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  1. Consumption of beef from cattle administered estrogenic growth promotants does not result in premature puberty and obesity using the swine model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to investigate the effects of ground beef from cattle administered commercial growth promotants on puberty attainment and body composition in female swine. Twenty-four gilts were selected based on strict selection criteria to reduce piglet variation. Treatments were randomly assign...

  2. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  3. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  4. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  5. Diversity and distribution of commensal fecal Escherichia coli bacteria in beef cattle administered selected subtherapeutic antimicrobials in a feedlot setting.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Munns, Krysty; Alexander, Trevor; Entz, Toby; Mirzaagha, Parasto; Yanke, L Jay; Mulvey, Michael; Topp, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from fecal samples were screened to examine changes in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics including antimicrobial susceptibility, clonal type, and carriage of resistance determinants. The goal of this 197-day study was to investigate the influence of administration of chlortetracycline alone (T) or in combination with sulfamethazine (TS) on the development of resistance, dissemination of defined strain types, and prevalence of resistance determinants in feedlot cattle. Inherent tetracycline resistance was detected in cattle with no prior antimicrobial exposure. Antimicrobial administration was not found to be essential for the maintenance of inherently ampicillin-resistant and tetracycline-resistant (Tet(r)) E. coli in control animals; however, higher Tet(r) E. coli shedding was observed in animals subjected to the two treatments. At day 0, high tetracycline (26.7%), lower sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (19.2%), and several other resistances were detected, which by the finishing phase (day 197) were restricted to ampicillin-tetracycline (47.5%), tetracycline (31.7%), and ampicillin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (20.8%) from both treated and untreated cattle. Among the determinants, bla(TEM1), tet(A), and sul2 were prevalent at days 0 and 197. Further, E. coli from day 0 showed diverse antibiogram profiles and strain types, which by the finishing phase were limited to up to three, irrespective of the treatment. Some genetically identical strains expressed different phenotypes and harbored diverse determinants, indicating that mobile genetic elements contribute to resistance dissemination. This was supported by an increased linked inheritance of ampicillin and tetracycline resistance genes and prevalence of specific strains at day 197. Animals in the cohort shed increasingly similar genotypes by the finishing phase due to animal-to-animal strain transmission. Thus, characterizing inherent resistance and propagation of cohort

  6. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  7. Growth rate and changes of the somatotropic axis in beef cattle administered exogenous bovine somatotropin beginning at two hundred, two hundred fifty, and three hundred days of age.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, B T; Govoni, K E; Hoagland, T A; Zinn, S A

    2007-11-01

    To determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) treatment beginning at 3 ages on the growth rate and components of the somatotropic axis, 40 beef cattle (200 +/- 21 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (10 animals/treatment). Three of the treatment groups received bST (33 mug/kg of BW) daily beginning at 200, 250, or 300 d of age until all animals reached 400 d of age; the fourth group served as controls (0 bST). Animals were housed in pens (5 animals per pen; 2 pens per treatment) and fed a diet formulated for an ADG of 1.2 kg/d. Feed intake (per pen) was measured daily, and BW was determined weekly. Blood samples (10 mL) and ultrasound measurements were collected at 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 d of age. Serum concentrations of ST and IGF-I were determined by RIA and IGFBP-2 and -3 by ligand blot procedures. Overall, cattle gained 284.0 +/- 14.7 kg of BW with a treatment x week interaction (P < 0.01), such that during the treatment period ADG was 11.6, 8.7, and 15.8% greater (P < 0.05) in cattle treated with bST beginning at 200, 250, and 300 d, respectively, relative to controls during the same time frame. Average DMI was 13.6% less (P < 0.05) in bST-treated cattle than in controls. Increases in ADG coupled with a reduction in DMI resulted in 11.7, 14.0, and 26.4% increases (P < 0.01) in the efficiency of gain (G:F) in bST-treated cattle beginning at 200, 250, and 300 d of age, respectively, compared with contemporary controls. Backfat thickness increased (P < 0.05) over time, but the magnitude of the increase was less in the bST-treated cattle (treatment x week interaction; P < 0.05). Area of the LM increased (P < 0.05) over time but was similar across treatment groups. Serum concentrations of ST, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 increased (P < 0.05), whereas IGFBP-2 decreased (P < 0.05) over time. The changes in the components of somatotropic axis were more pronounced in bST-treated cattle compared with controls, with the greatest magnitude of response

  8. Effect of a CIDR insert and flunixin meglumine, administered at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rate and resynchronization of estrus in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S H; Beal, W E; Gray, K R

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM), an inhibitor of PGF(2alpha) synthesis, and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR), on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer (ET) recipients, and to examine the effect of a CIDR after embryo transfer on the synchrony of the return to estrus in non-pregnant recipients. Cows (n=622) and heifers (n=90) at three locations were assigned randomly to one of four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with FM administration (500 mg i.m.) 2-12 min prior to ET, and insertion of a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) immediately following ET as main effects. Fresh or frozen embryos (Stage=4 or 5; Grade=1 or 2) were transferred on Days 6-9 of the estrous cycle and CIDR devices were removed 13 days after ET. Recipients at Location 2 only were observed for signs of return to estrus. Recipients that returned to estrus at Location 2 were either bred by AI or received an embryo 7 days after estrus. Following the initial ET, there was an FMxlocation interaction on pregnancy rate (P<0.01; Location 1, 89% versus 57%; Location 2, 69% versus 64%; Location 3, 64% versus 67% for FM versus no FM, respectively). Pregnancy rates of embryo recipients were not affected by CIDR administration (P>0.05; 65% with CIDR, 70% without CIDR), however, the timing of the return to estrus was more synchronous (P<0.01) for recipients given a CIDR. Pregnancy rate of recipients bred following a return to estrus did not differ between cows receiving or not receiving a CIDR for resynchronization (P>0.13). Effects of FM on pregnancy rate were location dependent and CIDR insertion at ET improved synchrony of the return to estrus.

  9. Quantification of the bla(CMY-2) in feces from beef feedlot cattle administered three different doses of ceftiofur in a longitudinal controlled field trial.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Scott, H M; Norby, B; Gebreyes, W; Loneragan, G H

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this longitudinal controlled trial was to quantitatively compare carriage of a gene encoding for ceftiofur-resistance (bla(CMY-2)), standardized to a reference gene (16SrRNA), among total community DNA extracted from fecal samples collected from cattle treated with three different dose regimens of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) versus those untreated (controls). Sixty-one steers were assigned to three treatment regimens and housed in six pens. In each pen, five steers were treated and five were controls (one of the pens had six controls). CCFA administration was as follows: two-thirds dose treatment (4.4 mg/kg, on day 0), single-dose treatment (6.6 mg/kg, on day 0), and three-dose treatment (6.6 mg/kg, on days 0, 6, and 13). Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 18, 21, and 28. The gene copy numbers/gram of feces for bla(CMY-2) and 16SrRNA were determined in total community DNA samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The relationships between the quantities of standardized bla(CMY-2), nonstandardized bla(CMY-2), and nonstandardized 16SrRNA, and the explanatory variables (treatment, time, and treatment x time) were assessed using repeated measures mixed models. There were significant differences in each of the three models with respect to each explanatory variable. Overall, while steers administered three doses and two-thirds dose of CCFA had significantly higher quantities of nonstandardized bla(CMY-2) than controls, the standardized values were lower. The administration of CCFA in feedlot cattle may provide selection pressure favoring higher levels of bla(CMY-2) carriage, but this may also lead to concurrent reductions in the total bacterial population (as reflected by lowered 16SrRNA) during the treatment period.

  10. Genetic relationships among breeds of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to estimate genetic distance among 16 populations of beef cattle from within the U.S. Thirty-three microsatellite markers representing 26 autosomes were used. MicroSatellite Analyzer 3.15 (MSA) program was used to quantify number of alleles per marker, and observed and expected het...

  11. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  13. Management of water quality for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cody L

    2007-03-01

    Drinking water is the primary source of water for most cattle. Unfortunately, water frequently contains various solutes and suspended particulate matter that can influence its appearance, odor, taste, and physical and chemical properties. Animals often react to such water impurities by decreasing water intake, and therefore feed intake, which diminishes animal performance. Thus, water quality can have a profound impact on animal health and performance. Routine monitoring of water sources and appropriate intervention can provide beef producers with a desirable return on investment. Careful thought should be incorporated into any capital improvements. This article discusses some of the most common factors that impact water quality for beef cattle and the methods of monitoring water quality, and proposes management solutions to address water quality concerns.

  14. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    PubMed

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  15. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  16. Beef cattle in the year 2050.

    PubMed

    Seidel, George E

    2014-01-01

    In 2050, beef likely will be produced much as occurs currently, as (1) a by-product of dairying-cull cows and calves not needed as replacements; (2) intensively managed cattle in environments rich in feed resources; or (3) extensively managed cattle grazing land unsuitable for tillage, with calves often moving to richer feed environments. Genetic progress will continue to depend on information such as weaning weights, but in addition, genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic information will be obtained from blood, hair, semen, and/or biopsies of embryos.Most cattle will be genetically modified for efficient growth, desirable carcass traits, and management traits such as disease resistance. Some strains of cattle will have Y-chromosome-dependent terminal cross traits; sexed semen thus will automatically result in males with terminal cross characteristics and females with maternally desirable traits. In most cases, mother cows will have shorter gestations and smaller frame sizes than currently to decrease nutrient requirements for maintenance. The cow herd may disappear with some intensively managed systems; with sexed semen, each female can replace herself with a female calf and then be fattened for slaughter. The flexibility of being a ruminant will continue to be exploited by using a variety of feedstuffs, some of which are otherwise of little value.

  17. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    PubMed

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  18. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids i...

  19. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  20. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia and Salmonella isolates obtained from beef cattle concentrated animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern High Plains are home to numerous cattle feedlots containing approximately 3.5 million beef cattle that account for nearly 30% of the United States fed beef cattle operations. The high density of beef cattle results in a concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) due to the generation of m...

  1. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  2. Toxocara vitulorum infection in German beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Venjakob, Peter L; Thiele, Gerhard; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard M

    2017-03-01

    Toxocara vitulorum is an ascarid that is frequently found in sub-tropical regions but little is known about infections in more temperate climates. In this study, we report the occurrence of this parasite in a beef cattle herd in eastern Germany. In June 2016, large (14-20 cm) cream-colored worms identified as adult T. vitulorum were observed in the feces of 2- to 3-month-old calves. Eggs of this parasite were subsequently detected in pooled fecal samples collected on all three farm sites. The morphological identification was supported by analysis of partial cytochrome c oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 1 gene sequences. Clinical signs of toxocariasis, such as diarrhea and loss of body weight were not apparent.

  3. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable. PMID:19948052

  4. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Taponen, Juhani

    2009-11-30

    The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 microg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2alpha, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 microg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable.

  5. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Methane emissions from a beef cattle feedyard: measurements and models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with beef and dairy cattle the most significant sources. Most current approaches to estimate the contribution of cattle to GHG emissions use emission factors based on productio...

  7. Technical note: validation of rumination collars for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate a wireless rumination monitoring system (Hi-Tag; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) for recording rumination in beef cattle. The system operates based on acoustics of rumination and has been used previously for monitoring rumination in both young and adult dairy cattle. Study 1 consisted of beef cattle in tie-stall housing with 72 observations for 4 cattle fed a high forage backgrounding diet and 47 observations for 3 cattle fed a high grain finishing diet. Study 2 consisted of 44 observations for 6 beef cattle fed a high forage diet in a loose-housing feedlot pen. Each observation consisted of the rumination time during a 2-h period as estimated by visual observations made by trained observers (inter-observer correlation r = 0.97) and the Hi-Tag system. The mean difference between visual and Hi-Tag rumination times was 9.8 ± 18.7 min/2 h. The rumination times from the Hi-Tag system were only moderately correlated with visual observations (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). The difference between visual and Hi-Tag rumination times was not correlated with head posture during the 2 h period (r = -0.02, P = 0.89). Physical and dietary differences between dairy and beef cattle may have resulted in the inaccuracy of the Hi-Tag system when used in beef cattle fed typical backgrounding and finishing diets. More work is required to improve the accuracy of this automated system for rumination monitoring before it can be used reliably with beef cattle.

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella in Ethiopian cattle and minced beef.

    PubMed

    Nyeleti, C; Hildebrandt, G; Kleer, J; Molla, B

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella in the chain from cattle to the consumer, faeces, mesenteric lymphnodes and beef cuts from 235 cattle, stool samples from 300 workers of the same Addis Ababa abattoir, and 330 minced beef samples from supermarkets in Addis Ababa were analyzed. Isolated Salmonella strains were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Low prevalence in faeces and lymphnodes, and higher contamination rates of beef cuts (diaphragm, abdominal muscles) indicate severe cross-contamination during slaughter. Animals of poor health status were far more frequently carriers of salmonellae, which stresses the need of intensive ante-mortem inspection on slaughter animals. During transport from slaughterhouse to the supermarkets, production and selling of minced beef, the prevalence of Salmonella did not increase.

  9. Niacin in dairy and beef cattle nutrition.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G

    1993-01-01

    Niacin functions metabolically as a component of the coenzymes NAD and NADP. Sources of niacin are feedstuffs and the enzymatic conversion of tryptophan and quinolinic acid into niacin. Niacin is synthesized by the microflora in the rumen of ruminants. Recent research suggests that microbial production of niacin may not be sufficient for the requirements of high producing cows. Supplemental niacin given to cows in early lactation may reduce the rate of fat mobilization, decrease the concentration of ketones in blood and increase blood glucose level. Niacin supplementation may increase propionate concentration and decrease butyrate concentration in rumen liquor. Ruminal microbial protein synthesis was enhanced by niacin. Not all experiments showed such clear results. The positive metabolic effects of niacin supplementation have resulted in most studies in an improved milk yield (3-4%) especially during early lactation. The milk constituents were mostly uninfluenced or only minimally increased. Reasons for the high variations of results are differences in ration formulation, level of milk performance, stage of lactation, age of cows, body conditions, level and duration of niacin supplementation and specific experimental conditions. Niacin supplemented cows lost less body weight during early lactation, were less days open and required fewer pellets per pregnancy. It would appear that niacin supplementation of about 6 grams per animal per day (200-400 mg per kg dry matter) for the first 60 to 100 days of lactation may be beneficial in selected high producing cows or heifers. In beef cattle niacin supplementation would appear to be beneficial (approximately 1 g per animal per day or about 100 mg per kg dry matter) when the body weight of bulls is lower than 300 kg, when the diets are poor in protein (10 tp 12% crude protein of dry matter) and during dietary adaptation periods.

  10. Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

    2013-01-01

    While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0

  11. Modeling water movement in beef cattle bedded manure pack

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bedded manure is a valuable fertilizer source because it contains essential macronutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)) for crop production. Previous research with beef cattle bedded manure packs demonstrated that water-soluble macronutrients accumulated toward the bottom of the...

  12. Beef cattle metabiomes and their relationships with economically important phenotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The selection and optimization of economically important phenotypes, i.e. feed efficiency, in cattle has long been an effort devoted to host genetics, management, and diet. Feed costs remain the largest variable cost in beef production, and consequently, the improvement of feed efficiency is of sig...

  13. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  14. Evaluation of methods of temperament scoring for beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates and carcass weight. The objective of this research study was to evaluate temperament scoring methods in beef cattle. Crossbred (n = 228) calves were evaluated for temperament at weaning by ...

  15. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedyard manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved predictive models for nitrous oxide and methane are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of beef cattle production. Biochemical process based models to predict GHG from manure rely on information derived from studies on soil and only limited study has been conducted on m...

  16. Nitrogen sustainability and beef cattle feedyards: II. Ammonia emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable management of beef cattle feedyard nitrogen (N) helps avoid environmental degradation and loss of manure fertilizer value due to ammonia volatilization. In this review we report the state-of-the-science concerning feedyard ammonia and evaluate methods to mitigate N losses. Up to 90% of f...

  17. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedyard manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved predictive models for nitrous oxide and methane are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of beef cattle production. Biochemical process-based models to predict GHG from manure rely on information derived from studies on soil and only limited study has been conducted on m...

  18. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  19. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  20. Soil nutrients, bacterial communities, and veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle backgrounding confinement on karst environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States hosts the world’s largest grain fed beef production. Commercial beef production in the US consists of three tiers that include: cow-calf enterprises, cattle backgrounding/stockering, and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding/stockering represents an intermediate between the ...

  1. Effect of in-feed Chlortetracycline prophylaxis in beef cattle on levels of 10 antimicrobial resistance genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The majority of antimicrobial products used in food-animal production are administered in-feed to control or prevent disease. These uses are controversial since it has been argued that they have contributed to increased occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Beef cattle are suscep...

  2. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds.

  3. Influence of feedlot pen surface layers and distillers' grain diets on microbial community structure associated with beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle feedlots on the Southern High Plains annually produce approximately 7 million beef cattle accounting for 30% of the total U.S. fed beef cattle production. The high density of beef cattle results in concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) in manure wastes and may create an environment favorab...

  4. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef.

