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Sample records for beedi commodity chain

  1. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  2. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  3. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    PubMed

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  4. Economic Development Policymaking Down the Global Commodity Chain: Attracting an Auto Industry to Silao, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies the global commodity chain approach to analyze the way policymakers encouraged an automotive commodity chain to touch down in Silao, Mexico. The article explains that the changing dynamics of the global auto industry have transformed it into an "assembler-driven" commodity chain. It notes how policymakers in the state of…

  5. 75 FR 29307 - Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection... Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) that will allow respondents to submit information electronically... CONTACT: David Tuckwiller, Project Manager, Web Based Supply Chain Management System, phone (202)...

  6. 78 FR 25416 - Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain... invitations, however, are issued throughout the month. Web-Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) allows... request. This information collection is necessary to support the procurement of agricultural...

  7. Mobilising the Commodity Chain Concept in the Politics of Food and Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Peter; Ward, Neil; Russell, Polly

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the concept of "commodity chains" within the food industry, this paper analyses the term's widespread and variable usage in both academic and policy-orientated work. Despite recent criticisms, the concept has retained its popular appeal alongside competing metaphors such as networks, circuits and assemblages. Examining the concept in…

  8. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  9. Applying commodity chain analysis to changing modes of alcohol supply in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    2000-12-01

    Development sociology has used global commodity chains as one way of analyzing the dynamics of power and profit-taking in globalized production networks made up of multiple firms and occurring in multiple national settings. A substantial portion of the alcohol supply in developing countries is now produced through such production networks. Particularly in the beer and spirits trade, a small number of transnational firms control networks of local producers, importers, advertisers and distributors. These networks serve to embed transnational or transnationally backed brands in the local culture, using the tools of market research, product design and marketing to influence local drinking practices. Case materials from Malaysia's beer industry help to illustrate how the transnational firms dominate in those links of the commodity chain in which monopoly or oligopoly control is most likely to be found: the design/recipe and marketing/advertising nodes. Their control of the commodity chains and extraction of monopoly or oligopoly profits from them places substantial resources and influence over drinking settings and practices in foreign hands. The impact of this influence on state efficacy and autonomy in setting alcohol policy is an important subject for future research on the creation and implementation of effective alcohol policies in developing societies.

  10. Effects of Occupational Tobacco Exposure on Foetal Growth, among Beedi Rollers in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Subba, Sonu H; Yamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Though there is ample evidence on adverse effects of tobacco exposure caused by smoking during pregnancy on foetal outcomes, there is lack of studies done on the effects of exposure caused by transdermal absorption, as is seen among beedi rolling women. Therefore, this study was planned, to assess the effect of maternal exposure to tobacco, in the form of beedi-rolling, on the birth weight and other neonatal anthropometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study with controls was conducted, with 102 beedi rollers forming the study group and an equal number of matched controls (control group) (total 204). Data was collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire and anthropometric examinations of the neonates were carried out within 48 hours of their births. Results: Mean birth weight of the newborns was 2.66 (SD=0.32) among those who were born to beedi rolling women and it was 2.63 (SD=0.38) kg among the control group. Crown heel length was 48.09 centimeters (SD=1.93) in the study group and it was 48.12 cm (SD=1.92) in the control group. Beedi rolling beyond the 7th month of gestation and for more than six hours per day was associated with a small but insignificant decline in birth weight and crown heel length. Conclusion: Beedi-rolling was found to be relatively safe during pregnancy but it could produce adverse effects if it was continued into the third trimester and for longer durations. This study can make the beedi rollers as well as their employers aware of harmful over-exposure to beedi rolling and help them in preventing it. PMID:24995197

  11. Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Jonell, Malin; Guerry, Anne; Lambin, Eric F; Morgan, Alexis J; Pennington, Derric; Smith, Nathan; Franch, Jane Atkins; Polasky, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature. PMID:26555859

  12. Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Jonell, Malin; Guerry, Anne; Lambin, Eric F; Morgan, Alexis J; Pennington, Derric; Smith, Nathan; Franch, Jane Atkins; Polasky, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature.

  13. Integrated supply chain design for commodity chemicals production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and upgrading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimal supply chain design for commodity chemicals (BTX, etc.) production via woody biomass fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway. The locations and capacities of distributed preprocessing hubs and integrated biorefinery facilities are optimized with a mixed integer linear programming model. In this integrated supply chain system, decisions on the biomass chipping methods (roadside chipping vs. facility chipping) are also explored. The economic objective of the supply chain model is to maximize the profit for a 20-year chemicals production system. In addition to the economic objective, the model also incorporates an environmental objective of minimizing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, analyzing the trade-off between the economic and environmental considerations. The capital cost, operating cost, and revenues for the biorefinery facilities are based on techno-economic analysis, and the proposed approach is illustrated through a case study of Minnesota, with Minneapolis-St. Paul serving as the chemicals distribution hub.

  14. Integration of vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains: a framework for decision making.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Prashant; Lydon, Patrick; Oswald, Julianna; Dicko, Modibo; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-11-28

    One of the primary objectives of National Immunization Programs is to strengthen and optimize immunization supply chains so that vaccines are delivered to the end recipients effectively, efficiently and sustainably. As a result of larger investments in global health and a wider portfolio of vaccines, global agencies are recognizing the need for vaccine supply chains to operate at their most optimal levels. Integration with other supply chains is often presented as a strategy to improve efficiency. However, it remains unclear if the proposed benefits from integration of vaccine supply chains with other supply chains will outweigh the costs. This paper provides a framework for deciding where such integration offers the most significant benefits. It also cautions about the pitfalls of integration as a one size fits all strategy. It also highlights the need for systematic collection of cost and efficiency data in order to understand the value of integration and other such initiatives. PMID:25446826

  15. Integration of vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains: a framework for decision making.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Prashant; Lydon, Patrick; Oswald, Julianna; Dicko, Modibo; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-11-28

    One of the primary objectives of National Immunization Programs is to strengthen and optimize immunization supply chains so that vaccines are delivered to the end recipients effectively, efficiently and sustainably. As a result of larger investments in global health and a wider portfolio of vaccines, global agencies are recognizing the need for vaccine supply chains to operate at their most optimal levels. Integration with other supply chains is often presented as a strategy to improve efficiency. However, it remains unclear if the proposed benefits from integration of vaccine supply chains with other supply chains will outweigh the costs. This paper provides a framework for deciding where such integration offers the most significant benefits. It also cautions about the pitfalls of integration as a one size fits all strategy. It also highlights the need for systematic collection of cost and efficiency data in order to understand the value of integration and other such initiatives.

  16. Conceptual Model of Supply Chain Structure Mapping - A Case of Subsidized LPG Commodity in Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Joko; Thoif, Afifuddin; Fitri Alindira, Aulia

    2016-01-01

    — In 2007, the government launched a conversion program of kerosene to LPG by issuing a Presidential Regulation No. 104/2007 on Supply, Distribution and Pricing LPG 3 Kg. Article 2 on the regulation says that setting the supply, distribution, and pricing of LPG 3 Kg include planning an annual sales volume of enterprises, the reference price and the retail price and conditions of export and import of LPG 3 Kg in order to reduce subsidies Kerosene especially to divert the use of kerosene according to government policy. In principle, the purpose of this policy is to reduce energy subsidies on commodities, especially Kerosene. Although the government claimed the conversion program is success, there are few problems arising from conversion program. In 2014, many scarcity and high price of LPG 3 Kg were reported. In this case, Pertamina was given full authority to manage all supply chain and distribution. Because the root of the problem of scarcity that occurred in the supply chain system has not been explained, the proposed solutions will also be partial and not comprehensive. Thus, this research will build a structural map of the causes of supply chain system LPG 3 Kg, as well as providing a comprehensive picture of system dynamics of LPG 3 Kg supply chain system which applied in Indonesia. And the result is expected as in form of Causal Loop Diagram of supply chain system.

  17. Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamins, A O; Restif, O; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Suu-Ire, R; Hayman, D T S; Cunningham, A A; Wood, J L N; Rowcliffe, J M

    2011-12-01

    Harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. In order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer's table. In this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the African straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ecological and public health contexts, and describe the commodity chain in southern Ghana for its trade. Based on interviews with 551 Ghanaians, including bat hunters, vendors and consumers, we estimate that a minimum of 128,000 E. helvum bats are sold each year through a commodity chain stretching up to 400 km and involving multiple vendors. Unlike the general bushmeat trade in Ghana, where animals are sold in both specialized bushmeat markets and in restaurants, E. helvum is sold primarily in marketplaces; many bats are also kept by hunters for personal consumption. The offtake estimated in this paper raises serious conservation concerns, while the commodity chain identified in this study may offer possible points for management intervention. The separation of the E. helvum commodity chain from that of other bushmeat highlights the need for species-specific research in this area, particularly for bats, whose status as bushmeat is largely unknown.

  18. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  19. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

    The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control

  20. Contribution of enterococci to the spread of antibiotic resistance in the production chain of swine meat commodities.

    PubMed

    Rizzotti, Lucia; Simeoni, Desj; Cocconcelli, Piersandro; Gazzola, Simona; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2005-05-01

    Thirty-six samples, including fecal specimens, dry feedstuffs, raw and processed pork meat products, and dry fermented sausages, were collected from two production chains of swine meat commodities and analyzed for the presence of 11 antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Specific PCR assays carried out on DNA extracted directly from the samples revealed a high incidence of the genes tet(K) (80.5%), ermB (66.7%), and tet(M) (66.7%). Feces and feedstuffs gave the largest number of positive amplifications. To elucidate the contribution of enterococci to the occurrence and spread of AR, 146 resistant enterococci were isolated, and their identity, genetic fingerprints, and AR gene profiles were determined by means of molecular techniques. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were the predominant isolated species (43.8 and 38.4%, respectively); Other Enterococcus species identified were E. durans (8.9%), E. hirae (2.7%), E. gallinarum (2.1%), E. mundtii (2.1%), and E. casseliflavus (2.1%). A number of isolates displayed a complex AR gene profile comprising up to four different resistance determinants. The genes tet(M) and ermB were highly diffused, being present in 86.9 and 84.9%, respectively, of the isolates. The application of amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting was particularly valuable to monitor the resistant enterococcal isolates along the production chain and to individuate steps in which contamination might occur. In fact, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium showing the same amplified fragment length polymorphism profile and AR gene pattern were detected in samples taken at different steps of the food chain suggesting three cases of bacterial clonal spread. PMID:15895727

  1. An industry perspective on the use of seasonal forecasts and weather information for evaluating sensitivities in traded commodity supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeisen, Daniela; Slavov, Georgi

    2015-04-01

    Weather information on seasonal timescales is crucial to various end users, from the level of subsistence farming to the government level. Also the financial industry is ever more aware of and interested in the benefits that early and correctly interpreted forecast information provides. Straight forward and often cited applications include the estimation of rainfall and temperature anomalies for drought - prone agricultural areas producing traded commodities, as well as some of the rather direct impacts of weather on energy production. Governments, weather services, as well as both academia and private companies are working on tailoring climate and weather information to a growing number of customers. However, also other large markets, such as coal, iron ore, and gas, are crucially dependent on seasonal weather information and forecasts, while the needs are again very dependent on the direction of the predicted signal. So far, relatively few providers in climate services address these industries. All of these commodities show a strong seasonal and weather dependence, and an unusual winter or summer can crucially impact their demand and supply. To name a few impacts, gas is crucially driven by heating demand, iron ore excavation is dependent on the available water resources, and coal mining is dependent on winter temperatures and rainfall. This contribution will illustrate and provide an inside view of the type of climate and weather information needed for the various large commodity industries.

  2. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... vendors while allowing CCC to more efficiently acquire commodities. The Web-Based Supply Chain System... Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign... information collection associated with procurement of agricultural commodities for foreign donation....

  3. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2010 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2009 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. National reserves information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM), before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the

  4. Constellation Commodities Studies Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirschka, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Constellation program was NASA's long-term program for space exploration. The goal of the commodities studies was to solicit industry expertise in production, storage, and transportation required for future use and to improve efficiency and life cycle cost over legacy methods. Objectives were to consolidate KSC, CCAFS and other requirements; extract available industry expertise; identify commercial opportunities; and establish synergy with State of Florida partnerships. Study results are reviewed.

  5. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  7. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  8. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Child Nutrition Programs § 250.57 Commodity schools. (a) Categorization of commodity schools. Commodity schools are schools that operate a nonprofit school food service in accordance with 7 CFR part 210, but... CFR part 210, as applicable. (b) Value of donated foods for commodity schools. For...

  9. 76 FR 77670 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... FR 39188 (Sept. 25, 1990) (``Brent Interpretation''). II. Commission Interpretation of ``Actual... ``actual delivery'' as set forth in section 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA... application. In particular, new CEA section 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa) \\18\\ excepts a contract of sale...

  10. 78 FR 52426 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77670 (Dec. 14, 2011). II. Summary of Comments A. Comments... factors set forth in the Interpretation. \\19\\ 76 FR 77670, 77672 (Dec. 14, 2011). \\20\\ Id. 2. When the 28...)(ii). \\24\\ See, e.g., Statutory Interpretation Concerning Forward Transactions, 55 FR 39188 (Sept....

  11. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards. PMID:24779933

  12. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  13. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., CPOs, Large Traders, ECPs, and ESPs 2. SDs, MSPs, SEFs, and SDRs 3. Entities Eligible To Engage in... Recordkeeping, 76 FR 29818, May 23, 2011 (``Product Definitions NPRM''). The final rule and interpretations that... not applicable. \\7\\ Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, Feb. 3, 2011. Note that...

  14. An empirical performance analysis of commodity memories in commodity servers

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbyson, D. J.; Lang, M. K.; Patino, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work details a performance study of six different commodity memories in two commodity server nodes on a number of microbenchmarks, that measure low-level performance characteristics, as well as on two applications representative of the ASCI workload. Thc memories vary both in terms of performance, including latency and bandwidths, and also in terms of their physical properties and manufacturer. Two server nodes were used; one Itanium-II Madison based system, and one Xeon based system. All the memories examined can be used within both processing nodes. This allows the performance of the memories to be directly examined while keeping all other factors within a processing node the same (processor, motherboard, operating system etc.). The results of this study show that there can be a significant difference in application performance from the different memories - by as much as 20%. Thus, by choosing the most appropriate memory for a processing node at a minimal cost differential, significant improved performance may be achievable.

  15. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  16. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  17. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  18. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND... agricultural commodities, motor vehicles, or pharmaceuticals (see § 228.13, “Special source rules...

  19. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  20. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  1. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  2. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  3. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... chicken, ground goat, and ground pork; (3) Perishable agricultural commodities; (4) Peanuts; (5) Macadamia nuts; (6) Pecans; and (7) Ginseng. (b) Covered commodities are excluded from this part if the...

  4. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  5. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  6. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  7. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  8. 17 CFR 4.41 - Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising by commodity pool... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Advertising § 4.41 Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and...

  9. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  10. 17 CFR 5.4 - Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. 5.4 Section 5.4 Commodity and... Applicability of part 4 of this chapter to commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors. Part 4 of... commodity pool operator or as a commodity trading advisor. Failure by any such person to comply with...

  11. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... covered commodities means covered commodities (of the same type) presented for retail sale in a...

  12. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... covered commodities means covered commodities (of the same type) presented for retail sale in a...

  13. 75 FR 27338 - NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Contract Merchant LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Commodities Clearing--Delivery LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance LLC; Notice of Filing May 6, 2010... Commodities Clearing--Delivery LLC, and NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance LLC filed a supplement to...

  14. 17 CFR 32.11 - Suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of commodity option transactions. 32.11 Section 32.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.11 Suspension of commodity option transactions....

  15. Broilers, Beans, and Bellies: Teaching Commodity Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Loren J.

    1983-01-01

    People should understand what the commodity futures market is and who uses it. The commodity futures market should be studied in a high school economics course so a one-week unit was developed for students that involved them in a simulation as hedgers and speculators. (AM)

  16. 7 CFR 1405.9 - Commodity assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity assessments. 1405.9 Section 1405.9... Commodity assessments. (a) CCC will deduct from the proceeds of a marketing assistance loan an amount equal to the amount of an assessment otherwise required to be remitted to a State agency under a...

