/C. abortus intermediates.

  19. Dissemination and genetic diversity of chlamydial agents in Polish wildfowl: Isolation and molecular characterisation of avian Chlamydia abortus strains

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Mitura, Agata; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Zaręba, Kinga; Jodełko, Agnieszka; Pluta, Aneta; Scharf, Sabine; Vitek, Bailey; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Laroucau, Karine; Schnee, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Wild birds are considered as a reservoir for avian chlamydiosis posing a potential infectious threat to domestic poultry and humans. Analysis of 894 cloacal or fecal swabs from free-living birds in Poland revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 14.8% (n = 132) with the highest prevalence noted in Anatidae (19.7%) and Corvidae (13.4%). Further testing conducted with species-specific real-time PCR showed that 65 samples (49.2%) were positive for C. psittaci whereas only one was positive for C. avium. To classify the non-identified chlamydial agents and to genotype the C. psittaci and C. avium-positive samples, specimens were subjected to ompA-PCR and sequencing (n = 83). The ompA-based NJ dendrogram revealed that only 23 out of 83 sequences were assigned to C. psittaci, in particular to four clades representing the previously described C. psittaci genotypes B, C, Mat116 and 1V. Whereas the 59 remaining sequences were assigned to two new clades named G1 and G2, each one including sequences recently obtained from chlamydiae detected in Swedish wetland birds. G1 (18 samples from Anatidae and Rallidae) grouped closely together with genotype 1V and in relative proximity to several C. abortus isolates, and G2 (41 samples from Anatidae and Corvidae) grouped closely to C. psittaci strains of the classical ABE cluster, Matt116 and M56. Finally, deep molecular analysis of four representative isolates of genotypes 1V, G1 and G2 based on 16S rRNA, IGS and partial 23S rRNA sequences as well as MLST clearly classify these isolates within the C. abortus species. Consequently, we propose an expansion of the C. abortus species to include not only the classical isolates of mammalian origin, but also avian isolates so far referred to as atypical C. psittaci or C. psittaci/C. abortus intermediates. PMID:28350846

  20. Prevalence and sociodemographic risk factors of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis: a national multicentre STI survey in New Caledonia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Corsenac, Philippe; Noël, Martine; Rouchon, Bernard; Hoy, Damian; Roth, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate prevalence and identify sociodemographic risk factors for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Treponema pallidum infections in New Caledonia. Method A national cross-sectional survey was undertaken using a three-stage random sampling of general practice surgeries and public dispensaries. Participants were included through opportunistic screening and using a systematic step for selection. The study sample was weighted to the general population aged 18–49 years. Prevalence and risk factors were calculated by logistic regression. Results CT was the most common sexually transmitted infection, with a prevalence of 9% (95% CI 6.6% to %11.4), followed by NG 3.5% (95% CI 1.9% to 5.1%), previous or latent syphilis 3% (95% CI 1.7% to 4.3%), NG and CT co-infection 2.1% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.3%) and active syphilis 0.4% (95% CI 0.0% to 0.9%). Being from a young age group (18–25 years), being single, having a low level of education and province of residence were all associated with higher prevalence of all three STIs. Being of Melanesian origin was associated with higher prevalence of both CT and NG. There was a significant interaction between ethnic group and province of residence for prevalence of CT. Female gender was associated with higher prevalence of CT. Conclusions The prevalence of CT was similar to estimates from other healthcare-based surveys from the Pacific, but higher for NG and lower for active syphilis infection. All sexually transmitted infections estimates were much higher than those found in population-based surveys from Europe and the USA. The sociodemographic risk factors identified in this study will help guide targeted prevention and control strategies in New Caledonia. PMID:26353867

  1. Integrating metagenomic and amplicon databases to resolve the phylogenetic and ecological diversity of the Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Weinmaier, Thomas; Lauro, Federico M; Cavicchioli, Ricardo; Rattei, Thomas; Horn, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In the era of metagenomics and amplicon sequencing, comprehensive analyses of available sequence data remain a challenge. Here we describe an approach exploiting metagenomic and amplicon data sets from public databases to elucidate phylogenetic diversity of defined microbial taxa. We investigated the phylum Chlamydiae whose known members are obligate intracellular bacteria that represent important pathogens of humans and animals, as well as symbionts of protists. Despite their medical relevance, our knowledge about chlamydial diversity is still scarce. Most of the nine known families are represented by only a few isolates, while previous clone library-based surveys suggested the existence of yet uncharacterized members of this phylum. Here we identified more than 22 000 high quality, non-redundant chlamydial 16S rRNA gene sequences in diverse databases, as well as 1900 putative chlamydial protein-encoding genes. Even when applying the most conservative approach, clustering of chlamydial 16S rRNA gene sequences into operational taxonomic units revealed an unexpectedly high species, genus and family-level diversity within the Chlamydiae, including 181 putative families. These in silico findings were verified experimentally in one Antarctic sample, which contained a high diversity of novel Chlamydiae. In our analysis, the Rhabdochlamydiaceae, whose known members infect arthropods, represents the most diverse and species-rich chlamydial family, followed by the protist-associated Parachlamydiaceae, and a putative new family (PCF8) with unknown host specificity. Available information on the origin of metagenomic samples indicated that marine environments contain the majority of the newly discovered chlamydial lineages, highlighting this environment as an important chlamydial reservoir. PMID:23949660

  2. Guanylate Binding Proteins Enable Rapid Activation of Canonical and Noncanonical Inflammasomes in Chlamydia-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A.; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Miao, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  3. Guanylate binding proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections.

  4. Asymptomatic Endemic Chlamydia pecorum Infections Reduce Growth Rates in Calves by up to 48 Percent

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H.; Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10−4). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10−4) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10−4). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

  5. Identification of iron-responsive proteins expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate bodies during intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Dill, Brian D; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Raulston, Jane E

    2009-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease. With an established requirement for iron, the developmental cycle arrests at the intracellular reticulate body stage during iron restriction, resulting in a phenomenon termed persistence. Persistence has implications in natural infections for altered expression of virulence factors and antigens, in addition to a potential role in producing chronic infection. In this study, chlamydial proteins in iron-restricted, infected HEC-1B cells were radiolabelled during mid-developmental cycle growth, harvested, and separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Of approximately 250 radiolabelled protein species visualized, densitometric analysis revealed 25 proteins that increased in expression under iron restriction compared to iron-sufficient control samples; ten protein species identified by mass spectrometry are involved in the oxidative damage response (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, 6-phosphogluconolactonase and acyl carrier protein synthase), transcription (RNA polymerase subunit alpha and transcription anti-termination factors NusA and NusG), protein modification (peptide deformylase and trigger factor), and virulence (Chlamydia protein associating with death domains, CADD). Transcript-level expression patterns of ahpC, devB, cadd, fabF and ct538 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR throughout the developmental cycle, and each gene examined demonstrated a significant but small mid-cycle increase in transcript level in iron-restricted cultures compared to iron-replete controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the primary response of chlamydiae to reduced iron availability is to increase expression of proteins involved in protection against oxidative damage via iron-catalysed generation of reactive oxygen species and adaptation to stress by increasing expression of transcriptional machinery

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo: a critical evaluation of in situ detection methods

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, A; Roholl, P; Gielis-Proper, S; Meulenberg, Y; Ossewaarde, J

    2000-01-01

    Aims—There is a considerable discrepancy between data from the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic lesions obtained by means of immunocytochemistry and data obtained using the polymerase chain reaction. This study evaluated methods for the in situ detection and assessment of the viability of C pneumoniae bacteria. Methods—Chlamydia pneumoniae membrane protein, heat shock protein 60, and lipopolysaccharide were detected by immunocytochemistry, and genomic DNA and 16S rRNA by in situ hybridisation in paraffin wax embedded sections of cultured HEp2 cells infected with C pneumoniae and of lungs from mice infected intranasally with C pneumoniae. Results—Inclusions reactive for all three antigens, DNA, and 16S rRNA were seen in infected HEp2 cells, in all positive bronchus and alveolar epithelial cells, and in some of the positive infiltrate cells in the lungs of mice up to seven days after infection. In all alveolar macrophages and in the infiltrate cells positive for antigens only, the staining pattern was granularly dispersed throughout the cytoplasm up to seven days after infection. At 21 days after infection, only this granular staining pattern was seen for antigens in infiltrate cells and macrophages in the alveoli and bronchus associated lymphoid tissue. At this time point, DNA or 16S rRNA were detected sporadically, but always as inclusion-like staining. Conclusions—Because antigens with an inclusion-like staining were detected only together with DNA and 16S rRNA, this type of staining pattern suggested the presence of viable bacteria. Thus, the granular staining pattern of antigens in the absence of staining for DNA and 16S is most likely caused by non-viable bacteria. In conclusion, these methods are suitable for the in situ detection of C pneumoniae and the assessment of its viability. Key Words: Chlamydia pneumoniae • immunocytochemistry • in situ hybridisation • animal model PMID:11265174

  7. Higher organism load associated with failure of azithromycin to treat rectal chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Kong, F Y S; Tabrizi, S N; Fairley, C K; Phillips, S; Fehler, G; Law, M; Vodstrcil, L A; Chen, M; Bradshaw, C S; Hocking, J S

    2016-09-01

    Repeat rectal chlamydia infection is common in men who have sex with men (MSM) following treatment with 1 g azithromycin. This study describes the association between organism load and repeat rectal chlamydia infection, genovar distribution, and efficacy of azithromycin in asymptomatic MSM. Stored rectal chlamydia-positive samples from MSM were analysed for organism load and genotyped to assist differentiation between reinfection and treatment failure. Included men had follow-up tests within 100 days of index infection. Lymphogranuloma venereum and proctitis diagnosed symptomatically were excluded. Factors associated with repeat infection, treatment failure and reinfection were investigated. In total, 227 MSM were included - 64 with repeat infections [28·2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 22·4-34·5]. Repeat positivity was associated with increased pre-treatment organism load [odds ratio (OR) 1·7, 95% CI 1·4-2·2]. Of 64 repeat infections, 29 (12·8%, 95% CI 8·7-17·8) were treatment failures and 35 (15·4%, 95% CI 11·0-20·8) were reinfections, 11 (17·2%, 95% CI 8·9-28·7) of which were definite reinfections. Treatment failure and reinfection were both associated with increased load (OR 2·0, 95% CI 1·4-2·7 and 1·6, 95% CI 1·2-2·2, respectively). The most prevalent genovars were G, D and J. Treatment efficacy for 1 g azithromycin was 83·6% (95% CI 77·2-88·8). Repeat positivity was associated with high pre-treatment organism load. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to evaluate azithromycin's efficacy and whether extended doses can overcome rectal infections with high organism load.

