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Sample records for beech fagus crenata

  1. Model-based analysis of avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure in Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)

    PubMed Central

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; Koike, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Resistance of plants to ozone stress can be classified as either avoidance or tolerance. Avoidance of ozone stress may be explained by decreased stomatal conductance during ozone exposure because stomata are the principal interface for entry of ozone into plants. In this study, a coupled photosynthesis–stomatal model was modified to test whether the presence of ozone can induce avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure. Methods The response of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata), a representative deciduous tree species, to ozone was studied in a free-air ozone exposure experiment in Japan. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured under ambient and elevated ozone. An optimization model of stomata involving water, CO2 and ozone flux was tested using the leaf gas exchange data. Key Results The data suggest that there are two phases in the avoidance of ozone stress via stomatal closure for Siebold's beech: (1) in early summer ozone influx is efficiently limited by a reduction in stomatal conductance, without any clear effect on photosynthetic capacity; and (2) in late summer and autumn the efficiency of ozone stress avoidance was decreased because the decrease in stomatal conductance was small and accompanied by an ozone-induced decline of photosynthetic capacity. Conclusions Ozone-induced stomatal closure in Siebold's beech during early summer reduces ozone influx and allows the maximum photosynthetic capacity to be reached, but is not sufficient in older leaves to protect the photosynthetic system. PMID:23904447

  2. Heterogeneous genetic structure in a Fagus crenata population in an old-growth beech forest revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Asuka, Y; Tomaru, N; Nisimura, N; Tsumura, Y; Yamamoto, S

    2004-05-01

    The within-population genetic structure of Fagus crenata in a 4-ha plot (200 x 200 m) of an old-growth beech forest was analysed using microsatellite markers. To assess the genetic structure, Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. Correlograms of Moran's I showed significant positive values less than 0.100 for short-distance classes, indicating weak genetic structure. The genetic structure within the population is created by limited seed dispersal, and is probably weakened by overlapping seed shadow, secondary seed dispersal, extensive pollen flow and the thinning process. Genetic structure was detected in a western subplot of 50 x 200 m with immature soils and almost no dwarf bamboos (Sasa spp.), where small and intermediate-sized individuals were distributed in aggregations with high density because of successful regeneration. By contrast, genetic structure was not found in an eastern subplot of the same size with mature soils and Sasa cover, where successful regeneration was prevented, and the density of the small and intermediate-sized individuals was low. Moreover, genetic structure of individuals in a small-size class (diameter at breast height < 12 cm) was more obvious than in a large-size class (diameter at breast height >/= 12 cm). The apparent genetic structure detected in the 4-ha plot was therefore probably the result of the structure in the western portion of the plot and in small and intermediate-sized individuals that successfully regenerated under the favourable environment. The heterogeneity in genetic structure presumably reflects variation in the density that should be affected by differences in regeneration dynamics associated with heterogeneity in environmental conditions.

  3. Role of intracellular contents to facilitate supercooling capability in beech (Fagus crenata) xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Mizuno, Kaoru; Miyaji, Natsuko; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2006-01-01

    In order to find the possible role of intracellular contents in facilitating the supercooling capability of xylem parenchyma cells, changes in the temperature of supercooling levels were compared before and after the release of intracellular substances from beech xylem parenchyma cells by DTA. Various methods were employed to release intracellular substances from xylem parenchyma cells and all resulted in a reduction of supercooling ability. It was concluded that the reduction of supercooling ability primarily resulted from changes of intracellular conditions, including the release of intracellular contents or their mixing with extracellular solutions, rather than due to changes of cell wall structures. It is therefore suggested that any unidentified intracellular contents may function to facilitate supercooling capability in xylem parenchyma cells.

  4. Use of microsatellite markers in an American beech (Fagus grandifolia) population and paternity testing

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Koch; Dave Carey; M.E. Mason

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech...

  5. Canopy carbon budget of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata) sapling under free air ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Makoto; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Inada, Naoki; Koike, Takayoshi

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of ozone (O3) on the canopy carbon budget, we investigated photosynthesis and respiration of leaves of Siebold's beech saplings under free air O3 exposure (60 nmol mol(-1), during daytime) in relation to the within-canopy light gradient; we then calculated the canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain (PCG) and respiratory carbon loss (RCL) using a canopy photosynthesis model. Susceptibilities of photosynthesis and respiration to O3 were greater in leaves of upper canopy than in the lower canopy. The canopy net carbon gain (NCG) was reduced by O3 by 12.4% during one growing season. The increased RCL was the main factor for the O3-induced reduction in NCG in late summer, while contributions of the reduced PCG and the increased RCL to the NCG were almost the same in autumn. These results indicate contributions of changes in PCG and RCL under O3 to NCG were different between seasons.

  6. Intraspecific variation and phylogeographic patterns of Fagus crenata (Fagaceae) mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Tomaru, N; Takahashi, M; Tsumura, Y; Takahashi, M; Ohba, K

    1998-05-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation in Japanese beech, Fagus crenata (Fagaceae), was studied in 17 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Total genomic DNA of samples from single trees representing each of 12 populations were digested with 18 restriction enzymes and hybridized with three probes containing coxI, coxIII, and atpA gene sequences. Thirty-four of the 54 enzyme/probe combinations showed polymorphisms and all the individuals were subsequently analyzed with six combinations of three probes and two enzymes. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were evident around all three genes, allowing the identification of eight distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity within the populations was found to be very low (HS = 0.031), but population differentiation to be much higher (GST = 0.963). The mtDNA variation was strikingly different from allozyme variation (HS = 0.209; GST = 0.039). Gene flow for maternally inherited mtDNA should be restricted to seed dispersal while nuclear gene flow occurs by both seed and pollen dispersal. Therefore, the difference in the variation between mtDNA and allozymes may be largely a result of the much higher rate of gene flow associated with pollen dispersal than with seed dispersal. The mtDNA variation displayed strong geographic structure, which may reflect the species' distribution in the last glacial maximum and subsequent colonization, and probably also reflects intraspecific phylogeography of the species.

  7. Silvical characteristics of beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Treesearch

    Francis M. Rushmore

    1961-01-01

    Of all the trees in our forests, the beech somehow always stands out. Its clean, smooth, sculptured blending of bole and branch gives it a form that is unique. Also unique is its smooth gray bark, which does not become furrowed with old age as that of other trees, but remains smooth from ground to crown.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies a major gene for beech bark disease resistance in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.)

    Treesearch

    Irina Ćalić; Jennifer Koch; David Carey; Charles Addo-Quaye; John E. Carlson; David B. Neale

    2017-01-01

    Background: The American Beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), native to eastern North America, is ecologically important and provides high quality wood products. This species is susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) and is facing high rates of mortality in North America. The disease occurs from an interaction between the woolly beech scale...

  9. Leaf nitrogen distribution in relation to crown architecture in the tall canopy species, Fagus crenata.

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Yasumura, Yuko; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    The theory of optimal leaf N distribution predicts that the C gain of plants is maximized when the N content per unit area (N(area)) scales with light availability, but most previous studies have demonstrated that the N distribution is not proportional to light availability. In tall trees, the leaves are often clustered on twigs (leaf cluster) and not evenly distributed within the crowns. Thus, we hypothesized that the suboptimal N distribution is partly caused by the limited capacity to translocate N between leaf clusters, and consequently, the relationship between light and N(area) differs for leaves in different clusters. We investigated the light availability and N content of all individual leaves within several leaf clusters on tall trees of a deciduous canopy species Fagus crenata in Japan. We observed that the within-cluster leaf N distribution patterns differed from the between-cluster patterns and the slopes of the relationships between light and N(area) were lower within clusters than between clusters. According to the detailed analysis of the N distribution within leaf clusters, N(area) was greater for current-year shoots with greater light availability or a larger total leaf area. The latter pattern was probably caused by the greater sink strength of the current-year shoots with a larger leaf area. These N distribution patterns suggest that leaf clusters are fairly independent with respect to their N use, and the productivity of real F. crenata crowns may be less than optimal.

  10. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  11. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Treesearch

    Mary E. Mason; Jennifer L. Koch; Marek Krasowski; Judy. Loo

    2013-01-01

    Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the...

  12. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea; Thomas, Frank M

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acer platanoides) revealed a "home field advantage" of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself.

  13. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acerplatanoides) revealed a “home field advantage” of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself. PMID:20596729

  14. Variation in Ecophysiological Traits and Drought Tolerance of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Seedlings from Different Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cocozza, Claudia; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, L'ubica; Marino, Stefano; Maiuro, Lucia; Alvino, Arturo; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Bolte, Andreas; Tognetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and intensity of heat waves and drought events are expected to increase in Europe due to climate change. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important native tree species in Europe. Beech populations originating throughout its native range were selected for common-garden experiments with the aim to determine whether there are functional variations in drought stress responses among different populations. One-year old seedlings from four to seven beech populations were grown and drought-treated in a greenhouse, replicating the experiment at two contrasting sites, in Italy (Mediterranean mountains) and Germany (Central Europe). Experimental findings indicated that: (1) drought (water stress) mainly affected gas exchange describing a critical threshold of drought response between 30 and 26% SWA for photosynthetic rate and Ci/Ca, respectively; (2) the Ci to Ca ratio increased substantially with severe water stress suggesting a stable instantaneous water use efficiency and an efficient regulation capacity of water balance achieved by a tight stomatal control; (3) there was a different response to water stress among the considered beech populations, differently combining traits, although there was not a well-defined variability in drought tolerance. A combined analysis of functional and structural traits for detecting stress signals in beech seedlings is suggested to assess plant performance under limiting moisture conditions and, consequently, to estimate evolutionary potential of beech under a changing environmental scenario. PMID:27446118

  15. Geographic variation in shoot traits and branching intensity in relation to leaf size in Fagus crenata: A common garden experiment.

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Nabeshima, Eri; Hiura, Tsutom

    2015-06-01

    Differences in leaf size are expected to be coordinated with various shoot traits and branching intensity because these relationships will influence light capture efficiency, water use, and biomechanics. Previous studies have mainly focused on interspecific patterns of these trait relationships, but not on intraspecific patterns at the geographic scale. We investigated intraspecific variation in shoot traits and branching intensity of Fagus crenata in Japan. Allometric relationships between the traits of current-year shoots and branching intensity per branch unit of 1-m length on the main axis (BI) and its coordination with latitude were investigated using trees from 10 provenances in a common garden. Individual trees originating from lower latitudes have smaller leaves with greater leaf mass per area and nitrogen content per area, greater Huber value (stem cross-sectional area per total leaf area [ATL]) of current-year shoots, and greater BI. Notably, the slope of the log-log relationship between BI and ATL was close to -1.0 across the trees from different source sites, implying that branching in this species occurs to control leaf area. Shoot traits and branching intensity were apparently coordinated with leaf size to control leaf area deployment in this species. Such patterns probably reflect differences in competition for hydraulic conductance among nearby shoots within crowns, as a consequence of different meteorological conditions across the source sites. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. Long-range transport of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) pollen to Catalonia (north-eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, J.; Alarcón, M.; Avila, A.; Scialabba, E.; Pino, D.

    2008-09-01

    Local and long-range transport of beech ( Fagus sylvatica) pollen was analysed by using 23-year data (1983-2007) at six stations in Catalonia, Spain, and numerical simulations. Back trajectories and synoptic meteorology indicated a consistent north European provenance during beech pollen peak days. Specifically, the area from northern Italy to central Germany was the most probable source, as indicated by a source-receptor model based on back trajectories. For the event with the highest pollen levels (17 May 2004), back trajectories indicated a source in the Vosges (NE France) and the Schwarzwald (SW Germany) regions. By applying a mesoscale model (MM5) to this event, pollen transport could be further refined, allowing its entrance to Catalonia through the lower easternmost pass of the Pyrenees (the Alberes pass, 500 m a.s.l.) to be described. Hourly counts of Fagus pollen allowed the timing of pollen arrival during this episode to be matched with the model results regarding the above-mentioned passage. This study may help to interpret some results of modern beech genetic diversity and contribute to the understanding of paleopalynological records by taking long-range transport into consideration.

  17. Modeling of stomatal conductance to estimate stomatal ozone uptake by Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Azuchi, Fumika; Uehara, Yui; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into the models and the models could explain 34-52% of the variability in gs. Although the O3 concentration was relatively high in spring from April to May, COU of F. crenata, Q. serrata and Q. mongolica var. crispula were relatively low and the ratios of COU in spring to total COU in one year were 16.8% in all tree species because of low gs limited mainly by leaf pre-maturation and/or low temperature. The COU of B. platyphylla were relatively high mainly because of rapid leaf maturation and lower optimal temperature for stomatal opening.

  18. Comparing monoterpenoid emissions and net photosynthesis of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Demarcke, M.; Joó, É.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Müller, J.-F.; Steppe, K.

    2011-06-01

    Although biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) only represent a very limited fraction of the plant's carbon (C) budget, they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry for example as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. We performed a study comparing BVOC emissions of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural environmental conditions. A young and adult beech tree was exposed to short-term temperature variations in growth room conditions and in an experimental forest, respectively. This study attempts to clarify how short-term temperature variations between days influenced the ratio between monoterpenoid (MT) emissions and net photosynthesis (Pn). Within a temperature range of 17-27 °C and 13-23 °C, the MT/Pn carbon ratio increased 10-30 fold for the growth room and forest, respectively. An exponential increasing trend between MT/Pn C ratio and air temperature was observed in both conditions. Beech trees re-emitted a low fraction of the assimilated C back into the atmosphere as MT: 0.01-0.12% and 0.01-0.30% with a temperature rise from 17 to 27 °C and 13-23 °C in growth room and forest conditions, respectively. However, the data showed that the MT/Pn C ratio of young and adult beech trees responded significantly to changes in temperature.

  19. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  20. BVOC emissions from English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are amongst the most common tree species growing in Europe, influencing the annual biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) budget in this region. Studies have shown great variability in the emissions from these tree species, originating from both genetic variability and differences in climatic conditions between study sites. In this study, we examine the emission patterns for English oak and European beech in genetically identical individuals and the potential variation within and between sites. Leaf scale BVOC emissions, net assimilation rates and stomatal conductance were measured at the International Phenological Garden sites of Ljubljana (Slovenia), Grafrath (Germany) and Taastrup (Denmark). Sampling was conducted during three campaigns between May and July 2014. Our results show that English oak mainly emitted isoprene whilst European beech released monoterpenes. The relative contribution of the most emitted compounds from the two species remained stable across latitudes. The contribution of isoprene for English oak from Grafrath and Taastrup ranged between 92 and 97 % of the total BVOC emissions, whilst sabinene and limonene for European beech ranged from 30.5 to 40.5 and 9 to 15 % respectively for all three sites. The relative contribution of isoprene for English oak at Ljubljana was lower (78 %) in comparison to the other sites, most likely caused by frost damage in early spring. The variability in total leaf-level emission rates from the same site was small, whereas there were greater differences between sites. These differences were probably caused by short-term weather events and plant stress. A difference in age did not seem to affect the emission patterns for the selected trees. This study highlights the significance of within-genotypic variation of BVOC emission capacities for English oak and European beech, the influence of climatic variables such as temperature and light on emission

  1. The formation of a ligno-suberised layer and necrophylactic periderm in beech bark (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Treesearch

    Primoz Oven; Niko Torelli; Walter C. Shortle; Martin Zupancic

    1999-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark was wounded in early April of 1993 and tissue changes followed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 84, 112, and 140. In 7 days, tissue at the wound surface became necrotic and discoloured. In 14 days the walls of the parenchyma cells immediately underneath the necrotic tissue became thickened and after 21 days...

  2. Photosynthetic responses to ozone of upper and lower canopy leaves of Fagus crenata Blume seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Fukamachi, Yoshinobu; Okabe, Shigeaki; Hiroshima, Hiroka; Watanabe, Makoto; Izuta, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the effects of ozone (O3) on photosynthetic ability of upper and lower canopy leaves of Fagus crenata Blume seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions. To accomplish this objective, we analyzed the response of photosynthetic parameters such as maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) to cumulative stomatal O3 uptake (ΣFst) and reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst as an index of detoxification capacity for O3. The seedlings of Fagus crenata were grown for two growing seasons (2014-2015) in nine treatments comprised of a combination of three levels of gas treatments (charcoal-filtered air or 1.0- or 1.5-times ambient O3 concentration) and three levels of soil nutrient treatments (non-fertilized or a supply of relatively low or high concentrations of compound fertilizer). The nutrient supply significantly increased the degree of O3-induced reduction in Vcmax in September. However, nutrient supply did not significantly increase ΣFst and reduce the detoxification capacity for O3. On the other hand, the degree of O3-induced reduction in Vcmax of upper canopy leaves was higher as compared with that of lower canopy leaves in August due to the higher ΣFst. However, the reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst in lower canopy leaves was higher than that in upper canopy leaves, indicating lower detoxification capacity for O3 in lower canopy leaves. Reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst over the threshold, which is assumed to be proportional to gross photosynthetic rate, was similar between upper and lower canopy leaves. Therefore, capacity of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is likely to be associated with detoxification capacity for O3 in upper and lower canopy leaves of F. crenata seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant-mediated nitrous oxide emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pihlatie, Mari; Ambus, Per; Rinne, Janne; Pilegaard, Kim; Vesala, Timo

    2005-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission estimates from forest ecosystems are based currently on emission measurements using soil enclosures. Such enclosures exclude emissions via tall plants and trees and may therefore underestimate the whole-ecosystem N2O emissions. Here, we measured plant-mediated N2O emissions from the leaves of potted beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings after fertilizing the soil with 15N-labelled ammonium nitrate (15NH4(15)NO3), and after exposing the roots to elevated concentrations of N2O. Ammonium nitrate fertilization induced N2O + 15N2O emissions from beech leaves. Likewise, the foliage emitted N2O after beech roots were exposed to elevated concentrations of N2O. The average N2O emissions from the fertilization and the root exposure experiments were 0.4 and 2.0 microg N m(-2) leaf area h(-1), respectively. Higher than ambient atmospheric concentrations of N2O in the leaves of the forest trees indicate a potential for canopy N2O emissions in the forest. Our experiments demonstrate the existence of a previously overlooked pathway of N2O to the atmosphere in forest ecosystems, and bring about a need to investigate the magnitude of this phenomenon at larger scales.

  4. Vertical, horizontal and azimuthal variations in leaf photosynthetic characteristics within a Fagus crenata crown in relation to light acclimation.

    PubMed

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kato, Shuri; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of spatial variations in gas exchange parameters in relation to the light environment is crucial for modeling canopy photosynthesis. We measured vertical, horizontal and azimuthal (north and south) variations in photosynthetic capacity (i.e., the maximum rate of carboxylation: Vcmax), nitrogen content (N), leaf mass per area (LMA) and chlorophyll content (Chl) in relation to relative photosynthetic photon flux (rPPF) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown. The horizontal gradient of rPPF was similar in magnitude to the vertical gradient of rPPF from the upper to the lower crown. The rPPF in the north quadrant of the crown was slightly lower than in the south quadrant. Nitrogen content per area (Narea), LMA and Vcmax were strictly proportional to rPPF, irrespective of the vertical direction, horizontal direction and crown azimuth, whereas nitrogen content per dry mass, Chl per area and photosynthetic capacity per dry mass (Vm) were fairly constant. Statistical analyses separating vertical trends from horizontal and azimuthal trends indicated that, although horizontal and vertical light acclimation of leaf properties were similar, there were two significant azimuthal variations: (1) Vcmax was lower in north-facing leaves than in south-facing leaves for a given Narea, indicating low photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) of north-facing leaves; and (2) Vcmax was lower in north-facing leaves than in south-facing leaves for a given LMA, indicating low Vm of the north-facing leaves. With respect to the low PNUE of the north-facing leaves, there were no significant azimuthal variations in leaf CO2 conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site. Biochemical analysis indicated that azimuthal variations in nitrogen allocation to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and in nitrogen allocation between carboxylation (Rubisco and other Calvin cycle enzymes) and light harvesting machinery (Chl pigment-protein complexes) were not

  5. Bolete diversity in two relict forests of the Mexican beech (Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana; Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ernesto Ch; Moreno, Claudia E

    2010-05-01

    The current distribution of the endangered Mexican beech [Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (Martinez) Little] is restricted to relict isolated populations in small remnants of montane cloud forest in northeastern Mexico, and little is known about its associated biota. We sampled bolete diversity in two of these monospecific forests in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. We compared alpha diversity, including species richness and ensemble structure, and analyzed beta diversity (dissimilarity in species composition) between forests. We found 26 bolete species, five of which are probably new. Species diversity and evenness were similar between forests. Beta diversity was low, and the similarities of bolete samples from within and between forests were not significantly different. These results support the idea that the two forests share a single bolete ensemble with a common history. In contrast, cumulative species richness differed between the forests, implying that factors other than the mere presence of the host species have contributed to shaping the biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in relict Mexican beech forests.

  6. Water and lipid relations in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds and its effect on storage behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pukacka, S; Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Pukacki, P M; Wójkiewicz, E

    2003-04-07

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds indicate intermediate storage behaviour. Properties of water in seed tissues were studied to understand their requirements during storage conditions. Water sorption isotherms showed that at the same relative humidity (RH) the water content is significantly higher in embryo axes than cotyledons. This tendency maintains also after recalculating the water content for zero amount of lipids in tissues. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicated water crystallization exotherms in the embryo axes at moisture content (MC) higher than 29% and 16% in the cotyledons. In order to examine the occurrence of glassy state in the cytoplasm of beech embryos as a function of water content, isolated embryo axes were examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) of nitroxide TEMPO probe located inside axes cells. TEMPO molecules undergo fast reorientations with correlation time varied from 2 x 10(-9) s at 180 K to 2 x 10(-11) s at 315 K. Although the TEMPO molecules label mainly the lipid bilayers of cell membranes, they are sensitive to the dynamics and phase transformation of the cytoplasmic cell interior. The label motion is clearly affected by a transition between liquid and glassy state of the cytoplasm. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) raises from 253 to 293 K when water content decreases from 18% to 8%. Far from T(g) the motion is described by Arrhenius equation with very small activation energy E(a) in the liquid state and is relatively small in the glassy state where E(a)=1.5 kJ/mol for 28% H(2)O and E(a)=4.7 kJ/mol for 8% H(2)O or less. The optimal storage conditions of beech seeds are proposed in the range from 255 K for 15% H(2)O to 280 K for 9% H(2)O.

  7. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus nigra) litter along an Alpine elevation gradient: Decay and nutrient release.

    PubMed

    Berger, Torsten W; Duboc, Olivier; Djukic, Ika; Tatzber, Michael; Gerzabek, Martin H; Zehetner, Franz

    2015-08-01

    Litter decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct and indirect effects of climate on litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in a temperate Alpine region. Foliar litter of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Black pine (Pinus nigra) was incubated in litterbags during two years in the Hochschwab massif of the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria. Eight incubation sites were selected following an altitudinal/climatic transect from 1900 to 900 m asl. The average remaining mass after two years of decomposition amounted to 54% (beech) and 50% (pine). Net release of N, P, Na, Al, Fe and Mn was higher in pine than in beech litter due to high immobilization (retention) rates of beech litter. However, pine litter retained more Ca than beech litter. Altitude retarded decay (mass loss and associated C release) in beech litter during the first year only but had a longer lasting effect on decaying pine litter. Altitude comprises a suite of highly auto-correlated characteristics (climate, vegetation, litter, soil chemistry, soil microbiology, snow cover) that influence litter decomposition. Hence, decay and nutrient release of incubated litter is difficult to predict by altitude, except during the early stage of decomposition, which seemed to be controlled by climate. Reciprocal litter transplant along the elevation gradient yielded even relatively higher decay of pine litter on beech forest sites after a two-year adaptation period of the microbial community.

  8. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus nigra) litter along an Alpine elevation gradient: Decay and nutrient release

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Torsten W.; Duboc, Olivier; Djukic, Ika; Tatzber, Michael; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zehetner, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct and indirect effects of climate on litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in a temperate Alpine region. Foliar litter of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Black pine (Pinus nigra) was incubated in litterbags during two years in the Hochschwab massif of the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria. Eight incubation sites were selected following an altitudinal/climatic transect from 1900 to 900 m asl. The average remaining mass after two years of decomposition amounted to 54% (beech) and 50% (pine). Net release of N, P, Na, Al, Fe and Mn was higher in pine than in beech litter due to high immobilization (retention) rates of beech litter. However, pine litter retained more Ca than beech litter. Altitude retarded decay (mass loss and associated C release) in beech litter during the first year only but had a longer lasting effect on decaying pine litter. Altitude comprises a suite of highly auto-correlated characteristics (climate, vegetation, litter, soil chemistry, soil microbiology, snow cover) that influence litter decomposition. Hence, decay and nutrient release of incubated litter is difficult to predict by altitude, except during the early stage of decomposition, which seemed to be controlled by climate. Reciprocal litter transplant along the elevation gradient yielded even relatively higher decay of pine litter on beech forest sites after a two-year adaptation period of the microbial community. PMID:26240437

  9. Habitat differences influence genetic impacts of human land use on the American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    PubMed

    Lumibao, Candice Y; McLachlan, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Natural reforestation after regional forest clearance is a globally common land-use sequence. The genetic recovery of tree populations in these recolonized forests may depend on the biogeographic setting of the landscape, for instance whether they are in the core or in the marginal part of the species' range. Using data from 501 individuals genotyped across 7 microsatellites, we investigated whether regional differences in habitat quality affected the recovery of genetic variation in a wind-pollinated tree species, American beech (Fagus grandifolia) in Massachusetts. We compared populations in forests that were recolonized following agricultural abandonment to those in remnant forests that have only been logged in both central inland and marginal coastal regions. Across all populations in our entire study region, recolonized forests showed limited reduction of genetic diversity as only observed heterozygosity was significantly reduced in these forests (H(O) = 0.520 and 0.590, respectively). Within inland region, this pattern was observed, whereas in the coast, recolonized populations exhibited no reduction in all genetic diversity estimates. However, genetic differentiation among recolonized populations in marginal coastal habitat increased (F(st) logged = 0.072; F(st) secondary = 0.249), with populations showing strong genetic structure, in contrast to inland region. These results indicate that the magnitude of recovery of genetic variation in recolonized populations can vary at different habitats.

  10. Variation in throughfall deposition across a deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest edge in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Devlaeminck, Rebecca; De Schrijver, An; Hermy, Martin

    2005-01-20

    Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange of acidifying and eutrophying compounds and major base cations were studied by means of throughfall analysis in a deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest edge in Belgium over a period of 1 year. Throughfall fluxes of Cl(-), NH(4)(+) and Na(+) were significantly elevated at the forest edge compared to the forest interior. As no edge effect on throughfall water volume could be detected, the observed edge enhancement effects were mainly due to dry deposition and canopy exchange patterns. Indeed, there was an elevated dry deposition of Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) up to 50 m from the field/forest border. Within the forest, throughfall and dry deposition of SO(4)(2-) were highly variable and no significant differences were observed between the forest edge and the forest interior. Leaching of K(+) and Ca(2+) was reduced in the forest edge up to a distance of 30 m from the border. The measured nitrogen and acidic depositions far exceeded the current Flemish critical loads with respect to the protection of biodiversity in forests, especially at the forest edge. This points to an urgent need for controlling emissions as well as the need to consider the elevated deposition load in forest edges when calculating the critical loads in forests.

  11. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  12. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.

  13. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  14. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that – despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees – suggesting the action of associational resistance processes – and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores. PMID:25938417

  15. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that - despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees - suggesting the action of associational resistance processes - and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores.

  16. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO3SE model. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Raman spectroscopic investigation of 13CO 2 labeling and leaf dark respiration of Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech).

    PubMed

    Keiner, Robert; Gruselle, Marie-Cécile; Michalzik, Beate; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-03-01

    An important issue, in times of climate change and more extreme weather events, is the investigation of forest ecosystem reactions to these events. Longer drought periods stress the vitality of trees and promote mass insect outbreaks, which strongly affect ecosystem processes and services. Cavity-enhanced Raman gas spectrometry was applied for online multi-gas analysis of the gas exchange rates of O2 and CO2 and the labeling of Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech) seedlings with (13)CO2. The rapid monitoring of all these gases simultaneously allowed for the separation of photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by the beech seedlings and a constant (12)CO2 efflux via respiration and thus for a correction of the measured (12)CO2 concentrations in course of the labeling experiment. The effects of aphid infestation with the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) as well as the effect of a drought period on the respirational gas exchange were investigated. A slightly decreased respirational activity of drought-stressed seedlings in comparison to normally watered seedlings was found already for a low drought intensity. Cavity-enhanced Raman gas monitoring of O2, (12)CO2, and (13)CO2 was proven to be a powerful new tool for studying the effect of drought stress and aphid infestation on the respirational activity of European beech seedlings as an example of important forest species in Central Europe.

  18. Changes in crown development patterns and current-year shoot structure with light environment and tree height in Fagus crenata (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Tateno, Ryunosuke; Mori, Akira; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    The relative effects of light and tree height on the architecture of leader crowns (i.e., the leading section of the main trunk, 100 cm in length) and current-year shoots for a canopy species, Fagus crenata, occupying both the ridge top and the valley bottom in a cool-temperate forest in Japan were investigated. For leader crowns, the number of current-year shoots and leaves increased with increasing tree height, whereas the mean length of current-year shoots increased with increasing relative photon flux density (PFD). The leader crown area decreased, and the depth and leaf area index of leader crowns increased, with increasing relative PFD. The mass of current-year shoots increased with relative PFD. However, this total mass was allocated differently between stems and leaves depending on tree height, such that the relative allocation to stems increased with increasing tree height. Furthermore, stem structures within current-year shoots also changed with height, such that taller trees produced thicker and shorter stems of the same volume. In contrast, leaf structure and leaf biomass allocations changed with relative PFD. Specific leaf area decreased with increasing relative PFD. In addition, leaf number increased more rapidly with increasing individual leaf mass for trees exposed to greater relative PFD. Consequently, the total leaf area supported by a stem of a given diameter decreased with increasing tree height and relative PFD. Thus, the architecture of leader crowns and current-year shoots were related differently to light and tree height, which are considered important for efficient light capture and the growth of small and tall trees in different environments.

  19. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Respiration Rates of Above- and Belowground Woody Debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jomura, Mayuko; Akashi, Yuhei; Itoh, Hiromu; Yuki, Risa; Sakai, Yoshimi; Maruyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    As a large, long-term pool and source of carbon and nutrients, woody litter is an important component of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the factors that regulate the rate of decomposition of coarse and fine woody debris (CFWD) of dominant tree species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. Respiration rates of dead stems, branches, and coarse and fine roots of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula felled 4 years prior obtained in situ ranged from 20.9 to 500.1 mg CO2 [kg dry wood]–1 h–1 in a one-time measurement in summer. Respiration rate had a significant negative relationship with diameter; in particular, that of a sample of Q. crispula with a diameter of >15 cm and substantial heartwood was low. It also had a significant positive relationship with moisture content. The explanatory variables diameter, [N], wood density, and moisture content were interrelated. The most parsimonious path model showed 14 significant correlations among 8 factors and respiration. Diameter and [C] had large negative direct effects on CFWD respiration rate, and moisture content and species had medium positive direct effects. [N] and temperature did not have direct or indirect effects, and position and wood density had indirect effects. The model revealed some interrelationships between controlling factors. We discussed the influence of the direct effects of explanatory variables and the influence especially of species and position. We speculate that the small R2 value of the most parsimonious model was probably due to the omission of microbial biomass and activity. These direct and indirect effects and interrelationships between explanatory variables could be used to develop a process-based CFWD decomposition model. PMID:26658727

  20. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Respiration Rates of Above- and Belowground Woody Debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jomura, Mayuko; Akashi, Yuhei; Itoh, Hiromu; Yuki, Risa; Sakai, Yoshimi; Maruyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    As a large, long-term pool and source of carbon and nutrients, woody litter is an important component of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the factors that regulate the rate of decomposition of coarse and fine woody debris (CFWD) of dominant tree species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. Respiration rates of dead stems, branches, and coarse and fine roots of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula felled 4 years prior obtained in situ ranged from 20.9 to 500.1 mg CO2 [kg dry wood](-1) h(-1) in a one-time measurement in summer. Respiration rate had a significant negative relationship with diameter; in particular, that of a sample of Q. crispula with a diameter of >15 cm and substantial heartwood was low. It also had a significant positive relationship with moisture content. The explanatory variables diameter, [N], wood density, and moisture content were interrelated. The most parsimonious path model showed 14 significant correlations among 8 factors and respiration. Diameter and [C] had large negative direct effects on CFWD respiration rate, and moisture content and species had medium positive direct effects. [N] and temperature did not have direct or indirect effects, and position and wood density had indirect effects. The model revealed some interrelationships between controlling factors. We discussed the influence of the direct effects of explanatory variables and the influence especially of species and position. We speculate that the small R2 value of the most parsimonious model was probably due to the omission of microbial biomass and activity. These direct and indirect effects and interrelationships between explanatory variables could be used to develop a process-based CFWD decomposition model.

  1. Competition for nitrogen sources between European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Simon, J; Waldhecker, P; Brüggemann, N; Rennenberg, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the short-term consequences of direct competition between beech and sycamore maple on root N uptake and N composition, mycorrhizal seedlings of both tree species were incubated for 4 days (i.e. beech only, sycamore maple only or both together) in an artificial nutrient solution with low N availability. On the fourth day, N uptake experiments were conducted to study the effects of competition on inorganic and organic N uptake. For this purpose, multiple N sources were applied with a single label. Furthermore, fine roots were sampled and analysed for total amino acids, soluble protein, total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium content. Our results clearly show that both tree species were able to use inorganic and organic N sources. Uptake of inorganic and organic N by beech roots was negatively affected in the presence of the competing tree species. In contrast, the presence of beech stimulated inorganic N uptake by sycamore maple roots. Both the negative effect of sycamore maple on N uptake of beech and the positive effect of beech on N uptake of sycamore maple led to an increase in root soluble protein in beech, despite an overall decrease in total N concentration. Thus, beech compensated for the negative effects of the tree competitor on N uptake by incorporating less N into structural N components, but otherwise exhibited the same strategy as the competitor, namely, enhancing soluble protein levels in roots when grown under competition. It is speculated that enhanced enzyme activities of so far unknown nature are required in beech as a defence response to inter-specific competition.

  2. Diversity and Composition of the Leaf Mycobiome of Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Are Affected by Local Habitat Conditions and Leaf Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Unterseher, Martin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Brachmann, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations of plant-associated fungal communities (mycobiomes) in distinct habitats and under distinct climate regimes have been rarely conducted in the past. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing allows routine examination of mycobiome responses to environmental changes and results at an unprecedented level of detail. In the present study, we analysed Illumina-generated fungal ITS1 sequences from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) originating from natural habitats at two different altitudes in the German Alps and from a managed tree nursery in northern Germany. In general, leaf-inhabiting mycobiome diversity and composition correlated significantly with the origin of the trees. Under natural condition the mycobiome was more diverse at lower than at higher elevation, whereas fungal diversity was lowest in the artificial habitat of the tree nursery. We further identified significant correlation of leaf chlorophylls and flavonoids with both habitat parameters and mycobiome biodiversity. The present results clearly point towards a pronounced importance of local stand conditions for the structure of beech leaf mycobiomes and for a close interrelation of phyllosphere fungi and leaf physiology. PMID:27078859

  3. Transport of soluble carbohydrates in temperate deciduous trees: beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The structure of phloem cells and the physiology of the transport of soluble carbohydrates in plants are well studied. However, the influence of different phloem un- and uploading strategies on the translocation of carbohydrates in different tree species is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a pulse labeling on 20 young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) respectively, using the stable isotope 13C in a temperate deciduous forest in Central Germany. In one growing season each tree species was labeled in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 5 h. The compound specific δ 13C from carbohydrates in the different compartments leaf, branch, stem and root was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). We found that both tree species used sucrose as a transport sugar, but carbohydrates of the raffinose group (RFO) served as main transport sugar in ash trees. This indicate that beech used only the apoplastic loading strategy into the phloem cells while ash trees relied on both, apoplastic and symplastic loading, preferring the latter at the end of the growing season. Furthermore, we observed different transport velocities of labeled sugars in the two species. Here, sucrose in beech and carbohydrates of the RFO in ash were transported fastest, whereas sucrose was constantly slowest in ash trees. The label of carbohydrates was found over 60 day in the roots of both tree species, with the highest δ 13C enrichment in carbohydrates of RFO than in the other sugars. Accordingly, the mean residence time (MRT) and half life time (HLT) of 13C in different compartments were longest for carbohydrates of RFO in roots (25.6 days) and sucrose in stems (14.9 days), while the shortest MRT and HLT for sucrose appeared in beech in all compartments. Our results give evidence that RFO are preferentially transported to the root tissue as an agent against frost

  4. A unigene set for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and its use to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in dormancy regulation.

    PubMed

    Lesur, Isabelle; Bechade, Alison; Lalanne, Céline; Klopp, Christophe; Noirot, Céline; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Kremer, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe; Le Provost, Grégoire

    2015-09-01

    Systematic sequencing is the method of choice for generating genomic resources for molecular marker development and candidate gene identification in nonmodel species. We generated 47,357 Sanger ESTs and 2.2M Roche-454 reads from five cDNA libraries for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). This tree species of high ecological and economic value in Europe is among the most representative trees of deciduous broadleaf forests. The sequences generated were assembled into 21,057 contigs with MIRA software. Functional annotations were obtained for 85% of these contigs, from the proteomes of four plant species, Swissprot accessions and the Gene Ontology database. We were able to identify 28,079 in silico SNPs for future marker development. Moreover, RNAseq and qPCR approaches identified genes and gene networks regulated differentially between two critical phenological stages preceding vegetative bud burst (the quiescent and swelling buds stages). According to climatic model-based projection, some European beech populations may be endangered, particularly at the southern and eastern edges of the European distribution range, which are strongly affected by current climate change. This first genomic resource for the genus Fagus should facilitate the identification of key genes for beech adaptation and management strategies for preserving beech adaptability.

  5. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, F; Raidl, S; Osswald, W F

    2010-04-01

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO(2)- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO(2)-treatment, whereas elevated CO(2) enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO(2) and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Buiteveld, J; Geburek, T; Gerber, S; Kramer, K; Vettori, C; Vendramin, G G

    2012-01-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle the possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow in four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from Austria and France. In each country one of the two plots is located in an unmanaged forest; the other plots are managed with a shelterwood system and inside a colonization area (in Austria and France, respectively). The two paternity analysis approaches provided almost identical estimates of gene flow. In general, we found high pollen immigration (∼75% of pollen from outside), with the exception of the plot from a highly isolated forest remnant (∼50%). In the two unmanaged plots, the average within-population pollen dispersal distances (from 80 to 184 m) were higher than previously estimated for beech. From the comparison between the Austrian managed and unmanaged plots, that are only 500 m apart, we found no evidence that either gene flow or reproductive success distributions were significantly altered by forest management. The investigated phenotypic traits (crown area, height, diameter and flowering phenology) were not significantly related with male reproductive success. Shelterwood seems to have an effect on the distribution of within-population pollen dispersal distances. In the managed plot, pollen dispersal distances were shorter, possibly because adult tree density is three-fold (163 versus 57 trees per hectare) with respect to the unmanaged one. PMID:21897442

  7. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes.

    PubMed

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Buiteveld, J; Geburek, T; Gerber, S; Kramer, K; Vettori, C; Vendramin, G G

    2012-03-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle the possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow in four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from Austria and France. In each country one of the two plots is located in an unmanaged forest; the other plots are managed with a shelterwood system and inside a colonization area (in Austria and France, respectively). The two paternity analysis approaches provided almost identical estimates of gene flow. In general, we found high pollen immigration (~75% of pollen from outside), with the exception of the plot from a highly isolated forest remnant (~50%). In the two unmanaged plots, the average within-population pollen dispersal distances (from 80 to 184 m) were higher than previously estimated for beech. From the comparison between the Austrian managed and unmanaged plots, that are only 500 m apart, we found no evidence that either gene flow or reproductive success distributions were significantly altered by forest management. The investigated phenotypic traits (crown area, height, diameter and flowering phenology) were not significantly related with male reproductive success. Shelterwood seems to have an effect on the distribution of within-population pollen dispersal distances. In the managed plot, pollen dispersal distances were shorter, possibly because adult tree density is three-fold (163 versus 57 trees per hectare) with respect to the unmanaged one.

  8. What are the functional mechanisms underlying forest decline? A case study on a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaporte, Alice; Bazot, Stéphane; Fresneau, Chantal; Damesin, Claire

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing climate change is altering the precipitation patterns (abundance and frequency) of most parts of the world. The consequences of these changes on forests are already visible through frequent declines. A lot of them can be linked to the occurrence of long and/or repeated drought periods. Although forest decline could severely impact the nutrient and water cycles, their underlying functional causes are not well understood. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of decline at the tree level: • Carbon reserves deficit ("carbon starvation") • Loss of water transport ( "hydraulic failure") Although hydraulic failure has been observed in a wetland species decline (poplar), our understanding of forest decline is still lacking in many species. Our study concerns a widespread species, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). A severely declining mature beech plot in the Fontainebleau state forest (France) was followed. This decline can be related to repeated droughts, enhanced by unfavorable soil conditions (sandy soil with very low extractible soil water). For the first time to our knowledge, an integrative in situ functional approach coupling both hydraulic and carbon, but also nitrogen functioning was developed. More precisely, pre-dawn and midday water potentials, "native" embolism, and embolism vulnerability of branches, radial tree growth, carbon and nitrogen reserves concentrations, were measured on healthy and declining trees. Our results showed that under normal climatic conditions (summer 2012), pre-dawn and midday water potentials were the same for healthy and declining trees throughout the season. Their losses of hydraulic conductivity ("native" embolism) were not significantly different, even at the end of the summer. Moreover, the embolism vulnerability curves also showed no significant difference (50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at around - 3MPa). Concerning C and N reserves concentrations, we showed that seasonal

  9. Fate of recently fixed carbon in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings during drought and subsequent recovery.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ulrich; Goisser, Michael; Grams, Thorsten E E; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Matzner, Egbert; Borken, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Drought reduces the carbon (C) assimilation of trees and decouples aboveground from belowground carbon fluxes, but little is known about the response of drought-stressed trees to rewetting. This study aims to assess dynamics and patterns of C allocation in beech saplings under dry and rewetted soil conditions. In October 2010, 5-year-old beech saplings from a forest site were transplanted into 20 l pots. In 2011, the saplings were subjected to different levels of soil drought ranging from non-limiting water supply (control) to severe water limitation with soil water potentials of less than -1.5 MPa. As a physiologically relevant measure of drought, the cumulated soil water potential (i.e., drought stress dose (DSD)) was calculated for the growing season. In late August, the saplings were transferred into a climate chamber and pulse-labeled with (13)C-depleted CO2 (δ(13)C of -47‰). Isotopic signatures in leaf and soil respiration were repeatedly measured. Five days after soil rewetting, a second label was applied using 99 atom% (13)CO2. After another 12 days, the fate of assimilated C in each sapling was assessed by calculating the (13)C mass balance. Photosynthesis decreased by 60% in saplings under severe drought. The mean residence time (MRT) of recent assimilates in leaf respiration was more than three times longer than under non-limited conditions and was positively correlated to DSD. Also, the appearance of the label in soil respiration was delayed. Within 5 days after rewetting, photosynthesis, MRT of recent assimilates in leaf respiration and appearance of the label in soil respiration recovered fully. Despite the fast recovery, less label was recovered in the biomass of the previously drought-stressed plants, which also allocated less C to the root compartment (45 vs 64% in the control). We conclude that beech saplings quickly recover from extreme soil drought, although transitional after-effects prevail in C allocation, possibly due to repair

  10. A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

    2012-08-01

    Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

  11. Influence of tree internal nitrogen reserves on the response of beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Dyckmans, Jens; Flessa, Heiner

    2002-01-01

    We examined the influence of plant internal nitrogen (N) reserves on the response of 3-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in a dual 15N and 13C long-term labeling experiment. Trees were grown on sand and received either no N nutrition (-N treatment) or 4 mM N (+N treatment) for 1 year. The -N and +N pretreated trees were then placed in growth chambers and grown in 350 (ambient) or 700 ppm (elevated) of a 13CO2 atmosphere for 24 weeks. In all treatments, trees were supplied with 4 mM 15N during the experiment. Irrespective of tree N reserves, elevated [CO2] increased cumulative carbon (C) uptake by about 30% at Week 24 compared with that for trees in the ambient treatment. Elevated [CO2] also caused a shift in C allocation to belowground compartments, which was more pronounced in -N trees than in +N trees. In +N trees, belowground allocation of new C at Week 24 was 67% in ambient [CO2] compared with 70% in elevated [CO2]. The corresponding values for -N trees were 70 and 79%. The increase in C allocation in response to elevated [CO2] was most evident as an increase in belowground respiration; however, specific root respiration was unaffected by the CO2 or N treatments. Although elevated [CO2] increased root growth and belowground respiration, it had no effect on N uptake at Week 24. As a result of increased C uptake, N concentrations were decreased in trees in the elevated [CO2] treatment compared with trees in the ambient treatment in both N treatments. Partitioning of new N uptake was unaffected by elevated [CO2] in +N trees. In -N trees, however, N allocation to the stem decreased in response to elevated [CO2] and N allocation to fine roots increased, suggesting a reduction in the formation of N reserves in response to elevated [CO2]. We conclude that the response of beech trees to elevated [CO2] is affected by internal N status and that elevated [CO2] may influence the ability of the trees to form N

  12. Intra-population variability in the drought response of a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) population in the southwest of Europe.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Ismael; Bahamonde, Hector A; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Cernusak, Lucas

    2017-07-01

    Phenotypic variability within forest species populations is considered of special relevance for local adaptation under new environments, albeit it has been analyzed to a lesser extent than inter-population phenotypic variability. A common garden study was carried out to assess phenotypic variability in response to water stress in half-sibling families from a marginal population of Fagus sylvatica L. at its south-western range edge distribution in Europe. Two irrigation regimes were applied, well-watered (WW) seedlings and those submitted to weekly cycles of drying-rewatering of growth media. Seedling growth and their leaf functional traits were recorded during the last cycle of water stress. Most of the phenotypic changes were explained by phenotypic plasticity in response to water stress, but there was also a significant effect of family in the expression of some of the studied traits. The relationship of carbon isotope fractioning with gas exchange traits across families under WW conditions did not follow the same pattern as the phenotypic trends. The leaf net photosynthesis across families was modified by the nitrogen content on a leaf mass basis that was in turn correlated positively with leaf nitrogen isotope fractionation. The results point to an important role of leaf nitrogen in determining the intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE) across families. Variation in WUE was ruled mainly by control of stomatal conductance to water vapor under water stress, but by leaf net photosynthesis under wet conditions. Relatively high inter-family phenotypic variability in growth and functional traits were observed. Within-population phenotypic variability, and the plasticity of some of the studied traits, is of fundamental importance to cope with the harsher environments beech will have to endure in the future at different points in its distribution range. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The production, localization and spreading of reactive oxygen species contributes to the low vitality of long-term stored common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Małecka, Arleta; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Kalemba, Ewa Marzena

    2015-02-01

    The common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is propagated by seeds, but the seed set is irregular with five to ten years in between crops. It is therefore necessary to store the seeds. However, beech seeds lose germinability during long-term storage. In this study, beech seeds were stored at -10°C under controlled conditions for 2, 5, 8, 11 and 13 years. Our results show that beech seeds lose germinability during storage in proportion to the duration of storage. The decrease in germinability correlated with increased electrolyte leakage and accumulation of superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed among the releases of superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. In situ localization showed that superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide were first detectable in root cap cells. When the seed storage time was extended, the reactive oxygen species fluorescence expanded to more areas of the radicle, reaching the root apical meristem. A storage time-dependent decrease in catalase activity, observed in both embryonic axes and cotyledons, was also positively correlated with germinability. DNA fragmentation was observed in beech seeds during storage and occurred predominantly in embryonic axes stored for 5 years and more. Altogether, these results suggest that the loss of germinability in beech seeds during long-term storage depends on several factors, including strong of reactive oxygen species accumulation accompanied by reduced catalase activity as well as membrane injury and DNA alternations, which may be aging-related and ROS-derived. We suggest that the accumulating reactive oxygen species that spread to the root apical meristem are key factors that affect seed germinability after long-term storage.

  14. Decrease in Available Soil Water Storage Capacity Reduces Vitality of Young Understorey European Beeches (Fagus sylvatica L.)—A Case Study from the Black Forest, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Tamalika; Saha, Somidh; Reif, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Growth and survival of young European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is largely dependent on water availability. We quantified the influence of water stress (measured as Available Soil Water Storage Capacity or ASWSC) on vitality of young beech plants at a dry site. The study site was located in a semi-natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) stand adjacent to beech stands on a rocky gneiss outcrop in southwestern Germany. Plant vitality was measured as crown dieback and estimated by the percentage of dead above ground biomass. The magnitude of crown dieback was recorded in different vertical parts of the crown. Biomass was calculated from the harvested plants following allometric regression equations specifically developed for our study site. Stem discs from harvested plants were used for growth analysis. We found that soil depth up to bedrock and skeleton content significantly influenced ASWSC at the study site. A significant negative correlation between ASWSC and crown dieback was found. Highest rates of crown dieback were noticed in the middle and lower crown. The threshold of crown dieback as a function of drought stress for young beech plants was calculated for the first time in this study. This threshold of crown dieback was found to be 40% of above ground biomass. Beyond 40% crown dieback, plants eventually experienced complete mortality. In addition, we found that the extremely dry year of 2003 significantly hampered growth (basal area increment) of plants in dry plots (ASWSC < 61 mm) in the study area. Recovery in the plants’ radial growth after that drought year was significantly higher in less dry plots (ASWSC > 61 mm) than in dry plots. We concluded that a decrease in ASWSC impeded the vitality of young beech causing partial up to complete crown dieback in the study site. PMID:27137398

  15. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of litter chemistry and stoichiometry on glucan depolymerization during decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Sonja; Wanek, Wolfgang; Wild, Birgit; Haemmerle, Ieda; Kohl, Lukas; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Glucans like cellulose and starch are a major source of carbon for decomposer food webs, especially during early- and intermediate-stages of decomposition. Litter quality has previously been suggested to notably influence decomposition processes as it determines the decomposability of organic material and the nutrient availability to the decomposer community. To study the impact of chemical and elemental composition of resources on glucan decomposition, a laboratory experiment was carried out using beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) litter from four different locations in Austria, differing in composition (concentration of starch, cellulose and acid unhydrolyzable residue or AUR fraction) and elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P ratio). Leaf litter was incubated in mesocosms for six months in the laboratory under controlled conditions. To investigate the process of glucan decomposition and its controls, we developed an isotope pool dilution (IPD) assay using (13)C-glucose to label the pool of free glucose in the litter, and subsequently measured the dilution of label over time. This enabled us to calculate gross rates of glucose production through glucan depolymerization, and glucose consumption by the microbial community. In addition, potential activities of extracellular cellulases and ligninases (peroxidases and phenoloxidases) were measured to identify effects of resource chemistry and stoichiometry on microbial enzyme production. Gross rates of glucan depolymerization and glucose consumption were highly correlated, indicating that both processes are co-regulated and intrinsically linked by the microbial demand for C and energy and thereby to resource allocation to enzymes that depolymerize glucans. At early stages of decomposition, glucan depolymerization rates were correlated with starch content, indicating that starch was the primary source for glucose. With progressing litter decomposition, the correlation with starch diminished and glucan depolymerization rates were

  17. Monoterpene emissions from Beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in a French forest and impact on secondary pollutants formation at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukhtar, S.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L.; Simon, V.

    Biogenic emissions from forest, crops, and grasslands are now considered major compounds in photochemical processes. Air quality analyses require more and more accurate input data, particularly emissions. Unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not always reliably defined. For example, Fagus sylvatica, which is a very abundant deciduous tree in France and in Europe, is a weak monoterpene emitter in the European inventory developed by Simpson et al. [1999. Journal of Geophysical Research 104, 8113-8152], but is a strong monoterpene emitter in Luchetta [1999. Caractérisation et quantification dans la basse atmosphère de composés organiques volatils biogéniques et anthropiques contribuant à la pollution de l'air. Ph.D. thesis, INPT Toulouse]. Beech ( F. sylvatica) emission potential has never been measured in France. This study investigates the isoprene and monoterpenes emission measurements from F. sylvatica in France during a research program INTERREG III in Fossé Rhénan, during May and June 2003. A dynamic cuvette method was used. Sabinene is the main monoterpene emitted, composing more than 90% of biogenic emissions. The remaining is composed of α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene. No isoprene emissions were detected. The monoterpene emissions from F. sylvatica are affected by temperature and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). In order to describe monoterpene emissions, the "isoprene algorithm" developed by Guenther et al. [1991. Journal of Geophysical Research 26A, 10799-10808; 1993. Journal of Geophysical Research 98D, 12609-12617] has been used. With this algorithm, simulation results and observations agree fairly well. The standard emission rate ( T=303K and PAR=1000 μmol m -2 s -1) for total monoterpenes is 43.5 μg g dw-1 h -1. This classifies F. sylvatica as a strong monoterpene emitter. The European inventory [Simpson, et al., 1999. Journal of Geophysical Research 104, 8113-8152], which is the standard inventory of

  18. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    PubMed

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Beech Bark Disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  20. Beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1998-01-01

    In forests of North America the beech bark disease (BBD) complex affects American beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. BBD begins when bark tissues, attacked by the exotic beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. are rendered susceptible to killing attacks by fungi of the genus Nectria. The principal fungus,...