  17. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  18. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  19. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  20. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  1. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  2. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign... SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.51 Commodities. (a) Waiver criteria. Any waiver must be based upon... area included in Geographic Code 941 or the cooperating country. (ii) For assistance other...

  3. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... schools are schools that operate a nonprofit school food service in accordance with 7 CFR part 210, but... CFR part 210, as applicable. (b) Value of donated foods for commodity schools. For participating... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity schools. 250.57 Section 250.57...

  4. Mycotoxin contamination of commercially important agricultural commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal toxins, called aflatoxins and other mold toxins, are a serious problem in US agricultural commodities. Due to aflatoxins resilience to industrial processes contaminated crops (corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts) cannot be used. The loss of these commodities results in serious economic impa...

  5. A Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Foster, I.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to communicate also with the C Globus reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise, and peer-to peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop server side Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Globus jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  6. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  7. 17 CFR 32.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with a commodity option transaction unless such person is registered as a futures commission merchant... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity option transactions. 32.3 Section 32.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING...

  8. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities

    PubMed Central

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result. PMID:25276589

  9. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities.

    PubMed

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result. PMID:25276589

  10. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities.

    PubMed

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result.

  11. 17 CFR 3.10 - Registration of futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, commodity trading advisors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... commission merchants, introducing brokers, commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators and leverage..., commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators and leverage transaction merchants. (a) Application for... futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator...

  12. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Logistics, Commodities, and Waste Management Requirements for Scale-Up of Services

    PubMed Central

    Edgil, Dianna; Stankard, Petra; Forsythe, Steven; Rech, Dino; Chrouser, Kristin; Adamu, Tigistu; Sakallah, Sameer; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Albertini, Jennifer; Stanton, David; Dickson, Kim Eva; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Background The global HIV prevention community is implementing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs across eastern and southern Africa, with a goal of reaching 80% coverage in adult males by 2015. Successful implementation will depend on the accessibility of commodities essential for VMMC programming and the appropriate allocation of resources to support the VMMC supply chain. For this, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, has developed a standard list of commodities for VMMC programs. Methods and Findings This list of commodities was used to inform program planning for a 1-y program to circumcise 152,000 adult men in Swaziland. During this process, additional key commodities were identified, expanding the standard list to include commodities for waste management, HIV counseling and testing, and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The approximate costs for the procurement of commodities, management of a supply chain, and waste disposal, were determined for the VMMC program in Swaziland using current market prices of goods and services. Previous costing studies of VMMC programs did not capture supply chain costs, nor the full range of commodities needed for VMMC program implementation or waste management. Our calculations indicate that depending upon the volume of services provided, supply chain and waste management, including commodities and associated labor, contribute between US$58.92 and US$73.57 to the cost of performing one adult male circumcision in Swaziland. Conclusions Experience with the VMMC program in Swaziland indicates that supply chain and waste management add approximately US$60 per circumcision, nearly doubling the total per procedure cost estimated previously; these additional costs are used to inform the estimate of per procedure costs modeled by Njeuhmeli et al. in “Voluntary Medical

  13. 7 CFR 1421.5 - Eligible commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poisonous to humans or animals. A commodity containing vomitoxin, aflatoxin, or Aspergillus mold may not be...) Have been produced and sheared from live sheep and goats, of domestic origin and located in the...

  14. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  15. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  16. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  17. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  18. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... T-2 which applies to all commodities destined to Communist China. Order T-1 does not relax or...

  19. Commodity Foods Contain Costs and Create Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Susan K.

    1983-01-01

    San Diego food manufacturers were invited to submit bids on new food items--using as possible ingredients Department of Agriculture donated commodity foods--for the school food service programs. (MLF)

  20. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  1. 17 CFR 31.6 - Registration of leverage commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of leverage... LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.6 Registration of leverage commodities. (a) Registration of leverage commodities. Each leverage commodity upon which a leverage contract is offered for sale or purchase or is sold...

  2. 17 CFR 20.11 - Diversified commodity indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diversified commodity indices... TRADER REPORTING FOR PHYSICAL COMMODITY SWAPS § 20.11 Diversified commodity indices. For the purpose of... commonly known diversified indices with publicly available weightings may be reported as if such...

  3. 17 CFR 20.11 - Diversified commodity indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diversified commodity indices... TRADER REPORTING FOR PHYSICAL COMMODITY SWAPS § 20.11 Diversified commodity indices. For the purpose of... commonly known diversified indices with publicly available weightings may be reported as if such...

  4. 17 CFR 20.11 - Diversified commodity indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diversified commodity indices... TRADER REPORTING FOR PHYSICAL COMMODITY SWAPS § 20.11 Diversified commodity indices. For the purpose of... commonly known diversified indices with publicly available weightings may be reported as if such...

  5. 49 CFR 1248.100 - Commodity classification designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATISTICS Commodity Code § 1248.100 Commodity classification designated. Commencing with reports for the..., reports of commodity statistics required to be made to the Board, shall be based on the commodity codes... Statistics, 1963, issued by the Bureau of the Budget, and on additional codes 411 through 462 shown in §...

  6. 49 CFR 1248.100 - Commodity classification designated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATISTICS Commodity Code § 1248.100 Commodity classification designated. Commencing with reports for the..., reports of commodity statistics required to be made to the Board, shall be based on the commodity codes... Statistics, 1963, issued by the Bureau of the Budget, and on additional codes 411 through 462 shown in §...

  7. 76 FR 11701 - Amendments to Commodity Pool Operator and Commodity Trading Advisor Regulations Resulting From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... contracts, commodity options, and off-exchange retail foreign currency transactions, and it does not include... would establish business conduct standards for swap dealers and major swap participants. See 75 FR 80638... and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations, 76 FR 7976 (Feb. 11, 2011);...

  8. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8.715 Section 8.715 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People...

  9. 7 CFR 1405.9 - Commodity assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS § 1405.9... agreement with CCC that sets forth the obligations of the State and CCC with respect to the collection...

  10. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  11. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS..., and other U.S. Government agencies and industry in appropriate cases. (b) Registration with...

  12. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS... Departments of State, Defense, Commerce and other U.S. Government agencies and industry in appropriate...

  13. 76 FR 41048 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. \\5\\ Those comments are available on the Commission's Web site at: http... to the term agricultural commodity, please review the NPRM at 75 FR 65586-65587. 2. The Dodd-Frank..., please review the NPRM at 75 FR 65588-65589. Under current regulations, the term agricultural...

  14. Determine the optimal carrier selection for a logistics network based on multi-commodity reliability criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2013-05-01

    From the perspective of supply chain management, the selected carrier plays an important role in freight delivery. This article proposes a new criterion of multi-commodity reliability and optimises the carrier selection based on such a criterion for logistics networks with routes and nodes, over which multiple commodities are delivered. Carrier selection concerns the selection of exactly one carrier to deliver freight on each route. The capacity of each carrier has several available values associated with a probability distribution, since some of a carrier's capacity may be reserved for various orders. Therefore, the logistics network, given any carrier selection, is a multi-commodity multi-state logistics network. Multi-commodity reliability is defined as a probability that the logistics network can satisfy a customer's demand for various commodities, and is a performance indicator for freight delivery. To solve this problem, this study proposes an optimisation algorithm that integrates genetic algorithm, minimal paths and Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products. A practical example in which multi-sized LCD monitors are delivered from China to Germany is considered to illustrate the solution procedure.

  15. 17 CFR 4.27 - Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... advisors of certain large commodity pools. 4.27 Section 4.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.27 Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools. (a) General...

  16. 17 CFR 4.27 - Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... advisors of certain large commodity pools. 4.27 Section 4.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.27 Additional reporting by advisors of certain large commodity pools. (a) General...

  17. 17 CFR 4.27 - Additional reporting by advisors of commodity pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... advisors of commodity pools. 4.27 Section 4.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.27 Additional reporting by advisors of commodity pools. Except as otherwise expressly provided in this section, CPOs...

  18. Valuing embryos as both commodities and singularities.

    PubMed

    Legge, Michael; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2016-03-11

    An argument put forward against gamete and embryo donation, sale and research, is that to do so would treat the gametes or embryos as objects with no intrinsic value as human. Instead, gametes and embryos created and used for donation, sale or research, can be considered more like a commodity created and traded for economic exchange--something that is valuable only for the amount of money or other goods and services that others are willing to exchange. While Kant asserts that humans have dignity rather than object worth, the provision of human gametes and embryos are progressively becoming utilities for resolving childlessness and for certain research investigations. In this paper we discuss the commodity market and the relationship to human reproduction material. PMID:27005877

  19. Navier-Stokes Computations on Commodity Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Faulkner, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and demonstrate the feasibility of solving high-fidelity, nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems of practical interest on commodity machines, namely Pentium Pro PC's. Such calculations have now become possible due to the progress in computational power and memory of the off-the-shelf commodity computers, along with the growth in bandwidth and communication speeds of networks. A widely used CFD code known as TLNS3D, which was developed originally on large shared memory computers was selected for this effort. This code has recently been ported to massively parallel processor (MPP) type machines, where natural partitioning along grid blocks is adopted in which one or more blocks are distributed to each of the available processors. In this paper, a similar approach is adapted to port this code to a cluster of Pentium Pro computers. The message passing among the processors is accomplished through the use of standard message passing interface (MPI) libraries. Scaling studies indicate fairly high level of parallelism on such clusters of commodity machines, thus making solutions to Navier-Stokes equations for practical problems more affordable.

  20. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of... source and origin of a commodity as defined in § 228.01 shall be a country or countries authorized in the... policy restricted country makes the commodity ineligible for USAID financing. (c) When the...

  1. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Source and origin of commodities. 228.11 Section 228.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND... Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.11 Source and origin of commodities. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. (b) The exchange rate is the lesser of... price, as determined by CCC, for rice or the alternative repayment rate for all other commodities, as determined by CCC. (c) Commodity certificate exchanges may not be used when locking in a repayment rate...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... price for cotton as determined by CCC. (c) Producers must request a commodity certificate exchange in... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing...

  4. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Replacement and similar commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... desire to procure additional sizes, colors, or other variations of a commodity after the commodity...

  5. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Replacement and similar commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... desire to procure additional sizes, colors, or other variations of a commodity after the commodity...

  6. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Replacement and similar commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... desire to procure additional sizes, colors, or other variations of a commodity after the commodity...

  7. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  8. 17 CFR 33.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on which the option is traded, or (B) Is a member of a futures association registered under section... of the commodity option related activity of its member futures commission merchants in a manner... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity...

  9. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  10. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  11. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  12. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  13. Multiple commodities in statistical microeconomics: Model and market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013). In Baaquie et al. (2015), the market behavior of single commodities was analyzed and it was shown that market data provides strong support for the statistical microeconomic description of commodity prices. The case of multiple commodities is studied and a parsimonious generalization of the single commodity model is made for the multiple commodities case. Market data shows that the generalization can accurately model the simultaneous correlation functions of up to four commodities. To accurately model five or more commodities, further terms have to be included in the model. This study shows that the statistical microeconomics approach is a comprehensive and complete formulation of microeconomics, and which is independent to the mainstream formulation of microeconomics.

  14. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from <0.0005 to 0.019 mg/kg. The residue levels of the fat, intestine, and tongue were obviously higher than those of the meat and other edible tissues. The transfer factors of all duck commodities were from 0.0001 to 0.0049 among different contamination levels, which indicated that chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China. PMID:25946472

  15. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from <0.0005 to 0.019 mg/kg. The residue levels of the fat, intestine, and tongue were obviously higher than those of the meat and other edible tissues. The transfer factors of all duck commodities were from 0.0001 to 0.0049 among different contamination levels, which indicated that chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  16. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Tao; Wang, Ling-Ren; Ma, Lang; Han, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Rui; Cheng, Chong; Xia, Yi; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outstanding pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility, antifouling property, antibacterial, and anticoagulant property. Our study opens a route for the functionalization of commodity polymers, which lead to important advances in polymeric materials applications. PMID:24710333

  17. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Tao; Wang, Ling-Ren; Ma, Lang; Han, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Rui; Cheng, Chong; Xia, Yi; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outstanding pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility, antifouling property, antibacterial, and anticoagulant property. Our study opens a route for the functionalization of commodity polymers, which lead to important advances in polymeric materials applications.

  18. Airships for transporting highly volatile commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonstegaard, M.

    1975-01-01

    Large airships may prove feasible as carriers of commodities that move as gases or cryogenic liquids; buoyant gaseous cargo could be ballasted with liquid cargo. Airships are compact in shape, operate in a rarified medium, and hence can be fast and perhaps economic carriers of costly cryogenic tanks. The high-pressure gas pipeline has excessive surface area when carrying hydrogen and excessive fluid density when carrying natural gas, while the cryogenic ocean tanker runs in a dense medium and makes gravity waves. But the airship, despite its fluid dynamic advantages, faces problems of safety, weather, and altitude control.

  19. Knowledge-based commodity distribution planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saks, Victor; Johnson, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a Decision Support System (DSS) that incorporates Knowledge-Based (KB) and commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology components. The Knowledge-Based Logistics Planning Shell (KBLPS) is a state-of-the-art DSS with an interactive map-oriented graphics user interface and powerful underlying planning algorithms. KBLPS was designed and implemented to support skilled Army logisticians to prepare and evaluate logistics plans rapidly, in order to support corps-level battle scenarios. KBLPS represents a substantial advance in graphical interactive planning tools, with the inclusion of intelligent planning algorithms that provide a powerful adjunct to the planning skills of commodity distribution planners.

  20. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  1. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    PubMed

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  2. Computer-generated mineral commodity deposit maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schruben, Paul G.; Hanley, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    This report describes an automated method of generating deposit maps of mineral commodity information. In addition, it serves as a user's manual for the authors' mapping system. Procedures were developed which allow commodity specialists to enter deposit information, retrieve selected data, and plot deposit symbols in any geographic area within the conterminous United States. The mapping system uses both micro- and mainframe computers. The microcomputer is used to input and retrieve information, thus minimizing computing charges. The mainframe computer is used to generate map plots which are printed by a Calcomp plotter. Selector V data base system is employed for input and retrieval on the microcomputer. A general mapping program (Genmap) was written in FORTRAN for use on the mainframe computer. Genmap can plot fifteen symbol types (for point locations) in three sizes. The user can assign symbol types to data items interactively. Individual map symbols can be labeled with a number or the deposit name. Genmap also provides several geographic boundary file and window options.

  3. 76 FR 7975 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... financial regulators and is charged with identifying risks to the financial stability of the United States..., and promote market integrity within the financial system by, inter alia, enhancing the Commodity....htm. The preamble of the Dodd-Frank Act explicitly states that the purpose of the legislation is:...

  4. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section...

  5. 17 CFR 4.13 - Exemption from registration as a commodity pool operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity pool operator. 4.13 Section 4.13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.13 Exemption from registration as a commodity pool operator. This section...

  6. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... COMMODITY FOR FUTURE DELIVERY § 33.10 Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. It shall...

  7. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... COMMODITY FOR FUTURE DELIVERY § 33.10 Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. It shall...

  8. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  9. Valuing environmental commodities: some recent experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, W.D.; d'Arge, R.C.; Brookshire, D.S.

    1981-05-01

    A general model of consumer behavior is proposed to assess six recent experiments that have attempted to reveal preferences for environmental goals. Each experiment used a mix of both the techniques and the theory of demand for non-market commodities, and each was designed to estimate a non-market attitude associated with the environment and to analyze potential biases in the techniques. The six cases show some consistency in results. The linkage within the contingent market between the environmental attribute, institutional setting, and the bidding instrument must be realistic and accepted by the respondent to avoid biased results. Possibly the most-important result is the replication of results using a traditional property-value study and a contingent bidding approach. All evidence obtained to date suggests that hedonic studies of property values or wages, travel costs, and survey techniques all yield values well one order of magnitude in accuracy. 41 references, 2 tables.