    PubMed

    Kalchayanand, Norasak; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Shackelford, Steven D; Wells, James E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence of a toxigenic strain designated North America pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1). The NAP1 strain has been isolated from calves as well as ground meat products, leading to speculation of illness from consumption of contaminated meat products. However, information on C. difficile associated with beef cattle during processing and commercially produced ground beef is limited. To address this data gap, samples from various steps during beef production were collected. Samples from hides (n = 525), preevisceration carcasses (n = 475), postintervention carcasses (n = 471), and 956 commercial ground beef samples were collected from across the United States. The prevalence of C. difficile spores on hides was 3.2%. C. difficile spores were not detected on preevisceration and postintervention carcasses or in commercially produced ground beef. Phenotypic and genetic characterizations were carried out for all 18 isolates collected from hide samples. Twenty-two percent of the isolates were nontoxigenic strains, while 78% of the isolates were toxigenic. Toxinotyping and PCR ribotyping patterns revealed that 6 and 33% of the isolates were identified as NAP1 and NAP7 strains, respectively. This article evidences that the prevalence of C. difficile, specifically pathogenic strains, in the U.S. beef production chain is low.

  5. Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

  6. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.

  7. Morphological Examination and Transcriptomic Profiling To Identify Prednisolone Treatment in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cannizzo, Francesca T; Pegolo, Sara; Pregel, Paola; Manuali, Elisabetta; Salamida, Sonia; Divari, Sara; Scaglione, Frine E; Bollo, Enrico; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Bargelloni, Luca

    2016-11-09

    In livestock production corticosteroids are licensed only for therapy; nevertheless, they are often illegally used as growth promoters. The aim of this study was to identify morphological or biomolecular alterations induced by prednisolone (PDN) in experimentally treated beef cattle, because PDN and its metabolites are no longer detectable by LC-MS/MS methods in biological fluids. Moreover, PDN does not induce any histological alterations in the thymus, different from dexamethasone treatments. Therefore, a marker of illicit treatment for this growth promoter could be useful. Eight male Italian Friesian beef cattle were administered prednisolone acetate 30 mg day(-1) per os for 35 days, and seven beef cattle represented the control group. Six days after drug withdrawal, the animals were slaughtered. Morphological and morphometric modifications were evaluated in the epididymis and testis, whereas transcriptomic changes induced by PDN administration were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at different sampling times and in skeletal muscle and testis sampled at slaughtering. In the epididymis, spermatozoa number decreased in PDN-treated animals, and in some cases they were totally absent. Correspondingly, in the testis of treated animals, down-regulation for serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene expression was detected (p < 0.01). DNA microarray analysis revealed a total of 133 differentially expressed genes in skeletal muscle and testis, and 907 and 1416 in PBMCs after 33 days of treatment and at slaughtering, respectively. Histological investigations on epididymal content could represent a promising marker for PDN treatment in beef cattle and could be used as a screening method to identify animals worthy of further investigation with official methods. Moreover, the clear transcriptomic signature of PDN treatment evidenced in PBMCs supported the possibility of using this matrix to monitor the illicit treatment in vivo during ranching.

  8. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure and crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.; Robinson, S.

    1981-05-01

    Research on the feasibility of fermenting manure crop residue mixtures to methane, and on factors affecting the rate and extent of methane production is summarized. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and alkaline pretreatment on the rate and extent of hydrolysis of manure straw mixtures. The effects of mixing duration and vacuum fermenters on methane production rates from anaerobically fermented beef cattle wastes were also determined.

  9. Molecular basis for residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, S S; Mujibi, F D; Sherman, E L

    2009-04-01

    Feed provision is one of the greatest costs of beef production and, with the increasing costs of feed, will remain so for the foreseeable future. Improvement in efficiency has the potential to not only increase profits for cattle producers, but also to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. Both are important in addressing the challenges of increasing feed costs and land pressure. Residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice when evaluating feed efficiency in beef cattle, especially because it is independent of growth and BW. The main inhibitor to adoption of RFI remains the cost and technical difficulty in measuring the trait. This makes RFI a prime candidate for marker-assisted selection because the trait is moderately heritable and DNA or other predictive markers could be used in selection schemes. Although multiple markers have been described over several studies, no major gene affecting RFI has been found. However, a combination of genetic markers, when examined jointly, can explain a large proportion of the genetic variation. Two main barriers remain before full adoption of markers for genetic evaluation and marker-assisted selection can be implemented. First, the genetic interaction of genes affecting RFI on other traits is, as yet, not fully understood. Second the numbers of animals with high quality estimates of RFI remains small. However, current developments indicate that these challenges will soon be overcome.

  10. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Kranz, William L; Mader, Terry L; Shapiro, Charles A; Donk, Simon J van; Shelton, David P; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C

    2012-02-07

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens. A two-year controlled study was conducted in which beef cattle were administered steroid hormones via subcutaneous implants and feed additives and the occurrence of 16 endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones and metabolites was evaluated in runoff from beef cattle feedlots and in manure and soil collected from feedlot surfaces. Samples were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometryfor metabolites of the synthetic androgen trenbolone acetate, 17α-trenbolone, 17β-trenbolone, for the nonsteroidal semisynthetic estrogen agonist, α-zearalanol, and the synthetic progesterone melengesterol acetate, as well as a wide range of endogeneous estrogens, androgens, and fusarium metabolites. Synthetic steroids including trenbolone metabolites and melengestrol acetate were detected in fresh manure and in feedlot surface soils from cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations up to 55 ± 22 ng/g dry weight (dw) (17α-trenbolone) and 6.5 ± 0.4 ng/g dw (melengesterol acetate). Melengesterol acetate was detected in 6% of runoff samples from feedlots holding cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations ranging up to 115 ng/L. The presence of melengesterol acetate in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations has not been previously reported. Synthetic steroids were not detected in manure or runoff from control cattle. A wide range of endogenous hormones were detected in runoff and feedlot surface soils and manure from cattle given synthetic steroids and from control cattle, with no statistically significant differences in concentration. These results indicate that runoff from

  12. Genomewide association analysis of growth traits in Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Jahuey-Martínez, F J; Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; Martínez-González, J C; Gondro, C; García-Pérez, C A; López-Bustamante, L A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a genomewide association study (GWAS) for growth traits in Charolais beef cattle and to identify SNP markers and genes associated with these traits. Our study included 855 animals genotyped using 76,883 SNP from the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Bovine HD panel. The examined phenotypic data included birth, weaning, and yearling weights as well as pre- and postweaning ADG. After quality control, 68,337 SNP and 823 animals were retained in the analysis. The association analysis was performed using the principal components method via the egscore function of the GenABEL version 1.8-0 package in the R environment. Eighteen SNP located in 13 BTA were associated with growth traits ( < 5 × 10). The most important genes in these genomic regions were (), (), (), (), and ( [angiotensinase C]), due to their relationships with perinatal and postnatal survival, bone growth, cell adhesion, regulation of adipogenesis, and appetite. In conclusion, this study is the first to describe a GWAS conducted in beef cattle in Mexico and represents a basis for further and future research. This study detected new QTL associated with growth traits and identified 5 positional and functional candidate genes that are potentially involved in variations of the analyzed traits. Future analyses of these regions could help to identify useful markers for marker-assisted selection and will contribute to the knowledge of the genetic basis of growth in cattle and be a foundation for genomic predictions in Mexican Charolais cattle.

  13. Predicting forage intake by grazing beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Voluntary intake by cattle is controlled by a complex mix of physical and physiological factors that interact with a variety of environmental, geo-spatial, and experiential influences external to the animal. These factors are intensified in grazing ruminants, where selective grazing and variability...

  14. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  15. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  16. Animal-to-Animal Variation in Fecal Microbial Diversity among Beef Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are an essential component of animal health and productivity. Here we present a survey of fecal bacteria from six beef cattle generated by near full-length sequencing of 11,171 16S rDNA genes. Deep sequencing revealed considerable variation in the phylotype...

  17. Genomic prediction of continuous and binary fertility traits of females in a composite beef cattle breed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproduction efficiency is a major factor in the profitability of the beef cattle industry. Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool that may improve the predictive accuracy and genetic gain of fertility traits. There is a wide range of traits used to measure fertility in dairy and beef cattle inc...

  18. Nitrous oxide fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming an environmental concern; however, research measuring emission rates of N2O from open beef cattle feedlots has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify N2O emission fluxes as affected by...

  19. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  20. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  1. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Vidal, Lorena; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250) and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40) were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 %) but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %). An important part of the ground beef strains (80 %) had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.

  2. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle. PMID:23151297

  3. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals.

  4. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  5. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value.

  6. Influenza D Virus Infection in Mississippi Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lucas; Eckard, Laura; Epperson, William B.; Long, Li-Ping; Smith, David; Huston, Carla; Genova, Suzanne; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, influenza D virus (IDV), was first reported in swine in the Midwest region of the United States. This study aims to extend our knowledge on the IDV epidemiology and to determine the impact of bovine production systems on virus spread. A total of 15 isolates were recovered from surveillance of bovine herds in Mississippi, and two genetic clades of viruses co-circulated in the same herd. Serologic assessment from neonatal beef cattle showed 94% seropositive, and presumed maternal antibody levels were substantially lower in animals over six months of age. Active IDV transmission was shown to occur at locations where young, weaned, and comingled calves were maintained. Serological characterization of archived sera suggested that IDV has been circulating in the Mississippi cattle populations since at least 2004. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the evolution and epidemiology of IDV in the bovine population. PMID:26386554

  7. Influenza D virus infection in Mississippi beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lucas; Eckard, Laura; Epperson, William B; Long, Li-Ping; Smith, David; Huston, Carla; Genova, Suzanne; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-12-01

    A new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, influenza D virus (IDV), was first reported in swine in the Midwest region of the United States. This study aims to extend our knowledge on the IDV epidemiology and to determine the impact of bovine production systems on virus spread. A total of 15 isolates were recovered from surveillance of bovine herds in Mississippi, and two genetic clades of viruses co-circulated in the same herd. Serologic assessment from neonatal beef cattle showed 94% seropositive, and presumed maternal antibody levels were substantially lower in animals over six months of age. Active IDV transmission was shown to occur at locations where young, weaned, and comingled calves were maintained. Serological characterization of archived sera suggested that IDV has been circulating in the Mississippi cattle populations since at least 2004. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the evolution and epidemiology of IDV in the bovine population.

  8. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  9. Accumulation of clenbuterol residues in the hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle during and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Zhang, Junmin; Tang, Chaohua; Zhao, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of clenbuterol residues in the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of clenbuterol for 21 days. This experiment was conducted in six male red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were administered clenbuterol at a dose of 16 and 48 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively. Hair samples were collected on Days 7, 14 and 21 during treatment, and on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 70 after discontinuation of medication, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. About 500 mg hair samples spiked with 50 pg/mg D9-clenbuterol internal standard were analyzed with which the method recovery was from 88.6 to 116.9%. The results showed that clenbuterol was significantly accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 0.98 ± 0.56 pg/mg in Group 1 and 6.34 ± 3.21 pg/mg in Group 2 on Day 7 of treatment, and the residue concentrations increased as treatment proceeded. During the early withdrawal period, the residues increased from 13.52 ± 8.69 to 17.96 ± 6.94 pg/mg in Group 1 and from 55.15 ± 4.04 to 147.79 ± 15.35 pg/mg in Group 2. No significant differences were found in the later withdrawal period in both treatment groups. The results of the present study indicated that the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle has high accumulation potential for clenbuterol residues. Hair, as a target matrix, even light-pigmented hair, can be used to monitor clenbuterol abuse over a long period.

  10. Connectedness among herds of beef cattle bred under natural service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A procedure to measure connectedness among herds was applied to a beef cattle population bred by natural service. It consists of two steps: (a) computing coefficients of determination (CDs) of comparisons among herds; and (b) building sets of connected herds. Methods The CDs of comparisons among herds were calculated using a sampling-based method that estimates empirical variances of true and predicted breeding values from a simulated n-sample. Once the CD matrix was estimated, a clustering method that can handle a large number of comparisons was applied to build compact clusters of connected herds of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle. Since in this breed, natural service is predominant and there are almost no links with reference sires, to estimate CDs, an animal model was used taking into consideration all pedigree information and, especially, the connections with dams. A sensitivity analysis was performed to contrast single-trait sire and animal model evaluations with different heritabilities, multiple-trait animal model evaluations with different degrees of genetic correlations and models with maternal effects. Results Using a sire model, the percentage of connected herds was very low even for highly heritable traits whereas with an animal model, most of the herds of the breed were well connected and high CD values were obtained among them, especially for highly heritable traits (the mean of average CD per herd was 0.535 for a simulated heritability of 0.40). For the lowly heritable traits, the average CD increased from 0.310 in the single-trait evaluation to 0.319 and 0.354 in the multi-trait evaluation with moderate and high genetic correlations, respectively. In models with maternal effects, the average CD per herd for the direct effects was similar to that from single-trait evaluations. For the maternal effects, the average CD per herd increased if the maternal effects had a high genetic correlation with the direct effects, but the percentage

  11. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated. PMID:24031386

  12. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  13. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  14. Use of a resistance meter to locate manure suitable for energy recovery in beef cattle feedyards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mineral constituents, i.e., salts, contained in beef feedlot manure alter inherent soil conductivity. Researchers at USMARC have adapted tools such as electromagnetic soil conductivity meters and mapping/modeling software to identify areas where by manure accumulates on beef cattle feedlots. These t...

  15. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  16. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  17. Association of selenocysteine transfer RNA fragments with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to identify transfer RNA fragments (tRFs) associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected...

  18. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  19. The effect of follicular wave on fertility characteristics in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adequate fertility of beef cattle in the US is a major economic concern. The use of luminogenic substrates to ascertain steroid metabolism in beef females bred to the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave versus the dominant follicle of the second follicular wave in this study further provi...

  20. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in the western United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of beef in the United States is being conducted to provide benchmarks and identify opportunities for improvement of the beef value chain. Region-specific data are being collected to accurately characterize cattle production practices. This study reports pr...

  1. Animal-to-animal variation in fecal microbial diversity among beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; Desantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M; Andersen, Gary L; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in beef and dairy cattle production.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Sawant, Ashish A

    2008-12-01

    Observational studies of cattle production systems usually find that cattle from conventional dairies harbor a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) enteric bacteria compared to organic dairies or beef-cow operations; given that dairies usually use more antimicrobials, this result is not unexpected. Experimental studies have usually verified that application of antimicrobials leads to at least a transient expansion of AMR bacterial populations in treated cattle. Nevertheless, on dairy farms the majority of antibiotics are used to treat mastitis and yet AMR remains relatively low in mastitis pathogens. Other studies have shown no correlation between antimicrobial use and prevalence of AMR bacteria including documented cases where the prevalence of AMR bacteria is non-responsive to antimicrobial applications or remains relatively high in the absence of antimicrobial use or any other obvious selective pressures. Thus, there are multi-factorial events and pressures that influence AMR bacterial populations in cattle production systems. We introduce a heuristic model that illustrates how repeated antimicrobial selection pressure can increase the probability of genetic linkage between AMR genes and niche- or growth-specific fitness traits. This linkage allows persistence of AMR bacteria at the herd level because subpopulations of AMR bacteria are able to reside long-term within the host animals even in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. This model highlights the need for multiple approaches to manage herd health so that the total amount of antimicrobials is limited in a manner that meets animal welfare and public health needs while reducing costs for producers and consumers over the long-term.

  3. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Keele, J W; Kuehn, L A; McDaneld, T G; Tait, R G; Jones, S A; Keel, B N; Snelling, W M

    2016-02-01

    Fourteen percent of U.S. cattle slaughtered in 2011 had liver abscesses, resulting in reduced carcass weight, quality, and value. Liver abscesses can result from a common bacterial cause, , which inhabits rumen lesions caused by acidosis and subsequently escapes into the blood stream, is filtered by the liver, and causes abscesses in the liver. Our aim was to identify SNP associated with liver abscesses in beef cattle. We used lung samples as a DNA source because they have low economic value, they have abundant DNA, and we had unrestricted access to sample them. We collected 2,304 lung samples from a beef processing plant: 1,152 from animals with liver abscess and 1,152 from animals without liver abscess. Lung tissue from pairs of animals, 1 with abscesses and another without, were collected from near one another on the viscera table to ensure that pairs of phenotypically extreme animals came from the same lot. Within each phenotype (abscess or no abscess), cattle were pooled by slaughter sequence into 12 pools of 96 cattle for each phenotype for a total of 24 pools. The pools were constructed by equal volume of frozen lung tissue from each animal. The DNA needed to allelotype each pool was then extracted from pooled lung tissue and the BovineHD Bead Array (777,962 SNP) was run on all 24 pools. Total intensity (TI), an indicator of copy number variants, was the sum of intensities from red and green dyes. Pooling allele frequency (PAF) was red dye intensity divided TI. Total intensity and PAF were weighted by the inverse of their respective genomic covariance matrices computed over all SNP across the genome. A false discovery rate ≤ 5% was achieved for 15 SNP for PAF and 20 SNP for TI. Genes within 50 kbp from significant SNP were in diverse pathways including maintenance of pH homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract, maintain immune defenses in the liver, migration of leukocytes from the blood into infected tissues, transport of glutamine into the kidney in

  4. Thymus atrophy and regeneration following dexamethasone administration to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cannizzo, F T; Spada, F; Benevelli, R; Nebbia, C; Giorgi, P; Brina, N; Bollo, E; Biolatti, B

    2010-08-28

    Thymus atrophy and regeneration were studied in 13- to 22-month-old beef calves treated with dexamethasone (DMT), using anabolic dosages and implementing different withdrawal times. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, group A (n=6) received 0.7 mg/day DMT orally for 40 days, group B (n=6) received 1.4 mg/day orally for 40 days and group C (n=6) was the control. In trial 2, group D (n=6) received 0.7 mg/day DMT orally for 40 days, group E (n=6) received 1.4 mg/day orally for 40 days and group K (n=6) was the control. DMT withdrawal times before slaughter were six days (groups A and B) and 26 days (groups D and E). At slaughter, thymus atrophy was severe and progressive in animals from groups A and B. In contrast, thymus weight and volume of the animals from groups D and E were almost normal. Slight atrophy was also detected in the calves in these groups. Histological changes and Ki67 immunostaining revealed a large number of positive lymphoid cells, mostly in the cortical area, associated with higher expression of apoptosis in the medulla compared with controls. This demonstrated that the thymus of beef cattle is still able to regenerate following DMT administration.