  1. Impact of elevated atmospheric O3 on the actinobacterial community structure and function in the rhizosphere of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Haesler, Felix; Hagn, Alexandra; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria belonging to the phylum of Actinobacteria are known as antagonists against phytpathogenic microbes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of ozone on the actinobacterial community of the rhizosphere of four years old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees during different time points of the vegetation period. Effects of ozone on the total community structure of Actinobacteria were studied based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition effects of the ozone treatment on the diversity of potential biocontrol active Actionobacteria being able to produce antibiotics were characterized by using the type II polyketide synthases (PKS) genes as marker. Season as well as ozone treatments had a significant effect on parts of the actinobacterial rhizosphere community of European beech. However on the basis of the performed analysis, the diversity of Actinobacteria possessing type II PKS genes is neither affected by seasonal changes nor by the ozone treatments, indicating no influence of the investigated treatments on the biocontrol active part of the actinobacterial community. PMID:24575080

  2. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    PubMed

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  4. Characterization of low molecular weight organic acids from beech wood treated in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kei; Kusaki, Junko; Ehara, Katsunobu; Saka, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume), its cell wall components, and model compounds were treated by supercritical water (380 degrees C, 100 MPa) for 5 s using a batch-type reactor to investigate the production behavior of low molecular weight organic acids. It was found that cellulose and hemicellulose were decomposed to formic acid, pyruvic acid, glycolic acid, acetic acid, and lactic acid, whereas lignin was barely decomposed to such organic acids under the given conditions. However, after prolonged treatment (380 degrees C, 100 MPa, 4 min) of lignin, some organic acids were recovered owing perhaps to the decomposition of the propyl side chain of lignin. It was additionally revealed that the predominant organic acid recovered was acetic acid, which might be derived from the acetyl group of hemicellulose in Japanese beech.

  5. Contrasting carbon allocation responses of juvenile European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) to competition and ozone.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Wilma; Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Matyssek, Rainer; Edgar Grams, Thorsten Erhard

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demand. Respiration of spruce appeared to be exclusively supplied by recent photoassimilates. In beech, older C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source of respiratory substrate, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce.

  6. Investigating the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf characteristics along the vertical canopy profile: leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity, light energy dissipation and photoprotection mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Scartazza, Andrea; Di Baccio, Daniela; Bertolotto, Pierangelo; Gavrichkova, Olga; Matteucci, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Forest functionality and productivity are directly related to canopy light interception and can be affected by potential damage from high irradiance. However, the mechanisms by which leaves adapt to the variable light environments along the multilayer canopy profile are still poorly known. We explored the leaf morphophysiological and metabolic responses to the natural light gradient in a pure European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest at three different canopy heights (top, middle and bottom). Structural adjustment through light-dependent modifications in leaf mass per area was the reason for most of the variations in photosynthetic capacity. The different leaf morphology along the canopy influenced nitrogen (N) partitioning, water- and photosynthetic N-use efficiency, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and quali-quantitative contents of photosynthetic pigments. The Chl a to Chl b ratio and the pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ) increased at the highest irradiance, as well as lutein and β-carotene. The total pool of ascorbate and phenols was higher in leaves of the top and middle canopy layers when compared with the bottom layer, where the ascorbate peroxidase was relatively more activated. The non-photochemical quenching was strongly and positively related to the VAZ/(Chl a + b) ratio, while Chl a/Chl b was related to the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. Along the multilayer canopy profile, the high energy dissipation capacity of leaves was correlated to an elevated redox potential of antioxidants. The middle layer gave the most relevant contribution to leaf area index and carboxylation capacity of the canopy. In conclusion, a complex interplay among structural, physiological and biochemical traits drives the dynamic leaf acclimation to the natural gradients of variable light environments along the tree canopy profile. The relevant differences observed in leaf traits within the canopy positions of the beech forest should be considered for

  7. Variation in photosynthetic performance and hydraulic architecture across European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations supports the case for local adaptation to water stress.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Ismael; Cano, Francisco Javier; Gascó, Antonio; Cochard, Hervé; Nardini, Andrea; Mancha, Jose Antonio; López, Rosana; Sánchez-Gómez, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide new insights into how intraspecific variability in the response of key functional traits to drought dictates the interplay between gas-exchange parameters and the hydraulic architecture of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Considering the relationships between hydraulic and leaf functional traits, we tested whether local adaptation to water stress occurs in this species. To address these objectives, we conducted a glasshouse experiment in which 2-year-old saplings from six beech populations were subjected to different watering treatments. These populations encompassed central and marginal areas of the range, with variation in macro- and microclimatic water availability. The results highlight subtle but significant differences among populations in their functional response to drought. Interpopulation differences in hydraulic traits suggest that vulnerability to cavitation is higher in populations with higher sensitivity to drought. However, there was no clear relationship between variables related to hydraulic efficiency, such as xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity or stomatal conductance, and those that reflect resistance to xylem cavitation (i.e., Ψ(12), the water potential corresponding to a 12% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity). The results suggest that while a trade-off between photosynthetic capacity at the leaf level and hydraulic function of xylem could be established across populations, it functions independently of the compromise between safety and efficiency of the hydraulic system with regard to water use at the interpopulation level. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Interaction Effect between Elevated CO₂ and Fertilization on Biomass, Gas Exchange and C/N Ratio of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    PubMed

    Lotfiomran, Neda; Köhl, Michael; Fromm, Jörg

    2016-09-07

    The effects of elevated CO₂ and interaction effects between elevated CO₂ and nutrient supplies on growth and the C/N ratio of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings were studied. One-year-old beech saplings were grown in a greenhouse at ambient (385 ppm) and elevated CO₂ (770 ppm/950 ppm), with or without fertilization for two growing seasons. In this study, emphasis is placed on the combined fertilization including phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen with two level of elevated CO₂. The fertilized plants grown under elevated CO₂ had the highest net leaf photosynthesis rate (Ac). The saplings grown under elevated CO₂ had a significantly lower stomatal conductance (gs) than saplings grown under ambient air. No interaction effect was found between elevated CO₂ and fertilization on Ac. A interaction effect between CO₂ and fertilization, as well as between date and fertilization and between date and CO₂ was detected on gs. Leaf chlorophyll content index (CCI) and leaf nitrogen content were strongly positively correlated to each other and both of them decreased under elevated CO₂. At the end of both growing seasons, stem dry weight was greater under elevated CO₂ and root dry weight was not affected by different treatments. No interaction effect was detected between elevated CO₂ and nutrient supplies on the dry weight of different plant tissues (stems and roots). However, elevated CO₂ caused a significant decrease in the nitrogen content of plant tissues. Nitrogen reduction in the leaves under elevated CO₂ was about 10% and distinctly higher than in the stem and root. The interaction effect of elevated CO₂ and fertilization on C/N ratio in plants tissues was significant. The results led to the conclusion that photosynthesis and the C/N ratio increased while stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO₂ and nutrient-limited conditions. In general, under nutrient-limited conditions, the plant responses to

  9. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal Communities on the Roots of Two Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Populations from Contrasting Climates Differ in Nitrogen Acquisition in a Common Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leberecht, Martin; Dannenmann, Michael; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Bilela, Silvija; Meier, Rudolf; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica), a dominant forest species in Central Europe, competes for nitrogen with soil microbes and suffers from N limitation under dry conditions. We hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal communities and the free-living rhizosphere microbes from beech trees from sites with two contrasting climatic conditions exhibit differences in N acquisition that contribute to differences in host N uptake and are related to differences in host belowground carbon allocation. To test these hypotheses, young trees from the natural regeneration of two genetically similar populations, one from dryer conditions (located in an area with a southwest exposure [SW trees]) and the other from a cooler, moist climate (located in an area with a northeast exposure [NE trees]), were transplanted into a homogeneous substrate in the same environment and labeled with 13CO2 and 15NH4+. Free-living rhizosphere microbes were characterized by marker genes for the N cycle, but no differences between the rhizospheres of SW or NE trees were found. Lower 15N enrichment was found in the ectomycorrhizal communities of the NE tree communities than the SW tree communities, whereas no significant differences in 15N enrichment were observed for nonmycorrhizal root tips of SW and NE trees. Neither the ectomycorrhizal communities nor the nonmycorrhizal root tips originating from NE and SW trees showed differences in 13C signatures. Because the level of 15N accumulation in fine roots and the amount transferred to leaves were lower in NE trees than SW trees, our data support the suggestion that the ectomycorrhizal community influences N transfer to its host and demonstrate that the fungal community from the dry condition was more efficient in N acquisition when environmental constraints were relieved. These findings highlight the importance of adapted ectomycorrhizal communities for forest nutrition in a changing climate. PMID:26092464

  11. Above and below ground carbohydrate allocation differs between ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    PubMed

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). We pulse-labeled 20 four-year old European beech and 20 four-year old ash trees with 13CO2 and tracked the fate of the label within different plant compartments. We extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaves, bark of stems and branches, and fine roots, measured their amount and isotopic content and calculated their turnover times. In beech one part of the sucrose was rapidly transported into sink tissues without major exchange with storage pools whereas another part of sucrose was strongly exchanged with unlabeled possibly stored sucrose. In contrast the storage and allocation patterns in ash depended on the identity of the transported sugars. RFO were the most important transport sugars that had highest turnover in all shoot compartments. However, the turnover of RFOs in the roots was uncoupled from the shoot. The only significant relation between sugars in the stem base and in the roots of ash was found for the amount (r2 = 0.50; p = 0.001) and isotopic content (r2 = 0.47; p = 0.01) of sucrose. The negative relation of the amounts suggested an active transport of sucrose into the roots of ash. Sucrose concentration in the root also best explained the concentration of RFOs in the roots suggesting that RFO in the roots of ash may be resynthesized from sucrose. Our results interestingly suggest that in both tree species only sucrose directly entered the fine root system and that in ash RFOs are transported indirectly into the fine

  12. Above and below ground carbohydrate allocation differs between ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). We pulse-labeled 20 four-year old European beech and 20 four-year old ash trees with 13CO2 and tracked the fate of the label within different plant compartments. We extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaves, bark of stems and branches, and fine roots, measured their amount and isotopic content and calculated their turnover times. In beech one part of the sucrose was rapidly transported into sink tissues without major exchange with storage pools whereas another part of sucrose was strongly exchanged with unlabeled possibly stored sucrose. In contrast the storage and allocation patterns in ash depended on the identity of the transported sugars. RFO were the most important transport sugars that had highest turnover in all shoot compartments. However, the turnover of RFOs in the roots was uncoupled from the shoot. The only significant relation between sugars in the stem base and in the roots of ash was found for the amount (r2 = 0.50; p = 0.001) and isotopic content (r2 = 0.47; p = 0.01) of sucrose. The negative relation of the amounts suggested an active transport of sucrose into the roots of ash. Sucrose concentration in the root also best explained the concentration of RFOs in the roots suggesting that RFO in the roots of ash may be resynthesized from sucrose. Our results interestingly suggest that in both tree species only sucrose directly entered the fine root system and that in ash RFOs are transported indirectly into the fine

  13. Age-related changes in protein metabolism of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during alleviation of dormancy and in the early stage of germination.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa M; Pukacka, Stanislawa

    2015-09-01

    The long-term storage of seeds generally reduces their viability and vigour. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of long-term storage on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds at optimal conditions, over 9 years, on the total and soluble protein levels and activity of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases, as well as free amino acid levels and protein synthesis, in dry seeds, after imbibition and during cold stratification leading to dormancy release and germination. The same analyses were conducted in parallel on seeds gathered from the same tree in the running growing season and stored under the same conditions for only 3 months. The results showed that germination capacity decreased from 100% in freshly harvested seeds to 75% in seeds stored for 9 years. The levels of total and soluble proteins were highest in freshly harvested seeds and decreased significantly during storage, these proportions were retained during cold stratification and germination of seeds. Significant differences between freshly harvested and stored seeds were observed in the activities of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, and in the levels of free amino acids. The neosynthesis of proteins during dormancy release and in the early stage of seed germination was significantly weaker in stored seeds. These results confirm the importance of protein metabolism for seed viability and the consequences of its reduction during seed ageing.

  14. Detecting short spatial scale local adaptation and epistatic selection in climate-related candidate genes in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) populations.

    PubMed

    Csilléry, Katalin; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Fady, Bruno; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    Detecting signatures of selection in tree populations threatened by climate change is currently a major research priority. Here, we investigated the signature of local adaptation over a short spatial scale using 96 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) individuals originating from two pairs of populations on the northern and southern slopes of Mont Ventoux (south-eastern France). We performed both single and multilocus analysis of selection based on 53 climate-related candidate genes containing 546 SNPs. FST outlier methods at the SNP level revealed a weak signal of selection, with three marginally significant outliers in the northern populations. At the gene level, considering haplotypes as alleles, two additional marginally significant outliers were detected, one on each slope. To account for the uncertainty of haplotype inference, we averaged the Bayes factors over many possible phase reconstructions. Epistatic selection offers a realistic multilocus model of selection in natural populations. Here, we used a test suggested by Ohta based on the decomposition of the variance of linkage disequilibrium. Overall populations, 0.23% of the SNP pairs (haplotypes) showed evidence of epistatic selection, with nearly 80% of them being within genes. One of the between gene epistatic selection signals arose between an FST outlier and a nonsynonymous mutation in a drought response gene. Additionally, we identified haplotypes containing selectively advantageous allele combinations which were unique to high or low elevations and northern or southern populations. Several haplotypes contained nonsynonymous mutations situated in genes with known functional importance for adaptation to climatic factors.

  15. Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)--resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Ceulemans, R; Rennenberg, H; Pretzsch, H; Haberer, K; Löw, M; Nunn, A J; Werner, H; Wipfler, P; Osswald, W; Nikolova, P; Hanke, D E; Kraigher, H; Tausz, M; Bahnweg, G; Kitao, M; Dieler, J; Sandermann, H; Herbinger, K; Grebenc, T; Blumenröther, M; Deckmyn, G; Grams, T E E; Heerdt, C; Leuchner, M; Fabian, P; Häberle, K-H

    2010-08-01

    Ground-level ozone (O(3)) has gained awareness as an agent of climate change. In this respect, key results are comprehended from a unique 8-year free-air O(3)-fumigation experiment, conducted on adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). A novel canopy O(3) exposure methodology was employed that allowed whole-tree assessment in situ under twice-ambient O(3) levels. Elevated O(3) significantly weakened the C sink strength of the tree-soil system as evidenced by lowered photosynthesis and 44% reduction in whole-stem growth, but increased soil respiration. Associated effects in leaves and roots at the gene, cell and organ level varied from year to year, with drought being a crucial determinant of O(3) responsiveness. Regarding adult individuals of a late-successional tree species, empirical proof is provided first time in relation to recent modelling predictions that enhanced ground-level O(3) can substantially mitigate the C sequestration of forests in view of climate change.

  16. Year-round monitoring of diversity and potential metabolic activity of the ectomycorrhizal community in a beech (Fagus silvatica) forest subjected to two thinning regimes.

    PubMed

    Buée, Marc; Vairelles, Dominique; Garbaye, Jean

    2005-06-01

    This work was aimed at understanding how the functional diversity of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) is driven by environmental factors and how it adapts to the structure of the forest stand. Superficial fine roots were sampled 21 times during an entire year in two adjacent plots (no thinning and strong thinning) of a mature beech (Fagus silvatica) forest. Individual ectomycorrhizal root tips were morphologically characterised and the symbiotic fungi were molecularly identified. ECM were also tested for dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities, and soil moisture and temperature were recorded. The results provide a description of ECM community dynamics over a whole year in the two stands. The main conclusions are threefold: (1) the species structure of the ECM community and metabolic activity of each morphotype change depending on the season, temperature and soil moisture, and a number of morphotypes are more abundant and active in winter than in summer, (2) the silviculture treatment (strong thinning) modifies the ectomycorrhizal community structure, and (3) the overall function of the ECM community results from the individual time pattern and specialisation of each morphotype.

  17. Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzol.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Germund

    2004-08-15

    The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared.

  18. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does reduced precipitation trigger physiological and morphological drought adaptations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)? Comparing provenances across a precipitation gradient.

    PubMed

    Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Global warming and associated decreases in summer rainfall may threaten tree vitality and forest productivity in many regions of the temperate zone in the future. One option for forestry to reduce the risk of failure is to plant genotypes which combine high productivity with drought tolerance. Growth experiments with provenances from different climates indicate that drought exposure can trigger adaptive drought responses in temperate trees, but it is not well known whether and to what extent regional precipitation reduction can increase the drought resistance of a species. We conducted a common garden growth experiment with five European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from a limited region with pronounced precipitation heterogeneity (816-544 mm year(-1)), where phylogenetically related provenances grew under small to large water deficits. We grew saplings of the five provenances at four soil moisture levels (dry to moist) and measured ∼30 morphological (leaf and root properties, root : shoot ratio), physiological (leaf water status parameters, leaf conductance) and growth-related traits (above- and belowground productivity) with the aim to examine provenance differences in the drought response of morphological and physiological traits and to relate the responsiveness to precipitation at origin. Physiological traits were more strongly influenced by provenance (one-third of the studied traits), while structural traits were primarily affected by water availability in the experiment (two-thirds of the traits). The modulus of leaf tissue elasticity ϵ reached much higher values late in summer in plants from moist origins resulting in more rapid turgor loss and a higher risk of hydraulic failure upon drought. While experimental water shortage affected the majority of morphological and productivity-related traits in the five provenances, most parameters related to leaf water status were insensitive to water shortage. Thus, plant morphology, and root

  20. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108–119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19–38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166–184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one

  1. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The seasonality of woody plants in cold and temperate climates is adapted to the annual course of temperature and photoperiod in order to maximise the length of the active growing season and, at the same time, avoid damages by frost events, especially by late spring frosts. Winter chilling, spring warming and finally photoperiod trigger the timely bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) which as a climax species is quite sensitive to winter frost and also as seedling to late spring frosts. However, due to relatively late and less varying dates of leaf unfolding, damages by late spring frosts should not occur each year. In case of a total loss due to a late frost event, F. sylvatica trees produce a new set of leaves which guarantees survival, but diminishes carbon reserves. With a phenological camera we observed the phenological course of such an extreme event in the Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald in May 2011: Spring leaf unfolding, an almost complete loss of fresh green leaves after the frost event in the night 3rd to 4th May, a subsequent leafless period followed by re-sprouting. We modeled this special leaf development from day 80 to 210, observed as green% from the repeated digital camera pictures, using the Bayesian multiple change point approach recently introduced by Henneken et al. (2013). The results for more than 30 trees predominantly suggested a model with five change points: firstly, start of the season, abrupt ending before the frost event, the loss by the frost event and after a longer period of recovery the second leaf unfolding (St. John's sprout) ending in full leaf maturity. Analyzing the results of these models the following questions were answered (1) how long is the period of recovery till the second green-up? (2) does the temporal course of the second leafing differ from the first one? (3) what are the individual factors influencing damage and recovery? (4) are individuals with early or late bud burst more prone to damage? The five

  2. Interaction Effect between Elevated CO2 and Fertilization on Biomass, Gas Exchange and C/N Ratio of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lotfiomran, Neda; Köhl, Michael; Fromm, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and interaction effects between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on growth and the C/N ratio of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings were studied. One-year-old beech saplings were grown in a greenhouse at ambient (385 ppm) and elevated CO2 (770 ppm/950 ppm), with or without fertilization for two growing seasons. In this study, emphasis is placed on the combined fertilization including phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen with two level of elevated CO2. The fertilized plants grown under elevated CO2 had the highest net leaf photosynthesis rate (Ac). The saplings grown under elevated CO2 had a significantly lower stomatal conductance (gs) than saplings grown under ambient air. No interaction effect was found between elevated CO2 and fertilization on Ac. A interaction effect between CO2 and fertilization, as well as between date and fertilization and between date and CO2 was detected on gs. Leaf chlorophyll content index (CCI) and leaf nitrogen content were strongly positively correlated to each other and both of them decreased under elevated CO2. At the end of both growing seasons, stem dry weight was greater under elevated CO2 and root dry weight was not affected by different treatments. No interaction effect was detected between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on the dry weight of different plant tissues (stems and roots). However, elevated CO2 caused a significant decrease in the nitrogen content of plant tissues. Nitrogen reduction in the leaves under elevated CO2 was about 10% and distinctly higher than in the stem and root. The interaction effect of elevated CO2 and fertilization on C/N ratio in plants tissues was significant. The results led to the conclusion that photosynthesis and the C/N ratio increased while stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 and nutrient-limited conditions. In general, under nutrient-limited conditions, the plant responses to elevated CO2 were decreased. PMID

  3. Assessment of beech scale resistance in full- and half-sibling American beech families

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....

  4. Within-Population Genetic Structure in Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Stands Characterized by Different Disturbance Histories: Does Forest Management Simplify Population Substructure?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Andrea; Leonardi, Stefano; Heuertz, Myriam; Buiteveld, Joukje; Geburek, Thomas; Gerber, Sophie; Kramer, Koen; Vettori, Cristina; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The fine-scale assessment of both spatially and non-spatially distributed genetic variation is crucial to preserve forest genetic resources through appropriate forest management. Cryptic within-population genetic structure may be more common than previously thought in forest tree populations, which has strong implications for the potential of forests to adapt to environmental change. The present study was aimed at comparing within-population genetic structure in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plots experiencing different disturbance levels. Five plot pairs made up by disturbed and undisturbed plots having the same biogeographic history were sampled throughout Europe. Overall, 1298 individuals were analyzed using four highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (SSRs). Bayesian clustering within plots identified 3 to 11 genetic clusters (within-plot θST ranged from 0.025 to 0.124). The proportion of within-population genetic variation due to genetic substructuring (FCluPlot = 0.067) was higher than the differentiation among the 10 plots (FPlotTot = 0.045). Focusing on the comparison between managed and unmanaged plots, disturbance mostly explains differences in the complexity of within-population genetic structure, determining a reduction of the number of genetic clusters present in a standardized area. Our results show that: i) genetic substructuring needs to be investigated when studying the within-population genetic structure in forest tree populations, and ii) indices describing subtle characteristics of the within-population genetic structure are good candidates for providing early signals of the consequences of forest management, and of disturbance events in general. PMID:24039930

  5. The importance of atmospheric deposition, charge and atomic mass to the dynamics of minor and rare elements in developing, ageing, and wilted leaves of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    PubMed

    Tyler, Germund; Olsson, Tommy

    2006-10-01

    The amounts of sixty elements in developing, maturing, senescent and wilting leaves, and in the wintering dead leaves attached to the branches, are reported for a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest on mor Podzol in south Sweden, a site with no local sources of pollution or geological anomalies. The amounts (contents per leaf) of K (potassium), Rb (rubidium), Cs (caesium), Cu (copper) and P (phosphorus) were highest in young leaves, decreasing throughout the growing season and usually in the subsequent winter. The entirely opposite pattern with a continuous, mostly even increase of the amounts was measured with Be (beryllium), Ba (barium), Hg (mercury), Al (aluminium), Tl (thallium), Pb (lead), Bi (bismuth), V (vanadium), W (tungsten), As (arsenic), Sb (antimony), and Se (selenium). Amounts of rare-earth elements and some transition metals, such as Co (cobalt), Ti (titanium), and the actinides Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were more stable during the growing season, after an initial increase in early summer, but increased greatly in the winter. This winter increase in dead attached leaves has to be accounted for by uptake from long-distance transported constituents in dry and wet deposition. It was similar to deposition rate estimates using moss carpets from the same locality. A passive uptake was positively related to ionic charge and atomic mass. However, the amounts of several, mainly non-essential elements, such as Ni (nickel), Sc (scandium), Zr (zirconium), Cr (chromium), Ag (silver), and Cd (cadmium) were not much lower in the young or maturing leaves than in the wintered dead leaves of this deciduous (hardwood) forest and a proportion apparently originated from internal translocation in the trees. Seasonal fluxes or cycling of many of the scarce or rare elements reported here have never been studied before in forest ecosystems.

  6. Differences in Soil Fungal Communities between European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Dominated Forests Are Related to Soil and Understory Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Gawlich, Melanie; Schnabel, Beatrix; Fischer, Markus; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54%) and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p≤0.001) among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa. PMID:23094057

  7. Unraveling carbohydrate transport mechanisms in young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea) by 13CO2 efflux measurements from stem and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Gavrichkova, Olga; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Transport mechanisms of soluble carbohydrates and diurnal CO2 efflux from tree stems and surrounding soil are well studied. However, the effect of transport carbohydrates on respiration and their interaction with storage processes is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments on young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea). We labeled the whole tree crowns in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 30 min. In one experiment, only a single branch was labeled and removed 36 hours after labeling. In all experiments, we continuously measured the 13CO2 efflux from stem, branch and soil and sampled leaf and stem material every 3 h for 2 days, followed by a daily sampling of leaves in the successive 5 days. The compound specific δ 13C value of extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaf and stem material was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). The 13CO2 signal from soil respiration occurred only few hours after labeling indicating a very high transport rate of carbohydrates from leaf to roots and to the rhizosphere. The label was continuously depleted within the next 5 days. In contrast, we observed a remarkable oscillating pattern of 13CO2 efflux from the stem with maximum 13CO2 enrichment at noon and minima at night time. This oscillation suggests that enriched carbohydrates are respired during the day, whereas in the night the enriched sugars are not respired. The observed oscillation in stem 13CO2 enrichment remained unchanged even when only single branches were labelled and cut right afterwards. Thus, storage and conversion of carbohydrates only occurred within the stem. The δ13C patterns of extracted soluble carbohydrates showed, that a transformation of transitory starch to carbohydrates and vice versa was no driver of the oscillating 13CO2 efflux from the stem. Carbohydrates might have been transported in the phloem to

  8. Beech status in New England's aftermath forests

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill; Randall S. Morin

    2012-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is one of the three most dominant tree species occupying the northern hardwoods forest of New England. We studied Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York to capture those areas with higher concentrations of beech. The status of beech in the northern hardwood forests is important because of the long-term impacts...

  9. Significance of ozone exposure for inter-annual differences in primary metabolites of old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees in a mixed forest stand.

    PubMed

    Alexou, M; Hofer, N; Liu, X; Rennenberg, H; Haberer, K

    2007-03-01

    The influence of long-term free-air ozone fumigation and canopy position on leaf contents of total glutathione, its redox state, non-structural proteins (NSP), soluble amino compounds, and total soluble sugars in old-growth beech (FAGUS SYLVATICA) and spruce (PICEA ABIES) trees were determined over a period of five years. Ozone fumigation had weak effects on the analysed metabolites of both tree species and significant changes in the contents of total glutathione, NSP, and soluble sugars were observed only selectively. Beech leaves were affected by crown position to a higher extent than spruce needles and exhibited lower contents of total glutathione and NSP and total soluble sugars, but enhanced contents of oxidised glutathione and amino compounds in the shade compared to the sun crown. Contents of total soluble sugars generally were decreased in shade compared to sun needles of spruce trees. Interspecific differences between beech and spruce were more distinct in the sun compared to the shade crown. Contents of total glutathione were increased whilst contents of amino compounds and total soluble sugars were lower in spruce needles compared to beech leaves. The metabolites determined showed individual patterns in the course of the five measurement years. Contents of total glutathione and its redox state correlated with air temperature and global radiation, indicating an important role for the antioxidant at low temperatures. Correlations of glutathione with instantaneous ozone concentrations seem to be a secondary effect. Differences in proteins and/or amino compounds in the inter-annual course are assumed to be a consequence of alterations in specific N uptake rates.

  10. A technique to artificially infest beech bark with beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Lindinger)

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1982-01-01

    Beech bark disease is initiated when bark of beech trees (Fagus spp.) is attacked by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger. The effects of the insect predispose tissues to bark cankering fungi of the genus Nectria. Critical studies of insect-fungus-host interactions had been stymied by the inability to...

  11. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst).

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Petia S; Andersen, Christian P; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Häberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-04-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O(3) on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and delta(13)C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O(3) under beech and spruce, and was related to O(3)-stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O(3) on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O(3) regime. delta(13)C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g(s) of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O(3) in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O(3) effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests.

  12. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  13. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  14. Micropropagation of juvenile and mature american beech

    Treesearch

    Melanie J. Barker; Paula M. Pijut; Michael E. Ostry; David R. Houston

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to micropropagate juvenile and mature American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) resistant to beech bark disease. Shoot tips (from juvenile seedlings and root sprouts of mature trees) and buds from branches of mature trees, were cultured and multiplied on aspen culture medium supplemented with 0.89 ?M 6-benzyladenine, 0.27 ?M a-...

  15. Carbon isotopic composition and oxygen isotopic enrichment in phloem and total leaf organic matter of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) along a climate gradient.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Claudia; Matzarakis, Andreas; Rennenberg, Heinz; Gessler, Arthur

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of climate on the carbon isotopic composition (sigma13C) and oxygen isotopic enrichment (delta18O) above the source water of different organic matter pools in European beech. In July and September 2002, sigma13C and delta18O were determined in phloem carbohydrates and in bulk foliage of adult beech trees along a transect from central Germany to southern France, where beech reaches its southernmost distributional limit. The data were related to meteorological and physiological parameters. The climate along the transect stretches from temperate [subcontinental (SC)] to submediterranean (SM). Both sigma13Cleaf and delta18Oleaf were representative of site-specific long-term environmental conditions. sigma13C of leaves collected in September was indicative of stomatal conductance, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and radiation availability of the current growing season. delta18O was mainly correlated to mean growing season relative humidity (RH) and VPD. In contrast to the leaves, sigma13Cphloem varied considerably between July and September and was well correlated with canopy stomatal conductance (Gs) in a 2 d integral prior to phloem sampling. The relationship between sigma13C and delta18O in both leaves and phloem sap points, however, to a combined influence of stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity on the variation of sigma13C along the transect. delta18Ophloem could be described by applying a model that included 18O fractionation associated with water exchange between the leaf and the atmosphere and with the production of organic matter. Hence, isotope signatures can be used as effective tools to assess the water balance of beech, and thus, help predict the effects of climatic change on one of the ecologically and economically most important tree species in Central Europe.

  16. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Treesearch

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system for classifying beech...

  17. Kinetic behavior of liquefaction of Japanese beech in subcritical phenol.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gaurav; Saka, Shiro

    2011-12-01

    Non-catalytic liquefaction of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) wood in subcritical phenol was investigated using a batch-type reaction vessel. After samples were treated at 160 °C/0.9 MPa-350 °C/4.2 MPa for 3-30 min, they were fractionated into a phenol-soluble portion and phenol-insoluble residues. These residues were then analyzed for their chemical composition. Based on the obtained data, the kinetics for liquefaction was modeled using first-order reaction rate law. Subsequently, the liquefaction rate constants of the major cell wall components including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were determined. The different kinetic mechanisms were found to exist for lignin and cellulose at two different temperature ranges, lower 160-290 °C and higher 310-350 °C, whereas for hemicellulose, it was only liquefied in the lower temperature range. Thus, the liquefaction behaviors of these major cell wall components highlighted hemicellulose to be the most susceptible to liquefaction, followed by lignin and cellulose.

  18. Another scale insect on beech

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1962-01-01

    A scale insect, tentatively identified as Xylococculus betulae (Perg.) Morrison, is responsible for one type of bark roughening that is commonly seen on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) trees in certain areas of New England. The insect has also been found on paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and...

  19. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  20. Increased phytotoxic O3 dose accelerates autumn senescence in an O3-sensitive beech forest even under the present-level O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Yasuda, Yukio; Kominami, Yuji; Yamanoi, Katsumi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyama, Takafumi; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Koike, Takayoshi; Izuta, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations are expected to increase over the 21st century, especially in East Asia. However, the impact of O3 has not been directly assessed at the forest level in this region. We performed O3 flux-based risk assessments of carbon sequestration capacity in an old cool temperate deciduous forest, consisting of O3-sensitive Japanese beech (Fagus crenata), and in a warm temperate deciduous and evergreen forest dominated by O3-tolerant Konara oak (Quercus serrata) based on long-term CO2 flux observations. On the basis of a practical approach for a continuous estimation of canopy-level stomatal conductance (Gs), higher phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 0 uptake (POD0) with higher Gs was observed in the beech forest than that in the oak forest. Light-saturated gross primary production, as a measure of carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, declined earlier in the late growth season with increasing POD0, suggesting an earlier autumn senescence, especially in the O3-sensitive beech forest, but not in the O3-tolerant oak forest.

  1. Increased phytotoxic O3 dose accelerates autumn senescence in an O3-sensitive beech forest even under the present-level O3

    PubMed Central

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Yasuda, Yukio; Kominami, Yuji; Yamanoi, Katsumi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyama, Takafumi; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Koike, Takayoshi; Izuta, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations are expected to increase over the 21st century, especially in East Asia. However, the impact of O3 has not been directly assessed at the forest level in this region. We performed O3 flux-based risk assessments of carbon sequestration capacity in an old cool temperate deciduous forest, consisting of O3-sensitive Japanese beech (Fagus crenata), and in a warm temperate deciduous and evergreen forest dominated by O3-tolerant Konara oak (Quercus serrata) based on long-term CO2 flux observations. On the basis of a practical approach for a continuous estimation of canopy-level stomatal conductance (Gs), higher phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 0 uptake (POD0) with higher Gs was observed in the beech forest than that in the oak forest. Light-saturated gross primary production, as a measure of carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, declined earlier in the late growth season with increasing POD0, suggesting an earlier autumn senescence, especially in the O3-sensitive beech forest, but not in the O3-tolerant oak forest. PMID:27601188

  2. The high-performance liquid chromatography/multistage electrospray mass spectrometric investigation and extraction optimization of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tamás; Nebehaj, Esztella; Albert, Levente

    2015-05-08

    The aim of the present work was the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and multistage mass spectrometric characterization of the polyphenolic compounds of beech bark, as well as the extraction optimization of the identified compounds. Beech is a common and widely used material in the wood industry, yet its bark is regarded as a by-product. Using appropriate extraction methods these compounds could be extracted and utilized in the future. Different extraction methods (stirring, sonication, microwave assisted extraction) using different solvents (water, methanol:water 80:20 v/v, ethanol:water 80:20 v/v) and time/temperature schedules have been compared basing on total phenol contents (Folin-Ciocâlteu) and MRM peak areas of the identified compounds to investigate optimum extraction efficiency. Altogether 37 compounds, including (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, quercetin-O-hexoside, taxifolin-O-hexosides (3), taxifolin-O-pentosides (4), B-type (6) and C-type (6) procyanidins, syringic acid- and coumaric acid-di-O-glycosides, coniferyl alcohol- and sinapyl alcohol-glycosides, as well as other unknown compounds with defined [M-H](-) m/z values and MS/MS spectra have been tentatively identified. The choice of the method, solvent system and time/temperature parameters favors the extraction of different types of compounds. Pure water can extract compounds as efficiently as mixtures containing organic solvents under high-pressure and high temperature conditions. This supports the implementation of green extraction methods in the future. Extraction times that are too long and high temperatures can result in the decrease of the concentrations. Future investigations will focus on the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and utilization possibilities of the prepared extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Microbial Community Structure at the Plant-Soil Interface of Young Beech Trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) Grown at Two Sites with Contrasting Climatic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Engel, Marion; Kublik, Susanne; Dannenmann, Michael; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Soil microbial community responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) occur mainly indirectly via CO2-induced plant growth stimulation leading to quantitative as well as qualitative changes in rhizodeposition and plant litter. In order to gain insight into short-term, site-specific effects of eCO2 on the microbial community structure at the plant-soil interface, young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) from two opposing mountainous slopes with contrasting climatic conditions were incubated under ambient (360 ppm) CO2 concentrations in a greenhouse. One week before harvest, half of the trees were incubated for 2 days under eCO2 (1,100 ppm) conditions. Shifts in the microbial community structure in the adhering soil as well as in the root rhizosphere complex (RRC) were investigated via TRFLP and 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Multivariate analysis of the community profiles showed clear changes of microbial community structure between plants grown under ambient and elevated CO2 mainly in RRC. Both TRFLP and 454 pyrosequencing showed a significant decrease in the microbial diversity and evenness as a response of CO2 enrichment. While Alphaproteobacteria dominated by Rhizobiales decreased at eCO2, Betaproteobacteria, mainly Burkholderiales, remained unaffected. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, predominated by Pseudomonadales and Myxococcales, respectively, increased at eCO2. Members of the order Actinomycetales increased, whereas within the phylum Acidobacteria subgroup Gp1 decreased, and the subgroups Gp4 and Gp6 increased under atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Moreover, Planctomycetes and Firmicutes, mainly members of Bacilli, increased under eCO2. Overall, the effect intensity of eCO2 on soil microbial communities was dependent on the distance to the roots. This effect was consistent for all trees under investigation; a site-specific effect of eCO2 in response to the origin of the trees was not observed.

  4. The role of the organic layer for phosphorus nutrition of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) at two sites differing in soil Phosphorus availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauenstein, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Simon Hauenstein1, Thomas Pütz2, and Yvonne Oelmann1, 1 Geoecology, Department of Geosciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany 2 Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany The accumulation of an organic layer in forests is linked to the ratio between litterfall rates and decomposition rates with decomposition rates being decelerated due to acidification and associated nutrient depletion with proceeding ecosystem development. Nevertheless, the nutrient pool in the organic layer might still represent an important source for Phosphorus (P) nutrition of forests on nutrient-poor soils. Our objective was to assess the importance of the organic layer to P nutrition of young beech trees at two sites differing in soil P availability. We established a mesocosm experiment including plants and soil from a Phosphorus depleted forest site on a Haplic Podzol in Lüss and a Phosphorus rich forest site on a Eutric Cambisol in Bad Brückenau either with or without the organic layer. After 1 year under outdoor conditions, we applied 33P to the pots. After 0h, 24h, 48h, 96h, 192h, 528h we destructively harvested the young beech trees (separated into leaves, branches, stems) and sampled the organic layer and mineral soil of the pots. In each soil horizon we measured concentrations of resin-extractable P, plant available P fractions and total P. We extracted the xylem sap of the whole 2-year-old trees by means of scholander pressure bomb. 33P activity was measured for every compartment in soil and plant. The applied 33P was recovered mainly in the organic layer in Lüss, whereas it was evenly distributed among organic and mineral horizons in pots of Bad Brückenau soil. Comparing pots with and without an organic layer, the specific 33P activity differed by 323% between pots with and without an organic layer present in the Lüss soil. For both sites, the presence of the organic layer increased 33P activity in xylem sap compared to the treatment without

  5. The effect of carbohydrate accumulation and nitrogen deficiency on feedback regulation of photosynthesis in beech (Fagus sylvatica) under elevated CO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, K.; Urban, O.; Holub, P.; Rajsnerova, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main manifestations of global change is an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Elevated concentration of CO2 has stimulating effect on plant photosynthesis and consequently also on the productivity. Long-term studies, however, show that this effect is progressively reduced due to feedback regulation of photosynthesis. The main causes of this phenomenon are considered as two factors: i) increased biomass production consumes a larger amount of nitrogen from the soil and this leads to progressive nitrogen limitation of photosynthesis, particularly at the level of the enzyme Rubisco, ii) the sink capacity is genetically limited and elevated CO2 concentration leads to increased accumulation of carbohydtrates (mainly sucrose, which is the main transport form of assimilates) in leaves. Increased concentrations of carbohydrates leads to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis by both, long-term feedback regulation of synthesis of the enzyme Rubisco, and also due to reduced capacity to produce ATP in the chloroplasts. However, mechanisms for interactive effects of nitrogen and accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates are still not well understood. Using 3-year-old Fagus sylvatica seedlings we have explored the interactive effects of nitrogen nutrition and sink capacity manipulation (sucrose feeding) on the dynamics of accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and changes in photosynthetic parameters under ambient (385 μmol (CO2) mol-1) and elevated (700 μmol(CO2) mol-1) CO2 concentration. Sink manipulation by sucrose feeding led to a continuous increase of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, which was higher in nitrogen fertilized seedlings. The accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates was also slightly stimulated by elevated CO2 concentration. Exponential decay (p <0.01) was observed in CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance when the content of non-structural carbohydrates increased. However, this relationship was modified by the

  6. Soil respiration rates and δ13C(CO2) in natural beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L.) in relation to stand structure.

    PubMed

    Cater, Matjaz; Ogrinc, Nives

    2011-06-01

    Soil respiration rates were studied as a function of soil type, texture and light intensity at five selected natural beech forest stands with contrasting geology: stands on silicate bedrock at Kladje and Bricka in Pohorje, a stand on quartz sandstone at Vrhovo and two stands on a carbonate bedrock in the Karstic-Dinaric area in Kocevski Rog, Snezna jama and Rajhenav, Slovenia, during the growing season in 2005-2006. Soil respiration exhibited pronounced seasonal and spatial variations in the studied forest ecosystem plots. The CO(2) flux rates ranged from minimum averages of 2.3 μmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) (winter) to maximum averages of about 7 μmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) (summer) at all the investigated locations. An empirical model describing the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature predicted seasonal variations in soil respiration reasonably well during 2006. Nevertheless, there were also some indications that soil moisture in relation to soil texture could influence the soil CO(2) efflux rates in both sampling seasons. It was shown that spatial variability of mean soil respiration at the investigated sites was high and strongly related to root biomass. Based on the [image omitted]  data, it was shown that new photoassimilates could account for a major part of the total soil respiration under canopy conditions in forest ecosystems where no carbonate rocks are present, indicating that microbial respiration could not always dominate bulk soil CO(2) fluxes. At Snezna jama and Rajhenav, the abiotic CO(2) derived from carbonate dissolution had a pronounced influence on CO(2) efflux accounting, on average, to ∼17%. Further spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration was clearly affected by management practice. Higher respiration rates as well as higher variability in respiration rates were observed in the virgin forest (Rajhenav) than in the management forest (Snezna jama) and could be related to a higher amount of detritus and consequently to less

  7. Screening for resistance to beech bark disease: Improvements and results from seedlings and grafted field selections

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; Mary E. Mason; David W. Carey

    2012-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) is an insect-disease complex that has been killing American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) trees since the accidental introduction of the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) to Canada around 1890. Insect infestation is followed by infection with Neonectria ditissima or

  8. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Treesearch

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system...

  9. A comparison of two stem injection treatments applied to American beech in central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer

    2012-01-01

    Efficacies for two herbicide stem injection treatments on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and impacts to nontarget residual trees were evaluated in central West Virginia. The treatments consisted of hack-and-squirt injection of all beech stems ≥1.0 in. to 9.9 in. diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) with either imazapyr as Arsenal...

  10. Extending the time interval for applying herbicide in cut-stump treatments on American beech

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2013-01-01

    American Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) root sprouts often form dense understories that interfere with tree reproduction throughout much of the eastern hardwood region. The cut-stump treatment, whereby herbicide is applied to the stump within a few hours after a larger beech is felled, has been shown to mitigate the interference problem by...

  11. Beech root sprouts can be damaged by sodium arsenite treatment of parent tree

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1956-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) can produce an abundance of root sprouts. In some cut-over woodlands, the sprouts occupy space that could be utilized by more desirable tree species. Therefore it seemed desirable to explore methods of destroying beech root sprouts.

  12. Controlling beech root and stump sprouts using the cut-stump treatment

    Treesearch

    Jeffery D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Application costs and efficacy were determined for cut-stump treatments applied to American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) to control root and stump sprouts in central West Virginia. Glyphosate as Glypro (53.8%) was applied to the outer 2 in. of beech stumps from trees >6.0-in. dbh within 1 hour after cutting. In addition to treatment plots,...

  13. Conservation genetics of the European beech in France

    Treesearch

    A. Ducousso; B. Musch; S. Irola; A. Quenu; A. Hampe; R.J. Petit

    2017-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is one of the most abundant tree species in Europe. Its genetic structure and diversity have been investigated using both molecular markers and adaptive traits as assessed in field and laboratory experimental tests looking at adaptative traits. A great deal of information also exists on the Quaternary history of the...

  14. Present state of beech bark disease in Germany

    Treesearch

    Klaus J. Lang

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease can be found at present time in young and old stands (20-150 years old) of Fagus sylvatica. The present state of the disease may be described as "normal" and apart from some cases, it is no threat to the existence of the stands.

  15. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods✰

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. PMID:27344089

  16. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods.

    PubMed

    Berger, Torsten W; Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary report of ecological factors influencing incidence and severity of beech bark disease in the Appalachian region

    Treesearch

    David P. McCann; William L. MacDonald

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Cryptococcus fagisuga, a primary component of the beech bark disease (BBD) complex, is heritable. Reportedly about 1-2 percent of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) are genetically resistant to C. fagisuga. This project is designed to identify environmental factors contributing to BBD...

  18. Phenols in Leaves and Bark of Fagus sylvatica as Determinants of Insect Occurrences

    PubMed Central

    Petrakis, Panos V.; Spanos, Kostas; Feest, Alan; Daskalakou, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    Beech forests play an important role in temperate and north Mediterranean ecosystems in Greece since they occupy infertile montane soils. In the last glacial maximum, Fagus sylvatica (beech) was confined to Southern Europe where it was dominant and in the last thousand years has expanded its range to dominate central Europe. We sampled four different beech forest types. We found 298 insect species associated with beech trees and dead beech wood. While F. sylvatica and Quercus (oak) are confamilial, there are great differences in richness of the associated entomofauna. Insect species that inhabit beech forests are less than one fifth of those species living in oak dominated forests despite the fact that beech is the most abundant central and north European tree. There is a distinct paucity of monophagous species on beech trees and most insect species are shared between co-occurring deciduous tree species and beech. This lack of species is attributed to the vegetation history and secondary plant chemistry. Bark and leaf biophenols from beech indicate that differences in plant secondary metabolites may be responsible for the differences in the richness of entomofauna in communities dominated by beech and other deciduous trees. PMID:21686149

  19. The allergen profile of beech and oak pollen.

    PubMed

    Egger, C; Focke, M; Bircher, A J; Scherer, K; Mothes-Luksch, N; Horak, F; Valenta, R

    2008-10-01

    Beech and oak pollen are potential allergen sources with a world-wide distribution. We aimed to characterize the allergen profile of beech and oak pollen and to study cross-reactivities with birch and grass pollen allergens. Sera from tree pollen-allergic patients with evidence for beech and oak pollen sensitization from Basel, Switzerland, (n=23) and sera from birch pollen-allergic patients from Vienna, Austria, (n=26) were compared in immunoblot experiments for IgE reactivity to birch (Betula pendula syn. verrucosa), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oak (Quercus alba) pollen allergens. Subsequently, beech and oak pollen allergens were characterized by IgE inhibition experiments with purified recombinant and natural allergens and with allergen-specific antibody probes. Birch-, beech- and oak pollen-specific IgE levels were determined by ELISA. Beech and oak pollen contain allergens that cross-react with the birch pollen allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4 and with the berberine bridge enzyme-like allergen Phl p 4 from timothy grass pollen. Sera from Swiss and Austrian patients exhibited similar IgE reactivity profiles to birch, beech and oak pollen extracts. IgE levels to beech and oak pollen allergens were lower than those to birch pollen allergens. IgE reactivity to beech pollen is mainly due to cross-reactivity with birch pollen allergens, and a Phl p 4-like molecule represented another predominant IgE-reactive structure in oak pollen. The characterization of beech and oak pollen allergens and their cross-reactivity is important for the diagnosis and treatment of beech and oak pollen allergy.

  20. Photosynthetic characteristics of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur established for stand conversion from Picea abies

    Treesearch

    E.S. Gardiner; J.J. O’Brien; M. Löf; J.A. Stanturf; P. Madsen

    2009-01-01

    Efforts in Europe to convertNorway spruce (Picea abies) plantations to broadleaf ormixed broadleaf-conifer forests could be bolstered by an increased understanding of how artificial regeneration acclimates and functions under a range of Norway spruce stand conditions. We studied foliage characteristics and leaflevel photosynthesis on 7-year-old European beech (Fagus...

  1. Photosynthetic characteristics of fagus sylvatica and quercus robur established for stand conversion from picea abies

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner; Magnus Lof; Joseph J. O' brien; John A. Stanturf; Palle. Madsen

    2009-01-01

    Efforts inEurope to convertNorway spruce (Picea abies) plantations to broadleaf ormixed broadleaf-conifer forests could be bolstered by an increased understanding of how artificial regeneration acclimates and functions under a range of Norway spruce stand conditions. We studied foliage characteristics and leaflevel photosynthesis on 7-year-old European beech (Fagus...

  2. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Treesearch

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  3. Assessing native small mammals' responses to an incipient invasion of beech bark disease through changes in seed production of American beech

    Treesearch

    Justin N. Rosemier; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Exotic tree diseases have direct impacts on their host and may have indirect effects on native fauna that rely on host tree species. For example, American beech (Fagus grandifolia [Ehrh.]) is a dominant overstory component throughout its range and, like all tree species, is vulnerable to a broad array of insects and pathogens. These pests include...

  4. Qualitative survey of five beech damaging Coleoptera (Scolytidae and Lymexylonidae) in Wallonia (Southern Belgium)

    Treesearch

    Jean-Marc Henin; Olivier Huart; Phillipe Lejeune; Jacques Rondeux

    2003-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001, Trypodendron domesticum L. and T. signatum (F.) (Col.: Scolytidae) were one of the main causes of the depreciation of more than 1,600,000 m³ of standing beech trees, Fagus sylvatica L., in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). In 2001, a survey aiming at assessing the range of those indigenous...

  5. Differential impacts of calcium and aluminum treatments on sugar maple and American beech growth dynamics

    Treesearch

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen; Timothy J. Fahey

    2015-01-01

    Acid deposition induced losses of calcium (Ca) from northeastern forests have had negative effects on forest health for decades, including the mobilization of potentially phytotoxic aluminum (Al) from soils. To evaluate the impact of changes in Ca and Al availability on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and American beech (Fagus...

  6. Preharvest manual herbicide treatments for controlling American beech in Central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Jeffery D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; David A. Warner; Gary W. Miller

    2004-01-01

    Application costs and efficacy were determined for manual preharvest herbicide treatments applied to control American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) that was interfering with the establishment and development of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in central West Virginia. The treatments consisted of four levels of basal area...

  7. Relationship of stump diameter to d.b.h. for American beech in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Frederick E. Hampf

    1955-01-01

    This is the third report on a series of studies (2, 3) made to show the relationship of stump diameter to diameter breast high (d. b. h.) for commercially important tree species in the Northeast. This report is for American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

  8. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  9. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  10. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  11. Physiological responses of beech and sessile oak in a natural mixed stand during a dry summer.

    PubMed

    Raftoyannis, Yannis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2002-06-01

    Responses of CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance to decreasing leaf water potential, and to environmental factors, were analysed in a mixed natural stand of sessile oak (Quercus petraea ssp. medwediewii) and beech (Fagus svlvatica L.) in Greece during the exceptionally dry summer of 1998. Seasonal courses of leaf water potential were similar for both species, whereas mean net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were always higher in sessile oak than in beech. The relationship between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was strong for both species. Sessile oak had high rates of photosynthesis even under very low leaf water potentials and high air temperatures, whereas the photosynthetic rate of beech decreased at low water potentials. Diurnal patterns were similar in both species but sessile oak had higher rates of CO2 assimilation than beech. Our results indicate that sessile oak is more tolerant of drought than beech, due, in part, to its maintenance of photosynthesis at low water potential.

  12. Physiological Responses of Beech and Sessile Oak in a Natural Mixed Stand During a Dry Summer

    PubMed Central

    RAFTOYANNIS, YANNIS; RADOGLOU, KALLIOPI

    2002-01-01

    Responses of CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance to decreasing leaf water potential, and to environmental factors, were analysed in a mixed natural stand of sessile oak (Quercus petraea ssp. medwediewii) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Greece during the exceptionally dry summer of 1998. Seasonal courses of leaf water potential were similar for both species, whereas mean net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were always higher in sessile oak than in beech. The relationship between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was strong for both species. Sessile oak had high rates of photosynthesis even under very low leaf water potentials and high air temperatures, whereas the photosynthetic rate of beech decreased at low water potentials. Diurnal patterns were similar in both species but sessile oak had higher rates of CO2 assimilation than beech. Our results indicate that sessile oak is more tolerant of drought than beech, due, in part, to its maintenance of photosynthesis at low water potential. PMID:12102528

  13. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Treesearch

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  14. Site-adapted admixed tree species reduce drought susceptibility of mature European beech.

    PubMed

    Metz, Jérôme; Annighöfer, Peter; Schall, Peter; Zimmermann, Jorma; Kahl, Tiemo; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Ammer, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Some forest-related studies on possible effects of climate change conclude that growth potential of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) might be impaired by the predicted increase in future serious drought events during the growing season. Other recent research suggests that not only multiyear increment rates but also growth resistance and recovery of beech during, respectively, after dry years may differ between pure and mixed stands. Thus, we combined dendrochronological investigations and wood stable isotope measurements to further investigate the impact of neighborhood diversity on long-term performance, short-term drought response and soil water availability of European beech in three major geographic regions of Germany. During the last four decades, target trees whose competitive neighborhood consisted of co-occurring species exhibited a superior growth performance compared to beeches in pure stands of the same investigation area. This general pattern was also found in exceptional dry years. Although the summer droughts of 1976 and 2003 predominantly caused stronger relative growth declines if target trees were exposed to interspecific competition, with few exceptions they still formed wider annual rings than beeches growing in close-by monocultures. Within the same study region, recovery of standardized beech target tree radial growth was consistently slower in monospecific stands than in the neighborhood of other competitor species. These findings suggest an improved water availability of beech in mixtures what is in line with the results of the stable isotope analysis. Apparently, the magnitude of competitive complementarity determines the growth response of target beech trees in mixtures. Our investigation strongly suggest that the sensitivity of European beech to environmental constrains depends on neighborhood identity. Therefore, the systematic formation of mixed stands tends to be an appropriate silvicultural measure to mitigate the effects of global

  15. Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi

    Treesearch

    Ehsan Bari; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Behbood Mohebby; Carol A. Clausen; Olaf Schmidt; Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary; Mohammad Javad Vaseghi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposing specimens of Oriental beech [Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter and Burdet] to the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kummer and Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát strain 325 have been studied concerning the mechanical properties and...

  16. DECLINE IN SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FOLLOWING TREE GIRTLING IN MATURE BEECH AND SPRUCE STANDS IN GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were undertaken to estimate the contribution of autotrophic respiration to total soil CO2 efflux in stands of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Five mature trees of each species were girdled to eliminate carbo...