  10. Computational chemistry on commodity-type computers.

    PubMed

    Nicklaus, M C; Williams, R W; Bienfait, B; Billings, E S; Hodoscek, M

    1998-01-01

    A number of inexpensive computers were benchmarked with the ab initio program Gaussian 94, using both small standard test jobs and larger density functional (DFT) calculations. Several varieties of Pentium (x86) and Alpha CPU based systems were tested. Most of them were running under the open source code operating system Linux. They were compared with several workstations and supercomputers. The most powerful of today's commodity-type processors surpassed current supercomputers in speed. The choice of compilers and compilation options was often found to have a larger influence on job CPU times than details of the hardware. Especially on the x86 type machines, the jobs always ran faster the less memory (RAM) they were given. The fastest machine on a per-CPU basis was an Alpha/Linux system. For the DFT calculation, it was close to twice as fast as a Cray J90 supercomputer. PMID:9770303

  11. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  12. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  13. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  14. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  15. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499..., arrange for transporting, storing, and distributing the donated commodities from the designated point...

  16. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  17. 5 CFR 1315.13 - Commodity Credit Corporation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity Credit Corporation payments... PAYMENT § 1315.13 Commodity Credit Corporation payments. As provided in § 1315.1(d), the provisions of... Credit Corporation (CCC) pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Act of June 29, 1948 (15 U.S.C. 714b(h))...

  18. 5 CFR 1315.13 - Commodity Credit Corporation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity Credit Corporation payments... PAYMENT § 1315.13 Commodity Credit Corporation payments. As provided in § 1315.1(d), the provisions of... Credit Corporation (CCC) pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Act of June 29, 1948 (15 U.S.C. 714b(h))...

  19. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  20. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  1. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  2. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  3. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... NSAs for the movement of the following, as defined in section 3 of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40102) and § 530... filing NSAs which exclusively concern the commodities or services listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (2) NSAs filed with the Commission may include the commodities or services listed in paragraph...

  4. 75 FR 70811 - Commodity Assessments; Loans, Purchases, and Other Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Code or the Statement of Policy of the Secretary of Agriculture effective July 24, 1971 (36 FR 13804... part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR 29115). Executive Order... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1405 RIN 0560-AI00 Commodity Assessments; Loans, Purchases,...

  5. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... Restrictions and Criteria for Export Credit Guarantee Programs § 1493.5 Criteria for agricultural commodity... benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for the development, expansion...

  6. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... Restrictions and Criteria for Export Credit Guarantee Programs § 1493.5 Criteria for agricultural commodity... benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for the development, expansion...

  7. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... agricultural commodity allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S... following: (a) Potential benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for...

  8. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... agricultural commodity allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S... following: (a) Potential benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees would provide for...

  9. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military resale... PROCEDURES § 51-6.4 Military resale commodities. (a) Purchase procedures for ordering military resale commodities are available from the central nonprofit agencies. Authorized resale outlets (military...

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military resale... PROCEDURES § 51-6.4 Military resale commodities. (a) Purchase procedures for ordering military resale commodities are available from the central nonprofit agencies. Authorized resale outlets (military...

  11. 22 CFR 211.6 - Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities. 211.6 Section 211.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD..., with the following information in the language of the country in which the commodities are to...

  12. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with the United States person is a person in Iran or the Government of Iran, and (2) It was impossible... the Government of Iran. (b) Trading in commodities destined for Iran or the Government of Iran. With... by United States persons in commodities of U.S. or third-country origin destined for Iran or...

  13. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the United States person is a person in Iran or the Government of Iran, and (2) It was impossible... the Government of Iran. (b) Trading in commodities destined for Iran or the Government of Iran. With... by United States persons in commodities of U.S. or third-country origin destined for Iran or...

  14. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity control, storage and distribution. 253.10... THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.10 Commodity control, storage and distribution. (a) Control and accountability. The State agency shall be responsible for...

  15. 22 CFR 211.6 - Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commodities. 211.6 Section 211.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.6 Processing... income may be used, to offset such costs if provided for in the Operational Plan or TA or approved...

  16. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  17. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  18. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  19. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  20. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 247.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or...

  1. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...-condition commodities. The State agency shall immediately notify the appropriate Food and Nutrition Service... commodities are declared unfit for human consumption in accordance with § 250.13(f) of this chapter,...

  2. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permits the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba, as well as the reexport of U.S. origin agricultural commodities to Cuba, provided your transaction meets all of the following criteria: (1) The... U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firm may export from abroad to Cuba a foreign produced...

  3. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.17... marketing proceeds from the commodity in accordance with § 1425.18; and (5) Members agreed to accept a payment of initial advances from the CMA in accordance with § 1425.18(a). (d) Ineligible commodities...

  4. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  5. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  6. Commodity-Based Computing Clusters at PPPL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wah, Darren; Davis, Steven L.; Johansson, Marques; Klasky, Scott; Tang, William; Valeo, Ernest

    2002-11-01

    In order to cost-effectively facilitate mid-scale serial and parallel computations and code development, a number of commodity-based clusters have been built at PPPL. A recent addition is the PETREL cluster, consisting of 100 dual-processor machines, both Intel and AMD, interconnected by a 100Mbit switch. Sixteen machines have an additional Myrinet 2000 interconnect. Also underway is the implementation of a Prototype Topical Computing Facility which will explore the effectiveness and scaling of cluster computing for larger scale fusion codes, specifically including those being developed under the SCIDAC auspices. This facility will consist of two parts: a 64 dual-processor node cluster, with high speed interconnect, and a 16 dual-processor node cluster, utilizing gigabit networking, built for the purpose of exploring grid-enabled computing. The initial grid explorations will be in collaboration with the Princeton University Institute for Computational Science and Engineering (PICSciE), where a 16 processor cluster dedicated to investigation of grid computing is being built. The initial objectives are to (1) grid-enable the GTC code and an MHD code, making use of MPICH-G2 and (2) implement grid-enabled interactive visualization using DXMPI and the Chromium API.

  7. Commodity chemical growth to slow in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Plishner, E.S.

    1992-12-09

    In their latest chemical outlook, DRI/McGraw-Hill economists characterize 1992 as a peak year for U.S. commodity chemical demand growth, at 4.2%, tapering off to a compound 2.2% between 1993 and 1995. Just as operating rates begin to reach higher levels in 1995, however, DRI forecasts slowing GNP growth. DRI's Ramunas J. Svarcas expects a decline in exports. Those plastics promising the rosiest consumption outlook include melamine-formaldehyde resin, up 9.9% in 1992, from 155 million lbs in 1991, and projected to grow 8.6%/year through 1995; styrene acrylonitrile resin, up 23% this year, from 58 million lbs last year, and growing 8.2%/year through 1995; and unsaturated polyester, up 11.7% this year, from 1.07 billion lbs in 1991, and increasing at 6.5%/year. Methanol is a bright spot, with consumption growing 4.7%, from 11.2 billion lbs in 1991 and 12%/year thereafter. Ortho-xylene managed an impressive 21% rebound from a depressed 1991 level of 783 million lbs, and is expected to continue its recovery at 7.7%/year.

  8. Features of the Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Rehn, N.; Russell, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit (Java CoG Kit). The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus Toolkit protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to also communicate with the services distributed as part of the C Globus Toolkit reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise and peer-to-peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus Toolkit software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop serverside Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Grid jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  9. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the [sup 137]Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. This Volume, IV, provides specifications as developed for the CACI final design.

  10. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the 137 Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. The CACI final design is described in eight volumes. This volume, Volume VII, describes Safety Analysis, Thermal Analysis, and Thermal Testing.

  11. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the [sup 137]Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. The CACI final design is described in eight volumes. This Volume V, describes plans, criteria, and requirements.

  12. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the 137 Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. The CACI final design is described in eight volumes. This volume Volume III, describes the Shielding Window.

  13. CACI: The Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-19

    This report provides a complete description of the final detailed design of the Cesium-137 Agricultural Commodities Irradiator (CACI). The design was developed and successfully completed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The CACI project was initiated in April 1985 under DOE's Byproducts Utilization Program, with the objectives of transferring food irradiation technology to the industry and thereby demonstrating a beneficial use for the [sup 137]Cs nuclear by-product isotope. As designed, CACI will meet the intended requirements for research, development, and demonstration of irradiation processing of food. Further, as shown in the safety analyses performed during the project, the design conforms to all the safety and licensing requirements set forth for the project. The original scope of the CACI project included completion of its construction. However, the project was terminated for the convenience of the government during the final design phase in February 1986 for lack of a specific site. This Volume, VI, provides the CACI final design features regarding shielding, mechanical and electrical.

  14. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Schedule of Fees for Registration of Leverage Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Registration of Leverage Commodities A Appendix A to Part 31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS Pt. 31, App. A Appendix A to Part 31—Schedule of Fees for Registration of Leverage Commodities (a) Each application for registration of a leverage commodity must...

  15. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  16. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  17. 17 CFR 32.4 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.4 Section 32.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.4 Fraud in connection with...

  18. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  19. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  20. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  1. 17 CFR 32.4 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.4 Section 32.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.4 Fraud in connection with...

  2. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  3. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  4. On Farm and Packhouse: Employment at the Bottom of a Global Value Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Catherine S.

    2004-01-01

    The fresh vegetables commodity chain linking Kenyan producers with United Kingdom (UK) consumers employs significant numbers of workers in production and processing. This chain is dominated by UK retailers that determine the production imperatives of Kenyan firms upstream in the chain and, indirectly the employment strategies they adopt. This…

  5. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... producer in the original sale of that specific commodity; and (ii) A markup over the amount allowed in... competitors of the supplier; and (iii) To the extent not included in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section...

  6. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  7. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  8. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... of members of commodity committees. There is hereby established a Pear Commodity Committee...

  9. Upon Further Review: A Commodity Chemist on Green Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F.

    2016-09-01

    Green chemistry is most often thought of in the context of specialty or pharmaceutical chemicals where many synthetic chemistry approaches are in play. However, principles similar to those of green chemistry and engineering were employed over the years in reducing cost and increasing volume of chemicals that became commodities. This paper considers some of those principles, their impact, and some perspectives on the potential and limits associated with green chemistry for commodity chemicals.

  10. Ranking and selection of motor carrier safety performance by commodity.

    PubMed

    Horrace, William C; Keane, Thomas P

    2004-11-01

    We use recent safety performance data to rank US motor carrier commodity segments (e.g., Tank segment or Produce segment) in terms of several driver-related, vehicle-related, and crash-related safety measures. Ranking and selection inference techniques are used to determine the best and worst performing commodity segments at the 95% confidence level. The results are mixed, however the Passenger segment is generally best, while the Produce, Intermodal, and Refrigerated segments tend to be worst. PMID:15350872

  11. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.

    PubMed

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2016-01-13

    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters. PMID:26621991

  12. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  13. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  14. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  15. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of access to a reference monitoring site, this would overcome a nominally important barrier associated with non-gravimetric, in-situ calibration of continuous PM2.5 monitors. Progressive and disruptive prospects linked to a proliferation of comparable sensing technologies based on commodity hardware are discussed in Chapter 5.

  16. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499... or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the transfer... forth in the agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following...

  17. 17 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Other Commodity Swap Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Categories D Appendix D to Part 43 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION... Other Commodity Group Individual Other Commodity Grains Oats Wheat Corn Rice Grains—Other Livestock/Meat Products Live Cattle Pork Bellies Feeder Cattle Lean Hogs Livestock/Meat Products—Other Dairy Products...

  18. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.9 Section 1599... Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the... time period set forth in the agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that...

  19. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.9 Section 1599... Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the... time period set forth in the agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that...

  20. Standardization as a Means for Globalizing a Commodity: The Case of Rapeseed in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Keiko; Busch, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Not all commodities are things, nor are all things available in society commodities. Then, what are commodities? Using the case of rapeseed and its products in China, this paper examines the role of grades and standards (G&S) in simultaneously determining the life of things as commodities and the position of humans as market participants. In the…

  1. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Enumerated Physical Commodity Contracts and Other Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Contracts and Other Contracts B Appendix B to Part 43 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... Commodity Contracts and Other Contracts Enumerated Physical Commodity Contracts Agriculture ICE Futures U.S. Cocoa ICE Futures U.S. Coffee C Chicago Board of Trade Corn ICE Futures U.S. Cotton No. 2 ICE Futures...

  2. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-09-14

    The links between the end uses of mineral commodities and the NAICS codes provide an instrument for analyzing the use of mineral commodities in the economy. The crosswalk is also a guide, highlighting those industrial sectors in the economy that rely heavily on mineral commodities. The distribution of mineral commodities across the economy is dynamic and does differ from year to year. This report reflects a snapshot of the state of the economy and mineral commodities in 2010.

  3. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-01-01

    The links between the end uses of mineral commodities and the NAICS codes provide an instrument for analyzing the use of mineral commodities in the economy. The crosswalk is also a guide, highlighting those industrial sectors in the economy that rely heavily on mineral commodities. The distribution of mineral commodities across the economy is dynamic and does differ from year to year. This report reflects a snapshot of the state of the economy and mineral commodities in 2010.

  4. Building and managing high performance, scalable, commodity mass storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekashman, John

    1998-01-01

    The NAS Systems Division has recently embarked on a significant new way of handling the mass storage problem. One of the basic goals of this new development are to build systems at very large capacity and high performance, yet have the advantages of commodity products. The central design philosophy is to build storage systems the way the Internet was built. Competitive, survivable, expandable, and wide open. The thrust of this paper is to describe the motivation for this effort, what we mean by commodity mass storage, what the implications are for a facility that performs such an action, and where we think it will lead.

  5. Assessment of laboratory logistics management information system practice for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in selected public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desale, Adino; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Nigatu, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2010-January 2011 at selected public health facilities. A stratified random sampling method was used to include a total of 43 facilities which, were investigated through quantitative methods using structured questionnaires interviews. Focus group discussion with the designated supply chain managers and key informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative method. Results There exists a well-designed logistics system for laboratory commodities with trained pharmacy personnel, distributed standard LMIS formats and established inventory control procedures. However, majority of laboratory professionals were not trained in LMIS. Majority of the facilities (60.5%) were stocked out for at least one ART monitoring and TB laboratory reagents and the highest stock out rate was for chemistry reagents. Expired ART monitoring laboratory commodities were found in 25 (73.5%) of facilities. Fifty percent (50%) of the assessed hospitals and 54% of health centers were currently using stock/bin cards for all HIV/AIDS and TB laboratory commodities in main pharmacy store, among these only 25% and 20.8% of them were updated with accurate information matching with the physical count done at the time of visit for hospitals and health centers respectively. Conclusion Even though there exists a well designed laboratory LMIS, keeping quality stock/bin cards and LMIS reports were very low. Key ART monitoring laboratory commodities were stock out at many facilities at the day of visit and during the past six months. Based on findings, training of laboratory personnel's managing laboratory commodities and keeping

  6. Some Marginalist Intuition Concerning the Optimal Commodity Tax Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Craig

    2006-01-01

    The author offers a simple intuition that can be exploited to derive and to help interpret some canonical results in the theory of optimal commodity taxation. He develops and explores the principle that the marginal social welfare loss per last unit of tax revenue generated be equalized across tax instruments. A simple two-consumer,…

  7. REVIEW OF CONTROL OPTIONS FOR METHYL BROMIDE IN COMMODITY TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes recent developments in the control of methyl bromide (MeBr) and discusses technical considerations and requirements for and economic feasibility of recovery. (NOTE: MeBr, fumigant for agricultural commodities, is an ozone depleting chemical. The U.S. EPA has ...

  8. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  9. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for review upon request. (h) Distribution to eligible recipient agencies—priority system and advisory... authority must ensure that any TEFAP commodities are distributed in accordance with the priority system set... agencies will be deemed to be in compliance with the priority system when eligible recipient...