  5. Historical Overview of the Effect of β-Adrenergic Agonists on Beef Cattle Production

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bradley J.; Smith, Stephen B.; Chung, Ki Yong

    2014-01-01

    Postnatal muscle hypertrophy of beef cattle is the result of enhanced myofibrillar protein synthesis and reduced protein turnover. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been studied in cattle fed β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA), which are receptor-mediated enhancers of protein synthesis and inhibitors of protein degradation. Feeding β-AA to beef cattle increases longissimus muscle cross-sectional area 6% to 40% compared to non-treated cattle. The β-AA have been reported to improve live animal performance, including average daily gain, feed efficiency, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage. Treatment with β-AA increased mRNA concentration of the β2 or β1-adrenergic receptor and myosin heavy chain IIX in bovine skeletal muscle tissue. This review will examine the effects of skeletal muscle and adipose development with β-AA, and will interpret how the use of β-AA affects performance, body composition, and growth in beef cattle. PMID:25050012

  6. Prognostic judgment at post-surgery by biochemical parameters in beef cattle with left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Taguchi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery.

  7. Temporal prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from beef cattle in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A; Entz, T; Olson, M E; Yanke, L J; Read, R R

    2006-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (< or =4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  8. Evaluation of Bacteriophage Application to Cattle in Lairage at Beef Processing Plants to Reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 Prevalence on Hides and Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Terrance M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Agga, Getahun E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food safety concern for the beef industry. Several studies have provided evidence that cattle hides are the main source of beef carcass contamination during processing and that reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 load on the hides of cattle entering processing facilities will lead to reductions in carcass contamination. Bacteriophages have been proposed as a novel preharvest antimicrobial intervention to reduce the levels of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle hides. The objective of this study was to evaluate a commercialized phage application administered in the lairage area of commercial beef processing plants for the ability to reduce E. coli O157:H7 contamination of cattle hides and carcasses. Cattle lots either received phage spray treatment (n = 289) or did not (n = 301), as they entered the lairage environments in two separate experiments at two different commercial beef processing plants. Hide and carcass samples were collected and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 prevalence and concentration. Cattle hides receiving phage treatment had an E. coli O157:H7 prevalence of 51.8%, whereas untreated hides had a prevalence of 57.6%. For carcass samples, the E. coli O157 prevalence in treated and untreated samples was 17.1% and 17.6%, respectively. The results obtained from these experiments demonstrated that the treatment of cattle hides with bacteriophages before processing did not produce a significant reduction of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle hides or beef carcasses during processing.

  9. A review of population data utilization in beef cattle research.

    PubMed

    Jones, R; Langemeier, M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled experimentation has been the most common source of research data in most biological sciences. However, many research questions lend themselves to the use of population data, or combinations of population data and data resulting from controlled experimentation. Studies of important economic outcomes, such as efficiency, profits, and costs, lend themselves particularly well to this type of analysis. Analytical methods that have been most commonly applied to population data in studies related to livestock production and management include statistical regression and mathematical programming. In social sciences, such as applied economics, it has become common to utilize more than one method in the same study to provide answers to the various questions at hand. Of course, care must be taken to ensure that the methods of analysis are appropriately applied; however, a wide variety of beef industry research questions are being addressed using population data. Issues related to data sources, aggregation levels, and consistency of collection often surface when using population data. These issues are addressed by careful consideration of the questions being addressed and the costs of data collection. Previous research across a variety of cattle production and marketing issues provides a broad foundation upon which to build future research. There is tremendous opportunity for increased use of population data and increased collaboration across disciplines to address issues of importance to the cattle industry.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of oral gabapentin alone or co-administered with meloxicam in ruminant beef calves.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Johann F; Mosher, Ruby A; Kohake, Laura E; Cull, Charley A; Kelly, Lindsey L; Mueting, Stacy L; KuKanich, Butch

    2011-10-01

    Gabapentin is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue indicated for treatment of neuropathic pain. This study determined the pharmacokinetics of oral (PO) gabapentin alone or in combination with meloxicam in ruminant calves. Gabapentin capsules at 10mg/kg or gabapentin powder (from capsules at 15mg/kg) and meloxicam tablets (0.5mg/kg) were administered PO to six beef calves. Plasma drug concentrations were determined over 48h post-administration by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The mean (± standard deviation, SD) C(max), T(max) and elimination half-life (t(½)λz) for gabapentin (10mg/kg) alone was 2.97 ± 0.40μg/mL, 9.33 ± 2.73h and 11.02 ± 3.68h, respectively. The mean (± SD) C(max), T(max) and t(½)λz for gabapentin (15mg/kg) co-administered with meloxicam was 3.57±1.04μg/mL, 7.33 ± 1.63h and 8.12±2.11h, respectively. The mean (±SD) C(max), T(max) and t(½)λz for meloxicam was 2.11± 0.19μg/mL, 11.67 ± 3.44h and 20.47 ± 9.22h, respectively. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2μg/mL were maintained for up to 15h and meloxicam concentrations >0.2μg/mL for up to 48h. The pharmacokinetic profile of oral gabapentin and meloxicam supported clinical evaluation of these compounds for management of neuropathic pain in cattle.

  11. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  12. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; Ansotegui, R P; MacNeil, M D; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine (FM; 1.1 mg/kg of BW, intramuscularly) approximately 13 d (range 10 to 15 d) after AI on pregnancy establishment. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows. Technicians and AI sires were equally represented across treatments within locations and experiments. Bulls were introduced on the day of FM treatment. Pregnancy to AI was diagnosed 28 to 50 d after AI using ultrasonography. In Exp. 1, beef heifers (n = 1,221) were divided within 5 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control). At insemination, heifers were divided into 2 similar pastures or pens, and approximately 13 d later, 1 group of heifers within each location was processed through an animal handling facility to administer FM treatment. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.62) on AI pregnancy rates, so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI were reduced (P = 0.02) among heifers receiving the FM treatment procedure (66%) compared with control heifers (72%). In Exp. 2, suckled beef cows (n = 719) were assigned within 2 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control) approximately 13 d after AI. At insemination, control and FM cows were divided into separate pastures, and only FM cows were handled after AI for the FM treatment procedure. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.75), so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI did not differ (P = 0.80) between FM (57%) and control cows (59%). In Exp 3, beef heifers (n = 247) and suckled beef cows (n = 335) from 1 location received no injection (control) or injection of FM approximately 13 d after AI when all cows and heifers were processed through a working facility. Pregnancy rates to AI were not different (P = 0.37) between FM (45%) and control (42%) cows or between FM (56%) and control (55%) heifers. We conclude FM administration at 1.1 mg/kg of BW

  13. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  14. Differential expression of genes related to gain and intake in the liver of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: To better understand which genes play a role in cattle feed intake and gain, we evaluated differential expression of genes related to gain and intake in the liver of crossbred beef steers. Based on past transcriptomics studies on cattle liver, we hypothesized that genes related to metabo...

  15. Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef is an important food safety concern. Cattle are a natural reservoir of this pathogen, and the life-cycle of E. coli O157:H7 involves cycling between the warm, nutrient-rich cattle large intestine and the generally cool, nutrient-limiting f...

  16. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the pre...

  17. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some

  18. Diagnosis and management of venereal campylobacteriosis in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Truyers, Isabelle; Luke, Tim; Wilson, David; Sargison, Neil

    2014-11-27

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and its glycerine-tolerant variant Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovars intermedius. The disease can be economically important when present in cattle herds, causing poor reproductive performance, embryo mortality and abortion. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are required in the diagnosis of infection and to inform and monitor disease control. Current tests include bacterial culture and fluorescent antibody testing of preputial sheath washings and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an agglutination test on vaginal mucus, although the predictive values of these tests can be inadequate in field investigations. Artificial insemination is often considered as a simple control method for bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, but is impractical for many beef suckler herds where breeding takes place at pasture. Commercial vaccines are unavailable in the UK, while the efficacy of autogenous vaccines using a bacterial isolate from infected animals on a specific farm is at best unproven. Hence, for some infected herds, the development of an alternative control strategy based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with culling or treatment would be desirable. This approach requires meticulous records and herd health management. In this paper we highlight difficulties in diagnosing bovine venereal campylobacteriosis and demonstrate the benefits of good record keeping when investigating poor reproductive performance in a beef suckler herd and establishing a herd-specific approach to bio-containment of the infectious cause. Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is an economically important disease that should be considered in investigations of suckler herd subfertility problems. Control of the disease based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with extensive culling can be achieved without the use of

  19. Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Raies A.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Johnson, Judith A.; Archer, Douglas; Morris, J. Glenn; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida. The overall prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was 15.8% (95% CI: 13.9, 17.8), varied between farms, and ranged from 5.2% to 100%. A subset of isolates (n = 23) was further characterized for the cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiotic susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics, sequencing of nine β- lactamase genes, and species identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (concentrations, > 64 μg/mL) and showed high levels of multi-drug resistance. Full length 16S rRNA sequences (~1300 bp) revealed that most of the isolates were not primary human or animal pathogens; rather were more typical of commensal, soil, or other environmental origin. Six extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes identical to those in clinical human isolates were identified. Our study highlights the potential for carriage of cefotaxime resistance (including “human” ESBL genes) by the bacterial flora of food animals with no history of cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. A better understanding of the origin and transmission of resistance genes in these pre-harvest settings will be critical to development of strategies to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms to hospitals and communities. PMID:27642751

  20. Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Johnson, Judith A; Archer, Douglas; Morris, J Glenn; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida. The overall prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was 15.8% (95% CI: 13.9, 17.8), varied between farms, and ranged from 5.2% to 100%. A subset of isolates (n = 23) was further characterized for the cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiotic susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics, sequencing of nine β- lactamase genes, and species identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (concentrations, > 64 μg/mL) and showed high levels of multi-drug resistance. Full length 16S rRNA sequences (~1300 bp) revealed that most of the isolates were not primary human or animal pathogens; rather were more typical of commensal, soil, or other environmental origin. Six extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes identical to those in clinical human isolates were identified. Our study highlights the potential for carriage of cefotaxime resistance (including "human" ESBL genes) by the bacterial flora of food animals with no history of cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. A better understanding of the origin and transmission of resistance genes in these pre-harvest settings will be critical to development of strategies to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms to hospitals and communities.

  1. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  2. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  3. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  4. Methane emissions from a beef cattle feedyard during winter and summer on the southern High Plains of Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2.1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy cattle the most significant sources. A better understanding of CH4 emissions from beef cattle feedyards can help build more accurate emission inventories, impro...

  5. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  6. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  7. Epistatic interactions associated with fatty acid concentrations of beef from angus sired beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kramer, L M; Ghaffar, M A Abdel; Koltes, J E; Fritz-Waters, E R; Mayes, M S; Sewell, A D; Weeks, N T; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Ma, L; Reecy, J M

    2016-11-08

    Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content. Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with EpiSNPmpi. False discovery rate (FDR) was controlled at 5 % and was limited to well-represented genotypic combinations. Epistatic interactions were detected for 37 triacylglyceride (TAG), 36 phospholipid (PL) fatty acid traits, and three weight traits. A total of 6,181, 7,168, and 0 significant epistatic interactions (FDR < 0.05, 50-animals per genotype combination) were associated with Triacylglyceride fatty acids, Phospholipid fatty acids, and weight traits respectively and most were additive-by-additive interactions. A large number of interactions occurred in potential regions of regulatory control along the chromosomes where genes related to fatty acid metabolism reside. Many fatty acids were associated with epistatic interactions. Despite a large number of significant interactions, there are a limited number of genomic locations that harbored these interactions. While larger population sizes are needed to accurately validate and quantify these epistatic interactions, the current findings point towards additional genetic variance that can be accounted for within these fatty acid traits.

  8. Evaluating the reproductive performance of British beef and dairy herds using national cattle movement records.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C

    2013-11-23

    National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production.

  9. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wiengcharoen, Jitbanjong; Nakthong, Chowalit; Mitchaothai, Jumlong; Udonsom, Ruenruthai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-09-01

    Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p < 0.001) in prevalences, indicating the cattle tested had a greater exposure to T. gondii than N. caninum, and they should be regarded as a potential source of T. gondii infection to humans. The low prevalence of neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle, including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.

  10. Effect of subtherapeutic vs. therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Klima, Cassidy L.; Stanford, Kim; Alexander, Trevor; Topp, Edward; Read, Ron R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic) or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic), on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05) the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherapeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica from the nasopharynx included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of erythromycin resistant enterococci within the population, which was comprised almost exclusively of Enterococcus hirae. Injectable macrolides impacted both respiratory and enteric microbes, whereas orally administered macrolides only influenced enteric bacteria. PMID:23750157

  11. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James A; Scott, H Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP - the causative agent of Johne's disease) and Neospora caninum (NC - the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle.

  12. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, James A.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP — the causative agent of Johne’s disease) and Neospora caninum (NC — the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle. PMID:18189052

  13. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

  14. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Colazo, Marcos G.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed. PMID:25082993

  15. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  16. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production. Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements...

  17. Ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations at surfaces of simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bedding is used in livestock operations to facilitate manure management and provide comfort for the animal. The research objective was to determine differences in ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) concentrations from simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs ...

  18. Genetic and environmental heterogeneity of residual variance of weight traits in Nellore beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have provided evidence of the existence of genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance, suggesting that it could be exploited to improve robustness and uniformity of livestock by selection. However, little is known about the perspectives of such a selection strategy in beef cattle. Methods A two-step approach was applied to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling weight in a Nellore beef cattle population. First, an animal model was fitted to the data and second, the influence of additive and environmental effects on the residual variance of these traits was investigated with different models, in which the log squared estimated residuals for each phenotypic record were analyzed using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the reliability of variance component estimates from the second step and the accuracy of estimated breeding values for residual variation. Results The results suggest that both genetic and environmental factors have an effect on the residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling in Nellore beef cattle and that uniformity of these traits could be improved by selecting for lower residual variance, when considering a large amount of information to predict genetic merit for this criterion. Simulations suggested that using the two-step approach would lead to biased estimates of variance components, such that more adequate methods are needed to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance in beef cattle. PMID:22672564

  19. Update of the National Research Council 1996/2000 nutrient requirements of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately every 20 years the National Research Council - under the National Academies of Science revises the publication "Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle." This presentation, by members of the revision team, gave an overview of the planned revisions to the publication, and let practicing n...

  20. Flux-gradient estimates of ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyard pens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrated animal feeding operations are major sources of ammonia emitted to the atmosphere. There is a considerable amount of literature on ammonia emissions from poultry and swine, but few studies have investigated large, open lot beef cattle feedyards. We used the flux-gradient method to estima...

  1. Prediction of nitrogen excretion by beef cattle: a meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reliable estimates of nitrogen (N) excretion in the urine and feces of beef cattle are essential for developing cost-effective and environmentally sound nutrient management plans. A meta-analysis dataset was compiled that included data for starting live BW, DMI, N intake, dietary CP concentration, u...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas during fall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research measuring emission fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from ope...

  3. Runoff, erosion, and size distribution of sediment from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The size distribution of sediment affects erosion rates, settling velocity, and the transport of chemical constituents. Little information is currently available concerning the size distribution of materials transported in runoff from beef cattle feedlots. The objectives of this study were to: a) me...

  4. Investigations into the beneficial uses of ash from the combustion of manure from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential for beneficial uses or co-products from the combustion of beef cattle manure were investigated. Phosphate concentrations indicate some potential for use as an agronomic soil amendment, but the phosphate is not freely released. Greenhouse studies suggest that neither good nor harm occur...

  5. Post-extraction algal residue in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) as N source 23 in steam-flaked corn-based (SFC) beef cattle finishing diets on intake, duodenal flow, digestion, ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal parameters, and blood constituents were evaluated. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (BW...

  6. Genomic selection in beef cattle: Training and validation in multibreed populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A challenge for applying genomic selection to beef cattle is accurate across-breed prediction. One approach is to train and validate prediction equations in multibreed populations, but the scarcity of large populations with known pedigrees, phenotypes, and dense genotypes has hindered the developmen...