  8. Enhanced neutrophil longevity and recruitment contribute to the severity of oviduct pathology during Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Andrews, Charles W; Zurenski, Matthew A; Darville, Toni

    2011-10-01

    Our previous studies revealed that intravaginal infection of mice with a plasmid-deficient strain of Chlamydia muridarum, CM3.1, does not induce the development of oviduct pathology. In this study, we determined that infection with CM3.1 resulted in a significantly reduced frequency and absolute number of neutrophils in the oviducts during acute infection. This reduction in neutrophils was associated with significantly lower levels of neutrophil chemokines in the oviducts and decreased production of neutrophil chemokines by oviduct epithelial cells infected with CM3.1 in vitro. Infection with CM3.1 also resulted in an increased frequency of late apoptotic/dead neutrophils in the oviduct. Examination of the ability of Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent neutrophil apoptosis in vitro revealed that C. trachomatis strain D/UW-3/Cx exhibited an enhanced ability to prevent neutrophil apoptosis compared to plasmid-deficient CTD153, and this effect was dependent on the presence of CD14(high) monocytes. The presence of monocytes also resulted in enhanced neutrophil cytokine production and increased production of tissue-damaging molecules in response to D/UW-3/Cx relative to results with CTD153. Attempts to use antibody-mediated depletion to discern the specific role of neutrophils in infection control and pathology in vivo revealed that although Ly6G(high) neutrophils were eliminated from the blood and oviducts with this treatment, immature neutrophils and high levels of tissue-damaging molecules were still detectable in the upper genital tract. These data support the role of neutrophils in chlamydia-induced pathology and reveal that novel methods of depletion must be developed before their role can be specifically determined in vivo.

  9. Promiscuous and Adaptable Enzymes Fill “Holes” in the Tetrahydrofolate Pathway in Chlamydia Species

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nancy E.; Thiaville, Jennifer J.; Proestos, James; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L.; McCoy, Andrea J.; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Folates are tripartite molecules comprising pterin, para-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate moieties, which are essential cofactors involved in DNA and amino acid synthesis. The obligately intracellular Chlamydia species have lost several biosynthetic pathways for essential nutrients which they can obtain from their host but have retained the capacity to synthesize folate. In most bacteria, synthesis of the pterin moiety of folate requires the FolEQBK enzymes, while synthesis of the PABA moiety is carried out by the PabABC enzymes. Bioinformatic analyses reveal that while members of Chlamydia are missing the genes for FolE (GTP cyclohydrolase) and FolQ, which catalyze the initial steps in de novo synthesis of the pterin moiety, they have genes for the rest of the pterin pathway. We screened a chlamydial genomic library in deletion mutants of Escherichia coli to identify the “missing genes” and identified a novel enzyme, TrpFCtL2, which has broad substrate specificity. TrpFCtL2, in combination with GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA), the first enzyme of riboflavin synthesis, provides a bypass of the first two canonical steps in folate synthesis catalyzed by FolE and FolQ. Notably, TrpFCtL2 retains the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of the original annotation. Additionally, we independently confirmed the recent discovery of a novel enzyme, CT610, which uses an unknown precursor to synthesize PABA and complements E. coli mutants with deletions of pabA, pabB, or pabC. Thus, Chlamydia species have evolved a variant folate synthesis pathway that employs a patchwork of promiscuous and adaptable enzymes recruited from other biosynthetic pathways. PMID:25006229

  10. High dynamic range detection of Chlamydia trachomatis growth by direct quantitative PCR of the infected cells.

    PubMed

    Eszik, Ildikó; Lantos, Ildikó; Önder, Kamil; Somogyvári, Ferenc; Burián, Katalin; Endrész, Valéria; Virok, Dezső P

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria developing in an intracytoplasmic niche, the inclusion. Chlamydia growth measurement by inclusion counting is a key task in the development of novel antichlamydial antibiotics and in vaccine studies. Most of the current counting methods rely on the immunofluorescent staining of the inclusions and either manual or automatic microscopy detection and enumeration. The manual method is highly labor intensive, while the automatic methods are either medium-throughput or require automatic microscopy. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for growth related chlamydial DNA detection; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, the requirement of purification of DNA or RNA from the infected cells. This limitation makes this approach unfeasible for high-throughput screenings. To overcome this, we developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA directly from the infected HeLa cells. With our method we were able to detect the bacterial growth in a 4 log scale (multiplicity of infection (MOI): 64 to 0.0039), with high correlation between the biological and technical replicates. As a further proof of the method, we applied the direct qPCR for antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements. The measured MICs of moxifloxacin, tetracycline, clarithromycin and compound PCC00213 were 0.031 μg/ml, 0.031 μg/ml, 0.0039 μg/ml and 6.2 μg/ml respectively, identical or close to the already published MIC values. Our direct qPCR method for chlamydial growth and antibiotic MIC determination is less time-consuming, more objective and more sensitive than the currently applied manual or automatic fluorescent microscopy- based methods.

  11. Impact of azithromycin resistance mutations on the virulence and fitness of Chlamydia caviae in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Binet, Rachel; Bowlin, Anne K; Maurelli, Anthony T; Rank, Roger G

    2010-03-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is a major drug used in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections caused by Chlamydia, yet no significant clinical resistance has been reported for these obligate intracellular bacteria. Nevertheless, spontaneous AZM resistance (Azm(r)) arose in vitro at frequencies ranging from 3 x 10(-8) to 8 x 10(-10) for clonal isolates of Chlamydia caviae, which is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs. Sequencing of the unique 23S rRNA gene copy in 44 independent Azm(r) isolates identified single mutations at position A(2058) or A(2059) (Escherichia coli numbering system). While SP(6)AZ(1) (A(2058)C) and SP(6)AZ(2) (A(2059)C) Azm(r) mutants showed growth defects in cell culture and were less pathogenic in the guinea pig ocular infection model than in the parent SP(6), the three isogenic C. caviae isolates grew equally well in the animal. On the other hand, coinoculation of the C. caviae parent strain with one of the Azm(r) strains was detrimental for the mutant strain. This apparent lack of association between pathology and bacterial load in vivo showed that virulence of the two Azm(r) mutants of C. caviae was attenuated. While chlamydial growth in vitro reflects the ability of the bacteria to multiply in permissive cells, survival in the host is a balance between cellular multiplication and clearance by the host immune system. The obligate intracellular nature of Chlamydia may therefore limit emergence of resistance in vivo due to the strength of the immune response induced by the wild-type antibiotic-sensitive bacteria at the time of antibiotic treatment.

  12. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100 % detection for ≥ 10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml(- 1)). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100 % and a negative predictive value of 88 %. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks.

  13. Conservation of the biochemical properties of IncA from Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae: oligomerization of IncA mediates interaction between facing membranes.

    PubMed

    Delevoye, Cédric; Nilges, Michael; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Subtil, Agathe

    2004-11-05

    The developmental cycle of Chlamydiaceae occurs in a membrane compartment called an inclusion. IncA is a member of a family of proteins synthesized and secreted onto the inclusion membrane by bacteria. IncA proteins from different species of Chlamydiaceae show little sequence similarity. We report that the biochemical properties of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae are conserved. Both proteins self-associate to form multimers. When artificially expressed by the host cell, they localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Strikingly, heterologous expression of IncA in the endoplasmic reticulum completely inhibits concomitant inclusion development. Using truncated forms of IncA from C. caviae, we show that expression of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein at the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum is sufficient to disrupt the bacterial developmental cycle. On the other hand, development of a C. trachomatis strain that does not express IncA is not inhibited by artificial IncA expression, showing that the disruptive effect observed with the wild-type strain requires direct interactions between IncA molecules at the inclusion and on the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we modeled IncA tetramers in parallel four helix bundles based on the structure of the SNARE complex, a conserved structure involved in membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells. Both C. trachomatis and C. caviae IncA tetramers were highly stable in this model. In conclusion, we show that the property of IncA proteins to assemble into multimeric structures is conserved between chlamydial species, and we propose that these proteins may have co-evolved with the SNARE machinery for a role in membrane fusion.

  14. Infection with a plasmid-free variant Chlamydia related to Chlamydia trachomatis identified by using multiple assays for nucleic acid detection.

    PubMed Central

    An, Q; Radcliffe, G; Vassallo, R; Buxton, D; O'Brien, W J; Pelletier, D A; Weisburg, W G; Klinger, J D; Olive, D M

    1992-01-01

    Clinical samples in transport media from 40 patients exhibiting pathologies potentially caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection were analyzed for chlamydial nucleic acid, and the results were compared with those of culture. Chlamydial culture was performed by a shell vial centrifugation method with HeLa 229 host cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect either regions on a 7.5-kb plasmid characteristic of C. trachomatis (plasmid-PCR) or a segment of the 16S rRNA genes (rRNA-PCR). All PCR results were confirmed by hybridization with probes for the specific amplified products in either a Southern or a dot blot format. An RNase protection (RNP) assay was used to detect genus-specific chlamydial 16S rRNA directly from the clinical samples. The PCR assays detected C. trachomatis but not other bacteria, including Chlamydia spp. C. trachomatis was isolated from six samples which were positive by the rDNA-PCR and plasmid-PCR assays. Five of the culture-positive specimens were positive by the RNP assay. Twenty-two samples were negative by all criteria. Surprisingly, nine samples were positive by rRNA-PCR and RNP assays only. Nucleic acid sequencing of the rRNA-PCR-amplified products indicated a close relationship between the variants and C. trachomatis. The data may indicate an unrecognized process in C. trachomatis infection or that these patients were infected by a variant strain of C. trachomatis which lacks the C. trachomatis-specific plasmid. Images PMID:1280642

  15. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. METHODS This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. RESULTS Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. CONCLUSION Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:27588273

  16. Promiscuous and adaptable enzymes fill "holes" in the tetrahydrofolate pathway in Chlamydia species.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Proestos, James; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L; McCoy, Andrea J; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2014-07-08