  10. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  11. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  12. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  13. Infusing Commodity Marketing into the Agriculture Curriculum. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Arkansas Educational Cooperative, Strawberry.

    A project was conducted in Arkansas to infuse commodity marketing content into the agriculture curriculum. Thirty-three schools were selected to participate in the program; teachers from those schools attended a 2-day inservice program presented by a state coordinator for the project. The state coordinator also provided supervision and technical…

  14. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  15. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.4... receiving commodities under this part shall not diminish their normal expenditures for food because...

  16. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  17. Supply of and demand for selected energy related mineral commodities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, subjects discussed include components of mineral supply, production, and consumption data, and information on selected mineral commodities in which the Energy Critical Elements Study Group has an interest, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recycling studies, with some results of these studies.

  18. 22 CFR 201.11 - Eligibility of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Department Foreign Assets, Sanctions, Transactions and Funds Control Regulations published in 31 CFR parts 500 through 599, as from time to time amended. (h) Commodities shipped out of a free port or bonded... shipped to the cooperating country shall be insured against marine risks and that such insurance shall...

  19. Figuring Home: The Role of Commodities in the Transnational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Christine; Omar, Maktoba

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes to investigate the role played by material goods in the transnational experience. Previous research has shown that the movement of people across the world comes with a corollary of cultural flows which find their expression in multiple ways. This article looks more specifically at the kind of commodities that international…

  20. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... commodities only in quantities which can be utilized without waste in providing food assistance to needy... distributed to institutions and to needy persons in households in forms and units suitable for institutional... cost or waste, nutrition assistance to individuals in low-income groups. Such transfers will...

  1. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... commodities only in quantities which can be utilized without waste in providing food assistance to needy... distributed to institutions and to needy persons in households in forms and units suitable for institutional... cost or waste, nutrition assistance to individuals in low-income groups. Such transfers will...

  2. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... 64 FR 68011, Dec. 6, 1999, respectively. In either case (whether transacted pursuant to the ATOM....'' See 75 FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. In addition to the provisions on swaps in an agricultural commodity... related matters. \\12\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. II. Background A....

  3. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  4. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the administration of that program in accordance with 7 CFR part 247, the regulations for that program... to local agencies for use by eligible recipients in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 247... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63...

  5. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  6. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... commodities only in quantities which can be utilized without waste in providing food assistance to needy... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM §...

  7. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  8. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  9. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  10. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  11. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  12. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  13. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  14. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  15. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commodity control, storage and distribution. 253.10 Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR...

  16. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity control, storage and distribution. 253.10 Section 253.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR...

  17. 17 CFR 37.3 - Requirements for underlying commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5a(b)(3) of the Act, may trade any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery (or option on... the self-regulatory record and capacity of the facility, that trading in the contract (or option... pattern of cash market pricing that exhibits continuity and the absence of frequent, sharp price...

  18. 17 CFR 37.3 - Requirements for underlying commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 5a(b)(3) of the Act, may trade any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery (or option on... the self-regulatory record and capacity of the facility, that trading in the contract (or option... pattern of cash market pricing that exhibits continuity and the absence of frequent, sharp price...

  19. 17 CFR 37.3 - Requirements for underlying commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 5a(b)(3) of the Act, may trade any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery (or option on... the self-regulatory record and capacity of the facility, that trading in the contract (or option... pattern of cash market pricing that exhibits continuity and the absence of frequent, sharp price...

  20. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  1. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  2. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  3. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  4. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  5. Cooperation with Commodity Groups and Hands-On Demonstrations Improve the Effectiveness of Commodity-Focused Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Herman J.; Ransom, Joel K.; Torgerson, David A.; Wiersma, Jochum J.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat and soybean producers pay a small amount per bushel produced as a check-off. Funds are used for research, outreach, and crop promotion. Commodity organizations and Extension joined forces to develop multi-state educational outreach on spring wheat and soybean production. Participatory planning involved producers in developing these…

  6. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During my Spring 2016 internship, my two major contributions were the design of the Commodities Exchange Pallet and the design of a test stand for a 100 pounds-thrust sounding rocket. The Commodities Exchange Pallet is a prototype developed for the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program. Under the HESTIA initiative the Commodities Exchange Pallet was developed as a method for demonstrating multi-system integration thru the transportation of In-Situ Resource Utilization produced oxygen and water to a human habitat. Ultimately, this prototype's performance will allow for future evaluation of integration, which may lead to the development of a flight capable pallet for future deep-space exploration missions. For HESTIA, my main task was to design the Commodities Exchange Pallet system to be used for completing an integration demonstration. Under the guidance of my mentor, I designed, both, the structural frame and fluid delivery system for the commodities pallet. The fluid delivery system includes a liquid-oxygen to gaseous-oxygen system, a water delivery system, and a carbon-dioxide compressors system. The structural frame is designed to meet safety and transportation requirements, as well as the ability to interface with the ER division's Portable Utility Pallet. The commodities pallet structure also includes independent instrumentation oxygen/water panels for operation and system monitoring. My major accomplishments for the commodities exchange pallet were the completion of the fluid delivery systems and the structural frame designs. In addition, parts selection was completed in order to expedite construction of the prototype, scheduled to begin in May of 2016. Once the commodities pallet is assembled and tested it is expected to complete a fully integrated transfer demonstration with the ISRU unit and the Environmental Control and Life Support System test chamber in September of 2016. In addition to the development of

  7. Impacts to the ethylene supply chain from a hurricane disruption.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Downes, Paula Sue; Heinen, Russell; Welk, Margaret Ellen

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of chemical supply chains is an inherently complex task, given the dependence of these supply chains on multiple infrastructure systems (e.g., the petroleum sector, transportation, etc.). This effort requires data and information at various levels of resolution, ranging from network-level distribution systems to individual chemical reactions. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has integrated its existing simulation and infrastructure analysis capabilities with chemical data models to analyze the chemical supply chains of several nationally critical chemical commodities. This paper describes how Sandia models the ethylene supply chain; that is, the supply chain for the most widely used raw material for plastics production including a description of the types of data and modeling capabilities that are required to represent the ethylene supply chain. The paper concludes with a description of Sandia's use the model to project how the supply chain would be affected by and adapt to a disruptive scenario hurricane.

  8. 17 CFR 4.6 - Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term âcommodity trading advisor.â 4.6 Section 4.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.6 Exclusion for...

  9. 17 CFR 33.5 - Application for designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a contract market for the trading of commodity options. 33.5 Section 33.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.5 Application for designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options....

  10. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private... certification to the Treasurer, CCC, within 60 days from the date of delivery or such extension of time as...

  11. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 46 Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the regulations under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA) in response to...

  12. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.20 Designation... Peach Commodity Committee each consisting of 13 members. Each commodity committee may be increased...

  13. 7 CFR 917.20 - Designation of members of commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.20 Designation... Peach Commodity Committee each consisting of 13 members. Each commodity committee may be increased...

  14. Limestone - A Crucial and Versatile Industrial Mineral Commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Orris, Greta J.

    2008-01-01

    Limestone, as used by the minerals industry, is any rock composed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Although limestone is common in many parts of the United States, it is critically absent from some. Limestone is used to produce Portland cement, as aggregate in concrete and asphalt, and in an enormous array of other products, making it a truly versatile commodity. Portland cement is essential to the building industry, but despite our Nation's abundance of limestone, there have been cement shortages in recent years. These have been caused in part by a need to find new areas suitable for quarrying operations. To help manage our Nation's resources of such essential mineral commodities, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides crucial data and scientific information to industry, policymakers, and the public.

  15. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report [open quotes]Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File[close quotes]. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  16. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  17. Black bear depredation on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonker, S.A.; Parkhurst, J.A.; Field, R.; Fuller, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    We used response to a mail survey (n = 848) to evaluate the extent and severity of depredation by black bears (Ursus americanus) on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts and to assess producers' attitudes toward and tolerance of bear depredation. Damage abatement techniques were ranked for effectiveness by producers of corn, bees and honey, and livestock and dairy products. Results showed differences in perception of effects of bear depredation among commodity groups. Producers of corn and livestock and dairy products considered bear damage to be low to moderate in severity whereas beekeepers thought their losses were substantial or severe. Most estimates of economic loss were <$1,000 per year. Respondents considered bears to be an inconvenience, but thought they should remain a part of our natural heritage. There was no significant relationship between producers' experience with or economic dependence on their product and their attitude toward bears or their tolerance of bear damage. We conclude that there is need for effective education programs for agricultural producers, strengthened working relationships between producers and state fish and wildlife agencies, incorporation of producers' suggestions into management decisions, and investment in effective, economical, and long-term solutions to bear depredations for each affected commodity group.

  18. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FINANCING OF SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit..., within 60 days from the date of delivery or such extension of time as may be granted by the Treasurer...

  19. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FINANCING OF SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit..., within 60 days from the date of delivery or such extension of time as may be granted by the Treasurer...

  20. 17 CFR 190.05 - Making and taking delivery on commodity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Making and taking delivery on... COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.05 Making and taking delivery on commodity contracts. (a) General. (1) In the..., which: (1) Permit the making and taking of delivery to fulfill a commodity futures contract for...

  1. 17 CFR 190.05 - Making and taking delivery on commodity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Making and taking delivery on... COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.05 Making and taking delivery on commodity contracts. (a) General. (1) In the..., which: (1) Permit the making and taking of delivery to fulfill a commodity futures contract for...

  2. 40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability; description of the commodity organic...

  3. 40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability; description of the commodity organic...

  4. 40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability; description of the commodity organic...

  5. 40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability; description of the commodity organic...

  6. 40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability; description of the commodity organic...

  7. 44 CFR 402.3 - Addition of commodities to the Positive List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Addition of commodities to the Positive List. 402.3 Section 402.3 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND... commodities to the Positive List. Order T-1 applies to the transportation or discharge of commodities...

  8. 44 CFR 402.3 - Addition of commodities to the Positive List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Addition of commodities to the Positive List. 402.3 Section 402.3 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND... commodities to the Positive List. Order T-1 applies to the transportation or discharge of commodities...

  9. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  10. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  11. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  12. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  13. 7 CFR 917.18 - Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of commodity committee members of the... Administrative Bodies § 917.18 Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee. Nominations... following manner: (a) A nomination for one member shall be made by each commodity committee...

  14. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities... agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following the transfer of...

  15. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities... agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following the transfer of...

  16. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.22 Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  17. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.22 Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  18. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  19. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  20. 17 CFR 33.4 - Designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS... contracts of sale for future delivery or for options on physicals in any commodity regulated under the Act... the board of trade; and (ii) With respect to options on futures contracts, may be exercised only...

  1. 7 CFR 1599.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1599.9 Section 1599..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.9 Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to...

  2. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499... agreement, of any damage to or loss of the donated commodities that occurs following the transfer of...

  3. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.9 Damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the...

  4. 17 CFR 1.35 - Records of cash commodity, futures, and option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cash commodity, futures, and option transactions. (a) Futures commission merchants, retail foreign..., retail foreign exchange dealer, introducing broker, and member of a contract market shall keep full... relating to its business of dealing in commodity futures, retail forex transactions, commodity options,...

  5. Chain Gang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

    Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  6. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  7. Commodity readout electronics for an underwater neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anassontzis, E. G.; Athanasopoulos, T.; Belias, A.; Fotiou, A.; Maniatis, E.; Resvanis, L. K.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    Typically the front end electronics required for a neutrino telescope, incorporates electronics to perform waveform capture of photomultiplier tube signals, possibly applying a local triggering algorithm and transmission of the data to the shore. We show how a commodity based system which employs Component Off The Shelf (COTS) devices, with Flash Analog to Digital Converters (FADCs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), can be used for synchronous signal digitization of multiple photomultiplier tubes. The transmission link to the shore has been realized using the standard communication protocol of Gbit Ethernet through fiber. We describe the readout system and our designs to interface with existing electronics for control and operation of a neutrino telescope.

  8. Case for Deploying Complex Systems Utilizing Commodity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Barry S.; Pitts, R. Lee; Ritter, George

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents a study of the transition of computer networks and software engineering at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) from a client/server UNIX based system to a client/server system based on commodity priced and open system components. Topics covered include: an overview of HOSC ground support systems, an analysis for changes to the existing ground support system, an analysis of options considered for the transition to a new system, and a consideration of goals for a new system.

  9. Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

    2010-11-08

    High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

  10. Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

    2009-09-23

    Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers.

  11. Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

    2009-09-23

    Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers. PMID:19719130

  12. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Robinson, Sharon M

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  13. Efficient Execution of Recursive Programs on Commodity Vector Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Bin; Jo, Youngjoon; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Kulkarni, Milind

    2015-06-13

    The pursuit of computational efficiency has led to the proliferation of throughput-oriented hardware, from GPUs to increasingly-wide vector units on commodity processors and accelerators. This hardware is designed to efficiently execute data-parallel computations in a vectorized manner. However, many algorithms are more naturally expressed as divide-and-conquer, recursive, task-parallel computations; in the absence of data parallelism, it seems that such algorithms are not well-suited to throughput-oriented architectures. This paper presents a set of novel code transformations that expose the data-parallelism latent in recursive, task-parallel programs. These transformations facilitate straightforward vectorization of task-parallel programs on commodity hardware. We also present scheduling policies that maintain high utilization of vector resources while limiting space usage. Across several task-parallel benchmarks, we demonstrate both efficient vector resource utilization and substantial speedup on chips using Intel's SSE4.2 vector units as well as accelerators using Intel's AVX512 units.

  14. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  15. 17 CFR 33.6 - Suspension or revocation of designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options. 33.6 Section 33.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.6 Suspension or revocation of designation as a contract market for the...

  16. Multifractal behavior of commodity markets: Fuel versus non-fuel products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbianco, Fernando; Tohmé, Fernando; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2016-09-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of commodity time series using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We find that agricultural and energy-related commodities exhibit very similar behavior, while the multifractal behavior of daily and monthly commodity series is rather different. Daily series demonstrate overall uncorrelated behavior, lower degree of multifractality and the dominance of small fluctuations. On the other hand, monthly commodity series show overall persistent behavior, higher degree of multifractality and the dominance of large fluctuations. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to a broad probability density function for daily commodities series, while for monthly commodities series multifractality is caused by both a broad probability density function and long term correlations.

  17. Preliminary Metallogenic Map of North America; a listing of deposits by commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Michael P.; Guild, Philip White; Schruben, Paul G.

    1987-01-01

    The 4,215 ore deposits shown on the Preliminary Metallogenic Map of North America and contained in the Metallogenic Map file have been sorted by their principal (first-listed) commodities and grouped into metallic and nonmetallic categories. Deposit listings for 56 individual metals and minerals have been assembled using the data base and are arranged alphabetically by country, political subdivision (for the larger countries), and deposit name. Map numbers, major and minor constituents, geographic coordinates, and a geologic code are given for each deposit; additionally, the relative size and deposit class have been derived from the code and are listed separately. The frequencies of individual commodities and commodity groups by type, geographic distribution, and geologic occurrence are summarized in tables, and the relationships of associated commodities to principal commodities in the data base are emphasized in both tables and brief texts. In all, 49 metals and minerals are listed as principal (first or only) commodities and 7 more are shown as 'major' but not principal commodities. (Commodities listed as 'minor' in the data base were not sorted or tabulated separately.) Metals, divided into six subgroups, predominate over nonmetallic minerals by a ratio of about 7 to 1, although in terms of quantities and value the disparity is not so great. Within the metals group, the ranking according to frequency is as follows: base, precious, iron and alloying, other (antimony, beryllium, and others), nuclear-fuel, and light metals. The most frequently occurring commodity in the Metallogenic Map file is gold. Copper is ranked second, both in number of occurrences and as the principal commodity in deposits. Silver is ranked third in frequency of occurrence; lead and zinc are ranked fourth and fifth, respectively. Iron, ranked sixth in frequency of occurrence as a major commodity, is the third most reported principal commodity in the data base, ahead of silver (ranked fourth

  18. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  19. Commodity culture: tropical health and hygiene in the British Empire.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan

    2008-06-01

    Before heading to a 'tropical' region of the Empire, British men and women spent considerable time and effort gathering outfit believed essential for their impending trip. Ordinary items such as soap, clothing, foodstuffs and bedding became transformed into potentially life-saving items that required the fastidious attention of any would-be traveller. Everyone from scientists and physicians to missionaries and administrators was bombarded by relentless advertising and abundant advice about the outfit needed to preserve health in a tropical climate. A closer look at this marketing exercise reveals much about the way people thought about tropical people, places, health and hygiene and how scientific and commercial influences shaped this Imperial commodity culture.