  7. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production is limited by the necessity to monitor estrus and handle animals twice daily for several weeks. Protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI) would facilitate the use of AI. Obje...

  8. Grazing behavioral responses of beef cattle to medusahead invasion in sagebrush steppe rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study are to determine: 1) seasonal forage quality of medusahead-invaded rangeland relative to adjacent rangeland supporting desirable vegetation; 2) relative grazing preference of beef cattle for medusahead-invaded rangeland and adjacent rangeland supporting desirable vegetat...

  9. Temperament assessment provides insight into future health and growth performance of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Throughout the productive life of beef cattle many stressful events occur (e.g. branding, castration, vaccination, and tagging) coupled with weaning, social mixing, and transportation. These stressfull events have been reported to induce secretion of several of the prominant stress-related hormones:...

  10. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  11. Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distiller's grains (DG) are used extensively by beef cattle feeding operations in the United States, including the Southern Great Plains. Our regional research consortium has been conducting research focused on utilization of wet DG in feedlot diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). Effects of DG on...

  12. Experimental research on the effects of water application on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of water application (e.g., through rainfall or sprinkler system) on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from pen surfaces of open-lot beef cattle feedlots was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Soil/ma...

  13. Laboratory evaluation of surface amendments for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pen surface amendments for mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from beef cattle feedlots, were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Amendments were organic residues (i.e., sorghum straw, prairie grass, wo...

  14. Stocking rate and fuels reduction effects on beef cattle diet composition and quality

    Treesearch

    Abe Clark; Tim DelCurto; Martin Vavra; Brian L. Dick

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of forest fuels reduction on diet quality, botanical composition, relative preference, and foraging efficiency of beef cattle grazing at different stocking rates. A split plot factorial design was used, with whole plots (3 ha) being fuel reduced or no treatment (control), and split plots (1 ha) within whole plots...

  15. Ammonia concentration and modeled emission rates from a beef cattle feedyard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ambient NH3 concentrations were measured at a beef cattle feedyard during the spring and summer months of 2007. Concentrations were measured every five minutes, 24-hours per day at a sample intake height of 3.3 m using a chemiluminescence analyzer. On site weather data was collected concurrently....

  16. Using single nucleotide polymorphism to detect selection signature in Hereford beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate selection signature in 2 sources of purebred Hereford beef cattle. Data were available from 240 Line 1 Herefords (L1) born between 1953 to 2008, and 311 Industry Herefords (IH) born between 1970 and 2008. Line 1 Herefords were sampled from a closed line...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open-lot beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research concerning nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from the manure...

  18. Temporal nitrous oxide emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure following a simulated rainfall event

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A pilot-scale, recirculating-flow-through, non-steady-state (RFT-NSS) chamber system was designed for quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from simulated open-lot beef cattle feedlot pens. The system employed five 1 square meter steel pans. A lid was placed systematically on each pan and heads...

  19. Evaluation of rectoanal mucosal swab sampling for molecular detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared the presence of seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157...

  20. Comparison of Bayesian models to estimate direct genomic values in multi-breed commercial beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Several studies have examined the accuracy of genomic selection both within and across purebred beef or dairy populations. However, the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values (DGVs) has been less well studied in crossbred or admixed cattle populations. We used a population of 3,240 cr...

  1. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Allen, Andrew L.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin. PMID:25750444

  2. Ammonia emissions from open lot dairies: lessons learned from beef cattle feedyards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Open lot dairies share more similarities with open lot beef cattle feedyards than with closed dairy housing. The well-developed understanding of ammonia loss from feedyards can inform our study of open lot dairies by recognizing differences and similarities and then apply what we have learned. Metho...

  3. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn.

    PubMed

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R; Bauer, Bianca S; Allen, Andrew L; Grahn, Bruce H

    2015-03-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin.

  4. Gut bacterial communities and their association with production parameters in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Within the past decade, the development and use of novel nutritional, genomic, and genetic improvement technologies has promoted and lead to great increases in the genetic propensity of beef cattle for a variety of traits including growth, carcass composition, and specifically feed efficiency. Howe...

  5. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, C Y; Liu, X M; Wan, F C

    2015-11-01

    The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Four ruminally cannulated Limousin × Luxi beef cattle (400 ± 10 kg) were used in the experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained (on a DM basis) 60% corn silage as a forage source and 40% concentrate with 4 differently processed wheat products (extruded, pulverized, crushed, and rolled wheat). Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein (MCP) in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater ( < 0.05) than the corresponding values in cattle fed pulverized and extruded wheat. Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased ( < 0.05) with increased geometric mean particle size (geometric mean diameter) of processed wheat, except for extruded wheat; cattle fed extruded wheat had the lowest concentrations of total VFA and acetate among all treatments. The relative abundance of , , ciliated protozoa, and was lower in cattle fed the pulverized wheat diet than in the other 3 diets ( < 0.05), whereas the relative abundance of was decreased in cattle fed extruded wheat compared with cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat ( < 0.05). No treatment effect was obtained for serum enzyme activity and protein concentration ( > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms.

  6. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-03-08

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply.

  7. Detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in young dairy and beef cattle in Poland.

    PubMed

    Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Puchalski, Andrzej; Dec, Marta; Stęgierska, Diana; Grooms, Daniel L; Barbu, Nicolas I

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex in dairy and beef calves, especially during the first year of life. There is a lack of comprehensive information about the prevalence of infection in cattle herds in Poland as well as in European countries outside the European Union. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRSV infections in young beef and dairy cattle in southeastern Poland, a region that has direct contact with non-EU countries. Animals & methods: Nasal swabs and sera (n = 120) were obtained from young cattle aged 6-12 months from 45 farms in eastern and southeastern Poland. BRSV antigen detection in the nasal swabs was carried out using a rapid immunomigration assay used in diagnosing human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infections in humans, while antibodies to BRSV were detected in the sera by ELISA antibody detection. The study confirmed the presence of BRSV infections in young cattle under 12 months of age from both dairy and beef herds. BRSV was detected in 27 of the 45 herds (60%) sampled. Findings from this study indicate a high prevalence of BRSV infections in cattle in Poland, which may have a significant influence on health status and animal performance. The prevalence of infection is similar to that in other parts of Poland and other countries in Europe. Development of strategies to reduce BRSV infections is needed to improve health and productivity.

  8. Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Mulira, Gershon L.; Saunders, J. Robert; Barth, Albert D.

    1992-01-01

    We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses. Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis. PMID:17423929

  9. The development in beef cattle manure of Petriedllidium boydii (Shear) Malloch, a potential pathogen for man and cattle.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G

    1976-04-01

    Petriellidium boydii (Allescheria boydii) dominated the mycoflora of manure samples form three beef cattle feedlots after incubation at room temperature for 4 months. The possible dangers associated with this pathogenic fungus, which causes mycotic abortion in livestock, pulmonary allescheriasis in man, and mycetomas in both man and animals, are discussed. This fungus could create a health hazard in feedlots where in situ manure decompostion is encouraged.

  10. The relationship between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćirić, J.; Lukić, M.; Radulović, S.; Janjić, J.; Glamočlija, N.; Marković, R.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to study the relationships between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef, classified with regard to conformation and degree of fatness scores, and total lipid content, depending on gender. For this purpose, 90 animals (60 male and 30 female Simmental beef cattle) were analysed. The results of the study showed that gender affected carcass measurement scores and chemical composition of meat through its important effect on overall animal fatness. Referring to correlations, male carcass conformation score was negatively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. On the other hand, slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage and carcass conformation was positively related to fatness score, all of them being significant. However, female carcass conformation score was positively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. Hot and cold carcass weights of female Simmental beef cattle were positively correlated to slaughter weight, total lipid content and carcass conformation score. Carcass conformation score and fatness score were affected by gender of young Simmental beef cattle.

  11. Effect of microbial inoculants on the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kamarloiy, M; Yansari, A Teimouri

    2008-04-15

    This study investigated the effect of a new microbial inoculant product on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage in big silo over one year that used beef cattle. Six Holstein beef steer (BW = 225 +/- 17) were allotted to 2 x 2 repeated Latin square design at two 21 days periods (adaptation, 14 days and sample collection, 7 days) for evaluation the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. Two treatments, forages were untreated or treated at ensiling with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici silage inoculants. After 45 days from ensiling, the ration that contained 94.5 and 5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1% of DM silage and ground barely, mineral-vitamin, dicalcium phosphate, salt, respectively, were offered for free choice consumption. Treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici inoculant increased daily dry matter intake and subsequently NDF, ether extract, crude protein and ash. Apparent digestibility of DM and nutrients were significantly increased by microbial inoculation. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

  12. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  13. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David B; Moon, Roger D; Mark, Darrell R

    2012-01-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and

  14. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms.

  15. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fourteen percent of U.S. cattle slaughtered in 2011 had liver abscesses. As a result, these cattle have reduced carcass weight and poor carcass quality resulting in reduced value. Liver abscess can result from a common bacterial cause Fusobacterium necrophorum, which inhabits rumen lesions caused ...

  16. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  17. Genetics of postweaning performance of beef cattle on forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increases in the costs of feed grains have revived interest in increasing the use of forages and grazing in order to either market as forage-finished beef or to produce heavy calves that will finish on less grain. However, little is known about the interactions of animal genetics and grazing enviro...

  18. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  19. Classifying of Nellore cattle beef on Normal and DFD applying a non conventional technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Antonelo, Daniel Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy in the Normal and DFD classification in Nellore beef using a bench-top hyperspectral imaging system. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ = 928-2524 nm) was used to collect hyperspectral images of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n = 78) of Nellore cattle. The images were processed, being selected region of interest and extracted spectra image and were selected the wavelengths considered most important for the treats evaluated. Six linear discriminant models were developed to classify beef samples on Normal and DFD. The model using all wavelengths associated with the reflectance and absorbance spectrum transformed with the pretreatment 2nd derivative resulted in an overall accuracy of 93.6% for both pretreatments. In this configuration, the model was able to classify correctly 73 samples from a total of 78 samples. The results demonstrate that the hyperspectral imaging system may be considered a viable technology for beef classification on Normal and DFD.

  20. Genetics and genomics of reproductive performance in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Wall, E; Pryce, J E

    2014-05-01

    Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance. A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable (0.02 to 0.04). Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals (e.g. semen quality) tend to be more heritable than female reproductive phenotypes with mean heritability estimates of between 0.05 and 0.22 for semen-related traits with the exception of scrotal circumference (0.42) and field non-return rate (0.001). The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk (dairy cattle) and meat (beef cattle) yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased (milk and meat) yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible. The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for

  1. Distribution of lameness lesions in beef cattle: A retrospective analysis of 745 cases

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Benjamin W.; Chamorro, Manuel F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the relative prevalence of diagnoses and location of lameness lesions in beef cattle. Medical records from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed and 745 cases of beef cattle that had presented for lameness were identified. Information regarding signalment, lesion location, and cause of lameness was analyzed. The cause of lameness was localized to the foot in approximately 85% of cases; a hind limb was affected over 70% of the time. The lateral claw was most commonly affected in cases of both fore- and hind-limb lameness. The most common diagnoses of noninfectious etiology were screw claw, vertical fissure, and interdigital fibroma. Infectious foot disease accounted for only 20% of foot lameness. Routine foot trimming may be warranted in some herds to improve weight-bearing balance and alleviate lameness. PMID:27041758

  2. An outcomes model to evaluate risks and benefits of Escherichia coli vaccination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H Scott; Malladi, Sasidhar

    2012-10-01

    We developed a stochastic simulation model to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) vaccination on key epidemiological outcomes. The model evaluated a reduction in the O157 prevalence in feedlot cattle as well as concentration in cattle feces due to vaccination. The impact of this reduction on outcomes at slaughter/harvest and consumption was evaluated by simulating the relationships between the O157 prevalence and concentration at various points in the ground beef supply chain. The uncertainty and variability associated with the O157 contamination was explicitly modeled in production, slaughter, and consumption modules. Our results show that vaccination can have a significant benefit with respect to relevant outcomes such as (1) the number of human O157 illnesses due to the consumption of ground beef, (2) the number of production lots with high O157 contamination levels, (3) the likelihood of detection by U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service testing, and (4) the probability of multiple illnesses due to ground beef servings from the same lot. These results show that these outcomes are strongly impacted by preharvest vaccination. For example, if the vaccine is used so as to reduce the prevalence of E. coli shedding cattle by 80% and if all U.S. steers and heifers were vaccinated, the expected number of human illnesses from ground beef-associated O157 would be reduced almost 60%. If the vaccine is 60% or 40% effective, the illness rate would be reduced approximately 45% or 40%, respectively. The number of production lots (10,000-lb lots) with high O157 contamination levels (> 1000 servings) would be reduced by 96% if all steers and heifers received an 80% effective vaccine regimen. The analysis shows that resulting reduction in the number of shedding animals and the reduced concentration of E. coli on carcasses can combine to reduce human illnesses and cost to beef packers.

  3. Metatranscriptomic Profiling Reveals Linkages between the Active Rumen Microbiome and Feed Efficiency in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuyong; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-05-01

    Exploring compositional and functional characteristics of the rumen microbiome can improve the understanding of its role in rumen function and cattle feed efficiency. In this study, we applied metatranscriptomics to characterize the active rumen microbiomes of beef cattle with different feed efficiencies (efficient, n = 10; inefficient, n = 10) using total RNA sequencing. Active bacterial and archaeal compositions were estimated based on 16S rRNAs, and active microbial metabolic functions including carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) were assessed based on mRNAs from the same metatranscriptomic data sets. In total, six bacterial phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Cyanobacteria, and Synergistetes), eight bacterial families (Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae, Spirochaetaceae, Dethiosulfovibrionaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae), four archaeal clades (Methanomassiliicoccales, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, and Methanosphaera), 112 metabolic pathways, and 126 CAZymes were identified as core components of the active rumen microbiome. As determined by comparative analysis, three bacterial families (Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Veillonellaceae) tended to be more abundant in low-feed-efficiency (inefficient) animals (P < 0.10), and one archaeal taxon (Methanomassiliicoccales) tended to be more abundant in high-feed-efficiency (efficient) cattle (P < 0.10). Meanwhile, 32 microbial metabolic pathways and 12 CAZymes were differentially abundant (linear discriminant analysis score of >2 with a P value of <0.05) between two groups. Among them, 30 metabolic pathways and 11 CAZymes were more abundant in the rumen of inefficient cattle, while 2 metabolic pathways and 1 CAZyme were more abundant in efficient animals. These findings suggest that the rumen microbiomes of inefficient cattle have more diverse activities than those of efficient cattle, which may be

  4. Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M

    2017-09-25

    Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and

  5. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  6. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  7. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. MBV for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboratio...

  8. Injection-site lesion prevalence and potential risk factors in UK beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, E; Remnant, J; Butterworth, A; Wapenaar, W

    2017-01-21

    Injectable veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) are widely used in cattle in the UK, and in particular vaccines are often used on large numbers of animals in the herd. The formation of injection-site lesions (ISLs) is a risk when using injectable products and has potential consequences for meat quality, animal welfare and beef industry income. This study used carcase observation in four abattoirs in England to determine ISL prevalence in beef cattle. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was used to investigate vaccination technique among UK beef farmers. The ISL prevalence was 4.1 per cent (95 per cent CI 3.4 per cent to 4.9 per cent). A potential difference between sites being used for vaccination and the distribution of ISLs on carcases suggested that factors other than vaccination were contributing to ISL incidence. Questionnaire responses highlighted deficits in good vaccination practices such as using the recommended site of injection and needle hygiene. The role of the veterinarian in knowledge transfer is crucial in providing practical injection advice when prescribing vaccines and other VMPs. This study identified factors to address when aiming to reduce ISL formation in UK beef animals. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Illustration of the maternal animal model used for genetic evaluation of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Wang, Z

    2007-07-01

    National cattle evaluation programs for weaning weight in most beef breed associations involve implementation of the maternal animal model to predict direct and maternal EPD. With this model, direct breeding values are predicted for all animals with records or pedigree ties to animals with records, or both. Even though maternal genetic value is expressed only in animals that become dams, these effects are transmitted by all parents and inherited from parents by all animals, leading to maternal breeding values being predicted for all animals as well. A small example data set was simulated involving 12 parents, 8 nonparents, and 13 animals with weaning weight records. The pedigree was developed to include paternal and maternal half-sib families, full-sibs, and some inbreeding, similar to field populations of beef cattle. Assembly of the mixed model equations and solutions for the maternal animal model are illustrated explicitly to assist animal breeding students in their understanding of the properties of the maternal animal model and to explicitly implement the model. Model parameters and moments, fixed contemporary group solutions, adjustment of breeding values for merit of mates, interpretation of maternal permanent environmental effect solutions, and alternatives for the assembly of the equations are shown. This example should lead to increased student and producer understanding of genetic improvement programs for weaning weight in beef cattle.