    Folates are tripartite molecules comprising pterin, para-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate moieties, which are essential cofactors involved in DNA and amino acid synthesis. The obligately intracellular Chlamydia species have lost several biosynthetic pathways for essential nutrients which they can obtain from their host but have retained the capacity to synthesize folate. In most bacteria, synthesis of the pterin moiety of folate requires the FolEQBK enzymes, while synthesis of the PABA moiety is carried out by the PabABC enzymes. Bioinformatic analyses reveal that while members of Chlamydia are missing the genes for FolE (GTP cyclohydrolase) and FolQ, which catalyze the initial steps in de novo synthesis of the pterin moiety, they have genes for the rest of the pterin pathway. We screened a chlamydial genomic library in deletion mutants of Escherichia coli to identify the "missing genes" and identified a novel enzyme, TrpFCtL2, which has broad substrate specificity. TrpFCtL2, in combination with GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA), the first enzyme of riboflavin synthesis, provides a bypass of the first two canonical steps in folate synthesis catalyzed by FolE and FolQ. Notably, TrpFCtL2 retains the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of the original annotation. Additionally, we independently confirmed the recent discovery of a novel enzyme, CT610, which uses an unknown precursor to synthesize PABA and complements E. coli mutants with deletions of pabA, pabB, or pabC. Thus, Chlamydia species have evolved a variant folate synthesis pathway that employs a patchwork of promiscuous and adaptable enzymes recruited from other biosynthetic pathways. Importance: Collectively, the involvement of TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway completes our understanding of folate biosynthesis in Chlamydia. Moreover, the novel roles for TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway are sophisticated examples of how enzyme evolution plays a vital role in the

  17. Recommendations for the Laboratory-Based Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae — 2014

    PubMed Central

    Papp, John R.; Schachter, Julius; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Summary This report updates CDC's 2002 recommendations regarding screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections (CDC. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections—2002. MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-15]) and provides new recommendations regarding optimal specimen types, the use of tests to detect rectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, and circumstances when supplemental testing is indicated. The recommendations in this report are intended for use by clinical laboratory directors, laboratory staff, clinicians, and disease control personnel who must choose among the multiple available tests, establish standard operating procedures for collecting and processing specimens, interpret test results for laboratory reporting, and counsel and treat patients. The performance of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) with respect to overall sensitivity, specificity, and ease of specimen transport is better than that of any of the other tests available for the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections. Laboratories should use NAATs to detect chlamydia and gonorrhea except in cases of child sexual assault involving boys and rectal and oropharyngeal infections in prepubescent girls and when evaluating a potential gonorrhea treatment failure, in which case culture and susceptibility testing might be required. NAATs that have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections are recommended as screening or diagnostic tests because they have been evaluated in patients with and without symptoms. Maintaining the capability to culture for both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in laboratories throughout the country is important because data are insufficient to recommend nonculture tests in cases of sexual assault in prepubescent boys and extragenital anatomic site exposure in prepubescent girls. N

  18. Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

  19. PCR detection of Chlamydia psittaci in faecal samples from passerine birds in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, B.; Persson, K.; Broholm, K. A.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate to what extent wild passerine birds are carriers of Chlamydia psittaci, 312 faecal samples from 18 bird species were collected. Using the PCR technique and subsequent DNA sequencing, C. psittaci DNA was demonstrated in faecal samples from 9 (2.9%) birds of 6 different species. Sera from 65 bird-ringers, highly exposed to wild birds, were tested by microimmunofluorescence assay for the occurrence of IgG and IgM antibodies to C. psittaci. No such antibodies were found. This results indicate that a significant proportion of wild passerine birds are carriers of C. psittaci, but rarely infectious to humans. PMID:9825803

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2011-05-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis.

  1. A cumulative experience examining the effect of natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides vs. Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Yasin, B; Pang, M; Wagar, E A

    2004-08-01

    We tested the activity of 48 structurally diverse antimicrobial peptides against Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar L2. The peptides' activity against C. trachomatis, serovar L2 was measured in 48-h McCoy cell shell vial assays. Peptides of 16-20 amino acids were more active than larger peptides, such as defensins. Beta-sheet protegrins, as well as alpha-helical peptides such as novispirin (G-10) were equally active. Enantiomers were as active as native structures. Moderate-sized circular mini-defensins were less effective against C. trachomatis. Moderate-sized cationic peptides may be useful in microbicide preparations designed to prevent chlamydial infection.

  2. Patients with cervical Ureaplasma Urealyticum and Chlamydia Trachomatis infection undergoing IVF/ICSI-ET: The need for new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Zhen; Xu, Wang-Ming; Qi, Qian-Rong; Luo, Zeng-Li; Dong, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Genital tract infections with ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most frequent sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. UU and CT infections are considered to be the leading cause for infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, little is known about the specific effect of cervical UU and CT infections on the etiology of female infertility, as well as the pregnancy outcomes of the patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET). In order to find the association between cervical UU and/or CT infection and pregnancy outcomes, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on the patients undergoing IVF/ICSI-ET with cervical UU and/or CT infection. A total of 2208 patients who received IVF/ICSI-ET were enrolled in this study. Data on the general conditions, pregnancy history and clinical pregnant outcomes were analyzed in terms of the cervical UU and CT detection. Our results revealed that cervical UU and CT infections were the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor-induced infertility. Moreover, the pregnancy rate, abortion rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and premature birth rate in patients with UU and/or CT infections showed no significant difference when compared with the control group. We recommend that cervical UU and CT detection should be an optional item for infertility patients and clinical UU detection should differentiate the subtypes of cervical UU. Positive cervical UU and CT infections should not be taken as strict contraindications for IVF/ICSI-ET.

  3. In silico scrutiny of genes revealing phylogenetic congruence with clinical prevalence or tropism properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rita; Antelo, Minia; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Damião, Vera; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2014-11-05

    Microbes possess a multiplicity of virulence factors that confer them the ability to specifically infect distinct biological niches. Contrary to what is known for other bacteria, for the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying serovars' tissue specificity is scarce. We examined all ~900 genes to evaluate the association between individual phylogenies and cell-appetence or ecological success of C. trachomatis strains. Only ~1% of the genes presented a tree topology showing the segregation of all three disease groups (ocular, urogenital, and lymphatic) into three well-supported clades. Approximately 28% of the genes, which include the majority of the genes encoding putative type III secretion system effectors and Inc proteins, present a phylogenetic tree where only lymphogranuloma venereum strains form a clade. Similarly, an exclusive phylogenetic segregation of the most prevalent genital serovars was observed for 61 proteins. Curiously, these serovars are phylogenetically cosegregated with the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars for ~20% of the genes. Some clade-specific pseudogenes were identified (novel findings include the conserved hypothetical protein CT037 and the predicted α-hemolysin CT473), suggesting their putative expendability for the infection of particular niches. Approximately 3.5% of the genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations, and the majority encode proteins that directly interact with the host. Overall, this in silico scrutiny of genes whose phylogeny is congruent with clinical prevalence or tissue specificity of C. trachomatis strains may constitute an important database of putative targets for future functional studies to evaluate their biological role in chlamydial infections.

  4. Rates of Asymptomatic Nonurethral Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in a Population of University Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Laura; Chiarilli, Daniel B.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Kull, Ryan M.; O'Keefe, Richard; Heffer, Calley; Seward, Samuel L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The study determined prevalence of asymptomatic nonurethral gonorrhea and chlamydia in men who have sex with men (MSM) seen at the Columbia University Health Service for routine care. Participants: The study enrolled 200 participants from March 2007 to May 2010. Results: Specimens were tested using culture and nucleic acid…

  5. Chlamydia muridarum enters a viable but non-infectious state in amoxicillin-treated BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Phillips Campbell, R; Kintner, J; Whittimore, J; Schoborg, R V

    2012-11-01

    In culture, exposure to penicillin and other stressors induce chlamydiae to enter a non-infectious but viable state termed persistence. Chlamydiae may reenter their normal developmental cycle after stressor removal. Though aberrant RB similar to those present in culture models of persistence have been observed within infected tissues, the existence of persistent chlamydiae has not been definitively demonstrated in vivo. As a result, the role of persistent organisms in pathogenesis is undefined. In order to establish an experimentally tractable model of in vivo persistence, Chlamydia muridarum vaginally-infected mice were gavaged with either water or amoxicillin (amox). Vaginal swabs were collected for chlamydial titration and RNA isolated for quantification of pre-16s rRNA. Uterine tissue was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although amox-treatment reduced vaginal shedding by >99%, C. muridarum pre-16s rRNA accumulation was unchanged by treatment. These data indicate that the amox-exposed organisms were viable but not infectious. Furthermore, TEM analyses demonstrated that inclusions in amox-treated animals contained primarily large, aberrant RB, but those observed in untreated control animals were normal. Collectively, these data suggest that amoxicillin treatment induces C. muridarum to enter the persistent state in vivo. This model also represents the first experimentally tractable animal model of chlamydial persistence.

  6. Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Species closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) have recently been found to cause zoonotic infections, posing a public health threat especially in the case of tetracycline resistant Chlamydia suis (Cs) strains. These strains acquired a tet(C)-containing cassette via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Genomes of 11 Cs strains from various tissues were sequenced to reconstruct evolutionary pathway(s) for tet(C) HGT. Cs had the highest recombination rate of Chlamydia species studied to date. Admixture occurred among Cs strains and with Chlamydia muridarum but not with Ct. Although in vitro tet(C) cassette exchange with Ct has been documented, in vivo evidence may require examining human samples from Ct and Cs co-infected sites. Molecular-clock dating indicated that ancestral clades of resistant Cs strains predated the 1947 discovery of tetracycline, which was subsequently used in animal feed. The cassette likely spread throughout Cs strains by homologous recombination after acquisition from an external source, and our analysis suggests Betaproteobacteria as the origin. Selective pressure from tetracycline may be responsible for recent bottlenecks in Cs populations. Since tetracycline is an important antibiotic for treating Ct, zoonotic infections at mutual sites of infection indicate the possibility for cassette transfer and major public health repercussions. PMID:27576537

  7. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses of the Chlamydia trachomatis ompA gene indicates it is a hotspot for mutation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Serovars of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis occupy one of three specific tissue niches. Genomic analyses indicate that the serovars have a phylogeny congruent with their pathobiology and have an average substitution rate of less than one nucleotide per kilobase. The ompA gene, h...

  8. Performance evaluation of two microbial transport media designed for preservation and transport of Chlamydiae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sara L; Madhusudhan, Kunapuli T; Agans, Krystle; Dearen, Karen; Knight, Jennifer; Brasel, Trevor; Karamchi, Mehdi; Sherwood, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The ability of a non-propagating transport device (test device) to maintain the viability of clinically relevant bacteria was compared with a similar commercial device (predicate device) to establish performance equivalence. Test bacteria, namely Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were inoculated into the test [Puritan Medical Products Universal Transport System (UniTranz-RT(TM))] and predicate (BD Universal Viral Transport System) devices, and incubated at 4 °C and room temperature for up to 72 h. Bacterial viability was assessed at selected time points post-incubation using shell vial assays followed by immunofluorescence staining (for Chlamydia) or by standard culture techniques (for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma). Results indicated that the Chlamydia strains were equally stable in both test and predicate devices through 72 h storage, at both test temperatures. Quantifiable levels of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were recovered from the test and predicate devices throughout the storage period. Low-temperature storage improved bacterial viability when compared with room temperature storage. In addition, the predicate device demonstrated slightly improved performance versus the test device in the context of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma following 72 h storage. The overall results of the study confirmed the full performance of UniTranz-RT(TM) as a microbial transport medium and established equal performance with the predicate device.