  17. Sensitivity of Beech Trees to Global Environmental Changes at Most North-Eastern Latitude of Their Occurrence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Jasineviciene, Dalia; Girgzdiene, Rasele; Kliucius, Almantas; Marozas, Vitas

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect sensitivity of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) to meteorological parameters and air pollution by acidifying species as well as to surface ozone outside their north-eastern distribution range. Data set since 1981 of Preila EMEP station enabled to establish that hot Summers, cold dormant, and dry and cold first-half of vegetation periods resulted in beech tree growth reduction. These meteorological parameters explained 57% variation in beech tree ring widths. Acidifying species had no significant effect on beech tree growth. Only ozone was among key factors contributing to beech stand productivity. Phytotoxic effect of this pollutant increased explanation rate of beech tree ring variation by 18%, that is, up to 75%. However, due to climate changes the warmer dormant periods alone are not the basis ensuring favourable conditions for beech tree growth. Increase in air temperature in June-August and decrease in precipitation amount in the first half of vegetation period should result in beech tree radial increment reduction. Despite the fact that phytotoxic effect of surface ozone should not increase due to stabilization in its concentration, it is rather problematic to expect better environmental conditions for beech tree growth at northern latitude of their pervasion. PMID:22649321

  18. Some important physical properties of laminated veneer lumber (Lvl) made from oriental beech and Lombardy poplar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, Murat

    2012-09-01

    This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.

  19. Interaction between beech and beech scale

    Treesearch

    D. Wainhouse

    1983-01-01

    Trees heavily infested with beech scale are commonly observed either singly or in small groups within infested forests. This appears to be due partly to the presence of resistant trees and also, in the U.K. at least, to the existence of sub-populations of scale insects, some of which appear to be adapted to individual host trees. It is suggested that the greater...

  20. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respira...

  1. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respira...

  2. Water fluxes within beech stands in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Holst, Jutta; Grote, Rüdiger; Offermann, Christine; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Gessler, Arthur; Mayer, Helmut; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the water balances of two beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) on opposite slopes (NE, SW) of a narrow valley near Tuttlingen in the southern Swabian Jura, a low mountain range in Southwest Germany. Our analysis combines results from continuous measurements of forest meteorological variables significant to the forest water balance, stand transpiration (ST) estimates from sap flow measurements, and model simulations of microclimate and water fluxes. Two different forest hydrological models (DNDC and BROOK90) were tested for their suitability to represent the particular sites. The investigation covers the years 2001-2007. Central aims were (1) to evaluate meteorological simulations of variables below the forest canopy, (2) to evaluate ST, (3) to quantify annual water fluxes for both beech stands using the evaluated hydrological models, and (4) to analyse the model simulations with regard to assumptions inherent in the respective model. Overall, both models were very well able to reproduce the observed dynamics of the soil water content in the uppermost 30 cm. However, the degree of fit depended on the year and season. The comparison of experimentally determined ST within the beech stand on the NE-slope during the growing season of 2007 with simulated transpiration did not yield a reliable statistical relationship. The simulation of water fluxes for the beech stand on the NE- and SW-slopes showed similar results for vegetation-related fluxes with both models, but different with respect to runoff and percolation flows. Overall, the higher evaporation demand on the warmer SW-slope did not lead to a significantly increased drought stress for the vegetation but was reflected mainly in decreased water loss from the system. This finding is discussed with regard to potential climate change and its impact on beech growth.

  3. Effect of flooding on C metabolism of flood-tolerant (Quercus robur) and non-tolerant (Fagus sylvatica) tree species.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Eleni; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Flooding is assumed to cause an energy crisis in plants because-due to a lack of O(2)-mitochondrial respiration is replaced by alcoholic fermentation which yields considerably less energy equivalents. In the present study, the effect of flooding on the carbon metabolism of flooding-tolerant pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and flooding-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings was characterized. Whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations dropped in roots of F. sylvatica, they were constant in Q. robur during flooding. At the same time, root alcohol dehydrogenase activities were decreased in beech but not in oak, suggesting substrate limitation of alcoholic fermentation in beech roots. Surprisingly, leaf and phloem sap sugar concentrations increased in both species but to a much higher degree in beech. This finding suggests that the phloem unloading process in flooding-sensitive beech was strongly impaired. It is assumed that root-derived ethanol is transported to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This mechanism is considered an adaptation to flooding because it helps avoid the accumulation of toxic ethanol in the roots and supports the whole plant's carbon metabolism by channelling ethanol into the oxidative metabolism of the leaves. A labelling experiment demonstrated that in the leaves of flooded trees, ethanol metabolism does not differ between flooded beech and oak, indicating that processes in the roots are crucial for the trees' flooding tolerance.

  4. The phylogeography of Fagus hayatae (Fagaceae): genetic isolation among populations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ling-Xiao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Ching-An; Chen, Tze-Ying; Luo, Shu-Jin; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Shen, Ze-Hao

    2016-05-01

    The beech species Fagus hayatae is an important relict tree species in subtropical China, whose biogeographical patterns may reflect floral responses to climate change in this region during the Quaternary. Previous studies have revealed phylogeography for three of the four Fagus species in China, but study on F. hayatae, the most sparsely distributed of these species, is still lacking. Here, molecular methods based on eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of nuclear DNA (nDNA) and three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences were applied for analyses of genetic diversity and structure in 375 samples from 14 F. hayatae populations across its whole range. Both nDNA and cpDNA indicated a high level of genetic diversity in this species. Significant fixation indexes and departures from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with a genetic differentiation parameter of R st of 0.233, were detected in nDNA SSR loci among populations, especially those on Taiwan Island, indicating strong geographic partitioning. The populations were classified into two clusters, without a prominent signal of isolation-by-distance. For the 15 haplotypes detected in the cpDNA sequence fragments, there was a high genetic differentiation parameter (G st = 0.712) among populations. A high G st of 0.829 was also detected outside but not within the Sichuan Basin. Consistent with other Fagus species in China, no recent population expansion was detected from tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution analysis. Overall, genetic isolation with limited gene flow was prominent for this species and significant phylogeographic structures existed across its range except for those inside the Sichuan Basin. Our study suggested long-term geographic isolation in F. hayatae with limited population admixture and the existence of multiple refugia in the mountainous regions of the Sichuan Basin and southeast China during the Quaternary. These results may provide useful information critical for the conservation of F

  5. Upland beech trees significantly contribute to forest methane exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Maier, Martin; Svobodova, Katerina; Halaburt, Ellen; Haddad, Sally; Lang, Friederike; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Methane (CH4) can be emitted not only from soil, but also from plants. Fluxes of CH4were predominantly investigated in riparian herbaceous plants, whereas studies on trees, particularly those lacking an aerenchyma, are rare. In soil produced CH4 can be taken up by roots, transported via intercellular spaces and the aerenchyma system, or transpiration stream to aboveground plant tissues and released to the atmosphere via lenticels or stomata. Although CH4 might be also produced by microorganisms living in plant tissues or photochemical processes in plants, these processes are relatively minor. It has been shown that seedlings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) emit CH4 from its stems despite the lack of an aerenchyma. Our objectives were to determine the CH4 fluxes from mature beech trees and adjacent soil under natural field conditions, and to estimate the role of trees in the CH4exchange within the soil-tree-atmosphere continuum. Measurements were conducted in two mountain beech forests with different geographical and climatic conditions (White Carpathians, Czech Republic; Black Forest, Germany). CH4 fluxes at stems (profile) and root bases level were simultaneously measured together with soil-atmosphere fluxes using static chamber systems followed by chromatographic analysis or continuous laser detection of CH4 concentrations. Our study shows that mature beech trees have the ability to exchange CH4 with the atmosphere. The beech stems emitted CH4 into the atmosphere at the White Carpathians site in the range from 2.00 to 179 μg CH4 m-2 stem area h-1, while CH4 flux rates ranged between -1.34 to 1.73 μg CH4 m-2 h-1 at the Black Forest site. The root bases of beech trees from the White Carpathians released CH4 into the atmosphere (from 0.62 to 49.8 μg CH4 m-2 root area h-1), whereas a prevailing deposition was observed in the Black Forest (from -1.21 to 0.81 μg CH4 m-2 h-1). These fluxes seem to be affected by soil water content and its spatial heterogeneity

  6. An approach to modeling the consequences of beech mortality from beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine

    1983-01-01

    Changes to an extant model of forest growth and transition that allow an evaluation of the consequences of beech bark disease are outlined. Required are a function to scale beech growth for the effects of beech bark disease, a function to predict beech mortality from beech bark disease, and a function that predicts root-sprout regeneration of beech.

  7. Formation of cis-coniferin in cell-free extracts of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh bark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, E.; Inciong, E. J.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1990-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh) bark exclusively accumulates cis-monolignols and their glucosidic conjugates; no evidence for the accumulation of trans-monolignols has been found. The glucosyltransferase from this source exhibits a very unusual substrate specificity for cis, and not trans, monolignols. This is further evidence that cis monolignols are involved in lignin formation in these plant tissues. Preliminary evidence for the existence of a novel trans-cis monolignol isomerase was obtained, in agreement with our contention that this isomerization is not photochemically mediated.

  8. Formation of cis-coniferin in cell-free extracts of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh bark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, E.; Inciong, E. J.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1990-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh) bark exclusively accumulates cis-monolignols and their glucosidic conjugates; no evidence for the accumulation of trans-monolignols has been found. The glucosyltransferase from this source exhibits a very unusual substrate specificity for cis, and not trans, monolignols. This is further evidence that cis monolignols are involved in lignin formation in these plant tissues. Preliminary evidence for the existence of a novel trans-cis monolignol isomerase was obtained, in agreement with our contention that this isomerization is not photochemically mediated.

  9. Do variations in leaf phenology affect radial growth variations in Fagus sylvatica?

    PubMed

    Čufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; Črepinšek, Zalika; Merela, Maks; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2015-08-01

    We used a dendrochronological and leaf phenology network of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Slovenia, a transitional area between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic regimes, for the period 1955-2007 to test whether year to year variations in leaf unfolding and canopy duration (i.e. time between leaf unfolding and colouring) influence radial growth (annual xylem production and tree ring widths) and if such influences are more pronounced at higher altitudes. We showed that variability in leaf phenology has no significant effect on variations in radial growth. The results are consistent in the entire region, irrespective of the climatic regime or altitude, although previous studies have shown that leaf phenology and tree ring variation depend on altitude. The lack of relationship between year to year variability in leaf phenology and radial growth may suggest that earlier leaf unfolding--as observed in a previous study--probably does not cause increased tree growth rates in beech in Slovenia.

  10. Do variations in leaf phenology affect radial growth variations in Fagus sylvatica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; Črepinšek, Zalika; Merela, Maks; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2015-08-01

    We used a dendrochronological and leaf phenology network of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in Slovenia, a transitional area between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic regimes, for the period 1955-2007 to test whether year to year variations in leaf unfolding and canopy duration (i.e. time between leaf unfolding and colouring) influence radial growth (annual xylem production and tree ring widths) and if such influences are more pronounced at higher altitudes. We showed that variability in leaf phenology has no significant effect on variations in radial growth. The results are consistent in the entire region, irrespective of the climatic regime or altitude, although previous studies have shown that leaf phenology and tree ring variation depend on altitude. The lack of relationship between year to year variability in leaf phenology and radial growth may suggest that earlier leaf unfolding—as observed in a previous study—probably does not cause increased tree growth rates in beech in Slovenia.

  11. Growth of Fagus in transition zones of forest and soil on the western slope of Mt. Chokai, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2012-04-01

    A wide transition zone for forest structure is expected to distribute on the gentle slope of western side of Mt. Chokai ,Yamagata prefecture, northern Japan (N39° 05'57", E140°02'55"). The annual mean temperature and total precipitation at summit (2,059 m asl.) are 0.5° C and 3,285mm, respectively. The parent materials of the soils are weathered Andesite associated with non-tephric loess deposits transported from continental China. Representative sites were selected in forests of Quercus mongolica and Fagus crenata to examine characteristics of transition zones of vegetation and soil in the western slope of Mt. Chokai with concern on the growth of Fagus in transition zones. Surveys on vegetation profile and projection diagram of canopy for each site (10-10m plots) were carried out in 7 sites selected along altitudinal sequence on the western slope of Mt. Chokai; Ch1-7: 550-1,100m asl.. Growth rate of Fagus was estimated by the measurement of tree rings from increment core samples. Timber volume of Fagus at each point was calculated based on diameter of breast height; DBH as an indicator of tree biomass. Soil profiles were observed at the above 7 sites and soil samples were collected from each horizon. As for soil analyses, soil pH (H2O, KCl, NaF) values were measured by the glass electrode method in the suspension mixture of soil with a 2.5 times volume of H2O or 1N KCl and 50 times volume of 4% NaF. Pyrophosphate, acid oxalate and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (Alp, Alo, Ald), Fe (Feo, Fed) and Si (Sio, Sid) were measured by ICP-AES. The content of exchangeable Al (AlEX) was obtained by titration of extract with 1N KCl. Sclerotia formed by species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, were collected for grains of diameter larger than 0.5mm from wet samples. Sclerotia content was obtained by weight (mg g-1 soil). Due to intensive base leaching under extremely high precipitation and the mineralogical properties, Ah and Ae horizons of all profiles had low soil

  12. Drought-Adaptation Potential in Fagus sylvatica: Linking Moisture Availability with Genetic Diversity and Dendrochronology

    PubMed Central

    Pluess, Andrea R.; Weber, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Background Microevolution is essential for species persistence especially under anticipated climate change scenarios. Species distribution projection models suggested that the dominant tree species of lowland forests in Switzerland, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), might disappear from most areas due to expected longer dry periods. However, if genotypes at the moisture boundary of the species climatic envelope are adapted to lower moisture availability, they can serve as seed source for the continuation of beech forests under changing climates. Methodology/Principal Findings With an AFLP genome scan approach, we studied neutral and potentially adaptive genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica in three regions containing a dry and a mesic site each (nind. = 241, nmarkers = 517). We linked this dataset with dendrochronological growth measures and local moisture availabilities based on precipitation and soil characteristics. Genetic diversity decreased slightly at dry sites. Overall genetic differentiation was low (Fst = 0.028) and Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all populations together suggesting high (historical) gene flow. The Bayesian outlier analyses indicated 13 markers with three markers differing between all dry and mesic sites and the others between the contrasting sites within individual regions. A total of 41 markers, including seven outlier loci, changed their frequency with local moisture availability. Tree height and median basal growth increments were reduced at dry sites, but marker presence/absence was not related to dendrochronological characteristics. Conclusion and Their Significance The outlier alleles and the makers with changing frequencies in relation to moisture availability indicate microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances. The general genetic similarity among sites suggests that ‘preadaptive’ genes can easily spread across the landscape. Yet, due to the long live span of trees, fostering

  13. Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Andrea R; Weber, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Microevolution is essential for species persistence especially under anticipated climate change scenarios. Species distribution projection models suggested that the dominant tree species of lowland forests in Switzerland, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), might disappear from most areas due to expected longer dry periods. However, if genotypes at the moisture boundary of the species climatic envelope are adapted to lower moisture availability, they can serve as seed source for the continuation of beech forests under changing climates. With an AFLP genome scan approach, we studied neutral and potentially adaptive genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica in three regions containing a dry and a mesic site each (n(ind.) = 241, n(markers) = 517). We linked this dataset with dendrochronological growth measures and local moisture availabilities based on precipitation and soil characteristics. Genetic diversity decreased slightly at dry sites. Overall genetic differentiation was low (F(st) = 0.028) and Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all populations together suggesting high (historical) gene flow. The Bayesian outlier analyses indicated 13 markers with three markers differing between all dry and mesic sites and the others between the contrasting sites within individual regions. A total of 41 markers, including seven outlier loci, changed their frequency with local moisture availability. Tree height and median basal growth increments were reduced at dry sites, but marker presence/absence was not related to dendrochronological characteristics. CONCLUSION AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE: The outlier alleles and the makers with changing frequencies in relation to moisture availability indicate microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances. The general genetic similarity among sites suggests that 'preadaptive' genes can easily spread across the landscape. Yet, due to the long live span of trees, fostering saplings originating from dry sites and

  14. Reproduction-related variation in carbon allocation to woody tissues in Fagus crenata using a natural 13C approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingmin; Kagawa, Akira; Kabeya, Daisuke; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of new photo-assimilates and stored carbon (C) to plant growth remains poorly understood, especially during reproduction. In order to elucidate how mast seeding affects C allocation to both reproductive and vegetative tissues, we measured biomass increase in each tissue, branch starch concentration and stable C isotope composition (δ(13)C) in bulk leaves, current-year shoots, 3-year branches and tree rings in fruiting and non-fruiting trees for 2 years, as well as in fruits. We isolated the effect of reproduction on C allocation to vegetative growth by comparing (13)C enrichment in woody tissues in fruiting and non-fruiting specimens. Compared with 2‰ (13)C enrichment in shoots relative to leaves from non-fruiting trees, fruiting reduced the enrichment to 1‰ and this reduction disappeared in the following year with no fruiting, indicating that new photo-assimilates are preferentially used for woody tissues even with fruiting burden. In contrast, fruits had up to 2.5‰ (13)C enrichment at mid-summer, which dropped thereafter, indicating that fruit production relies on C storage early in the growing season then shifts to current photo-assimilates. At this tipping point, growth of shoots and cupules had almost finished and nuts had a second rapid growth period thereafter. Together with shorter shoots but higher biomass increment per length in fruiting trees than non-fruiting trees, these results indicate that the C limitation due to fruit burden is minimized by fine-tuning of allocation of old C stores and new photo-assimilates, along with the growth pattern in various tissues. Furthermore, fruiting had no significant effect on starch concentration in 3-year-old branches, which became fully depleted during leaf and flower flushing but were quickly replenished. These results indicate that reproduction affects C allocation to branches but not its source or storage. These reproduction-related variations in the fate of C have implications for evaluating forest ecosystem C cycles during climate change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Soil organic matter dynamics under Beech and Hornbeam as affected by soil biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijman, A. M.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter dynamics are highly affected both the soil fauna as well as the source of organic matter, having important consequences for the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter storage and conversion. We studied oldgrowth mixed deciduous forests in Central-Luxemburg on decalcified dolomitic marl, dominated by high-degradable hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) or low-degradable beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Decomposition was measured both in the laboratory and in the field. Litter decomposition was higher for hornbeam than for beech under laboratory conditions, but especially in the field, which is mainly to be attributed to macro-fauna activity, specifically to earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Allolobophora species). We also investigated differences between beech and hornbeam with regard to litter input and habitat conditions. Total litter input was the same, but contribution of beech and hornbeam litter clearly differed between the two species. Also, mass of the ectorganic horizon and soil C:N ratio were significantly higher for beech, which was reflected in clear differences in the development of ectorganic profiles on top of the soil. Under beech a mull-moder was clearly present with a well developed fermentation and litter horizon, whereas under hornbeam all litter is incorporated into the soil, leaving the mineral soil surface bear in late summer (mull-type of horizon). In addition to litter quality, litter decomposition was affected by pH and soil moisture. Both pH and soil moisture were higher under hornbeam than under beech, which may reflect differences in soil development and litter quality effects over longer time scales. Under beech, dense layers of low-degradable litter may prevent erosion, and increase clay eluviation and leaching of base cations, leading to acid and dry conditions, which further decrease litter decay. Under hornbeam, the soil is not protected by a litter layer, and clay eluviation and acidification may be counteracted by erosion

  16. Determinants of woody species richness in Scot pine and beech forests: climate, forest patch size and forest structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevan, Helena; Lloret, Francisco; Vayreda, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume

    2007-05-01

    We analysed patterns of woody species richness in Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica forests in Catalonia (NE Spain) from forestry inventory databank in relation to climate and landscape structure. Both types of forests are found within the same climatic range, although they have been managed following somewhat different goals. Overall, woody species richness significantly increased when conditions get closer to the Mediterranean ones, with milder temperatures. Differences between the two types of forests arose when comparing the relationship between richness and forest patch size. Woody species richness increased in pine forests with patch size, while the opposite trend was observed in beech forests. This pattern is explained by the different behaviour of structural canopy properties, since leaf area index and canopy cover showed a steeper increase with increasing forest patch size in Fagus forests than in Pinus ones. Accordingly, richness decreased with canopy cover in Fagus plots, but not in Pinus ones. We suggest that these differences would be related to management history, which may have enhanced the preservation of beech stands in larger forest landscape units.

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression in response to drought in European beech.

    PubMed

    Müller, Markus; Seifert, Sarah; Lübbe, Torben; Leuschner, Christoph; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) genomic resources of this species are still limited. This hampers an understanding of the molecular basis of adaptation to stress. Since beech will most likely be threatened by the consequences of climate change, an understanding of adaptive processes to climate change-related drought stress is of major importance. Here, we used RNA-seq to provide the first drought stress-related transcriptome of beech. In a drought stress trial with beech saplings, 50 samples were taken for RNA extraction at five points in time during a soil desiccation experiment. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression revealed 44,335 contigs, and 662 differentially expressed genes between the stress and normally watered control group. Gene expression was specific to the different time points, and only five genes were significantly differentially expressed between the stress and control group on all five sampling days. GO term enrichment showed that mostly genes involved in lipid- and homeostasis-related processes were upregulated, whereas genes involved in oxidative stress response were downregulated in the stressed seedlings. This study gives first insights into the genomic drought stress response of European beech, and provides new genetic resources for adaptation research in this species.

  18. New quinolinone alkaloids from chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb) honey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Bae, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Myeong-Lyeol; Choi, Yong-Soo; Jin, Byung-Rae; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-04-08

    Two new quinolinone alkaloids and 13 known compounds were isolated from chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb) honey. Two new compounds were determined to be 3-dihydro-spiro[2(1H),3'(1'H)-diquinoline]-3',4,4'-trione (spirodiquinolinone) and 3-(2'-piperidine)-kynurenic acid. In addition, 2,3-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(1H)-one was identified for the first time from nature. In addition, 2,3-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(1H)-one was newly identified from chestnut honey, although this compound has been synthesized before. The structures were determined by the NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Three compounds were qualified and quantitated in chestnut honey by selective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection of LC-ESI-MS using the isolated compounds as external standards.

  19. Armillaria mellea and mortality of beech affected by beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo

    1983-01-01

    The role of Armillaria mellea in the mortality of beech trees affected by beech bark disease was determined by excavating root systems of beech trees infested by beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga, or also infected by the bark fungus, Nectria coccinea var. faginata. Only trees infected by

  20. Battling beech bark disease: establishment of beech seed orchards in Michigan

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; Robert L. Heyd

    2013-01-01

    Amidst the dead, dying, and deformed beech trees left in the wake of beech bark disease (BBD), we are fortunate to find beech trees that remain healthy even in heavily infested areas. In stands across several US states it has been reported that disease-free beech trees are often found in clusters, providing evidence that resistance could be a genetic trait. Trees...

  1. Safeguarding saproxylic fungal biodiversity in Apennine beech forest priority habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Oriana; Lunghini, Dario; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Sabatini, Francesco Maria; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The FAGUS LIFE Project (LIFE11/NAT/IT/135) targets two European priority habitats, i.e. Habitat 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex, and Habitat 9220* Apennine beech forests with Abies alba, within two National Parks: Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni; Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga. The current limited distribution of the target habitats is also due to the impact of human activities on forest systems, such as harvesting and grazing. The FAGUS project aims at developing and testing management strategies able to integrate the conservation of priority forest habitats (9210* and 9220*) and the sustainable use of forest resources. In order to assess the responses to different management treatments the BACI monitoring design (Before-After, Control-Intervention) has been applied on forest structure and diversity of focus taxa before and after experimental harvesting treatments. Conventional management of Apennine beech forests impacts a wealth of taxonomic groups, such as saproxylic beetles and fungi, which are threatened throughout Europe by the lack of deadwood and of senescing trees, and by the homogeneous structure of managed forests. Deadwood has been denoted as the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests not only for supporting a wide diversity of organisms, but also for playing a prominent role in several ecological processes, creating the basis for the cycling of photosynthetic energy, carbon, and nutrients stored in woody material. Especially fungi can be regarded as key group for understanding and managing biodiversity associated with decaying wood. The before-intervention field sampling was carried out in Autumn 2013 in 33 monitoring plots across the two national Parks. The occurrence at plot level of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota sporocarps was surveyed. All standing and downed deadwood with a minimum diameter of 10 cm was sampled for sporocarps larger than 1 mm, and information on decay class and fungal morphogroups

  2. American beech resistance to Cryptococcus fagisuga

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1983-01-01

    American beech trees that were free of beech bark disease in forests long-affected by beech bark disease were challenged with C. fagisuga using the 'foam' technique. Trees were resistant: no insects reached maturity. In Nova Scotia, 12-15 disease-free trees per hectare occurred in the stands examined. Many of these trees occurred in groups...

  3. Finders keepers, losers weepers - drought as a modifier of competition between European beech and Norway spruce -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goisser, Michael; Blanck, Christian; Geppert, Uwe; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E. E.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) frequently reflect over-yielding, when compared to respective monospecific stands. Over-yielding is attributed to enhanced resource uptake efficiency through niche complementarity alleviating species competition. Under climate change, however, with severe and frequent summer drought, water limitation may become crucial in modifying the competitive interaction between neighboring beech and spruce trees. In view of the demands by silvicultural practice, basic knowledge from experimental field work about competitive versus facilitative interaction in maturing mixed beech-spruce forests is scarce. To this end, we investigate species-specific drought response including underlying mechanisms of species interaction in a maturing group-wise mixed beech-spruce forest, amongst 60 and 53 adult trees of beech and spruce, respectively (spruce 65 ± 2, beech 85 ± 4 years old). Severe and repeated experimental drought is being induced over several years through a stand-scale approach of rain throughfall exclusion (Kranzberg Forest Roof Experiment, KROOF). The experimental design comprises 6 roofed (E, automated, closing only during rain) and 6 control (C) plots with a total area of almost 1800 square meters. In 2015 minimum predawn potentials of -2.16 MPa and -2.26 MPa were reached in E for beech and spruce respectively. At the leaf level, spruce displayed high drought susceptibility reflected by a distinct decrease in both stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 80% each, suggesting isohydric response. Beech rather displayed anisohydry indicated by less pronounced yet significant reduction of stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 55% and 45%, respectively. Under the C regime, a negative species interaction effect on stomatal conductance was found in beech, contrasting with a positive effect in spruce. However, drought reversed the effect of

  4. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied 15N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species. PMID:26786538

  6. Thirty-two years of change in an old-growth Ohio beech-maple forest.

    PubMed

    Runkle, James R

    2013-05-01

    Old-growth forests dominated by understory-tolerant tree species are among forest types most likely to be in equilibrium. However, documentation of the degree to which they are in equilibrium over decades-long time periods is lacking. Changes in climate, pathogens, and land use all are likely to impact stand characteristics and species composition, even in these forests. Here, 32 years of vegetation changes in an old-growth beech (Fagus grandifolia)-sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest in Hueston Woods, southwest Ohio, USA, are summarized. These changes involve canopy composition and structure, turnover in snags, and development of vegetation in treefall gaps. Stand basal area and canopy density have changed little in 32 years. However, beech has decreased in canopy importance (49% to 32%) while sugar maple has increased (32% to 47%). Annual mortality was about 1.3% throughout the study period. Mortality rates increased with stem size, but the fraction of larger stems increased due to ingrowth from smaller size classes. Beech was represented by more very large stems than small canopy stems: over time, death of those larger stems with inadequate replacement has caused the decrease in beech importance. Sugar maple was represented by more small canopy stems whose growth has increased its importance. The changes in beech and sugar maple relative importance are hypothesized to be due to forest fragmentation mostly from the early 1800s with some possible additional effects associated with the formation of the state park. Snag densities (12-16 snags/ha) and formation rates (1-3 snags.ha(-1).yr(-1)) remained consistent. The treefall gaps previously studied are closing, with a few, large stems remaining. Death of gap border trees occurs consistently enough to favor species able to combine growth in gaps and survival in the understory.

  7. The biotransformation of soil biocenosis by micromycetes under introduction of Fagus sylvatica L. to oak-hornbeam forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhanov, Artur; Bilyera, Nataliya; Sedykh, Olena; Melnychuk, Maksym

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: micromycetes, beech, soil enzymes, illuminance, Penicillium canescens. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a commercially valuable tree species. As the potential distribution area for beech forest is restricted by Europe, planting of artificial stands is adopted in this region. Beech introduction can alter ecosystem considerably, but the mechanism of this transformation is not clear. We aimed to define abiotic and biotic parameters affecting floor development in beech stands introduced to the oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem ca.50 years ago in Eastern Europe (Ukraine). The daylight illuminace level was similar (2.9-6.5 klx) for both stands. However, grass cover in beech stands did not exceed 0.1-0.5 % even on sites with illuminace level 7.5-8.3 klx. It does not comply with the commonly used suggestion that shading is the main factor causes forest floor absence in the beech stands. We indicated predominantly biotic factors influencing forest floor formation. Thus, particular edaphon represented by micromycetes was able to inhibit plants and microorganisms. We isolated Penicillium canescens strains from soil under beech stands. These fungi utilized beech root exudates and phenol compounds of leaf litter, and produced biologically active substances caused cytostatic and mutagenic effects. They also accelerated (in 2-3.2 times) soil β-glucosidase activity, but had no effect on phosphatase. The biomass of fungi varied under cultivation of Penicillium canescens strains on Czapek medium with the addition of aqueous extracts of beech leaf litter. The biomass of micromycetes increased on 10-15 % at plant phenols concentrations up to 1 mg mL-1. On the contrary, increasing the concentration of phenols up to 4 mg mL-1resulted in a biomass decrease to 40%. The relationship between the concentration of plant phenols and rate of fungal biomass formation indicates that there is probably seasonal regulation of micromycetes activity in the forest biocenosis. The highest

  8. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions.

    PubMed

    Martinez Del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48-75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris.

  9. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A.; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris. PMID:27047534

  10. Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric beeches in subtropical China: Species-specific geographic mosaic of lineages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Rong; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; López-Pujol, Jordi; Fan, Deng-Mei; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    In subtropical China, large-scale phylogeographic comparisons among multiple sympatric plants with similar ecological preferences are scarce, making generalizations about common response to historical events necessarily tentative. A phylogeographic comparison of two sympatric Chinese beeches (Fagus lucida and F. longipetiolata, 21 and 28 populations, respectively) was conducted to test whether they have responded to historical events in a concerted fashion and to determine whether their phylogeographic structure is exclusively due to Quaternary events or it is also associated with pre-Quaternary events. Twenty-three haplotypes were recovered for F. lucida and F. longipetiolata (14 each one and five shared). Both species exhibited a species-specific mosaic distribution of haplotypes, with many of them being range-restricted and even private to populations. The two beeches had comparable total haplotype diversity but F. lucida had much higher within-population diversity than F. longipetiolata. Molecular dating showed that the time to most recent common ancestor of all haplotypes was 6.36 Ma, with most haplotypes differentiating during the Quaternary. [Correction added on 14 October 2013, after first online publication: the timeunit has been corrected to ‘6.36’.] Our results support a late Miocene origin and southwards colonization of Chinese beeches when the aridity in Central Asia intensified and the monsoon climate began to dominate the East Asia. During the Quaternary, long-term isolation in subtropical mountains of China coupled with limited gene flow would have lead to the current species-specific mosaic distribution of lineages. PMID:24340187

  11. Segregation of nitrogen use between ammonium and nitrate of ectomycorrhizas and beech trees.

    PubMed

    Leberecht, Martin; Dannenmann, Michael; Tejedor, Javier; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; Polle, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Here, we characterized nitrogen (N) uptake of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and their associated ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities from NH4(+) and NO3(-) . We hypothesized that a proportional fraction of ectomycorrhizal N uptake is transferred to the host, thereby resulting in the same uptake patterns of plants and their associated mycorrhizal communities. (15) N uptake was studied under various field conditions after short-term and long-term exposure to a pulse of equimolar NH4(+) and NO3(-) concentrations, where one compound was replaced by (15) N. In native EM assemblages, long-term and short-term (15) N uptake from NH4(+) was higher than that from NO3(-) , regardless of season, water availability and site exposure, whereas in beech long-term (15) N uptake from NO3(-) was higher than that from NH4(+) . The transfer rates from the EM to beech were lower for (15) N from NH4(+) than from NO3(-) . (15) N content in EM was correlated with (15) N uptake of the host for (15) NH4(+) , but not for (15) NO3(-) -derived N. These findings suggest stronger control of the EM assemblage on N provision to the host from NH4(+) than from NO3(-) . Different host and EM accumulation patterns for inorganic N will result in complementary resource use, which might be advantageous in forest ecosystems with limited N availability.

  12. Above-ground space sequestration determines competitive success in juvenile beech and spruce trees.

    PubMed

    Kozovits, Alessandra R; Matyssek, Rainer; Winkler, J Barbro; Göttlein, Axel; Blaschke, Helmut; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2005-07-01

    A 2-yr phytotron study was conducted to investigate the intra- and inter-specific competitive behaviour of juvenile beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Competitiveness was analysed by quantifying the resource budgets that occur along structures and within occupied space of relevance for competitive interaction. Ambient and elevated CO(2) and ozone (O(3)) regimes were applied throughout two growing seasons as stressors for provoking changes in resource budgets, growth and allocation to facilitate the competition analysis. The hypothesis tested was that the ability to sequester space at low structural cost will determine the competitive success. Spruce was a stronger competitor than beech, as displayed by its higher above-ground biomass increments in mixed culture compared with monoculture. A crucial factor in the competitive success of spruce was its ability to enlarge crown volume at low structural costs, supporting the hypothesis. Interspecific competition with spruce resulted in a size-independent readjustment of above-ground allocation in beech (reduced leaf : shoot biomass ratio). The efficient use of resources for above-ground space sequestration proved to be a parameter that quantitatively reflects competitiveness.

  13. Insights into xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica L.: phenotypic and environmental sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Herbette, Stephane; Wortemann, Remi; Awad, Hosam; Huc, Roland; Cochard, Herve; Barigah, Tete Severien

    2010-11-01

    Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in understanding drought resistance of trees. We determined the xylem water pressure causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P(50)), a proxy of vulnerability to cavitation, and we evaluated the variability of this trait at tree and population levels for Fagus sylvatica. We checked for the effects of light on vulnerability to cavitation of stem segments together with a time series variation of P(50). Full sunlight-exposed stem segments were less vulnerable to cavitation than shade-exposed ones. We found no clear seasonal change of P(50), suggesting that this trait was designed for a restricted period. P(50) varied for populations settled along a latitudinal gradient, but not for those sampled along an altitudinal gradient. Moreover, mountainside exposure seemed to play a major role in the vulnerability to cavitation of beech populations, as we observed the differences along north-facing sides but not on south-facing sides. Unexpectedly, both north-facing mountainside and northern populations appeared less vulnerable than those grown on the southern mountainside or in the South of France. These results on beech populations were discussed with respect to the results at within-tree level.

  14. Impregnation of Scots pine and beech with tannin solutions: effect of viscosity and wood anatomy in wood infiltration.

    PubMed

    Tondi, G; Thevenon, M F; Mies, B; Standfest, G; Petutschnigg, A; Wieland, S

    The impregnation process of Scots pine and beech samples with tannin solutions was investigated. The two materials involved in the process (impregnation solution and wood samples) are studied in depth. Viscosity of mimosa tannin solutions and the anatomical aspect of beech and Scots pine were analysed and correlated. The viscosity of tannin solutions presents a non-newtonian behaviour when its pH level increases, and in the case of addition of hexamine as a hardener, the crosslinking of the flavonoids turns out to be of great importance. During the impregnation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the liquid and solid uptakes were monitored while taking into consideration the different conditions of the impregnation process. This method allowed to identify the best conditions needed in order to get a successful preservative uptake for each wooden substrate. The penetration mechanism within the wood of both species was revealed with the aid of a microscopic analysis. Scots pine is impregnated through the tracheids in the longitudinal direction and through parenchyma rays in the radial direction, whereas in beech, the penetration occurs almost completely through longitudinal vessels.

  15. CH_{4} production in the deep soil as a source of stem CH_{4} emission in Fagus sylvatica}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Martin; Machacova, Katerina; Urban, Otmar; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Predicting greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes on a global scale requires understanding fluxes on the local scale. Understanding GHG processes in soil-plant-atmosphere systems is essential to understand and mitigate GHG fluxes on the local scale. Forests are known to act as carbon sink. Yet, trees at waterlogged sites are known to emit large amounts of CH4, what can offset the positive GHG balance due the CO2 that is sequestered as wood. Generally, upland trees like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are assumed not to emit CH4, and the upland forest soils are regarded as CH4 sinks. Soil-atmosphere fluxes and stem-atmosphere fluxes of CH4 were studied together with soil gas profiles at two upland beech forest sites in Germany and Czech Republic. Soil was a net CH4 sink at both sites. While most trees showed no or low emissions, one beech tree had exorbitant CH4 emissions that were higher than the CH4 sink capacity of the soil. A soil survey showed strong redoximorphic color patterns in the soil adjacent to this tree. Although the soil around the tree was taking up CH4, the soil gas profiles around this tree showed CH4 production at a soil depth >0.3 m. We interpret the coincidence of the production of CH4 in the deep soil below the beech with the large stem emissions as strong hint that there is a transport link between the soil and stem. We think that the root system represents a preferential transport system for CH4 despite the fact that beech roots usually do not have a special gas transport tissue. The observed CH4 stem emissions represent an important CH4 flux in this ecosystem, and, thus, should be considered in future research. Acknowledgement This research was supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences and the German Academic Exchange Service within the project "Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Fagus sylvatica trees" (DAAD-15-03), the Czech Science Foundation (17-18112Y), National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1415) and project DFG (MA 5826

  16. Distribution of attack by beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga, in beech progeny trials

    Treesearch

    D. Wainhouse; R.S. Howell

    1983-01-01

    Surveys of beech scale infestation among progeny of single beech trees demonstrated significant variation in susceptibility between the progenies. Relative differences in susceptibility of some progeny were maintained on three different sites in southern England.

  17. Beech bark disease: the oldest "new" threat to American beech in the United States

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch

    2010-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) has been killing American beech trees in eastern North America since the late 1890s (Ehrlich, 1934). The disease is initiated by feeding of the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which leads to the development of small fissures in the bark. Over time, as the population of scale insects builds on the bark, the small...

  18. Overall carbohydrate-binding properties of Castanea crenata agglutinin (CCA).

    PubMed

    Nomura, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Hirose, Masaaki; Nakamura, Sachiko; Yagi, Fumio

    2005-09-05

    The carbohydrate-binding properties of Castanea crenata agglutinin (CCA) were investigated by an enzyme-linked lectin absorbent assay. The binding ability of each carbohydrate was compared using IC(50) values. CCA exhibited mannose/glucose specificity, as observed with many mannose-binding jacalin-related lectins. For oligosaccharides containing glucose, it has been shown that the degree of polymerization and the linkage mode of glucose residues have no effect on CCA-carbohydrate interaction; thus, only the non-reducing end glucose unit in glucooligosaccharides may be involved in the interaction with CCA. Among mannooligosaccharides, CCA strongly recognized alpha-(1-->3)-D-Man-[alpha-D-Man-(1-->6)]-D-Man, which is a core in N-linked carbohydrate chains. By considering the results with glycoproteins, it is likely that CCA binds preferentially to mono- or non-sialylated biantennary carbohydrate chains. We also obtained K(d) values by analysis of the dependency of the IC(50) on CCA concentration, based on the hypothesis that CCA has a single binding site or two equivalent binding sites. The estimated K(d) values for mannose, glucose and alpha-(1-->3)-D-Man-[alpha-D-Man-(1-->6)]-D-Man were 2.39, 7.19 and 0.483 mM, respectively. The relative binding abilities showed good agreement with the relative inhibition intensities. Isothermal calorimetric titration was carried out to directly estimate the dissociation constants of CCA for mannose and for alpha-D-Man-(1-->3)-D-Man. The values were 2.34 mM for mannose and 0.507 mM alpha-D-Man-(1-->3)-D-Man. These results suggest that the relative inhibition intensity represents the ratio of K(d) values and that CCA has a single or two equivalent binding sites.

  19. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Treesearch

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  20. Status of beech bark disease in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Barry. Towers

    1983-01-01

    Results of periodical surveys for beech bark disease in Pennsylvania from 1958 to 1982 reveal that the disease is slowly spreading in a south- and westward direction. Although the disease complex is still confined to the northern and eastern portions of the state, beech mortality is occurring in the areas infested longest.

  1. Species relationships and divergence times in beeches: new insights from the inclusion of 53 young and old fossils in a birth-death clock model.

    PubMed

    Renner, S S; Grimm, Guido W; Kapli, Paschalia; Denk, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    The fossilized birth-death (FBD) model can make use of information contained in multiple fossils representing the same clade, and we here apply this model to infer divergence times in beeches (genus Fagus), using 53 fossils and nuclear sequences for all nine species. We also apply FBD dating to the fern clade Osmundaceae, with about 12 living species and 36 fossils. Fagus nuclear sequences cannot be aligned with those of other Fagaceae, and we therefore use Bayes factors to choose among alternative root positions. The crown group of Fagus is dated to 53 (62-43) Ma; divergence of the sole American species to 44 (51-39) Ma and divergence between Central European F. sylvatica and Eastern Mediterranean F. orientalis to 8.7 (20-1.8) Ma, unexpectedly old. The FBD model can accommodate fossils as sampled ancestors or as extinct or unobserved lineages; however, this makes its raw output, which shows all fossils on short or long branches, problematic to interpret. We use hand-drawn depictions and a bipartition network to illustrate the uncertain placements of fossils. Inferred speciation and extinction rates imply approximately 5× higher evolutionary turnover in Fagus than in Osmundaceae, fitting a hypothesized low turnover in plants adapted to low-nutrient conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Species relationships and divergence times in beeches: new insights from the inclusion of 53 young and old fossils in a birth–death clock model

    PubMed Central

    Kapli, Paschalia; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The fossilized birth–death (FBD) model can make use of information contained in multiple fossils representing the same clade, and we here apply this model to infer divergence times in beeches (genus Fagus), using 53 fossils and nuclear sequences for all nine species. We also apply FBD dating to the fern clade Osmundaceae, with about 12 living species and 36 fossils. Fagus nuclear sequences cannot be aligned with those of other Fagaceae, and we therefore use Bayes factors to choose among alternative root positions. The crown group of Fagus is dated to 53 (62–43) Ma; divergence of the sole American species to 44 (51–39) Ma and divergence between Central European F. sylvatica and Eastern Mediterranean F. orientalis to 8.7 (20–1.8) Ma, unexpectedly old. The FBD model can accommodate fossils as sampled ancestors or as extinct or unobserved lineages; however, this makes its raw output, which shows all fossils on short or long branches, problematic to interpret. We use hand-drawn depictions and a bipartition network to illustrate the uncertain placements of fossils. Inferred speciation and extinction rates imply approximately 5× higher evolutionary turnover in Fagus than in Osmundaceae, fitting a hypothesized low turnover in plants adapted to low-nutrient conditions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325832

  3. Advantages of masting in European beech: timing of granivore satiation and benefits of seed caching support the predator dispersal hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Rafał; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    The predator satiation and predator dispersal hypotheses provide alternative explanations for masting. Both assume satiation of seed-eating vertebrates. They differ in whether satiation occurs before or after seed removal and caching by granivores (predator satiation and predator dispersal, respectively). This difference is largely unrecognized, but it is demographically important because cached seeds are dispersed and often have a microsite advantage over nondispersed seeds. We conducted rodent exclosure experiments in two mast and two nonmast years to test predictions of the predator dispersal hypothesis in our study system of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Specifically, we tested whether the fraction of seeds removed from the forest floor is similar during mast and nonmast years (i.e., lack of satiation before seed caching), whether masting decreases the removal of cached seeds (i.e., satiation after seed storage), and whether seed caching increases the probability of seedling emergence. We found that masting did not result in satiation at the seed removal stage. However, masting decreased the removal of cached seeds, and seed caching dramatically increased the probability of seedling emergence relative to noncached seeds. European beech thus benefits from masting through the satiation of scatterhoarders that occurs only after seeds are removed and cached. Although these findings do not exclude other evolutionary advantages of beech masting, they indicate that fitness benefits of masting extend beyond the most commonly considered advantages of predator satiation and increased pollination efficiency.

  4. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Dorado-Liñán, I; Akhmetzyanov, L; Menzel, A

    2017-07-21

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral populations will most likely be the most threatened ones. Four peripheral beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula were studied in order to assess the climate factors influencing tree growth for the last six decades. The analyses included an individual tree approach in order to detect not only the changes in the sensitivity to climate but also the potential size-mediated sensitivity to climate. Our results revealed a dominant influence of previous and current year summer on tree growth during the last six decades, although the analysis in two equally long periods unveiled changes and shifts in tree sensitivity to climate. The individual tree approach showed that those changes in tree response to climate are not size dependent in most of the cases. We observed a reduced negative effect of warmer winter temperatures at some sites and a generalized increased influence of previous year climatic conditions on current year tree growth. These results highlight the crucial role played by carryover effects and stored carbohydrates for future tree growth and species persistence.

  5. Fine Spatial Scale Variation of Soil Microbial Communities under European Beech and Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Nacke, Heiko; Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Kaiser, Kristin; Castillo-Villamizar, Genis A.; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between trees and soil microbes in forests as well as their inherent seasonal and spatial variations are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the effects of major European tree species (Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst) on soil bacterial and fungal communities. Mineral soil samples were collected from different depths (0–10, 10–20 cm) and at different horizontal distances from beech or spruce trunks (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 m) in early summer and autumn. We assessed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities based on 16S rRNA gene and ITS DNA sequences. Community composition of bacteria and fungi was most strongly affected by soil pH and tree species. Different ectomycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Tylospora) known to establish mutualistic associations with plant roots showed a tree species preference. Moreover, bacterial and fungal community composition showed spatial and seasonal shifts in soil surrounding beech and spruce. The relative abundance of saprotrophic fungi was higher at a depth of 0–10 vs. 10–20 cm depth. This was presumably a result of changes in nutrient availability, as litter input and organic carbon content decreased with soil depth. Overall bacterial community composition showed strong variations under spruce with increasing distance from the tree trunks, which might be attributed in part to higher fine root biomass near spruce trunks. Furthermore, overall bacterial community composition was strongly affected by season under deciduous trees. PMID:28066384

  6. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorado-Liñán, I.; Akhmetzyanov, L.; Menzel, A.

    2017-07-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral populations will most likely be the most threatened ones. Four peripheral beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula were studied in order to assess the climate factors influencing tree growth for the last six decades. The analyses included an individual tree approach in order to detect not only the changes in the sensitivity to climate but also the potential size-mediated sensitivity to climate. Our results revealed a dominant influence of previous and current year summer on tree growth during the last six decades, although the analysis in two equally long periods unveiled changes and shifts in tree sensitivity to climate. The individual tree approach showed that those changes in tree response to climate are not size dependent in most of the cases. We observed a reduced negative effect of warmer winter temperatures at some sites and a generalized increased influence of previous year climatic conditions on current year tree growth. These results highlight the crucial role played by carryover effects and stored carbohydrates for future tree growth and species persistence.

  7. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  8. Mucilage production during the incompatible interaction between Orobanche crenata and Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, M Dolores; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, M Carmen; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasites lacking in chlorophyll and totally dependent on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to legumes cultivation and breeding for resistance remains as one of the best available methods of control. However, little is known about the basis of host resistance to broomrapes. It is a multicomponent event, and resistance based on hampering development and necrosis of broomrape tubercles has been reported. In the present work, the formation of mucilage and occlusion of host xylem vessels associated with the death of O. crenata tubercles were studied histologically. Samples of necrotic O. crenata tubercles established on resistant and susceptible vetch genotypes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. The sections were observed at the light microscopy level, either under bright field, epi-fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. A higher proportion of necrotic tubercles was found on the resistant genotype and this was associated with a higher percentage of occluded vessels. Mucilage is composed mainly by carbohydrates (non-esterified pectins) and the presence of polyphenols was also detected. The mucilage and other substances composed by parasite secretions and host-degraded products was found to block host vessels and obstruct the parasite supply channel, being a quantitative defensive response against O. crenata in vetch, and probably also in other legumes and plants. The presence of foreign substances (i.e. parasite secretions) and host-degraded products (i.e. carbohydrates from cell walls) inside host vessels seems to activate this response and leads to xylem occlusion and further death of established Orobanche tubercles.

  9. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm < PN < 500 μm) in TF solution by 42% for K+, 59% for Mn2+ and 13% for PN relative to the control. In contrast, fluxes of NH4-N and SO4-S diminished during peaking aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were < 10%. The effect of aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  10. In Vitro Anti-Malassezia Activity of Castanea crenata Shell and Oil-Soluble Glycyrrhiza Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song Hee; Hur, Min Seok; Kim, Min Jung; Jung, Won Hee; Park, Minji; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Hong Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background A new shampoo with anti-Malassezia properties obtained from various plants is required to provide seborrheic dermatitis patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective The aim of this study was to obtain in vitro susceptibility profiles of Malassezia restricta and M. globosa, the most important pathogenic organisms in the development of seborrheic dermatitis, to the plant extracts used in commercial anti-dandruff shampoos. Methods Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for eight candidate plant extracts and two plant-derived natural products diluted with Leeming and Notman medium to final concentrations of 0.016 to 1 mg/ml. Results Castanea crenata shell, Camellia sinensis leaf, and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts presented relatively low MIC values (≤0.5 mg/ml) against both strains. The C. crenata shell and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts demonstrated especially high anti-Malassezia activity, suggesting their potential use in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The extracts also showed fungistatic activity against other common facultative pathogenic yeasts, Cryptococcus and Candida. Conclusion C. crenata shell and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts could potentially be used as active ingredients in anti-seborrheic and anti-dandruff shampoo formulations. They could be helpful for repeated treatments and regular prophylaxis of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:28566909

  11. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A technique to screen American beech for resistance to the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.)

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey

    2014-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) results in high levels of initial mortality, leaving behind survivor trees that are greatly weakened and deformed. The disease is initiated by feeding activities of the invasive beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which creates entry points for infection by one of the Neonectria species of fungus....

  13. Influence of Litter Diversity on Dissolved Organic Matter Release and Soil Carbon Formation in a Mixed Beech Forest

    PubMed Central

    Scheibe, Andrea; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf litter on below ground carbon export and soil carbon formation in order to understand how litter diversity affects carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. 13C labeled and unlabeled leaf litter of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior), characterized by low and high decomposability, were used in a litter exchange experiment in the Hainich National Park (Thuringia, Germany). Litter was added in pure and mixed treatments with either beech or ash labeled with 13C. We collected soil water in 5 cm mineral soil depth below each treatment biweekly and determined dissolved organic carbon (DOC), δ13C values and anion contents. In addition, we measured carbon concentrations and δ13C values in the organic and mineral soil (collected in 1 cm increments) up to 5 cm soil depth at the end of the experiment. Litter-derived C contributes less than 1% to dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected in 5 cm mineral soil depth. Better decomposable ash litter released significantly more (0.50±0.17%) litter carbon than beech litter (0.17±0.07%). All soil layers held in total around 30% of litter-derived carbon, indicating the large retention potential of litter-derived C in the top soil. Interestingly, in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments we did not find a higher contribution of better decomposable ash-derived carbon in DOM, O horizon or mineral soil. This suggest that the known selective decomposition of better decomposable litter by soil fauna has no or only minor effects on the release and formation of litter-derived DOM and soil organic matter. Overall our experiment showed that 1) litter-derived carbon is of low importance for dissolved organic carbon release and 2) litter of higher decomposability is faster decomposed, but litter diversity does not influence the carbon flow. PMID:25486628

  14. Influence of litter diversity on dissolved organic matter release and soil carbon formation in a mixed beech forest.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Andrea; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf litter on below ground carbon export and soil carbon formation in order to understand how litter diversity affects carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. 13C labeled and unlabeled leaf litter of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior), characterized by low and high decomposability, were used in a litter exchange experiment in the Hainich National Park (Thuringia, Germany). Litter was added in pure and mixed treatments with either beech or ash labeled with 13C. We collected soil water in 5 cm mineral soil depth below each treatment biweekly and determined dissolved organic carbon (DOC), δ13C values and anion contents. In addition, we measured carbon concentrations and δ13C values in the organic and mineral soil (collected in 1 cm increments) up to 5 cm soil depth at the end of the experiment. Litter-derived C contributes less than 1% to dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected in 5 cm mineral soil depth. Better decomposable ash litter released significantly more (0.50±0.17%) litter carbon than beech litter (0.17±0.07%). All soil layers held in total around 30% of litter-derived carbon, indicating the large retention potential of litter-derived C in the top soil. Interestingly, in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments we did not find a higher contribution of better decomposable ash-derived carbon in DOM, O horizon or mineral soil. This suggest that the known selective decomposition of better decomposable litter by soil fauna has no or only minor effects on the release and formation of litter-derived DOM and soil organic matter. Overall our experiment showed that 1) litter-derived carbon is of low importance for dissolved organic carbon release and 2) litter of higher decomposability is faster decomposed, but litter diversity does not influence the carbon flow.

  15. Fungal community in sclerotia of Japanese Beech forest soils in north eastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathia Amasya, Anzilni; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Makiko

    2014-05-01

    Sclerotia are resting structures of ectomycorrhizal fungi and appear as a response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as desiccation. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and the 14C ages of sclerotia from A horizons of volcanic ash soils may range from modern until ca. 100~1,200 yr B.P. Most sclerotia-forming fungal species are known to be host-specific plant pathogens and therefore their abundance may indicate the presence of their host plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate fungal communities in sclerotia with an interest in describing the existing or may have previously existed host plant community. To investigate fungal community inside of sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from Fagus crenata forest soil in north eastern Japan. The rDNA ITS regions were then amplified by the PCR using primer pair ITS-1F/ITS-4. Aliquots of the amplified DNA were digested with restriction endonucleases AluI, Hae III, and HhaI to obtain ITS-RFLPs. To obtain the fungal community profiles a quenching fluorescence primer was used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to monitor the PCR amplification and then used for T-RFLP. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis from the sclerotia was Ascomycota: Arthrinium arundinis, which has been reported to be one of the soil fungal species responsible for bamboo degradation and a pathogen for many species belonging to Poaceae family.