  20. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for the synthesis of commodity products.

    PubMed

    Angermayr, S Andreas; Gorchs Rovira, Aleix; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2015-06-01

    Through metabolic engineering cyanobacteria can be employed in biotechnology. Combining the capacity for oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon fixation with an engineered metabolic pathway allows carbon-based product formation from CO(2), light, and water directly. Such cyanobacterial 'cell factories' are constructed to produce biofuels, bioplastics, and commodity chemicals. Efforts of metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists allow the modification of the intermediary metabolism at various branching points, expanding the product range. The new biosynthesis routes 'tap' the metabolism ever more efficiently, particularly through the engineering of driving forces and utilization of cofactors generated during the light reactions of photosynthesis, resulting in higher product titers. High rates of carbon rechanneling ultimately allow an almost-complete allocation of fixed carbon to product above biomass. PMID:25908503

  1. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS*

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Justine S.; Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat “gas money” as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series. PMID:26937053

  2. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for the synthesis of commodity products.

    PubMed

    Angermayr, S Andreas; Gorchs Rovira, Aleix; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2015-06-01

    Through metabolic engineering cyanobacteria can be employed in biotechnology. Combining the capacity for oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon fixation with an engineered metabolic pathway allows carbon-based product formation from CO(2), light, and water directly. Such cyanobacterial 'cell factories' are constructed to produce biofuels, bioplastics, and commodity chemicals. Efforts of metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists allow the modification of the intermediary metabolism at various branching points, expanding the product range. The new biosynthesis routes 'tap' the metabolism ever more efficiently, particularly through the engineering of driving forces and utilization of cofactors generated during the light reactions of photosynthesis, resulting in higher product titers. High rates of carbon rechanneling ultimately allow an almost-complete allocation of fixed carbon to product above biomass.

  3. Multi-Commodity Network Flow for Tracking Multiple People.

    PubMed

    Ben Shitrit, Horesh; Berclaz, Jérôme; Fleuret, Francois; Fua, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that tracking multiple people whose paths may intersect can be formulated as a multi-commodity network flow problem. Our proposed framework is designed to exploit image appearance cues to prevent identity switches. Our method is effective even when such cues are only available at distant time intervals. This is unlike many current approaches that depend on appearance being exploitable from frame-to-frame. Furthermore, our algorithm lends itself to a real-time implementation. We validate our approach on three publicly available datasets that contain long and complex sequences, the APIDIS basketball dataset, the ISSIA soccer dataset, and the PETS'09 pedestrian dataset. We also demonstrate its performance on a newer basketball dataset that features complete world championship basketball matches. In all cases, our approach preserves identity better than state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  4. Multi-Commodity Network Flow for Tracking Multiple People.

    PubMed

    Ben Shitrit, Horesh; Berclaz, Jérôme; Fleuret, François; Fua, Pascal

    2013-10-17

    n this paper, we show that tracking multiple people whose paths may intersect can be formulated as a multi-commodity network flow problem. Our proposed framework is designed to exploit image appearance cues to prevent identity switches. Our method is effective even when such cues are only available at distant time intervals. This is unlike many current approaches that depend on appearance being exploitable from frame to frame. Furthermore, our algorithm lends itself to a real-time implementation. We validate our approach on three publicly available datasets that contain long and complex sequences, the APIDIS basketball dataset, the ISSIA soccer dataset and the PETS’09 pedestrian dataset. We also demonstrate its performance on a newer basketball dataset that features complete world championship basketball matches. In all cases, our approach preserves identity better than state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  5. 43 CFR 3511.10 - Do certain leases allow me to mine other commodities as well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mine other commodities as well? Yes. Sodium leases authorize you to mine potassium compounds as related products, and potassium leases authorize mining associated sodium compounds and related products....

  6. 43 CFR 3511.10 - Do certain leases allow me to mine other commodities as well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mine other commodities as well? Yes. Sodium leases authorize you to mine potassium compounds as related products, and potassium leases authorize mining associated sodium compounds and related products....

  7. 43 CFR 3511.10 - Do certain leases allow me to mine other commodities as well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mine other commodities as well? Yes. Sodium leases authorize you to mine potassium compounds as related products, and potassium leases authorize mining associated sodium compounds and related products....

  8. Electrosynthesis of Commodity Chemicals by an Autotrophic Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher W.; Ross, Daniel E.; Fichot, Erin B.; Norman, R. Sean

    2012-01-01

    A microbial community originating from brewery waste produced methane, acetate, and hydrogen when selected on a granular graphite cathode poised at −590 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) with CO2 as the only carbon source. This is the first report on the simultaneous electrosynthesis of these commodity chemicals and the first description of electroacetogenesis by a microbial community. Deep sequencing of the active community 16S rRNA revealed a dynamic microbial community composed of an invariant Archaea population of Methanobacterium spp. and a shifting Bacteria population. Acetobacterium spp. were the most abundant Bacteria on the cathode when acetogenesis dominated. Methane was generally the dominant product with rates increasing from <1 to 7 mM day−1 (per cathode liquid volume) and was concomitantly produced with acetate and hydrogen. Acetogenesis increased to >4 mM day−1 (accumulated to 28.5 mM over 12 days), and methanogenesis ceased following the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Traces of hydrogen accumulated during initial selection and subsequently accelerated to >11 mM day−1 (versus 0.045 mM day−1 abiotic production). The hypothesis of electrosynthetic biocatalysis occurring at the microbe-electrode interface was supported by a catalytic wave (midpoint potential of −460 mV versus SHE) in cyclic voltammetry scans of the biocathode, the lack of redox active components in the medium, and the generation of comparatively high amounts of products (even after medium exchange). In addition, the volumetric production rates of these three commodity chemicals are marked improvements for electrosynthesis, advancing the process toward economic feasibility. PMID:23001672

  9. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  10. Costs of food waste along the value chain: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem

    2013-11-01

    In a previous paper (Nahman et al., 2012), the authors estimated the costs of household food waste in South Africa, based on the market value of the wasted food (edible portion only), as well as the costs of disposal to landfill. In this paper, we extend the analysis by assessing the costs of edible food waste throughout the entire food value chain, from agricultural production through to consumption at the household level. First, food waste at each stage of the value chain was quantified in physical units (tonnes) for various food commodity groups. Then, weighted average representative prices (per tonne) were estimated for each commodity group at each stage of the value chain. Finally, prices were multiplied by quantities, and the resulting values were aggregated across the value chain for all commodity groups. In this way, the total cost of food waste across the food value chain in South Africa was estimated at R61.5 billion per annum (approximately US$7.7 billion); equivalent to 2.1% of South Africa's annual gross domestic product. The bulk of this cost arises from the processing and distribution stages of the fruit and vegetable value chain, as well as the agricultural production and distribution stages of the meat value chain. These results therefore provide an indication of where interventions aimed at reducing food waste should be targeted. PMID:23910243

  11. Costs of food waste along the value chain: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem

    2013-11-01

    In a previous paper (Nahman et al., 2012), the authors estimated the costs of household food waste in South Africa, based on the market value of the wasted food (edible portion only), as well as the costs of disposal to landfill. In this paper, we extend the analysis by assessing the costs of edible food waste throughout the entire food value chain, from agricultural production through to consumption at the household level. First, food waste at each stage of the value chain was quantified in physical units (tonnes) for various food commodity groups. Then, weighted average representative prices (per tonne) were estimated for each commodity group at each stage of the value chain. Finally, prices were multiplied by quantities, and the resulting values were aggregated across the value chain for all commodity groups. In this way, the total cost of food waste across the food value chain in South Africa was estimated at R61.5 billion per annum (approximately US$7.7 billion); equivalent to 2.1% of South Africa's annual gross domestic product. The bulk of this cost arises from the processing and distribution stages of the fruit and vegetable value chain, as well as the agricultural production and distribution stages of the meat value chain. These results therefore provide an indication of where interventions aimed at reducing food waste should be targeted.

  12. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... (FSA) proposes adding export food aid commodities (EFAC) to the agricultural products for which... operators storing EFAC. This proposal is in response to the concerns of export food aid providers...

  13. Commodity Agriculture, Civic Agriculture and the Future of U.S. Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyson, Thomas A.; Guptill, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Commodity agriculture and civic agriculture represent two distinct types of farming found in the U.S. today. Commodity agriculture is grounded on the belief that the primary objectives of farming should be to produce as much food/fiber as possible for the least cost. It is driven by the twin goals of productivity and efficiency. Civic…

  14. 12 CFR 614.4231 - Certain seasonal commodity loans to cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certain seasonal commodity loans to cooperatives. 614.4231 Section 614.4231 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4231 Certain seasonal commodity loans...

  15. Inspection report: the Department of Energy's export licensing process for dual-use and munitions commodities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Gregory H.

    1999-05-01

    Export of commodities, encouraged by both the private sector and the Federal Government, helps to improve our position in the global economy and is in the national interest of the US. However, exports of commodities or technologies, without regard to whether they may significantly contribute to the military potential of individual countries or combination of countries or enhance the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, may adversely affect the national security of the US. The Federal Government, therefore, implements several laws, Executive Orders, and regulations to control the export of certain commodities and technologies. These commodities and technologies require a license for export. Some of the controlled items are designated as ''dual-use,'' that is, commodities and technologies that have both civilian and military application. Some dual-use commodities are designated as ''nuclear dual-use''--items controlled for nuclear nonproliferation purposes. Another group of controlled commodities is designated as munitions, which are goods and technologies that have solely military uses. The Department of Energy (Energy) conducts reviews of export license applications for nuclear dual-use items and certain munitions. On August 26, 1998, the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs requested that the Inspectors General from the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, State, and Treasury, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), update and expand on a 1993 interagency review conducted by the Inspectors General of the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State of the export licensing processes for dual-use and munitions commodities.

  16. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the commodity production:…

  17. 22 CFR 211.9 - Liability for loss damage or improper distribution of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution of commodities. 211.9 Section 211.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE... misused, lost or damaged shall be determined on the basis of the domestic market price at the time...

  18. 7 CFR 1499.10 - Claims for damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1499.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... collections pursuant to commercial insurance contracts; and (2) Notifying FAS immediately and providing... initiate a claim collection action. (d)(1) The value of a claim for lost donated commodities shall...

  19. Environmental Certification of Forests: The Evolution of Environmental Governance in a Commodity Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klooster, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) influence social and environmental aspects of commodity production through certification schemes like organic and forest certification. As these become mainstream, however, they are often compromised by the interests of more powerful agents. Utilizing the concept of governance in global commodity networks,…

  20. 76 FR 37797 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the... from Freepoint Commodities requesting authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  1. 76 FR 37797 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... application from Freepoint Commodities requesting authority to transmit electric energy from the United...

  2. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 17.5 Section 17.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE UNDER TITLE I OF THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS... be engaged in the business of selling agricultural commodities for export from the United States....

  3. Historical statistics for mineral and material commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Thomas; Matos, Grecia; with Buckingham, David; DiFrancesco, Carl; Porter, Kenneth; Berry, Cyrus; Crane, Melissa; Goonan, Thomas; Sznopek, John

    2005-01-01

    The USGS makes this information available through published products, including monthly, quarterly, and annual Mineral Industry Surveys, the annual Minerals Yearbook (MYB), the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS), and special mineral commodity studies, including the history of metal prices and materials flow studies. 

  4. Testing usability of Mobile Shower Commodes for adults with Spinal Cord Injury: research method and overview.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Emma L; Russell, Trevor G; Theodoros, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of research to develop a new questionnaire testing mobile shower commode usability. It describes the methodology used to develop the questionnaire, and reports significant findings that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Implications of the research and recommendations for further research on mobile shower commode usability are discussed. PMID:26294459

  5. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  6. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  7. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  8. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  9. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7012 - Preference for certain domestic commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference for certain... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7012 Preference for certain domestic commodities. As prescribed in 225.7002-3(a), use the following clause: Preference for Certain Domestic Commodities (JUN...

  11. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  12. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  13. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  14. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  15. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  16. Effects of Regulation and Technology on End Uses of Nonfuel Mineral Commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matos, Grecia R.

    2007-01-01

    The regulatory system and advancement of technologies have shaped the end-use patterns of nonfuel minerals used in the United States. These factors affected the quantities and types of materials used by society. Environmental concerns and awareness of possible negative effects on public health prompted numerous regulations that have dramatically altered the use of commodities like arsenic, asbestos, lead, and mercury. While the selected commodities represent only a small portion of overall U.S. materials use, they have the potential for harmful effects on human health or the environment, which other commodities, like construction aggregates, do not normally have. The advancement of technology allowed for new uses of mineral materials in products like high-performance computers, telecommunications equipment, plasma and liquid-crystal display televisions and computer monitors, mobile telephones, and electronic devices, which have become mainstream products. These technologies altered the end-use pattern of mineral commodities like gallium, germanium, indium, and strontium. Human ingenuity and people?s demand for different and creative services increase the demand for new materials and industries while shifting the pattern of use of mineral commodities. The mineral commodities? end-use data are critical for the understanding of the magnitude and character of these flows, assessing their impact on the environment, and providing an early warning of potential problems in waste management of products containing these commodities. The knowledge of final disposition of the mineral commodity allows better decisions as to how regulation should be tailored.

  17. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements and on an overall (foreign and U.S. flag) basis for the remaining portion of the commodities being... determination. (b) Multiple offers or delivery points. If more than one offer for the sale of commodities is...; (iii) Provide the same deadline for receipt of written freight offers from both U.S. flag vessel...

  18. 22 CFR 201.64 - Application of the price rules to commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase price of a commodity exceeds the price in comparable export sales or in comparable domestic sales... the type and flag of vessel on which the commodity was shipped, prevailing on the date the purchase... transportation by a U.S.-flag vessel if the price tested involves transportation by such vessel; or (ii)...

  19. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31...

  20. Commodity specific rates of temporal discounting: does metabolic function underlie differences in rates of discounting?

    PubMed

    Charlton, Shawn R; Fantino, Edmund

    2008-03-01

    Discounting rates vary as a function of commodity type. Previous studies suggest five potential characteristics of the commodity that could explain these differences: type of reinforcer (primary or secondary), if the commodity is perishable, if the commodity is satiable, if the commodity can be directly consumed, and immediacy of consumption. This paper suggests that these characteristics may best be viewed as related to a more fundamental characteristic: metabolic processing. In order to explore the possibility that metabolic processing underlies changes in discount rates, the difference in discounting between food, money, music CDs, DVDs, and books are compared. Music CDs, DVDs, and books share many characteristics in common with food, including gaining value through a physiological process, but are not directly metabolized. Results are consistent with previous findings of commodity specific discount rates and show that metabolic function plays a role in determining discount rates with those commodities that are metabolized being discounted at a higher rate. These results are interpreted as evidence that the discount rate for different commodities lies along a continuum with those that serve an exchange function rather than a direct function (money) anchoring the low end and those that serve a direct metabolic function capping the high end (food, alcohol, drugs). PMID:17919848

  1. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  2. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  3. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  4. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  5. 7 CFR 5.6 - Revision of the parity price of a commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of the parity price of a commodity. 5.6 Section 5.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.6 Revision of the parity price of a commodity. (a) Initiation of hearings. The “modernized” parity...

  6. 17 CFR 40.11 - Review of event contracts based upon certain excluded commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Review of event contracts... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PROVISIONS COMMON TO REGISTERED ENTITIES § 40.11 Review of event...) (c) 90-day review and approval of certain event contracts. The Commission may determine, based upon...