  9. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens. PMID:28129377

  10. Fluorescent labeling reliably identifies Chlamydia trachomatis in living human endometrial cells and rapidly and accurately quantifies chlamydial inclusion forming units

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Henschel, Kevin J.; Dueñas Lopez, Fiorela C.; Quispe Calla, Nirk E.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia replication requires host lipid acquisition, allowing flow cytometry to identify C. trachomatis-infected cells that accumulated fluorescent Golgi-specific lipid. Herein, we describe modifications to currently available methods that allow precise differentiation between uninfected and C. trachomatis-infected human endometrial cells and rapidly and accurately quantify chlamydial inclusion forming units. PMID:26453947

  11. High-resolution typing reveals distinct Chlamydia trachomatis strains in an at-risk population in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Bom, Reinier J M; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J C; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2013-08-01

    We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This demonstrates a geographical variation in C. trachomatis previously left undetected.

  12. A protein secreted by the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae impairs IL-17 signalling via interaction with human Act1.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Katerina; Plano, Gregory V; Fields, Kenneth A

    2009-05-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that has been associated with a variety of chronic diseases including asthma and atherosclerosis. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular parasites that primarily infect epithelial cells where they develop within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed an inclusion. Interactions between the microorganism and eukaryotic cell can be mediated by chlamydial proteins inserted into the inclusion membrane. We describe here a novel C. pneumoniae-specific inclusion membrane protein (Inc) CP0236, which contains domains exposed to the host cytoplasm. We demonstrate that, in a yeast two-hybrid screen, CP0236 interacts with the NFκB activator 1 (Act1) and this interaction was confirmed in HeLa 229 cells where ectopically expressed CP0236 was co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous Act1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Act1 displays an altered distribution in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells infected with C. pneumoniae where it associates with the chlamydial inclusion membrane. This sequestration of Act1 by chlamydiae inhibited recruitment of the protein to the interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor upon stimulation of C. pneumoniae-infected cells with IL-17A. Such inhibition of the IL-17 signalling pathway led to protection of Chlamydia-infected cells from NFκB activation in IL-17-stimulated cells. We describe here a unique strategy employed by C. pneumoniae to achieve inhibition of NFκB activation via interaction of CP0236 with mammalian Act1.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis in incarcerated persons.

    PubMed

    Kouyoumdjian, F G; Leto, D; John, S; Henein, H; Bondy, S

    2012-04-01

    Communicable diseases are common in people who are incarcerated. We aimed to define the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis in people who are incarcerated and to identify subgroups with the highest risk of infection. We searched for prevalence studies of chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis in incarcerated populations. Pooled estimates were generated, and meta-regression was conducted. Random effects models yielded pooled prevalence estimates of 5.75% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.01, 6.48) and 12.31% (95% CI 10.61, 14.01) for chlamydia in men and women, 1.4% (95% CI 1.09, 1.70) and 5.73% (4.76, 6.69) for gonorrhoea in men and women, and 2.45% (95% CI 2.08, 2.82) and 6.10% (95% CI 4.75, 7.46) for syphilis in men and women, respectively. Each infection was associated with female gender in meta-regression models. Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis are highly prevalent in these populations. Primary and secondary prevention efforts could improve individual and population health.

  14. Inhibition of chlamydiae by primary alcohols correlates with the strain-specific complement of plasticity zone phospholipase D genes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Crane, Deborah D; Taylor, Lacey D; Dorward, David W; Goheen, Morgan M; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2006-01-01

    Members of the genus Chlamydia are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a unique biphasic developmental cycle and interactions with host cells. Many genes that dictate host infection tropism and, putatively, pathogenic manifestations of disease are clustered in a hypervariable region of the genome termed the plasticity zone (PZ). Comparative genomics studies have determined that an uncharacterized family of PZ genes encoding orthologs of eukaryotic and prokaryotic members of the phospholipase D (PLD) enzyme family varies among chlamydiae. Here, we show that the PZ PLD (pzPLD) of Chlamydia trachomatis are transcribed during both normal and persistent infection and that the corresponding PLD proteins are predominantly localized in reticulate bodies on the inner leaflet of the inclusion membrane. Further, we show that strains of chlamydiae encoding the pzPLD, but not a strain lacking these genes, are inhibited by primary alcohols, potent PLD inhibitors, during growth in HeLa 229 cells. This inhibitory effect is amplified approximately 5,000-fold during recovery from persistent infection. These findings suggest that the chlamydial pzPLD may be important, strain-specific, pathogenesis factors in vivo.

  15. Rapid determination of lymphogranuloma venereum serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by quantitative high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA).

    PubMed

    Twin, Jimmy; Stevens, Matthew P; Garland, Suzanne M; Zaia, Angelo M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2012-11-01

    A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods.

  16. Effect of the purinergic receptor P2X7 on Chlamydia infection in cervical epithelial cells and vaginally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Cruz, Cristiane; Sater, Ali Abdul; Andrews, Charles W; Ojcius, David M

    2007-09-15

    Ligation of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, with its agonist ATP has been previously shown to inhibit intracellular infection by chlamydiae and mycobacteria in macrophages. The effect of P2X7R on chlamydial infection had never been investigated in the preferred target cells of chlamydiae, cervical epithelial cells, nor in vaginally infected mice. In this study, we show that treatment of epithelial cells with P2X7R agonists inhibits partially Chlamydia infection in epithelial cells. Chelation of ATP with magnesium or pretreatment with a P2X7R antagonist blocks the inhibitory effects of ATP. Similarly to previous results obtained with macrophages, ATP-mediated inhibition of infection in epithelial cells requires activation of host-cell phospholipase D. Vaginal infection was also more efficient in P2X7R-deficient mice, which also displayed a higher level of acute inflammation in the endocervix, oviduct, and mesosalpingeal tissues than in infected wild-type mice. However, secretion of IL-1beta, which requires P2X7R ligation during infection by other pathogens, was decreased mildly and only at short times of infection. Taken together, these results suggest that P2X7R affects Chlamydia infection by directly inhibiting infection in epithelial cells, rather than through the ability of P2X7R to modulate IL-1beta secretion.

  17. The Recall Response Induced by Genital Challenge with Chlamydia muridarum Protects the Oviduct from Pathology but Not from Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Melissa M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Mintus, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site. PMID:22431649

  18. The recall response induced by genital challenge with Chlamydia muridarum protects the oviduct from pathology but not from reinfection.

    PubMed

    Riley, Melissa M; Zurenski, Matthew A; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Andrews, Charles W; Mintus, Margaret; Darville, Toni

    2012-06-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site.

  19. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  20. Assessing Spatial Relationships Between Rates of Crime and Rates of Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Chicago, 2012.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Phillip

    2017-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain serious public health problems particularly in urban environments in the USA. Despite accumulating research into the role of aggregate rates of crime in shaping rates of STIs, few studies account for spatial dependence in the structure of geographical data. Using multiple spatial analysis methodologies, the following study investigated spatial patterns in community area rates of violent, drug, and property crimes and rates of infection of gonorrhea and chlamydia in 77 community areas in Chicago. Moran's I analyses confirmed global spatial dependence and statistically significant clusters of STI. Spatial lag regression analyses found that greater rates of drug crimes were associated with higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea after adjusting for percent in poverty and racial composition. Finally, a weighted geographic regression identified regions in the urban environment in which local regression coefficient values diverged from their global estimates. Spatial heterogeneity of STIs suggest that public health interventions must be targeted to specific areas of the urban environment with particular attention to substance use.

  1. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  2. The Lignan-containing Extract of Schisandra chinensis Berries Inhibits the Growth of Chlamydia pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena L; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki J; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and selectivity of an extract of Schisandra chinensis berries against Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Among the ethnopharmacological uses of the extract from Schisandrae fructus are cough and pneumonia. Therefore we focused on respiratory pathogens. The extract completely inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae strain CV6 at 250 μg/mL concentration. The inhibition of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis growth was dose dependent and established with three different strains. The extract inhibited C. pneumoniae production of infectious progeny in a dose dependent manner. Chlamydia selectivity was elucidated with growth inhibition measurements of three other respiratory bacterial species. A pure compound found in Schisandra chinensis berries, schisandrin B at 20.0 μg/mL concentration inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. The extract was found to be non-toxic to the human host cells. These findings highlight the potential of the extract from Schisandra chinensis berries as a source for antichlamydial compounds.

  3. Differences in outer membrane proteins of the lymphogranuloma venereum and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Batteiger, B.E.; Jones, R.B.

    1985-11-01

    The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis exhibit differences in biological properties both in vivo and in vitro. To identify analogous biochemical differences, the authors studied the molecular charges of chlamydial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) by means of isoelectric focusing and nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis. Analysis of proteins of whole elementary bodies biosynthetically labeled with L-(35S)cysteine revealed that most chlamydial proteins were neutral or acidic. The major OMPs (MOMPs) of all strains tested were acidic and had apparent isoelectric points (pIs) that varied within narrow limits despite differences in molecular mass of up to 3,000 daltons (Da). However, a low-molecular-mass cysteine-rich OMP analogous to that previously described for Chlamydia psittaci varied consistently in molecular mass (12,500 versus 12,000 Da) and pI (5.4 versus 6.9) between LGV strains and trachoma strains, respectively. OMPs with a molecular mass of 60,000 Da in the trachoma biovar strains had pIs in the 7.3 to 7.7 range. However, analogous OMPs in the LGV strains existed as a doublet with a molecular mass of about 60,000 Da. These data indicate substantial differences in biochemical characteristics of analogous OMPs in the LGV and trachoma biovars. Such differences are the first structural differences described between LGV and trachoma strains which support their distinction into separate biovars and may be related to some of their biological differences.