  16. Tree-ring growth of Scots pine, Common beech and Pedunculate oak under future climate in northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Scharnweber, Tobias; Schröder, Christian; Lennartz, Bernd; Bauwe, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Tree growth depends, among other factors, largely on the prevailing climatic conditions. Therefore, tree growth patterns are to be expected under climate change. Here, we analyze the tree-ring growth response of three major European tree species to projected future climate across a climatic (mostly precipitation) gradient in northeastern Germany. We used monthly data for temperature, precipitation, and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) over multiple time scales (1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months) to construct models of tree-ring growth for Scots pine (Pinus syl- vestris L.) at three pure stands, and for Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at three mature mixed stands. The regression models were derived using a two-step approach based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) to extract potentially well explaining variables followed by ordinary least squares regression (OLSR) to consolidate the models to the least number of variables while retaining high explanatory power. The stability of the models was tested with a comprehensive calibration-verification scheme. All models were successfully verified with R2s ranging from 0.21 for the western pine stand to 0.62 for the beech stand in the east. For growth prediction, climate data forecasted until 2100 by the regional climate model WETTREG2010 based on the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenario was used. For beech and oak, growth rates will likely decrease until the end of the 21st century. For pine, modeled growth trends vary and range from a slight growth increase to a weak decrease in growth rates depending on the position along the climatic gradient. The climatic gradient across the study area will possibly affect the future growth of oak with larger growth reductions towards the drier east. For beech, site-specific adaptations seem to override the influence of the climatic gradient. We conclude that in Northeastern

  17. Fast acclimation of freezing resistance suggests no influence of winter minimum temperature on the range limit of European beech.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Armando; Hoch, Günter; Vitasse, Yann

    2016-04-01

    Low temperature extremes drive species distribution at a global scale. Here, we assessed the acclimation potential of freezing resistance in European beech (Fagus sylvaticaL.) during winter. We specifically asked (i) how do beech populations growing in contrasting climates differ in their maximum freezing resistance, (ii) do differences result from genetic differentiation or phenotypic plasticity to preceding temperatures and (iii) is beech at risk of freezing damage in winter across its distribution range. We investigated the genetic and environmental components of freezing resistance in buds of adult beech trees from three different populations along a natural large temperature gradient in north-western Switzerland, including the site holding the cold temperature record in Switzerland. Freezing resistance of leaf primordia in buds varied significantly among populations, with LT50values (lethal temperature for 50% of samples) ranging from -25 to -40 °C, correlating with midwinter temperatures of the site of origin. Cambial meristems and the pith of shoots showed high freezing resistance in all three populations, with only a trend to lower freezing resistance at the warmer site. After hardening samples at -6 °C for 5 days, freezing resistance of leaf primordia increased in all provenances by up to 4.5 K. After additional hardening at -15 °C for 3 days, all leaf primordia were freezing resistant to -40 °C. We demonstrate that freezing resistance ofF. sylvaticahas a high ability to acclimate to temperature changes in winter, whereas the genetic differentiation of freezing resistance among populations seems negligible over this small geographic scale but large climatic gradient. In contrast to the assumption made in most of the species distribution models, we suggest that absolute minimum temperature in winter is unlikely to shape the cold range limit of beech. We conclude that the rapid acclimation of freezing resistance to winter temperatures allows

  18. Status of beech bark disease in the Province of Quebec

    Treesearch

    Denis. Lachance

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of beech bark disease has not changed significantly in recent years in Quebec. It has remained as scattered infected stands located within relatively old beech-scale-infested areas. This scale covers the southeastern half of the beech natural range in the province and it is spreading slowly westward.

  19. Current status of beech bark disease in France

    Treesearch

    R. Perrin

    1983-01-01

    The two organisms involved in beech bark disease are endemic everywhere in France. Nevertheless the disease is restricted to the northern part of the beech's range, where it grows on the plains. During the last five years beech bark disease has shown a general decrease in severity but there have been local increases in the north and north-eastern parts of forests...

  20. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  1. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Nguelefack, T B; Nana, P; Atsamo, A D; Dimo, T; Watcho, P; Dongmo, A B; Tapondjou, L A; Njamen, D; Wansi, S L; Kamanyi, A

    2006-06-15

    Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae) is a fleshy herbaceous plant used in the African traditional medicine as remedies against otitis, headache, inflammations, convulsions and general debility. In the present work, the analgesic effects of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) (CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH) extract and its hexane, methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and aqueous residue have been evaluated using acetic acid, formalin and pressure test. The anticonvulsant effects of the CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 70 mg/kg), strychnine sulphate (STN 2.5 mg/kg) and thiosemicarbazide (TSC 50 mg/kg). CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its fractions, administered orally at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, exhibited protective effect of at least 30% on the pain induced by acetic acid. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at 300 mg/kg showed a maximal effect of 78.49%. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the first phase of pain induced by formalin while the second phase was completely inhibited. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction produced more than 45% reduction in the sensitivity to pain induced by pressure. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract of Kalanchoe crenata significantly increased the latency period in seizures induced by PTZ and significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by the three convulsant agents. The extract protected 20% of animals against death in seizures induced by TSC and STN. These results suggest a peripheral and central analgesic activities as well as an anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata.

  2. Antihyperglycaemic potential of the water-ethanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Kamgang, René; Mboumi, Rostand Youmbi; Fondjo, Angèle Foyet; Tagne, Michel Archange Fokam; N'dillé, Gabriel Patrice Roland Mengue; Yonkeu, Jeanne Ngogang

    2008-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata is a vegetable widely used in Cameroon and largely efficient in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of the water-ethanol extract of this plant (WEKC) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and diet-induced diabetic rats (MACAPOS 1) after a short- and medium-term treatment. Diabetes was induced by submitting Wistar rats to a hypercaloric sucrose diet over 4 months. Six hours after a single oral administration of WEKC, 135 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight extracts significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the blood glucose levels both in normal and diabetic rats without real dose-dependent effect. During the medium-term treatment, 200 mg kg(-1) WEKC administered daily for 4 weeks significantly reduced blood glucose levels within week 1 (P < 0.05), with a maximum effect at week 4 (-52%, P < 0.01), while maintaining glycaemia within the normal range. All the WEKC-treated diabetic rats exhibited significant (P < 0.01) increase in insulin sensitivity index (K (ITT)) compared with the initial time and to the untreated diabetic animals. Animals treated for 4 weeks exhibited a slight resistance in body-weight gain and decrease in food and water intake. The WEKC activities on all parameters assessed were comparable with the glibenclamide effects. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that K. crenata contains terpenoids, tannins, polysaccharids, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The data suggest that K. crenata might contain important chemical components that could induce significant improvement in glucose clearance and/or uptake and resistance to body-weight gain and insulin sensitivity, and could be a potent alternative or complementary therapeutic substance in the control of type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions.

  3. Release and retention patterns of organic compounds and nutrients after the cold period in foliar litterfall of pure European larch, common beech and red oak plantations in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čiuldienė, D.; Aleinikovienė, J.; Muraškienė, M.; Marozas, V.; Armolaitis, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out in alien warmth-tolerant forest plantations of red oak ( Quercus rubra), common beech ( Fagus sylvatica) and European larch ( Larix decidua). We compared the changes in foliar litterfall mass and biochemical composition after five months of cold period. The mean mass of fresh foliar litterfall collected in late autumn was 30% higher in red oak compared to the larch and beech plantations. After the cold period, the reduction of foliar litterfall mass did not exceed 10% in any of the studied plantations. The fresh foliar litterfall of red oak was the richest in cellular fibre and easily decomposable glucose and nutrients such as P and Mg, larch was distinguished by the highest lignin, N, K and Ca concentrations, while beech fresh foliar litterfall was the poorest in the aforementioned nutrients. After the cold period, the changes in the biochemical composition of foliar litterfall revealed different patterns. In the spring, the beech and red oak foliar litterfall was the richest in N, P and Ca, meanwhile the larch foliar litterfall still had the highest concentration of lignin but, in contrast to the autumn, was the poorest in nutrients. After the cold period Lignin: N, C: N and C: P ratios reached critical values indicating that the foliar litterfall of beech and red oak had started to decompose. The highest lignin concentration and the highest and most stable Lignin: N, C: N, C: P and N: P ratios after the cold period indicated that the slowest foliar litterfall decomposition took place in the larch plantation.

  4. Intra-specific variations in expression of stress-related genes in beech progenies are stronger than drought-induced responses.

    PubMed

    Carsjens, Caroline; Nguyen Ngoc, Quynh; Guzy, Jonas; Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Müller, Markus; Finkeldey, Reiner; Leuschner, Christoph; Polle, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly decreasing water availability as a consequence of climate change is likely to endanger the range of long-lived tree species. A pressing question is, therefore, whether adaptation to drought exists in important temperate tree species like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a wide-spread, dominant forest tree in Central Europe. Here, five beech stands were selected along a precipitation gradient from moist to dry conditions. Neutral genetic markers revealed strong variation within and little differentiation between the populations. Natural regeneration from these stands was transferred to a common garden and used to investigate the expression of genes for abscisic acid (ABA)-related drought signaling [9-cis-epoxy-dioxygenase (NCED), protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), early responsive to dehydration (ERD)] and stress protection [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutamine amidotransferase (GAT)] that are involved in drought acclimation. We hypothesized that progenies from dry sites exhibit constitutively higher expression levels of ABA- and stress-related genes and are less drought responsive than progenies from moist sites. Transcript levels and stress responses (leaf area loss, membrane integrity) of well-irrigated and drought-stressed plants were measured during the early, mid- and late growing season. Principal component (PC) analysis ordered the beech progenies according to the mean annual precipitation at tree origin by the transcript levels of SOD, ALDH, GAT and ERD as major loadings along PC1. PC2 separated moist and drought treatments with PP2C levels as important loading. These results suggest that phosphatase-mediated signaling is flexibly acclimated to the current requirements, whereas stress compensatory measures exhibited genotypic variation, apparently underlying climate selection. In contrast to expectation, the drought responses were less pronounced than the progeny-related differences and the

  5. Codominance of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia: the role of Fagus root sprouts along a slope gradient in an old-growth forest.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Arii, Ken; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2010-09-01

    We studied how the unusual capacity of mature Fagus grandifolia to form clumps of clonal stems from root sprouts can contribute to its frequent codominance with Acer saccharum in southern Quebec, Canada. In an old-growth forest, the degree of dominance by the two species shifted along topographic gradients spanning a few hundreds of meters, with Fagus more frequent on lower slopes and Acer on upper slopes. The frequency distribution of Fagus stem diameter had an inverse J distribution at all slope positions, which is indicative of continuous recruitment. Acer stem diameter also had an inverse J pattern, except at lower slope positions where size structure was discontinuous. For stems <2 m tall, Fagus regenerated mainly by sprouts at the upper and mid-slopes, while regeneration from seed was more pronounced on the lower slope. This change of regeneration mode affected the spatial pattern of Fagus stems. Understory trees of Fagus were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees on upper and mid-slopes, but not on lower slopes where Fagus regenerated mainly by seedlings. Understory trees of Acer were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees only on the mid-slope. There were many Fagus seedlings around Acer canopy trees at the lower slope, suggesting the potential replacement of Acer canopy trees by Fagus. This study suggests that the regeneration traits of the two species changed with slope position and that Fagus patches originating from root sprouts can contribute to the maintenance of Acer-Fagus codominance at the scale of local landscapes.

  6. Efficacy of washing treatments in the reduction of postharvest decay of chestnuts (Castanea crenata 'Tsukuba') during storage

    Treesearch

    Uk Lee; Sukhyun Joo; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the influence of different washing treatments (i.e., tap water, ozone, microbubbles, and ozone combined with microbubbles) on post-harvest decay of chestnuts (Castanea crenata ‘Tsukuba’) during storage. Overall, treatments with ozone and microbubbles significantly reduced the decay frequency and the associated microbial populations (...

  7. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from −1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata. PMID:26089829

  8. Breeding approaches for crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) management in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Rubiales, Diego; Fernández-Aparicio, Monica; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Castillejo, Mari A; Prats, Elena; Sillero, Josefina C; Rispail, Nicolas; Fondevilla, Sara

    2009-05-01

    Pea cultivation is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle East farming systems by the occurrence of Orobanche crenata Forsk. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. Most control methods are either unfeasible, uneconomical, hard to achieve or result in incomplete protection. The integration of several control measures is the most desirable strategy. [corrected] Recent developments in control are presented and re-evaluated in light of recent developments in crop breeding and molecular genetics. These developments are placed within a framework that is compatible with current agronomic practices. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The application of knowledge gained from basic genomic research and genetic engineering will contribute to more rapid pea improvement for resistance against O. crenata and/or the herbicide.

  9. Neutralizing effect of hemolymph from the shore crab, Thalamita crenata, on paralytic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huajuan; Zhang, Chaohua; Liao, Jianmeng; Yang, Feng; Zhong, Saiyi; Jiang, Peihong; Chen, Xiao; Nagashima, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    Several species of crabs are resistant to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and/or pufferfish toxin, tetrodotoxin, regardless of toxification by the toxins. The shore crab Thalamita crenata, which inhabits Leizhou Peninsula, China, is tolerant to PST toxicity, and the hemolymph has neutralizing effects against the lethal activity of PST. In the present study, we investigated the PST neutralizing factors in the hemolymph from T. crenata and successfully separated PST-binding proteins by PST-ligand affinity chromatography. The neutralization factors, obtained in the fraction with a molecular weight over 10 kDa by ultrafiltration, were susceptible to proteases such as alcalase, animal complex proteases, pancreatin, and papain. The PST-binding protein had high dose-dependent neutralization effects on PST toxicity. The PST-binding activity of the protein was stable at 25 °C and then decreased with an increase in temperature; heating at 65 °C for 60 min eliminated the initial activity by two-thirds. The PST-binding activity was strongly inhibited in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), but not Na(+) and K(+). The PST-binding capability of the protein differed among PST components in descending order of neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins 1 and 4, saxitoxin, and gonyautoxins 2 and 3, suggesting a structure-activity relationship in PST binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the carbon stock in forest soil of sessile oak and beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bene, Zsolt; Bidló, András

    2016-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are the most important carbon sinks. The forest soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle, because the global climate change or the increase of atmospheric CO2 level. We do not have enough data about the carbon stock of soils and its change due to human activities, which have similar value to carbon content of biomass. In our investigation we measured the carbon stock of soil in 10 stands of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica. We took a 1.1 m soil column with soil borer and divided to 11 samples each column. The course organic and root residues were moved. After evaluation, we compared our results with other studies and the carbon stock of forests to each other. Naturally, the amount of SOC was the highest in the topsoil layers. However, we found significant difference between forest stands which stayed on the same homogenous bedrock, but very close to each other (e.g. distance was 1 or 2 km). We detected that different forest utilizations and tree species have an effect on the forest carbon as the litter as well (amount, composition). In summary, we found larger amount (99.1 C t/ha on average) of SOC in soil of stands, where sessile oak were the main stand-forming tree species. The amount of carbon was the least in turkey oak-sessile oak stands (85.4 C t/ha on average). We found the highest SOC (118.3 C t/ha) in the most mixed stand (silver lime-beech-red oak). In the future, it will be very important: How does climate change affect the spread of tree species or on carbon storage? Beech is more sensitive, but even sessile oak. These species are expected to replace with turkey oak, which is less sensitive to drought. Thus, it is possible in the future that we can expect to decrease of forest soil carbon stock capacity, which was confirmed by our experiment. Keywords: carbon sequestration, mitigation, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, litter Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU

  11. Landscape and climate controls on spatiotemporal patterns of European beech phenology tracked from Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senf, Cornelius; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Heurich, Marco; Krueger, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Phenology is a key indicator of vegetation response to global climate change, though our understanding of the underlying functional relationships is yet limited. Consequently, we aim at shedding light on the controls on the spatial and temporal patterns of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) phenology by utilizing a novel Landsat based hierarchical modeling approach. We test a variety of landscape and climate controls hypothesised to influence European beech green-up and senescence: 1) The effects of topography (i.e., elevation, slope, aspect, solar radiation) on spatial pattern of green-up and senescence. 2) The effects of spring temperature and winter chilling on temporal patterns of green-up. And 3) The effects of autumn temperature and precipitation on temporal patterns of senescence. Using a Landsat based approach allows us to tackle questions at the landscape-scale, while still covering a long enough time period of 30 years (1985-2015) for testing effects from regional-scale climate variability. Preliminary results indicate strong spatial and temporal variation in phenology. Spatial variation in green-up and senescence is driven by local scale topographic variation, in particular elevation (-2.0 d-100m). Temporal variation indicates a substantial trend towards earlier green-up (-1.0 d-1yr.) and later senescence (+1.6 d-1yr.), resulting in an overall longer vegetation period (+2.6 d-1yr.). Temporal variation in green-up was mostly influenced by regional-scale variations in pre-season minimum temperature (-3.7 d-1°C ), though we found only limited evidence for winter chilling effects. Temporal variation in senescence correlated with minimum autumn temperature (+5.0 d-1°C ) and precipitation (+2.0 d-10mm). Overall season length was controlled by annual mean season temperature with an average increase of +18.0 d-1°C . We also found that those controls were moderated by topography, with higher elevation areas being more sensitive to changes in temperature. Our

  12. Beech bark disease in Great Britain

    Treesearch

    E. John. Parker

    1983-01-01

    The status of beech bark disease in Great Britain is summarised with respect both to historical perspectives and to the contemporary situation. Features of the disease which relate particularly to its occurrence in Great Britain are listed. Some tentative findings from recent observations and experimental work are presented.

  13. The Children at Beech Tree House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Malcolm

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the program at Beech Tree House, an experimental unit providing short-term education for multihandicapped children (9 to 13 years old) with deviant behavior. Sections address the following components: referral and duration of stay, facilities, parents, use of punishment, and research. (SBH)

  14. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. How adaptable is the hydraulic system of European beech in the face of climate change-related precipitation reduction?

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Knutzen, Florian; Delzon, Sylvain; Jansen, Steven; Müller-Haubold, Hilmar; Burlett, Régis; Clough, Yann; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming will increase the drought exposure of many forests world-wide. It is not well understood how trees adapt their hydraulic architecture to a long-term decrease in water availability. We examined 23 traits characterizing the hydraulic architecture and growth rate of branches and the dependent foliage of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees along a precipitation gradient (855-594 mm yr(-1) ) on uniform soil. A main goal was to identify traits that are associated with xylem efficiency, safety and growth. Our data demonstrate for the first time a linear increase in embolism resistance with climatic aridity (by 10%) across populations within a species. Simultaneously, vessel diameter declined by 7% and pit membrane thickness (Tm ) increased by 15%. Although specific conductivity did not change, leaf-specific conductivity declined by 40% with decreasing precipitation. Of eight plant traits commonly associated with embolism resistance, only vessel density in combination with pathway redundancy and Tm were related. We did not confirm the widely assumed trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency but obtained evidence in support of a positive relationship between hydraulic efficiency and growth. We conclude that the branch hydraulic system of beech has a distinct adaptive potential to respond to a precipitation reduction as a result of the environmental control of embolism resistance.

  16. Effects of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations on beech litter decomposition, enzyme activities and protein expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Roschitzki, B.; Schmid, E.; Eberl, L.; Hämmerle, I.; Leitner, S.; Richter, A.; Wanek, W.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2011-12-01

    Microbes are major players in leaf litter decomposition and therefore advances in the understanding of their control on element cycling are of paramount importance. Our aim was to investigate the influence of leaf litter stoichiometry in terms of carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) : phosphorus (P) on the decomposition process, and to follow changes in microbial community structure and function in response to temperature-stress treatments. To elucidate how the stoichiometry of beech litter (Fagus sylvatica L.) and stress treatments interactively affect the decomposition processes, a terrestrial microcosm experiment was conducted. Beech litter from different Austrian sites covering C:N ratios from 39 to 61 and C:P ratios from 666 to 1729 were incubated at 15 °C and 60% moisture for six months. Part of the microcosms were then subjected to severe changes in temperature (+30 °C and -15 °C) to monitor the influence of temperature stress. Extracellular enzyme activities were assayed and respiratory activities measured. A semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass-spectrometry; unique spectral counting) was employed to investigate the impact of the applied stress treatments in dependency of litter stoichiometry on structure and function of the decomposing community. In litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios microbial decomposers were most abundant. Cellulase, chitinase, phosphatase and protease activity decreased after heat and frost treatments. Decomposer communities and specific functions varied with site i.e. stoichiometry. The applied stress evoked strong changes of enzyme activities, dissolved organic nitrogen and litter pH. Freeze treatments resulted in a decline in residual plant litter material, and increased fungal abundance indicating slightly accelerated decomposition. Overall, we could detect a strong effect of litter stoichiometry on microbial community structure as well as function. Temperature

  17. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  18. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  19. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  20. Effects of rhizopheric nitric oxide (NO) on N uptake in Fagus sylvatica seedlings depend on soil CO2 concentration, soil N availability and N source.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Simon, Judy; Rienks, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Rhizospheric nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are signalling compounds known to affect physiological processes in plants. Their joint influence on tree nitrogen (N) nutrition, however, is still unknown. Therefore, this study investigated, for the first time, the combined effect of rhizospheric NO and CO2 levels on N uptake and N pools in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings depending on N availability. For this purpose, roots of seedlings were exposed to one of the nine combinations (i.e., low, ambient, high NO plus CO2 concentration) at either low or high N availability. Our results indicate a significant effect of rhizospheric NO and/or CO2 concentration on organic and inorganic N uptake. However, this effect depends strongly on NO and CO2 concentration, N availability and N source. Similarly, allocation of N to different N pools in the fine roots of beech seedlings also shifted with varying rhizospheric gas concentrations and N availability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Dynamic of Plant Composition and Regeneration following Windthrow in a Temperate Beech Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mollaei Darabi, Sakineh; Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of soil pedoturbation (i.e., pit and mound microtopography, PM) on development of herbaceous plant species and woody species regeneration were examined in a temperate beech forest (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in northern Iran. We recorded the vegetation in 20 pairs of disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots and established a chronosequence of PM ages to study the effect of time since microsite formation on cover percent of herbaceous plants and woody regeneration status. According to our findings, Carex acutiformis L., Sambucus ebulus L., Brachypodium pinnatum L., and Cyclamen coum L. are found only in the PM microsites, whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L. is recorded only under closed canopy. The coverage percent of Rubus caesius L. increased in PM microsites compared to closed canopy intensively. In addition, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is detected in PM microsite, whereas the Acer cappadocicum B. and Prunus persica L. species were recorded only under closed canopy. We found significant differences in understory species diversity between different ages of PM, and disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots. Our study supports that the PM complex will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species. PMID:27379260

  2. Dynamic of Plant Composition and Regeneration following Windthrow in a Temperate Beech Forest.

    PubMed

    Mollaei Darabi, Sakineh; Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of soil pedoturbation (i.e., pit and mound microtopography, PM) on development of herbaceous plant species and woody species regeneration were examined in a temperate beech forest (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in northern Iran. We recorded the vegetation in 20 pairs of disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots and established a chronosequence of PM ages to study the effect of time since microsite formation on cover percent of herbaceous plants and woody regeneration status. According to our findings, Carex acutiformis L., Sambucus ebulus L., Brachypodium pinnatum L., and Cyclamen coum L. are found only in the PM microsites, whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L. is recorded only under closed canopy. The coverage percent of Rubus caesius L. increased in PM microsites compared to closed canopy intensively. In addition, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is detected in PM microsite, whereas the Acer cappadocicum B. and Prunus persica L. species were recorded only under closed canopy. We found significant differences in understory species diversity between different ages of PM, and disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots. Our study supports that the PM complex will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species.

  3. Influence of Climatic Type of Year on Beech and Scots Pine Eustress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubenova, Mariyana; Chikalanov, Alexandre; van Bodegom, Peter; Kattge, Jens; Popova, Silvia; Zlateva, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The present study deals with the relationships of climate types and the periods with low radial stem growth of black pine and beech locations in Europe. The identification of climatic types (CT) and eustress caused CT, their relative participation in the period of 1901-2009 by locations, the manifestation of main adverse type, led periodically to reduction of tree ring width, as well as the comparison of obtained types by precipitations and the SPI classes were the subjects of investigation. The analyses demonstrated that despite the local differences, the stress impact of dry and wet years, especially if they are accompanied by the cold or hot regimes, is well expressed. The successive changes of climate types at least two years before the eustress year are also relevant. The application of climatic types to study the relationship with trees eustress is more applicable when there are no large deviations in temperatures or precipitations by years and locations. The demonstrated holistic analyses are applicable for the forest areas monitoring and management. Key words Pinus sylvestris L., Fagus sylvatica L., climatic type, SPI, eustress, SPPAM application, SPI

  4. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  5. Classifying Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) Forest Sites Using Direct, Indirect and Remote Sensing Methods: A Case Study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Günlü, Alkan; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Kadiogullari, Ali İhsan; Ercanli, İlker

    2008-01-01

    Determining the productivity of forest sites through various classification techniques is important for making appropriate forest management decisions. Forest sites were classified using direct and indirect (site index) and remote sensing (Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite image) methods. In the direct method, forest site classifications were assigned according to edafic (soil properties), climate (precipitation and temperature) and topographic (altitude, slope, aspect and landform) factors. Five different forest site classes (dry, moderate fresh, fresh, moist and highly moist) were determined. In the indirect method, the guiding curve was used to generate anamorphic site index (SI) equations resulting in three classes; good (SI=I-II), medium (SI=III) and poor (SI=IV-V). Forest sites were also determined with a remote sensing method (RSM) using supervised classification of Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite images with a 0.67 kappa statistic value and 73.3% accuracy assessments; 0.88 kappa statistic value and 90.7% accuracy assessments, respectively. Forest sites polygon themes obtained from the three methods were overlaid and areas in the same classes were computed with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results indicated that direct and SI methods were consistent as a 3% dry site (19.0 ha) was exactly determined by both the direct and SI methods as a site class IV. Comparison of SI and RMS methods indicated a small difference as the area was highly homogeneous and unmanaged. While 15.4 ha area (open and degraded areas) was not determined by SI but RSM. A 19.0 ha (100%) poor site was determined by the SI method, 14.9 ha (78%) poor site was in Landsat 7 ETM satellite image and 17.4 ha (92%) poor site in Quickbird satellite image. The relationship between direct and SI methods were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The test indicated a statistically significant relationships between forest sites determined by direct method and Quicbird satellite image (χ2 = 36.794; df = 16; p = 0.002), but no significant relationships with Landsat 7 ETM satellite image (χ2 = 22.291; df = 16; p = 0.134). Moderate association was found between SI method and direct method (χ2 = 16.724; df = 8; p = 0.033). PMID:27879833

  6. Classifying Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) Forest Sites Using Direct, Indirect and Remote Sensing Methods: A Case Study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Günlü, Alkan; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Kadiogullari, Ali İhsan; Ercanli, İlker

    2008-04-09

    Determining the productivity of forest sites through various classification techniques is important for making appropriate forest management decisions. Forest sites were classified using direct and indirect (site index) and remote sensing (Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite image) methods. In the direct method, forest site classifications were assigned according to edafic (soil properties), climate (precipitation and temperature) and topographic (altitude, slope, aspect and landform) factors. Five different forest site classes (dry, moderate fresh, fresh, moist and highly moist) were determined. In the indirect method, the guiding curve was used to generate anamorphic site index (SI) equations resulting in three classes; good (SI=I-II), medium (SI=III) and poor (SI=IV-V). Forest sites were also determined with a remote sensing method (RSM) using supervised classification of Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite images with a 0.67 kappa statistic value and 73.3% accuracy assessments; 0.88 kappa statistic value and 90.7% accuracy assessments, respectively. Forest sites polygon themes obtained from the three methods were overlaid and areas in the same classes were computed with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results indicated that direct and SI methods were consistent as a 3% dry site (19.0 ha) was exactly determined by both the direct and SI methods as a site class IV. Comparison of SI and RMS methods indicated a small difference as the area was highly homogeneous and unmanaged. While 15.4 ha area (open and degraded areas) was not determined by SI but RSM. A 19.0 ha (100%) poor site was determined by the SI method, 14.9 ha (78%) poor site was in Landsat 7 ETM satellite image and 17.4 ha (92%) poor site in Quickbird satellite image. The relationship between direct and SI methods were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The test indicated a statistically significant relationships between forest sites determined by direct method and Quicbird satellite image (χ² = 36.794; df = 16; p = 0.002), but no significant relationships with Landsat 7 ETM satellite image (χ² = 22.291; df = 16; p = 0.134). Moderate association was found between SI method and direct method (χ² = 16.724; df = 8; p = 0.033).

  7. Seasonal dynamics in the stable carbon isotope composition δ¹³C from non-leafy branch, trunk and coarse root CO₂ efflux of adult deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-03-01

    Respiration is a substantial driver of carbon (C) flux in forest ecosystems and stable C isotopes provide an excellent tool for its investigation. We studied seasonal dynamics in δ¹³C of CO₂ efflux (δ¹³C(E)) from non-leafy branches, upper and lower trunks and coarse roots of adult trees, comparing deciduous Fagus sylvatica (European beech) with evergreen Picea abies (Norway spruce). In both species, we observed strong and similar seasonal dynamics in the δ¹³C(E) of above-ground plant components, whereas δ¹³C(E) of coarse roots was rather stable. During summer, δ¹³C(E) of trunks was about -28.2‰ (Beech) and -26.8‰ (Spruce). During winter dormancy, δ¹³C(E) increased by 5.6-9.1‰. The observed dynamics are likely related to a switch from growth to starch accumulation during fall and remobilization of starch, low TCA cycle activity and accumulation of malate by PEPc during winter. The seasonal δ¹³C(E) pattern of branches of Beech and upper trunks of Spruce was less variable, probably because these organs were additionally supplied by winter photosynthesis. In view of our results and pervious studies, we conclude that the pronounced increases in δ¹³C(E) of trunks during the winter results from interrupted access to recent photosynthates.

  8. Seasonal patterns of carbon allocation to respiratory pools in 60-yr-old deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees assessed via whole-tree stable carbon isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Fleischmann, Frank; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-07-01

    • The CO(2) efflux of adult trees is supplied by recent photosynthates and carbon (C) stores. The extent to which these C pools contribute to growth and maintenance respiration (R(G) and R(M), respectively) remains obscure. • Recent photosynthates of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees were labeled by exposing whole-tree canopies to (13) C-depleted CO(2). Label was applied three times during the year (in spring, early summer and late summer) and changes in the stable C isotope composition (δ(13) C) of trunk and coarse-root CO(2) efflux were quantified. • Seasonal patterns in C translocation rate (CTR) and fractional contribution of label to CO(2) efflux (F(Label-Max)) were found. CTR was fastest during early summer. In beech, F(Label-Max) was lowest in spring and peaked in trunks during late summer (0.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SE), whereas no trend was observed in coarse roots. No seasonal dynamics in F(Label-Max) were found in spruce. • During spring, the R(G) of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photosynthates supplied growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer. In spruce, CO(2) efflux was constantly supplied by a mixture of stored (c. 75%) and recent (c. 25%) C. The hypothesis that R(G) is exclusively supplied by recent photosynthates was rejected for both species.

  9. Interaction between Orobanche crenata and its Host Legumes: Unsuccessful Haustorial Penetration and Necrosis of the Developing Parasite

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-DE-LUQUE, A.; RUBIALES, D.; CUBERO, J. I.; PRESS, M. C.; SCHOLES, J.; YONEYAMA, K.; TAKEUCHI, Y.; PLAKHINE, D.; JOEL, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Orobanche species represent major constraints to crop production in many parts of the world as they reduce yield and alter root/shoot allometry. Although much is known about the histology and effect of Orobanche spp. on susceptible hosts, less is known about the basis of host resistance to these parasites. In this work, histological aspects related to the resistance of some legumes to Orobanche crenata have been investigated in order to determine which types of resistance responses are involved in the unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata. • Methods Samples of resistance reactions against O. crenata on different genotypes of resistant legumes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. Sections were observed using a transmission light microscope and by epi-fluorescence. • Key Results Lignification of endodermal and pericycle host cells seems to prevent parasite intrusion into the root vascular cylinder at early infection stages. But in other cases, established tubercles became necrotic and died. Contrary to some previous studies, it was found that darkening at the infection site in these latter cases does not correspond to death of host tissues, but to the secretion of substances that fill the apoplast in the host–parasite interface and in much of the infected host tissues. The secretions block neighbouring host vessels. This may interfere with the nutrient flux between host and parasite, and may lead to necrosis and death of the developing parasite. • Conclusions The unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata seedlings into legume roots cannot be attributed to cell death in the host. It seems to be associated with lignification of host endodermis and pericycle cells at the penetration site. The accumulation of secretions at the infection site, may lead to the activation of xylem occlusion, another defence mechanism, which may cause further necrosis of established tubercles. PMID:15749751

  10. Protein cross-linking, peroxidase and beta-1,3-endoglucanase involved in resistance of pea against Orobanche crenata.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Lozano, M Dolores; Dita, Miguel A; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, María C; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Root holoparasitic angiosperms, like Orobanche spp, completely lack chlorophyll and totally depend on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to the cultivation of legumes and breeding for resistance remains the most economical, feasible, and environmentally friendly method of control. Due to the lack of resistance in commercial pea cultivars, the use of wild relatives for breeding is necessary, and an understanding of the mechanisms underlying host resistance is needed in order to improve screening for resistance in breeding programmes. Compatible and incompatible interactions between O. crenata and pea have been studied using cytochemical procedures. The parasite was stopped in the host cortex before reaching the central cylinder, and accumulation of H2O2, peroxidases, and callose were detected in neighbouring cells. Protein cross-linking in the host cell walls appears as the mechanism of defence, halting penetration of the parasite. In situ hybridization studies have also shown that a peroxidase and a beta-glucanase are differently expressed in cells of the resistant host (Pf651) near the penetration point. The role of these proteins in the resistance to O. crenata is discussed.

  11. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent.

  12. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F; Essame, Jean-Louis O; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.

  13. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F.; Essame, Jean-Louis O.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Materials and Methods: Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. Results: MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. Conclusions: The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug. PMID:23112414

  14. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, W.; Andersen, C. P.; Matyssek, R.; Grams, T. E. E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respiratory turn-over and translocation of recent photosynthates at various positions along the stems, coarse roots and soils. The hypotheses tested were that (1) 2 × O3 decreases the allocation of recent photosynthates to CO2 efflux of stems and coarse roots of adult trees, and that (2) according to their different O3 sensitivities this effect is stronger in beech than in spruce. Labeling of whole tree canopies was applied by releasing 13C depleted CO2 (δ13C of -46.9‰) using a free-air stable carbon isotope approach. Canopy air δ13C was reduced for about 2.5 weeks by ca. 8‰ in beech and 6‰ in spruce while the increase in CO2 concentration was limited to about 110 μl l-1 and 80 μl l-1, respectively. At the end of the labeling period, δ13C of stem CO2 efflux and phloem sugars was reduced to a similar extend by ca. 3-4‰ (beech) and ca. 2-3‰ (spruce). The fraction of labeled C (fE,new) in stem CO2 efflux amounted to 0.3 to 0.4, indicating slow C turnover of the respiratory supply system in both species. Elevated O3 slightly stimulated the allocation of recently fixed photosynthates to stem and coarse root respiration in spruce (rejection of hypothesis I for spruce), but resulted in a significant reduction in C flux in beech (acceptance of hypotheses I and II). The distinct decrease in C allocation to beech stems indicates the potential of chronic O3 stress to substantially mitigate the C sink strength of trees on the long-term scale.

  15. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic elevated O3 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, W.; Andersen, C. P.; Matyssek, R.; Grams, T. E. E.

    2011-04-01

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respiratory turn-over and translocation of recent photosynthates at various positions along the stems, coarse roots and soils. The hypotheses tested were that (1) 2 × O3 decreases the allocation of recent photosynthates to CO2 efflux of stems and coarse roots of adult trees, and that (2) according to their different O3 sensitivities this effect is stronger in beech than in spruce. Labeling of whole tree canopies was applied by releasing 13C depleted CO2 (δ13C of -46.9‰) using a free-air stable carbon isotope approach. Canopy air δ13C was reduced for about 2.5 weeks by ca. 8‰ in beech and 6‰ in spruce while the increase in CO2 concentration was limited to about 110 μL L-1 and 80 μL L-1, respectively. At the end of the labeling period, δ13C of stem CO2 efflux and phloem sugars was reduced to a similar extend by ca. 3-4‰ (beech) and ca. 2-3‰ (spruce). The fraction of labeled C (fE,new) in stem CO2 efflux amounted to 0.3 to 0.4, indicating slow C turnover of the respiratory supply system in both species. Elevated O3 slightly stimulated the allocation of recently fixed photosynthates to stem and coarse root respiration in spruce (rejection of hypothesis I for spruce), but resulted in a significant reduction in C flux in beech (acceptance of hypotheses I and II). The distinct decreased in C allocation to beech stems indicates the potential of chronic O3 stress to substantially mitigate the C sink strength of trees on the long-term scale.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative changes of beech wood degraded by wood-rotting basidiomycetes monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred; Gradinger, Cornelia; Hinterstoisser, Barbara; Messner, Kurt

    2007-06-01

    Beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) veneers were cultivated with white and brown rot fungi for up to 10 weeks. Fungal wood modification was traced with Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models to predict the total lignin content before and after fungal decay in the range between 17.0% and 26.6% were developed for FT-MIR transmission spectra as well as for FT-NIR reflectance spectra. Weight loss of the decayed samples between 0% and 38.2% could be estimated from the wood surface using individual PLSR models for white rot and brown rot fungi, and from a model including samples subjected to both degradation types.

  17. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests

    PubMed Central

    Dannenmann, Michael; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche, Rainer; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N) limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability) on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this ecosystem and here

  18. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests.

    PubMed

    Dannenmann, Michael; Bimüller, Carolin; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche, Rainer; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N) limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability) on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this ecosystem and here

  19. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  20. Patterns of molecular and morphological differentiation in Fagus (Fagaceae): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Denk, Thomas; Grimm, Guido W; Hemleben, Vera

    2005-06-01

    To study phylogenetic relationships among species of Fagus, the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and morphological data were analyzed. Both molecular and morphologically based phylogenies suggest that Eurasian species of Fagus subgenus Fagus are basal to the North American Fagus grandifolia. The subgenus Fagus is a paraphyletic group basal to three East Asian species forming the subgenus Engleriana. Due to a considerably large amount of DNA polymorphism, relationships among basal species of Fagus could not be entirely resolved when analyzing ITS sequences with standard methods. Morphological trees helped to resolve more clearly relationships within the subgenus Fagus. The East Asian F. hayatae is suggested to be basal to the rest of the genus. This hypothesis is further supported by distinctive patterns of nucleotide variability found for ITS regions, allowing for basic and derived types to be distinguished. The high degree of ITS polymorphism within Fagus can be explained by (1) the complex evolutionary behavior of this marker, (2) the stenoecious ecological characteristic of Fagus with respect to its continuous geographic range throughout much of the Cenozoic, and (3) the absence of major radiations into further habitats as occurred in other Fagaceae.

  1. Bark vegetation contributes to nitrous oxide (N2O) deposition by mature beech trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Maier, Martin; Svobodova, Katerina; Lang, Friederike; Urban, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the acceleration of the greenhouse effect. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to investigate the natural capability of forest ecosystems to exchange N2O with the atmosphere. While the soils of temperate forests were shown to be a significant natural source of N2O, trees have been so far overlooked in the forest N2O inventories. Trees are known, however, to emit this gas, especially at very high N2O concentration in soil. We determined the N2O fluxes in mature beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) in two upland mountain forests (White Carpathians, CZ; Black Forest, DE) with predominant soil N2O uptake. To understand these fluxes, N2O exchange in photoautotrophic organisms associated with beech stems (lichens, mosses, and algae) was further investigated under laboratory conditions. Fluxes were measured in situ in June and July 2015 using static chamber systems followed by chromatographic and photo-acoustic analyses of N2O concentration changes. In both forests studied, all beech stems deposited N2O from the atmosphere. Such consistent uptake of N2O by stems represents a novel and unique finding which is in the contrast to current limited studies presenting trees as N2O emitters. The mean stem deposition rates were significantly higher in the White Carpathians (-3.8 μg N2O m-2 stem area h-1) than in the Black Forest (-2.3 μg N2O m-2 h-1). The forest floor was a strong sink for N2O (White Carpathians: -111, Black Forest: -81 μg N2O m-2 soil area h-1). The N2O concentration profiles within the soil did not identify any apparent production or consumption processes. Photoautotrophic organisms (lichens, mosses, and algae), largely associated with the bark of studied trees, were collected for further analyses. The detailed incubation experiments revealed that all sampled organisms deposited N2O under the conditions of full rehydration and air temperature of 25˚ C. Their deposition rates per unit area were in the same order of magnitude as

  2. Purification and partial characterization of a lectin from the fresh leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andr.) Haw.

    PubMed

    Adenike, Kuku; Eretan, Oladiran Babalola

    2004-03-31

    A haemagglutinating protein from the saline extracts of Kalanchoe crenata leaves, which agglutinate all human blood types, was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Cellulose column followed by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The purified protein showed one band, both in non-denaturing PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The M(r) that was determined by SDS-PAGE was 44,000 Da and that estimated from gel filtration was 47,000. Treatment of the haemagglutinating protein with 5 mM EDTA diminished the haemagglutinating activity to 50% of the original level. The addition of divalent cations, 10 mM Mg(2+), 10 mM Mn(2+), or 10mM Ba(2+), totally restored and enhanced the activity. The protein showed maximum activity over the 3-7 pH range and was heat-resistant. It was also a glycoprotein containing about 1.5% carbohydrate.

  3. A technique to screen American beech for resistance to the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.).

    PubMed

    Koch, Jennifer L; Carey, David W

    2014-05-27

    Beech bark disease (BBD) results in high levels of initial mortality, leaving behind survivor trees that are greatly weakened and deformed. The disease is initiated by feeding activities of the invasive beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which creates entry points for infection by one of the Neonectria species of fungus. Without scale infestation, there is little opportunity for fungal infection. Using scale eggs to artificially infest healthy trees in heavily BBD impacted stands demonstrated that these trees were resistant to the scale insect portion of the disease complex(1). Here we present a protocol that we have developed, based on the artificial infestation technique by Houston(2), which can be used to screen for scale-resistant trees in the field and in smaller potted seedlings and grafts. The identification of scale-resistant trees is an important component of management of BBD through tree improvement programs and silvicultural manipulation.

  4. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

    2005-10-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (Δ E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in Δ E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

  5. Thermal acclimation of leaf dark respiration of beech seedlings experiencing summer drought in high and low light environments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Atkin, Owen K; Robson, T Matthew; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Gil, Luis; Aranda, Ismael

    2010-02-01

    Little is known about how environmental factors shape the short- and long-term responses of leaf respiration to temperature under field conditions despite the importance of respiration for plant and stand carbon balances. Impacts of water availability and canopy cover on leaf dark respiration (R) and temperature sensitivity were assessed in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings in a sub-Mediterranean population. We studied seedlings established within canopy gaps (39% global site factor; GSF) that were subject to either no watering (unwatered plants; UW) or regular watering (2-10% higher volumetric topsoil water content as summer progressed; W plants) and seedlings established beneath the adjacent understorey (12% GSF). Leaf R rose exponentially with diurnal increases in temperature; the same temperature sensitivity (Q(10): 2.2) was found for understorey and gap plants, irrespective of watering treatment. Respiration estimated at 25 degrees C (R(25)) was lower in the understorey than the gaps and was significantly lower in the unwatered than in the watered gap plants by the end of summer (0.65 versus 0.80 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). R(25) declined with increasing summer temperature in all plants; however, respiration estimated at the prevailing ambient temperature did not change through the summer. There were parallel declines in R(25) and concentrations of starch and soluble sugars with increasing summer temperature for gap plants. We conclude that seasonal shifts in temperature-response curves of beech leaf R occur in both low- and high-light environments; since leaf R decreased with increasing plant water deficit, such shifts are likely to be greater whenever plants experience summer drought compared to scenarios where plants experience high rainfall in summer.

  6. Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Lachat, Thibault; Brunet, Jörg; Isacsson, Gunnar; Bouget, Christophe; Brustel, Hervé; Brandl, Roland; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Müller, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    With the aim of wood production with negligible negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes, a silvicultural practice of selective logging with natural regeneration has been implemented in European beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) during the last decades. Despite this near-to-nature strategy, species richness of various taxa is lower in these forests than in unmanaged forests. To develop guidelines to minimize the fundamental weaknesses in the current practice, we linked functional traits of saproxylic beetle species to ecosystem characteristics. We used continental-scale data from 8 European countries and regional-scale data from a large forest in southern Germany and forest-stand variables that represented a gradient of intensity of forest use to evaluate the effect of current near-to-nature management strategies on the functional diversity of saproxylic beetles. Forest-stand variables did not have a statistically significant effect on overall functional diversity, but they did significantly affect community mean and diversity of single functional traits. As the amount of dead wood increased the composition of assemblages shifted toward dominance of larger species and species preferring dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. The mean amount of dead wood across plots in which most species occurred was from 20 to 60 m(3) /ha. Species occurring in plots with mean dead wood >60 m(3) /ha were consistently those inhabiting dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. On the basis of our results, to make current wood-production practices in beech forests throughout Europe more conservation oriented (i.e., promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning), we recommend increasing the amount of dead wood to >20 m(3) /ha; not removing dead wood of large diameter (50 cm) and allowing more dead wood in advanced stages of decomposition to develop; and designating strict forest reserves, with their exceptionally high amounts of

  7. Effects of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations on beech leaf litter decomposition, enzyme activities and protein expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Roschitzki, B.; Schmid, E.; Eberl, L.; Hämmerle, I.; Leitner, S.; Richter, A.; Wanek, W.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are major players in leaf litter decomposition and therefore advances in the understanding of their control on element cycling are of paramount importance. Our aim was to investigate the influence of leaf litter stoichiometry in terms of carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) : phosphorus (P) ratios on the decomposition processes and to track changes in microbial community structures and functions in response to temperature stress treatments. To elucidate how the stoichiometry of beech leaf litter (Fagus sylvatica L.) and stress treatments interactively affect the microbial decomposition processes, a terrestrial microcosm experiment was conducted. Beech litter from different Austrian sites covering C:N ratios from 39 to 61 and C:P ratios from 666 to 1729 were incubated at 15 °C and 60% moisture for six months. Part of the microcosms were then subjected to severe changes in temperature (+30 °C and -15 °C) to monitor the influence of temperature stress. Extracellular enzyme activities were assayed and respiratory activities measured. A semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; unique spectral counting) was employed to investigate the impact of the applied stress treatments in dependency of litter stoichiometry on structure and function of the decomposing community. In litter with narrow C:nutrient (C:N, C:P) ratios, microbial decomposers were most abundant. Cellulase, chitinase, phosphatase and protease activity decreased after heat and freezing treatments. Decomposer communities and specific functions varied with site, i.e. stoichiometry. The applied stress combined with the respective time of sampling evoked changes of enzyme activities and litter pH. Freezing treatments resulted in a decline in residual plant litter material and increased fungal abundance, indicating slightly accelerated decomposition. Overall, a strong effect of litter stoichiometry on microbial community structures and

  8. Hydraulic properties of naturally regenerated beech saplings respond to canopy opening.

    PubMed

    Caquet, Blandine; Barigah, Têtè S; Cochard, Hervé; Montpied, Pierre; Collet, Catherine; Dreyer, Erwin; Epron, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Enhanced sapling growth in advance regeneration requires gaps in the canopy, but is often delayed after canopy opening, because acclimation of saplings to the new environment is gradual and may last for several years. Canopy opening is expected to result in an increased transpiration because of a larger climatic demand and a higher stomatal conductance linked to the higher rates of photosynthesis. Therefore, we focused on the changes in water relations and the hydraulic properties of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings during 2 years after canopy opening. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and a decrease in vulnerability to cavitation occur to sustain an enhanced transpiration. Hydraulic conductance of defoliated shoots, vulnerability to cavitation, size and density of xylem vessels as well as stomatal conductance were recorded on saplings growing in shade (S saplings) or in gaps created by opening the canopy (shade-to-light, SL saplings). Hydraulic conductance per unit cross-sectional area (K(AS)) did not differ in the shoots of S and SL saplings. But a higher ratio stem cross-sectional area/leaf area resulted in a higher leaf-specific hydraulic conductance of the shoots (K(AL)) of SL saplings. Contrary to expectations, vulnerability to cavitation increased transitorily in stems during the first year after canopy opening and no difference was observed between the two treatments in light-saturated stomatal conductance. During the second year, vulnerability to cavitation was similar in the S and SL saplings and light-saturated stomatal conductance increased in SL saplings. These results demonstrate a release of the hydraulic constraints after canopy opening with an adjustment of the ratio stem cross-sectional area/leaf area. But the larger vulnerability to cavitation during the first year could limit stomatal opening and therefore the ability of beech saplings to use the available light for photosynthesis and could

  9. Two centuries of masting data for European beech and Norway spruce across the European continent.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, Davide; Maringer, Janet; Hacket-Pain, Andy; Conedera, Marco; Drobyshev, Igor; Motta, Renzo; Cirolli, Mara; Kantorowicz, Władysław; Zang, Christian; Schueler, Silvio; Croisé, Luc; Piussi, Pietro; Berretti, Roberta; Palaghianu, Ciprian; Westergren, Marjana; Lageard, Jonathan G A; Burkart, Anton; Gehrig Bichsel, Regula; Thomas, Peter A; Beudert, Burkhard; Övergaard, Rolf; Vacchiano, Giorgio

    2017-02-27

    Tree masting is one of the most intensively studied ecological processes. It affects nutrient fluxes of trees, regeneration dynamics in forests, animal population densities, and ultimately influences ecosystem services. Despite a large volume of research focused on masting, its evolutionary ecology, spatial and temporal variability, and environmental drivers are still matter of debate. Understanding the proximate and ultimate causes of masting at broad spatial and temporal scales will enable us to predict tree reproductive strategies and their response to changing environment. Here we provide broad spatial (distribution range-wide) and temporal (century) masting data for the two main masting tree species in Europe, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). We collected masting data from a total of 359 sources through an extensive literature review and from unpublished surveys. The data set has a total of 1,747 series and 18,348 yearly observations from 28 countries and covering a time span of years 1677-2016 and 1791-2016 for beech and spruce, respectively. For each record, the following information is available: identification code; species; year of observation; proxy of masting (flower, pollen, fruit, seed, dendrochronological reconstructions); statistical data type (ordinal, continuous); data value; unit of measurement (only in case of continuous data); geographical location (country, Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics NUTS-1 level, municipality, coordinates); first and last record year and related length; type of data source (field survey, peer reviewed scientific literature, gray literature, personal observation); source identification code; date when data were added to the database; comments. To provide a ready-to-use masting index we harmonized ordinal data into five classes. Furthermore, we computed an additional field where continuous series with length >4 yr where converted into a five classes

  10. Particulate matter in terrestrial solutions: insights from a European beech forest in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, Delphis; Michalzik, Beate; Bischoff, Sebastian; Näthe, Kerstin; Gruselle, Marie-Cecile; Legates, David; Richter, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) can affect the functional ecology and health of forest ecosystems. Nonetheless, the cycling of particulate matter is usually neglected in studies examining the biogeochemistry of forest ecosystems. The size and shape of PM has been documented to influence both its impaction on forest canopies and its biogeochemical reactivity. So what is the size and shape of PM in bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and Oa solution? An answer to this question is of prime importance to those wishing to better model the biogeochemistry of forests. This presentation examines the nature of PM in terrestrial solutions from a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in east-central Germany during the leafed and leafless periods. Scanning electron microscopy, image processing, and data analysis permitted quantification of the size and shape of PM in forest solutions. Building upon the work of Levia et al. [2013]* who quantified the diameter distributions of 43,278 individual particulates in bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and Oa soil solution, this work delves into surface area, roundness, and perimeter of PM in terrestrial solutions. Initial analyses have revealed that there are marked differences in the geometry of PM in bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and Oa solutions with implications for biogeochemical modeling of PM flux in forests. --------------- * Levia, D.F., Michalzik, B., Bischoff, S., Näthe, K., Legates, D.R., Gruselle, M.C-. and Richter, S. 2013. Measurement and modeling of diameter distributions of particulate matter in terrestrial solutions. Geophysical Research Letters 40(7): 1317-1321. [DOI: 10.1002/grl.50305] Funding note: This work was funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  11. Gastroprotective effects of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth. on gastric ulcer models.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite; Vieira, Charliene Freire Xavier; Santos, Edgleyson Chaves Dos; Lima, Glauber Cruz; Aragão, Kalynca Kayla Viana; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Araújo, Pâmella Cristina da Costa; Vasconcelos, Yuri de Abreu Gomes; Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha de; Oliveira, Hermógenes David de; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha

    2013-10-07

    Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "hortelã-brava" or "hortelã do campo", is widely distributed in the northeast of Brazil. In Brazil, the leaves of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, including gastric ulcers. In an attempt to experimentally validate this claimed antiulcerogenic activity, the gastroprotective effects of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of the Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (EOHc) were evaluated in recognized gastric ulcer models in mice. EOHc was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Swiss male mice (25-30g) were used for the studies. The gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45min after oral pretreatment with EOHc, vehicle and positive control drugs. One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomachs were removed and the area of the lesions was measured. The volume, pH and total acidity of the gastric secretions were determined using the pylorus ligature model. The gastrointestinal motility was measured using gastric emptying and intestinal transit. The ethanol-induced gastric mucus depletion and lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. Our findings are as follows: A significant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol was observed in the mice pre-treated with EOHc, at a dose of 30 and 100 and 300mg/kg (5.56±1.51, 2.88±0.82 and 1.71±0.54mm(2), respectively) compared to control group (118.03±35.4mm(2)). Also, EOHc (300mg/kg) produced a gastroprotective effect against the gastric lesions induced by indomethacin (16.07±4.68mm(2)) compared to control group (38.64±6.1mm(2)). EOHc pretreatment produced a reduction in the ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation from 3.9±0.22 to 2.4±0.1μmol/mg tissue (EOHc-300mg/kg and control group, respectively). We also observed that EOHc pretreatment decreased the gastric emptying, but did

  12. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0-14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ(13)C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ(13)C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  13. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0–14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ13C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ13C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  14. Specific impacts of beech and Norway spruce on the structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and soil microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Uroz, S.; Oger, P.; Tisserand, E.; Cébron, A.; Turpault, M.-P.; Buée, M.; De Boer, W.; Leveau, J. H. J.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of plant species on the microbial communities and physico-chemical characteristics of soil are well documented for many herbs, grasses and legumes but much less so for tree species. Here, we investigate by rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing the diversity of microorganisms from the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota:Fungi) in soil samples taken from the forest experimental site of Breuil-Chenue (France). We discovered significant differences in the abundance, composition and structure of the microbial communities associated with two phylogenetically distant tree species of the same age, deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and coniferous Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst), planted in the same soil. Our results suggest a significant effect of tree species on soil microbiota though in different ways for each of the three microbial groups. Fungal and archaeal community structures and compositions are mainly determined according to tree species, whereas bacterial communities differ to a great degree between rhizosphere and bulk soils, regardless of the tree species. These results were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which revealed significant enrichment of specific bacterial genera, such as Burkholderia and Collimonas, known for their ability to weather minerals within the tree root vicinity. PMID:27302652

  15. Effects of drought on leaf carbon source and growth of European beech are modulated by soil type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Arend, Matthias; Yang, Wen-Juan; Schaub, Marcus; Ni, Yan-Yan; Gessler, Arthur; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Rigling, Andreas; Li, Mai-He

    2017-02-01

    Drought potentially affects carbon balance and growth of trees, but little is known to what extent soil plays a role in the trade-off between carbon gain and growth investment. In the present study, we analyzed leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as an indicator of the balance of photosynthetic carbon gain and carbon use, as well as growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings, which were grown on two different soil types (calcareous and acidic) in model ecosystems and subjected to a severe summer drought. Our results showed that drought led in general to increased total NSC concentrations and to decreased growth rate, and drought reduced shoot and stem growth of plants in acidic soil rather than in calcareous soil. This result indicated that soil type modulated the carbon trade-off between net leaf carbon gain and carbon investment to growth. In drought-stressed trees, leaf starch concentration and growth correlated negatively whereas soluble sugar:starch ratio and growth correlated positively, which may contribute to a better understanding of growth regulation under drought conditions. Our results emphasize the role of soil in determining the trade-off between the balance of carbon gain and carbon use on the leaf level and growth under stress (e.g. drought).