  10. Sorption, Leaching, and Surface Runoff of Beef Cattle Veterinary Pharmaceuticals under Simulated Irrigated Pasture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Inna E.; Bair, Daniel A.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals (i.e., oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, ivermectin) via surface runoff and leachate from manure amended to grass-vegetated soil boxes under irrigated pasture conditions. The transport of pharmaceuticals from animal manure in surface runoff and soil leachate was relatively low and appears to be limited by desorption and transport of pharmaceuticals entrained in the manure. In surface runoff, less than 4.2% of applied pharmaceuticals in manure (initial concentration: 0.2 mg kg−1 of manure) were detected after three weeks of irrigation. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface runoff and leachate never exceeded 0.5 µg L−1. The major portion of pharmaceuticals (up to 99%) was retained in the manure or in the soil directly beneath the manure application site. Based on the minimal transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin, the risk of significant transport for these targeted beef cattle pharmaceuticals to surface water and groundwater from manure on irrigated pasture appears to be relatively low. PMID:24216368

  11. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG<25°C = 10.66 + 0.28 × rh + 1.30 × BG - WS; and, HLI BG> 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI < 70) to extreme (HLI > 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P < 0.001) of pure bred Bos taurus and crosses of Bos taurus cattle had a panting score ≥ 2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  12. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L; Holt, S M; Sullivan, M L; Hahn, G L

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLI(BG<25°C) = 10.66 + 0.28 × rh + 1.30 × BG - WS; and, HLI (BG> 25°C) = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e((2.4 - WS)), where BG = black globe temperature ((o)C), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI < 70) to extreme (HLI > 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number (P < 0.001) of pure bred Bos taurus and crosses of Bos taurus cattle had a panting score ≥ 2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  13. Genomewide association study of methane emissions in Angus beef cattle with validation in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; De Haas, Y; Hayes, B J; Veerkamp, R F; Khansefid, M; Donoghue, K A; Arthur, P F; Pryce, J E

    2016-10-01

    Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits. Phenotypes calculated for the genotyped Angus population included CH production (MeP), CH yield (MeY), CH intensity (MI), DMI, and WT. The Holstein population (POP1) was multiparous, with phenotypes on CH traits (MeP, MeY, and MI) plus genotypes. Additionally, 2 CH traits, residual genetic CH (RGM) and residual phenotypic CH (RPM), were calculated by adjusting MeP for DMI and WT. Estimated heritabilities in the Angus population were 0.30, 0.19, and 0.15 for MeP, RGM, and RPM, respectively, and genetic correlations of MeP with DMI and WT were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Estimated heritabilities in Holstein POP1 were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.42 for MeP, MeY, and MI, respectively. Strong associations with MeP were found on chromosomes 4, 12, 14, 20, and 30 at < 0.001, and those chromosomes also had significant SNP for DMI in Holstein POP1. In the Angus population, the number of significant SNP for MeP at < 0.005 was 3,304, and approximately 630 of those SNP also were important for DMI and WT. When a set

  14. Evaluation of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab Sampling for Molecular Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Hinkley, Susanne; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw ground beef. Sampling a large number of animals for EHEC surveillance or evaluations of EHEC-focused preharvest interventions requires a convenient and robust sampling method. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) for the detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups. Paired fecal grab (FG) and RAMS samples were collected from 176 beef cattle and tested using the NeoSEEK Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) confirmation method. The prevalence of virulence-associated genes (stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, and nleB) was higher in RAMS than in FG samples. The results of the two methods had poor agreement, as indicated by kappa statistics, for the detection of the seven serogroups. When FG and RAMS results were combined for comparison, RAMS was more sensitive than FG for the detection of serogroups O103 (82% versus 39%), O157 (75% versus 67%), and O45 (79% versus 73%) with similar sensitivity for the detection of serogroup O145 (67%). Serogroups O111 and O121 were detected from one and two samples, respectively, by FG and were not detected by RAMS. Serogroup O26 was not detected with either method. RAMS appears to be equivalent or superior to FG sampling for detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups in the feces of beef cattle with the NeoSEEK STEC confirmation test.

  15. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  16. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  17. Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

  18. Genomic evolution in domestic cattle: ancestral haplotypes and healthy beef.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Joseph F; Steele, Edward J; Lester, Susan; Kalai, Oscar; Millman, John A; Wolrige, Lindsay; Bayard, Dominic; McLure, Craig; Dawkins, Roger L

    2011-05-01

    We have identified numerous Ancestral Haplotypes encoding a 14-Mb region of Bota C19. Three are frequent in Simmental, Angus and Wagyu and have been conserved since common progenitor populations. Others are more relevant to the differences between these 3 breeds including fat content and distribution in muscle. SREBF1 and Growth Hormone, which have been implicated in the production of healthy beef, are included within these haplotypes. However, we conclude that alleles at these 2 loci are less important than other sequences within the haplotypes. Identification of breeds and hybrids is improved by using haplotypes rather than individual alleles.

  19. Growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality and oxidative stability of beef cattle offered alternative silages in a finishing ration.

    PubMed

    He, L; Yang, J; Chen, W; Zhou, Z; Wu, H; Meng, Q

    2017-08-03

    As lack of forage resource, alternative roughage sources have been developed for ruminant production and their inclusion would exert a great effect on the dietary nutrition, consequently affecting animal performance. Four silages (corn silage (CS), corn stalk silage (SS), inoculated CS and inoculated SS) were separately offered to 60 Bohai Black cattle (15 cattle/group) during a 24-week finishing period, in which the growth performance, carcass trait, beef quality and oxidative stability of steers were determined. Neither silage material nor silage inoculant exerted a significant effect on the growth performance, carcass trait and oxidative stability of beef cattle (P>0.05). As to beef quality, cattle offered CS had higher (P0.05) on the proximate components and fatty acids profile of beef muscle. There was neither an interaction (P>0.05) between inoculated treatment and silage material. There were no differences (P>0.05) in cholesterol content and meat quality traits in animals fed alternative silages. The collective findings suggest that it is not economical to substitute high-quality forage for relative low-quality forage in a high-concentrate finishing ration of beef cattle and silage inoculant inclusion would not exert a direct effect on animal performance.

  20. Exploring genotype-phenotype relationships of the LHX3 gene on growth traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Jing, Yong-Jie; Sun, Yu-Jia; Lan, Xian-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The LIM-homeobox gene 3 (LHX3) plays an essential role in pituitary gland and nervous system development. Sequence variants (SVs) in coding and non-coding regions of LHX3 gene have an impact on LHX3 transcription and growth traits in cattle. Previously, we have identified 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-3) in all exons and intron 2 regions of the LHX3 gene in cattle. Here, 7 novel SNPs (SNPs: 4-10) were identified by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. In the present study, a total of 10 SNPs were assessed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 802 cows representing four main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, Qinchuan, Jiaxian, and Chinese Holstein). The assessment results demonstrated that 17 haplotypes and 18 diplotypes were revealed in these cattle populations. Moreover, association analysis indicated that the genotypes of SNPs 1-6 are associated with the body weight at 6, 12 and 18months of age in Nanyang cattle (P<0.01 or P<0.05), whereas no significant association was found between the 18 diplotypes and growth traits. Our results provide evidence that some SNPs in LHX3 gene may be associated with body weight at certain age, and LHX3 gene may be used as candidate gene for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle at slaughter and beef carcasses at retail shops in Ethiopia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: There is paucity of information regarding the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli O157: H7 associated with beef cattle at processing plants and at retail shops in Ethiopia. Methods: Various samples we...

  2. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  3. Evaluation of bacteriophage application to cattle in lairage at beef processing plants to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence on hides and carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food safety concern for the beef industry. Several studies have provided evidence that cattle hides are the main source of beef carcass contamination during processing and that reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 load on the hides of cattle entering processing faci...

  4. Persistent efficacy and production benefits following use of extended-release injectable eprinomectin in grazing beef cattle under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, B N; Williams, J C; Johnson, E G; Stromberg, B E; Yazwinski, T A; Smith, L L; Yoon, S; Cramer, L G

    2013-03-01

    Seven studies were conducted in commercial grazing operations to confirm anthelmintic efficacy, assess acceptability, and measure the productivity response of cattle to treatment with eprinomectin in an extended-release injectable formulation (ERI) when exposed to nematode infected pastures for 120 days. The studies were conducted under one protocol in the USA in seven locations (Arkansas, Idaho, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Oregon, and Wisconsin). Each study had 67-68 naturally infected animals for a total of 475 (226 female, 249 male castrate) Angus or beef-cross cattle. The animals weighed 133-335 kg prior to treatment and were approximately 3-12 months of age. The studies were conducted under a randomized block design based on pre-treatment body weights to sequentially form 17 replicates of four animals each within sex in each study. Animals within a replicate were randomly assigned to treatments, one to Eprinomectin ERI vehicle (control) and three to Eprinomectin ERI (5%, w/v eprinomectin). Treatments were administered at 1 mL/50 kg body weight once subcutaneously anterior to the shoulder. All animals in each study grazed one pasture throughout the observation period of 120 days. Cattle were weighed and fecal samples collected pre-treatment and on 28, 56, 84, and 120 days after treatment for fecal egg and lungworm larval counts. Positive fecal samples generally were cultured en masse to determine the nematode genera attributable to the gastrointestinal helminth infection. Bunostomum, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Nematodirus, Oesophagostomum, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongylus, when present, were referred to as strongylids. At all post-treatment sampling intervals, Eprinomectin ERI-treated cattle had significantly (P<0.05) lower strongylid egg counts than vehicle-treated controls, with ≥95% reduction after 120 days of grazing. Over this same period, Eprinomectin ERI-treated cattle gained more weight (43.9 lb/head) than vehicle-treated controls in all studies. This

  5. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  6. Genome-wide association analyses for carcass quality in crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic improvement of beef quality will benefit both producers and consumers, and can be achieved by selecting animals that carry desired quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN), which result from intensive searches using genetic markers. This paper presents a genome-wide association approach utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to seek genomic regions that potentially harbor genes or QTN underlying variation in carcass quality of beef cattle. This study used 747 genotyped animals, mainly crossbred, with phenotypes on twelve carcass quality traits, including hot carcass weight (HCW), back fat thickness (BF), Longissimus dorsi muscle area or ribeye area (REA), marbling scores (MRB), lean yield grade by Beef Improvement Federation formulae (BIFYLD), steak tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force 7-day post-mortem (LM7D) as well as body composition as determined by partial rib (IMPS 103) dissection presented as a percentage of total rib weight including body cavity fat (BDFR), lean (LNR), bone (BNR), intermuscular fat (INFR), subcutaneous fat (SQFR), and total fat (TLFR). Results At the genome wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), eight SNP were found significantly associated with HCW. Seven of these SNP were located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 520 SNP were found significantly associated with mostly individual traits (473 SNP), and multiple traits (47 SNP). Of these significant SNP, 48 were located on BTA6, and 22 of them were in association with hot carcass weight. There were 53 SNP associated with percentage of rib bone, and 12 of them were on BTA20. The rest of the significant SNP were scattered over other chromosomes. They accounted for 1.90 - 5.89% of the phenotypic variance of the traits. A region of approximately 4 Mbp long on BTA6 was found to be a potential area to harbor candidate genes influencing growth. One marker on BTA25

  7. Genome-wide association analyses for carcass quality in crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lu, Duc; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Kelly, Matthew; Vander Voort, Gordon; Wang, Zhiquan; Mandell, Ira; Moore, Stephen; Plastow, Graham; Miller, Stephen Paul

    2013-09-11

    Genetic improvement of beef quality will benefit both producers and consumers, and can be achieved by selecting animals that carry desired quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN), which result from intensive searches using genetic markers. This paper presents a genome-wide association approach utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to seek genomic regions that potentially harbor genes or QTN underlying variation in carcass quality of beef cattle.This study used 747 genotyped animals, mainly crossbred, with phenotypes on twelve carcass quality traits, including hot carcass weight (HCW), back fat thickness (BF), Longissimus dorsi muscle area or ribeye area (REA), marbling scores (MRB), lean yield grade by Beef Improvement Federation formulae (BIFYLD), steak tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force 7-day post-mortem (LM7D) as well as body composition as determined by partial rib (IMPS 103) dissection presented as a percentage of total rib weight including body cavity fat (BDFR), lean (LNR), bone (BNR), intermuscular fat (INFR), subcutaneous fat (SQFR), and total fat (TLFR). At the genome wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), eight SNP were found significantly associated with HCW. Seven of these SNP were located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 520 SNP were found significantly associated with mostly individual traits (473 SNP), and multiple traits (47 SNP). Of these significant SNP, 48 were located on BTA6, and 22 of them were in association with hot carcass weight. There were 53 SNP associated with percentage of rib bone, and 12 of them were on BTA20. The rest of the significant SNP were scattered over other chromosomes. They accounted for 1.90 - 5.89% of the phenotypic variance of the traits. A region of approximately 4 Mbp long on BTA6 was found to be a potential area to harbor candidate genes influencing growth. One marker on BTA25 accounting for 2.67% of

  8. Effect of endophyte type on carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef cattle grazing tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Duckett, S K; Hill, N S; Hoveland, C S; Lyon, B G; Sackmann, J R; Gillis, M H

    2005-02-01

    Fourteen Hereford steers were used to compare carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef from cattle grazing tall fescue infected with either wild-type (E+; n = 6) or novel, nil ergot alkaloid (AR542; n = 8) endophyte for 209 d. Average daily gain, live weight, and HCW were greater (P < 0.05) for AR542 cattle than for E+. No differences in LM color or pH were observed between AR542 and E+. Steaks from E+ cattle tended (P = 0.10) to have higher L* and b* than those from AR542 cattle at 0 d of display. Ground beef from E+ cattle also had higher (P < 0.05) L* than AR542 cattle, with no differences in a* or b* at 0 d of display. Color changes during display did not differ for both steaks and ground beef from E+ and AR542. Lipid oxidation levels increased (P < 0.05) during simulated retail display, but they did not differ between endophyte treatments. Adipose tissues from E+ cattle had a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of SFA, and a lower (P < 0.05) percentage of MUFA than adipose from AR542 cattle. Ground beef and i.m. fat had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and cis-9, trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, and lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio than s.c. fat. The n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio did not differ among fat depots. Ergot-alkaloids were detected in s.c. adipose tissues, and alkaloid concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for E+ than AR542. Warner-Bratzler shear force values did not differ between endophyte types, but it decreased (P < 0.01) across the postmortem aging period. Conversely, sensory panel evaluation detected greater (P < 0.01) chewiness and lower (P < 0.05) juiciness for AR542 than for E+ steaks aged for 14 d. Although grazing cattle on tall fescue pastures infected with nil ergot alkaloid endophyte improved cattle performance, these results suggest that endophyte type has minor effects on carcass traits and meat quality of pasture-fed beef. Moreover, finishing cattle on tall fescue

  9. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13195.001 PMID:26952213

  10. Analysis of modern technologies commonly used in beef cattle production: conventional beef production versus nonconventional production using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wileman, B W; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D; Renter, D G

    2009-10-01

    Conventional feeding systems use pharmaceutical products not allowed in natural or organic systems for finishing cattle. This review of data compares the performance effects (ADG, G:F, DMI) of technologies used in conventional feeding programs that are prohibited in organic programs, natural programs, or both. The technologies evaluated were steroid implants, monensin, tylosin, endectocides, and metaphylaxis with any antimicrobial. For inclusion in this analysis, studies were conducted in North America, reported randomization to treatment group, used beef cattle, contained an untreated control group, and were sourced from peer-reviewed journals. Forest plots were used to examine the data visually for trends toward a uniform effect of the technology on the outcomes of interest (ADG, DMI, G:F). Technologies that displayed a uniform response on the forest plot compared with negative controls were then analyzed using mixed models. Examination of forest plots for endectocides, steroid implants, monensin, and metaphylaxis technologies appeared to show performance advantages for treated cattle relative to cattle in negative control groups. An insufficient number of studies met the inclusion criteria to conduct meta-analyses comparing endectocides, monensin, or tylosin with negative controls. Average daily gain in feeder cattle given metaphylaxis on arrival was 0.11 kg/d (P < 0.01) greater relative to cattle that did not receive metaphylaxis on arrival. Implanting heifers increased ADG by 0.08 kg/d compared with nonimplanted controls (P = 0.09). Implants had no effect on G:F (P = 0.14) in heifers or on DMI (P = 0.44) relative to nonimplanted control heifers. Implanting steers was associated with greater ADG, by 0.25 kg/d (P < 0.01), and DMI, by 0.53 kg/d (P < 0.01), relative to nonimplanted control steers. Implants also improved G:F in steers relative to nonimplanted steers, by 0.02 (0.17 vs. 0.15; implanted vs. controls, P < 0.01; n = 21 studies). When average estimated

  11. Soil profile distribution of phosphorus and other nutrients following wetland conversion to beef cattle pasture.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Kang, Woo-Jun; Coleman, Sam W

    2006-01-01

    Largely influenced by the passage of the Swamp Land Act of 1849, many wetlands were lost in the coastal plain region of the southeastern United States, primarily as a result of drainage for agricultural activities. To better understand the chemical response of soils during wetland conversion, soil core samples were collected from the converted beef cattle pastures and from the natural wetland at Plant City, FL in the summers of 2002 and 2003. Data collected from the natural wetland sites were used as reference data to detect potential changes in soil properties associated with the conversion of wetlands to improved beef cattle (Bos taurus) pastures from 1940 to 2003. The average concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in pasture soils (284 mg kg(-1)) was significantly (p beef cattle pasture soils, 63 yr after being drained exhibited: (1) a decrease in TOC (-172 g kg(-1)), TN (-10 g kg(-1)), K (-0.7 mg kg(-1)), and Al (-130 mg kg(-1)); (2) an increase in soil pH (+1.8), Ca (+88 mg kg(-1)), Mg (+7.5 mg kg(-1)), Mn (+0.3 mg kg(-1)), and Fe (+6.9 mg kg(-1)); and (3) no significant change in Na, Zn, and Cu. Wetland soils had higher concentrations (mg kg(-1)) of Al-P (435), CaMg-P (42), FeMn-P (43), and Org-P (162) than those of 172, 11, 11, and 84 mg kg(-1), respectively, found in the pasture soils. The levels of water-soluble P and KCl-bound P were comparable between wetland and pasture soils in 2003. Results of this study therefore suggest that wetland conversion to beef cattle pastures did not function as a source of nutrients, especially P and N, even with manure and urine additions due to the presence of grazing cattle.