  4. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia phage

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, Anne G; Murray, Bradley; Toth, Theodore; Madupu, Ramana; Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages, members of the Microviridae family, specifically the Gokushovirinae subfamily, are small (4.5–5 kb) single-stranded circles with 8–10 open-reading frames similar to E. coli phage ϕX174. Using sequence information found in GenBank, we examined related genes in Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages. The 5 completely sequenced C. pneumoniae strains contain a gene orthologous to a phage gene annotated as the putative replication initiation protein (PRIP, also called VP4), which is not found in any other members of the Chlamydiaceae family sequenced to date. The C. pneumoniae strain infecting koalas, LPCoLN, in addition contains another region orthologous to phage sequences derived from the minor capsid protein gene, VP3. Phylogenetically, the phage PRIP sequences are more diverse than the bacterial PRIP sequences; nevertheless, the bacterial sequences and the phage sequences each cluster together in their own clade. Finally, we found evidence for another Microviridae phage-related gene, the major capsid protein gene, VP1 in a number of other bacterial species and 2 eukaryotes, the woodland strawberry and a nematode. Thus, we find considerable evidence for DNA sequences related to genes found in bacteriophages of the Microviridae family not only in a variety of prokaryotic but also eukaryotic species. PMID:26713222

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active adolescents: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chacko, M R; Lovchik, J C

    1984-06-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was studied in a sexually active urban Baltimore adolescent population. Possible risk factors such as age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, number of sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonococcal infection were also evaluated. The prevalence of chlamydial infection in the 280 adolescents studied was 26%: 35% in male adolescents, 27% in pregnant female adolescents, and 23% in nonpregnant female adolescents. Chlamydia was almost three times as prevalent as gonorrhea in the same population. Age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonorrhea were not significantly associated with chlamydial infection. However, multiple current sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, genitourinary symptoms, and cervical ectopy were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Testing for chlamydial infection in sexually active urban teenagers is recommended for those with genitourinary symptoms, those with cervical ectopy, or those who are contacts of persons with sexually transmitted disease. Considering the reservoir of infection in the asymptomatic female adolescents, screening for chlamydial infections in family planning clinics warrants consideration.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection and oral contraceptive use among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Oh, M K; Feinstein, R A; Soileau, E J; Cloud, G A; Pass, R F

    1989-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between oral contraceptive use and Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in women less than 19 years of age. The clinical and epidemiologic data of 73 (19.4% prevalence rate) girls with chlamydial infection were analyzed, with special attention given to contraceptive use. The findings were compared with data from 303 girls who were chlamydia negative to assess the relationship between oral contraceptive use and C. trachomatis infection. Use of an oral contraceptive for 6 months or longer was associated with chlamydial infection (p = 0.005; odds ratio = 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.53-3.29). Oral contraceptive use was not associated with an increased rate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Association of oral contraceptive use with chlamydial infection remained significant after adjustments were made for confounding variables in a logistic regression process (p = 0.013). This study suggests that oral contraceptive use may promote chlamydial infection of the cervix or enhance the detection of the C. trachomatis from the cervix in this population.

  7. The effects of contraceptive hormones on the replication of Chlamydia trachomatis in human endometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, D; Sarov, I; Insler, V

    1987-06-01

    Several recent reports have documented a lower incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among oral contraceptive users. The interpretation of this observation is difficult because the action of the contraceptive hormones may be directly by action on a specific host cell-parasite relationship, or indirectly via their action on other systems. In the present study we investigated the susceptibility of cultured human epithelial cells of the endometrium to infection by chlamydia and the influence of contraceptive steroids (ethinyl estradiol, mestranol and medroxyprogesterone acetate) upon replication of chlamydia in these cells. Forty-eight hours post-infection, elementary and reticulate bodies were observed in vacuoles of the infected endometrial cells by electron microscopy. Treatment of chlamydial-infected cells with contraceptive steroids in three different concentrations (10(-5)M, 10(-6)M and 10(-7)M) resulted in no effect on chlamydial replication, as examined by one-step growth curve. These results indicate that contraceptive hormones do not prevent chlamydial infection by direct effect on the replication of the agent.

  8. Ubiquitination of pathogen-containing vacuoles promotes host defense to Chlamydia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Coers, Jörn; Haldar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Many intracellular bacterial and protozoan pathogens reside within host cell vacuoles customized by the microbial invaders to fit their needs. Within such pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) microbes procure nutrients and simultaneously hide from cytosolic host defense systems. Among the many PV-resident human pathogens are the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Immune responses directed against their PVs are poorly characterized. We reported that activation of host cells with IFNγ triggers the attachment of polyubiquitin chains to Toxoplasma- and Chlamydia-containing vacuoles and thereby marks PVs for destruction. In murine cells PV ubiquitination is dependent on IFNγ-inducible Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs). Human cells also decorate PVs with ubiquitin upon IFNγ priming; however, the molecular machinery promoting PV ubiquitination in human cells remains unknown and is likely to be distinct from the IRG-dependent pathway we described in murine cells. Thus, IFNγ-inducible PV ubiquitination constitutes a critical event in cell-autonomous immunity to C. trachomatis and T. gondii in mice and humans, but the molecular machinery underlying PV ubiquitination is expected to be multifaceted and possibly host species-specific.

  9. Ubiquitination of pathogen-containing vacuoles promotes host defense to Chlamydia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Coers, Jörn; Haldar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Many intracellular bacterial and protozoan pathogens reside within host cell vacuoles customized by the microbial invaders to fit their needs. Within such pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) microbes procure nutrients and simultaneously hide from cytosolic host defense systems. Among the many PV-resident human pathogens are the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Immune responses directed against their PVs are poorly characterized. We reported that activation of host cells with IFNγ triggers the attachment of polyubiquitin chains to Toxoplasma- and Chlamydia-containing vacuoles and thereby marks PVs for destruction. In murine cells PV ubiquitination is dependent on IFNγ-inducible Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs). Human cells also decorate PVs with ubiquitin upon IFNγ priming; however, the molecular machinery promoting PV ubiquitination in human cells remains unknown and is likely to be distinct from the IRG-dependent pathway we described in murine cells. Thus, IFNγ-inducible PV ubiquitination constitutes a critical event in cell-autonomous immunity to C. trachomatis and T. gondii in mice and humans, but the molecular machinery underlying PV ubiquitination is expected to be multifaceted and possibly host species-specific. PMID:27066178

  10. Influence of the Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39 bacteriophage ϕCPAR39 on chlamydial inclusion morphology.

    PubMed

    Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Christiansen, Gunna; Honoré, Bent; Birkelund, Svend

    2011-07-01

    The human respiratory tract pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39 is naturally infected by the bacteriophage ϕCPAR39. The phage genome encodes six ORFs, [ORF8, ORF4, ORF5, and viral protein (VP) 1, VP2 and VP3]. To study the growth of the phage, antibodies were generated to VP1 and used to investigate the ϕCPAR39 infection. Using immunofluorescence laser confocal microscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we investigated the ϕCPAR39 infection of C. pneumoniae AR39. It was observed that ϕCPAR39 infection differentially suppressed the C. pneumoniae protein synthesis as the polymorphic membrane protein 10 and the secreted chlamydial protein Cpn0796 was hardly expressed while the secreted chlamydial protein Cpaf was expressed, but not secreted. The inclusion membrane protein, IncA, was demonstrated to surround the phage-infected abnormal reticulate bodies (RB) as well as being located in the inclusion membrane. As IncA is secreted by the type 3 secretion (T3S) system, it is likely that the T3S is disrupted in the phage-infected chlamydiae such that it accumulates around the infected RB.

  11. Ultrastructural analysis of chlamydial antigen-containing vesicles everting from the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion.

    PubMed

    Giles, David K; Whittimore, Judy D; LaRue, Richard W; Raulston, Jane E; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2006-05-01

    Several chlamydial antigens have been detected in the infected epithelial cell cytosol and on the host cell surface prior to their presumed natural release at the end of the 72-96 h developmental cycle. These extra-inclusion antigens are proposed to influence vital host cell functions, antigen trafficking and presentation and, ultimately, contribute to a prolonged inflammatory response. To begin to dissect the mechanisms for escape of these antigens from the chlamydial inclusion, which are enhanced on exposure to antibiotics, polarized endometrial epithelial cells (HEC-1B) were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E for 36 h or 48 h. Infected cells were then exposed to chemotactic human polymorphonuclear neutrophils not loaded or pre-loaded in vitro with the antibiotic azithromycin. Viewed by electron microscopy, the azithromycin-mediated killing of chlamydiae involved an increase in chlamydial outer membrane blebbing followed by the appearance of the blebs in larger vesicles (i) everting from but still associated with the inclusion as well as (ii) external to the inclusion. Evidence that the vesicles originated from the chlamydial inclusion membrane was shown by immuno-localization of inclusion membrane proteins A, F, and G on the vesicular membranes. Chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (chsp60) copies 2 and 3, but not copy 1, were released from RB and incorporated into the everted inclusion membrane vesicles and delivered to the infected cell surface. These data represent direct evidence for one mechanism of early antigen delivery, albeit membrane-bound, beyond the confines of the chlamydial inclusion.

  12. Human and Pathogen Factors Associated with Chlamydia trachomatis-Related Infertility in Women.

    PubMed

    Menon, S; Timms, P; Allan, J A; Alexander, K; Rombauts, L; Horner, P; Keltz, M; Hocking, J; Huston, W M

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen worldwide. Infection can result in serious reproductive pathologies, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, in women. However, the processes that result in these reproductive pathologies have not been well defined. Here we review the evidence for the human disease burden of these chlamydial reproductive pathologies. We then review human-based evidence that links Chlamydia with reproductive pathologies in women. We present data supporting the idea that host, immunological, epidemiological, and pathogen factors may all contribute to the development of infertility. Specifically, we review the existing evidence that host and pathogen genotypes, host hormone status, age of sexual debut, sexual behavior, coinfections, and repeat infections are all likely to be contributory factors in development of infertility. Pathogen factors such as infectious burden, treatment failure, and tissue tropisms or ascension capacity are also potential contributory factors. We present four possible processes of pathology development and how these processes are supported by the published data. We highlight the limitations of the evidence and propose future studies that could improve our understanding of how chlamydial infertility in women occurs and possible future interventions to reduce this disease burden.