  16. Effects of drought on leaf carbon source and growth of European beech are modulated by soil type

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Arend, Matthias; Yang, Wen-Juan; Schaub, Marcus; Ni, Yan-Yan; Gessler, Arthur; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Rigling, Andreas; Li, Mai-He

    2017-01-01

    Drought potentially affects carbon balance and growth of trees, but little is known to what extent soil plays a role in the trade-off between carbon gain and growth investment. In the present study, we analyzed leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as an indicator of the balance of photosynthetic carbon gain and carbon use, as well as growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings, which were grown on two different soil types (calcareous and acidic) in model ecosystems and subjected to a severe summer drought. Our results showed that drought led in general to increased total NSC concentrations and to decreased growth rate, and drought reduced shoot and stem growth of plants in acidic soil rather than in calcareous soil. This result indicated that soil type modulated the carbon trade-off between net leaf carbon gain and carbon investment to growth. In drought-stressed trees, leaf starch concentration and growth correlated negatively whereas soluble sugar:starch ratio and growth correlated positively, which may contribute to a better understanding of growth regulation under drought conditions. Our results emphasize the role of soil in determining the trade-off between the balance of carbon gain and carbon use on the leaf level and growth under stress (e.g. drought). PMID:28195166

  17. Differential stemflow yield from European beech saplings: the role and respective importance of individual canopy structure metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, Delphis; Michalzik, Beate

    2013-04-01

    Stemflow yield from individual trees varies as a function of both meteorological conditions and canopy structure. The importance and differential effects of various metrics of canopy structure in relation to stemflow yield is inadequately understood and the subject of debate among forest hydrologists. It is possible to evaluate the role and respective importance of individual canopy structure metrics by holding meteorological conditions constant. Twelve isolated experimental European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings in Jena, Germany were exposed to identical meteorological conditions to examine the effects of canopy structure on stemflow production during the 2012 growing season. The canopy structure metrics being evaluated include: trunk diameter, trunk lean, tree height, projected crown area, branch inclination angle, branch count, and biomass (foliar and woody). Principal components analysis and multiple regression are utilized to determine the relative importance of different canopy structure metrics on stemflow yield. Experimental results will provide insight as to which metrics of canopy structure most strongly govern stemflow production. Ultimately, with a more thorough understanding of the unique contributions of various canopy structural metrics to stemflow yield, a useful conceptual guide of stemflow generation can be formulated on the basis of canopy structure for management purposes. Sponsor note: This research was funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  18. Effect of Forest Management of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica with Different Types of Felling on Carbon and Economic Balances in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plch, Radek; Pulkrab, Karel; Bukáček, Jan; Sloup, Roman; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The selection of the most sustainable forest management under given site conditions needs suitable criteria and indicators. For this purpose, carbon and economic balance assessment, completed with environmental impact computation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were used. The aim of this study was to compare forestry operations and wood production of selected forest stands with different i) tree species composition (Norway spruce - Picea abies and European beech - Fagus sylvatica) and ii) type of felling (chainsaw and harvester). Carbon and economic balance methods consist in the comparison of quantified inputs (fossil fuels, electricity, used machinery, fertilizers, etc., converted into emission units of carbon in Mg of C- CO2-eq. or EUR) with quantified outputs (biomass production in Mg of carbon or EUR). In this contribution, similar forest stands (“forest site complexes”) in the 4th forest vegetation zone (in the Czech Republic approximately 400-700 m above sea-level) were selected. Forestry operations were divided into 5 main stages: i) seedling production, ii) stand establishment and pruning, iii) thinning and final cutting, iv) skidding, and v) secondary timber transport and modelled for one rotation period of timber production (ca. 100 years). The differences between Norway spruce and European beech forest stands in the carbon efficiency were relatively small while higher differences were achieved in the economic efficiency (forest stands with Norway spruce had a higher economic efficiency). Concerning the comparison of different types of felling in Norway spruce forest stands, the harvester use proved to induce significantly higher environmental impacts (emission of carbon) and lower economic costs. The comparison of forestry operation stages showed that the main part of carbon emissions, originating from fuel production and combustion, is connected with a thinning and final cutting, skidding and secondary timber transport in relations to

  19. Characterization of Low-Strigolactone Germplasm in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Resistant to Crenate Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.).

    PubMed

    Pavan, Stefano; Schiavulli, Adalgisa; Marcotrigiano, Angelo Raffaele; Bardaro, Nicoletta; Bracuto, Valentina; Ricciardi, Francesca; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Lotti, Concetta; Bouwmeester, Harro; Ricciardi, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a devastating parasitic weed threatening the cultivation of legumes around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East. So far, only moderate levels of resistance were reported to occur in pea (Pisum sativum L.) natural germplasm, and most commercial cultivars are prone to severe infestation. Here, we describe the selection of a pea line highly resistant to O. crenata, following the screening of local genetic resources. Time series observations show that delayed emergence of the parasite is an important parameter associated with broomrape resistance. High performance liquid chromatography connected to tandem mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro broomrape germination bioassays suggest that the resistance mechanism might involve the reduced secretion of strigolactones, plant hormones exuded by roots and acting as signaling molecules for the germination of parasitic weeds. Two years of replicated trials in noninfested fields indicate that the resistance is devoid of pleiotropic effects on yield, in contrast to pea experimental mutants impaired in strigolactone biosynthesis and, thus, is suitable for use in breeding programs.

  20. Leaf traits, shoot growth and seed production in mature Fagus sylvatica trees after 8 years of CO2 enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Hoch, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Masting, i.e. synchronous but highly variable interannual seed production, is a strong sink for carbon and nutrients. It may, therefore, compete with vegetative growth. It is currently unknown whether increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations will affect the carbon balance (or that of other nutrients) between reproduction and vegetative growth of forest species. In this study, reproduction and vegetative growth of shoots of mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations were quantified. It was hypothesized that within a shoot, fruiting has a negative effect on vegetative growth, and that this effect is ameliorated at increased CO2 concentrations. Methods Reproduction and its competition with leaf and shoot production were examined during two masting events (in 2007 and 2009) in F. sylvatica trees that had been exposed to either ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations (530 µmol mol−1) for eight consecutive years, between 2000 and 2008. Key Results The number of leaves per shoot and the length of terminal shoots was smaller or shorter in the two masting years compared with the one non-masting year (2008) investigated, but they were unaffected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The dry mass of terminal shoots was approx. 2-fold lower in the masting year (2007) than in the non-masting year in trees growing at ambient CO2 concentrations, but this decline was not observed in trees exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. In both the CO2 treatments, fruiting significantly decreased nitrogen concentration by 25 % in leaves and xylem tissue of 1- to 3-year-old branches in 2009. Conclusions Our findings indicate that there is competition for resources between reproduction and shoot growth. Elevated CO2 concentrations reduced this competition, indicating effects on the balance of resource allocation between reproduction and vegetative growth in shoots with rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. PMID:21493641

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of Reversible and Time-Dependent Inhibitory Effects of Kalanchoe crenata on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 Activities.

    PubMed

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata popularly known as "dog's liver" is used in most African countries for the treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma and HIV/AIDS related infections. The evaluation of K. crenata for herb-drug interactions has not been reported. This study therefore aims to evaluate the risk of K. crenata for herb-drug interaction in vitro. Crude methanol and fractions of K. crenata were incubated and preincubated with recombinant human CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Comparative studies were conducted in both human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP to ascertain the inhibition profile of the crude extract and the various fractions. The cocktail approach of recombinant human CYPs was conducted to confirm the inhibition potential of the fractions in the presence of other CYPs. The results showed significant time-dependent inhibition of tested samples on CYP3A4 with crude methanol (39KC), fractions 45A, 45B and 45D given IC50 fold decrease of 3.29, 2.26, 1.91 and 1.49, respective. Time dependent kinetic assessment of 39KC and 45D showed KI and kinact values for 39KC as 1.77 µg/mL and 0.091 min(-1) while that of 45D were 6.45 µg/mL and 0.024 min(-1), respectively. Determination of kinact based on IC50 calculations yielded 0.015 and 0.04 min(-1) for 39KC and 45D, respectively. Cocktail approach exhibited fold decreases in IC50 for all test fractions on CYP3A4 within the ranges of 2.10 - 4.10. At least one phytoconstituent in the crude methanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata is a reversible and time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4.

  2. Reciprocal trade of Carbon and Nitrogen at the root-fungus interface in ectomycorrhizal beech plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Mayerhofer, Werner; Dietrich, Marlies; Gorka, Stefan; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reipert, Siegfried; Schweiger, Peter; Weidinger, Marieluise; Wiesenbauer, Julia; Martin, Victoria; Richter, Andreas; Woebken, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    Plants deliver recently assimilated carbon (C) to mycorrhizal fungi, and receive nutrients, such as N and P, in exchange. A reciprocal exchange of C and nutrients between plants and mycorrhizal fungi (i.e., fungi which deliver more nutrients receive more plant C in return and vice versa) has been suggested for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses by some studies, but challenged by others. For ectomycorrhizal associations even less is known on how the exchange of C for nutrients is regulated, and whether it is based on reciprocity, or other controls. The aim of this study was to test the concept of reciprocal rewards between beech (Fagus sylvatica) and their associated ectomycorrhizal fungi on different scales, namely (a) across associations between individual root tips of beech and different fungal partners, and (b) at the subcellular scale at the plant-fungus interface. We exposed young beech trees associated with natural mycorrhizal fungal communities to a 13CO2 atmosphere and added 15N-labelled amino acids to a 'litter compartment', that mycorrhizal hyphae, but not plant roots could access. Plants were harvested within 2 days after application of 15N and less than one day after applying 13CO2. If the trading of C for N was reciprocal, we expect that 13C would be correlated to 15N across individual plant-fungal connections and at the subcellular scale within one mycorrhizal root tip, respectively. We collected individual mycorrhizal root-tips from 8 plants right after harvest, analyzed their 13C and 15N content by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and performed ITS sequencing to identify fungal communities associated with individual root tips. Selected mycorrhizal root tips were also prepared for nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to visualize the spatial distribution of 13C and 15N in cross-sections of mycorrhizal root-tips at the subcellular scale. Our results showed a significant, albeit weak correlation between 13C and 15N across

  3. Development of molecular tools for use in beech bark disease management

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson; Abdelali Barakat; John E. Carlson; David. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) has been killing American beech trees in eastern North America since the late 1890s. The disease is initiated by feeding of the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which leads to the development of small fissures in the bark.

  4. Short-term dynamics and partitioning of newly assimilated carbon in the foliage of adult beech and pine are driven by seasonal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalme, Dorine; Priault, Pierrick; Gérant, Dominique; Dannoura, Masako; Maillard, Pascale; Plain, Caroline; Epron, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation is a key process determining C cycling in forest ecosystems. However, the mechanisms underlying the annual patterns of C partitioning in trees, influenced by tree phenology and environmental conditions, are not well identified yet. This study aimed to characterize the short-term dynamics and partitioning of newly assimilated carbon in the foliage of adult European beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and maritime pines (Pinus pinaster) across the seasons. We hypothesized that residence times of recently assimilated C in C compounds should change according to the seasons and that seasonal pattern should differ between deciduous and evergreen tree species, since they have different phenology. 13CO2 pulse-labelling experiments were performed in situ at different dates corresponding to different phenological stages. In beech leaves and pine needles, C contents, isotopic compositions, and 13C dynamics parameters were determined in total organic matter (bulk foliage), in polar fraction (PF, including soluble sugars, amino acids, organic acids) and in starch. For both species and at each phenological stage, 13C amount in bulk foliage decreased following a two-pool exponential model, highlighting the partitioning of newly assimilated C between 'mobile' and 'stable' pools. The relative proportion of the stable pool was maximal in beech leaves in May, when leaves were still growing and could incorporate newly assimilated C in structural C compounds. Young pine needles were still receiving C from previous-year needles in June (two months after budburst) although they are already photosynthesizing, acting as a strong C sink. In summer, short mean residence times of 13C (MRT) in foliage of both tree species reflected the fast respiration and exportation of recent photosynthates to support the whole tree C demand (e.g., supplying perennial organ growth). At the end of the growing season, pre-senescing beech leaves were supplying 13C to perennial organs, whereas

  5. Competition for nitrogen between European beech and sycamore maple shifts in favour of beech with decreasing light availability.

    PubMed

    Simon, Judy; Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for N between seedlings of European beech and sycamore maple and analysed the consequences of this competition for the composition of N metabolites in fine roots. Our results show different strategies in N acquisition between beech and sycamore maple. Both species responded to reduced light availability by adapting their morphological and physiological traits with a decrease in biomass and net assimilation rate and an increase in specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. For beech seedlings, competition with sycamore maple led to a reduction in organic N uptake capacity. Reduced light availability led to a decrease in ammonium, but an increase in glutamine-N uptake capacity in sycamore maple. However, this response was stronger compared with that of beech and was accompanied by reduced growth. Thus, our results suggest better adaptation of N acquisition to reduced light availability in beech compared with sycamore maple seedlings.

  6. Sorption of some textile dyes by beech wood sawdust.

    PubMed

    Dulman, Viorica; Cucu-Man, Simona Maria

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the experimental conditions for removal of several textile dyes from aqueous solutions by sorption on beech wood sawdust, an industrial waste lignocellulosic product. From the six dyes tested, the sorbent shows preference for three dyes: Direct Brown, Direct Brown 2 and Basic Blue 86. Sorption of dyes on the beech wood sawdust is dependent on the nature of dye, pH, dyes concentration, contact time, and amount of sorbent. By comparative kinetic studies, the rate of sorption was found to conform with good correlation to pseudo-second-order kinetics. The parameters that characterize the sorption were determined on the basis of Langmuir isotherms. The preference of beech sawdust for dyes increases as follows: Basic Blue 86

  7. First interspecific genetic linkage map for Castanea sativa x Castanea crenata revealed QTLs for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carmen; Nelson, Charles Dana; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Machado, Helena; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata) carries resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the destructive and widespread oomycete causing ink disease. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), carrying little to no disease resistance, is currently threatened by the presence of the oomycete pathogen in forests, orchards and nurseries. Determining the genetic basis of P. cinnamomi resistance, for further selection of molecular markers and candidate genes, is a prominent issue for implementation of marker assisted selection in the breeding programs for resistance. In this study, the first interspecific genetic linkage map of C. sativa x C. crenata allowed the detection of QTLs for P. cinnamomi resistance. The genetic map was constructed using two independent, control-cross mapping populations. Chestnut populations were genotyped using 452 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism molecular markers derived from the available chestnut transcriptomes. The consensus genetic map spans 498,9 cM and contains 217 markers mapped with an average interval of 2.3 cM. For QTL analyses, the progression rate of P. cinnamomi lesions in excised shoots inoculated was used as the phenotypic metric. Using non-parametric and composite interval mapping approaches, two QTLs were identified for ink disease resistance, distributed in two linkage groups: E and K. The presence of QTLs located in linkage group E regarding P. cinnamomi resistance is consistent with a previous preliminary study developed in American x Chinese chestnut populations, suggesting the presence of common P. cinnamomi defense mechanisms across species. Results presented here extend the genomic resources of Castanea genus providing potential tools to assist the ongoing and future chestnut breeding programs. PMID:28880954

  8. Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Fokou, Fabrice W; Karaosmanoğlu, Oğuzhan; Beng, Veronique P; Sivas, Hülya

    2017-05-25

    Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated. Extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical screening of their secondary metabolite contents using standard methods. The cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using neutral red uptake (NR) assay meanwhile caspase activation was detected by caspase-Glo assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) whilst spectrophotometry was used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols in all extracts. The IC50 values of the best samples ranged from 3.29 μg/mL (towards DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) to 24.38 μg/mL (against small lung cancer A549 cells) for EMW, from 2.33 μg/mL (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 28.96 μg/mL (HepG2 hepatocarcinoma) for KCL, and from 0.04 μg/mL (towards SPC212 cells) to 0.55 μg/mL (towards A549 cells) for doxorubicin. EMW induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by MMP loss and increased ROS production whilst KCL induced apoptosis via ROS production. This study provides evidences of the cytotoxicity of the tested plant extract and highlights the good activity of Elephantopus mollis and Kalanchoe crenata. They deserve more exploration to develop novel cytotoxic drugs.

  9. First interspecific genetic linkage map for Castanea sativa x Castanea crenata revealed QTLs for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carmen; Nelson, Charles Dana; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Machado, Helena; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Costa, Rita Lourenço

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata) carries resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the destructive and widespread oomycete causing ink disease. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), carrying little to no disease resistance, is currently threatened by the presence of the oomycete pathogen in forests, orchards and nurseries. Determining the genetic basis of P. cinnamomi resistance, for further selection of molecular markers and candidate genes, is a prominent issue for implementation of marker assisted selection in the breeding programs for resistance. In this study, the first interspecific genetic linkage map of C. sativa x C. crenata allowed the detection of QTLs for P. cinnamomi resistance. The genetic map was constructed using two independent, control-cross mapping populations. Chestnut populations were genotyped using 452 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism molecular markers derived from the available chestnut transcriptomes. The consensus genetic map spans 498,9 cM and contains 217 markers mapped with an average interval of 2.3 cM. For QTL analyses, the progression rate of P. cinnamomi lesions in excised shoots inoculated was used as the phenotypic metric. Using non-parametric and composite interval mapping approaches, two QTLs were identified for ink disease resistance, distributed in two linkage groups: E and K. The presence of QTLs located in linkage group E regarding P. cinnamomi resistance is consistent with a previous preliminary study developed in American x Chinese chestnut populations, suggesting the presence of common P. cinnamomi defense mechanisms across species. Results presented here extend the genomic resources of Castanea genus providing potential tools to assist the ongoing and future chestnut breeding programs.

  10. The potential of beech seedlings to adapt to low P availability in soil - plant versus microbial effects on P mobilising potential in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Sonia; Frey, Beat; Frossard, Emmanuel; Spohn, Marie; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our work was to investigate to what extent tree seedlings (Fagus sylvatica) are able to adapt the process of P mobilisation in the rhizosphere according to P speciation in the soil. Such mobilisation activity can include root exudation of P mobilising compounds or stimulation of specific P mobilising soil microbes. We hypothesized that Fagus sylvatica seedlings can adapt their own activity based on their P nutritional status and genetic memory of how to react under a given nutritional situation. To test the hypothesis, we set up a cross-growth experiment with beech of different provenances growing in soil from their own provenance site and in soil differing in P availability. Experiments were performed as a greenhouse experiment, with temperature control and natural light, during one vegetation period in rhizoboxes . We used two acidic forest soils, contrasting in P availability, collected at field sites of the German research priority program "Ecosystem Nutrition". Juvenile trees were collected along with the soils at the sites and planted respectively. The occurrence of P mobilising compounds and available P in the rhizosphere and in bulk soil were measured during the active growth season of the plants. In particular, we assessed phosphatase activity, (measured with zymography and plate enzymatic assay at pH 4,6.5, and 11) carboxylates and phosphate (measured by application of ion exchange membranes to specific soil micro zones, and by microdialysis), and pH (mapping with optodes). Plant P nutrition status was assessed by total P, N/P, phosphatase activity, and metabolic (TCA extractable) P in the leaves. The P-nutritional status of the beech provenances differed markedly independent from the P status of the soil where they were actually grown during experiment. In particular, the juvenile trees from the site rich in mineral P were sufficient in P, while those from the P-poor site with mostly organic P, were deficient. Enzymatic activity at the

  11. Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile from visitor’s center, south bank of the south fork of Quantico Creek, about 75 yards upstream from its confluence with Quantico Creek, Near Birch Bluff Trail, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  12. Some aspects of the ecology of Nectria on beech

    Treesearch

    David Lonsdale; Christine. Sherriff

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the mycoflora of beech bark infested with Cryptococcus fagisuga suggested that Nectria coccinea can colonise sites on and in the outer tissues, and that invasion of imer bark could later develop. Although these sites harboured fungi antagonistic to N. coccinea, experiments suggested that it is...

  13. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  14. Hot callusing for propagation of American beech by grafting

    Treesearch

    David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; Paul Bloese; Jennifer L. Koch

    2013-01-01

    To increase grafting success rate, a hot callus grafting system was designed and implemented as part of a multiagency collaborative project to manage beech bark disease (BBD) through the establishment of regional BBD-resistant grafted seed orchards. Five years of data from over 2000 hot callus graft attempts were analyzed using a logistic regression model to determine...

  15. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, (15)N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech.

  16. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech. PMID:25983738

  17. Strong Coupling of Shoot Assimilation and Soil Respiration during Drought and Recovery Periods in Beech As Indicated by Natural Abundance δ(13)C Measurements.

    PubMed

    Blessing, Carola H; Barthel, Matti; Gentsch, Lydia; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Drought down-regulates above- and belowground carbon fluxes, however, the resilience of trees to drought will also depend on the speed and magnitude of recovery of these above- and belowground fluxes after re-wetting. Carbon isotope composition of above- and belowground carbon fluxes at natural abundance provides a methodological approach to study the coupling between photosynthesis and soil respiration (SR) under conditions (such as drought) that influence photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination. In turn, the direct supply of root respiration with recent photoassimilates will impact on the carbon isotope composition of soil-respired CO2. We independently measured shoot and soil CO2 fluxes of beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their respective δ(13)C continuously with laser spectroscopy at natural abundance. We quantified the speed of recovery of drought stressed trees after re-watering and traced photosynthetic carbon isotope signal in the carbon isotope composition of soil-respired CO2. Stomatal conductance responded strongly to the moderate drought (-65%), induced by reduced soil moisture content as well as increased vapor pressure deficit. Simultaneously, carbon isotope discrimination decreased by 8‰, which in turn caused a significant increase in δ(13)C of recent metabolites (1.5-2.5‰) and in δ(13)C of SR (1-1.5‰). Generally, shoot and soil CO2 fluxes and their δ(13)C were in alignment during drought and subsequent stress release, clearly demonstrating a permanent dependence of root respiration on recently fixed photoassimilates, rather than on older reserves. After re-watering, the drought signal persisted longer in δ(13)C of the water soluble fraction that integrates multiple metabolites (soluble sugars, amino acids, organic acids) than in the neutral fraction which represents most recently assimilated sugars or in the δ(13)C of SR. Nevertheless, full recovery of all aboveground physiological variables was reached within 4 days - and

  18. Overexpression of a Protein Phosphatase 2C from Beech Seeds in Arabidopsis Shows Phenotypes Related to Abscisic Acid Responses and Gibberellin Biosynthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, David; Rodríguez, Dolores; González-García, Mary Paz; Lorenzo, Oscar; Nicolás, Gregorio; García-Martínez, José Luis; Nicolás, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A functional abscisic acid (ABA)-induced protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds (FsPP2C2). Because transgenic work is not possible in beech, in this study we overexpressed this gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C2 function in seed dormancy and other plant responses. In contrast with other PP2Cs described so far, constitutive expression of FsPP2C2 in Arabidopsis, under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, produced enhanced sensitivity to ABA and abiotic stress in seeds and vegetative tissues, dwarf phenotype, and delayed flowering, and all these effects were reversed by gibberellic acid application. The levels of active gibberellins (GAs) were reduced in 35S:FsPP2C2 plants, although transcript levels of AtGA20ox1 and AtGA3ox1 increased, probably as a result of negative feedback regulation, whereas the expression of GASA1 was induced by GAs. Additionally, FsPP2C2-overexpressing plants showed a strong induction of the Responsive to ABA 18 (RAB18) gene. Interestingly, FsPP2C2 contains two nuclear targeting sequences, and transient expression assays revealed that ABA directed this protein to the nucleus. Whereas other plant PP2Cs have been shown to act as negative regulators, our results support the hypothesis that FsPP2C2 is a positive regulator of ABA. Moreover, our results indicate the existence of potential cross-talk between ABA signaling and GA biosynthesis. PMID:16815952

  19. Subcellular Nutrient Element Localization and Enrichment in Ecto- and Arbuscular Mycorrhizas of Field-Grown Beech and Ash Trees Indicate Functional Differences

    PubMed Central

    Seven, Jasmin; Polle, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizas are the chief organ for plant mineral nutrient acquisition. In temperate, mixed forests, ash roots (Fraxinus excelsior) are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) and beech roots (Fagus sylvatica) by ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM). Knowledge on the functions of different mycorrhizal species that coexist in the same environment is scarce. The concentrations of nutrient elements in plant and fungal cells can inform on nutrient accessibility and interspecific differences of mycorrhizal life forms. Here, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal species exhibit interspecific differences in mineral nutrient concentrations and that the differences correlate with the mineral nutrient concentrations of their associated root cells. Abundant mycorrhizal fungal species of mature beech and ash trees in a long-term undisturbed forest ecosystem were the EcM Lactarius subdulcis, Clavulina cristata and Cenococcum geophilum and the AM Glomus sp. Mineral nutrient subcellular localization and quantities of the mycorrhizas were analysed after non-aqueous sample preparation by electron dispersive X-ray transmission electron microscopy. Cenococcum geophilum contained the highest sulphur, Clavulina cristata the highest calcium levels, and Glomus, in which cations and P were generally high, exhibited the highest potassium levels. Lactarius subdulcis-associated root cells contained the highest phosphorus levels. The root cell concentrations of K, Mg and P were unrelated to those of the associated fungal structures, whereas S and Ca showed significant correlations between fungal and plant concentrations of those elements. Our results support profound interspecific differences for mineral nutrient acquisition among mycorrhizas formed by different fungal taxa. The lack of correlation between some plant and fungal nutrient element concentrations may reflect different retention of mineral nutrients in the fungal part of the symbiosis. High mineral concentrations, especially of

  20. Subcellular nutrient element localization and enrichment in ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizas of field-grown beech and ash trees indicate functional differences.

    PubMed

    Seven, Jasmin; Polle, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizas are the chief organ for plant mineral nutrient acquisition. In temperate, mixed forests, ash roots (Fraxinus excelsior) are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) and beech roots (Fagus sylvatica) by ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM). Knowledge on the functions of different mycorrhizal species that coexist in the same environment is scarce. The concentrations of nutrient elements in plant and fungal cells can inform on nutrient accessibility and interspecific differences of mycorrhizal life forms. Here, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal species exhibit interspecific differences in mineral nutrient concentrations and that the differences correlate with the mineral nutrient concentrations of their associated root cells. Abundant mycorrhizal fungal species of mature beech and ash trees in a long-term undisturbed forest ecosystem were the EcM Lactarius subdulcis, Clavulina cristata and Cenococcum geophilum and the AM Glomus sp. Mineral nutrient subcellular localization and quantities of the mycorrhizas were analysed after non-aqueous sample preparation by electron dispersive X-ray transmission electron microscopy. Cenococcum geophilum contained the highest sulphur, Clavulina cristata the highest calcium levels, and Glomus, in which cations and P were generally high, exhibited the highest potassium levels. Lactarius subdulcis-associated root cells contained the highest phosphorus levels. The root cell concentrations of K, Mg and P were unrelated to those of the associated fungal structures, whereas S and Ca showed significant correlations between fungal and plant concentrations of those elements. Our results support profound interspecific differences for mineral nutrient acquisition among mycorrhizas formed by different fungal taxa. The lack of correlation between some plant and fungal nutrient element concentrations may reflect different retention of mineral nutrients in the fungal part of the symbiosis. High mineral concentrations, especially of

  1. Occurrence, spatial pattern, and influence of atmospheric deposition on top- and subsoil water repellency in a beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Joerg; Böttcher, Jürgen; Krüger, Jiem; Woche, Susanne K.

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that enhanced solute input due to stemflow infiltration causes enhanced soil acidification near the tree base. Infiltration-driven alteration of chemical soil properties like pH, and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) may also affect soil wettability (quantified as contact angle, CA) with a trend to increased soil water repellency (SWR) with decreased pH. Objective of this study was to analyze the impact of tree location on top- and subsoil wettability and selected soil chemical parameters on two large-scale transects (length  50 m, sampling depths 0.1-0.2 m). The transects were about 50 m apart from each other, time of sampling was in July 2013 and July 2015. To analyze subsoil wettability in the vicinity of selected trees, three transects (lengths =3 m, sampling depths = 0.1 - 2.0 m) were additionally sampled in June 2013. Sampling site is a 100 years old beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L.). Soil type is a well-drained sandy Dystric Cambisol in northern Germany with moderate to locally extended acidification. According to standard statistics, the total variance of chemical soil properties and SWR was independent of stemflow infiltration pattern. Results of spectral variance analyses, however, showed that the spatial variability of acidification (pH, Al content) as well as SWR in the soil horizon close to the surface was strongly affected by the pattern of patches with and without stemflow infiltration on both large-distance transects, no matter if sampling took place in 2013 (mean CA = 40°, SD = 12°) or 2015 (mean CA = 110°, SD = 14°). Regarding subsoil wettability on the smaller transects, CA were always in the range 0° < CA < 90°. A significant impact of the distance to the tree on SWR was observed for none of the transects, indicating that the impact of tree canopy is restricted to surface-near soil layers. Specific chemical surface properties analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed specific chemical alteration of the

  2. Soil base saturation combines with beech bark disease to influence composition and structure of sugar maple-beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Treesearch

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Todd C. McDonnell; Timothy J. Sullivan; Martin Dovciak; Scott W. Bailey; Michael R. Antidormi; Michael R. Zarfos

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in...

  3. Floods on Beech River, Wolf and Owl Creeks, Brazil, Onemile and Town Branches; and an unnamed Tributary to Beech River in the vicinity of Lexington, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Beech River, Tributary to Beech River, Owl and Wolf Creeks, and Brazil, Onemile and Town Branches in the vicinity of Lexington, Tennessee. The study was requested by the city of Lexington to provided detailed information in order to better administer its floodplain management program.

  4. Morphological, biochemical and physiological traits of upper and lower canopy leaves of European beech tend to converge with increasing altitude.

    PubMed

    Rajsnerová, Petra; Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Novotná, Kateřina; Večeřová, Kristýna; Kozáčiková, Michaela; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Marek, Michal V; Peñuelas, Josep; Urban, Otmar

    2015-01-01

    The present work has explored for the first time acclimation of upper versus lower canopy leaves along an altitudinal gradient. We tested the hypothesis that restrictive climatic conditions associated with high altitudes reduce within-canopy variations of leaf traits. The investigated beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest is located on the southern slope of the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Czech Republic). All measurements were taken on leaves from upper and lower parts of the canopy of mature trees (>85 years old) growing at low (400 m above sea level, a.s.l.), middle (720 m a.s.l.) and high (1100 m a.s.l.) altitudes. Compared with trees at higher altitudes, those growing at low altitudes had lower stomatal conductance, slightly lower CO(2) assimilation rate (A(max)) and leaf mass per area (LMA), and higher photochemical reflectance index, water-use efficiency and Rubisco content. Given similar stand densities at all altitudes, the different growth conditions result in a more open canopy and higher penetration of light into lower canopy with increasing altitude. Even though strong vertical gradients in light intensity occurred across the canopy at all altitudes, lower canopy leaves at high altitudes tended to acquire the same morphological, biochemical and physiological traits as did upper leaves. While elevation had no significant effect on nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) contents per unit leaf area, LMA, or total content of chlorophylls and epidermal flavonoids in upper leaves, these increased significantly in lower leaves at higher altitudes. The increases in N content of lower leaves were coupled with similar changes in A(max). Moreover, a high N content coincided with high Rubisco concentrations in lower but not in upper canopy leaves. Our results show that the limiting role of light in lower parts of the canopy is reduced at high altitudes. A great capacity of trees to adjust the entire canopy is thus demonstrated.

  5. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity and structure of peripheral populations of beech in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Stefano; Piovani, Paolo; Scalfi, Marta; Piotti, Andrea; Giannini, Raffaello; Menozzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation can affect the demographic and genetic structure of populations near the boundary of their biogeographic range. Higher genetic differentiation among populations coupled with lower level of within-population variability is expected as a consequence of reduced population size and isolation. The effects of these 2 factors have been rarely disentangled. Given their high gene flow, anemophilous forest trees should be more affected, in terms of loss of genetic diversity, by small population size rather than geographic isolation alone. We studied the impact of distance from the main range (a measure of isolation) and reduced population size on the within-population and among population components of genetic variability. We assayed 11 isozyme loci in a total of 856 individuals in 27 marginal populations of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Central Italy. Populations were divided into 3 groups with an increasing level of fragmentation. In the most fragmented group, the within-population genetic variability was slightly smaller and the among population differentiation significantly larger than in the other 2 groups. Isolation-by-distance was lost when only pairs of populations involving at least one from the most fragmented group were considered and maintained in the other groups. These results support the role of random genetic drift having a larger impact on the most fragmented group, whereas gene flow seems to balance genetic drift in the 2 less fragmented ones. Given that average distance from the main range is not different between the intermediate and the most fragmented group, but average population size is smaller, we can conclude that gene flow is effective, even at relatively long distances, in balancing the effect of fragmentation if population size is not too small.

  6. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  7. Modelling ozone effects on adult beech trees through simulation of defence, damage, and repair costs: Implementation of the CASIROZ ozone model in the ANAFORE forest model.

    PubMed

    Deckmyn, G; Op de Beeck, M; Löw, M; Then, C; Verbeeck, H; Wipfler, P; Ceulemans, R

    2007-03-01

    Ozone affects adult trees significantly, but effects on stem growth are hard to prove and difficult to correlate with the primary sites of ozone damage at the leaf level. To simulate ozone effects in a mechanistic way, at a level relevant to forest stand growth, we developed a simple ozone damage and repair model (CASIROZ model) that can be implemented into mechanistic photosynthesis and growth models. The model needs to be parameterized with cuvette measurements on net photosynthesis and dark respiration. As the CASIROZ ozone sub-model calculates effects of the ozone flux, a reliable representation of stomatal conductance and therefore ozone uptake is necessary to allow implementation of the ozone sub-model. In this case study the ozone sub-model was used in the ANAFORE forest model to simulate gas exchange, growth, and allocation. A preliminary run for adult beech (FAGUS SYLVATICA) under different ozone regimes at the Kranzberg forest site (Germany) was performed. The results indicate that the model is able to represent the measured effects of ozone adequately, and to distinguish between immediate and cumulative ozone effects. The results further help to understand ozone effects by distinguishing defence from damage and repair. Finally, the model can be used to extrapolate from the short-term results of the field study to long-term effects on tree growth. The preliminary simulations for the Kranzberg beech site show that, although ozone effects on yearly growth are variable and therefore insignificant when measured in the field, they could become significant at longer timescales (above 5 years, 5 % reduction in growth). The model offers a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the significant effects on photosynthesis (10 to 30 % reductions simulated), and the minor effects on growth. This appears to be the result of the strong competition and slow growth of the Kranzberg forest, and the importance of stored carbon for the adult beech (by buffering

  8. Fifty-year impacts of the beech bark disease in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Records from the early 1950s on the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire showed that the percentage of American beech trees infected with heavy beech scale and Nectria was up to the 80 to 90% range. An inventory of beech bark disease conditions in three stands in 2004 showed that an older, uneven-aged stand managed by individual tree selection for 50 years had...

  9. Effect of tree size and competition on tension wood production over time in beech plantations and assessing relative gravitropic response with a biomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Dassot, Mathieu; Fournier, Meriem; Ningre, François; Constant, Thiéry

    2012-09-01

    Gravitropic movements are unexpected mechanical processes that could disturb tree design allometries derived from the physics of nonliving bodies. We investigated whether the scaling law of gravitropic performance (power of -2 of stem diameter) derived from integrative biomechanical modeling is disturbed by ontogeny or environment, then discuss the silvicultural and dendroecological consequences. In a beech (Fagus sylvatica) plantation, four plots with different initial planting densities evolved without any intervention for 26 yr. Regular tree inventories and a silvicultural model were used to monitor competition over time in each plot. The radial production of tension wood was quantified using a cross-section of the stems at 1.30-m height, and an integrative biomechanical model computed the tree gravitropic performance over time. All trees developed tension wood over the whole period, with higher amounts at the youngest age, resulting in theoretical lean corrections of ca. 20-30° on the first 4 m of the stem over the whole period. The scaling law of gravitropic performance is slightly larger than the power of -2 of stem diameter. Gravitropic performance in forest ecosystems is mainly limited by size (diameter). Ontogenic acclimation of tension wood formation allows the youngest trees to be more reactive. No additional effect of spacing was found. However, silviculture influences size and, therefore, tree reactivity at a given age. Such results will be helpful for dendroecological approaches that use wood as a marker of environmental disturbances or a trait linked to plant strategies.

  10. Beech cupules as keystone structures for soil fauna

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Navarro, Gerardo; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Facilitative or positive interactions are ubiquitous in nature and play a fundamental role in the configuration of ecological communities. In particular, habitat modification and niche construction, in which one organism locally modifies abiotic conditions and favours other organisms by buffering the effects of adverse environmental factors, are among the most relevant facilitative interactions. In line with this, ‘keystone structures’, which provide resources, refuge, or advantageous services decisive for other species, may allow the coexistence of various species and thus considerably contribute to diversity maintenance. Beech cupules are woody husks harbouring beech fruits that remain in the forest soil for relatively long periods of time. In this study, we explored the potential role of these cupules in the distribution and maintenance of the soil fauna inhabiting the leaf litter layer. We experimentally manipulated cupule availability and soil moisture in the field to determine if such structures are limiting and can provide moist shelter to soil animals during drought periods, contributing to minimize desiccation risks. We measured invertebrate abundances inside relative to outside the cupules, total abundances in the leaf litter and animal body sizes, in both dry and wet experimental plots. We found that these structures are preferentially used by the most abundant groups of smaller soil animals—springtails, mites and enchytraeids—during droughts. Moreover, beech cupules can be limiting, as an increase in use was found with higher cupule densities, and are important resources for many small soil invertebrates, driving the spatial structure of the soil community and promoting higher densities in the leaf litter, probably through an increase in habitat heterogeneity. We propose that fruit woody structures should be considered ‘keystone structures’ that contribute to soil community maintenance. Therefore, beech trees may indirectly facilitate soil

  11. Beech cupules as keystone structures for soil fauna.

    PubMed

    Melguizo-Ruiz, Nereida; Jiménez-Navarro, Gerardo; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Facilitative or positive interactions are ubiquitous in nature and play a fundamental role in the configuration of ecological communities. In particular, habitat modification and niche construction, in which one organism locally modifies abiotic conditions and favours other organisms by buffering the effects of adverse environmental factors, are among the most relevant facilitative interactions. In line with this, 'keystone structures', which provide resources, refuge, or advantageous services decisive for other species, may allow the coexistence of various species and thus considerably contribute to diversity maintenance. Beech cupules are woody husks harbouring beech fruits that remain in the forest soil for relatively long periods of time. In this study, we explored the potential role of these cupules in the distribution and maintenance of the soil fauna inhabiting the leaf litter layer. We experimentally manipulated cupule availability and soil moisture in the field to determine if such structures are limiting and can provide moist shelter to soil animals during drought periods, contributing to minimize desiccation risks. We measured invertebrate abundances inside relative to outside the cupules, total abundances in the leaf litter and animal body sizes, in both dry and wet experimental plots. We found that these structures are preferentially used by the most abundant groups of smaller soil animals-springtails, mites and enchytraeids-during droughts. Moreover, beech cupules can be limiting, as an increase in use was found with higher cupule densities, and are important resources for many small soil invertebrates, driving the spatial structure of the soil community and promoting higher densities in the leaf litter, probably through an increase in habitat heterogeneity. We propose that fruit woody structures should be considered 'keystone structures' that contribute to soil community maintenance. Therefore, beech trees may indirectly facilitate soil fauna

  12. Synopsis of the CASIROZ case study: carbon sink strength of Fagus sylvatica L. in a changing environment--experimental risk assessment of mitigation by chronic ozone impact.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Bahnweg, G; Ceulemans, R; Fabian, P; Grill, D; Hanke, D E; Kraigher, H; Osswald, W; Rennenberg, H; Sandermann, H; Tausz, M; Wieser, G

    2007-03-01

    Databases are needed for the ozone (O(3)) risk assessment on adult forest trees under stand conditions, as mostly juvenile trees have been studied in chamber experiments. A synopsis is presented here from an integrated case study which was conducted on adult FAGUS SYLVATICA trees at a Central-European forest site. Employed was a novel free-air canopy O(3) fumigation methodology which ensured a whole-plant assessment of O(3) sensitivity of the about 30 m tall and 60 years old trees, comparing responses to an experimental 2 x ambient O(3) regime (2 x O(3), max. 150 nl O(3) l (-1)) with those to the unchanged 1 x ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)=control) prevailing at the site. Additional experimentation on individual branches and juvenile beech trees exposed within the forest canopy allowed for evaluating the representativeness of young-tree and branch-bag approaches relative to the O(3) sensitivity of the adult trees. The 2 x O(3) regime did not substantially weaken the carbon sink strength of the adult beech trees, given the absence of a statistically significant decline in annual stem growth; a 3 % reduction across five years was demonstrated, however, through modelling upon parameterization with the elaborated database. 2 x O(3) did induce a number of statistically significant tree responses at the cell and leaf level, although the O(3) responsiveness varied between years. Shade leaves displayed an O(3) sensitivity similar to that of sun leaves, while indirect belowground O(3) effects, apparently mediated through hormonal relationships, were reflected by stimulated fine-root and ectomycorrhizal development. Juvenile trees were not reliable surrogates of adult ones in view of O(3) risk assessment. Branch sections enclosed in (climatized) cuvettes, however, turned out to represent the O(3) sensitivity of entire tree crowns. Drought-induced stomatal closure decoupled O(3) intake from O(3) exposure, as in addition, also the "physiologically effective O(3) dose" was

  13. Plastome sequences of Lygodium japonicum and Marsilea crenata reveal the genome organization transformation from basal ferns to core leptosporangiates.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Su, Ying-Juan; Wang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that core leptosporangiates, the most species-rich group of extant ferns (monilophytes), have a distinct plastid genome (plastome) organization pattern from basal fern lineages. However, the details of genome structure transformation from ancestral ferns to core leptosporangiates remain unclear because of limited plastome data available. Here, we have determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences of Lygodium japonicum (Lygodiaceae), a member of schizaeoid ferns (Schizaeales), and Marsilea crenata (Marsileaceae), a representative of heterosporous ferns (Salviniales). The two species represent the sister and the basal lineages of core leptosporangiates, respectively, for which the plastome sequences are currently unavailable. Comparative genomic analysis of all sequenced fern plastomes reveals that the gene order of L. japonicum plastome occupies an intermediate position between that of basal ferns and core leptosporangiates. The two exons of the fern ndhB gene have a unique pattern of intragenic copy number variances. Specifically, the substitution rate heterogeneity between the two exons is congruent with their copy number changes, confirming the constraint role that inverted repeats may play on the substitution rate of chloroplast gene sequences.

  14. Negative Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling by the Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 Plays A Role in Seed Dormancy Regulation and Promotion of Seed Germination1

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mary Paz; Rodríguez, Dolores; Nicolás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Pedro Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    FsPP2C1 was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as a functional protein phosphatase type-2C (PP2C) with all the conserved features of these enzymes and high homology to ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA, PP2Cs identified as negative regulators of ABA signaling. The expression of FsPP2C1 was induced upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and was also up-regulated during early weeks of stratification. Furthermore, this gene was specifically expressed in ABA-treated seeds and was hardly detectable in vegetative tissues. In this report, to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C1 function in seed dormancy and germination, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis because transgenic work is not feasible in beech. Constitutive expression of FsPP2C1 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers ABA insensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, a reduced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:FsPP2C1 plants are able to germinate under unfavorable conditions, as inhibitory concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis FsPP2C1 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant early root growth and diminished induction of the ABA-response genes RAB18 and KIN2, but no effect on stomatal closure regulation. Seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:FsPP2C1 plants suggest that FsPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. The ABA inducibility of FsPP2C1 expression, together with the transcript accumulation mainly in seeds, suggest that it could play an important role modulating ABA signaling in beechnuts through a negative feedback loop. Finally, we suggest that negative regulation of ABA signaling by FsPP2C1 is a factor contributing to promote the transition from seed dormancy to germination during early weeks of stratification. PMID:12970481

  15. Highest drought sensitivity and lowest resistance to growth suppression are found in the range core of the tree Fagus sylvatica L. not the equatorial range edge.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Liam; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-01-01

    Biogeographical and ecological theory suggests that species distributions should be driven to higher altitudes and latitudes as global temperatures rise. Such changes occur as growth improves at the poleward edge of a species distribution and declines at the range edge in the opposite or equatorial direction, mirrored by changes in the establishment of new individuals. A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that such processes are underway for a wide variety of species. Case studies from populations at the equatorial range edge of a variety of woody species have led us to understand that widespread growth decline and distributional shifts are underway. However, in apparent contrast, other studies report high productivity and reproduction in some range edge populations. We sought to assess temporal trends in the growth of the widespread European beech tree (Fagus sylvatica) across its latitudinal range. We explored the stability of populations to major drought events and the implications for predicted widespread growth decline at its equatorial range edge. In contrast to expectations, we found greatest sensitivity and low resistance to drought in the core of the species range, whilst dry range edge populations showed particularly high resistance to drought and little evidence of drought-linked growth decline. We hypothesize that this high range edge resistance to drought is driven primarily by local environmental factors that allow relict populations to persist despite regionally unfavourable climate. The persistence of such populations demonstrates that range-edge decline is not ubiquitous and is likely to be driven by declining population density at the landscape scale rather than sudden and widespread range retraction. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  17. Overview on the pest status and research plans on beech bark disease: A new exotic in Michigan

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Toby R. Petrice; Nathan W. Siegert

    2001-01-01

    Beech bark disease was first discovered in Michigan in spring 2000 in Ludington State Park and soon thereafter it was found in the upper peninsula in the bass Lake campground. since then, surveyshave found it in six counties in Michigan. Beech bark disease involves two exotic organisms: the beech bark scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.; Eriococcidae...

  18. Spread of beech bark disease in the eastern United States and its relationship to regional forest composition

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Eugene Luzader

    2007-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) is an insect-fungus complex involving the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.) and one of two canker fungi. Beech scale was introduced to Halifax, Nova Scotia around 1890, presumably with the fungus Neonectria coccinea var. faginata Lohm. The disease has subsequently spread...

  19. Management of beech stands infected by Cryptococcus fagisuga in West Germany

    Treesearch

    Hermann. Bogenschutz

    1983-01-01

    Beech trees in an experimental plot in the Odenwald (southwest Germany), with different intensities of attack by Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. since at least 1970, were observed from 1972 until 1982 in order to ascertain the role of scale insects in beech bark disease and to facilitate decisions for the management of infested stands. At the beginning...

  20. Wood and bark anatomy of young beech in relation to Cryptococcus attack

    Treesearch

    David. Lonsdale

    1983-01-01

    Within a sample of European beech, partial resistance to attack by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga, was associated with a smooth bark which had a regular, vertical pattern in its surface 'growth lines'. Such bark contained relatively little lignified outer parenchyma, and the main stone cell layer was strongly developed. The '...

  1. Current status of beech bark disease in New England and New York

    Treesearch

    Margaret. Miller-Weeks

    1983-01-01

    The advancing front of beech bark disease in the northeast is now located in western New York and Pennsylvania. The disease is killing trees as far west as central New York. Cryptococcus fagisuga scale was found on nearly every tree examined during a northern New England disease survey. From that survey and Resource Evaluation plot data, beech...

  2. Timely salvage can reduce losses from beech scale-Nectria attack

    Treesearch

    David Crosby; J. C. Bjorkbom

    1958-01-01

    Beech is one of our more common hardwoods. It is an important component of the northern hardwood forest type, which occupies about 29 percent of the commercial forest land in the New England and Middle Atlantic States. In terms of total sawtimber volume, beech follows close on sugar maple, red oak, and yellow birch. It is used for a variety of products such as...

  3. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests—signs for facilitation?

    PubMed Central

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area. PMID:24009616

  4. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests-signs for facilitation?

    PubMed

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  5. Intra- and interspecific interactions of Scots pine and European beech in mixed secondary forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanifard, Yousef; Stereńczak, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    By the mid successional stages, secondary forests of Scots pine in Europe are dominated by mixed stands of pioneer Scots pine and late-successional European beech. The objective of this study was to explore the interactions of pine and beech with their conspecific and heterospecific neighbours in these forests. To accomplish the objective, pine and beech trees were stem-mapped in forty 500 m2 plots randomly located within 18 mixed stands in Milomlyn Forest District, northern Poland. The interactions within and between the species were analysed through two structurally different univariate and bivariate second-order summary statistics, i.e. pair correlation function g(r) and mark correlation function kmm(r). Field measurements showed that the overstorey was dominated by even-aged pine, whereas uneven-aged beech was the only species in the understorey. Pine trees presented an aggregation, while beech trees exhibited a dispersed structure in all stands. In addition, pine trees showed strong attraction to beech trees at small spatial scales (0-2 m). Negative correlation was found between tree height and diameter at breast height of beech, while there was no correlation between height and diameter of pine trees. We conclude that pine trees exhibit negative intraspecific interactions at small spatial scales that are mostly driven by their competitive interactions. Beech trees show strong positive intraspecific interactions and form clumps within pine canopy cover. The strong positive interspecific interactions of pine and beech are the outcome of their different shade tolerance. Our results help to explain successful coexistence of pine and beech in the study site and highlight detailed tree-tree interactions of the species in mixed stands.

  6. Water shortage affects the water and nitrogen balance in Central European beech forests.

    PubMed

    Gessler, A; Keitel, C; Nahm, M; Rennenberg, H

    2004-05-01

    Whilst forest policy promotes cultivation and regeneration of beech dominated forest ecosystems, beech itself is a highly drought sensitive tree species likely to suffer from the climatic conditions prognosticated for the current century. Taking advantage of model ecosystems with cool-moist and warm-dry local climate, the latter assumed to be representative for future climatic conditions, the effects of climate and silvicultural treatment (different thinning regimes) on water status, nitrogen balance and growth parameters of adult beech trees and beech regeneration in the understorey were assessed. In addition, validation experiments with beech seedlings were carried out under controlled conditions, mainly in order to assess the effect of drought on the competitive abilities of beech. As measures of water availability xylem flow, shoot water potential, stomatal conductance as well as delta (13)C and delta (18)O in different tissues (leaves, phloem, wood) were analysed. For the assessment of nitrogen balance we determined the uptake of inorganic nitrogen by the roots as well as total N content and soluble N compounds in different tissues of adult and young trees. Retrospective and current analysis of delta (13)C, growth and meteorological parameters revealed that beech growing under warm-dry climatic conditions were impaired in growth and water balance during periods with low rain-fall. Thinning affected water, N balance and growth mostly of young beech, but in a different way under different local climatic conditions. Under cool, moist conditions, representative for the current climatic and edaphic conditions in beech forests of Central Europe, thinning improves nutrient and water status consistent to published literature and long-term experience of forest practitioners. However, beech regeneration was impaired as a result of thinning at higher temperatures and under reduced water availability, as expected in future climate.