  12. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Thallman, R M

    2011-10-01

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production would be facilitated by protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI). The objectives were to determine whether use of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device to administer progesterone in a GnRH-based estrous synchronization protocol would optimize blood progesterone concentrations, improve synchronization of follicular development and estrus, and increase pregnancy rates to TAI in beef cows. Beef cows (n = 1,240) in 6 locations within the US Meat Animal Research Center received 1 of 2 treatments: 1) an injection of GnRH [100 µg intramuscularly (i.m.)] followed by PGF(2α) (PGF; 25 mg i.m.) 7 d later (CO-Synch), or 2) CO-Synch plus a CIDR during the 7 d between GnRH and PGF injections (CO-Synch + CIDR). Cows received TAI and GnRH (100 µg i.m.) at 60 h after PGF. Progesterone was measured by RIA in blood samples collected 2 wk before and at initiation of treatment (d 0) and at PGF injection (d 7). Estrous behavior was monitored by Estrotect Heat Detectors. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography 72 to 77 d after TAI. Plasma progesterone concentrations did not differ (P > 0.10) between synchronization protocols at first GnRH injection (d 0), but progesterone was greater (P < 0.01) at PGF injection (d 7) in cows receiving CO-Synch + CIDR vs. CO-Synch as a result of fewer CIDR-treated cows having progesterone ≤1 ng/mL at PGF (10.7 vs. 29.6%, respectively). A greater (P < 0.01) proportion of CO-Synch + CIDR vs. CO-Synch cows were detected in estrus within 60 h after PGF (66.7 vs. 57.8 ± 2.6%, respectively) and a greater (P < 0.01) proportion were pregnant to TAI (54.6 vs. 44.3 ± 2.6%, respectively). For both synchronization protocols, cows expressing estrus within 60 h before TAI had a greater pregnancy rate than cows without estrus. For cows with plasma progesterone ≤1 ng/mL at PGF injection, CO-Synch + CIDR increased pregnancy

  13. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  14. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG), a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG), and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG), 5S (5% sorghum-based DG), 10S (10% sorghum DG), and 15S (15% sorghum DG) were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet) and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set) were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%), Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%), Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%), Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%), Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%), and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%). Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01), WS3 (p = 0.054), Actinobacteria (p

  15. Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Clawson, Michael L

    2011-05-01

    The surface of beef cattle feedlot pens is commonly conceptualized as being packed uncomposted manure. Despite the important role that the feedlot pen may play in the transmission of veterinary and zoonotic pathogens, the bacterial ecology of feedlot surface material is not well understood. Our present study characterized the bacterial communities of the beef cattle feedlot pen surface material using 3647 full-length 16S rDNA sequences, and we compared the community composition of feedlot pens to the fecal source material. The feedlot surface composite was represented by members of the phylum Actinobacteria (42%), followed by Firmicutes (24%), Bacteroidetes (24%), and Proteobacteria (9%). The feedlot pen surface material bacterial communities were clearly distinct from those of the feces from animals in the same pen. Comparisons with previously published results of feces from the animals in the same pen reveal that, of 139 genera identified, only 25 were present in both habitats. These results indicate that, microbiologically, the feedlot pen surface material is separate and distinct from the fecal source material, suggesting that bacteria that originate in cattle feces face different selection pressures and survival challenges during their tenure in the feedlot pen, as compared to their residence in the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Cassandra B; Coetzee, Johann F; Stookey, Joseph M; Thomson, Daniel U; Grandin, Temple; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S

    2015-12-01

    This review identifies priorities for beef cattle welfare research in the USA. Based on our professional expertise and synthesis of existing literature, we identify two themes in intensive aspects of beef production: areas where policy-based actions are needed and those where additional research is required. For some topics, considerable research informs best practice, yet gaps remain between scientific knowledge and implementation. For example, many of the risk factors and management strategies to prevent respiratory disease are understood, but only used by a relatively small portion of the industry. This is an animal health issue that will require leadership and discussion to gain widespread adoption of practices that benefit cattle welfare. There is evidence of success when such actions are taken, as illustrated by the recent improvements in handling at US slaughter facilities. Our highest priorities for additional empirical evidence are: the effect of technologies used to either promote growth or manage cattle in feedlots, identification of management risk factors for disease in feedlots, and management decisions about transport (rest stops, feed/water deprivation, climatic conditions, stocking density). Additional research is needed to inform science-based recommendations about environmental features such as dry lying areas (mounds), shade, water and feed, as well as trailer design.

  17. Geodecision system for traceability and sustainable production of beef cattle in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria, D. D.; Andrade, R. G.; Bolfe, L.; Batistella, M.; Pires, P. P.; Vicente, L. E.; Visoli, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Beef cattle production sustainability depends on incorporating innovative tools and technologies which are easy to comprehend, economically viable, and spatially explicit into the registration of precise, reliable data about production practices. This research developed from the needs and demands of food safety and food quality in extensive beef cattle production within the scope of the policies of Southern Cone and European Union's countries. Initially, the OTAG project (Operational Management and Geodecisional Prototype to Track and Trace Agricultural Production) focused on the development of a prototype traceability of cattle. The aim for the project's next phase is to enhance the electronic devices used in the identification and positioning of the animals, and the incorporation of more management and sanitary information. Besides, we intend to structure a database that enables the inclusion of greater amount of geospatial information linked to environmental aspects, such as water deficit, vegetation vigour, degradation indices of pasture areas, among others. For the extraction of knowledge, and the presentation of the results, we propose the development of a friendly interface to facilitate the exploration of the textual, tabular and geospatial information useful for the user.

  18. Analysis of biological networks and biological pathways associated with residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Karisa, Brian; Moore, Stephen; Plastow, Graham

    2014-04-01

    In this study, biological networks were reconstructed from genes and metabolites significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. The networks were then used to identify biological pathways associated with RFI. RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, which is independent of body size and growth; therefore selection for RFI is expected to result in cattle that consume less feed without adverse effects on growth rate and mature size. Although several studies have identified genes associated with RFI, the mechanisms of the biological processes are not well understood. In this study, we utilised the results obtained from two association studies, one using 24 genes and one using plasma metabolites to reconstruct biological networks associated with RFI using IPA software (Igenuity Systems). The results pointed to biological processes such as lipid and steroid biosynthesis, protein and carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of gene expression through DNA transcription, protein stability and degradation. The major canonical pathways included signaling of growth hormone, Oncostatin M, insulin-like growth factor and AMP activated protein kinase, and cholesterol biosynthesis. This study provides information on potential biological mechanisms, and genes and metabolites involved in feed efficiency in beef cattle. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Roasted soybean supplements for finishing beef cattle on Brachiaria brizantha pasture.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, André Alves; Tilemahos Zervoudakis, Joanis; Hatamoto-Zervoudakis, Luciana Keiko; da Silva Cabral, Luciano; da Silva-Marques, Renata Pereira; Koscheck, Jeferson Fabiano Werner; Guedes de Carvalho, Daniel Marino; Benatti, João Marcos Beltrame; Alonso, Marcella Katherine

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the inclusion of 0, 14, 27.5 and 41 g/kg roasted soybean (RSB) in protein-energy supplements for the finishing of beef cattle on pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in the rainy period. In experiment 1, for the evaluation of the nutritional parameters, five rumen-cannulated steers with an initial average body weight of 474.5 kg were utilised. In experiment 2, for the evaluation of performance, 25 intact male zebu cattle with an initial average body weight of 418 kg were utilised. Supply of RSB led to an increase in the intake of crude protein and non-fibre carbohydrates (P < 0.05). The concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen increased significantly (P < 0.05) 4 h after supplementation. The animals that received protein-energy supplements had superior (52 %) average daily gain in relation to those receiving mineral mixture. The supply of protein-energy supplements formulated with roasted soybean provided an increase in average daily weight gain and an improvement in the nutritional parameters of finishing beef cattle on pasture in the rainy period.

  20. Relationships between residual feed intake and hepatic mitochondrial function in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Michal, J J; Brennan, K M; Johnson, K A; Davis, M E

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hepatic mitochondrial function and residual feed intake (RFI) in growing beef cattle. In Trial 1, RFI was measured in 29 Angus heifers (initial BW = 258.0 ± 24.9 kg) from divergent IGF-I selection lines created at the Eastern Agricultural Research Station (The Ohio State University) fed a grain-based diet (calculated ME = 2.85 Mcal/kg DM). In Trial 2, RFI was measured in 119 Santa Gertrudis steers (initial BW = 308.4 ± 28.1 kg) fed a roughage-based diet (calculated ME = 2.21 Mcal/kg DM). At the end of the RFI measurement period, cattle in Trial 1 (n = 7 low RFI and n = 7 high RFI) and in Trial 2 (n = 6 low RFI and n = 8 high RFI) with measures of RFI exceeding 0.5 (Trial 1) or 1.0 (Trial 2) SD from the mean RFI were selected to measure mitochondrial function. Overall ADG, DMI, and RFI were 1.19 ± 0.15, 9.31 ± 1.12, and 0.00 ± 0.63 kg/d and 0.83 ± 0.16, 9.48 ± 1.00, and 0.00 ± 0.86 kg/d in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. Cattle with low RFI consumed 13 and 24% less (P < 0.05) DM and had 14 and 56% greater (P < 0.05) G:F than cattle with high RFI in Trial 1 and 2, respectively, even though ADG and BW were similar (P > 0.10). In Trial 1, cattle with low RFI tended (P = 0.06) to have greater state 3 respiration rates than cattle with high RFI, but state 3 respiration rates were similar (P > 0.10) between cattle with low and high RFI in Trial 2. In both trials, cattle with low RFI had greater (P < 0.05) acceptor control ratios than their high RFI counterparts. The respiratory control ratio tended (P = 0.09) to be greater for cattle with low RFI compared with high RFI cattle in Trial 1, but no difference (P > 0.10) was observed in Trial 2. Proton-leak kinetics were similar (P > 0.05) between cattle with low and high RFI in both trials. These data suggest that ADP has greater control of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondrial of cattle with low RFI compared to their high RFI counterparts.

  1. [Polymorphisms of bGH, RORC, and DGAT1 genes in Russian beef cattle breeds].

    PubMed

    Gorlov, I F; Fedunin, A A; Randelin, D A; Sulimova, G E

    2014-12-01

    We examined the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms of genes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (RORC), diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1), and growth hormone (bGH) in Russian beef cattle breeds in two populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle (of Kazakh and Russian selection) and in the Kalmyk cattle breed and Mongolian hogorogo breed, which is related to Kalmyk breed. The studied genes are associated with parameters of meat quality: marbleness (bGH and RORC) and tenderness (DGAT1). They are also associated with an increase in carcass weight (bGH). We found that Russian and Kazakh populations of the Kazakh white-headed.breed were characterized by a high content of the AA genotype of RORC (0.713 and 0.608, respectively) and of the AA genotype of DGAT1 (0.913 and 0.975), both of which are preferable for meat quality. The total frequencies for the combined genotypes for the bGH and RORC genes, which provide for superior meat quality and carcass weight, in the populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle (GG/AA and GC/AA-68.8% and 57% in the Russian and Kazakh populations, respectively) exceeded the frequencies in the two other studied breeds by two times. Overall, the obtained results point to the high genetic potential of both populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle breeds in beef production. Results of this study can be used to improve the selection of meat traits in industrial livestock.

  2. Ultrasound image texture analysis for characterizing intramuscular fat content of live beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, N; Amin, V; Wilson, D; Rouse, G; Udpa, S

    1998-07-01

    The primary factors in determining beef quality grades are the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat percentage (IMFAT). Texture analysis was applied to ultrasound B-mode images from ribeye muscle of live beef cattle to predict its IMFAT. We used wavelet transform (WT) for multiresolutional texture analysis and second-order statistics using a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) technique. Sets of WT- and GLCM-based texture features were calculated from ultrasonic images from 207 animals and linear regression methods were used for IMFAT prediction. WT-based features included energy ratios, central moments of wavelet-decomposed subimages and wavelet edge density. The regression model using WT features provided a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.44 for prediction of IMFAT using validation images, while that of GLCM features provided an RMSE of 1.90. The prediction models using the WT features showed potential for objective quality evaluation in the live animals.

  3. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-09

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission.

  4. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes from grazing beef cattle in Campeche State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Lagunes, Abel; González-Garduño, Roberto; López-Arellano, Maria Eugenia; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro

    2015-08-01

    Production of beef cattle is one of the most important economic activities in Mexico. However, anthelmintic resistance (AR) has affected animal productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AR in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of beef cattle in Candelaria Municipality of Campeche State, Mexico. Sixty-five-month-old beef calves were selected for the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the inhibition of egg hatch (IEH) assay. These parameters were determined using albendazole (benzimidazole, BZ), ivermectin (IVM, Macrocyclic lactone, ML) and levamisole (LEV, imidazothiazole, IMZ). Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) confirmed polymorphisms at codon 200 of isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus placei. The results showed 32 % IVM toxicity by FECRT, indicating problems of AR in the GIN population. In contrast, BZ and LEV showed 95 and 100 % toxicity, respectively, against GIN from infected beef calves. The infective larvae (L3) of Cooperia, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were identified before anthelmintic treatment, and Cooperia L3 larvae were identified after treatment with IVM. The IEH assays had lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 187 nM to BZ, confirming the ovicidal effect of BZ. In contrast, the LD50 for LEV and IVM were 3.3 and 0.4 mM, respectively. The results obtained by AS-PCR confirmed two DNA fragments of 250 and 550 bp, corresponding to the resistant and susceptible alleles in the H. placei population. The nematode Cooperia showed AR against IVM, while the toxicity effect of BZ against GIN with both FECRT and IEH was confirmed.

  5. Factors Associated with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Shedding by Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Venegas-Vargas, Cristina; Henderson, Scott; Khare, Akanksha; Mosci, Rebekah E.; Lehnert, Jonathan D.; Singh, Pallavi; Ouellette, Lindsey M.; Norby, Bo; Funk, Julie A.; Rust, Steven; Bartlett, Paul C.; Grooms, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Cattle are the primary reservoir for STEC, and food or water contaminated with cattle feces is the most common source of infections in humans. Consequently, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,096 cattle in six dairy herds (n = 718 animals) and five beef herds (n = 378 animals) in the summers of 2011 and 2012 to identify epidemiological factors associated with shedding. Fecal samples were obtained from each animal and cultured for STEC. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with STEC positivity. The prevalence of STEC was higher in beef cattle (21%) than dairy cattle (13%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 2.47), with considerable variation occurring across herds (range, 6% to 54%). Dairy cattle were significantly more likely to shed STEC when the average temperature was >28.9°C 1 to 5 days prior to sampling (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.25, 4.91), during their first lactation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8), and when they were <30 days in milk (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.2). These data suggest that the stress or the negative energy balance associated with lactation may result in increased STEC shedding frequencies in Michigan during the warm summer months. Future prevention strategies aimed at reducing stress during lactation or isolating high-risk animals could be implemented to reduce herd-level shedding levels and avoid transmission of STEC to susceptible animals and people. IMPORTANCE STEC shedding frequencies vary considerably across cattle herds in Michigan, and the shedding frequency of strains belonging to non-O157 serotypes far exceeds the shedding frequency of O157 strains, which is congruent with human infections in the state. Dairy cattle sampled at higher temperatures, in their first lactation, and early in the milk production stage were

  6. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS). For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax

  7. The risk of Listeria monocytogenes infection in beef cattle operations.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H O; Atwill, E; Dunbar, L; Ward, T; McDonough, P; Gonzalez, R; Stipetic, K

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and associated risk factors among beef operations (cow-calf and feedlot) in central and southern California. A repeated cross-sectional study where faecal and environmental samples were collected from 50 operations three times a year at different seasons was carried out. Samples were tested for presence of L. monocytogenes using a combination of enrichment and polymerase chain reaction tests. Data on putative risk factors were also collected. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in faecal samples from cows, calves and other animals on calf-cow operations at proportions of 3.1%, 3.75% and 2.5%, respectively. The organism was detected in 5.3% of cut-grass, 5.3% of soil, 14.3% of irrigation ditches, 3.1% of the ponds and 6.5% of water troughs samples. Listeria monocytogenes was less common in faecal (0.3%) and soil (0.75%) samples collected from feedlots. Listeria monocytogenes was present at a higher proportion among cow-calf operations than feedlots. There was no significant seasonal variation in the occurrence of this pathogen within the two types of operations. If risk mitigation strategies were implemented to reduce the public health risk these should focus in cow-calf operations.