  13. Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens by use of murine T-cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, P R; Stephens, R S

    1992-01-01

    Chlamydia-specific short-term T-cell lines were used in conjunction with immunoblot techniques to examine Chlamydia trachomatis proteins for T-cell-stimulatory activity. This study was undertaken because of the known role of T cells in the resolution and pathogenesis of chlamydial infections. Therefore, determination of which chlamydial proteins are T-cell antigens and whether they evoke protective immunity or contribute to immunopathology is crucial. Immune lymph node cells were stimulated with whole chlamydial organism (elementary body) to derive predominantly CD4+ T-cell lines. Proteins from the elementary body and the outer membrane and cloned proteins were examined for antigenicity with these T-cell lines in a proliferation assay. Although a majority of the elementary body protein fractions were positive in this assay, only four of the outer membrane fractions were stimulatory. The cloned major outer membrane protein and outer membrane protein 2 were stimulatory in the assay and may account for the reactivity in three of the four positive outer membrane fractions. The C. trachomatis heat shock protein 60, examined because of its putative role in causing delayed-type hypersensitivity, was found to stimulate the CD4+ T cells. This approach with short-term T-cell lines with polyclonal reactivity was sensitive and specific in identifying chlamydial proteins as T-cell antigens. Images PMID:1398973

  14. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Chrissy h; Franklin, Christopher S; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A; Clark, Taane G; Burton, Matthew J; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inês; Holland, Martin J

    2015-11-30

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P = 5.38 × 10(-7)) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P = 0.001), the immune response (P = 0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling.

  15. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Franklin, Christopher S.; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S.; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E.; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A.; Clark, Taane G.; Burton, Matthew J.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inês; Holland, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P = 5.38 × 10−7) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P = 0.001), the immune response (P = 0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  16. Lipid rafts, caveolae, caveolin-1, and entry by Chlamydiae into host cells.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Elizabeth S; Webley, Wilmore C; Norkin, Leonard C

    2003-07-01

    Obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the genus Chlamydia are reported to enter host cells by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft domains. We asked here how widespread raft-mediated entry might be among the Chlamydia. We show that C. pneumoniae, an important cause of respiratory infections in humans that additionally is associated with cardiovascular disease, and C. psittaci, an important pathogen in domestic mammals and birds that also infects humans, each enter host cells via cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains. Further, we show that C. trachomatis serovars E and F also use these domains to enter host cells. The involvement of these membrane domains in the entry of these organisms was indicated by the sensitivity of their entry to the raft-disrupting agents Nystatin and filipin, and by their intracellular association with caveolin-1, a 22-kDa protein associated with the formation of caveolae in rafts. In contrast, caveolin-marked lipid raft domains do not mediate entry of C. trachomatis serovars A, 36B, and C, nor of LGV serovar L2 and MoPn. Finally, we show that entry of each of these chlamydial strains is independent of cellular expression of caveolin-1. Thus, entry via the Nystatin and filipin-sensitive pathway is dependent on lipid rafts containing cholesterol, rather than invaginated caveolae per se.

  17. Resveratrol and curcumin reduce the respiratory burst of Chlamydia-primed THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Lamy, Maurice; Deby, Carol

    2005-07-22

    The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is involved in the inflammation process of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that C. pneumonia infected monocytes (THP-1 cells) responded to stimulation by an increased respiratory burst linked to an increased NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. We now tested agents acting on the assembly of the NOX subunits or on protein kinase C, a trigger of NOX activity. Apocynin, resveratrol, rutin, quercetin, curcumin, and tocopherols were tested. The cells were pre-incubated with Chlamydia and the agent for 19 h, and then stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The NOX activity was monitored by measuring the hydrogen peroxide production. Resveratrol and curcumin (10(-4)-10(-6) M) were better inhibitors than apocynin. alpha-Tocopherol was inactive, and gamma-tocopherol inhibitor at 10(-4) M only. Quercetin was inactive, and rutin a moderate but significant inhibitor. The inhibition by resveratrol was increased by 10(-6) M rutin or quercetin. Resveratrol and curcumin thus appeared to be interesting for atherosclerosis treatment.

  18. In situ hybridization for the detection and localization of swine Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Chae, C; Cheon, D S; Kwon, D; Kim, O; Kim, B; Suh, J; Rogers, D G; Everett, K D; Andersen, A A

    1999-03-01

    Gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated intralaryngeally with swine Chlamydia trachomatis strain R33 or orally with swine C. trachmatis strain R27. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from piglets euthanatized 4-7 days postinoculation were examined by in situ hybridization for C. trachomatis nucleic acid using a nonradioactive digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes that targeted specific ribosomal RNA or omp1 mRNA molecules of the swine C. trachomatis strains. Positive hybridization signals were detected in bronchial epithelial cells, bronchiolar epithelial cells, pneumocytes, alveolar and interstitial macrophages, and jejunal and ileal enterocytes. Chlamydia-infected cells had a strong signal that was confined to the intracytoplasmic inclusions. Positive hybridization signals were not detected in tissue sections from an uninfected control piglet or in C. psittaci-infected sheep placenta. The morphology of host cells was preserved despite the relatively high temperature required in parts of the incubation procedure. The data indicate that in situ hybridization can be used to detect swine C. trachomatis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.

  19. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Leads to Defined Alterations to the Lipid Droplet Proteome in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Hector Alex; Thompson, J. Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Dubois, Laura G.; Haas, Joel T.; Moseley, Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an “inclusion”. Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. Interestingly, consistent with the observation that LDs intimately associate with the inclusion, a subset of inclusion membrane proteins co-purified with LD protein extracts. Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. PMID:25909443

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis: milestones in clinical and microbiological diagnostics in the last hundred years: a review.

    PubMed

    Budai, Irén

    2007-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis an obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium is the causative agent of several acute or chronic, local and systemic human diseases such as trachoma, oculogenital and neonatal infections. It was discovered in 1907 by Halberstaedter and von Prowazek who observed it in conjunctival scrapings from an experimentally infected orangutan. In the last hundred years the detection and study of the intracellular pathogens, including chlamydiae, passed through an enormous evolution. This memorial review is dedicated to these important research and diagnostic discoveries and to the scientists who significantly contributed to this evolution starting from the application of simple light microscopy through the cell culture technique, antibiotic susceptibility, antigen and antibody detection, serotyping, to the real-time nucleic acid amplification and restriction fragment lengths polymorphism analysis. Although the majority of these old and new excellent diagnostic methods have been introduced into the rutine practice, the trachoma has remained one of the leading causes of blindness, and oculogenital chlamydial infections still are the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial diseases, furthermore lymphogranuloma venereum is a disease emerging in the developed countries at the beginning of the 21 st century.

  2. Functional analysis of three topoisomerases that regulate DNA supercoiling levels in Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Orillard, Emilie; Tan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chlamydia is a medically important bacterium that infects eukaryotic cells. Temporal expression of chlamydial genes during the intracellular infection is proposed to be regulated by changes in DNA supercoiling levels. To understand how chlamydial supercoiling levels are regulated, we purified and analyzed three putative Chlamydia trachomatis topoisomerases. As predicted by sequence homology, CT189/190 are the two subunits of DNA gyrase, whereas CT643 is a topoisomerase I. CT660/661 have been predicted to form a second DNA gyrase, but the reconstitute holoenzyme decatenated and relaxed DNA, indicating that the proteins are subunits of topoisomerase IV. Promoter analysis showed that each topoisomerase is transcribed from its own operon by the major chlamydial RNA polymerase. Surprisingly, all three topoisomerase promoters had higher activity from a more supercoiled DNA template. This supercoiling-responsivesness is consistent with negative feedback control of topoisomerase I and topoisomerase IV expression, which is typical of other bacteria. However, activation of the chlamydial gyrase promoter by increased supercoiling is unorthodox compared with the relaxation-induced transcription of gyrase in other bacteria. We present a model in which supercoiling levels during the intracellular chlamydial developmental cycle are regulated by unusual positive feedback control of the gyrase promoter and the temporal expression of three topoisomerases. PMID:26447825

  3. Immunity, immunopathology, and human vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen GP; Cripps, Allan W

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the immunity, immunopathology, and contemporary problems of vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis. Despite improved surveillance and treatment initiatives, the incidence of C. trachomatis infection has increased dramatically over the past 30 years in both the developed and developing world. Studies in animal models have shown that protective immunity to C. trachomatis is largely mediated by Th1 T cells producing IFN-γ which is needed to prevent dissemination of infection. Similar protection appears to develop in humans but in contrast to mice, immunity in humans may take years to develop. Animal studies and evidence from human infection indicate that immunity to C. trachomatis is accompanied by significant pathology in the upper genital tract. Although no credible evidence is currently available to indicate that autoimmunity plays a role, nevertheless, this underscores the necessity to design vaccines strictly based on chlamydial-specific antigens and to avoid those displaying even minimal sequence homologies with host molecules. Current advances in C. trachomatis vaccine development as well as alternatives for designing new vaccines for this disease are discussed. A novel approach for chlamydia vaccine development, based on targeting endogenous dendritic cells, is described. PMID:25483666

  4. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  5. Frequency of spontaneous mutations that confer antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed

    Binet, Rachel; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2005-07-01

    Mutations in rRNA genes (rrn) that confer resistance to ribosomal inhibitors are typically recessive or weakly codominant and have been mostly reported for clinical strains of pathogens possessing only one or two rrn operons, such as Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium spp. An analysis of the genome sequences of several members of the Chlamydiaceae revealed that these obligate intracellular bacteria harbor only one or two sets of rRNA genes. To study the contribution of rRNA mutations to the emergence of drug resistance in the Chlamydiaceae, we used the sensitivities of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 (two rrn operons) and Chlamydophila psittaci 6BC (one rrn operon) to the aminoglycoside spectinomycin as a model. Confluent cell monolayers were infected in a plaque assay with about 10(8) wild-type infectious particles and then treated with the antibiotic. After a 2-week incubation time, plaques formed by spontaneous spectinomycin-resistant (Spc(r)) mutants appeared with a frequency of 5 x 10(-5) for C. psittaci 6BC. No Spc(r) mutants were isolated for C. trachomatis L2, although the frequencies of rifampin resistance were in the same range for both strains (i.e., 10(-7)). The risk of emergence of Chlamydia strains resistant to tetracyclines and macrolides, the ribosomal drugs currently used to treat chlamydial infections, is discussed.

  6. [Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and immune response in different populations].