  7. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  8. Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing

  9. Visible leaf injury in young trees of Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus robur L. in relation to ozone uptake and ozone exposure. An Open-Top Chambers experiment in South Alpine environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, G; Marzuoli, R; Desotgiu, R; Bussotti, F; Ballarin-Denti, A

    2008-03-01

    An Open-Top Chambers experiment on Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur seedlings was conducted in order to compare the performance of an exposure-based (AOT40) and a flux-based approaches in predicting the appearance of ozone visible injuries on leaves. Three different ozone treatments (charcoal-filtered; non-filtered; and open plots) and two soil moisture treatments (watered and non-watered plots) were performed. A Jarvisian stomatal conductance model was drawn up and parameterised for both species and typical South Alpine environmental conditions, thus allowing the calculation of ozone stomatal fluxes for every treatment. A critical ozone flux level for the onset of leaf visible injury in beech was clearly identified between 32.6 and 33.6 mmolO3 m(-2). In contrast, it was not possible to identify an exposure critical level using the AOT40 index. Water stress delayed the onset of the leaf visible injuries, but the flux-based approach was able to take it into account accurately.

  10. Influence of lichen species on colonization of Fagus grandifolia by Cryptococcus fagisuga: preliminary observations from certain Nova Scotian forests

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1983-01-01

    Some crustose lichens that colonize the stems of beech trees favor infestation by C. fagisuga, while others do not favor infestation. A predominance of species unsuited for infestation appears to be a reason why trees growing on some sites in Nova Scotia are remarkably free of beech bark disease.

  11. Soil base saturation combines with Beech Bark Disease to influence composition and structure of Sugar Maple-Beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Dovciak, Martin; Bailey, Scott W.; Antidormi, Michael; Zarfos, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in influencing stand composition and structure, measurements of soils, canopy, subcanopy, and seedlings were taken in 21 watersheds in the Adirondack region of NY (USA), where sugar maple and beech were the predominant canopy species and base saturation of the upper B horizon ranged from 4.4 to 67%. The base saturation value corresponding to the threshold for Al mobilization (16.8%) helped to define the species composition of canopy trees and seedlings. Canopy vigor and diameter at breast height (DBH) were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with base saturation for sugar maple, but unrelated for beech. However, beech occupied lower canopy positions than sugar maple, and as base saturation increased, the average canopy position of beech decreased relative to sugar maple (P < 0.10). In low-base saturation soils, soil-Ca depletion and BBD may have created opportunities for gap-exploiting species such as red maple and black cherry, whereas in high-base saturation soils, sugar maple dominated the canopy. Where soils were beginning to recover from acidic deposition effects, sugar maple DBH and basal area increased progressively from 2000 to 2015, whereas for beech, average DBH did not change and basal area did not increase after 2010.

  12. Quantifying genetic variations and phenotypic plasticity of leaf phenology and growth for two temperate Fagaceae species (sessile oak and european beech)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzon, Sylvain; Vitasse, Yann; Alberto, Florian; Bresson, Caroline; Kremer, Antoine

    2010-05-01

    Under current climate change, research on inherent adaptive capacities of organisms is crucial to assess future evolutionary changes of natural populations. Genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity constitute adaptative capacities that could allow populations to respond to new environmental conditions. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine whether there are genetic variations among populations from altitudinal gradients using a lowland common garden experiment and (ii) to assess the magnitude of phenotypic plasticity using a reciprocal transplant experiment (5 elevations from 100 to 1600 m asl.) for leaf phenology (flushing and senescence) and growth of two fagaceae species (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea). We found significant differences in phenology among provenances for most species, and evidenced that these among-population differences in phenology were related to annual temperature of the provenance sites for both species. It's noteworthy that, along the same climatic gradient, the species exhibited opposite genetic clines: beech populations from high elevation flushed earlier than those of low elevation, whereas we observed an opposite trend for oak. Finally, we highlighted that both phenology timing and growth rate were highly consistent year to year. The results demonstrated that in spite of the proximity of the populations in their natural area, altitude led to genetic differentiations in their phenology and growth. Moreover, a high phenological plasticity was found for both species. We evidenced that reaction norms of flushing timing to temperature followed linear clinal trends for both species with an average shift of 5.7 days per degree increase. Timing of leaf senescence exhibited hyperbolic trends for beech and no or slight trends for oak. Furthermore, within species, there was no difference in magnitude of phenological plasticity among populations neither for flushing, nor for senescence. Consequently, for both species, the

  13. Strong Coupling of Shoot Assimilation and Soil Respiration during Drought and Recovery Periods in Beech As Indicated by Natural Abundance δ13C Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Blessing, Carola H.; Barthel, Matti; Gentsch, Lydia; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Drought down-regulates above- and belowground carbon fluxes, however, the resilience of trees to drought will also depend on the speed and magnitude of recovery of these above- and belowground fluxes after re-wetting. Carbon isotope composition of above- and belowground carbon fluxes at natural abundance provides a methodological approach to study the coupling between photosynthesis and soil respiration (SR) under conditions (such as drought) that influence photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination. In turn, the direct supply of root respiration with recent photoassimilates will impact on the carbon isotope composition of soil-respired CO2. We independently measured shoot and soil CO2 fluxes of beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their respective δ13C continuously with laser spectroscopy at natural abundance. We quantified the speed of recovery of drought stressed trees after re-watering and traced photosynthetic carbon isotope signal in the carbon isotope composition of soil-respired CO2. Stomatal conductance responded strongly to the moderate drought (-65%), induced by reduced soil moisture content as well as increased vapor pressure deficit. Simultaneously, carbon isotope discrimination decreased by 8‰, which in turn caused a significant increase in δ13C of recent metabolites (1.5–2.5‰) and in δ13C of SR (1–1.5‰). Generally, shoot and soil CO2 fluxes and their δ13C were in alignment during drought and subsequent stress release, clearly demonstrating a permanent dependence of root respiration on recently fixed photoassimilates, rather than on older reserves. After re-watering, the drought signal persisted longer in δ13C of the water soluble fraction that integrates multiple metabolites (soluble sugars, amino acids, organic acids) than in the neutral fraction which represents most recently assimilated sugars or in the δ13C of SR. Nevertheless, full recovery of all aboveground physiological variables was reached within 4 days – and within 7

  14. Spatiogenetic characteristics of beech stands with different degrees of autochthony

    PubMed Central

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf; Kownatzki, Dierk

    2005-01-01

    Background Autochthony in forest tree stands is characterized by a number of criteria, among which the range over which stands act as a population has been suggested to play a central role. Therefore, measures are needed for the delineation of populations or the detection of subpopulation structure. It is argued here that methods of population delineation must be based on the combined consideration of spatial distances and genetic differences between adult individuals. Conventional approaches and a set of newly developed methods are applied to seven isozyme loci in four beech stands which are distinguished by different types of forest management based on natural regeneration. Results Permutation analyses show that correlations between spatial distances and genetic differences vary only little in the studied beech stands. In view of the popularity of this and related descriptors of spatiogenetic covariation, this result came as a surprise. The newly developed methods lead to a different conclusion. Significant spatiogenetic structure is indicated in all stands when considering the mean and variance of spatiogenetic separation, where separation is measured by the smallest spatiogenetic difference of an individual from all others. Spatiogenetic difference is measured here by a combination of the spatial distances and genetic differences between individuals. This descriptor indicates the existence of spatiogenetic clusters in the beech stands. In order to arrive at an explicit representation of cluster structure as a representation of subpopulation structure, two types of cluster structure (primary and α-isolated) are distinguished, both of which reflect desirable characteristics of subpopulation structure. Particularly in the α-isolated structure, the proportion of individuals organized in clusters, the effective size, and the effective number of clusters clearly distinguish and consistently rank the four stands with respect to their types of forest management and

  15. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  16. Estimation of beech pyrolysis kinetic parameters by Shuffled Complex Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Chaos, Marcos; Chen, Ruiyu; Lu, Shouxiang

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of a typical biomass energy feedstock, beech, was investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis over a wide heating rate range from 5K/min to 80K/min. A three-component (corresponding to hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) parallel decomposition reaction scheme was applied to describe the experimental data. The resulting kinetic reaction model was coupled to an evolutionary optimization algorithm (Shuffled Complex Evolution, SCE) to obtain model parameters. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which SCE has been used in the context of thermogravimetry. The kinetic parameters were simultaneously optimized against data for 10, 20 and 60K/min heating rates, providing excellent fits to experimental data. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimized parameters were applicable to heating rates (5 and 80K/min) beyond those used to generate them. Finally, the predicted results based on optimized parameters were contrasted with those based on the literature.

  17. Nitrogen deposition changes ectomycorrhizal communities in Swiss beech forests.

    PubMed

    de Witte, L C; Rosenstock, N P; van der Linde, S; Braun, S

    2017-12-15

    Atmospheric pollution has implications for the health and diversity of temperate forests covering large parts of central Europe. Long-term elevated anthropogenic deposition of nitrogen (N) is driving forest ecosystems from the limitation by N to other nutrients and is found to affect tree health and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), which most trees depend on for nutrient uptake. However, the consequence of EMF community changes for trees remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated changes in EMF communities on root tips and in soil of beech forests along a N deposition gradient ranging between 16 and 33kgNha(-1)a(-1), where high N deposition was found to negatively affect tree growth and nutrient levels. The most important factors significantly explaining variation in root tip and mycelium EMF community composition in both root tips and mesh bags were increased N deposition, base saturation, growing season temperature and precipitation. With increasing N deposition, fine root length, EMF root colonization, EMF diversity on root tips and in soil, and production of extramatrical mycelium decreased significantly. Foliar P and potassium (K) were positively associated with increasing EMF diversity and we found EMF community composition to be associated with foliar P and N:P ratio. The decrease in root colonization, mesh bag ingrowth and abundance of the important species Cenococcum geophilum as well as high biomass species with increasing N availability clearly indicate repercussions for belowground carbon allocation, although some indicator species for high N deposition and low foliar P have long mycelia and may reflect a potential optimization of host P uptake. Our study supports the hypothesis that the decrease in nutrient uptake in beech forests across Europe is related to changes in EMF communities and suggests that continued high N deposition changes soil carbon and nutrient cycles, thereby affecting forest ecosystem health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Combining stable isotope and carbohydrate analyses in phloem sap and fine roots to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    PubMed

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) and carbohydrate content of phloem sap and fine roots were measured in a Mediterranean beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest throughout the growing season to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships. Seasonal variations of δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected during the daylight period, reflected the changes in soil and plant water status. The correlation between δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected from plants belonging to different social classes, was significantly positive only during the driest month of July. In this month, δ(13)C of phloem sap sugars was inversely related to the increment of trunk radial growth and positively related to δ(13)C of fine roots. We conclude that the relationship between δ(13)C and the amount of phloem sap sugars is affected by a combination of causes, such as sink strength, tree social class, changes in phloem anatomy and transport capacity, and phloem loading of sugars to restore sieve tube turgor following the reduced plant water potential under drought conditions. However, δ(13)C and sugar composition of fine roots suggested that phloem transport of leaf sucrose to this belowground component was not impaired by mild drought and that sucrose was in a large part allocated towards fine roots in July, depending on tree social class. Hence, fine roots could represent a functional carbon sink during the dry seasonal periods, when transport and use of assimilates in other sink tissues are reduced. These results indicate a strict link between above- and belowground processes and highlight a rapid response of this Mediterranean forest to changes in environmental drivers to regulate source-sink relationships and carbon sink capacity.

  19. The status of beech bark disease in the Maritime Provinces of Canada in 1980

    Treesearch

    L.P. Magasi; W.R. Newell

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark dieease first reached North America about a 100 years ago and within a few decades rendered beech an almost useless weed species in the Maritimes. A survey in 1980 to determine the current status of the disease found the scale insect active, though infestations generally light, on over 90% of trees in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island but on only about 50...

  20. Gross nitrogen fluxes in intact beech-soil-microbe systems under experimentally simulated climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Dannenmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of beech forests of Central Europe to projected climate change conditions is a current matter of debate and concern. In order to investigate the response of N cycling in a typical beech forest to projected climate change conditions, we transplanted small lysimeters with intact beech-soil systems from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Lysimeters transfers within the N exposure served as control. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed: (1) comparison between N and S slopes under ambient conditions; (2) comparison between N and S slopes after intensified drought at S exposure; (3) rewetting after the drought period. Homogenous triple isotope labeling (15N/13C glutamine, 15NH4+, 15NO3-) in combination with 15N tracing and -pool dilution approaches as well as molecular analyses of nitrogen cycling genes and mycorrhiza morphotyping allowed to simultaneously quantify all N turnover processes in the intact beech-soil-microbe system. Nitrate was the major N source of beech seedlings with little importance of ammonium and no importance of glutamine. Experimental simulation of climate change resulted in significantly reduced gene copies of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB), a dramatic attenuation of microbial gross nitrate production from 252±83 mg N m-2 day-1 for the control treatment to 49±29 mg N m-2 day-1 for the climate change treatment and associated strong declines in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech, which could not be compensated by uptake of ammonium or glutamine. Therefore, N content of beech seedlings was strongly reduced in the climate change treatment. Hence our data provide a microbial mechanism to explain nutritional limitations of beech under higher temperatures and drought and raise questions about

  1. Variation in Pollen-Donor Composition among Pollinators in an Entomophilous Tree Species, Castanea crenata, Revealed by Single-Pollen Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoichi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Seiwa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background In plants, reproductive success is largely determined by the composition of pollen (i.e., self-pollen and outcross-pollen from near and distant pollen-donors) transported as a result of pollinator foraging behavior (e.g., pollen carryover). However, little evidence is available on how and to what extent the pollen carryover affects the pollen-donor composition and on which insect taxa are effective outcross-pollen transporters under field conditions. In this study, we explored roles of foraging behavior of insect pollinators on pollen-donor composition and subsequent reproductive success in a woody plant. Methods We performed paternity analyses based on microsatellite genotyping of individual pollen grains found on diurnal pollinators (i.e., bumblebee, small bee, fly, small beetle, and honeybee) visiting Castanea crenata trees. Results The outcross-pollen rate was highest in bumblebees (66%), followed by small bees (35%), flies (31%), and small beetles (18%). The effective number of pollen donors, representing pollen carryover, was greater in bumblebees (9.71) than in flies (3.40), small bees (3.32), and small beetles (3.06). The high percentages of pollen from outside the plot on bumblebees (65.4%) and flies (71.2%) compared to small bees (35.3%) and small beetles (13.5%) demonstrated their longer pollen dispersal distances. Conclusions All of the diurnal insects carried outcross-pollen grains for long distances via pollen carryover. This fact suggests that a wide range of insect taxa are potential outcross-pollen transporters for the self-incompatible C. crenata. PMID:25793619

  2. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role

  3. O3 flux-related responsiveness of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance of adult Fagus sylvatica to experimentally enhanced free-air O3 exposure.

    PubMed

    Löw, M; Häberle, K-H; Warren, C R; Matyssek, R

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge of responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance to cumulative ozone uptake (COU) is still scarce, and this is particularly the case for adult trees. The effect of ozone (O(3)) exposure on trees was examined with 60-year-old beech trees (FAGUS SYLVATICA) at a forest site of southern Germany. Trees were exposed to the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)) or an experimentally elevated twice-ambient O(3) regime (2 x O(3)). The elevated 2 x O (3) regime was provided by means of a free-air O(3) canopy exposure system. The hypotheses were tested that (1) gas exchange is negatively affected by O(3) and (2) the effects of O(3) are dose-dependent and thus the sizes of differences between treatments are positively related to COU. Gas exchange (light-saturated CO(2) uptake rate A(max), stomatal conductance g (s), maximum rate of carboxylation Vc (max), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate turnover limited rate of photosynthesis J (max), CO(2) compensation point CP, apparent quantum yield of net CO(2) uptake AQ, carboxylation efficiency CE, day- and nighttime respiration) and chlorophyll fluorescence (electron transfer rate, ETR) were measured IN SITU on attached sun and shade leaves. Measurements were made periodically throughout the growing seasons of 2003 (an exceptionally dry year) and 2004 (a year with average rainfall). In 2004 Vc(max), J(max), and CE were lower in trees receiving 2 x O(3) compared with the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)). Treatment differences in Vc (max), J (max), CE were rather small in 2004 (i.e., parameter levels were lower by 10 - 30 % in 2 x O(3) than 1 x O(3)) and not significant in 2003. In 2004 COU was positively correlated with the difference between treatments in A (max), g (s), and ETR (i.e., consistent with the dose-dependence of O(3)'s deleterious effects). However, in 2003, differences in A(max), g (s), and ETR between the two O(3) regimes were smaller at the end of the dry summer 2003 (i.e., when COU was greatest). The

  4. Long-term growth trajectories in a changing climate: disentangling age from size effects in old Fagus trees from contrasting bioclimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the drivers promoting exceptional longevity in trees and how their growth performances vary approaching maximum lifespan still represent intriguing challenges not only for tree biology, but also for modelling the long-term forest ecosystem functioning under a changing environment. Tree growth rate is expected to increase with increasing stem size, but higher risk of hydraulic failure and mortality can affect larger trees under increasingly dry conditions. In turn, very old trees are characterized by slow growth and smaller size, factors able to confer advantages against biotic and abiotic disturbances. Rising evidences that very old trees are negligibly affected by the progressive deterioration of physiological functions associated with age support the idea that size, not age, is the main constrain to tree lifespan, so that negative senescence has been proposed as a frequent phenomenon in trees. Additional empirical knowledge is needed to thoroughly assess how complex, uneven-aged old-growth forests cope under climate change in order to define their role in terrestrial carbon cycle. We used a tree-ring network of 8 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests containing several of the oldest crossdated broadleaf trees of the Northern Hemisphere (400-600 years old) to analyse how their growth rates vary along age/size development. We sampled advanced old-growth stands, where canopy tree mortality is naturally occurring, divided among contrasting bioclimatic conditions: eastern Alps and central Apennines (rainy vs. dry summer). To disentangle the long-term effects of size and age on long-term tree growth history, we reconstructed Basal Area Increment (BAI) along size (DBH) development, grouping growth trajectories in different age classes. On average, BAI increased continuously as stem size increased, regardless of bioclimatic region and age class. Old trees grew the slowest and kept increasing BAI trends. In turn, especially on the drier

  5. Visualizing carbon and nitrogen transfer in the tripartite symbiosis of Fagus sylvatica, ectomycorrhizal fungi and soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhofer, Werner; Dietrich, Marlies; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gabriel, Raphael; Gorka, Stefan; Wiesenbauer, Julia; Martin, Victoria; Schweiger, Peter; Reipert, Siegfried; Weidinger, Marieluise; Richter, Andreas; Woebken, Dagmar; Kaiser, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Translocation of recently photoassimilated plant carbon (C) into soil via root exudates or mycorrhizal fungi is key to understand global carbon cycling. Plants support symbiotic fungi and soil microorganisms with recent photosynthates to get access to essential elements, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus. While a 'reciprocal reward strategy' (plants trade C in exchange for nutrients from the fungus) has been shown for certain types of mycorrhizal associations, only little is known about the mechanisms of C and N exchange between mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and soil bacteria. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the fact that C and N transfer between plants, mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria takes place at the micrometer scale, which makes it difficult to explore at the macro scale. In this project we intended to analyse carbon and nitrogen flows between roots of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica), their associated ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial community. In order to visualize this nutrient flow at a single cell level, we used a stable isotope double labelling (13C and 15N) approach. Young mycorrhizal beech trees were transferred from a forest to split-root boxes, consisting of two compartments separated by a membrane (35 μm mesh size) which was penetrable for hyphae but not for plant roots. After trees and mycorrhizal fungi were allowed to grow for one year in these boxes, 15N-labelled nitrogen solution was added only to the root-free compartment to allow labelled nitrogen supply only through the fungal network. 13C- labelled carbon was applied by exposing the plants to a 13CO2 gas atmosphere for 8 hours. Spatial distribution of the isotopic label was visualised at the microscale in cross sections of mycorrhizal root-tips (the plant/mycorrhizal fungi interface) and within and on the surface of external mycorrhizal hyphae (the fungi/soil bacteria interface) using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Corresponding

  6. Differential responses of herbivores and herbivory to management in temperate European beech.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Pašalić, Esther; Lange, Markus; Lange, Patricia; Boch, Steffen; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Müller, Jörg; Socher, Stephanie A; Fischer, Markus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Forest management not only affects biodiversity but also might alter ecosystem processes mediated by the organisms, i.e. herbivory the removal of plant biomass by plant-eating insects and other arthropod groups. Aiming at revealing general relationships between forest management and herbivory we investigated aboveground arthropod herbivory in 105 plots dominated by European beech in three different regions in Germany in the sun-exposed canopy of mature beech trees and on beech saplings in the understorey. We separately assessed damage by different guilds of herbivores, i.e. chewing, sucking and scraping herbivores, gall-forming insects and mites, and leaf-mining insects. We asked whether herbivory differs among different forest management regimes (unmanaged, uneven-aged managed, even-aged managed) and among age-classes within even-aged forests. We further tested for consistency of relationships between regions, strata and herbivore guilds. On average, almost 80% of beech leaves showed herbivory damage, and about 6% of leaf area was consumed. Chewing damage was most common, whereas leaf sucking and scraping damage were very rare. Damage was generally greater in the canopy than in the understorey, in particular for chewing and scraping damage, and the occurrence of mines. There was little difference in herbivory among differently managed forests and the effects of management on damage differed among regions, strata and damage types. Covariates such as wood volume, tree density and plant diversity weakly influenced herbivory, and effects differed between herbivory types. We conclude that despite of the relatively low number of species attacking beech; arthropod herbivory on beech is generally high. We further conclude that responses of herbivory to forest management are multifaceted and environmental factors such as forest structure variables affecting in particular microclimatic conditions are more likely to explain the variability in herbivory among beech forest

  7. Differential Responses of Herbivores and Herbivory to Management in Temperate European Beech

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M.; Pašalić, Esther; Lange, Markus; Lange, Patricia; Boch, Steffen; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Müller, Jörg; Socher, Stephanie A.; Fischer, Markus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Forest management not only affects biodiversity but also might alter ecosystem processes mediated by the organisms, i.e. herbivory the removal of plant biomass by plant-eating insects and other arthropod groups. Aiming at revealing general relationships between forest management and herbivory we investigated aboveground arthropod herbivory in 105 plots dominated by European beech in three different regions in Germany in the sun-exposed canopy of mature beech trees and on beech saplings in the understorey. We separately assessed damage by different guilds of herbivores, i.e. chewing, sucking and scraping herbivores, gall-forming insects and mites, and leaf-mining insects. We asked whether herbivory differs among different forest management regimes (unmanaged, uneven-aged managed, even-aged managed) and among age-classes within even-aged forests. We further tested for consistency of relationships between regions, strata and herbivore guilds. On average, almost 80% of beech leaves showed herbivory damage, and about 6% of leaf area was consumed. Chewing damage was most common, whereas leaf sucking and scraping damage were very rare. Damage was generally greater in the canopy than in the understorey, in particular for chewing and scraping damage, and the occurrence of mines. There was little difference in herbivory among differently managed forests and the effects of management on damage differed among regions, strata and damage types. Covariates such as wood volume, tree density and plant diversity weakly influenced herbivory, and effects differed between herbivory types. We conclude that despite of the relatively low number of species attacking beech; arthropod herbivory on beech is generally high. We further conclude that responses of herbivory to forest management are multifaceted and environmental factors such as forest structure variables affecting in particular microclimatic conditions are more likely to explain the variability in herbivory among beech forest

  8. Effect of harvesting regime on beech root sprouts and seedlings in a north-central Maine forest long affected by beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    2001-01-01

    Forests in Maine often contain many trees severely damaged by the disease. Methods are needed to reduce numbers of susceptible and increase numbers of resistant trees. This paper describes how commonly-used harvesting systems affect the incidence and growth of beech root sprouts and seedlings. Harvest treatments were clearcutting and thinning in winter and summer, 1991...

  9. Establishment success of sooty beech scale insects, Ultracoelostoma sp., on different host tree species in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2006-01-01

    The sooty beech scale insect (Ultracoelostoma sp.) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) exhibits a highly patchy distribution at local and regional scales. A major factor driving this common distributional phenomenon in other phloem-feeding insects is aggregation and local adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine if Ultracoelostoma was locally adapted to its natal host trees, by contrasting the establishment rates of first instar “crawlers” in reciprocal transfers to natal versus novel hosts. Although there are two closely-related species of sooty beech scale insect, the morphological characters of crawlers in this study were intermediate between those of U. assimile and U. brittini. However, all of the voucher specimens examined had consistent morphology, indicating that they belong to one species which we refer to as Ultracoelostoma sp. Reciprocal transfers of crawlers were carried out between individual red beech (Nothofagus fusca), as well as between mountain beech (N. solandri) and red beech trees, to ascertain if insects had become locally adapted to their individual host tree or to host species. In total, 480 crawlers were placed in enclosures on their natal and novel host trees, of which only 32 (6.7 %) became established. No evidence for local adaptation, either to individual host trees or to host tree species, was found. There was also no difference in crawler establishment between natal and novel hosts. However, crawlers originating from mountain beech trees had significantly higher establishment rates on both natal mountain beech and novel red beech hosts, than did crawlers originating from red beech trees. The superior ability of mountain beech crawlers to become established, even on novel red beech trees, suggests that scale insects on mountain beech trees have higher individual fitness (possibly due to maternal effects mediated by differences in host nutritional quality, defensive compounds or growth rate). This increased fitness may result in

  10. Effects of species composition and site factors on the severity of beech bark disease in western Massachusetts and the White Mountains of New Hampshire: a preliminary report

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery; W.A. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    The extent of beech bark disease was examined on permanent inventory plots in western Massachusetts and on Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. The amount of disease-caused defect was correlated with a reduction in the proportion of beech in a stand. Sites on lower slopes and with greater abundance of hemlock contained more defective beech.

  11. Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

  12. Fault-related fluid flow, Beech Mountain thrust sheet, Blue Ridge Province, Tennessee-North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, W.K.; Mora, C.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The latest proterozoic Beech Granite is contained within the Beech Mountain thrust sheet (BMTS), part of a middle-late Paleozoic thrust complex located between Mountain City and Grandfather Mountain windows in the western Blue Ridge of TN-NC. At the base of the BMTS, Beech Granite is juxtaposed against lower Paleozoic carbonate and elastics of the Rome Fm. along the Stone Mountain thrust on the southeaster margin of the Mountain City window. At the top of the BMTS, Beech Granite occurs adjacent to Precambrian mafic rocks of the Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet (PPTS). The Beech Granite is foliated throughout the BMTS with mylonitization and localized cataclasis occurring within thrust zones along the upper and lower margins of the BMTS. Although the degree of mylonitization and cataclasis increases towards the thrusts, blocks of relatively undeformed granite also occur within these fault zones. Mylonites and thrusts are recognized as conduits for fluid movement, but the origin of the fluids and magnitude and effects of fluid migration are not well constrained. This study was undertaken to characterize fluid-rock interaction within the Beech Granite and BMTS. Extensive mobility of some elements/compounds within the thrust zones, and the isotopic and mineralogical differences between the thrust zones and interior of the BMTS indicate that fluid flow was focused within the thrust zones. The wide range of elevated temperatures (400--710 C) indicated by qz-fsp fractionations suggest isotopic disequilibrium. Using a more likely temperature range of 300--400 C for Alleghanian deformation, calculated fluid compositions indicate interactions with a mixture of meteoric-hydrothermal and metamorphic water with delta O-18 = 2.6--7.5[per thousand] for the upper thrust zone and 1.3 to 6.2[per thousand] for the lower thrust zone. These ranges are similar to isotopic data reported for other Blue Ridge thrusts and may represent later periods of meteoric water influx.

  13. How climate, migration ability and habitat fragmentation affect the projected future distribution of European beech.

    PubMed

    Saltré, Frédérik; Duputié, Anne; Gaucherel, Cédric; Chuine, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Recent efforts to incorporate migration processes into species distribution models (SDMs) are allowing assessments of whether species are likely to be able to track their future climate optimum and the possible causes of failing to do so. Here, we projected the range shift of European beech over the 21st century using a process-based SDM coupled to a phenomenological migration model accounting for population dynamics, according to two climate change scenarios and one land use change scenario. Our model predicts that the climatically suitable habitat for European beech will shift north-eastward and upward mainly because (i) higher temperature and precipitation, at the northern range margins, will increase survival and fruit maturation success, while (ii) lower precipitations and higher winter temperature, at the southern range margins, will increase drought mortality and prevent bud dormancy breaking. Beech colonization rate of newly climatically suitable habitats in 2100 is projected to be very low (1-2% of the newly suitable habitats colonised). Unexpectedly, the projected realized contraction rate was higher than the projected potential contraction rate. As a result, the realized distribution of beech is projected to strongly contract by 2100 (by 36-61%) mainly due to a substantial increase in climate variability after 2050, which generates local extinctions, even at the core of the distribution, the frequency of which prevents beech recolonization during more favourable years. Although European beech will be able to persist in some parts of the trailing edge of its distribution, the combined effects of climate and land use changes, limited migration ability, and a slow life-history are likely to increase its threat status in the near future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Insect attraction to herbivore-induced beech volatiles under different forest management regimes.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2014-10-01

    Insect herbivore enemies such as parasitoids and predators are important in controlling herbivore pests. From agricultural systems we know that land-use intensification can negatively impact biological control as an important ecosystem service. The aim of our study was to investigate the importance of management regime for natural enemy pressure and biological control possibilities in forests dominated by European beech. We hypothesize that the volatile blend released from herbivore-infested beech trees functions as a signal, attracting parasitoids and herbivore enemies. Furthermore, we hypothesize that forest management regime influences the composition of species attracted by these herbivore-induced beech volatiles. We installed flight-interception traps next to Lymantria dispar caterpillar-infested young beech trees releasing herbivore-induced volatiles and next to non-infested control trees. Significantly more parasitoids were captured next to caterpillar-infested trees compared to non-infested controls, irrespective of forest type. However, the composition of the trophic guilds in the traps did vary in response to forest management regime. While the proportion of chewing insects was highest in non-managed forests, the proportion of sucking insects peaked in forests with low management and of parasitoids in young, highly managed, forest stands. Neither the number of naturally occurring beech saplings nor herbivory levels in the proximity of our experiment affected the abundance and diversity of parasitoids caught. Our data show that herbivore-induced beech volatiles attract herbivore enemies under field conditions. They further suggest that differences in the structural complexity of forests as a consequence of management regime only play a minor role in parasitoid activity and thus in indirect tree defense.

  15. Fagus sylvatica trunk epicormics in relation to primary and secondary growth

    PubMed Central

    Colin, F.; Sanjines, A.; Fortin, M.; Bontemps, J.-D.; Nicolini, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims European beech epicormics have received far less attention than epicormics of other species, especially sessile oak. However, previous work on beech has demonstrated that there is a negative effect of radial growth on trunk sprouting, while more recent investigations on sessile oak proved a strong positive influence of the presence of epicormics. The aims of this study were, first, to make a general quantification of the epicormics present along beech stems and, secondly, to test the effects of both radial growth and epicormic frequency on sprouting. Methods In order to test the effect of radial growth, ten forked individuals were sampled, with a dominant and a dominated fork of almost equal length for every individual. To test the effects of primary growth and epicormic frequency, on the last 17 annual shoots of each fork arm, the number of axillary buds, shoot length, ring width profiles, epicormic shoots and other epicormics were carefully recorded. Key Results The distribution of annual shoot length, radial growth profiles and parallel frequencies of all epicormics are presented. The latter frequencies were parallel to the annual shoot lengths, nearly equivalent for both arms of each tree, and radial growth profiles included very narrow rings in the lowest annual shoots and even missing rings in the dominated arms alone. The location of the latent buds and the epicormics was mainly at branch base, while epicormic shoots, bud clusters and spheroblasts were present mainly in the lowest annual shoots investigated. Using a zero-inflated mixed model, sprouting was shown to depend positively on epicormic frequency and negatively on radial growth. Conclusions Support for a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting is put forward. Sprouting mainly depends on the frequency of epicormics. Between- and within-tree variability of the epicormic composition in a given species may thus have fundamental and applied implications. PMID:22887022

  16. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  17. Pollen donor composition during the early phases of reproduction revealed by DNA genotyping of pollen grains and seeds of Castanea crenata.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoichi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Seiwa, Kenji

    2009-06-01

    In plants, pollen donor composition can differ during the early phases of reproduction through various selection mechanisms favouring self, related or nonrelated pollen donors, but such differences have not been examined under natural conditions because paternity is difficult to analyse in a natural setting. Here, we performed paternity analyses based on microsatellite genotyping of individual pollen grains deposited on female flowers (n = 773) and seeds (n = 304) to evaluate pollen donor composition from three individuals of the insect-pollinated monoecious tree Castanea crenata in a natural forest. Spatial genetic structure was also investigated. A mean self-pollen rate of 90.2% was observed at the pollination stage, but a low selfing rate of 0.3% was observed at the seed stage. In outcross events, however, pairwise distance and relatedness between maternal and paternal parents were not different between pollination and seed stages. We also observed significant positive relatedness, based on clear fine-scale genetic structure of individual trees within 80 m of one another, and 71% of seeds were derived using pollen grains of related trees within 80 m. The results suggest that the mechanism of self-incompatibility strongly avoids self-pollen before seed production. However, the avoidance of biparental inbreeding was not obvious between pollination and seed stages.

  18. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm(3) (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  19. Fast wood decay in a mountain Mediterranean area having Fagus sylvatica forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fravolini, Giulia; Egli, Markus; Cherubini, Paolo; Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Deadwood and litter act as important linkages between recent productivity and current community, and ecosystem processes. The increasing interest in the quantity and properties of coarse woody debris (CWD) and litter is relevant both to maintaining biodiversity and to global C dynamics. Mountain and Mediterranean areas, furthermore, are considered to be especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, a need exists to understand more in detail the interplay between soils, forests, deadwood and climate in general and in particular in mountain Mediterranean areas such as the Appenine. Due to the fact that linkages between climate, coarse woody decay and soils in mountain Mediterranean areas are only poorly understood, we aimed at investigating the decay mechanism of Fagus silvatica as a function of altitude and exposure. Furthermore, the effects of exposure on the decay dynamics of dead wood and soils were compared along a altitudinal sequence in an Appenine mountain forest (Majella Mountain). Ten sites, five of which having north and the other 5 having south exposure, were investigated, ranging from 1000 m to 1650 m asl. All sites have a Fagus sylvatica forest. In addition to this, experimental plots were installed at each site. In May 2014 standardised wood blocks (5 x 5 x 2 cm) of local Fagus sylvatica were placed at each site inside PVC tubes ('mesocosms') that was filled with undisturbed soil material. The sampling design foresees that three replicates of such mesocosms per site will be sampled after 8 , 16, 52 and 104 weeks. After 8 weeks three tubes were removed from the sites (sampled soil and dead wood blocks) and the wood blocks analysed for cellulose, lignin and density. At each site, three cores were taken to analyse soil properties. The soil cores were subdivided in 0 - 5, 5 - 10 and 10 - 15 cm depth and measured for organic carbon, carbonates and pH. In addition, the humus forms at each site were determined. Already after 8 weeks

  20. Fertilization increases diameter growth of birch-beech-maple trees in New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    L. O. Safford

    1973-01-01

    In a 60-year-old northern hardwood stand treated with lime plus NPK fertilizer, the following increases in average basal area growth rate over untreated trees were observed: sugar maple 128 percent, paper birch 69 percent, yellow birch 51 percent, and beech 20 percent. Magnitude of response was inversely related to relative growth rate of the species. Growth rate...

  1. Trypodendron domesticum and Trypodendron signatum: two scolytid species involved in beech decline in Belgium

    Treesearch

    B. Gaubicher; M. De Proft; J.-C. Gregoire

    2003-01-01

    Xylophagous scolytids (Ambrosia beetles) have long been known to prefer fallen or seriously weakened trees and stumps. They are attracted to this host material by ethanol produced by the fermenting phloem and sapwood. However, these insects have begun aggressively attacking living beeches in Southern Belgium, raising the issue of a possible shift towards primarity....

  2. Response of beech and oaks to wounds made at different times of the year

    Treesearch

    Dirk Dujesiefken; Walter Liese; Walter Shortle; Rakesh Minocha

    2005-01-01

    Tree care, expecially pruning, is still mostly done in the dormant time. Such treatments expose live inner bark, the vascular cambium, and functioning outer sapwood to harsh external influences followed often by infection of pathogens. Investigations about response reactions of beech and oak to wounding made in different times of the year showed that wound closure was...

  3. Chilocorus stigma (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and other predators of beech scale in central New York

    Treesearch

    Mark Mayer; Douglas C. Allen

    1983-01-01

    The twice-stabbed lady beetle Chilocorus stigma (Say), was studied in two infestations of beech scale, Cryptococccus fagisuga Lind., to elucidate predator biology and to determine the predator's effect on scale populations. C. stigma is univoltine in north-central regions of New York and its seasonal...

  4. Characteristics and development of necrophylatic periderms in mature bark of American beech

    Treesearch

    William D. Ostrofsky; Robert O. Blanchard

    1983-01-01

    Investigations were made of necrophylactic peridems which were found to delimit natural and experimentally induced cankers in American beech. Anatomical evidence is presented which supports the hypothesis that the necrophylactic periderm is generated from recent derivatives of the vascular cambium as well as from living cells of the bark tissues present at the time of...

  5. Specificity of Cryptococcus fagisuga and Nectria coccinea association in beech bark disease in Europe

    Treesearch

    R. Perrin

    1983-01-01

    The specificity of the Cryptococcus fagisuga and N. coccinea association is studied by artificial inoculation of 4 species of Nectria: N. coccinea, N. ditissima. N. galligena and N. cinnabarina on bark infested with beech scale. N. coccinea appears to be the most efficient...

  6. Canopy transpiration of pure and mixed forest stands with variable abundance of European beech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    SummaryThe importance of tree species identity and diversity for biogeochemical cycles in forests is not well understood. In the past, forestry has widely converted mixed forests to pure stands while contemporary forest policy often prefers mixed stands again. However, the hydrological consequences of these changes remain unclear. We tested the hypotheses (i) that significant differences in water use per ground area exist among the tree species of temperate mixed forests and that these differences are more relevant for the amount of stand-level canopy transpiration (Ec) than putative complementarity effects of tree water use, and (ii) that the seasonal patterns of Ec in mixed stands are significantly influenced by the identity of the present tree species. We measured xylem sap flux during 2005 (average precipitation) and 2006 (relatively dry) synchronously in three nearby old-growth forest stands on similar soil differing in the abundance of European beech (pure beech stand, 3-species stand with 70% beech, 5-species stand with <10% beech). In summer 2005 with average rainfall, Ec was 50% higher in the beech-poor 5-species stand than in the two stands with moderate to high beech presence (158 vs. 97 and 101 mm yr-1); in the dry summer 2006, all stands converged toward similar Ec totals (128-139 mm yr-1). Species differences in Ec were large on a sapwood area basis, reflecting a considerable variation in hydraulic architecture and leaf conductance regulation among the co-existing species. Moreover, transpiration per crown projection area (ECA) also differed up to 5-fold among the different species in the mixed stands, probably reflecting contrasting sapwood/crown area ratios. We conclude that Ec is not principally higher in mixed forests than in pure beech stands. However, tree species-specific traits have an important influence on the height of Ec and affect its seasonal variation. Species with a relatively high ECA (notably Tilia) may exhaust soil water reserves

  7. Beech vs. Pine - how different tree species manage their water demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbüchel, Ingo; Dreibrodt, Janek; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    In north-eastern Germany large parts of the landscape are covered by pine trees. Although beech used to be one of the typical species for the region, today it makes up only a small fraction of the forested area. In order to reinstate a more natural forest composition an effort is made to decrease the coniferous forest in the next 30 years from 70% to 40% while increasing the deciduous forest from 20% to 40%. This will have consequences for the forest water balance that we would like to understand better. In an attempt to capture the complete tree water balance for both species we monitored all relevant hydrologic fluxes in four stands of pure beech and pine (both young and old stands) as well as in eight mixed stands (as part of the TERENO observatory). Extensive measurements of throughfall and stemflow were conducted with 35 rain trough systems, 50 stemflow collectors and tipping buckets. Soil moisture was monitored in 70 depth profiles with a total of 450 sensors ranging from 10 cm down to 200 cm. In combination with soil water potential measurements at 5 depths root water uptake from different depths and hydraulic redistribution between depths could be determined. Sapflux sensors recorded tree water use for 16 trees and groundwater level was monitored at 16 locations. We found that soil moisture conditions under beech were more variable than under pine, especially in the upper 100 cm. This was due to the higher influx of water from stemflow on the one hand and to the more intensive/effective use of soil water by the beech on the other hand. Our sap flux measurements show that beech was able to sustain steady rates of sapflux even under extremely dry soil conditions. While annual average sapflow was twice as high for pines compared to beeches, pine trees were less effective in taking up water from the soil and reduced sap flow considerably during dry phases. We still found the upper 100 cm of soil under pine to be generally wetter than under beech and considered

  8. The cough suppressive activity of sulfated glucuronoxylan from Fagus sylvatica L.

    PubMed

    Nosáľova, G; Jureček, L; Turjan, J; Capek, P; Prisenžňáková, L; Fraňová, S

    2014-06-01

    Hemicellulose polysaccharides represent a large group of natural renewable polymers, however, their application potency is still low. In our study a hardwood 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan was isolated by alkali peroxide extraction of Fagus sylvatica sawdust and modified into sulfated water soluble derivative (MGXS). Highly sulfated MGXS was characterized by HPLC, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and tested in vivo on chemically induced cough reflex and smooth muscles reactivity. Farmacological tests revealed an interesting antitussive activity of MGXS. Comparative tests with drug commonly used in a clinical practice revealed that antitussive activity of MGXS was lower than that of opioid receptor agonist codeine, the strongest antitussive drug. Furthermore, the specific reactivity of airways smooth muscle was not significantly affected by MGXS, indicating thus that the polymer is not involved in the bronchodilation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exclusive accumulation of Z-isomers of monolignols and their glucosides in bark of Fagus grandifolia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, N. G.; Inciong, E. J.; Ohashi, H.; Towers, G. H.; Yamamoto, E.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to Z-coniferyl and Z-sinapyl alcohols, bark extracts of Fagus grandifolia also contain significant amounts of the glucosides, Z-coniferin, Z-isoconiferin (previously called faguside) and Z-syringin. The corresponding E-isomers of these glucosides do not accumulate to a detectable level. The accumulation of the Z-isomers suggests that either they are not lignin precursors or that they are reservoirs of monolignols for subsequent lignin biosynthesis; it is not possible to distinguish between these alternatives. The co-occurrence of Z-coniferin and Z-isoconiferin demonstrate that glucosylation of monolignols can occur at either the phenolic or the allylic hydroxyl groups.

  10. Tree ring isotopes of beech and spruce in response to short-term climate variability across Central European sites: Common and contrasting physiological mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigt, Rosemarie; Klesse, Stefan; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, David; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    The combined study of tree-ring width and stable C and O isotopes provides insight in the coherences between carbon allocation during stem growth and the preceding conditions of gas exchange and formation of photosynthates as all influenced by environmental variation. In this large-scale study comprising 10 sites across a range of climate gradients (temperature, precipitation) throughout Central Europe, we investigated tree-rings in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. The sampling design included larger and smaller trees. The short-term, i.e. year-to-year, variability in the isotope time series over 100 yrs was analyzed in relation to tree-ring growth and climate variation. The generally strong correlation between the year-to-year differences in δ13C (corrected for the atmospheric shift due to 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil combustion) and δ18O across most sites emphasized the role of stomatal conductance in controlling leaf gas exchange. However, the correlation between both isotopes decreased during some periods. At several sites this reduction in correlation was particularly pronounced during recent decades. This suggests a decoupling between stomatal and photosynthetic responses to environmental conditions on the one hand, and carbon allocation to stem tissue on the other hand. Variability in the isotopic ratio largely responded to summer climate, but was weakly correlated to annual stem growth. In contrast, climate sensitivity of radial growth in both species was rather site-dependent, and was strongest at the driest (in terms of soil water capacity) site. We will also present results of isotope responses with respect to extreme climate events. Understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the short-term variation in tree-ring signals will help to assess and more precisely constrain the possible range of growth performance of these ecologically and economically important tree species under future climate

  11. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O at two European beech forests: linking soil gas production profiles with soil and stem fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Martin; Machacova, Katerina; Halaburt, Ellen; Haddad, Sally; Urban, Otmar; Lang, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    consumption sites of soil gases in the adjacent soil. Soils at both sites took up CH4 and N2O and emitted CO2. Soil gas profiles at the Black Forest showed only CH4 and N2O consumption. CH4 uptake was much larger by the well aerated Black Forest soil than by the loamy-clay soil in the White Carpathians. Here, it was possible to stratify the apparently homogenous site into two plots, one having redoximorphic features in the soil profiles, the other plot without. It seemed that CH4 and N2O were mainly produced in the deeper soil at the plot with temporarily reducing conditions. Beech stems mostly took up N2O from the atmosphere at both sites, whereas CH4 was emitted. The stem CH4 flux was higher for the White Carpathians than for the Black Forest site. Thus, the tree and soil flux of CH4 seems to be affected by soil structure, soil water content and the redox potential in the rooting space. We conclude from our results that trees might provide preferential pathways for greenhouse gases produced in the subsoil thereby enhancing the release of greenhouse gases. Acknowledgement This research was financially supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences and the German Academic Exchange Service within the project "Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Fagus sylvatica trees" (DAAD-15-03), National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1415) and project DFG (MA 5826/2-1). We would like to thank Marek Jakubik for technical support and Sinikka Paulus for help by field measurements.

  12. Effects of dry ice on gas permeability of nano-silver-impregnated Populus nigra and Fagus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Taghiyari, H R; Layeghi, M; Aminzadeh Liyafooee, F

    2012-06-01

    Effects of dry-ice treatment (frozen CO(2) at -78.5°C) on gas permeability of untreated and nano-silver-impregnated poplar and beech specimens were studied here on the basis of their biological structure and woody mass as well as their vessel element types. A 200 ppm aqueous dispersion of silver nano-particles was used for impregnation; the size range of silver nano-particles was 20-80 nm. Dry-ice treatment increased gas permeability by 87 and 45% in poplar and beech, respectively. Nano-silver impregnation also increased gas permeability by 190 and 89% in poplar and beech, respectively. Dry-ice treatment on nano-silver-impregnated specimens increased gas permeability even more (31% increase in poplar but only 0.96% in beech). It may be concluded that dry-ice treatment on solid woods may be used as a practical method to increase permeability in species that because of their biological structures are impermeable; since this method alters the biological structure slightly and consequently decreases mechanical strength of solid woods insignificantly, it may substitute methods such as incising to increase permeability.

  13. Comparative estimates of transpiration of ash and beech forest at a chalk site in southern Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John; Rosier, Paul T. W.

    1994-11-01

    (1) During the dry summer of 1989 stomatal conductance ( gs), boundary-layer conductance ( ga), leaf water and osmotic potentials ( ψ1, ψπ) and leaf area index ( L∗) measurements were made in mature ash and beech stands growing on shallow soil over chalk near Winchester, Hampshire, UK. In addition measurements of gs and L∗ were made in the understorey layer in the ash stand, comprised mainly of dog's mercury, hazel and bramble. Automatic weather stations located (i) above the beech stand and (ii) at the understorey level (within the ash stand) provided hourly averages of weather variables. Changes in soil moisture deficit in both stands were determined from regular measurements made with a neutron probe. (2) Maximum values of gs (up to 0.3 mol m -2 s -1) were found at the top of the ash and beech canopies at the start of the day, while at the canopy base gs was about half of these values. At all canopy levels the value of gs was more closely associated with specific humidity deficit (at the time of measurement) than with any other weather variable, and there was no relationship between gs and soil mositure deficit or leaf water status, described by ψ1 and ψπ on the day of measurement. (3) Values of gs of the understorey plants were only half those of the tree species and changed less during the day. However, seasonal changes in gs of dog's mercury did seem to be associated with increased soil moisture deficit. (4) Estimates of L∗ in the ash and beech stands were made from leaf litter collections and partitioned into canopy layers using ratios determined by destructive sampling. L∗ of the beech stand was 5.3 and for the ash stand 2.7. L∗ of the understorey varied seasonally and rose to a peak of 3 in June falling gradually for the remainder of the summer period. (5) Hourly values of gs and ga in each stand for each canopy layer were scaled up to the canopy by using L∗ of the individual canopy layers (including the understorey level in the ash stand

  14. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-04-08

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria.

  15. Two Lactarius species associated with a relict Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana population in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Montoya, L; Haug, I; Bandala, V M

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fleshy fungi are being monitored in a population of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana persisting in a montane cloud forest refuge on a volcano in a subtropical region of central Veracruz (eastern Mexico). The population of Fagus studied represents one of the 10 recognized forest fragments still housing this tree genus in Mexico. This is the first attempt to document EM fungi associated with this tree species in Mexico. We present evidence of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for Lactarius badiopallescens and L. cinereus with this endemic tree. Species identification of Lactarius on Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana was based on the comparison of DNAsequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). The occurrence of Lactarius badiopallescens and L. cinereus populations in the area of study represent the southernmost record known to date of these two species in North America and are new for the Neotropical Lactarius mycota. Descriptions coupled with illustrations of macro- and micromorphological features of basidiomes as well as photographs of ectomycorrhizas are presented.

  16. Growth and posture control strategies in Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings in response to canopy disturbance.

    PubMed

    Collet, Catherine; Fournier, Mériem; Ningre, François; Hounzandji, Ablo Paul-Igor; Constant, Thiéry

    2011-06-01

    Forest tree saplings that grow in the understorey undergo frequent changes in their light environment to which they must adapt to ensure their survival and growth. Crown architecture, which plays a critical role in light capture and mechanical stability, is a major component of sapling adaptation to canopy disturbance. Shade-adapted saplings typically have plagiotropic stems and branches. After canopy opening, they need to develop more erect shoots in order to exploit the new light conditions. The objective of this study was to test whether changes in sapling stem inclination occur after canopy opening, and to analyse the morphological changes associated with stem reorientation. A 4-year canopy-opening field experiment with naturally regenerated Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings was conducted. The appearance of new stem axes, stem basal diameter and inclination along the stem were recorded every year after canopy opening. Both species showed considerable stem reorientation resulting primarily from uprighting (more erect) shoot movements in Fagus, and from uprighting movements, shoot elongation and formation of relay shoots in Acer. In both species, the magnitude of shoot uprighting movements was primarily related to initial stem inclination. Both the basal part and the apical part of the stem contributed to uprighting movements. Stem movements did not appear to be limited by stem size or by stem growth. Stem uprighting movements in shade-adapted Fagus and Acer saplings following canopy disturbance were considerable and rapid, suggesting that stem reorientation processes play a significant role in the growth strategy of the species.

  17. Fagus sylvatica L. provenances maintain different leaf metabolic profiles and functional response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Ismael; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de Miguel, Marina; Mancha, Jose Antonio; Guevara, María Angeles; Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, María Brígida

    2017-07-01

    Most temperate forest tree species will suffer important environmental changes as result of the climate change. Adaptiveness to local conditions could change at different sites in the future. In this context, the study of intra-specific variability is important to clarify the singularity of different local populations. Phenotypic differentiation between three beech provenances covering a wide latitudinal range (Spain/ES, Germany/DE and Sweden/SE), was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Non-target leaf metabolite profiles and ecophysiological response was analyzed in well-watered and water stressed seedlings. There was a provenance-specific pattern in the relative concentrations of some leaf metabolites regardless watering treatment. The DE and SE from the center and north of the distribution area of the species showed a clear differentiation from the ES provenance in the relative concentration of some metabolites. Thus the ES provenance from the south maintained larger relative concentration of some organic and amino acids (e.g. fumaric and succinic acids or valine and isoleucine), and in some secondary metabolites (e.g. kaempferol, caffeic and ferulic acids). The ecophysiological response to mild water stress was similar among the three provenances as a consequence of the moderate water stress applied to seedlings, although leaf N isotope composition (δ15N) and leaf C:N ratio were higher and lower respectively in DE than in the other two provenances. This would suggest potential differences in the capacity to uptake and post-process nitrogen according to provenance. An important focus of the study was to address for the first time inter-provenance leaf metabolic diversity in beech from a non-targeted metabolic profiling approach that allowed differentiation of the three studied provenances.

  18. Branch enclosure BVOC flux measurements from Fagus sylvatica L. in a natural forest environment: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarcke, M.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Joo, E.; Dewulf, J.; van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Lemeur, R.; Samson, R.

    2009-04-01

    Natural ecosystems, such as forests, are known to be important sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Oxidation of these biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in the presence of nitrogen oxides can result in net ozone formation and the low-volatility oxidation products may contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation and/or growth. As a result BVOC emissions can have a negative effect on air quality and human health. In the commonly used emission algorithms [Guenther et al., 1995], leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) are the driving variables for BVOC emissions. However, in order to better explain the variability over time of BVOC emissions for a given tree species, the most recent emission algorithms, such as MEGAN [Guenther et al., 2006], also consider other driving variables such as phenology, temperature and light history. To validate these new emission algorithms, dynamic branch enclosure BVOC flux measurements have been performed on an adult Fagus sylvatica L. tree in a natural forest environment under ambient PPFD and temperature conditions. Branches at different levels in the canopy were accessible from a 35 m high measurement tower. The cuvette air was analysed on-line with a hs-PTR-MS instrument, which was located in a log cabin at the bottom of the tower. Ion signals related to monoterpenoid compounds (m/z 81 and 137), isoprene (m/z 69), acetone (m/z 59) and methanol (m/z 33) have been measured continuously with the PTR-MS during several phenological periods, from bud-break to senescence. The data show high monoterpenoid emission rates in spring which gradually decrease until leaf fall. Furthermore, monoterpenoid emissions from shaded leaves in the lower layers of the canopy were found to be negligible compared to those from sunlit leaves in the upper layer of the canopy. Effects of light and temperature history on monoterpenoid emissions from Fagus sylvatica L. will be discussed and compared with results obtained in

  19. Beech bark disease in West Virginia: status and impact on the Monongahela National Forest

    Treesearch

    Manfred E. Mielke; David R. Houston

    1983-01-01

    Cryptoeoccus fagisuga has infested over 70,000 acres (28,000 ha) of forest in West Virginia. Beech bark disease is causing heavy mortality in two areas of the Monongahela National Forest and additional scattered mortality. In the areas most affected, per-acre losses total 1,369 board feet of sawtimber and 2.67 cords, with a potential loss of 5,697...