  8. Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) grass staggers in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Binder, Ellen M; Blodgett, Dennis J; Currin, John F; Caudell, David; Cherney, Jerry H; LeRoith, Tanya

    2010-09-01

    Four adult mixed-breed beef cows from a cow-calf operation in West Virginia were referred to the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine in March 2009 with weakness, ataxia, hind limb paresis progressing to lateral recumbency, and death within 2-3 days. Histologically, there was accumulation of light brown, granular pigment in neurons of the ventral gray horns of the spinal cord (more severe in thoracic and lumbar sections), brain stem, and pons, resulting in distortion and bulging of the cell body and displacement of the Nissl substance, suggestive of Phalaris sp. grass toxicosis. The most severely affected cow had accumulation of dark green-brown pigment in renal tubular epithelial cells. Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) was identified in pastures, and the concentration of tryptamine alkaloids in new leaf blades was approximately 0.2% on a wet weight basis. These alkaloids are serotonergic receptor agonists, resulting in neurologic "staggers" in ruminants. Delayed onset times of up to 4-5 months have been reported in sheep after removal from Phalaris sp. pastures. Distribution of pigment in serotonergic tracts of the midbrain, brain stem, and spinal cord with Phalaris sp. toxicoses is distinct and differs from lipofuscin. Electron microscopy confirmed that the pigment was not lipofuscin. From these findings, a diagnosis of delayed P. arundinacea toxicosis was made. Over a 2-month period, 18 cows died with similar clinical signs.

  9. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals' growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher's exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and grain

  10. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A.; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals’ growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher’s exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and

  11. Abuse of anabolic agents in beef cattle: Could bile be a possible alternative matrix?

    PubMed

    Lega, Francesca; Angeletti, Roberto; Stella, Roberto; Rigoni, Lorenzo; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Giusepponi, Danilo; Moretti, Simone; Saluti, Giorgio; Galarini, Roberta

    2017-08-15

    European Union prohibited the use of anabolic agents in food producing animals since 1988. An efficient control of abuses is guaranteed not only by highly performing analytical methods, but also by knowledge of metabolic pathways, kinetics of elimination and tissue distribution. To obtain data concerning metabolites production and accumulation in bile, two typical growth promoting treatments are carried out in cattle. In the first study, sixteen beef cattle were implanted with trenbolone acetate and estradiol. In the second one, three animals were implanted with zeranol and three were fed a diet containing zearalenone. Methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were developed and validated to quantify the analytes of interest. The results evidenced that the biliary concentrations of the marker residues were always higher than those determined at the same time in urine and liver which are the matrices generally collected within the official monitoring programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synchronization of ovulation and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the implementation of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle is to produce a sustained genetic progress in the herd. Although AI is an old reproductive biotechnology, its widespread implementation is very recent and is mainly because of the use of protocols that allows AI without oestrus detection, commonly called fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). The development of FTAI protocols also allowed the application of AI in larger, extensively managed herds and especially in suckled cows instead of restricting the breeding programmes to the heifers. Fixed-time AI treatments are widely used in South America, with about 3 000 000 cows inseminated in the last season in Argentina and about 8 000 000 in Brazil. The objective of this review is to present and describe the various treatments available and some of the factors that may affect pregnancy rates in beef cattle.

  13. Nitrate toxicosis in beef and dairy cattle herds due to contamination of drinking water and whey.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M

    1997-10-01

    Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months.

  14. Identification of genome-wide selection signatures in the Limousin beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Ropka-Molik, K; Jasielczuk, I; Pawlina, K; Semik, E; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at identifying selection footprints within the genome of Limousin cattle. With the use of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity test, supplemented with correction for variation in recombination rates across the genome, we created map of selection footprints and detected 173 significant (p < 0.01) core haplotypes being potentially under positive selection. Within these regions, a number of candidate genes associated inter alia with skeletal muscle growth (GDF15, BMP7, BMP4 and TGFB3) or postmortem proteolysis and meat maturation (CAPN1 and CAPN5) were annotated. Noticeable clusters of selection footprints were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 8 and 14, which are known to carry several quantitative trait loci for growth traits and meat quality. The study provides information about the genes and metabolic pathways potentially modified under the influence of directional selection, aimed at improving beef production characteristics in Limousin cattle.

  15. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  16. Particulate matter emission rates from beef cattle feedlots in Kansas-reverse dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Auvermann, Brent W; Razote, Edna B; Murphy, James P; Harner, Joseph P

    2012-03-01

    Open beef cattle feedlots emit various air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10); however limited research has quantified PM10 emission rates from feedlots. This research was conducted to determine emission rates of PM10 from large cattle feedlots in Kansas. Concentrations of PM10 at the downwind and upwind edges of two large cattle feedlots (KS1 and KS2) in Kansas were measured with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM10 monitors from January 2007 to December 2008. Weather conditions at the feedlots were also monitored. From measured PM10 concentrations and weather conditions, PM10 emission rates were determined using reverse modeling with the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD). The two feedlots differed significantly in median PM10 emission flux (1.60 g/m2-day for KS1 vs. 1.10 g/m2-day for KS2) but not in PM10 emission factor (27 kg/1000 head-day for KS1 and 30 kg/1000 head-day KS2). These emission factors were smaller than published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission factor for cattle feedlots.

  17. Genomic prediction for beef fatty acid profile in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Peripoli, Elisa; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Feitosa, Fabiele Loise Braga; Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes de; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Bresolin, Tiago; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Júnior, Gerardo Alves Fernandes; Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão de; Oliveira, Henrique Nunes de; Furlan, Joyce de Jesus Mangini; Ferrinho, Adrielle Mathias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Tonhati, Humberto; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare SNP-BLUP, BayesCπ, BayesC and Bayesian Lasso methodologies to predict the direct genomic value for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acid profile, omega 3 and 6 in the Longissimus thoracis muscle of Nellore cattle finished in feedlot. A total of 963 Nellore bulls with phenotype for fatty acid profiles, were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) with 777,962 SNP. The predictive ability was evaluated using cross validation. To compare the methodologies, the correlation between DGV and pseudo-phenotypes was calculated. The accuracy varied from -0.40 to 0.62. Our results indicate that none of the methods excelled in terms of accuracy, however, the SNP-BLUP method allows obtaining less biased genomic evaluations, thereby; this method is more feasible when taking into account the analyses' operating cost. Despite the lowest bias observed for EBV, the adjusted phenotype is the preferred pseudophenotype considering the genomic prediction accuracies regarding the context of the present study.

  18. Functional proteomic and interactome analysis of proteins associated with beef tenderness in angus cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef is a source of high quality protein for the human population, and beef tenderness has significant influence on beef palatability, consumer expectation and industry profitability. To further elucidate the factors affecting beef tenderness, functional proteomics and bioinformatics interactome ana...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Volatile Components Causing the Characteristic Flavor of Wagyu Beef (Japanese Black Cattle).

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Satsuki; Amano, Yohei; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-09-21

    To clarify the characteristic sweet aroma of Wagyu (Japanese Black Cattle), aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was applied to the volatile fractions of Wagyu and Australia beefs. Some 20 odor-active peaks were detected, and 17 odorants were identified or tentatively identified. Among the perceived odorants, most of them were newly identified from the Wagyu beef. The main constituents of the potent odorants were aldehydes and ketones, which are known as the degradation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. In addition, the most potent odorant was trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, which is known to be the oxidation product of polyunsaturated acids, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. Accordingly, these findings strongly suggested that the kind of fatty acid constituting lipids of the Wagyu plays an important role in the formation of the characteristic aroma of the Wagyu beef.

  20. Genome-wide association study for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle using Random Forest approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality involves many traits, such as marbling, tenderness, juiciness, and backfat thickness, all of which require attention from livestock producers. Backfat thickness improvement by means of traditional selection techniques in Canchim beef cattle has been challenging due to its low heritability, and it is measured late in an animal’s life. Therefore, the implementation of new methodologies for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to backfat thickness are an important strategy for genetic improvement of carcass and meat quality. Results The set of SNPs identified by the random forest approach explained as much as 50% of the deregressed estimated breeding value (dEBV) variance associated with backfat thickness, and a small set of 5 SNPs were able to explain 34% of the dEBV for backfat thickness. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fat-related traits were found in the surrounding areas of the SNPs, as well as many genes with roles in lipid metabolism. Conclusions These results provided a better understanding of the backfat deposition and regulation pathways, and can be considered a starting point for future implementation of a genomic selection program for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle. PMID:23738659

  1. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Artificial selection has proven to be effective at altering the performance of animal production systems. Nevertheless, selection based on assessment of the genetic superiority of candidates is suboptimal as a result of errors in the prediction of genetic merit. Conventional breeding programs may extend phenotypic measurements on selection candidates to include correlated indicator traits, or delay selection decisions well beyond puberty so that phenotypic performance can be observed on progeny or other relatives. Extending the generation interval to increase the accuracy of selection reduces annual rates of gain compared to accurate selection and use of parents of the next generation at the immediate time they reach breeding age. Genomic prediction aims at reducing prediction errors at breeding age by exploiting information on the transmission of chromosome fragments from parents to selection candidates, in conjunction with knowledge on the value of every chromosome fragment. For genomic prediction to influence beef cattle breeding programs and the rate or cost of genetic gains, training analyses must be undertaken, and genomic prediction tools made available for breeders and other industry stakeholders. This paper reviews the nature or kind of studies currently underway, the scope or extent of some of those studies, and comments on the likely predictive value of genomic information for beef cattle improvement. PMID:21569623

  3. Effects of maternal nutrition on conceptus growth and offspring performance: implications for beef cattle production.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Larson, D M; Vonnahme, K A

    2010-04-01

    Developmental programming is the concept that a maternal stimulus or insult at a critical period in fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring. Historically, considerable effort has been made to understand how nutrition influences health and productivity during the postnatal period. Whereas maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an essential role in proper fetal and placental development, less is known about how maternal nutrition affects the health and productivity of the offspring. Conceptus growth is sensitive to direct and indirect effects of maternal dietary intake. Even from the earliest stages of embryonic life, when nutrient requirements for conceptus growth are negligible, alterations in tissue composition can occur, influencing future growth of the compromised organ system. Not only is neonatal health compromised, but subsequent health may also be programmed because offspring from undernourished dams have exhibited poor growth and productivity and have developed significant diseases later in life. Although the literature is now evolving, with increasing evidence of how maternal nutrient restriction impairs several prenatal physiological variables, few studies have evaluated postnatal growth and development in livestock species, and fewer have evaluated it in beef cattle. In addition, very few studies have evaluated restriction of specific components of the diet during pregnancy (such as protein) on offspring growth and performance. This review focuses on how maternal nutrition affects conceptus growth and postnatal responses in beef cattle.

  4. The nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Dorian J

    2011-05-15

    Artificial selection has proven to be effective at altering the performance of animal production systems. Nevertheless, selection based on assessment of the genetic superiority of candidates is suboptimal as a result of errors in the prediction of genetic merit. Conventional breeding programs may extend phenotypic measurements on selection candidates to include correlated indicator traits, or delay selection decisions well beyond puberty so that phenotypic performance can be observed on progeny or other relatives. Extending the generation interval to increase the accuracy of selection reduces annual rates of gain compared to accurate selection and use of parents of the next generation at the immediate time they reach breeding age. Genomic prediction aims at reducing prediction errors at breeding age by exploiting information on the transmission of chromosome fragments from parents to selection candidates, in conjunction with knowledge on the value of every chromosome fragment. For genomic prediction to influence beef cattle breeding programs and the rate or cost of genetic gains, training analyses must be undertaken, and genomic prediction tools made available for breeders and other industry stakeholders. This paper reviews the nature or kind of studies currently underway, the scope or extent of some of those studies, and comments on the likely predictive value of genomic information for beef cattle improvement. © 2011 Garrick; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Effects of grazing management practices on parasite load and weight gain of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bransby, D I

    1993-02-01

    Stocking rate, method of grazing (rotational vs. continuous) and supplementation are three grazing management variables which strongly affect weight gain of beef cattle. However, reports on the interaction between these variables and parasitism in beef cattle are often conflicting or not conclusive. Although several studies have shown increased parasite loads with increased stocking rates, few studies have included animals treated and untreated with anthelmintics at several stocking rates. Those that did have this treatment combination did not show greater response in weight gain to treatment with anthelmintics at high stocking rates than at low stocking rates. Experiments designed to investigate the effect of rotational and continuous grazing on parasitism have provided variable results. However, as the high stock densities associated with rotational grazing will probably cause animals to graze closer to the ground and to dung pats, and to spread dung more with their hooves, it is not likely that rotational grazing will reduce the need for chemotherapy. Some studies have shown reduced parasite loads with supplementation of untreated animals, but none has apparently investigated whether weight gain response to treatment with anthelmintics is greater for non-supplemented animals than for supplemented animals. Published studies on the interaction between management factors and parasitism in grazing animals reveal many weaknesses. Elimination of these weaknesses and cognisance of recent trends in design and conduct of grazing experiments will substantially improve the quality and value of research in this field.

  6. A bioeconomic model for comparing beef cattle genotypes at their optimal economic slaughter end point.

    PubMed

    Amer, P R; Kemp, R A; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Fox, G C; Smith, C

    1994-01-01

    A bioeconomic model of a feedlot was developed for the comparison of beef cattle genotypes under specified management and marketing conditions. The optimization behavior of commercial feedlot managers is incorporated into the model using optimum economic rotation theory. The days spent in the feedlot (rotation) by a group of animals are derived using this theory so as to maximize an objective function. Differences among breeds in the present value of profits from a single rotation, expressed per animal, represent the expected price premium paid for a feeder animal of a particular breed. Feed requirements and growth rates for a genotype are predicted over time for a specified diet from estimated mature size. Estimates of carcass fatness over time as a function of the energy content of the diet and estimates of dressing percentage over time are used for each genotype. A base model is described that incorporates biological parameters estimated for 11 breeds from a major breed comparison experiment and uses prices of inputs and outputs for Ontario feedlots. Sensitivity of the model to these biological and economic assumptions is shown. When breeds are compared at constant days fed, weight, or fat depth slaughter points, rankings are inconsistent, relative to those when each breed is slaughtered at its optimal economic point. The model can be used to establish appropriate slaughter end points for comparing beef cattle breeds and crosses and to evaluate breeding objectives for feedlot traits in genetic improvement programs.

  7. Canalization analysis of birth weight in Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fina, M; Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Piedrafita, J; Casellas, J

    2013-07-01

    Although heteroskedasticity has been a main topic of interest in beef cattle during recent decades, the current availability of canalization models provided new insights for animal breeding programs. Within this context, birth BW (BWT) was analyzed in the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed by implementing canalization models that accounted for heterogeneous residual variances due to systematic, permanent environmental effects and additive genetic effects. Analyses were performed on BWT data from 8,130 calves born in 12 commercial breeding herds contributing to the yield recording scheme of the Bruna dels Pirineus breed. Analytical models accounted for direct additive genetic, permanent environmental, and 4 systematic effects (i.e., age of the dam, sex of the calf, birth type, and herd-year-season), and the same effects were evaluated as potential sources of variation in the residual term. Their relevance was checked by the deviance information criterion (DIC), and only residual additive genetic, permanent environmental, birth type, and herd-year-season remained in the operational model, all of them originating relevant reductions in the DIC parameter. Bruna dels Pirineus calves showed a moderate heritability of 0.30 (95% high posterior density, 0.19 to 0.40) for BWT; additional additive genetic variability was revealed in the residual term, this being positively correlated with the direct additive genetic component (0.44; 95% high posterior density, 0.37 to 0.54). Genetic trends were evaluated on both sources of additive genetic variance, and relevant patterns were identified in several herds. Although this breed did not evidence a homogeneous genetic trend for the whole population, herd-specific positive and negative trends were revealed, suggesting the plausibility of genetic selection for canalization on BWT in beef cattle breeds. These results must be viewed as a contribution to the canalization research field, providing relevant information for the breeding

  8. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  9. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  10. [Sanitary conditions for the production of beef cattle in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Lasta, J A; Rearte, D

    1997-08-01

    Meat production is extremely important for the economy of Argentina, and represents 35%-40% of all national agricultural production. Cattle are distributed throughout the country, with the highest density in the Pampa region, which hosts 66% of the national herd and produces 80% of the total meat production in Argentina. This region has a long tradition of livestock rearing, and the practice of rotation between agriculture and animal husbandry ensures an ecological equilibrium. Meat production in Argentina is based on the exploitation of natural resources, with traditional extensive grazing, which offers advantages when compared with other countries. The composition of meat depends on factors such as breed and age, and on the diet of the animals. The authors demonstrate that meat produced under extensive grazing conditions in Argentina has less intramuscular fat and cholesterol than that produced in intensive systems which have a grain-rich diet. The authors analyse the situation of the country with regard to diseases which can be transmitted by meat and which might affect public health, particularly bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), brucellosis, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, colibacillosis and taeniosis. The fact that Argentina is free from BSE is emphasised, and the prevention programmes which have been implemented to control other diseases are described. In addition, the authors discuss tests which are conducted to detect the presence of residues of chemical contaminants in meat. Emphasis is given to the quality of infrastructure, equipment and operation of the mechanised meat-processing plants, which guarantee the hygienic safety of the products. The authors conclude that meat and meat products from Argentina offer a high level of safety for consumers.