    PubMed

    Zapata, M T; Ahumada, F; Cuffini, C G; Córdoba, P; Grutadauria, S L

    1997-01-01

    We studied the presence of C. trachomatis-specific IgG and IgM in adults and newborns, respectively, and attempted isolation of the bacteria in cell culture. The determination of antibodies was carried out by an IFA on C. trachomatis infected (L2 434/Bu serotype) McCoy cells, cultured in 24-well plastic plates. We found C. trachomatis-specific IgG in 27% of women with clinical symptoms, in 40% of women being attended for periodic gynecological control, in 60% of infertile women and in 10% of pregnant women. A proportion comparison test revealed the presence of specific IgG as highly significative for the group of infertile women as compared to the group of pregnant women (p < 0.0001). We divided the patients into four groups, in relation to the results of the tests for specific IgG and C. trachomatis isolation. Seven out of 10 had positive isolation and negative IFA, 5 out of 8 had positive isolation and negative IFA. Twenty five out of 28 pregnant women had negative isolation and positive IFA, finally, 63 out of 76 had both tests negative. Statistical analysis using the McNemar proportion-comparison test suggests that IgG's presence is highly significant in pregnant women with respect to other groups (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the demonstration of IgG is not enough for diagnostic purposes, except in infertile women with a previous history of infection with C. trachomatis. We isolated C. trachomatis in 20% of the newborns tested and 10% were also positive for IgM IFA. The diagnosis was improved by combining both techniques. These results show the importance of the detection of C. trachomatis in youngsters to avoid infertility and in pregnant women to prevent newborn infections and the possibility of premature births and low weight babies.

  7. Modest rise in chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing did not increase case detection in a clinical HIV cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra L; Moravan, Veronika; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Margaret (Peggy) E; Remis, Robert S; Raboud, Janet; Mazzulli, Tony; Rourke, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We described patterns of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among persons in specialty HIV care in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2011. Methods We analysed data from 3165 participants in the OHTN Cohort Study attending one of seven specialty HIV care clinics. We obtained chlamydia and gonorrhoea test results via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory. We estimated the proportion of participants who underwent testing annually, the positivity rate among those tested and the proportion diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea among all under observation. We explored risk factors for testing and diagnosis using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The proportion tested annually rose from 15.2% (95% CI 13.6% to 16.7%) in 2008 to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.6%) in 2011 (p<0.0001). Virtually all were urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests. Testing was more common among men who have sex with men (MSM), younger adults, Toronto residents, persons attending primary care clinics and persons who had tested in the previous year or who had more clinic visits in the current year. We observed a decrease in test positivity rates over time. However, the annual proportion diagnosed remained stable and in 2011 this was 0.97% (95% CI 0.61% to 1.3%) and 0.79% (95% CI 0.46% to 1.1%) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, respectively. Virtually all cases were among MSM. Conclusions Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing increased over time while test positivity rates declined and the overall proportion diagnosed remained stable, suggesting that the modest increase in testing did not improve case detection. PMID:25178285

  8. Dynamic diversity of the tryptophan pathway in chlamydiae: reductive evolution and a novel operon for tryptophan recapture

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gary; Bonner, Carol A; Jensen, Roy A

    2002-01-01

    Background Complete genomic sequences of closely related organisms, such as the chlamydiae, afford the opportunity to assess significant strain differences against a background of many shared characteristics. The chlamydiae are ubiquitous intracellular parasites that are important pathogens of humans and other organisms. Tryptophan limitation caused by production of interferon-γ by the host and subsequent induction of indoleamine dioxygenase is a key aspect of the host-parasite interaction. It appears that the chlamydiae have learned to recognize tryptophan depletion as a signal for developmental remodeling. The consequent non-cultivable state of persistence can be increasingly equated to chronic disease conditions. Results The genes encoding enzymes of tryptophan biosynthesis were the focal point of this study. Chlamydophila psittaci was found to possess a compact operon containing PRPP synthase, kynureninase, and genes encoding all but the first step of tryptophan biosynthesis. All but one of the genes exhibited translational coupling. Other chlamydiae (Chlamydia trachomatis, C. muridarum and Chlamydophila pneumoniae) lack genes encoding PRPP synthase, kynureninase, and either lack tryptophan-pathway genes altogether or exhibit various stages of reductive loss. The origin of the genes comprising the trp operon does not seem to have been from lateral gene transfer. Conclusions The factors that accommodate the transition of different chlamydial species to the persistent (chronic) state of pathogenesis include marked differences in strategies deployed to obtain tryptophan from host resources. C. psittaci appears to have a novel mechanism for intercepting an early intermediate of tryptophan catabolism and recycling it back to tryptophan. In effect, a host-parasite metabolic mosaic has evolved for tryptophan recycling. PMID:12225590

  9. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Russell, Ali N.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Poston, Taylor B.; Vallejo, Abbe N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for “controllers,” i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into “ascenders” and “controllers” revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  10. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Tarantal, Alice F; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connor, Shelby L; Russell, Ali N; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Poston, Taylor B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Darville, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for "controllers," i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into "ascenders" and "controllers" revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  11. Septins arrange F-actin-containing fibers on the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion and are required for normal release of the inclusion by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Volceanov, Larisa; Herbst, Katharina; Biniossek, Martin; Schilling, Oliver; Haller, Dirk; Nölke, Thilo; Subbarayal, Prema; Rudel, Thomas; Zieger, Barbara; Häcker, Georg

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen that grows inside a membranous, cytosolic vacuole termed an inclusion. Septins are a group of 13 GTP-binding proteins that assemble into oligomeric complexes and that can form higher-order filaments. We report here that the septins SEPT2, -9, -11, and probably -7 form fibrillar structures around the chlamydial inclusion. Colocalization studies suggest that these septins combine with F actin into fibers that encase the inclusion. Targeting the expression of individual septins by RNA interference (RNAi) prevented the formation of septin fibers as well as the recruitment of actin to the inclusion. At the end of the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis, newly formed, infectious elementary bodies are released, and this release occurs at least in part through the organized extrusion of intact inclusions. RNAi against SEPT9 or against the combination of SEPT2/7/9 substantially reduced the number of extrusions from a culture of infected HeLa cells. The data suggest that a higher-order structure of four septins is involved in the recruitment or stabilization of the actin coat around the chlamydial inclusion and that this actin recruitment by septins is instrumental for the coordinated egress of C. trachomatis from human cells. The organization of F actin around parasite-containing vacuoles may be a broader response mechanism of mammalian cells to the infection by intracellular, vacuole-dwelling pathogens. Importance: Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent bacterial pathogen throughout the world, causing mostly eye and genital infections. C. trachomatis can develop only inside host cells; it multiplies inside a membranous vacuole in the cytosol, termed an inclusion. The inclusion is covered by cytoskeletal "coats" or "cages," whose organization and function are poorly understood. We here report that a relatively little-characterized group of proteins, septins, is required to organize actin fibers on the

  12. Comparison of Chlamydia subgroup A detection from clinical specimens after 40 and 64 hours of incubation in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-treated McCoy's cells.

    PubMed

    Jonhson, J E; Smith, T F

    1976-03-01

    The time course of formation of inclusion bodies produced by Chlamydia in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUdR)-treated McCoy's cells was studied with the use of a known isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-184/Ur and 47 frozen clinical urethral specimens previously shown to be either positive or negative for chlamydial inclusions after 3 days of incubation. Subsequent examination of 369 clinical specimens from the genitourinary tract over a 6-month period revealed 47 (13%) Chlamydia-positive cultures, all of which demonstrated inclusion bodies by iodine staining at 40 and 64 h postinoculation. Another 146 similar detected by iodine staining from 22 (15%). This study indicates that, although Chlamydia subgroup A inclusions are larger at 64 h, they can be readily detected from clinical specimens in IUdR-treated McCoy's cells at 40 h postinfection.

  13. Comparison of Chlamydia subgroup A detection from clinical specimens after 40 and 64 hours of incubation in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-treated McCoy's cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jonhson, J E; Smith, T F

    1976-01-01

    The time course of formation of inclusion bodies produced by Chlamydia in 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUdR)-treated McCoy's cells was studied with the use of a known isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-184/Ur and 47 frozen clinical urethral specimens previously shown to be either positive or negative for chlamydial inclusions after 3 days of incubation. Subsequent examination of 369 clinical specimens from the genitourinary tract over a 6-month period revealed 47 (13%) Chlamydia-positive cultures, all of which demonstrated inclusion bodies by iodine staining at 40 and 64 h postinoculation. Another 146 similar detected by iodine staining from 22 (15%). This study indicates that, although Chlamydia subgroup A inclusions are larger at 64 h, they can be readily detected from clinical specimens in IUdR-treated McCoy's cells at 40 h postinfection. Images PMID:57968

  14. Feasibility of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and treatment in low-risk pregnant women in Lima, Peru: a prospective study in two large urban hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, J; García, PJ; Segura, ER; García, P; Escudero, F; La Rosa, S; León, S; Klausner, JD

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chlamydia trachomatis, which is asymptomatic in most women, causes significant adverse effects for pregnant women and neonates. No programmes conduct antenatal screening in Latin America. We determined chlamydia prevalence, the feasibility and acceptability of chlamydia screening, and adherence to treatment in pregnant women in two urban public hospitals in Lima, Peru. Methods We offered chlamydia screening using self-collected vaginal swabs to pregnant women ≥ 16 years during their first antenatal visit. Chlamydia-infected women were contacted within 14 days and asked to bring partners for counselling and directly observed therapy with oral azithromycin. Unaccompanied women received counselling, directly observed therapy, and azithromycin to take to partners. Test of cure was performed ≥ 3 weeks after treatment. Results We approached 640 women for the study and enrolled 600 (93.7%). Median age was 27.3 years (range 16–47), median lifetime partners 2.3 (range 1–50), and median gestational age 26.1 weeks (range 4–41). Chlamydia prevalence was 10% (95% CI: 7.7% – 12.7%). Of 60 infected patients, 59 (98%) were treated with one dose of azithromycin. Fifty-two of 59 (88%) returned for test of cure, all of whom were treated successfully, with 46 (86%) achieving negative test of cure with one dose of azithromycin and 6 (12%) after retreatment with a second dose. Conclusions C. trachomatis screening and treatment in pregnancy was feasible and highly acceptable in two urban hospitals in Peru. Chlamydia prevalence was high. Clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening and treatment of pregnant women to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in low-resource settings are warranted. PMID:25107711

  15. Facilitators and barriers to chlamydia testing in general practice for young people using a theoretical model (COM-B): a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, Lorraine K; Saunders, John M; Cassell, Jackie; Bastaki, Hamad; Hartney, Thomas; Rait, Greta

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chlamydia is a key health concern with high economic and social costs. There were over 200 000 chlamydia diagnoses made in England in 2015. The burden of chlamydia is greatest among young people where the highest prevalence rates are found. Annual testing for sexually active young people is recommended; however, many of those at risk do not receive testing. General practice has been identified as an ideal setting for testing, yet efforts to increase testing in this setting have not been effective. One theoretical model which may provide insight into the underpinnings of chlamydia testing is the Capability, Opportunity and Motivation Model of Behaviour (COM-B model). The aim of this systematic review is to: (1) identify barriers and facilitators to chlamydia testing for young people in general practice and (2) use a theoretical model to conduct a behavioural analysis of chlamydia testing behaviour. Methods and analysis Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies published after 2000 will be included. Seven databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Informit, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science) will be searched to identify peer-reviewed publications which examined barriers and facilitators to chlamydia testing in general practice. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Data regarding study design and key findings will be extracted. The data will be analysed using thematic analysis and the resultant factors will be mapped onto the COM-B model components. All findings will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. The results will be disseminated via submission for publication to a peer-review journal when complete and for presentation at national and international conferences. The review findings will be used to inform the development of interventions to facilitate effective and efficient