  7. 17 CFR 40.11 - Review of event contracts based upon certain excluded commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review of event contracts... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PROVISIONS COMMON TO REGISTERED ENTITIES § 40.11 Review of event...) (c) 90-day review and approval of certain event contracts. The Commission may determine, based upon...

  8. 7 CFR 1499.10 - Claims for damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.10... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.10 Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for claims arising out of damage to or loss...

  9. 7 CFR 1499.10 - Claims for damage to or loss of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.10... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.10 Claims for damage to or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for claims arising out...

  10. Nitrogen surplus: An environmental performance indicator for sustainable food supply chains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen pollution and negative impacts on human and environmental health are embodied in crop commodities traded domestically and internationally. Food supply chain companies can play a catalytic role in reducing that burden by helping to decrease the environmental nitrogen load from agriculture. T...

  11. Development of biocatalysts for production of commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Adsul, M G; Singhvi, M S; Gaikaiwari, S A; Gokhale, D V

    2011-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is recognized as potential sustainable source for production of power, biofuels and variety of commodity chemicals which would potentially add economic value to biomass. Recalcitrance nature of biomass is largely responsible for the high cost of its conversion. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce some cost effective pretreatment processes to make the biomass polysaccharides easily amenable to enzymatic attack to release mixed fermentable sugars. Advancement in systemic biology can provide new tools for the development of such biocatalysts for sustainable production of commodity chemicals from biomass. Integration of functional genomics and system biology approaches may generate efficient microbial systems with new metabolic routes for production of commodity chemicals. This paper provides an overview of the challenges that are faced by the processes converting lignocellulosic biomass to commodity chemicals. The critical factors involved in engineering new microbial biocatalysts are also discussed with more emphasis on commodity chemicals. PMID:21277771

  12. Construction Method of Display Proposal for Commodities in Sales Promotion by Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Masaki

    In a sales promotion task, wholesaler prepares and presents the display proposal for commodities in order to negotiate with retailer's buyers what commodities they should sell. For automating the sales promotion tasks, the proposal has to be constructed according to the target retailer's buyer. However, it is difficult to construct the proposal suitable for the target retail store because of too much combination of commodities. This paper proposes a construction method by Genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed method represents initial display proposals for commodities with genes, improve ones with the evaluation value by GA, and rearrange one with the highest evaluation value according to the classification of commodity. Through practical experiment, we can confirm that display proposal by the proposed method is similar with the one constructed by a wholesaler.

  13. Modelling volatility recurrence intervals in the Chinese commodity futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijie; Wang, Zhengxin; Guo, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    The law of extreme event occurrence attracts much research. The volatility recurrence intervals of Chinese commodity futures market prices are studied: the results show that the probability distributions of the scaled volatility recurrence intervals have a uniform scaling curve for different thresholds q. So we can deduce the probability distribution of extreme events from normal events. The tail of a scaling curve can be well fitted by a Weibull form, which is significance-tested by KS measures. Both short-term and long-term memories are present in the recurrence intervals with different thresholds q, which denotes that the recurrence intervals can be predicted. In addition, similar to volatility, volatility recurrence intervals also have clustering features. Through Monte Carlo simulation, we artificially synthesise ARMA, GARCH-class sequences similar to the original data, and find out the reason behind the clustering. The larger the parameter d of the FIGARCH model, the stronger the clustering effect is. Finally, we use the Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Conditional Duration model (FIACD) to analyse the recurrence interval characteristics. The results indicated that the FIACD model may provide a method to analyse volatility recurrence intervals.

  14. Conflicting perceptions of the fetus: person, patient, 'nobody', commodity?

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Alderson, P; Farsides, B

    2001-01-01

    Different constructions of the fetus lie at the centre of reproductive, abortion and disability politics. Recent developments mean that, within the same hospital, a fetus may be perceived in contrasting and potentially conflicting ways. It is also argued that the status given to the fetus is directly relevant to the status given to pregnant women. During group discussions facilitated by an ethicist, health-care staff highlighted various perceptions of the fetus which included: person; patient; 'nobody'; commodity. Perhaps not surprisingly in view of the current legal situation, staff tended to claim that it is usually the pregnant women who decides how her fetus will be constructed, and the practitioner who responds to this. However, various ways in which practitioners might influence women's perceptions of their fetus are highlighted, as are some ways in which the perceptions of staff might be influenced. This paper illustrates how sensitive health-care staff will need to be if they are indeed to respond to, rather than shape, women's constructions of their fetus. PMID:15584143

  15. Precise Truss Assembly using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    We describe an Intelligent Precision Jigging Robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly of commodity parts with low-precision bonding. We present preliminary experiments in 2D that are motivated by the problem of assembling a space telescope optical bench on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local assembly site in place while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (in this case, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. We report the challenges of designing the IPJR hardware and software, analyze the error in assembly, document the test results over several experiments including a large-scale ring structure, and describe future work to implement the IPJR in 3D and with micron precision.

  16. Cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a popular statistical test proposed by Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the linear return cross-correlations are significant at larger lag lengths and the volatility cross-correlations are highly significant at all of the lag lengths under consideration. Using a detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), we find that the return cross-correlations are persistent for corn and soybean and anti-persistent for oat and soybean. The volatility cross-correlations are strongly persistent. Using a nonlinear cross-correlation measure, our results show that cross-correlations are relatively weak but they are significant for smaller time scales. For larger time scales, the cross-correlations are not significant. The reason may be that information transmission from crude oil market to agriculture markets can complete within a certain period of time. Finally, based on multifractal extension of DCCA, we find that the cross-correlations are multifractal and high oil prices partly contribute to food crisis during the period of 2006-mid-2008.

  17. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  18. 17 CFR 4.5 - Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term âcommodity pool operator.â 4.5 Section 4.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator.” (a) Subject...

  19. 17 CFR 4.5 - Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term âcommodity pool operator.â 4.5 Section 4.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator.” (a) Subject...

  20. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... Commodities Act, 1930; (2) Subject to a federal marketing order under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement...

  1. Dust Tolerant Commodity Transfer Interface Mechanisms for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Tamasy, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Regolith is present on most planetary surfaces such as Earth's moon, Mars, and Asteroids. If human crews and robotic machinery are to operate on these regolith covered surfaces, they must face the consequences of interacting with regolith fines which consist of particles below 100 microns in diameter down to as small as submicron scale particles. Such fine dust will intrude into mechanisms and interfaces causing a variety of problems such as contamination of clean fluid lines, jamming of mechanisms and damaging connector seals and couplings. Since multiple elements must be assembled in space for system level functionality, it will be inevitable that interfaces will be necessary for structural connections, and to pass commodities such as cryogenic liquid propellants, purge and buffer gases, water, breathing air, pressurizing gases, heat exchange fluids, power and data. When fine regolith dust is present in the environment it can be lofted into interfaces where it can compromise the utility of the interface by preventing the connections from being successfully mated, or by inducing fluid leaks or degradation of power and data transmission. A dust tolerant, hand held "quick-disconnect" cryogenic fluids connector housing has been developed at NASA KSC which can be used by astronaut crews to connect flex lines that will transfer propellants and other useful fluids to the end user. In addition, a dust tolerant, automated, cryogenic fluid, multiple connector, power and data interface mechanism prototype has been developed, fabricated and demonstrated by NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The design and operation of these prototypes are explained and discussed.

  2. Algorithmic support for commodity-based parallel computing systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bender, Michael A.; Bunde, David P.; Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2003-10-01

    The Computational Plant or Cplant is a commodity-based distributed-memory supercomputer under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Distributed-memory supercomputers run many parallel programs simultaneously. Users submit their programs to a job queue. When a job is scheduled to run, it is assigned to a set of available processors. Job runtime depends not only on the number of processors but also on the particular set of processors assigned to it. Jobs should be allocated to localized clusters of processors to minimize communication costs and to avoid bandwidth contention caused by overlapping jobs. This report introduces new allocation strategies and performance metrics based on space-filling curves and one dimensional allocation strategies. These algorithms are general and simple. Preliminary simulations and Cplant experiments indicate that both space-filling curves and one-dimensional packing improve processor locality compared to the sorted free list strategy previously used on Cplant. These new allocation strategies are implemented in Release 2.0 of the Cplant System Software that was phased into the Cplant systems at Sandia by May 2002. Experimental results then demonstrated that the average number of communication hops between the processors allocated to a job strongly correlates with the job's completion time. This report also gives processor-allocation algorithms for minimizing the average number of communication hops between the assigned processors for grid architectures. The associated clustering problem is as follows: Given n points in {Re}d, find k points that minimize their average pairwise L{sub 1} distance. Exact and approximate algorithms are given for these optimization problems. One of these algorithms has been implemented on Cplant and will be included in Cplant System Software, Version 2.1, to be released. In more preliminary work, we suggest improvements to the scheduler separate from the allocator.

  3. Polyheteroaromatic layers on commodity metals (CIPL)-passivation, corrosion protection

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, F.; Haase, V.; Schroetz, M.

    1996-01-01

    Filmforming anodic polymerizations of pyrrole, thiophene or aniline and their derivatives on commodity metals, predominantly iron, are possible only in a few solvent/electrolyte systems. Even then, these processes compete with the anodic dissolution of the metal in the course of the initial active/passive transition. The influence of current densities, (co)solvent molecules and monomers is studied by chronopotentiometry. Corrosion protection capability is characterized analytically and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in aerated acetate buffered 0.1 M NaCl. Samples with 1{endash}100 nm nominal coating thickness (d{sub n}) do not differ very much from the nontreated iron. The prevalence of a metal/metal oxide formation/dissolution process at the beginning is concluded therefrom. Adsorption of the monomers alone has no effect as well, however. This is attributed to a (partial) oxide coverage at pH 4.7 and a low degree of coverage for the molecules. Remarkable corrosion protection is only detectable in some cases at a nominal thickness d{sub n}{approx_equal}1 {mu}m, where dark and well adhering polymer layers are observed. This seems mainly due to a barrier action effect, cf. {section} 9. Inhibition of electrochemical partial processes linked to the corrosion itself does not seem to play a role. The realization of the corrosion inhibiting polymer layer (CIPL) strategy seems to be possible only through prepassivation or dip coating by prefabricated polymer solutions. This means an additional step in both cases. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica serotypes and food Commodities, United States, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brendan R; Griffin, Patricia M; Cole, Dana; Walsh, Kelly A; Chai, Shua J

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures.

  5. 77 FR 63782 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on a Commodity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... chemicals in or on the food commodity, wheat, grain. DATES: Comments must be received on or before November... chemicals in or on the food commodity, wheat, grain. The Agency is taking public comment on the request... modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on the food commodity, wheat, grain....

  6. 31 CFR 1026.320 - Reports by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious transactions. 1026.320 Section 1026.320 Money... Commodities § 1026.320 Reports by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of....S.C. 1 et seq.), the regulations of the CFTC (17 CFR chapter I), or the rules of any...

  7. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  8. 17 CFR 14.7 - Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding. 14.7 Section 14.7 Commodity and... another proceeding. (a) Temporary suspension. The Commission, with due regard to the public interest,...

  9. 17 CFR 14.7 - Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding. 14.7 Section 14.7 Commodity and... another proceeding. (a) Temporary suspension. The Commission, with due regard to the public interest,...

  10. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  11. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  12. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  13. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  14. 17 CFR 1.1 - Fraud in or in connection with transactions in foreign currency subject to the Commodity Exchange...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in or in connection with transactions in foreign currency subject to the Commodity Exchange Act. 1.1 Section 1.1 Commodity and... ACT Definitions § 1.1 Fraud in or in connection with transactions in foreign currency subject to...

  15. Carboxylic acid reductase is a versatile enzyme for the conversion of fatty acids into fuels and chemical commodities.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M Kalim; Turner, Nicholas J; Jones, Patrik R

    2013-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as fatty alcohols and petroleum-derived alkanes have numerous applications in the chemical industry. In recent years, the renewable synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons has been made possible by engineering microbes to overaccumulate fatty acids. However, to generate end products with the desired physicochemical properties (e.g., fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alcohols), further conversion of the fatty acid is necessary. A carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) from Mycobacterium marinum was found to convert a wide range of aliphatic fatty acids (C(6)-C(18)) into corresponding aldehydes. Together with the broad-substrate specificity of an aldehyde reductase or an aldehyde decarbonylase, the catalytic conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols (C(8)-C(16)) or fatty alkanes (C(7)-C(15)) was reconstituted in vitro. This concept was applied in vivo, in combination with a chain-length-specific thioesterase, to engineer Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains that were capable of synthesizing fatty alcohols and alkanes. A fatty alcohol titer exceeding 350 mg·L(-1) was obtained in minimal media supplemented with glucose. Moreover, by combining the CAR-dependent pathway with an exogenous fatty acid-generating lipase, natural oils (coconut oil, palm oil, and algal oil bodies) were enzymatically converted into fatty alcohols across a broad chain-length range (C(8)-C(18)). Together with complementing enzymes, the broad substrate specificity and kinetic characteristics of CAR opens the road for direct and tailored enzyme-catalyzed conversion of lipids into user-ready chemical commodities.

  16. Towards a Tool for Malaria Supply Chain Management Improvement in Rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Lorena; Bakken, Suzanne; Mamykina, Lena; Kodie, Richmond; Kanter, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate quantities of antimalarial medicines and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at health facilities in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a challenging task because of poor supply chain management. Antimalarial stock-outs in the communities could lead patients (that need to travel long distances to get medications) to remain untreated, develop severe malaria and die. A prototype to improve the management of health commodities in rural Ghana through the visualization of current stock levels and the forecasting of commodities is proposed. PMID:26262307

  17. Final Technical/Scientific Report: Commodity Scale Thermostable Enzymatic Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Lalonde; Brian Davison

    2003-08-30

    The conversion of corn starch to high fructose corn-syrup sweetener is a commodity process, producing over 3 billion kg/y. In the last step of the process, an enzyme catalyst is used to convert glucose to the much sweeter sugar fructose. Due to incomplete conversion in the last step, the syrup must be purified using a chromatographic separation technique, which results in equal quantities of water being added to the syrup, and finally the water must be evaporated (up to 1 lb of water/lb of syrup). We have estimated the energy requirement in the evaporation step to be on the order of 13 billion BTU's/y. This process inefficiency could be eliminated if a thermostable form of glucose isomerase (GI), the enzyme catalyst used in the final step, was developed. Our chosen strategy was to develop an immobilized form of the enzyme in which the protein is first crystallized and then chemically cross-linked to form an insoluble particle. This so-called cross-linked enzyme crystal (CLE C(reg. sign)) technology had been shown to be a powerful method for enzyme stabilization for several other protein catalysts. In this work we have developed more than 30 CLEC preparations of glucose isomerase and tested them for activity and stability. We found these preparations to be highly active, with a 10-50 fold rate per gram of catalyst increase over existing commercial catalysts. The initial rates were also higher at higher temperatures as expected, however the efficiency of the CLEC GI preparations unexpectedly rapidly decreased to a low constant value with use at the higher temperatures. At this point, the source of this activity loss is unclear, however during this loss, the catalyst is found to form a solid mass indicating either breakage of the chemical cross-links or simple aggregation of the particles. It is likely that the increased mass transfer resistance due to this agglomeration is a major component of the activity loss. This research suggests that one potentially beneficial

  18. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    supporting urban agriculture. We are now extending this approach to additional large U.S. and European urban centers where different philosophical and technological approaches to managing urban waste carbon have resulted in a range of infrastructures, from highly distributed systems (Germany) to centralized mega facilities (London). Ultimately, this research will lead to a decision-making matrix model that will permit cities to customize their urban carbon waste stream facilities and transform this waste into a usable commodity.

  19. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... amended. Designated Nonbasic Commodities Milk sold to plants; milkfat in cream; tung nuts; honey... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloups, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans,...

  20. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... amended. Designated Nonbasic Commodities Milk sold to plants; milkfat in cream; tung nuts; honey... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloups, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans,...