  20. Cavities in trees around spring seeps in the maple-beech-birch forest type

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey; William M. Healy

    1981-01-01

    We examined 913 trees of 15 species in the vicinity of eight spring seeps in a second-growth maple-beech-birch forest. We found that 18 percent of the trees had large dead limbs that indicated top rot. We found 37 cavities in 27 trees (3.0 percent). However, only seven cavities were being used by wildlife in September and mice (Peromyscus sp.) used...

  1. Proceedings, I.U.F.R.O. Beech Bark Disease Working Party Conference

    Treesearch

    Forest Service. U.S.

    1983-01-01

    This conference was the first full meeting of the Working Party since its inception at the Beech Bark Disease Colloquium held in Nancy, France in 1979. The meeting from 27 September to 7 October 1982 took the form of a study tour convened at the College of Forestry, University of Maine,with field trips in the Central New England States and New York and concluding at...

  2. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  3. Bioorganosolve pretreatments for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of beech wood by ethanolysis and white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hiromichi; Wada, Masanori; Honda, Yoichi; Kuwahara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    2003-08-15

    Ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from beech wood chips after bioorganosolve pretreatments by ethanolysis and white rot fungi, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Dichomitus squalens, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coriolus versicolor. Beech wood chips were pretreated with the white rot fungi for 2-8 weeks without addition of any nutrients. The wood chips were then subjected to ethanolysis to separate them into pulp and soluble fractions (SFs). From the pulp fraction (PF), ethanol was produced by SSF using Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12 and a commercial cellulase preparation, Meicelase, from Trichoderma viride. Among the four strains, C. subvermispora gave the highest yield on SSF. The yield of ethanol obtained after pretreatment with C. subvermispora for 8 weeks was 0.294 g g(-1) of ethanolysis pulp (74% of theoretical) and 0.176 g g(-1) of beech wood chips (62% of theoretical). The yield was 1.6 times higher than that obtained without the fungal treatments. The biological pretreatments saved 15% of the electricity needed for the ethanolysis.

  4. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands

    PubMed Central

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M.; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9–140 years old), oak (11–140 years) and alder (4–76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0–15 cm and 16–30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0–30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha-1, 3.71 Mg ha-1 and 1.53 Mg ha-1, for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0–30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0–30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands. PMID:26859755

  5. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    PubMed

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  6. Beech Fructification and Bank Vole Population Dynamics - Combined Analyses of Promoters of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Reil, Daniela; Imholt, Christian; Eccard, Jana Anja; Jacob, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of wildlife zoonoses to humans depends, amongst others, on complex interactions of host population ecology and pathogen dynamics within host populations. In Europe, the Puumala virus (PUUV) causes nephropathia epidemica in humans. In this study we investigated complex interrelations within the epidemic system of PUUV and its rodent host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). We suggest that beech fructification and bank vole abundance are both decisive factors affecting human PUUV infections. While rodent host dynamics are expected to be directly linked to human PUUV infections, beech fructification is a rather indirect predictor by serving as food source for PUUV rodent hosts. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of bank vole abundance on beech fructification. We analysed a 12-year (2001-2012) time series of the parameters: beech fructification (as food resource for the PUUV host), bank vole abundance and human incidences from 7 Federal States of Germany. For the first time, we could show the direct interrelation between these three parameters involved in human PUUV epidemics and we were able to demonstrate on a large scale that human PUUV infections are highly correlated with bank vole abundance in the present year, as well as beech fructification in the previous year. By using beech fructification and bank vole abundance as predictors in one model we significantly improved the degree of explanation of human PUUV incidence. Federal State was included as random factor because human PUUV incidence varies considerably among states. Surprisingly, the effect of rodent abundance on human PUUV infections is less strong compared to the indirect effect of beech fructification. Our findings are useful to facilitate the development of predictive models for host population dynamics and the related PUUV infection risk for humans and can be used for plant protection and human health protection purposes. PMID:26214509

  7. Delayed fertilization and pollen-tube growth in pistils of Fagus japonica (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sogo, Akiko; Tobe, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    In contrast to most angiosperms, in which fertilization occurs 1 or 2 days after pollination, in some plant orders, including the Fagales, fertilization is delayed from 4 days to more than 1 year, raising questions regarding why fertilization is delayed and where and how pollen tubes remain in the pistil during the delay. To answer these questions, we investigated pollen-tube growth in pistils of Fagus japonica (Fagaceae), which are tricarpellate and have six ovules, using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The ovules were immature at the time of pollination and required 5 weeks to become fully developed. During this 5 weeks, pollen tubes grew from the stigma to the embryo sac in association with the development of ovules and intermittently in three steps with two growth-cessation sites, i.e., on the funicle and near the micropyle. The number of pollen tubes was gradually reduced from many to one at the two growth-cessation sites, and fertilization occurred in one ovule that apparently developed earlier than the others in the pistil. Thus, delayed fertilization plays an important role in gametophyte competition and selection leading to nonrandom fertilization. Intermittent pollen-tube growth is also likely widespread in angiosperms because it is known in other Fagales and an unrelated order Garryales.

  8. Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: a Bayesian modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Lydia; Hammerle, Albin; Sturm, Patrick; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Siegwolf, Rolf; Plüss, Peter; Baur, Thomas; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Field measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13)Δ) of Fagus sylvatica, conducted with branch bags and laser spectrometry, revealed a high variability of (13)Δ, both on diurnal and day-to-day timescales. We tested the prediction capability of three versions of a commonly used model for (13)Δ [called here comprehensive ((13)(Δcomp)), simplified ((13) Δsimple) and revised ((13)(Δrevised)) versions]. A Bayesian approach was used to calibrate major model parameters. Constrained estimates were found for the fractionation during CO(2) fixation in (13)(Δcomp), but not in (13)(Δsimple), and partially for the mesophyll conductance for CO(2)(gi). No constrained estimates were found for fractionations during mitochondrial and photorespiration, and for a diurnally variable apparent fractionation between current assimilates and mitochondrial respiration, specific to (13)(Δrevised). A quantification of parameter estimation uncertainties and interdependencies further helped explore model structure and behaviour. We found that (13)(Δcomp) usually outperformed (13)(Δsimple) because of the explicit consideration of gi and the photorespiratory fractionation in (13)(Δcomp) that enabled a better description of the large observed diurnal variation (≈9‰) of (13)Δ. Flux-weighted daily means of (13)Δ were also better predicted with (13)(Δcomp) than with (13)(Δsimple).

  9. Variation in biogenic volatile organic compound emission pattern of Fagus sylvatica L. due to aphid infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, É.; Van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Dewulf, J.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been the focus of interest to understand atmospheric processes and their consequences in formation of ozone or aerosol particles; therefore, VOCs contribute to climate change. In this study, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) emitted from Fagus sylvatica L. trees were measured in a dynamic enclosure system. In total 18 compounds were identified: 11 monoterpenes (MT), an oxygenated MT, a homoterpene (C 14H 18), 3 sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene and methyl salicylate. The frequency distribution of the compounds was tested to determine a relation with the presence of the aphid Phyllaphis fagi L. It was found that linalool, (E)-β-ocimene, α-farnesene and a homoterpene identified as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), were present in significantly more samples when infection was present on the trees. The observed emission spectrum from F. sylvatica L. shifted from MT to linalool, α-farnesene, (E)-β-ocimene and DMNT due to the aphid infection. Sabinene was quantitatively the most prevalent compound in both, non-infected and infected samples. In the presence of aphids α-farnesene and linalool became the second and third most important BVOC emitted. According to our investigation, the emission fingerprint is expected to be more complex than commonly presumed.

  10. Effects of forest management on carbon and energy exchange of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Mathias; Mund, Martina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon and energy fluxes of a managed beech forest are compared with those of a nearby unmanaged, old-growth beech forest in central Germany. Both forests are located at similar altitude and they face similar meteorological conditions. They are also similar with respect to canopy height (37 m) and mean tree age (120 years). The managed forest is a monospecific, even-aged stand with species-rich ground vegetation and a leaf area index of about 4, whereas the old stand is clearly beech-dominated but interspersed with ash and sycamore trees. It has a multi-layer canopy made up of trees of various ages and its leaf area index is about 5. The comparison is based on 23 site-years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy fluxes and on regular biomass measurements in terms of dendrometry and litter collection. On average the two forests did not differ significantly in annual net carbon uptake derived from eddy covariance data (508 and 483 g C m-2a-1 for the managed and the unmanaged forest, respectively), however the managed forest showed a much larger interannual variability in gross primary production than the unmanaged forest did. This trend agreed well with independent dendrometric measurements of net ecosystem production from both forests. In contrast, ecosystem respiration did neither vary significantly between the two forests nor between different years. The total annual evapotranspiration was higher at the unmanaged forest site (549 mm a-1 compared to 504 mm a-1 at the managed site), which was probably due to a higher interception loss from the denser canopy in the unmanaged forest. We discuss whether the conclusion can be drawn from this case study that common forest management activities improve the water use efficiency of European beech forests but make them more vulnerable, in terms of carbon uptake, against extreme meteorological conditions such as, for example, summer heat waves or late frosts in springtime. Regardless of this

  11. Responses of beech and spruce foliage to elevated carbon dioxide, increased nitrogen deposition and soil type

    PubMed Central

    Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine Silvia; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced carbon fixation by forest trees may contribute significantly to mitigating an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), capacities for this vary greatly among different tree species and locations. This study compared reactions in the foliage of a deciduous and a coniferous tree species (important central European trees, beech and spruce) to an elevated supply of CO2 and evaluated the importance of the soil type and increased nitrogen deposition on foliar nutrient concentrations and cellular stress reactions. During a period of 4 years, beech (represented by trees from four different regions) and spruce saplings (eight regions), planted together on either acidic or calcareous forest soil in the experimental model ecosystem chambers, were exposed to single and combined treatments consisting of elevated carbon dioxide (+CO2, 590 versus 374 μL L−1) and elevated wet nitrogen deposition (+ND, 50 versus 5 kg ha−1 a−1). Leaf size and foliage mass of spruce were increased by +CO2 on both soil types, but those of beech by +ND on the calcareous soil only. The magnitude of the effects varied among the tree origins in both species. Moreover, the concentration of secondary compounds (proanthocyanidins) and the leaf mass per area, as a consequence of cell wall thickening, were also increased and formed important carbon sinks within the foliage. Although the species elemental concentrations differed in their response to CO2 fertilization, the +CO2 treatment effect was weakened by an acceleration of cell senescence in both species, as shown by a decrease in photosynthetic pigment and nitrogen concentration, discolouration and stress symptoms at the cell level; the latter were stronger in beech than spruce. Hence, young trees belonging to a species with different ecological niches can show contrasting responses in their foliage size, but similar responses at the cell level, upon exposure to elevated levels of CO2. The soil type and its nutrient supply

  12. Anti-ice nucleation activity in xylem extracts from trees that contain deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Mizuno, Kaoru; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-12-01

    Boreal hardwood species, including Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukat. var. japonica Hara), Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.), katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. et Zucc.), Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata Blume), mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.), and Japanese rowan (Sorbus commixta Hedl.), had xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) that adapt to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling. Crude extracts from xylem in all these trees were found to have anti-ice nucleation activity that promoted supercooling capability of water as measured by a droplet freezing assay. The magnitude of increase in supercooling capability of water droplets in the presence of ice-nucleation bacteria, Erwinia ananas, was higher in the ranges from 0.1 to 1.7 degrees C on addition of crude xylem extracts than freezing temperature of water droplets on addition of glucose in the same concentration (100 mosmol/kg). Crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum provided the highest supercooling capability of water droplets. Our additional examination showed that crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum exhibited anti-ice nucleation activity toward water droplets containing a variety of heterogeneous ice nucleators, including ice-nucleation bacteria, not only E. ananas but also Pseudomonas syringae (NBRC3310) or Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide or airborne impurities. However, crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum did not affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperature as analyzed by emulsified micro-water droplets. The possible role of such anti-ice nucleation activity in crude xylem extracts in deep supercooling of XPCs is discussed.

  13. Growth and posture control strategies in Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings in response to canopy disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Catherine; Fournier, Mériem; Ningre, François; Hounzandji, Ablo Paul-Igor; Constant, Thiéry

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Forest tree saplings that grow in the understorey undergo frequent changes in their light environment to which they must adapt to ensure their survival and growth. Crown architecture, which plays a critical role in light capture and mechanical stability, is a major component of sapling adaptation to canopy disturbance. Shade-adapted saplings typically have plagiotropic stems and branches. After canopy opening, they need to develop more erect shoots in order to exploit the new light conditions. The objective of this study was to test whether changes in sapling stem inclination occur after canopy opening, and to analyse the morphological changes associated with stem reorientation. Methods A 4-year canopy-opening field experiment with naturally regenerated Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings was conducted. The appearance of new stem axes, stem basal diameter and inclination along the stem were recorded every year after canopy opening. Key Results Both species showed considerable stem reorientation resulting primarily from uprighting (more erect) shoot movements in Fagus, and from uprighting movements, shoot elongation and formation of relay shoots in Acer. In both species, the magnitude of shoot uprighting movements was primarily related to initial stem inclination. Both the basal part and the apical part of the stem contributed to uprighting movements. Stem movements did not appear to be limited by stem size or by stem growth. Conclusions Stem uprighting movements in shade-adapted Fagus and Acer saplings following canopy disturbance were considerable and rapid, suggesting that stem reorientation processes play a significant role in the growth strategy of the species. PMID:21444338

  14. Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: field measurements using laser spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Lydia; Sturm, Patrick; Hammerle, Albin; Siegwolf, Rolf; Wingate, Lisa; Ogée, Jérôme; Baur, Thomas; Plüss, Peter; Barthel, Matti; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    On-line measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13)Δ) under field conditions are sparse. Hence, experimental verification of the natural variability of instantaneous (13)Δ is scarce, although (13)Δ is, explicitly and implicitly, used from leaf to global scales for inferring photosynthetic characteristics. This work presents the first on-line field measurements of (13)Δ of Fagus sylvatica branches, at hourly resolution, using three open branch bags and a laser spectrometer for CO₂ isotopologue measurements (QCLAS-ISO). Data from two August/September field campaigns, in 2009 and 2010, in a temperate forest in Switzerland are shown. Diurnal variability of (13)Δ was substantial, with mean diurnal amplitudes of ~9‰ and maximum diurnal amplitudes of ~20‰. The highest (13)Δ were generally observed during early morning and late afternoon, and the lowest (13)Δ during midday. An assessment of propagated standard deviations of (13)Δ demonstrated that the observed diurnal variation of (13)Δ was not a measurement artefact. Day-to-day variations of (13)Δ were summarized with flux-weighted daily means of (13)Δ, which ranged from 15‰ to 23‰ in 2009 and from 18‰ to 29‰ in 2010, thus displaying a considerable range of 8-11‰. Generally, (13)Δ showed the expected negative relationship with intrinsic water use efficiency. Diurnal and day-to-day variability of (13)Δ was, however, always better predicted by that of net CO₂ assimilation, especially in 2010 when soil moisture was high and vapour pressure deficit was low. Stomatal control of leaf gas exchange, and consequently (13)Δ, could only be identified under drier conditions in 2009.

  15. Symptoms, airway responsiveness, and exposure to dust in beech and oak wood workers

    PubMed Central

    Bohadana, A.; Massin, N.; Wild, P.; Toamain, J.; Engel, S.; Goutet, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the relation between levels of cumulative exposure to wood dust and respiratory symptoms and the occurrence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among beech and oak workers.
METHODS—114 Male woodworkers from five furniture factories and 13 male unexposed controls were examined. The unexposed control group was supplemented by 200 male historical controls. Statistical analyses were performed excluding and including the historical controls. Dust concentration was measured by personal sampling methods. Cumulative exposure to dust was calculated for each woodworker by multiplying the duration of the work by the intensity of exposure (years.mg/m3). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by the methacholine bronchial challenge test. Subjects were labelled methacholine bronchial challenge positive if forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) fell by ⩾20%. The linear dose-response slope was calculated as the last dose divided by the total dose given.
RESULTS—443 Dust samples were collected. The median cumulative exposure to dust was 110 years.mg/m3 with lower and upper quartiles at 70 and 160 years.mg/m3 Overall, no declines in FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found with increasing exposures. A dose-response relation was found between intensity of exposure on the one hand, and sore throat, increased prevalence of positive methacholine bronchial challenge tests, and steeper dose-response slope, on the other.
CONCLUSION—Exposure to oak and beech dust may lead to the development of sore throat and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.


Keywords: bronchial hyperresponsiveness; wood dust; beech; oak PMID:10810114

  16. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots who made simulated instrument flight evaluations experienced improvements in airplane handling qualities in the presence of turbulence and a reduction in pilot workload. For ride quality, quantitative data show that the attitude command control system results in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  17. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  18. Drought effects on allocation of recent carbon: From beech leaves to soil CO2 efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehr, N. K.; Offermann, C. A.; Gessler, A.; Winkler, J. B.; Buchmann, N. C.; Barnard, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a direct and fast transfer of recently-assimilated carbon from tree canopy to roots and soil microorganisms. However, the response of this carbon flux to environmental conditions remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated drought effects on translocation of recently-assimilated carbon, by pulse-labelling 1.5-year old beech tree mesocosms with 13CO2. During the first week after pulse-labelling, 13C signatures were measured daily in leaves, twigs, coarse and fine root water-soluble and total organic matter, phloem organic matter, soil microbial biomass, as well as in soil CO2 efflux. Drought reduced C assimilation and doubled the residence time of recently-assimilated C in leaf biomass. In phloem organic matter, the 13C label peaked immediately after labelling then decayed exponentially in the control treatment, while under drought the peak occurred 4 days after labelling. In soil microbial biomass, the label peaked 1 day after labelling in the control treatment, whereas under drought no peak was measured. The contribution of recently assimilated C to soil CO2 efflux was decreased by 33% in the drought treatment 2 days after labelling. Thus, our study showed that drought reduced both magnitude and velocity of the coupling between canopy photosynthesis and belowground processes in beech mesocosms. This will likely affect soil biogeochemical cycling, with potential consequences including slower soil nitrogen cycling and changes in carbon sequestration potential under future climate conditions.

  19. Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass in beech forests of various ages

    PubMed Central

    Jelaska, Lucija Šerić; Dumbović, Vlatka; Kučinić, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass (MIB) were analysed in three different successional stages of beech tree stands (60, 80 and 150 years old). Carabid beetles were captured using pitfall traps placed at nine sites (three per age class) in the Papuk Mountain of East Croatia during 2008. A cluster analysis identified three groupings that corresponded to the beech age classes. MIB values increased with stand age, ranging from 255 in 60-year-old stand to 537 in the oldest forests. The 80-year-old stand showed the highest species richness and diversity values. With respect to species composition, large species such as Carabus scheidleri and Carabus coriaceus were dominant only in the oldest forests. Furthermore, species that overwinter in the larval stage were more abundant in the oldest forests (45% of the total number of individuals from the 150-year-old stand) than in the younger ones (20% of individuals from 60-year-old, and 22% of individuals from 80-year-old stands). Our results showed that the analyses of species composition and life history traits are valuable for estimating the conservation values of older forests. Although the investigated sites form part of a continuous forested area and are only a couple of kilometres apart, MIB values detect significant differences associated with forest age and can be a useful tool in evaluating the degree to which a forest reflects a natural state. PMID:21738423

  20. Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass in beech forests of various ages.

    PubMed

    Jelaska, Lucija Šerić; Dumbović, Vlatka; Kučinić, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass (MIB) were analysed in three different successional stages of beech tree stands (60, 80 and 150 years old). Carabid beetles were captured using pitfall traps placed at nine sites (three per age class) in the Papuk Mountain of East Croatia during 2008. A cluster analysis identified three groupings that corresponded to the beech age classes. MIB values increased with stand age, ranging from 255 in 60-year-old stand to 537 in the oldest forests. The 80-year-old stand showed the highest species richness and diversity values. With respect to species composition, large species such as Carabus scheidleri and Carabus coriaceus were dominant only in the oldest forests. Furthermore, species that overwinter in the larval stage were more abundant in the oldest forests (45% of the total number of individuals from the 150-year-old stand) than in the younger ones (20% of individuals from 60-year-old, and 22% of individuals from 80-year-old stands). Our results showed that the analyses of species composition and life history traits are valuable for estimating the conservation values of older forests. Although the investigated sites form part of a continuous forested area and are only a couple of kilometres apart, MIB values detect significant differences associated with forest age and can be a useful tool in evaluating the degree to which a forest reflects a natural state.

  1. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses.

    PubMed

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D

    2009-08-01

    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  2. Comparative economic and environmental assessment of four beech wood based biorefinery concepts.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Maik; Nitzsche, Roy

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze four conceptual beech wood based biorefineries generated during process design in terms of environmental and economic criteria. Biorefinery 1 annually converts 400,000 dry metric tons of beech wood into the primary products 41,600t/yr polymer-grade ethylene and 58,520tDM/yr organosolv lignin and the fuels 90,800tDM/yr hydrolysis lignin and 38,400t/yr biomethane. Biorefinery 2 is extended by the product of 58,400t/yr liquid "food-grade" carbon dioxide. Biorefinery 3 produces 69,600t/yr anhydrous ethanol instead of ethylene. Compared to biorefinery 3, biorefinery 4 additionally provides carbon dioxide as product. Biorefinery 3 and 4 seem most promising, since under basic assumptions both criteria, (i) economic effectiveness and (ii) reduction of potential environmental impacts, can be fulfilled. All four alternatives may reduce potential environmental impacts compared to reference systems using the ReCiPe methodology. Economic feasibilities of the analyzed biorefineries are highly sensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in BVOC emission pattern from Fagus sylvatica L. measured by thermal desorber GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, É.; van Langenhove, H.; Schietse, L.; Pokorska, O.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Demarcke, M.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Samson, R.; Dewulf, J.

    2009-04-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forest ecosystems because of their contribution to tropospheric oxidation processes and secondary aerosol formation [1, 2]. It became apparent that biogenic emissions show much more variation than previously assumed. In this poster we focus on the change in BVOC emission patterns from a four year old Fagus sylvatica L. during a growth chamber experiment (PAR, temperature controlled) lasting from March to November 2008. A dynamic branch enclosure system was used in our experiments. Ozone and VOC were removed from air entering the cuvette, as ozone level was found to be a critical parameter for degradation of the compounds [3]. Samples were collected on Tenax TA-Carbotrap solid phase adsorbent tubes and analyzed by TD-GC-MS. Measurements started before budburst of the tree and finished at the end of autumn. Over the entire period 33 samples have been analyzed, while 16 compounds were detected, including 10 monoterpenes (MT), 2 oxygenated-MTs, 2 sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene and methyl salicylate. Sabinene showed the highest emission, in an agreement with previous studies [4, 5]. Quantifiable emission appeared 21 days after budburst, and reached the highest level at the beginning of summer. MT emissions showed a clear trend in following each other. As an illustration the trend of sabinene and limonene emission is presented. In the middle of autumn phytophaga infection was observed on the tree induced by Two-spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae). New compounds appeared as a result of infection (linalool, methyl salicylate, (E,E)-α-farnesene, unknown oxygenated-MT, unknown SQT) and became dominant over sabinene, explained by the low MT emissions at this time of the year. These observations point at the importance of further investigation of BVOC emissions (especially SQTs and oxygenated-MTs) and the need for a proper quantification system of these compounds. We would like

  4. The influece of forest gaps on some properties of humus in a managed beech forest, northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajari, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The present research focuses on the effect of eight-year-old artificially created gaps on some properties of humus in managed beech-dominated stand in Hyrcanian forest of northern Iran. In this study, six-teen gaps were sampled in site and were classified into four classes (small, medium, large, and very large) with four replications for each. Humus sampling was carried out at the centre and at the cardinal points within each gap as well as in the adjacent closed stand, separately, as composite samples. The variables of organic carbon, P, K, pH, and total N were measured for each sample. It was found that the gap size had significant effect only on total N (%) and organic carbon (%) in beech stand. The amount of potassium clearly differed among three positions in beech forest. The adjacent stand had higher significantly potassium than center and edge of gaps. Different amount of potassium was detected in gap center and gap edge. Comparison of humus properties between gaps and its adjacent stand pointed to the higher amount of potassium in adjacent stand than that in gaps but there was no difference between them regarding other humus properties. According to the results, it can be concluded that there is relatively similar condition among gaps and closed adjacent stands in terms of humus properties eight years after logging in the beech stand.

  5. Historical (1749-1899) vs. present-day sugar maple and beech diameter growth in the northeast

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    2011-01-01

    Possible environmental impacts in the Northeast from climate change, acid deposition, nutrient depletion, and other factors could retard tree growth and development in the northeastern United States. To gain insight into growth trends before the 20th century, approximately 150 years of radial growth records taken in 1899 on sugar maple and beech were examined and...

  6. Climate change impairs processes of soil and plant N cycling in European beech forests on marginal soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejedor, Javier; Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Pole, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Bilela, Silvija; Dannenmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Beech forests of Central Europe are covering large areas with marginal calcareous soils, but provide important ecological services and represent a significant economical value. The vulnerability of these ecosystems to projected climate conditions (higher temperatures, increase of extreme drought and precipitation events) is currently unclear. Here we present comprehensive data on the influence of climate change conditions on ecosystem performance, considering soil nitrogen biogeochemistry, soil microbiology, mycorrhiza ecology and plant physiology. We simultaneously quantified major plant and soil gross N turnover processes by homogenous triple 15N isotope labeling of intact beech natural regeneration-soil-microbe systems. This isotope approach was combined with a space for time climate change experiment, i.e. we transferred intact beech seedling-soil-microbe mesocosms from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Transfers within N slope served as controls. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed. Reduced soil water content resulted in a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB). Consequently, we found a massive five-fold reduction of gross nitrification in the climate change treatment and a subsequent strong decline in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech. Because nitrate was the major nutrient for beech in this forest type with little importance of ammonium and amino acids, this resulted in a strongly reduced performance of beech natural regeneration with reduced N content, N metabolite concentrations and plant biomass. These findings provided an explanation for a large-scale decline of distribution of beech forests on calcareous soils in Europe by almost 80% until 2080 predicted by statistical modeling. Hence, we

  7. Profile distribution and temporal changes of sulphate and nitrate contents and related soil properties under beech and spruce forests.

    PubMed

    Tejnecký, Václav; Bradová, Monika; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Sebek, Ondřej; Nikodem, Antonín; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Rejzek, Jan; Drábek, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of principal inorganic anions in forest soils, originating mainly from acid deposition, strongly influences the forest ecosystem response on acidification. The aim of this study was to describe seasonal and temporal changes of sulphate and nitrate contents and related soil properties under beech and spruce forests in a region heavily impacted by acidification. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as such a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. Soil samples were collected at monthly intervals from April to October during the years 2008-2010 under both beech and spruce stands. Soil samples were collected from surface fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons, humic (A) organo-mineral horizons and subsurface mineral (B) horizons (cambic or spodic). A deionised water extract was applied to unsieved fresh samples and the content of anions in these extracts was determined by ion chromatography (IC). In the studied soil profiles, the lowest amount of SO(4)(2-) was found in the organo-mineral A horizons under both types of vegetation. Under spruce the highest amount of SO(4)(2-) was determined in mineral spodic (B) horizons, where a strong sorption influence of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides is expected. Under beech the highest amount was observed in the surface organic F horizons (forest floor). The amount of NO(3)(-) is highest in the F horizons and decreases with increasing soil profile depth under both types of vegetation. A significantly higher amount of NO(3)(-) was determined in soils under the beech stand compared to spruce. For both soil environments - under beech and also spruce stands - we have determined a general increase of water-extractable SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) during the whole monitoring period. The behaviour of SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) in the soils is strongly related to the dynamics of soil organic matter and particularly to the DOC.

  8. Short-term natural δ13C and δ18O variations in pools and fluxes in a beech forest: the transfer of isotopic signal from recent photosynthates to soil respired CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, O.; Proietti, S.; Moscatello, S.; Portarena, S.; Battistelli, A.; Matteucci, G.; Brugnoli, E.

    2011-10-01

    The fate of photosynthetic products within the plant-soil continuum determines how long the reduced carbon resides within the ecosystem and when it returns back to the atmosphere in the form of respiratory CO2. We have tested the possibility of measuring natural variation in δ13C and δ18O to disentangle the potential times needed to transfer carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis down to trunk, roots and, in general, to belowground up to its further release in the form of soil respiration into the atmosphere in a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We have measured the variation in stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions in plant material and in soil respired CO2 every three hours for three consecutive days. Possible steps and different signs of post-photosynthetic fractionation during carbon translocation were also identified. A 12 h-periodicity was observed for variation in δ13C in soluble sugars in the top crown leaves and it can be explained by starch day/night dynamics in synthesis and breakdown and by stomatal limitations under elevated vapour pressure deficits. Photosynthetic products were transported down the trunk and mixed with older carbon pools, therefore causing the dampening of the δ13C signal variation. The strongest periodicity of 24 h was found in δ13C in soil respiration indicating changes in root contribution to the total CO2 efflux. Other non-biological causes like diffusion fractionation and advection induced by gas withdrawn from the measurement chamber complicate data interpretation on this step of C transfer path. Nevertheless, it was possible to identify the speed of carbohydrates' translocation from the point of assimilation to the trunk breast height because leaf-imprinted enrichment of δ18O in soluble sugars was less modified along the downward transport and was well related to environmental parameters potentially linked to stomatal conductance. The speed of carbohydrates translocation from the site of assimilation to the trunk

  9. Production of high concentrated cellulosic ethanol by acetone/water oxidized pretreated beech wood.

    PubMed

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos G; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Lappas, Angelos A; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and inexpensive resource for biofuel production. Alongside its biotechnological conversion, pretreatment is essential to enable efficient enzymatic hydrolysis by making cellulose susceptible to cellulases. Wet oxidation of biomass, such as acetone/water oxidation, that employs hot acetone, water, and oxygen, has been found to be an attractive pretreatment method for removing lignin while producing less degradation products. The remaining enriched cellulose fraction has the potential to be utilized under high gravity enzymatic saccharification and fermentation processes for the cost-competing production of bioethanol. Beech wood residual biomass was pretreated following an acetone/water oxidation process aiming at the production of high concentration of cellulosic ethanol. The effect of pressure, reaction time, temperature, and acetone-to-water ratio on the final composition of the pretreated samples was studied for the efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock. The optimal conditions were acetone/water ratio 1:1, 40 atm initial pressure of 40 vol% O2 gas, and 64 atm at reaction temperature of 175 °C for 2 h incubation. The pretreated beech wood underwent an optimization step studying the effect of enzyme loading and solids content on the enzymatic liquefaction/saccharification prior to fermentation. In a custom designed free-fall mixer at 50 °C for either 6 or 12 h of prehydrolysis using an enzyme loading of 9 mg/g dry matter at 20 wt% initial solids content, high ethanol concentration of 75.9 g/L was obtained. The optimization of the pretreatment process allowed the efficient utilization of beech wood residual biomass for the production of high concentrations of cellulosic ethanol, while obtaining lignin that can be upgraded towards high-added-value chemicals. The threshold of 4 wt% ethanol concentration that is required for the sustainable bioethanol production was surpassed almost twofold

  10. Factors impacting stemflow generation in a European beech forest: Individual tree versus neighborhood properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Johanna Clara; Germer, Sonja; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2017-04-01

    The redistribution of precipitation by canopies changes the water flow dynamics to the forest floor. The spatial pattern of throughfall has been researched in a number of studies in different ecosystems. Yet, also stemflow substantially influences water input patterns, constituting a mean of 12% of gross precipitation for European beech as one of the most abundant tree species in Central Europe. While the initiation of stemflow depends mostly on precipitation event properties, stemflow amounts are strongly shaped by canopy structure. Stemflow research has mainly addressed the impact of single tree morphological variables. In previous studies, the impact of forest structure on area-based stemflow was studied comparing plots with different properties using few exemplary stemflow measurements. In non-homogeneous stands, this approach might not be accurate, as the variation of stand properties like tree density could change tree individual stemflow fluxes. To investigate this, a total measurement of all trees per plot is required. We hypothesize, that in addition to individual tree metrics, tree neighborhood relations have a significant impact on stemflow generation in a heterogeneous beech forest. Our study site is located in the pristine forest of the National Park Hainich, central Germany. It is heterogeneous in respect to tree density, species composition and tree age. We measured stemflow in an areal approach, for all trees on 11 subplots (each 10 m x 10 m) spaced evenly throughout a 1 ha plot. This involved overall 65 trees, which is 11% of the plot's trees. 27 precipitation events were recorded in spring and early summer of 2015 and 2016. Stand properties were surveyed, including diameter at breast height, height, position and species of a tree. From this data, we calculated neighborhood properties for each tree, as number, basal area, and relative height of neighboring trees within a radius of the plot's mean tree distance. Using linear mixed effects models, we

  11. Increased carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest during 1996-2016: Observations and hypotheses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    A study of the net exchange of CO2 (NEE) between the atmosphere and a beech forest near Sorø, Denmark, during 14 years (1996-2009) showed that the beech forest acted as an increasing sink of CO2 [1]. A significant increase in gross primary production (GPP) and a smaller and not significant increase in ecosystem respiration (RE) were also found. Thus, the increased NEE was mainly attributed to an increase in GPP. The length of the carbon uptake period (CUP) significantly increased, whereas there was a no increase in the leafed period (LP). This means that the leaves stayed active longer. The increase in the carbon uptake period explained about half of the increasing NEE. The remaining increase was believed to be due to an observed increased uptake capacity of the canopy and increased annual radiation efficiency[2]. The causes for this were hypothesized to be a combination of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, higher summer precipitation, and increased availability of N. A higher nitrogen content in the leaves was observed towards the end of the observation period. An updated analysis of the flux data, now including the years 1996-2016, confirms the increasing trend in carbon sequestration of the forest, an increasingly longer growing season, and a significant correlation of NEE and CUP, however, similarly to the first study, the increase in CUP only explains about half of the total increase. Here we investigate three hypotheses for the remaining reasons for the increase: H1: increased canopy nitrogen content H2: carbon dioxide fertilisation H3: increased water availability due to changing precipitation patterns. We describe the multiannual development of canopy photosynthesis capacity with regression analysis and perform sensitivity studies with the canopy model MAESTRA [3] to investigate the above hypotheses. The results will be presented, critically discussed and interpreted with respect to general effects of global climate change and site specific, local

  12. Unraveling the growth determinism of Fagus sylvatica: a hybrid data-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas; Delpierre, Nicolas; François, Christophe; Soudani, Kamel; Restoux, Gwendal; Dufrêne, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The physiological processes underlying the limitation of forest growth are still under debate. Growth has long been considered as a carbone (C) limited process (Sala et al., 2012). As a matter of facts, a recent global meta-analysis has shown good agreements between assimilated C and forest productivity (Litton et al., 2007). Consequently, a majority of the process-based productivity models considers growth as a fraction of the net primary production (NPP) (Lacointe et al., 2000; Sitch et al., 2003. However, investigations at the stand scale report conflicting results (Rocha et al., 2006, Mund et al., 2010) and are not systematically consistent with a strict C limitation of growth, thus challenging the C-centric paradigm. The mechanisms that potentially degrade the link between NPP and growth include: i) the direct effect of environmental factors on growth (Zweifel et al., 2006, Körner et al., 2003), ii) the temporal variability of the growth allocation coefficient, due either to ontogeny (Genet et al., 2009), or to the initial physiological state of the tree i.e. to the reaction to past conditions. Indeed, many dendrochronological and ecological studies have shown a correlation between growth and climatic factors of the previous years (e.g. Lebourgeois et al., 2005; Richardson et al., 2012). In this work, we used a hybrid data model approach in order to assess the determinant of Fagus sylvatica stem growth along a spatial gradient across France. Despite they could brought essential insight on tree functioning, intra-specific studies across contrasted sites are still lacking in the current debate. Standardized annual growth data series at the stand scale were calculated using circumference inventories and dendrochronological series on 17 plots of the RENECOFOR network. We used the process-based model CASTANEA, thoroughly validated in long term flux simulation across Europe (e.g. Delpierre et al. 2009), to simulate the annual NPP of the corresponding periods. We

  13. Flight test results for a separate surface stability augmented Beech model 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, G. E.; Henry, H. F.; Roskam, J.

    1977-01-01

    A flight evaluation of a Beech model 99 equipped with an attitude command control system incorporating separate surface stability augmentation (SSSA) was conducted to determine whether an attitude command control system could be implemented using separate surface controls, and to determine whether the handling and ride qualities of the aircraft were improved by the SSSA attitude command system. The results of the program revealed that SSSA is a viable approach to implementing attitude command and also that SSSA has the capability of performing less demanding augmentation tasks such as yaw damping, wing leveling, and pitch damping. The program also revealed that attitude command did improve the pilot rating and ride qualities of the airplane while flying an IFR mission in turbulence. Some disadvantages of the system included the necessity of holding aileron force in a banked turn and excessive stiffness in the pitch axis.

  14. Effect of environmental variables and stand structure on ecosystem respiration components in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    PubMed

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Rey, Ana; D'Andrea, Ettore; Matteucci, Giorgio; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    The temporal variability of ecosystem respiration (RECO) has been reported to have important effects on the temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange, the net amount of carbon exchanged between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. However, our understanding of ecosystem respiration is rather limited compared with photosynthesis or gross primary productivity, particularly in Mediterranean montane ecosystems. In order to investigate how environmental variables and forest structure (tree classes) affect different respiration components and RECO in a Mediterranean beech forest, we measured soil, stem and leaf CO2 efflux rates with dynamic chambers and RECO by the eddy-covariance technique over 1 year (2007-2008). Ecosystem respiration showed marked seasonal variation, with the highest rates in spring and autumn and the lowest in summer. We found that the soil respiration (SR) was mainly controlled by soil water content below a threshold value of 0.2 m(3) m(-3), above which the soil temperature explained temporal variation in SR. Stem CO2 effluxes were influenced by air temperature and difference between tree classes with higher rates measured in dominant trees than in co-dominant ones. Leaf respiration (LR) varied significantly between the two canopy layers considered. Non-structural carbohydrates were a very good predictor of LR variability. We used these measurements to scale up respiration components to ecosystem respiration for the whole canopy and obtained cumulative amounts of carbon losses over the year. Based on the up-scaled chamber measurements, the relative contributions of soil, stem and leaves to the total annual CO2 efflux were: 56, 8 and 36%, respectively. These results confirm that SR is the main contributor of ecosystem respiration and provided an insight on the driving factors of respiration in Mediterranean montane beech forests.

  15. Microbial colonization of beech and spruce litter--influence of decomposition site and plant litter species on the diversity of microbial community.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Shilpi; Fleischmann, Frank; Stich, Susanne; Heller, Werner; Bahnweg, Günther; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2006-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of decomposition site and plant litter species on the colonizing microbial communities. For this, litter bag technique using beech and spruce litter was combined with RNA-based fingerprinting and cloning. Litter bags were incubated for 2 and 8 weeks in the Ah horizon of beech and beech-spruce mixed forest sites. Although sugars and starch were rapidly lost, lignin content increased by more than 40% for beech and more than doubled for spruce litter at both soil sites at the end of the experiment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA RT-PCR products was used for screening of differences between bacterial and fungal communities colonizing the two litter types. Development of the microbial community over time was observed to be specific for each litter type and decomposition site. RT-PCR products from both litter types incubated in beech-spruce mixed forest site were also cloned to identify the bacterial and fungal colonizers. The 16S rRNA clone libraries of beech litter were dominated by gamma-proteobacterial members, whereas spruce libraries were mainly composed of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacterial members. Ascomycota members dominated the 18S rRNA clone libraries. Clones similar to Zygomycota were absent from spruce, whereas those similar to Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were absent from beech libraries. Selective effects of litter quality were observed after 8 weeks. The study provides an insight into the bacterial and fungal communities colonizing beech and spruce litter, and the importance of litter quality and decomposition site as key factors in their development and succession.

  16. Forty-two years of change in an old-growth and second-growth beech-maple forest of north central Ohio

    Treesearch

    Natalie R. Pinheiro; P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Using data collected in 1964 and 2006, we examined changes in the composition and structure of a second-growth and old-growth beech-maple forest of Crall Woods, located in Ashland County of north central Ohio. Over the 42 years, the old-growth forest (estimated to be at least 250 years old) experienced a significant shift in species composition as American beech,...

  17. Water stress-induced xylem hydraulic failure is a causal factor of tree mortality in beech and poplar

    PubMed Central

    Barigah, Têtè Sévérien; Charrier, Olivia; Douris, Marie; Bonhomme, Marc; Herbette, Stéphane; Améglio, Thierry; Fichot, Régis; Brignolas, Frank; Cochard, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Extreme water stress episodes induce tree mortality, but the physiological mechanisms causing tree death are still poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that a potted tree's ability to survive extreme monotonic water stress is determined by the cavitation resistance of its xylem tissue. Methods Two species were selected with contrasting cavitation resistance (beech and poplar), and potted juvenile trees were exposed to a range of water stresses, causing up to 100 % plant death. Key Results The lethal dose of water stress, defined as the xylem pressure inducing 50 % mortality, differed sharply across species (1·75 and 4·5 MPa in poplar and beech, respectively). However, the relationships between tree mortality and the degree of cavitation in the stems were similar, with mortality occurring suddenly when >90 % cavitation had occurred. Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that cavitation resistance is a causal factor of tree mortality under extreme drought conditions. PMID:24081280

  18. Growth response of oaks, beech and pine to Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Dejan; Levanič, Tom; Matović, Bratislav; Orlović, Saša

    2017-04-01

    Climate change may have various consequences on forests, from more frequent forest fires and windstorms to pest and disease outbreaks. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was chosen for the evaluation of climate change impact to radial forest growth, after comprehensive testing of different climate parameters from CARPATCLIM database. SPI was calculated for periods between 3 and 36 months for different forest stands (lowland and mountainous parts of Serbia, Southeast Europe). Observed were following tree species: Quercus robur, Q. cerris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris. Bootstrapped Pearson's correlation between SPI monthly indices and tree-ring widths was calculated and ranked for all species. We found that 12-month SPI for summer months may be a good predictor for growth of different species at different sites. The strongest positive correlation between tree-ring width indices and SPI was particularly from the year of growth, since the strongest negative correlation for all four species was exclusively from the year prior to growth. The strongest positive correlation were between 12 and 14-month SPI from June to September, which suggests that the high growth rates are expected when autumn of previous-year, winter, spring and summer of the current year are with high precipitation rates.

  19. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions.

    PubMed

    Urban, Otmar; Klem, Karel; Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Šprtová, Mirka; Teslová-Navrátilová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal V; Grace, John

    2014-02-01

    It has been suggested that atmospheric CO2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit.

  20. Carbohydrate concentrations in different plant parts of young beech and spruce along a gradient of ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Sabine; Zugmaier, Ulrike; Thomas, Vera; Flückiger, Walter

    Young beech and spruce were grown in pots along a gradient of ozone pollution in Switzerland. Spruce was harvested after one and beech after two seasons and carbohydrate concentrations were measured in different plant fractions. Ozone uptake was calculated as cumulative flux, cumulative flux with thresholds of 1.6 or 3.2 nmol m -2 s -1, or as AOT40. In beech, the monosaccharide concentration in fine roots showed a decreasing trend with increasing ozone, with similar results for all methods used to quantify ozone. In spruce, the concentration of starch decreased in both the thicker root fractions (∅ 1-5 and >5 mm) and stems with increasing ozone, whereas starch concentrations in needles increased with increasing ozone. In the needles, the increase in starch concentration showed the best correlation with cumulative ozone uptake. The defining of the length of the growing season proved to be a crucial parameter in the flux calculations. The results suggest that carbohydrate concentrations may be used as an indicator for ozone impact in spruce.

  1. Influences of different large mammalian fauna on dung beetle diversity in beech forests.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Koike, Shinsuke; Sakamaki, Haruka

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on biological relationships between mammalian species richness and the community structure of dung beetles in cool-temperate forests in the northernmost part of mainland Japan. The composition of beetle assemblages was evaluated at 3 sites in undisturbed beech forests with different mammalian fauna. In spring and summer 2009, beetles were collected at each site using pitfall traps baited with feces from Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata Blyth (Primates: Cercopithecidae); Asiatic black bears, Ursus thibetanus Cuvier (Carnivora: Ursidae); Japanese serows, Capricornis crispus Temminck (Artiodactyla: Bovidae); and cattle. In the present study, 1,862 dung beetles representing 14 species were collected, and most dung beetles possessed the ecological characteristic of selecting specific mammalian feces. The present findings indicated that although species diversity in dung beetle assemblages was not necessarily positively correlated with mammalian species richness in cool-temperate forests, the absence of the macaque population directly resulted in the marked reduction of the beetle abundance, with the loss of the most frequent species, Aphodius eccoptus Bates (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) during spring.

  2. Thermal conductivity of the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases of the beech wood biocarbon nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartenko, N. F.; Orlova, T. S.; Parfen'eva, L. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Natural composites (biocarbons) obtained by carbonization of beech wood at different carbonization temperatures T carb in the range of 800-2400°C have been studied using X-ray diffraction. The composites consist of an amorphous matrix and nanocrystallites of graphite and graphene. The volume fractions of the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases as functions of T carb have been determined. Temperature dependences of the phonon thermal conductivity κ( T) of the biocarbons with different temperatures T carb (1000 and 2400°C) have been analyzed in the range of 5-300 K. It has been shown that the behavior of κ( T) of the biocarbon with T carb = 1000°C is controlled by the amorphous phase in the range of 5-50 K and by the nanocrystalline phase in the range of 100-300 K. The character of κ( T) of the biocarbon with T carb = 2400°C is determined by the heat transfer (scattering) in the nanocrystalline phase over the entire temperature range of 5-300 K.

  3. Thermal conductivity at the amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in beech wood biocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2014-05-01

    High-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon (BE-C) were prepared by pyrolysis at carbonization temperatures T carb = 650, 1300, and 1600°C, and their resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ were studied in the 5-300 and 80-300 K temperature intervals. The experimental results obtained were evaluated by invoking X-ray diffraction data and information on the temperature dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) for BE-C samples prepared at T carb = 800, 1000, and 2400°C, which were collected by the authors earlier. An analysis of the κ( T carb) behavior led to the conclusion that the samples under study undergo an amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in the interval 800°C < T carb < 1000°C. Evaluation of the electronic component of the thermal conductivity revealed that the Lorentz number of the sample prepared at T carb = 2400°C exceeds by far the classical Sommerfeld value, which is characteristic of metals and highly degenerate semiconductors.

  4. Specific features of the electrical properties in partially graphitized porous biocarbons of beech wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Gutierrez-Pardo, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2015-09-01

    The electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of partially graphitized highly porous bioC(Ni) biocarbon matrices produced by pyrolysis (carbonization) of beech wood at temperatures T carb = 850-1600°C in the presence of a Ni-containing catalyst have been studied in comparison with their microstructural features. The temperature dependences of the resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient have been measured in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K in magnetic fields to 28 kOe. It has been shown that an additional graphite phase introduction into samples with T carb ≥ 1000°C results in an increase in the carrier mobility by a factor of 2-3, whereas the carrier (hole) concentration remains within ~1020 cm-3, as in biocarbons obtained without catalyst. An analysis of experimental data has demonstrated that the features of the conductivity and magnetoresistance of these samples are described by quantum corrections related to their structural features, i.e., the formation of a globular graphite phase of nano- and submicrometer sizes in the amorphous matrix. The quantum corrections to the conductivity decrease with increasing carbonization temperature, which indicates an increase in the degree of structure ordering and is in good agreement with microstructural data.

  5. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition. PMID:27511465

  6. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-08-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition.

  7. Tracking the incorporation of 15N from labeled beech litter into mineral-organic associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, M.; Hatton, P.; Derrien, D.; Lajtha, K.; Zeller, B.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen containing organic compounds are thought to have a role in the complex web of processes that control the turnover time of soil organic matter. The sequential density fractionation technique is increasingly used for the purpose of investigating the association of organic materials with the mineral matrix. Organic materials in the denser fractions (>2.0 kg L-1) typically show 13C NMR signals indicative of carbohydrate and aliphatic structures, an absence of lignin and tannin structures and a narrow C:N ratio, suggesting a microbial origin of organic matter in these fractions. Here we take advantage of a labeling experiment conducted at two different sites in Germany and in France to investigate the incorporation of organic nitrogen into physical fractions of increasing density, representing a proximity gradient to mineral surfaces. 15N labeled beech litter was applied to two acidic forest topsoils 8 and 12 years ago. Although there are differences in the distribution patterns between the two soils, and the majority of the organic nitrogen was recovered in fractions representing organic matter of plant origin and not bound to the mineral matrix, our data clearly show that after a decade, significant amounts of the nitrogen had been incorporated in mineral-organic fractions of supposedly slow turnover. It remains to be shown to which extent the N in the densest fractions was incorporated by soil microbiota and associated with mineral surfaces in organic form or adsorbed to mineral surfaces in inorganic form (NH4+).

  8. Effects of liming on potential oxalate secretion and iron chelation of beech ectomycorrhizal root tips.

    PubMed

    Rineau, François; Garbaye, Jean

    2010-08-01

    Liming is used to counteract forest decline induced by soil acidification. It consists of Ca and Mg input to forest soil and not only restores tree mineral nutrition but also modifies the availability of nutrients in soil. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are involved in mineral nutrient uptake by trees and can recover them through dissolution of mineral surface. Oxalate and siderophore secretion are considered as the main agents of mineral weathering by ECMs. Here, we studied the effects of liming on the potential oxalate secretion and iron complexation by individual beech ECM root tips. Results show that freshly excised Lactarius subdulcis root tips from limed plots presented a high potential oxalate exudation of 177 μM tip(-1) h(-1). As this ECM species distribution is very dense, it is likely that, in the field, oxalate concentrations in the vicinity of its clusters could be very high. This points out that not only extraradical mycelium but also ECM root tips of certain species can contribute significantly to mineral weathering. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) separated potential oxalate production by ECM root tips in limed and untreated plots, and this activity was mainly driven by L. subdulcis ECMs, but NMDS on potential activity of iron mobilization by ECM root tips did not show a difference between limed and untreated plots. As the mean oxalate secretion did not significantly correlated with the mean iron mobilization by ECM morphotype, we conclude that iron complexation was due to either other organic acids or to siderophores.

  9. Types of ectomycorrhiza of mature beech and spruce at ozone-fumigated and control forest plots.

    PubMed

    Grebenc, Tine; Kraigher, Hojka

    2007-05-01

    In the Kranzberg forest near Freising (Germany) a novel "Free-Air Canopy O3 Exposure" system has been employed for analysing O3-induced responses from sub-cellular to ecosystem levels that are relevant for carbon balance and CO2 demand of 60-year-old beech trees. The below-ground ectomycorrhizal community was studied in two-fold ambient O3 concentrations (five cores per sampling) and in a control plot with an ambient O3 concentration (four cores per sampling). Five samplings were taken throughout two vegetation seasons (2003 and 2004). Types of ectomycorrhiza were determined by their morphological, anatomical and molecular characteristics and quantified by counting. The total number of mycorrhizal fine roots was higher at the fumigated plot as compared with the control site. The numbers of ectomycorrhizal types at the fumigated and control plots were 28 and 26, respectively. Cenococcum geophilum was present in all soil cores at all sampling times with a significant increase in abundance under ozone-fumigated trees. Other mycorrhizal types present at higher abundance at the fumigated than at the control plot were identified as Russula densiflora, R. fellea, R. illota, Tuber puberulum, Lactarius sp. 2 and Russula sp. 2. Some mycorrhizal types were present exclusively at the fumigated plot (Fagirhiza fusca, F. setifera, Lactarius acris, Piceirhiza nigra and Russula sp. 1). A possible ecological role for the abundant types of ectomycorrhiza and their putative application in bio-indication is discussed.

  10. Dissolution of beech and spruce milled woods in LiCl/DMSO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiguo; Yokoyama, Tomoya; Chang, Hou-Min; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2009-07-22

    A novel solvent system, lithium chloride/dimethyl sulfoxide (LiCl/DMSO), was developed for dissolving milled wood. This system completely dissolved beech and spruce milled woods prepared from the Wiley woods (coarse wood meals prepared by a Wiley mill) by 2 h planetary ball-milling under the milling conditions employed. The dependence of the structural change of lignin on the degree of milling was examined to evaluate the correlation between the dissolution and lignin structure. The nitrobenzene oxidation analyses showed that the 2 h milling caused almost no structural change in the aromatic part of lignin in the milled woods. The ozonation analyses suggested that the decrease of the erythro ratio [erythro/(erythro + threo)] obtained from beta-O-4 structure in lignin is only 0.35% after the 2 h milling. Although the yield decrease of the ozonation products was 9.8% after the 2 h milling, this value was fairly smaller than that after a longer time milling. When it is taken into consideration that the other solvent systems for dissolution of wood meal, which are proposed by Lu and Ralph, require 5 h of milling under the same milling conditions to dissolve the milled woods, it is safely stated that the LiCl/DMSO solvent system completely dissolves milled wood, the lignin of which is structurally less altered and, thus, is expected to provide an improved method for structural analysis of the entire lignin fraction in wood cell wall.

  11. Influences of Different Large Mammalian Fauna on Dung Beetle Diversity in Beech Forests

    PubMed Central

    Enari, Hiroto; Koike, Shinsuke; Sakamaki, Haruka

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on biological relationships between mammalian species richness and the community structure of dung beetles in cool-temperate forests in the northernmost part of mainland Japan. The composition of beetle assemblages was evaluated at 3 sites in undisturbed beech forests with different mammalian fauna. In spring and summer 2009, beetles were collected at each site using pitfall traps baited with feces from Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata Blyth (Primates: Cercopithecidae); Asiatic black bears, Ursus thibetanus Cuvier (Carnivora: Ursidae); Japanese serows, Capricornis crispus Temminck (Artiodactyla: Bovidae); and cattle. In the present study, 1,862 dung beetles representing 14 species were collected, and most dung beetles possessed the ecological characteristic of selecting specific mammalian feces. The present findings indicated that although species diversity in dung beetle assemblages was not necessarily positively correlated with mammalian species richness in cool-temperate forests, the absence of the macaque population directly resulted in the marked reduction of the beetle abundance, with the loss of the most frequent species, Aphodius eccoptus Bates (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) during spring. PMID:23909510

  12. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC.