  16. Attachment and internalization of a Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum strain by McCoy cells: kinetics of infectivity and effect of lectins and carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, G; Kihlström, E

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of attachment and ingestion of Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L1 by monolayers of McCoy cells were studied by using a method that discriminated between attachment and uptake. When about 1% of the McCoy cells was infected, the proteinase K-resistant chlamydial fraction, regarded as ingested chlamydiae, reached a constant value after about 3 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Uptake of chlamydiae at 4 degrees C could not be demonstrated. The attached and ingested chlamydial fractions were constant over an eightfold increase in chlamydial inoculum. Chitobiose and chitotriose, the di- and trisaccharides of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, reduced the association of C. trachomatis serotype L1 with McCoy cells. Higher concentrations of chitobiose also selectively inhibited ingestion of chlamydiae. A corresponding effect of chitobiose was also observed on the number of chlamydial inclusions. Wheat germ agglutinin, specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, reduced the association of chlamydiae when incubated at 4 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. A small inhibiting effect of concanavalin A on association of chlamydiae, but no effect of the corresponding carbohydrates, indicates a nonspecific effect on chlamydial attachment of this lectin. These results suggest that beta 1 leads to 4-linked oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are important in the specificity of attachment of C. trachomatis to McCoy cells. PMID:6642670

  17. CXCL10, CXCL11, HLA-A and IL-1β are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women with Chlamydia trachomatis related infertility.

    PubMed

    Menon, Shruti; Alexander, Kimberly; Timms, Peter; Allan, John A; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections can result in the development of serious sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal infertility. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women who were undergoing or had recently undergone IVF treatment were cultured ex vivo with C. trachomatis to identify the immune responses associated with women who had serological evidence of a history of Chlamydia infection. Cytokines secreted into the supernatant from the cultures were measured using ELISA, and the level of IL-1β was found to be significantly higher in Chlamydia positive women than Chlamydia negative women. qRT-PCR analysis of the expression of 88 immune-related genes showed trends towards an upregulation of CXCL10, CXCL11 and HLA-A in Chlamydia positive women compared with Chlamydia negative women. These findings support that some women launch a more marked proinflammatory response upon infection with C. trachomatis and this may be associated with why C. trachomatis induces infertility in some infected women.

  18. The Number, Organization, and Size of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Coding Sequences as well as the Most Conserved Pmp Protein Differ within and across Chlamydia Species.

    PubMed

    Van Lent, Sarah; Creasy, Heather Huot; Myers, Garry S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Variation is a central trait of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family. The number of pmp coding sequences differs between Chlamydia species, but it is unknown whether the number of pmp coding sequences is constant within a Chlamydia species. The level of conservation of the Pmp proteins has previously only been determined for Chlamydia trachomatis. As different Pmp proteins might be indispensible for the pathogenesis of different Chlamydia species, this study investigated the conservation of Pmp proteins both within and across C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci. The pmp coding sequences were annotated in 16 C. trachomatis, 6 C. pneumoniae, 2 C. abortus, and 16 C. psittaci genomes. The number and organization of polymorphic membrane coding sequences differed within and across the analyzed Chlamydia species. The length of coding sequences of pmpA,pmpB, and pmpH was conserved among all analyzed genomes, while the length of pmpE/F and pmpG, and remarkably also of the subtype pmpD, differed among the analyzed genomes. PmpD, PmpA, PmpH, and PmpA were the most conserved Pmp in C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci, respectively. PmpB was the most conserved Pmp across the 4 analyzed Chlamydia species.

  19. Development of a Proximity Labeling System to Map the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rucks, Elizabeth A.; Olson, Macy G.; Jorgenson, Lisa M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R.; Ouellette, Scot P.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia grows within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. The cellular processes that support the biogenesis and integrity of this pathogen-specified parasitic organelle are not understood. Chlamydia secretes integral membrane proteins called Incs that insert into the chlamydial inclusion membrane (IM). Incs contain at least two hydrophobic transmembrane domains flanked by termini, which vary in size and are exposed to the host cytosol. In addition, Incs are temporally expressed during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Data examining Inc function are limited because of (i) the difficulty in working with hydrophobic proteins and (ii) the inherent fragility of the IM. We hypothesize that Incs function collaboratively to maintain the integrity of the chlamydial inclusion with small Incs organizing the IM and larger Incs interfacing with host cell machinery. To study this hypothesis, we have adapted a proximity-labeling strategy using APEX2, a mutant soybean ascorbate peroxidase that biotinylates interacting and proximal proteins within minutes in the presence of H2O2 and its exogenous substrate, biotin-phenol. We successfully expressed, from an inducible background, APEX2 alone, or fusion proteins of IncATM (TM = transmembrane domain only), IncA, and IncF with APEX2 in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. IncF-APEX2, IncATM-APEX2, and IncA-APEX2 localized to the IM whereas APEX2, lacking a secretion signal, remained associated with the bacteria. We determined the impact of overexpression on inclusion diameter, plasmid stability, and Golgi-derived sphingomyelin acquisition. While there was an overall impact of inducing construct expression, IncF-APEX2 overexpression most negatively impacted these measurements. Importantly, Inc-APEX2 expression in the presence of biotin-phenol resulted in biotinylation of the IM. These data suggest that Inc expression is regulated to control optimal IM biogenesis. We subsequently defined lysis conditions that solubilized known

  20. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation.

  1. The lipid transfer protein CERT interacts with the Chlamydia inclusion protein IncD and participates to ER-Chlamydia inclusion membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Derré, Isabelle; Swiss, Rachel; Agaisse, Hervé

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial pathogens that reside in membrane bound compartment manipulate the host cell machinery to establish and maintain their intracellular niche. The hijacking of inter-organelle vesicular trafficking through the targeting of small GTPases or SNARE proteins has been well established. Here, we show that intracellular pathogens also establish direct membrane contact sites with organelles and exploit non-vesicular transport machinery. We identified the ER-to-Golgi ceramide transfer protein CERT as a host cell factor specifically recruited to the inclusion, a membrane-bound compartment harboring the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We further showed that CERT recruitment to the inclusion correlated with the recruitment of VAPA/B-positive tubules in close proximity of the inclusion membrane, suggesting that ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites are formed upon C. trachomatis infection. Moreover, we identified the C. trachomatis effector protein IncD as a specific binding partner for CERT. Finally we showed that depletion of either CERT or the VAP proteins impaired bacterial development. We propose that the presence of IncD, CERT, VAPA/B, and potentially additional host and/or bacterial factors, at points of contact between the ER and the inclusion membrane provides a specialized metabolic and/or signaling microenvironment favorable to bacterial development.

  2. Identification of genus-specific epitopes on the outer membrane complexes of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci immunotypes 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Mondesire, R R; Maclean, I W; Shewen, P E; Winston, S E

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were used to study the immunogenic and antigenic characteristics of chlamydiae. We focused on the most predominant proteins in the outer membrane complex, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and the doublet consisting of proteins of 57 and 62 kilodaltons (57-62 kDa doublet). Immunoblot analyses were performed with chlamydial elementary bodies by using (i) immune sera from sheep which had undergone a recent episode of abortion due to the ovine abortion (OA) strain of C. psittaci, (ii) rabbit hyperimmune anti-C. psittaci (OA) and -C. trachomatis sera, and (iii) monoclonal antibodies to the MOMP of C. trachomatis. The typical pattern of response with polyclonal antisera against heterologous elementary bodies was reactivity with the 57-62 kDa doublet and lipopolysaccharide with weak and sometimes no anti-MOMP activity. Three distinct genus-specific anti-C. trachomatis MOMP monoclonal antibodies showed different patterns of reactivity with the MOMPs of the two immunotypes of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis serovars. Our data confirm the predominance of a genus-specific 57-62 kDa doublet response despite the presence of genus-specific epitopes on the MOMP. Images PMID:2474507

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia infection in Hong Kong: A population-based geospatial household survey and testing

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai; Wong, Ngai Sze; Parish, William L.; Miu, Heidi Yin Hai; Yang, Li-Gang; Emch, Michael; Ho, King Man; Fong, Francois Yeung; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong. Methods Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling. A questionnaire on sexual practice and health was conducted, and polymerase chain reaction was used to test the urine for genital chlamydial infection. Invitation letters were sent to the selected households and a team of interviewers were sent to recruit one subject per household. Prevalence data was weighted according to the 2011 census and risk factors identified through logistic regression. Results Among 881 participants (response rate of 24.5%), the overall Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was low at 1.4% (95%CI 0.8–2.5%) but sexually active young (18–26 years) women had relatively high prevalence (5.8%, 95%CI 1.7–18.2%) in Hong Kong. A unique U-shape disease burden was observed with peaks in younger and older (40–49 years) women. Amongst the sexually active women, the risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were: younger age (aOR = 25.4, 95% CI 2.81–230); living alone (aOR = 8.99, 95% CI 1.46–55.40); and, among all the sexually active participants, males (including the male partners of the female participants) who had travelled out of Hong Kong in the previous 12 months had higher risks of infection (aOR = 5.35; 95% CI 1.25–22.8). A core-peripheral geographical distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was also observed. Conclusion Young and older sexually active women in Hong Kong have high prevalence of chlamydia. Routine screening for sexually active women and young men should be considered. Further

  4. Combination antibiotics for the treatment of Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis: is a cure in sight?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, John D; Gérard, Hervé C; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2011-01-01

    The inflammatory arthritis that develops in some patients subsequent to urogenital infection by the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, and that induced subsequent to pulmonary infection with C. pneumoniae, both have proved difficult to treat in either their acute or chronic forms. Over the last two decades, molecular genetic and other studies of these pathogens have provided a good deal of information regarding their metabolic and genetic structures, as well as the detailed means by which they interact with their host cells. In turn, these insights have provided for the first time a window into the bases for treatment failures for the inflammatory arthritis. In this article we discuss the biological bases for those treatment failures, provide suggestions as to research directions that should allow improvement in treatment modalities, and speculate on how treatment regimens that currently show promise might be significantly improved over the near future using nanotechological means. PMID:21853013