  1. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amended. Designated Nonbasic Commodities Milk sold to plants; milkfat in cream; tung nuts; honey... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloups, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans,...

  2. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... amended. Designated Nonbasic Commodities Milk sold to plants; milkfat in cream; tung nuts; honey... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloups, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans,...

  3. From service to commodity: corporization, competition, commodification, and customer culture transforms health care.

    PubMed

    Stoeckle, J D

    2000-06-01

    Corporate medical practice, a market economy, and a consumer culture are transforming health care. The service relationships of doctors with patients are now commodities. The doctor, directed by disease management protocols (to improve outcomes, reduce costs, and standardize care), is, in effect, providing programmed service commodities. In addition, medical-surgical specialties, now "packaged" for the care of body parts and conditions (as Breast, Stroke, Obesity, Aneurysm Centers), are also made service commodities, marketed by newspaper advertisements, TV, radio, and Internet to patient-customers in search of a healthy body. In sum, the promise of corporate practice in a competitive market economy is greater efficiency and productivity to reduce the costs of care that are a burden on industries and the state. Viewed from office encounters with patients, such transformation of services to commodities changes the doctor-patient relationship and the moral mission of care. PMID:10853040

  4. Market interdependence among commodity prices based on information transmission on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qiang; Guo, Jian-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviour on the Internet has become a synchro-projection of real society. In this paper, we introduce the public concern derived from query volumes on the Web to empirically analyse the influence of information on commodity markets (e.g., crude oil, heating oil, corn and gold) using multivariate GARCH models based on dynamic conditional correlations. The analysis found that the changes of public concern on the Internet can well depict the changes of market prices, as the former has significant Granger causality effects on market prices. The findings indicate that the information of external shocks to commodity markets could be transmitted quickly, and commodity markets easily absorb the public concern of the information-sensitive traders. Finally, the conditional correlation among commodity prices varies dramatically over time.

  5. Transgenic Hybrid Poplar for Sustainable and Scalable Production of the Commodity/Specialty Chemical, 2-Phenylethanol

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Michael A.; Marques, Joaquim V.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Herman, Barrington; Bedgar, Diana L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast growing hybrid poplar offers the means for sustainable production of specialty and commodity chemicals, in addition to rapid biomass production for lignocellulosic deconstruction. Herein we describe transformation of fast-growing transgenic hybrid poplar lines to produce 2-phenylethanol, this being an important fragrance, flavor, aroma, and commodity chemical. It is also readily converted into styrene or ethyl benzene, the latter being an important commodity aviation fuel component. Introducing this biochemical pathway into hybrid poplars marks the beginnings of developing a platform for a sustainable chemical delivery system to afford this and other valuable specialty/commodity chemicals at the scale and cost needed. These modified plant lines mainly sequester 2-phenylethanol via carbohydrate and other covalently linked derivatives, thereby providing an additional advantage of effective storage until needed. The future potential of this technology is discussed. MALDI metabolite tissue imaging also established localization of these metabolites in the leaf vasculature. PMID:24386157

  6. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  7. Transgenic hybrid poplar for sustainable and scalable production of the commodity/specialty chemical, 2-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Costa, Michael A; Marques, Joaquim V; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Herman, Barrington; Bedgar, Diana L; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2013-01-01

    Fast growing hybrid poplar offers the means for sustainable production of specialty and commodity chemicals, in addition to rapid biomass production for lignocellulosic deconstruction. Herein we describe transformation of fast-growing transgenic hybrid poplar lines to produce 2-phenylethanol, this being an important fragrance, flavor, aroma, and commodity chemical. It is also readily converted into styrene or ethyl benzene, the latter being an important commodity aviation fuel component. Introducing this biochemical pathway into hybrid poplars marks the beginnings of developing a platform for a sustainable chemical delivery system to afford this and other valuable specialty/commodity chemicals at the scale and cost needed. These modified plant lines mainly sequester 2-phenylethanol via carbohydrate and other covalently linked derivatives, thereby providing an additional advantage of effective storage until needed. The future potential of this technology is discussed. MALDI metabolite tissue imaging also established localization of these metabolites in the leaf vasculature. PMID:24386157

  8. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  9. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  10. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  11. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  12. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ..., corn soy blend, vegetable oil, and pulses such as peas, beans, and lentils. USWA licensing is a... commodities to be stored. On March 15, 2011 (76 FR 13972-13973), FSA published a notice in the...

  13. Something fishy: Chile's blue revolution, commodity diseases, and the problem of sustainability.

    PubMed

    Soluri, John

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations describes aquaculture as the fastest-growing method of food production, and some industry boosters have heralded the coming of a sustainable blue revolution. This article interprets the meteoric rise and sudden collapse of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in southern Chile (1980-2010) by integrating concepts from commodity studies and comparative environmental history. I juxtapose salmon aquaculture to twentieth-century export banana production to reveal the similar dynamics that give rise to "commodity diseases"—events caused by the entanglement of biological, social, and political-economic processes that operate on local, regional, and transoceanic geographical scales. Unsurprisingly, the risks and burdens associated with commodity diseases are borne disproportionately by production workers and residents in localities where commodity disease events occur. Chile's blue revolution suggests that evaluating the sustainability of aquaculture in Latin America cannot be divorced from processes of accumulation.

  14. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  15. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  16. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS..., That the Pear Commodity Committee shall approve actions under § 917.39 and make said...

  17. 7 CFR 1486.203 - Which commodities/products are eligible for consideration under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Eligibility, Applications, and Funding § 1486.203 Which commodities... percent U.S. origin content by weight, exclusive of added water, to be eligible for funding....

  18. 77 FR 16828 - Constellation Energy Commodities Group, Inc.; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Constellation Energy Commodities Group, Inc.; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission Personnel as Non-Decisional Commission staff members Sandra Waldstein and...

  19. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.11 Use of commodities... structure located on such real property to the extent necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of...

  20. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  1. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  2. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.11 Use of commodities... structure located on such real property to the extent necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of...

  3. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.11 Use of commodities... structure located on such real property to the extent necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of...

  4. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  5. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  6. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... necessary to avoid spoilage or loss of donated commodities, but only if such structure is not used in...

  7. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  8. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  9. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  10. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    PubMed

    Elser, James J; Elser, Timothy J; Carpenter, Stephen R; Brock, William A

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication. PMID:24787624

  11. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    PubMed

    Elser, James J; Elser, Timothy J; Carpenter, Stephen R; Brock, William A

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  12. Regime Shift in Fertilizer Commodities Indicates More Turbulence Ahead for Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Elser, James J.; Elser, Timothy J.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this “Green Revolution” has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007–2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication. PMID:24787624

  13. Case for Deploying Complex Systems Utilizing Commodity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Barry S.; Pitts, R. Lee

    2003-01-01

    WindowsTM development environments and tools are available and offer a rich set of capabilities, 5. The WindowsTM 2000 provides a stable client platform, Therefore, five studies were proposed, developed, and are in the current process of deployment which dramatically reduces the cost of operations, maintenance, refurbishment, and deployment of a ground system. Restating and refining the basic premise stated earlier, it is possible to enhance operations through the replacement of hardware and software components with commodity based items wherever applicable. This will dramatically reduce the overall lifecycle cost of the project. The first study leveraged the POIF S secure, three-tier, web architecture to replace the client workstations with lower cost PC platforms. A second study initiated a review of COTS products to examine the level of added value of each product. This study included replacement of some COTS products with custom code, deletions, substitutions, and consolidation of COTS products. Studies three and four reviewed the server architectures of the data distribution systems and Enhanced HOSC System (EHS) command and telemetry system to propose migration to new platforms, both software and hardware. The final study reviewed current IP communication technologies, developed an operational model for flight operations, and demonstrated that voice over IP was practical and could be integrated into operations.

  14. Correlations and cross-correlations in the Brazilian agrarian commodities and stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Erinaldo Leite; Stošić, Tatijana; Bejan, Lucian; Stošić, Borko

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the auto-correlations and cross-correlations of the volatility time series in the Brazilian stock and commodity market, using the recently introduced Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis. We find that the auto-correlations in stock volatilities are weaker than the auto-correlations in the commodity volatility series, contrary to earlier findings for the USA market where commodity volatility exponents were found to be lower than for stocks. We also find that the cross-correlations in the Brazilian stock and commodity market are stronger than what would be expected from simple combinations of auto-correlations of individual series, implying that there may be hidden factors that govern the behavior of the observed volatility series. This enhanced cross-correlation behavior is found in a considerable fraction of Brazilian stocks and agricultural commodities considered in the present work, suggesting that further studies should be directed into investigating these super-cross-correlations, and pinpointing the exogenous variables responsible for such behavior.

  15. What commodities and countries impact inequality in the global food system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Joel A.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Suweis, Samir; Seekell, David A.

    2016-09-01

    The global distribution of food production is unequal relative to the distribution of human populations. International trade can increase or decrease inequality in food availability, but little is known about how specific countries and commodities contribute to this redistribution. We present a method based on the Gini coefficient for evaluating the contributions of country and commodity specific trade to inequality in the global food system. We applied the method to global food production and trade data for the years 1986-2011 to identify the specific countries and commodities that contribute to increasing and decreasing inequality in global food availability relative to food production. Overall, international trade reduced inequality in food availability by 25%-33% relative to the distribution of food production, depending on the year. Across all years, about 58% of the total trade links acted to reduce inequality with ˜4% of the links providing 95% of the reduction in inequality. Exports from United States of America, Malaysia, Argentina, and Canada are particularly important in decreasing inequality. Specific commodities that reduce inequality when traded include cereals and vegetables. Some trade connections contribute to increasing inequality, but this effect is mostly concentrated within a small number of commodities including fruits, stimulants, and nuts. In terms of specific countries, exports from Slovenia, Oman, Singapore, and Germany act to increase overall inequality. Collectively, our analysis and results represent an opportunity for building an enhanced understanding of global-scale patterns in food availability.

  16. Crater chains on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V.; Skobeleva, T.

    After discovery of disruption comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into fragment train before it's collision with Jupiter there was proposed that linear crater chains on the large satellites of Jupiter and on the Moon are impact scars of past tidally disrupted comets.It's known that radar images have revealed the possible presence of water ice deposits in polar regions of Mercury. Impacts by a few large comets seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury because they have a larger volatile content that others external sources, for example, asteroid. A number of crater chains on the surface of Mercury are most likely the impact tracks of "fragment trains" of comets tidally disrupted by Sun or by Mercury and are not secondary craters. Mariner 10 image set (the three Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975) was used to recognize the crater chains these did not associate with secondary crater ejecta from observed impact structures. As example, it can be shown such crater chain located near crater Imhotep and crater Ibsen (The Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury). Resolution of the Mariner 10 image is about 0.54 km/pixel. The crater chain is about 50 km long. It was found a similar crater chain inside large crater Sophocles (The Tolstoj Quadrangle of Mercury). The image resolution is about 1.46 km/pixel. The chain about 50 km long is located in northen part of the crater. Image resolution limits possibility to examine the form of craters strongly. It seems the craters in chains have roughly flat floor and smooth form. Most chain craters are approximately circular. It was examined many images from the Mariner 10 set and there were identified a total 15 crater chains and were unable to link any of these directly to any specific large crater associated with ejecta deposits. Chain craters are remarkably aligned. All distinguished crater chains are superposed on preexisting formations. A total of 127 craters were identified in the 15 recognized

  17. An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Menzie, W. David; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This report uses the supply chain of tantalum (Ta) to investigate the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and show how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, information networks, and so forth, that provide the materials and parts that go into making up a final product. The mineral portion of the supply chain begins with mineral material in the ground (the ore deposit); extends through a series of processes that include mining, beneficiation, processing (smelting and refining), semimanufacture, and manufacture; and continues through transformation of the mineral ore into concentrates, refined mineral commodities, intermediate forms (such as metals and alloys), component parts, and, finally, complex products. This study analyses the supply chain of tantalum beginning with minerals in the ground to many of the final goods that contain tantalum.

  18. Carboxylic acid reductase is a versatile enzyme for the conversion of fatty acids into fuels and chemical commodities

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, M. Kalim; Turner, Nicholas J.; Jones, Patrik R.

    2013-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as fatty alcohols and petroleum-derived alkanes have numerous applications in the chemical industry. In recent years, the renewable synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons has been made possible by engineering microbes to overaccumulate fatty acids. However, to generate end products with the desired physicochemical properties (e.g., fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alcohols), further conversion of the fatty acid is necessary. A carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) from Mycobacterium marinum was found to convert a wide range of aliphatic fatty acids (C6–C18) into corresponding aldehydes. Together with the broad-substrate specificity of an aldehyde reductase or an aldehyde decarbonylase, the catalytic conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols (C8–C16) or fatty alkanes (C7–C15) was reconstituted in vitro. This concept was applied in vivo, in combination with a chain-length-specific thioesterase, to engineer Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains that were capable of synthesizing fatty alcohols and alkanes. A fatty alcohol titer exceeding 350 mg·L−1 was obtained in minimal media supplemented with glucose. Moreover, by combining the CAR-dependent pathway with an exogenous fatty acid-generating lipase, natural oils (coconut oil, palm oil, and algal oil bodies) were enzymatically converted into fatty alcohols across a broad chain-length range (C8–C18). Together with complementing enzymes, the broad substrate specificity and kinetic characteristics of CAR opens the road for direct and tailored enzyme-catalyzed conversion of lipids into user-ready chemical commodities. PMID:23248280

  19. Carboxylic acid reductase is a versatile enzyme for the conversion of fatty acids into fuels and chemical commodities.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M Kalim; Turner, Nicholas J; Jones, Patrik R

    2013-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as fatty alcohols and petroleum-derived alkanes have numerous applications in the chemical industry. In recent years, the renewable synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons has been made possible by engineering microbes to overaccumulate fatty acids. However, to generate end products with the desired physicochemical properties (e.g., fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alcohols), further conversion of the fatty acid is necessary. A carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) from Mycobacterium marinum was found to convert a wide range of aliphatic fatty acids (C(6)-C(18)) into corresponding aldehydes. Together with the broad-substrate specificity of an aldehyde reductase or an aldehyde decarbonylase, the catalytic conversion of fatty acids to fatty alcohols (C(8)-C(16)) or fatty alkanes (C(7)-C(15)) was reconstituted in vitro. This concept was applied in vivo, in combination with a chain-length-specific thioesterase, to engineer Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains that were capable of synthesizing fatty alcohols and alkanes. A fatty alcohol titer exceeding 350 mg·L(-1) was obtained in minimal media supplemented with glucose. Moreover, by combining the CAR-dependent pathway with an exogenous fatty acid-generating lipase, natural oils (coconut oil, palm oil, and algal oil bodies) were enzymatically converted into fatty alcohols across a broad chain-length range (C(8)-C(18)). Together with complementing enzymes, the broad substrate specificity and kinetic characteristics of CAR opens the road for direct and tailored enzyme-catalyzed conversion of lipids into user-ready chemical commodities. PMID:23248280

  20. Chain entanglements. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixman, Marshall

    1988-09-01

    A model of concentrated polymer solution dynamics is described. The forces in a linear generalized Langevin equation for the motion of a probe chain are derived on the assumption that all relaxation of the forces is due to motion of the surrounding matrix. Vicinal chain displacements are classified as viscoelastic deformation, reptation, and minor residual fluctuations. The latter provide a torsional relaxation of the primitive path that minimizes the significance of transverse forces on the probe chain. All displacements of vicinal segments are assumed proportional to the forces that they exert on the probe chain. In response to an external force, the displacement of the probe chain relative to a laboratory frame is increased by viscoelastic deformation of the matrix, but reptative diffusion relative to the deforming matrix is slowed down. The net effect on translational diffusion is negligible if the probe and vicinal chains have the same chain length N, but the friction constant for reptative motion is increased by a factor N1-xs. xs=1/2 if Gaussian conformational statistics applies during the disengagement process, while xs =0.6 if excluded volume statistics applies. The translational friction constant is βp ˜N2, as in reptation theory, but the viscosity is η˜N4-xs . The persistence of entanglements during the translational diffusion of the probe chain across many radii of gyration is rationalized pictorially in terms of correlated reptative motion of the probe and vicinal chains.