  13. Phosphorus resorption by young beech trees and soil phosphatase activity as dependent on phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Kerstin; Heuck, Christine; Spohn, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by decreasing foliar phosphorus (P) concentrations in Fagus sylvatica L. forests, we studied P recycling depending on P fertilization in mesocosms with juvenile trees and soils of two contrasting F. sylvatica L. forests in a greenhouse. We hypothesized that forests with low soil P availability are better adapted to recycle P than forests with high soil P availability. The P resorption efficiency from senesced leaves was significantly higher at the P-poor site (70 %) than at the P-rich site (48 %). P fertilization decreased the resorption efficiency significantly at the P-poor site to 41 %, while it had no effect at the P-rich site. Both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were higher in the rhizosphere of the P-poor than of the P-rich site by 53 and 27 %, respectively, while the activities did not differ in the bulk soil. Fertilization decreased acid phosphatase activity significantly at the P-poor site in the rhizosphere, but had no effect on the alkaline, i.e., microbial, phosphatase activity at any site. Acid phosphatase activity in the P-poor soil was highest in the rhizosphere, while in the P-rich soil, it was highest in the bulk soil. We conclude that F. sylvatica resorbed P more efficiently from senescent leaves at low soil P availability than at high P availability and that acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere but not in the bulk soil was increased at low P availability. Moreover, we conclude that in the P-rich soil, microbial phosphatases contributed more strongly to total phosphatase activity than plant phosphatases.

  14. Reconstruction of a beech population bottleneck using archival demographic information and Bayesian analysis of genetic data.

    PubMed

    Lander, Tonya A; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Prouillet-Leplat, Helene; Klein, Etienne K

    2011-12-01

    Range expansion and contraction has occurred in the history of most species and can seriously impact patterns of genetic diversity. Historical data about range change are rare and generally appropriate for studies at large scales, whereas the individual pollen and seed dispersal events that form the basis of geneflow and colonization generally occur at a local scale. In this study, we investigated range change in Fagus sylvatica on Mont Ventoux, France, using historical data from 1838 to the present and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses of genetic data. From the historical data, we identified a population minimum in 1845 and located remnant populations at least 200 years old. The ABC analysis selected a demographic scenario with three populations, corresponding to two remnant populations and one area of recent expansion. It also identified expansion from a smaller ancestral population but did not find that this expansion followed a population bottleneck, as suggested by the historical data. Despite a strong support to the selected scenario for our data set, the ABC approach showed a low power to discriminate among scenarios on average and a low ability to accurately estimate effective population sizes and divergence dates, probably due to the temporal scale of the study. This study provides an unusual opportunity to test ABC analysis in a system with a well-documented demographic history and identify discrepancies between the results of historical, classical population genetic and ABC analyses. The results also provide valuable insights into genetic processes at work at a fine spatial and temporal scale in range change and colonization.

  15. Asymmetric effects of cooler and warmer winters on beech phenology last beyond spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signarbieux, Constant; Toledano, Ester; Sangines, Paula; Fu, Yongshuo; Schlaepfer, Rodolphe; Buttler, Alexandre; Vitasse, Yann

    2017-04-01

    In temperate trees, the timing of plant growth onset and cessation affect biogeochemical cycles, water and energy balance. Currently, phenological studies largely focus on specific phenophases and on their responses to warming. How differently spring phenology responds to the warming and cooling, and affects the subsequent phases, has not been well investigated. Here, we exposed saplings of Fagus sylvatica L. to warmer and cooler climate during the winter 2013-2014 by conducting a reciprocal transplant experiment between two elevations (1340 vs. 371 m.a.s.l., ca. 6°C difference) in the Swiss Jura mountains. To test the legacy effects of earlier or later budburst on the budset timing, saplings were moved back to their original elevation shortly after the occurrence of budburst in spring 2014. One degree decrease of air temperature resulted in a delay of 10.9 days in budburst dates, whereas one degree of warming advanced the date by 8.8 days. Interestingly, we found an asymmetric effect of the warmer winter vs. cooler winter on the budset timing in autumn: saplings experiencing a cooler winter showed a delay of 31 days in their budset timing compared to the control, whereas saplings experiencing a warmer winter showed 10 days earlier budset. The dependency of spring over autumn phenophases might be partly explained by the building up of the non-structural carbohydrate storage and suggests that the potential delay in growth cessation due to global warming might be smaller than expected. We did not find a significant correlation in budburst dates between 2014 and 2015, indicating that the legacy effects of the different phenophases might be reset during each winter. Adapting phenological models to the whole annual phenological cycle, and considering the different response to cooling and warming, would improve predictions of tree phenology under future climate warming conditions.

  16. Enhanced simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated beech wood by in situ treatment with the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus in a membrane aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Brethauer, Simone; Robert Lawrence, Shahab; Michael Hans-Peter, Studer

    2017-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of steam pretreatment and biological treatment with lignin degrading fungal strains in order to enable efficient bioprocessing of beech wood to ethanol. In a sequential process of steam and fungal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, Irpex lacteus almost doubled the glucose yield for mildly pretreated beech wood, but could not improve yields for more severely pretreated substrates. However, when simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is combined with in situ I. lacteus treatment, which is enabled by the application of a membrane aerated biofilm reactor, ethanol yields of optimally steam pretreated beech could be improved from 65 to 80%. Generally, in situ fungal treatment during bioprocessing of lignocellulose is an interesting method to harness the versatile abilities of white rot fungi.

  17. Whole-tree seasonal nitrogen uptake and partitioning in adult Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies L. [Karst.] trees exposed to elevated ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Rötzer, T; Matyssek, R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure of twice-ambient O(3) (2 × O(3)) on whole-tree nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning of adult beech and spruce was studied in a mixed forest stand, SE-Germany. N uptake as (15)N tracer and N pools were calculated using N concentrations and biomass of tree compartments. Whole-tree N uptake tended to be lower under 2 × O(3) in both species compared to trees under ambient O(3) (1 × O(3)). Internal partitioning in beech showed significantly higher allocation of new N to roots, with mycorrhizal root tips and fine roots together receiving about 17% of new N (2 × O(3)) versus 7% (1 × O(3)). Conversely, in spruce, N allocation to roots was decreased under 2 × O(3). These contrasting effects on belowground N partitioning and pool sizes, being largely consistent with the pattern of N concentrations, suggest enhanced N demand and consumption of stored N with higher relevance for tree-internal N cycling in beech than in spruce.

  18. Tree girdling as a tool to study plant-microbe C- and N interactions in beech rhizsophere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenmann, Michael; Simon, Judy; Gasche, Rainer; Pena, Rodica; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz; Papen, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is complex since it involves the closely interwoven processes of both N uptake by plants and microbial turnover of a variety of N metabolites. Major interactions between plants and microorganisms involve competition for the same N species, provision of plant nutrients by microorganisms and labile carbon supply to microorganisms by plants via root exudation. Despite these close links between microbial N metabolism and plant N uptake, only few studies tried to overcome isolated views of plant N acquisition or microbial N fluxes. Here we studied competitive patterns of N fluxes in a mountainous beech forest ecosystem between both plants and microorganisms by reducing rhizodeposition by tree girdling. Besides labile C and N pools in soil, we investigated total microbial biomass in soil, microbial N turnover (N mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, microbial immobilization) as well as microbial community structure using denitrifiers and mycorrhizal fungi as model organisms for important functional groups. Furthermore, plant uptake of organic and inorganic N and N metabolite profiles in roots were determined. Surprisingly plants preferred organic over inorganic nitrogen and nitrate over ammonium in all treatments. Microbial N turnover and microbial biomass were in general negatively correlated to plant nitrogen acquisition and plant nitrogen pools, thus indicating strong competition for nitrogen between plants and free living microorganisms. The abundance of the dominant mycorrhizal fungi Cenococcum geophilum was negatively correlated to total soil microbial biomass but positively correlated to glutamine uptake by beech and amino acid concentration in fine roots indicating a significant role of this mycorrhizal fungus in the acquisition of organic N by beech. Tree girdling in general resulted in a decrease of dissolved organic carbon and total microbial biomass in soil while the abundance of Cenococcum geophilum

  19. Response of Soil Respiration to Repeated Extreme Events in a Temperate Beech Forest in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, S.; Kobler, J.; Holtermann, C.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Saronjic, N.; Zimmermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change research predicts an increase in weather extremes like severe droughts and heavy rainfalls in central Europe. Since soil moisture is one of the most important drivers of soil respiration, a change in precipitation regime is likely to influence ecosystem C cycling. During drying of soils, soil microbial activity decreases and dead microbial cells, osmolytes, and semi-decomposed organic matter accumulate. When dry soils are rewetted, this easily-decomposable C leads to a pulse in soil respiration, a phenomenon known as "Birch-effect". In terms of annual soil CO2emissions, it is not clear whether these post-wetting respiration pulses outweigh or even overcompensate preceding drought-induced reductions in soil respiration. To investigate the impact of repeated drought and heavy rainfall events, a two-year precipitation manipulation experiment was conducted in an Austrian beech forest. Experimental plots were covered with transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, and an irrigation system was used to simulate heavy rainfall events. Control plots received natural precipitation. Soil respiration was monitored 3-hourly with an automatic static chamber system connected to an infrared CO2 analyzer. Soil temperature (Tsoil) and volumetric water content (VWC) were recorded with a datalogger. Various statistical models were tested to describe the relationship between soil respiration, Tsoiland VWC. Our results showed that repeated extreme events strongly reduced variation in soil respiration. Droughts significantly reduced soil respiration, and reductions depended on the length of the drought period. Post-wetting respiration pulses did not outweigh drought-induced reductions. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was best described with a Lloyd & Taylor model. Furthermore, in stressed plots VWC became limiting for soil respiration. Overall, our data corroborate the importance of the precipitation regime for soil respiration.

  20. Seasonal variation in functional properties of microbial communities in beech forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, Marianne; Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Kitzler, Barbara; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Substrate quality and the availability of nutrients are major factors controlling microbial decomposition processes in soils. Seasonal alteration in resource availability, which is driven by plants via belowground C allocation, nutrient uptake and litter fall, also exerts effects on soil microbial community composition. Here we investigate if seasonal and experimentally induced changes in microbial community composition lead to alterations in functional properties of microbial communities and thus microbial processes. Beech forest soils characterized by three distinct microbial communities (winter and summer community, and summer community from a tree girdling plot, in which belowground carbon allocation was interrupted) were incubated with different 13C-labeled substrates with or without inorganic N supply and analyzed for substrate use and various microbial processes. Our results clearly demonstrate that the three investigated microbial communities differed in their functional response to addition of various substrates. The winter communities revealed a higher capacity for degradation of complex C substrates (cellulose, plant cell walls) than the summer communities, indicated by enhanced cellulase activities and reduced mineralization of soil organic matter. In contrast, utilization of labile C sources (glucose) was lower in winter than in summer, demonstrating that summer and winter community were adapted to the availability of different substrates. The saprotrophic community established in girdled plots exhibited a significantly higher utilization of complex C substrates than the more plant root associated community in control plots if additional nitrogen was provided. In this study we were able to demonstrate experimentally that variation in resource availability as well as seasonality in temperate forest soils cause a seasonal variation in functional properties of soil microorganisms, which is due to shifts in community structure and physiological adaptations

  1. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michael; Stöckler, Karen; Havell, David; Delsuc, Frédéric; Sebastiani, Federico; Lockhart, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Nothofagus (southern beech), with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  2. Humans in the Hoxnian: habitat, context and fire use at Beeches Pit, West Stow, Suffolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, R. C.; Gowlett, J. A. J.; Parfitt, S. A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Lewis, S. G.

    2006-07-01

    A Lower Palaeolithic industry at Beeches Pit, West Stow, Suffolk, occurs within an interglacial sequence that immediately overlies glacial deposits, referable to the Anglian Lowestoft Formation. There is strong biostratigraphical evidence from both vertebrates and molluscs that the interglacial represented is the Hoxnian (MIS 11). This conclusion is supported by uranium series dates from carbonate nodules (>400 kyr), TL dates from burnt flint (414 +/- 30 kyr) and a range of amino acid racemisation data. The archaeology consists of flint artefacts of Acheulian character, including many refitting examples. Charred material is abundant in three stratigraphical units and many bones and flints have been burnt, indicating repeated occurrence of fire. Several discrete areas of burnt sediment appear to be hearths. This interpretation is supported by: (1) the intensity of burning (600-800°C) implied by the charred and calcined bones; (2) the intersection of two of the burnt areas, implying separate burning events at slightly different, overlapping locations; (3) the discovery of two burnt flakes that refit onto an adjacent group that are unburnt, indicating that the burning was highly localised; and (4) the spatial distribution of artefacts respects the features interpreted as hearths, suggesting fireside knapping. Fossils associated with the archaeology indicate occupation within closed deciduous forest in a fully temperate climate. Attractions to this unusual environment would have included the fresh water provided by springs, a rich supply of potential food and a prolific source of good quality flint for tool manufacture. The archaeological evidence therefore suggests that the site repeatedly served as an area of focused activities (perhaps a home-base) during much of the interglacial. The upper levels of the sequence provide clear faunal evidence of climatic deterioration during which human occupation and fire use persisted. Biostratigraphical correlations with other

  3. Photosynthetic traits of Siebold's beech seedlings in changing light conditions by removal of shading trees under elevated CO₂.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Kitaoka, S; Eguchi, N; Watanabe, Y; Satomura, T; Takagi, K; Satoh, F; Koike, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain basic information on acclimation capacity of photosynthesis in Siebold's beech seedlings to increasing light intensity under future elevated CO2 conditions. We monitored leaf photosynthetic traits of these seedlings in changing light conditions (before removal of shade trees, the year after removal of shade trees and after acclimation to open conditions) in a 10-year free air CO2 enrichment experiment in northern Japan. Elevated CO2 did not affect photosynthetic traits such as leaf mass per area, nitrogen content and biochemical photosynthetic capacity of chloroplasts (i.e. maximum rate of carboxylation and maximum rate of electron transport) before removal of the shade trees and after acclimation to open conditions; in fact, a higher net photosynthetic rate was maintained under elevated CO2 . However, in the year after removal of the shade trees, there was no increase in photosynthesis rate under elevated CO2 conditions. This was not due to photoinhibition. In ambient CO2 conditions, leaf mass per area and nitrogen content were higher in the year after removal of shade trees than before, whereas there was no increase under elevated CO2 conditions. These results indicate that elevated CO2 delays the acclimation of photosynthetic traits of Siebold's beech seedlings to increasing light intensity.

  4. Stomatal ozone flux and visible leaf injury in native juvenile trees of Fagus sylvatica L.: a field study from the Jizerske hory Mts., the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vlasáková-Matoušková, Leona; Hůnová, Iva

    2015-07-01

    The study was carried out at six sites in the Jizerskehory Mts. in the north of the Czech Republic. At all these sites, ranging in altitude between 460 and 962 m a. s. l., and during the period from June to September in 2008, O3 concentrations and environmental parameters important for accumulated stomatal O3 flux (AFst) into Fagus sylvatica leaves were measured. At five sites, visible injury on Fagus sylvatica L. juvenile tree leaves was observed. A combination of actual O3 levels in the Jizerkehory Mts. and environmental conditions, though relative air humidity and air temperature significantly limited stomatal conductance, has been sufficient enough to cause O3 uptake exceeding the critical level (CL) for forest ecosystems. The AFst values ranged between 13.4 and 22.3 mmol O3 m(-2). The CL for the accumulated stomatal flux of O3 above a flux threshold 1.6 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (AFst1.6) was exceeded at all sites from ca 45 to 270% (160% on average). The CL of 5 ppm h(-1) for AOT40 (accumulated O3 exposure above threshold of 40 ppb) was exceeded at four sites. The relationship between visible injury on O3 indices was found. The conclusions based on AOT40 and AFSt are not the same. AFSt has been determined as better predictor of visible injury than AOT40.

  5. The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Muzika, R M; Guyette, R P; Zielonka, T; Liebhold, A M

    2004-07-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO(2) and SO(2) were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O(3) alone was not related to growth, the maximum O(3) value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  6. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  7. 77 FR 34339 - Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei, 165 Beech Street, Belmont, MA 02378; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei, 165 Beech Street, Belmont, MA 02378; Order..., Yufeng Wei, a/k/a Annie Wei (``Wei'') was convicted of violating the International Emergency Economic... her conviction. Accordingly, it is hereby ordered I. Until January 28, 2021, Yufeng Wei, a/k/a...

  8. Eddy-covariance methane flux measurements over a European beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The role of forests in global methane (CH4) turnover is currently not well constrained, partially because of the lack of spatially integrative forest-scale measurements of CH4 fluxes. Soil chamber measurements imply that temperate forests generally act as CH4 sinks. Upscaling of chamber observations to the forest scale is however problematic, if the upscaling is not constrained by concurrent 'top-down' measurements, such as of the eddy-covariance type, which provide sufficient integration of spatial variations and of further potential CH4 flux components within forest ecosystems. Ongoing development of laser absorption-based optical instruments, resulting in enhanced measurement stability, precision and sampling speed, has recently improved the prospects for meaningful eddy-covariance measurements at sites with presumably low CH4 fluxes, hence prone to reach the flux detection limit. At present, we are launching eddy-covariance CH4 measurements at a long-running ICOS flux tower site (Hainich National Park, Germany), located in a semi natural, unmanaged, beech dominated forest. Eddy-covariance measurements will be conducted with a laser spectrometer for parallel CH4, H2Ov and CO2 measurements (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Independent observations of the CO2 flux by the FGGA and a standard Infrared Gas Analyser (LI-7200, LI-COR, USA) will allow to evaluate data quality of measured CH4 fluxes. Here, we want to present first results with a focus on uncertainties of the calculated CH4 fluxes with regard to instrument precision, data processing and site conditions. In future, we plan to compare eddy-covariance flux estimates to side-by-side turbulent flux observations from a novel eddy accumulation system. Furthermore, soil CH4 fluxes will be measured with four automated chambers situated within the tower footprint. Based on a previous soil chamber study at the same site, we expect the Hainich forest site to act as a CH4 sink. However, we hypothesize that our

  9. Impact of repeated dry-wet cycles on soil CO2 efflux in a beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Sonja; Saronjic, Nermina; Kobler, Johannes; Holtermann, Christian; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Zimmermann, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Climate change research predicts that both frequency and intensity of weather extremes such as severe droughts and heavy rainfall events will increase in mid Europe over the next decades. Because soil moisture is one of the major factors controlling microbially-driven soil processes, a changed moisture regime will impact soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and nutrient cycling. This in turn can lead to feedback effects between altered precipitation and changed soil CO2 fluxes which can intensify climate change. Soil microorganisms can go into a state of dormancy or form inactive cysts to protect themselves from osmotic stress during soil drying. However, severe droughts increase microbial mortality which slows down SOM decomposition and decreases soil CO2 efflux. The rewetting of dry soil, on the other hand, causes large CO2 emissions, which is also known as the "Birch effect". Until today it is not clear whether these CO2 peaks outweigh the drought-induced decrease of total CO2 efflux. To investigate the impact of repeated dry-wet cycles on soil CO2 efflux we are conducting a precipitation manipulation experiment in a temperate Austrian beech forest. Roofs exclude rainfall and simulate drought periods, and heavy rainfall events are simulated with a sprinkler system. We apply repeated dry-wet cycles in two intensities: one treatment receives 6 cycles of 1 month drought followed by 75mm irrigation, and a parallel treatment receives 3 cycles of 2 months drought followed by 150mm irrigation. Soil CO2 efflux is constantly monitored with an automated flux chamber system, and environmental parameters are recorded via dataloggers. Our results show that droughts significantly reduce soil CO2 effluxes, and that the reductions depend on the length of the drought periods, with longer droughts leading to stronger reductions of CO2 effluxes. In the first 24 to 48h after rewetting, CO2 emissions strongly increased, and then slowly decreased again. Soil CO2 efflux was

  10. Seasonal evolution of Biomass Production Efficiency (BPE) of a French beech forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heid, L.; Calvaruso, C.; Conil, S.; Turpault, M. P.; Longdoz, B.

    2015-12-01

    With the evolution of ecosystem management and the actual climate change we are facing, there is a need to improve our knowledge of carbon (C) balance and more specifically of C allocation in the plants. In our study, we quantified the seasonal variation of gross primary production (GPP, obtained through eddy covariance measurements) and biomass production (BP, the C fixed into the biomass obtained thanks to inventory campaign) for a 60-year-old even-aged beech stand located in North East of France. We also assessed the seasonal evolution of the BP efficiency (BPE=BP/GPP; Vicca et al., 2012) and its potential determining factors for our site. For 2014, we found a net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of -549 gC m-2, corresponding to a C sequestration. This value breaks down between 1089 gC m-2 for the respiration of the ecosystem and -1639 gC m-2 for the GPP. On the same year, our stand built up 461.6 gC m-2 of tree biomass (leaves, trunk, branches, fine roots), leading to an annual BPE of 0.28, which is within the range of value found on other similar sites. There was a large temporal variation of C allocation to the different parts of the tree biomass during the growth season. Our results show that the growth first happened in the trunk and branches -with a peak value of 74.5 gC m-2 month-1 in May - whereas the fine roots biomass production started later (end of July) and reached a maximum at the end of the growth season (28.49 gC m-2 month-1 for September). The BPE varied also during the year from 0.13 in April to 0.31 in August, where the BP was the same than in July but the cumulated GPP was already decreasing. The seasonal variation may be mainly explained by climatic variations, whereas the shift between woody above-ground biomass and fine roots biomass could be explained by the phenology (linked to physiological mechanisms).

  11. Black carbon surface oxidation and organic composition of beech-wood soot aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, J. C.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.; Keller, A.; Burtscher, H.; Mensah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    composition of the BC was approximately constant across all stages of combustion for both fresh and aged samples. These results represent the first time-resolved measurements of in situ BC surface aging and suggest that the surface of beech-wood BC may be modelled as a single chemical species.

  12. Allocation of recent photoassimilates in mature European beech and Norway spruce - seasonal variability and responses to experimentally increased tropospheric O3 concentration and long-term drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    This contribution summarizes a series of C allocation studies in maturing European beech and Norway spruce trees at Kranzberg Forest, located in southern Germany. Study objects are 60 to 70 year old trees, readily accessible via scaffoldings and canopy crane. Allocation of recently fixed photoassimilates is assessed either by conventional branch-bag labelling with 99 atom% 13CO2 or whole-tree labeling using 13C-depleted CO2 (isoFACE system). While labeling in branch bags, employed for few hours only, focused on phloem functionality in particular under long-term drought, C labeling of whole tree canopies was employed for up to 20 days, studying allocation of recent photoassimilates from the canopy along branches and stems to roots and soils below ground. In all experiments, dynamics of C allocation were mostly pursued assessing carbon isotopic composition of CO2 efflux from woody tissues which typically reflected isotopic composition of phloem sugars. Effects of severe and long-term summer drought are assessed in an ongoing experiment with roughly 100 trees assigned to a total of 12 plots (kroof.wzw.tum.de). Precipitation throughfall was completely excluded since early spring, resulting in pre-dawn leaf water potentials of both beech and spruce up to -2.2 MPa. The hypothesis was tested that long-term drought affects allocation of recently fixed C to branches and phloem functionality. In the annual course under unstressed conditions, phloem transport speed from the canopy to the stem (breast height) was double in beech compared to spruce, with highest transport velocities in early summer (about 0.51 and 0.26 m/h) and lowest in spring (0.26 and 0.12 m/h for beech and spruce, respectively). After leaf flush in spring, growth respiration of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photoassimilates supplied beech stem growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer, whereas seasonality was less pronounced in spruce. The hypothesis that growth

  13. Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, W. O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Finsinger, Walter; Gobet, Erika; Pini, Roberta; Schweizer, Astrid; Valsecchi, Verushka; Ammann, Brigitta

    2005-03-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101 pollen sequences are improved or created. Data from the area delimited by 45.5-48.1°N and 6-14°E are summarized in three ways: (1) in a selection of pollen-percentage threshold maps (thresholds 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 32% of land pollen); (2) in graphic summaries of 250-year time slices and geographic segments (lengthwise and transverse in relation to the main axis of the Alps) as pollen-percentage curves, pollen-percentage difference curves, and pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP graphed against both the length and the transverse Alpine axes; and (3) in tables showing statistical relationships of either pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP or pollen expansion durations (=time lapse between different pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP) with latitude, longitude, and elevation; to establish these relationships we used both simple linear regression and multiple linear regression after stepwise-forward selection. Results: The statistical results indicate that (a) the use of pollen-percentage thresholds between 0.5% and 8% yield mostly similar directions of tree migration, so the method is fairly robust, (b) Abies migrated northward, Fagus southward, Picea westward, and Quercus northward; more detail does not emerge due to an extreme scarcity of high-quality data especially along the southern foothills of the Alps and in the eastern Alps. This scarcity allows the reconstruction of one immigration route only of Abies into the southern Alps. The speed of population expansion (following arrival) of Abies increased and of Picea decreased during the Holocene, of Fagus it decreased especially during the later Holocene, and of Quercus it increased especially at the

  14. Gap formation and species diversity in Japanese beech forests: a test of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis on a geographic scale.

    PubMed

    Hiura, T

    1995-11-01

    To evaluate whether the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis applies on regional scales, the relationship between the species diversity and gap formation regime of beech forests was examined. The mean gap size and the variation of gap sizes showed no correlation with species diversity. The mean windstorm interval varied widely, but geographical trends, such as latitudinal gradient, were not observed. However, locations that sustained an intermediate frequency of disturbance had the highest species diversity. Although a latitudinal gradient of disturbance was not apparent, the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis was partly supported on a geographic scale. The most predictable model for species diversity was a multiple regression model composed of two factors, the windstorm interval and the cumulative temperature of the growing season. The fact that the temperature was of greater importance than the disturbance interval indicates that the most important factor in predicting forest species diversity is the amount of available energy on a geographic scale.

  15. Coevolution and the adaptive value of autumn tree colours: colour preference and growth rates of a southern beech aphid.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, C C; Lavandero, B; Archetti, M

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary explanation for the change in leaf colour during autumn is still debated. Autumn colours could be a signal of defensive commitment towards insects (coevolution) or an adaptation against physical damage because of light at low temperatures (photoprotection). These two hypotheses have different predictions: (1) under the coevolution hypothesis, insects should not prefer red leaves in autumn and grow better in spring on trees with green autumn leaves; and (2) under the photoprotection hypothesis, insects should prefer and grow better on trees with red leaves because they provide better nutrition. Studying colour preference in autumn and growth rates in spring of a southern beech aphid species (Neuquenaphis staryi) on Nothofagus alessandrii, we found preference for green leaves in autumn but no differential performance of aphids in spring. We suggest that aphid preference for green might have evolved to exploit better their host during the autumn rather than to improve their performance in spring.

  16. Observation of dipropenyldisulfide and other organic sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of a beech forest with Allium ursinum ground cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxbaum, H.; König, G.

    Dipropenyldisulfide, methylpropenyldisulfide, cis-propenylpropyldisulfide, diallylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and 3-methylthiopropene were detected in the atmosphere of a beech forest with Allium ursinum (broad-leaved garlic) ground cover plants. Furthermore, it was shown that the Allium plants were the source of the organic sulfur compounds. The atmospheric concentrations of the organic sulfur observed on one day in May 1994 in a suburban forest in Vienna ranged from 0.3 to 7.8 ppb S with an average level of 2.9 ppb S. The atmospheric emission rate of organic sulfur species from A. ursinum determined with an enclosure box was the highest ever reported for terrestrial continental plants. The total organic sulfur flux on the average was at least 1 jug g-1h-1 (plant dry weight) or 60 gmgm-2 h-1 (per unit of ground area).

  17. Uncoupling of microbial community structure and function in decomposing litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Purahong, Witoon; Schloter, Michael; Pecyna, Marek J; Kapturska, Danuta; Däumlich, Veronika; Mital, Sanchit; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Gutknecht, Jessica L M; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-11-12

    The widespread paradigm in ecology that community structure determines function has recently been challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we investigate the patterns of and connections between microbial community structure and microbially-mediated ecological function across different forest management practices and temporal changes in leaf litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe. Our results clearly indicate distinct pattern of microbial community structure in response to forest management and time. However, those patterns were not reflected when potential enzymatic activities of microbes were measured. We postulate that in our forest ecosystems, a disconnect between microbial community structure and function may be present due to differences between the drivers of microbial growth and those of microbial function.

  18. Lead removal kinetics from synthetic effluents using Algerian pine, beech and fir sawdust's: optimization and adsorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordine, N.; El Bahri, Z.; Sehil, H.; Fertout, R. I.; Rais, Z.; Bengharez, Z.

    2016-11-01

    The present paper exposes the lead adsorption from synthetic effluents using natural and available materials. Pine, beech and fir sawdust's were used and compared for their lead adsorption ability. To optimize the sorption phenomenon, some process parameters were studied namely temperature, pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration, sawdust's dosage and granulometry, stirring speed and medium salinity. The materials were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The results demonstrated that the pine sawdust gave the best level for lead adsorption (15.5 mg/g) in the following conditions and at 23 ± 2 °C of temperature : pH 5.45 ± 0.05, 100 mg/L of initial Pb(II) concentration and 10 g (per liter of solution) of pine sawdust composed from granules with mean diameter lower than 500 µm. As well, the adsorption kinetics seem to satisfy to Langmuir isotherm model.

  19. Change of soil carbon fluxes in European beech forest under different climate and management scenarios: an example from Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanović, Dejan; Orlović, Saša; Matović, Bratislav; Suckow, Felicitas; Lasch-Born, Petra; Galić, Zoran; Reyer, Christopher; Gutsch, Martin; Pekeč, Saša

    2013-04-01

    Soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature conditions and forest management determine the rate of soil carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. European beech is one of most important and most abundant tree species in Europe. Forest management strategy influences aboveground biomass as well as belowground biomass and soil organic and inorganic carbon. This study explores how different management strategies (i.e. thinning from above intensities with 10%, 20% and 30% removal of trees every ten years) under three different time periods 1971-2000, 2011-2040 and 2051-2080 of the IPCC SRES A2 climate change scenario, influence total soil carbon stock in a beech stand in eastern Serbia. For the simulations, the process-based tree growth model 4C was used. At the beginning of the simulations, the total soil carbon stock was about 85 tC/ha. The most intensive management strategy appears to provide highest carbon fluxes into the soil and the highest total carbon stock values (between 160 and 180 tC/ha) at the end of the simulation periods. All management strategies under the climate of the period 2051-2080 showed the lowest values (about 160 tC/ha). We analyse the interrelationships between management caused changes in litter fluxes and climate (mainly temperature) caused losses of carbon from soil by respiration. In some cases different thinning intensities showed similar fluxes for the same time periods, whereas both climate scenario periods showed quite similar influence for the same management scenarios. The influence of different management strategies on the final total soil carbon stock will be shown.

  20. The delayed impact of a summer drought on the carbon and water vapour fluxes exchanged by a European beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longdoz, B.; Gross, P.; Bréda, N.; Granier, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Hesse experimental site is located in a beech homogeneous forest in the North-East of France. It is equipped since 1997 (15 years of measurements) with an eddy covariance system (net ecosystem exchange NEE and ecosystem evapotranspiration ET) and some sensors measuring meteorological and soil environmental factors. In addition regular field campaigns are performed to monitor the trees growth and phenology. The occurrence of a severe drought during 2003 with precipitations equivalent to only 66% of the mean annual value lead to important modification in the ecosystem behaviour. A direct impact on NEE, ET and tree growth was clearly seen when the quantity of extractable water (soil water that can extracted by tree roots) pass below 40% of its maximum. This threshold seems to be similar for different tested European forests. In addition to this disturbance, the lack of carbohydrate storage induced, during the following season, a large reduction of the Leaf Area Index and beech radial growth. This was not the only delayed effect of soil water stress as parameters determining the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as the assimilation rate at light saturation or quantum yield were also significantly influenced. When comparing the potential annual GPP (corresponding to the estimation from GPP dependence on climatic and soil conditions where conditions averaged over the 15 measuring years are used), the 2004 was the lowest one over the 1995-2011 period when years impacted by thinning were excluded. This shows the structural consequence of soil drought. The ability of the inter-annual ecosystem models to reproduce these observations is a good quality test for their carbon storage and partitioning components.

  1. Effect of species composition on carbon and nitrogen stocks in forest floor and mineral soil in Norway spruce and European beech mixed forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andivia, Enrique; Rolo, Víctor; Jonard, Mathieu; Formánek, Pavel; Ponette, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Management of existing forests has been identified as the main strategy to enhance carbon sequestration and to mitigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. In this direction, the conversion of Norway spruce monospecific stands into mixed stands by intermingling individuals of European beech is an ongoing trend in adaptive forest management strategies, especially in Central Europe. However, studies assessing the effect of changes in tree species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen stocks are still scarce and there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting tree species selection as a feasible management option to mitigate the effects of predicted future climatic scenarios. We compared C and N stocks in the forest floor (litter and humus) and the top 10 cm of mineral soil in two monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European beech and in a mixed stand of both species. The effect of tree species composition on the C and N stocks and its spatial distribution was evaluated based on litterfall, root production, elevation and canopy opening, and by using a combination of modelling and geostatistical techniques. C stock was highest in the Norway spruce and the mixed stands, while N stock was highest in the mixed stand and lowest under European beech, with intermediate values in the Norway spruce stand. Each forest type showed differences in forest floor properties, suggesting that species composition is an important factor governing forest floor characteristics, including C and N stocks. The distribution of C and N stocks between forest soil layers was different for each forest type. C and N stocks were highest in the hummus layer under Norway spruce, whereas both stocks were lowest in the European beech stand. On the other hand, the mixed stand showed the highest C and N accumulation in the uppermost mineral soil layer, while the monospecific stands showed similar values. Litterfall was the main contribution to C and N stocks of the

  2. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments and second structure information of Fag s 1: Fagales allergen from Fagus sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A H; Asam, C; Batista, A; Almeida, F C L; Wallner, M; Ferreira, F; Valente, A P

    2016-04-01

    Fagales allergens belonging to the Bet v 1 family account responsible for the majority of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zones in the Northern hemisphere. Among them, Fag s 1 from beech pollen is an important trigger of Fagales pollen associated allergic reactions. The protein shares high similarity with birch pollen Bet v 1, the best-characterized member of this allergen family. Of note, recent work on Bet v 1 and its homologues found in Fagales pollen demonstrated that not all allergenic members of this family have the capacity to induce allergic sensitization. Fag s 1 was shown to bind pre-existing IgE antibodies most likely primarily directed against other members of this multi-allergen family. Therefore, it is especially interesting to compare the structures of Bet v 1-like pollen allergens, which have the potential to induce allergic sensitization with allergens that are mainly cross-reactive. This in the end will help to identify allergy eliciting molecular pattern on Bet v 1-like allergens. In this work, we report the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C NMR assignment of beech pollen Fag s 1 as well as the secondary structure information based on backbone chemical shifts.

  3. Heat capacity of Bio-SiC and SiC/Si ecoceramics prepared from white eucalyptus, beech, and sapele tree wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Wlosewicz, D.; Hackemer, A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports on measurement of the heat capacity at constant pressure C p of silicon bio-carbide prepared within the 5-300 K temperature interval from beech tree wood (bio-SiC(BE)), and within 80-300 K, from tree wood of sapele (bio-SiC(SA)), as well as SiC/Si ecoceramics of beech, sapele, and white eucalyptus wood. It has been shown that in bio-SiC(BE) the measured heat capacity contains a significant contribution of surface heat capacity, whose magnitude decreases with increasing temperature. Of the ecoceramics, only SiC/Si(SA) characterized by a high enough porosity has revealed a small contribution to the heat capacity coming from its surface component. The experimental results obtained are discussed.

  4. Predicting recovery from acid rain using the micro-spatial heterogeneity of soil columns downhill the infiltration zone of beech stemflow: introduction of a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Torsten W; Muras, Alexander

    Release of stored sulfur may delay the recovery of soil pH from Acid Rain. It is hypothesized that analyzing the micro-spatial heterogeneity of soil columns downhill of a beech stem enables predictions of soil recovery as a function of historic acid loads and time. We demonstrated in a very simplified approach, how these two different factors may be untangled from each other using synthetic data. Thereafter, we evaluated the stated hypothesis based upon chemical soil data with increasing distance from the stem of beech trees. It is predicted that the top soil will recover from acid deposition, as already recorded in the infiltration zone of stemflow near the base of the stem. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed.

  5. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-11-10

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest.

  6. Large-scale synchrony of gap dynamics and the distribution of understory tree species in maple-beech forests.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Dominique; Beaudet, Marilou; Messier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale synchronous variations in community dynamics are well documented for a vast array of organisms, but are considerably less understood for forest trees. Because of temporal variations in canopy gap dynamics, forest communities-even old-growth ones-are never at equilibrium at the stand scale. This paucity of equilibrium may also be true at the regional scale. Our objectives were to determine (1) if nonequilibrium dynamics caused by temporal variations in the formation of canopy gaps are regionally synchronized, and (2) if spatiotemporal variations in canopy gap formation affect the relative abundance of tree species in the understory. We examined these questions by analyzing variations in the suppression and release history of Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. from 481 growth series of understory saplings taken from 34 mature stands. We observed that (1) the proportion of stems in release as a function of time exhibited a U-shaped pattern over the last 35 years, with the lowest levels occurring during 1975-1985, and that (2) the response to this in terms of species composition was that A. saccharum became more abundant at sites that had the highest proportion of stems in release during 1975-1985. We concluded that the understory dynamics, typically thought of as a stand-scale process, may be regionally synchronized.

  7. Using Remote Sensing Technologies to Quantify the Effects of Beech Bark Disease on the Structure, Composition, and Function of a Late-Successional Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; Ricart, R. D.; Fahey, R. T.; Fotis, A. T.; Gough, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecological theory maintains that as forests age, the rate at which carbon (C) is stored declines because C released through organic matter decomposition offsets declining C sequestration in new vegetative growth. Recent observational studies are challenging this long-held hypothesis, with limited evidence suggesting higher-than-expected rates in late-successional forests could be, counterintuitively, tied to canopy structural changes associated with low intensity tree mortality. As forests age, canopy structural complexity may increase when old trees die and form upper canopy gaps that release subcanopy vegetation. This provides one explanation for observations of sustained high production in old forests. Recent studies have found that this increased structural complexity and resource-use efficiency maintain C storage in mid-successional deciduous forests; whether a similar mechanism extends to late-successional forests is unknown. We will present how a slow, moderate disturbance affects the structure and C sequestration of late-successional forests. Our study site is a forest recently infected by Beech Bark Disease (BBD), which will result in the eventual mortality of American beech trees in this late successional forest in Northern Michigan, at the University of Michigan Biological Station. American Beech, Hemlock, Sugar Maple, and White Pine dominate the landscape, with American Beech making up 30% of the canopy trees on average. At the plot scale American Beech is distributed heterogeneously, comprising 1% to 60% of total plot basal area, making it possible to examine the interplay between disturbance severity, canopy structural change, and primary production resilience in this forest. Within each of the 13 plots, species and stem diameter were collected in 1992, 1994, 2014, and 2016, with future remeasurements planned. We will discuss how ground-based lidar coupled with airborne spectral (IR and RGB) imagery are being used to track canopy BBD

  8. Direct lactic acid production from beech wood by transgenic white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshio; Kako, Hiroko; Sumiya, Tomoki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2016-12-10

    A lactic acid (LA)-producing strain of the hyper-lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 with the lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene from Bifidobacterium longum (Blldh) was constructed. When the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase gene-knocked down and Blldh-expressing transformant was cultured with beech wood meal, the transformant was able to successively delignify and ferment the substrate. Supplementation of calcium carbonate into the culture medium, significantly increased the level of LA accumulation. Direct LA production (at 0.29g/l) from wood was confirmed, and additional inclusion of exogenous cellulase in this fermentation yielded significant further improvement in LA accumulation (up to 1.44g/l). This study provides the first report of direct production of LA by fermentation from woody biomass by a single microorganism, and indicates that transgenic white-rot fungi have a potential use for development of simple/easy applications for wood biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate.

  10. Effect of activation on the porous structure and the strain and strength properties of beech wood biocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpeizman, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Spitsyn, A. A.; Ponomarev, D. A.; Bogdanovich, N. I.; Martinez-Fernández, J.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of activation on the size, specific volume, and surface area of pores in a monolithic biomorphic material obtained by carbonization of beech wood is studied. It is shown that under optimal activation mode with a steam heated to 970°C, the total pore volume and surface, determined by adsorption curves, increased by 20 and 18 times, respectively. With the use of high-precision interferometric procedure, strain curves are obtained under uniaxial compression with a stepwise loading, and the strain rate is measured with a step of moving of 325 nm for activated and nonactivated samples. Despite an increase in porosity, the strength and maximum deformation of the samples do not decrease. The behavior of the strain rate jumps is analyzed in the micro- and nanometer range. It is shown that the maximum size of the micrometer jumps (4 μm) correlates well with the average size of the possible strain area in the samples (the average distance between the pores of small size), and the minimum dimensions of the strain jumps are close to the size of mesopores. Assessment of the strain change and its rate upon activation indicates that the effect of activation on the strain and strength characteristics is defined by nanometer defects, the most likely of which are microand mesopores.

  11. Effect of water availability on leaf water isotopic enrichment in beech seedlings shows limitations of current fractionation models.

    PubMed

    Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Cuntz, Matthias; Offermann, Christine; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias; Gessler, Arthur

    2009-10-01

    Current models of leaf water enrichment predict that the differences between isotopic enrichment of water at the site of evaporation (Delta(e)) and mean lamina leaf water enrichment (Delta(L)) depend on transpiration rates (E), modulated by the scaled effective length (L) of water isotope movement in the leaf. However, variations in leaf parameters in response to changing environmental conditions might cause changes in the water path and thus L. We measured the diel course of Delta(L) for (18)O and (2)H in beech seedlings under well-watered and water-limited conditions. We applied evaporative enrichment models of increasing complexity to predict Delta(e) and Delta(L), and estimated L from model fits. Water-limited plants showed moderate drought stress, with lower stomatal conductance, E and stem water potential than the control. Despite having double E, the divergence between Delta(e) and Delta(L) was lower in well-watered than in water-limited plants, and thus, L should have changed to counteract differences in E. Indeed, L was about threefold higher in water-limited plants, regardless of the models used. We conclude that L changes with plant water status far beyond the variations explained by water content and other measured variables, thus limiting the use of current evaporative models under changing environmental conditions.

  12. Liming in a beech forest results in more mineral elements stored in the mantle of Lactarius subdulcis ectomycorrhizas.

    PubMed

    Rineau, François; Rose, Christophe; Le Thiec, Didier; Garbaye, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Liming is a forest practice used to counteract forest decline induced by soil acidification. It consists of direct Ca and Mg input in forest soil and restores tree mineral nutrition, but also causes drastic changes in nutrient availability in soil. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi significantly contribute in nutrient uptake by trees, and can recover them through organic acid secretion or through enzymatic degradation of organic matter. The symbiotic fungi use their extraradical mycelium for nutrient uptake, and then store them into the ECM mantle. In this study we measured how liming influences element contents in the mantle of Lactarius subdulcis ECMs, an abundant and particularly active in oxalate and laccase secretion in beech stands. For this purpose we used SEM observation coupled with energy- (EDX) and wavelength-dispersive-X-ray microanalyses (WDX). Results showed that ECM mantles of this species presented significantly higher Ca, Mg, Mn, K, Si, Al and Fe contents in limed plots. The nutrient amounts of L. subdulcis ECMs were significantly different between individuals for all the elements, showing a differential storage ability between individuals. The storage role of the ECM mantle can be interpreted in two different ways: i) a detoxification role for Al or heavy metals and ii) an increased potential nutrient resource by the fungus, which can benefit the tree. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating Light Use Efficiency Of A Pine And Beech Forest From Leaf To Ecosystem Scale Using The Photochemical Reflectance Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanikiotis, Theofilos; Markos, Nikos; Stagakis, Stavros; Tzotsos, Angelos; Sykioti, Olga; Kyparissis, Aris

    2013-12-01

    The prospect of accurately tracking photosynthetic processes using satellite observations is very important for understanding and monitoring global carbon cycle and climate change. The present study investigates the efficiency of the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) in detecting light use efficiency (ɛ) in different spatial scales. The study sites concern two dense and homogenous forests in the region of Epirus (Greece), one evergreen coniferous forest dominated by Pinus nigra species and one deciduous forest dominated by Fagus sylvatica. Field and laboratory measurements of canopy structure (Leaf Area Index - LAI, needle and shoot structure characteristics), leaf pigment concentrations, leaf photosynthesis and water potential were performed throughout the growth period. These measurements were used for an accurate description of the ecophysiological characteristics of the two species and thus the parameterization of a Canopy Photosynthesis Model in order to estimate canopy photosynthesis. During the same period, leaf and canopy reflectance measurements were performed in the field to test and evaluate PRI regarding it's efficiency to track ɛ in leaf and canopy scale. In order to investigate the potential application of PRI for estimating ɛ in a broader spatial scale, satellite hyperspectral or superspectral sensors can be used. Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are currently available for this purpose and their performances were tested within the present study. An agreement between the fluctuations of CHRIS PRI and the field measured canopy PRI has been found, with both of them appearing to track the ɛ fluctuation efficiently. However, MODIS PRI shows no intense fluctuation and no relationship with ɛ and field measured PRI, probably due to lack of atmospheric correction and the effects of viewing and illumination geometry.

  14. Soil Parameters Drive the Structure, Diversity and Metabolic Potentials of the Bacterial Communities Across Temperate Beech Forest Soil Sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanbille, M; Buée, M; Bach, C; Cébron, A; Frey-Klett, P; Turpault, M P; Uroz, S

    2016-02-01

    Soil and climatic conditions as well as land cover and land management have been shown to strongly impact the structure and diversity of the soil bacterial communities. Here, we addressed under a same land cover the potential effect of the edaphic parameters on the soil bacterial communities, excluding potential confounding factors as climate. To do this, we characterized two natural soil sequences occurring in the Montiers experimental site. Spatially distant soil samples were collected below Fagus sylvatica tree stands to assess the effect of soil sequences on the edaphic parameters, as well as the structure and diversity of the bacterial communities. Soil analyses revealed that the two soil sequences were characterized by higher pH and calcium and magnesium contents in the lower plots. Metabolic assays based on Biolog Ecoplates highlighted higher intensity and richness in usable carbon substrates in the lower plots than in the middle and upper plots, although no significant differences occurred in the abundance of bacterial and fungal communities along the soil sequences as assessed using quantitative PCR. Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundantly represented phyla. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Chlamydiae were significantly enriched in the most acidic and nutrient-poor soils compared to the Bacteroidetes, which were significantly enriched in the soils presenting the higher pH and nutrient contents. Interestingly, aluminium, nitrogen, calcium, nutrient availability and pH appeared to be the best predictors of the bacterial community structures along the soil sequences.

  15. Infection of tree stems by zoospores of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae

    Treesearch

    Clive Brasier; Anna Brown

    2008-01-01

    The invasive Phytophthora ramorum, P. kernoviae, and other aerial Phytophthoras are causing bleeding lesions on the trunks of mature trees, especially beech (Fagus sylvatica), in Cornwall, southwest England. The relationship between the results of host susceptibility tests using wound...

  16. Promotion of adventitious root formation of difficult-to-root hardwood tree species

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; Charles H. Michler

    2011-01-01

    North American hardwood tree species, such as alder (Alnus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), basswood (Tilia spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), black cherry (Prunus seratina), black walnut (Juglans nigra), black willow (...

  17. Canopy-level stomatal narrowing in adult Fagus sylvatica under O3 stress - means of preventing enhanced O3 uptake under high O3 exposure?

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Baumgarten, M; Hummel, U; Häberle, K-H; Kitao, M; Wieser, G

    2015-01-01

    Spatio-temporally consistent O(3) doses are demonstrated in adult Fagus sylvatica from the Kranzberg Forest free-air fumigation experiment, covering cross-canopy and whole-seasonal scopes through sap flow measurement. Given O(3)-driven closure of stomata, we hypothesized enhanced whole-tree level O(3) influx to be prevented under enhanced O(3) exposure. Although foliage transpiration rate was lowered under twice-ambient O(3) around noon by 30% along with canopy conductance, the hypothesis was falsified, as O(3) influx was raised by 25%. Nevertheless, the twice-ambient/ambient ratio of O(3) uptake was smaller by about 20% than that of O(3) exposure, suggesting stomatal limitation of uptake. The O(3) response was traceable from leaves across branches to the canopy, where peak transpiration rates resembled those of shade rather than sun branches. Rainy/overcast-day and nightly O(3) uptake is quantified and discussed. Whole-seasonal canopy-level validation of modelled with sap flow-derived O(3) flux becomes available in assessing O(3) risk for forest trees.

  18. Estimation of canopy attributes in beech forests using true colour digital images from a small fixed-wing UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chianucci, Francesco; Disperati, Leonardo; Guzzi, Donatella; Bianchini, Daniele; Nardino, Vanni; Lastri, Cinzia; Rindinella, Andrea; Corona, Piermaria

    2016-05-01

    Accurate estimates of forest canopy are essential for the characterization of forest ecosystems. Remotely-sensed techniques provide a unique way to obtain estimates over spatially extensive areas, but their application is limited by the spectral and temporal resolution available from these systems, which is often not suited to meet regional or local objectives. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as remote sensing platforms has recently gained increasing attention, but their applications in forestry are still at an experimental stage. In this study we described a methodology to obtain rapid and reliable estimates of forest canopy from a small UAV equipped with a commercial RGB camera. The red, green and blue digital numbers were converted to the green leaf algorithm (GLA) and to the CIE L*a*b* colour space to obtain estimates of canopy cover, foliage clumping and leaf area index (L) from aerial images. Canopy attributes were compared with in situ estimates obtained from two digital canopy photographic techniques (cover and fisheye photography). The method was tested in beech forests. UAV images accurately quantified canopy cover even in very dense stand conditions, despite a tendency to not detecting small within-crown gaps in aerial images, leading to a measurement of a quantity much closer to crown cover estimated from in situ cover photography. Estimates of L from UAV images significantly agreed with that obtained from fisheye images, but the accuracy of UAV estimates is influenced by the appropriate assumption of leaf angle distribution. We concluded that true colour UAV images can be effectively used to obtain rapid, cheap and meaningful estimates of forest canopy attributes at medium-large scales. UAV can combine the advantage of high resolution imagery with quick turnaround series, being therefore suitable for routine forest stand monitoring and real-time applications.

  19. The impact of forest roads on understory plant diversity in temperate hornbeam-beech forests of Northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Deljouei, Azade; Abdi, Ehsan; Marcantonio, Matteo; Majnounian, Baris; Amici, Valerio; Sohrabi, Hormoz

    2017-08-01

    Forest roads alter the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, modifying temperature, humidity, wind speed, and light availability that, in turn, cause changes in plant community composition and diversity. We aim at investigating and comparing the diversity of herbaceous species along main and secondary forest roads in a temperate-managed hornbeam-beech forest, north of Iran. Sixteen transects along main and secondary forest roads were established (eight transects along main roads and eight along secondary roads). To eliminate the effect of forest type, all transects were located in Carpinetum-Fagetum forests, the dominant forest type in the study area. The total length of each transect was 200 m (100 m toward up slope and 100 m toward down slope), and plots were established along it at different distances from road edge. The diversity of herbaceous plant species was calculated in each plot using Shannon-Wiener index, species richness, and Pielou's index. The results showed that diversity index decreased when distance from road edge increases. This decreasing trend continued up to 60 m from forest road margin, and after this threshold, the index slightly increased. Depending on the type of road (main or secondary) as well as cut or fill slopes, the area showing a statistical different plant composition and diversity measured through Shannon-Wiener, species richness, and Pielou's index is up to 10 m. The length depth of the road edge effect found in main and secondary forest roads was small, but it could have cumulative effects on forest microclimate and forest-associated biota at the island scale. Forest managers should account for the effect of road buildings on plant communities.

  20. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of human lung cells to combustion smoke particles of Miscanthus straw, softwood and beech wood chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Ali Talib; Maschowski, Christoph; Garra, Patxi; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Petithory, Tatiana; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Dieterlen, Alain; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Khanaqa, Polla; Nazarenko, Irina; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) from residential biomass combustion is epidemiologically associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. This study investigates PM0.4-1 emissions from combustion of commercial Miscanthus straw (MS), softwood chips (SWC) and beech wood chips (BWC) in a domestic-scale boiler (40 kW). The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of the MS, SWC and BWC were characterized by ICP-MS/OES, XRD, SEM, TEM, and DLS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial A549 and human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were assessed by the WST-1 assay and the DNA-Alkaline Unwinding Assay (DAUA). PM0.4-1 uptake/translocation in cells was investigated with a new method developed using a confocal reflection microscope. SWC and BWC had a inherently higher residual water content than MS. The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of SWC and BWC exhibited higher levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), a greater variety of mineral species and a higher heavy metal content than PM0.4-1 from MS combustion. Exposure to PM0.4-1 from combustion of SWC and BWC induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human alveolar and bronchial cells, whereby the strongest effect was observed for BWC and was comparable to that caused by diesel PM (SRM 2 975), In contrast, PM0.4-1 from MS combustion did not induce cellular responses in the studied lung cells. A high PAH content in PM emissions seems to be a reliable chemical marker of both combustion efficiency and particle toxicity. Residual biomass water content strongly affects particulate emissions and their toxic potential. Therefore, to minimize the harmful effects of fine PM on health, improvement of combustion efficiency (aiming to reduce the presence of incomplete combustion products bound to PM) and application of fly ash capture technology, as well as use of novel biomass fuels like Miscanthus straw is recommended.