  1. Application of Bayesian techniques to model the burden of human salmonellosis attributable to U.S. food commodities at the point of processing: adaptation of a Danish model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanfa; Hoekstra, Robert M; Schroeder, Carl M; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Ong, Kanyin Liane; Hartnett, Emma; Naugle, Alecia; Harman, Jane; Bennett, Patricia; Cieslak, Paul; Scallan, Elaine; Rose, Bonnie; Holt, Kristin G; Kissler, Bonnie; Mbandi, Evelyne; Roodsari, Reza; Angulo, Frederick J; Cole, Dana

    2011-04-01

    Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Salmonella testing data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service's regulatory programs, we developed a point-of-processing foodborne illness attribution model by adapting the Hald Salmonella Bayesian source attribution model. Key model outputs include estimates of the relative proportions of domestically acquired sporadic human Salmonella infections resulting from contamination of raw meat, poultry, and egg products processed in the United States from 1998 through 2003. The current model estimates the relative contribution of chicken (48%), ground beef (28%), turkey (17%), egg products (6%), intact beef (1%), and pork (<1%) across 109 Salmonella serotypes found in food commodities at point of processing. While interpretation of the attribution estimates is constrained by data inputs, the adapted model shows promise and may serve as a basis for a common approach to attribution of human salmonellosis and food safety decision-making in more than one country.

  2. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  3. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  4. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, raw eggs, fertilized.... See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining Official Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS... destruction, or narcotics trafficking programs administered by OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597,...

  5. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, raw eggs, fertilized.... See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining Official Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS... destruction, or narcotics trafficking programs administered by OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597,...

  6. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or reexportation of the following food items: castor beans, castor bean seeds, raw eggs, fertilized.... See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining Official Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS... destruction, or narcotics trafficking programs administered by OFAC, 31 CFR parts 536, 544, 594, 595, 597,...

  7. Phytosanitary irradiation for fresh horticultural commodities: generic treatments, current issues, and next steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary treatments such as irradiation disinfest host commodities of quarantine insect pests before they are exported to areas where the pests do not occur, and are often the simplest approach to overcome regulatory trade barriers and gain market access. The United States, Australia and the In...

  8. 22 CFR 211.8 - Disposition of commodities unfit for authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use. 211.8 Section 211.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.8 Disposition of... markings shall be obliterated, removed or crossed out. (ii) Transfer to an approved Food for Peace...

  9. 22 CFR 211.8 - Disposition of commodities unfit for authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use. 211.8 Section 211.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.8 Disposition of... markings shall be obliterated, removed or crossed out. (ii) Transfer to an approved Food for Peace...

  10. 22 CFR 211.8 - Disposition of commodities unfit for authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use. 211.8 Section 211.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.8 Disposition of... markings shall be obliterated, removed or crossed out. (ii) Transfer to an approved Food for Peace...

  11. 16 CFR 500.13 - Measurement of commodities by area measure only, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Measurement of commodities by area measure only, how expressed. 500.13 Section 500.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE...

  12. A More Perfect Commodity: Bottled Water, Global Accumulation, and Local Contestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Daniel; Newman, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Bottled water sits at the intersection of debates regarding the social and environmental effects of the commodification of nature and the ways neoliberal globalization alters the provision of public services. Utilizing Polanyi's concept of fictitious commodities and Harvey's work on accumulation by dispossession, this article traces bottled…

  13. 76 FR 28755 - Performance of Certain Functions by National Futures Association With Respect to Commodity Pool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Commission explained the origins and use of the term ``Commodity ETF''. 75 FR 54794, at 54795 (Sep. 9, 2010... CPO of any deficiency related thereto. \\8\\ See, e.g., 62 FR 52088 (Oct. 6, 1997), whereby the...., 75 FR 55310 (Sep. 10, 2010); 70 FR 2621 (Jan. 14, 2005); and 68 FR 12684 (Mar. 17, 2003)....

  14. 17 CFR 33.4 - Designation as a contract market for the trading of commodity options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 33.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... the option contract provide for a deliverable supply which is not conducive to price manipulation or... the exercise of the commodity option and the method by which the option may be exercised; (3)...

  15. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to f.o.b. or f.a.s., must be separate and apart from the contracts for ocean transportation of the... the importer. (ii) The importer shall issue the IFB in the United States and shall open all offers in... purposes of this section, “lowest landed cost” means the combination of commodity price and ocean...

  16. 48 CFR 3052.225-70 - Requirement for Use of Certain Domestic Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Certain Domestic Commodities. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7003, use the following clause... CFR 2.101. (2) “Component” means any item supplied to the Government as part of an end product or of... forth in (FAR) 48 CFR 2.101. (5) “Qualifying country” means a country with a memorandum of...

  17. 48 CFR 3052.225-70 - Requirement for Use of Certain Domestic Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Certain Domestic Commodities. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7003, use the following clause... CFR 2.101. (2) “Component” means any item supplied to the Government as part of an end product or of... forth in (FAR) 48 CFR 2.101. (5) “Qualifying country” means a country with a memorandum of...

  18. 48 CFR 3052.225-70 - Requirement for Use of Certain Domestic Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Certain Domestic Commodities. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7003, use the following clause... CFR 2.101. (2) “Component” means any item supplied to the Government as part of an end product or of... forth in (FAR) 48 CFR 2.101. (5) “Qualifying country” means a country with a memorandum of...

  19. 48 CFR 3052.225-70 - Requirement for Use of Certain Domestic Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Certain Domestic Commodities. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7003, use the following clause... CFR 2.101. (2) “Component” means any item supplied to the Government as part of an end product or of... forth in (FAR) 48 CFR 2.101. (5) “Qualifying country” means a country with a memorandum of...

  20. 48 CFR 3052.225-70 - Requirement for Use of Certain Domestic Commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Certain Domestic Commodities. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7003, use the following clause... CFR 2.101. (2) “Component” means any item supplied to the Government as part of an end product or of... forth in (FAR) 48 CFR 2.101. (5) “Qualifying country” means a country with a memorandum of...

  1. Program Evaluation: Food Stamps and Commodity Distribution in Rural Areas of Central Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden J. Patrick; Yoder, Marion D.

    Since one primary goal of the Commodity Distribution (CD) Program and the Food Stamp (FS) Program is to improve diets of low-income families, this 1969-70 study focused on whether the adequacy of a low-income family's dietary intake was improved by their participation in a food-assistance program. As stated, the adequacy of a family's dietary…

  2. 75 FR 75727 - Implementing the Whistleblower Provisions of Section 23 of the Commodity Exchange Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') is proposing rules to implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. These proposed rules apply to the whistleblowers incentives and protection of section 748. The proposed rules establish a whistleblower program that enables the Commission to pay an......

  3. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... title apply, the account is in a country where the laws or customs prohibit the payment of interest, or... proceeds or income to purchase real or personal property only if local law permits the participant to... commodities or funds or both provided to the provider by the participant and to submit periodic reports to...

  4. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... title apply, the account is in a country where the laws or customs prohibit the payment of interest, or... proceeds or income to purchase real or personal property only if local law permits the participant to... commodities or funds or both provided to the provider by the participant and to submit periodic reports to...

  5. 17 CFR 1.35 - Records of cash commodity, futures, and option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.35 Records of... section 5a(a)(12)(A) of the Act and Commission Regulation 1.41, that provide alternative requirements to...)(A) of the Act and Commission Regulation 1.41, which provide for an exemption where: (A) A...

  6. 22 CFR 211.8 - Disposition of commodities unfit for authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use. 211.8 Section 211.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.8 Disposition of... recovery for authorized use of that part designated during the inspection as suitable for program use....

  7. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  8. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  9. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  10. 22 CFR 201.64 - Application of the price rules to commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 201.64 Section 201.64 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES... export freight), and other necessary costs customary in the trade. (b) Calculation of commodity prices...) and (e), USAID will subtract transportation cost as calculated by reference to the freight rate,...

  11. 76 FR 28641 - Commodity Pool Operators: Relief From Compliance With Certain Disclosure, Reporting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... be accessed through the Commission's Web site, at http://www.cftc.gov . \\2\\ 75 FR 54794. \\3\\ 7 U.S.C... requirement itself.\\4\\ \\4\\ 75 FR 54794. The Proposing Release then went on to discuss the relatively recent... 75 FR 54794, at 54794-95. The Commission explained the origin and use of the term ``Commodity...

  12. 22 CFR 211.9 - Liability for loss damage or improper distribution of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organization shall be liable to the United States for the cost and freight (C&F) value of the commodities lost... storage, care and handling, the cooperating sponsor shall pay to the United States the value of the... CCC for payment. If USAID or the Diplomatic Post pays the bill, AID/W shall be advised of the...

  13. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to §§ 179.100...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to §§ 179.100...

  15. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  16. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  17. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  18. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  19. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower.... 01144), and sunflower seeds (STCC No. 0114940). 09 Fresh fish and other marine products. 20-11...

  20. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  1. Predation of Indianmeal moth larvae by Lyctocoris campestris(F.) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in different stored commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predation rates for the anthocorid predator Lyctocoris campestris (F.) against varying densities of late-instar Plodia interpunctello (Hubner) were compared in whole corn, whole wheat, or folled oat stored commodities. More prey were attacked in corn and wheat than in oats, and female predators gene...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., therefore, it is agreed as follows: (1) Upon request of an official of a State ASCS office, the FmHA or its... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 (FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354) sometimes... under loan and purchase programs conducted by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). FmHA or...

  3. 75 FR 46843 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Commodity Jurisdiction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ....C. 2794; E.O. 11958, 42 FR 4311; E.O. 13284, 68 FR 4075; 3 CFR, 1977 Comp. p. 79; 22 U.S.C. 2651a... Part 120 RIN 1400-AC63 Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Commodity... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to address electronic submission of a request for a...

  4. 75 FR 51693 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... rule published on June 8, 2010 titled, Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility is reopened and extended for an additional 30 days. Reopening...

  5. 76 FR 8961 - Rules on Source, Origin and Nationality for Commodities and Services Financed by USAID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 228 RIN 0412-AA70 Rules on Source, Origin and Nationality for Commodities and Services... changes are needed to USAID's rules on Source, Origin, and Nationality (S/O/N). This solicitation is in... 228.03 and the related concepts of ``source,'' ``origin'' and ``nationality'' as defined or...

  6. 76 FR 51916 - Procurement of Commodities and Services Financed by USAID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... provide any direct benefits to the governments of communist countries during the Cold War. \\1\\ A CIP is a... the U.S., recipient country, or developing countries. Because of the end of the Cold War and the... the end of the Cold War, it is difficult to determine with any accuracy where a commodity is...

  7. Description of historical crop calendar data bases developed to support foreign commodity production forecasting project experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The content, format, and storage of data bases developed for the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting project and used to produce normal crop calendars are described. In addition, the data bases may be used for agricultural meteorology, modeling of stage sequences and planting dates, and as indicators of possible drought and famine.

  8. 7 CFR 917.122 - Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees. 917.122 Section 917.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders;...

  9. 7 CFR 917.122 - Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification requirements and nominiation procedure for public members of Commodity Committees. 917.122 Section 917.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders;...

  10. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  11. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  12. 76 FR 8067 - Reporting by Investment Advisers to Private Funds and Certain Commodity Pool Operators and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    .... ACTION: Joint proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'') and the... in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation. Comments will be posted as received to... Advisers Act Release No. IA-3111 (Nov. 19, 2010), 75 FR 77,190 (Dec. 10, 2010) (``Private Fund...

  13. 7 CFR 917.24 - Procedure for nominating members of various commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917... hold or cause to be held not later than February 15 for pears of each odd numbered year a meeting or... on the Pear Commodity Committee must have produced at least 51 percent of the pears shipped by...

  14. 7 CFR 917.24 - Procedure for nominating members of various commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917... hold or cause to be held not later than February 15 for pears of each odd numbered year a meeting or... on the Pear Commodity Committee must have produced at least 51 percent of the pears shipped by...

  15. 7 CFR 917.24 - Procedure for nominating members of various commodity committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917... hold or cause to be held not later than February 15 for pears of each odd numbered year a meeting or... on the Pear Commodity Committee must have produced at least 51 percent of the pears shipped by...

  16. 77 FR 1396 - Procurement of Commodities and Services Financed by USAID Federal Program Funds.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 228 RIN 0412-AA70 Procurement of Commodities and Services Financed by USAID Federal... under the authority of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (FAA), be used for procurement in... procurement authority provided under the FAA and referenced above by establishing a new code for...

  17. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are deemed a single person: (A) A natural person, and: (1) Any minor child of the natural person; (2... beneficiaries; (B)(1) A corporation, general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, trust...; (B)(1) A general partner of a limited partnership, or other person acting as a commodity...

  18. 16 CFR 500.12 - Measurement of commodities by length and width, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... remainder in inches or common or decimal fractions of the yard or foot except that a dimension of less than... dimension of less than 2 feet (60.96 cm) may be stated in inches. (4) For any commodity for which the... the linear dimensions, the quantity of contents, in addition to being declared in the...

  19. 15 CFR 30.38 - Exemption from the requirements for reporting complete commodity information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from the requirements for reporting complete commodity information. 30.38 Section 30.38 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN...

  20. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 17.5 Section 17.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL... sale it is determined that an agent employed or engaged by a commodity supplier to obtain a contract is not a selling agent as defined in § 17.2, the sale will not be eligible for financing. (b)...

  1. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-01

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required. PMID:15508847

  2. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31 CFR 538.523-526 and 31 CFR 560.530-533. Under the provisions...

  3. 17 CFR 32.12 - Exemption from suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and in the business of buying, selling, producing, or otherwise utilizing that commodity, if all of... bills, or unencumbered warehouse receipts, equal to an amount by which the value of each transaction... on which options were bought directly from or granted directly to accounts classified by the...

  4. 17 CFR 32.12 - Exemption from suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and in the business of buying, selling, producing, or otherwise utilizing that commodity, if all of... bills, or unencumbered warehouse receipts, equal to an amount by which the value of each transaction... on which options were bought directly from or granted directly to accounts classified by the...

  5. 17 CFR 32.12 - Exemption from suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and in the business of buying, selling, producing, or otherwise utilizing that commodity, if all of... bills, or unencumbered warehouse receipts, equal to an amount by which the value of each transaction... on which options were bought directly from or granted directly to accounts classified by the...

  6. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  7. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  8. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  9. 7 CFR 240.5 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specified in § 250.4(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter to be used for donated-food processing and handling expenses... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for commodity schools. 240.5 Section 240.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  10. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to §§ 179.100...

  11. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... capabilities, including the adequacy of the port to receive, accumulate, handle, store, and protect the cargo... (including the adequacy of the port to receive, accumulate, handle, store, and protect commodities) and other... that efficiency and cost-savings justify use of types of ocean service that would not involve...

  12. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  13. Stochastic modeling of economic injury levels with respect to yearly trends in price commodity.

    PubMed

    Damos, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010-2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels.

  14. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.35 Powers and..., That the Peach and Pear Commodity Committee shall each approve actions under § 917.39 and make said... duties under this part as may be deemed advisable. To establish subcommittees to aid the Peach...

  15. 7 CFR 917.35 - Powers and duties of each commodity committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.35 Powers and..., That the Peach and Pear Commodity Committee shall each approve actions under § 917.39 and make said... duties under this part as may be deemed advisable. To establish subcommittees to aid the Peach...

  16. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... any marketing activity for the purpose of, or that could reasonably have the effect of, soliciting... marketing activity from within the United States, its territories or possessions; and (D) A commodity pool... the name, main business address, main business telephone number, main facsimile number and main...

  17. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classified EAR 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance:...

  18. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...

  19. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debits or... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  20. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts 730 through 774, may in certain... CFR 736.2(b)(5), 744.2 through 744.4, 744.7, and 744.10; see also 22 CFR 123.9.) (c) No debit to... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance:...