  11. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  12. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain.

  13. Titration of subcutaneously administered eprinomectin against mature and immature nematodes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Shoop, W; Michael, B; Egerton, J; Mrozik, H; Fisher, M

    2001-12-01

    Eprinomectin has been approved for use as a topically applied endectocide for beef and dairy cattle. To determine if eprinomectin has utility as an injectable anthelmintic, it was titrated at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg s.c. against adult (Trial 1) and at 0.05, 0.1, 0.14, and 0.2 mg/kg s.c. against immature (Trial 2) stages of lung and gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Trial 1, every dose of subcutaneously delivered eprinomectin showed maximal or near-maximal (> or = 99%) efficacy against Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, T colubriformis, Cooperia punctata, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Dictyocaulus viviparus. Adult C. oncophora was the only exception. However, even against this species, the lowest dose of 0.05 mg/kg showed 93% efficacy, and the efficacious dose necessary to kill 95% (ED95) of adults was 0.056 mg/kg. In Trial 2, every dose of subcutaneously delivered eprinomectin showed maximal or near-maximal (> or = 99%) efficacy against the immature stages of all of the above species of endoparasites. As a result, ED95 values could not be calculated. Consequently, the exquisite potency against endoparasites through parenteral administration suggests that eprinomectin may also have potential utility as an injectable product for cattle.

  14. Site, environmental and airflow characteristics for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In conjunction with an emission monitoring study, long-term airflow and environmental data were collected from four regional producer-owned and -operated mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains. The barns were oriented east-west, with approximate dimensions of an 8-m south wal...

  15. Advising Beef-Cattle Farmers: Problem-Finding Rather than Problem-Solving. Characterization of Advice Practices in Creuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magne, Marie-Angelina; Ingrand, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    French farms have to adapt quickly in an economic and social context that is in profound change. For this, advice procedures must themselves be reconsidered. The aim of this work was to characterize the advice practices in beef-cattle systems in Creuse and define farmers' and advisers' requirements according to future methods of providing advice.…

  16. Advising Beef-Cattle Farmers: Problem-Finding Rather than Problem-Solving. Characterization of Advice Practices in Creuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magne, Marie-Angelina; Ingrand, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    French farms have to adapt quickly in an economic and social context that is in profound change. For this, advice procedures must themselves be reconsidered. The aim of this work was to characterize the advice practices in beef-cattle systems in Creuse and define farmers' and advisers' requirements according to future methods of providing advice.…

  17. Effects of Supplemental Ground Flaxseed Fed to Beef Cattle Grazing Summer Native Range on the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate the effects of supplemental ground flaxseed on site and extent of digestion and growth performance in beef cattle grazing summer native range. Six Angus heifers (avg initial BW 367 ± 8.0 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were use...

  18. Effect of winter cover crop grazing on animal performance and antibiotic resistance during pre-weaning period in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the effect of winter wheat grazing on body weight gain and the level of antibiotic resistant bacteria in beef cattle. Calves and cows (16 each) were equally randomized into tall fescue or wheat pastures. Body weights and fecal samples were taken on d 0, d 7, d 14 and d 21. Samples we...

  19. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  20. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  1. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 pop...

  2. Effect of distiller's grain in steam flaked corn based diets on the fecal microbiota of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and aims: The high demand for ethanol in the United States has generated large stocks of wet distiller's grains (DG) derived as a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Energy dense DG are attractive for use as a feed supplement for beef cattle production....

  3. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  4. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  5. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  6. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  7. Genomic prediction and genome-wide association analysis of female longevity in a composite beef cattle breed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Longevity is a highly important trait to the efficiency of beef cattle production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genomic prediction of longevity and identify genomic regions associated with this trait. The data used in this study consisted of 547 Composite Gene Combination (CGC) c...

  8. The risks and prevention of contamination of beef feedlot cattle: the perspective of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Griffin, D D; Dargatz, D A

    1997-08-01

    There are currently no scientifically defined critical management points or critical control points to manage foodborne pathogens at the pre-harvest level. Research is ongoing: much of the pre-harvest research is funded by producer organisations. The beef industry has Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) programmes in place and these are dynamic. Groups of cattlemen have made a very strong commitment to reducing foodborne pathogens in beef. Fewer Escherichia coli O157:H7 organisms are shed by feedlot cattle near the end of the feeding period than by newly arrived cattle. Moreover, there is less shedding of the organisms in cattle of slaughter age than in younger cattle. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle is similar to that in range cattle. This suggests that concentrating cattle in feedlot dirt pens does not increase the risk of shedding E. coli organisms. Pen maintenance, considered a good management practice, appears to be an adequate means of keeping pathogen levels in pens low. It is not likely that pre-harvest food safety programmes will eliminate the threat of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella. The management of foodborne pathogens will become part of an integrated programme to enhance food safety which includes the producer, the packer, the distributors, retailers and the consumer. The feedlot industry initiated a residue avoidance programme several years ago. As a result, the risk of chemical residues in beef from feedlots in the United States of America is near zero. Hazard analysis and critical control point-type prevention programmes, using scientifically based critical management points, will help ensure that the risk remains negligible.

  9. Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in crossbred beef cattle and Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin.

    PubMed

    Amachawadi, R G; Purvis, T J; Lubbers, B V; Homm, J W; Maxwell, C L; Nagaraja, T G

    2017-08-01

    Holstein steers raised for beef production consistently have a higher prevalence and more severe form of liver abscesses than cattle of beef breeds. A study was conducted to compare bacterial flora of liver abscesses collected from multiple abattoirs from 4 groups of cattle, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, consisting of crossbred cattle and Holstein steers, and each group fed a finishing diet supplemented with or without tylosin. A total of 383 liver abscess samples, consisting of 94 and 81 from crossbred cattle and 89 and 119 from Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin, respectively, were subjected for anaerobic and aerobic bacterial isolations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tylosin to the predominant bacterial species were determined. The likelihood chi-square test was performed to assess unadjusted differences in bacterial prevalence proportions between the 2 types of cattle (crossbred and Holstein steers) and feed type (tylosin or no tylosin). There was no interaction between cattle type and tylosin inclusion on the prevalence of any of the bacterial species isolated. Liver abscesses from Holstein steers yielded a higher total number of isolates compared to liver abscesses from crossbred cattle (1060 vs. 788). subsp. was isolated from all abscesses. The prevalence of subsp. was 19.1% and was not affected by the cattle type or tylosin. The prevalence of was higher ( < 0.01) in crossbred cattle (73.7%) compared to Holstein steers (29.8%). Also, the prevalence of was higher in abscesses from tylosin-fed (66.1%) cattle than no tylosin-fed cattle (35%). The overall prevalence of was 25.3% and was similar ( = 0.58) between cattle type, but the prevalence was lower ( < 0.01) in tylosin-fed (16.9%) compared to no tylosin-fed group (33%). Mean MIC of tylosin for and were similar across both cattle types and tylosin inclusion. Although bacterial flora of liver abscesses from Holstein steers appeared to be more diverse than

  10. Eye white percentage as a predictor of temperament in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Core, S; Widowski, T; Mason, G; Miller, S

    2009-06-01

    Accurately evaluating and selecting for calm temperament in beef cattle is important for economic and animal welfare reasons. Previous studies have shown that eye white (EW) can be a predictor of a multitude of emotions across different situations, but there is little research on the relationship between EW and temperament. The objective of this experiment was to assess the accuracy and reliability of using the percentage of exposed EW as a predictor of temperament in beef cattle. Forty-eight heifers (group 1), 39 bulls (group 2), and 60 steers (group 3) were video-recorded while in a squeeze chute, and 2 still digital images from each animal were selected for EW determination. Chute temperament scores were assigned: 1 (calm) to 5 (agitated). Flight speeds were measured blindly and independently during a subsequent test in which the amount of time it took a solitary animal to pass a handler and travel a specified distance was recorded. The EW area in each image was measured using Sigmascan Pro 5 and was expressed as the percentage of exposed eye area. Each image was analyzed twice to determine tracing repeatability. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated among 2 images of the same animal, as well as among duplicate readings of the same image to determine animal and tracing repeatabilities. The mean percentages of EW were 30.14 +/- 14.37, 31.43 +/- 14.77, and 28.57 +/- 12.38, and the average percentage accuracy for duplicate image EW measures was 96, 96, and 93 (P < 0.0001) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients for EW percentage and chute temperament scores were 0.674 (P < 0.0001), 0.95 (P < 0.0001), and 0.696 (P < 0.0001), whereas the correlations between EW and flight speeds were 0.415 (P < 0.0001), 0.333 (P < 0.05), and 0.294 (P < 0.01) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Results from this study indicate that percentage EW in cattle could be used as a quantitative tool with minimal equipment to assess temperament

  11. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  13. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although

  14. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle at slaughter and beef carcasses at retail shops in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Rosa; Haile, Woynshet; Fite, Akafete Teklu; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Agga, Getahun E; Edao, Bedaso Mammo; Tadesse, Fanos; Korsa, Mesula Geloye; Beyene, Takele; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; De Zutter, Lieven; Cox, Eric; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria

    2017-04-17

    There is paucity of information regarding the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli O157: H7 associated with beef cattle at processing plants and at retail shops in Ethiopia. Various samples were collected from beef cattle at slaughter/processing plants, carcass at retail shops and humans at health centers. E. coli O157: H7 was isolated, identified and characterized for antimicrobial resistance, using standard microbiological methods. At the processing plants E. coli O157: H7 was detected in 1.89% of fecal, 0.81% of intestinal mucosal swab, 0.54% of skin swab and 0.54% of carcass internal swab samples. At retail shops it was detected in 0.8% of carcass and 0.8% of cutting board swab samples, while all samples from utensils, hands from workers, and fecal and stool samples were negative. All isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin, moderately resistant to Cefoxitine and Nitrofurantoins but susceptible to other antimicrobials tested. E. coli O157: H7 occurs at low prevalence in beef cattle, and the current sanitary dressing procedures in the processing plants and storage conditions in the retail shops are effective against E. coli O157: H7.

  15. Impact of meteorological and environmental factors on the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in beef cattle herds in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Novobilský, Adam; Novák, Jakub; Björkman, Camilla; Höglund, Johan

    2015-06-09

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite with a significant impact on ruminant livestock production. Previous studies in north-west Europe have described its geographical distribution and determined potential predictors of fasciolosis using geographical information system (GIS) and regression modelling. In Sweden, however, information about the distribution of fasciolosis is limited. This study examined the geographical distribution of F. hepatica and identified high-risk areas for beef cattle in Sweden and sought to characterise potential predictors. Beef cattle serum samples were collected during winter 2006-2007 from 2135 herds which were examined for F. hepatica antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fasciolosis distribution maps were created using GIS based on postcode location of seropositive herds. Spatial scan analysis (SaTScan) was performed to determine high-risk areas. Using datasets on animal density, temperature, precipitation and Corine land cover data, including soil type and soil mineral concentrations in Sweden, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out in R software to reveal potential predictors of F. hepatica infection. Overall herd seroprevalence of F. hepatica in beef cattle was 9.8 % (95 % CI: 8.6-11.1). An irregular spatial distribution of F. hepatica, with two main clusters, was observed in south-west Sweden. The most northerly occurrence of F. hepatica in the world was documented. The final model explained 15.8 % of the variation in F. hepatica distribution in study herds. Absence of coniferous forest was the variable with the highest predictive value. Precipitation in July-September, Dystric Cambisol, Dystric Regosol, and P and Cu concentrations in soil were other negative predictors. Beef cattle herd density, Dystric Leptosol and Fe concentration were positive predictors. The spatial distribution of F. hepatica in Swedish beef cattle herds is influenced by multi-factorial effects. Interestingly

  16. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Improving smallholder cattle reproductive efficiency in Cambodia to address expanding regional beef demand.

    PubMed

    Olmo, L; Ashley, K; Young, J R; Suon, S; Thomson, P C; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with cattle reproductive output in rural smallholder farms in Cambodia in order to determine the main causes of reproductive failure and design efficient interventions for improvement. The majority of the nation's beef is produced on smallholder farms where productivity is constrained by poor animal reproductivity reflected in the recent livestock population decline of approximately 13 % from 2009 to 2013. Farmers (n = 240) from 16 villages from five provinces were surveyed in mid-2015 to determine their baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) associated with cattle reproduction. In addition, 16 case studies from three of these provinces were conducted to provide a more detailed assessment of current cattle reproductive husbandry practices. In order to assess the reproductive impact of previously implemented interventions, an endpoint KAP survey and longitudinal health and husbandry study from three Cambodian provinces conducted between 2008 and 2013 were also analysed. Three multivariable prediction models (two KAP and one longitudinal) identified the following significant factors associated with the reproductive outcomes 'number of calves born' or probability that cows 'gave birth': target feeding (P = 0.074), growing vegetables (P = 0.005), attitudes towards cattle vaccination (P = 0.010), improving bull selection (P = 0.032), local breed use (P = 0.005), number of joining attempts (P < 0.001), discontinuation of animal draught practices (P = 0.003) and retention of breeding animals (P < 0.001). The identification of significant factors and interventions in this study has led to intervention recommendations that can potentially improve reproductive efficiency, combat the declining cattle population and improve smallholder capacity to supply to expanding regional meat demand in South-East Asia and China.

  18. Relationship between cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity carcass merit in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...

  19. Quantifying the influence of ambient temperature on dairy and beef cattle mortality in France from a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    In the context of climate change, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events are expected to increase in temperate regions, and potentially have a severe impact on farmed cattle through production losses or deaths. In this study, we used distributed lag non-linear models to describe and quantify the relationship between a temperature-humidity index (THI) and cattle mortality in 12 areas in France. THI incorporates the effects of both temperature and relative humidity and was already used to quantify the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle because it does reflect physical stress deriving from extreme conditions better than air temperature alone. Relationships between daily THI and mortality were modeled separately for dairy and beef cattle during the 2003-2006 period. Our general approach was to first determine the shape of the THI-mortality relationship in each area by modeling THI with natural cubic splines. We then modeled each relationship assuming a three-piecewise linear function, to estimate the critical cold and heat THI thresholds, for each area, delimiting the thermoneutral zone (i.e. where the risk of death is at its minimum), and the cold and heat effects below and above these thresholds, respectively. Area-specific estimates of the cold or heat effects were then combined in a hierarchical Bayesian model to compute the pooled effects of THI increase or decrease on dairy and beef cattle mortality. A U-shaped relationship, indicating a mortality increase below the cold threshold and above the heat threshold was found in most of the study areas for dairy and beef cattle. The pooled estimate of the mortality risk associated with a 1°C decrease in THI below the cold threshold was 5.0% for dairy cattle [95% posterior interval: 4.4, 5.5] and 4.4% for beef cattle [2.0, 6.5]. The pooled mortality risk associated with a 1°C increase above the hot threshold was estimated to be 5.6% [5.0, 6.2] for dairy and 4.6% [0.9, 8.7] for beef cattle. Knowing the

  20. Industrial pollution with copper and other heavy metals in a beef cattle ranch

    SciTech Connect

    Parada, R.; Gonzalez, S.; Bergqvist, E.

    1987-04-01

    Experimental evidence of air borne heavy metal pollution as the cause of a disease of unknown etiology in beef cattle was obtained. Analysis of metals in natural grasses and leaves of tree defined Cu, Zn and Pb as the major pollutants, with Cd being a minor one. Emissions from a Cu smelter were traced as the main source of metallic pollution. No evidence of metal accumulation in the soil was found, mainly because of the short duration and intermittent pattern of pollution. A progressive intake of the several heavy metals contained in dusts deposited on the grasses was considered the cause of the sickness; this was associated with the grazing of cattle on contaminated grasses. The most severe cases were found in the most polluted pastures. With the exception of Cd, the concentrations of the metals in the livers and kidneys of affected cattle were high. No overlapping of the respective ranges between test and control samples from both organs was found. Mean hepatic levels of Cu (925.7 mg/kg DM), Zn (491.2 mg/kg) and Pb (26.7 mg/kg) reflected the decreasing order of the concentrations of these elements in the polluted grasses. The main clinical and pathological features of this disease were discussed in light of the organic levels of the investigated metals. Disease could not be ascribed to a pure chronic toxicosis with any one of these.

  1. A new predilection site of Mycoplasma bovis: Postsurgical seromas in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gille, L; Pilo, P; Valgaeren, B R; Van Driessche, L; Van Loo, H; Bodmer, M; Bürki, S; Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma bovis is a highly contagious bacterium, which predominantly causes chronic pneumonia, otitis and arthritis in calves and mastitis in adult cattle. In humans, Mycoplasma species have been associated with post-surgical infections. The present study aimed to identify the bacteria associated with three outbreaks of infected seromas after caesarian section in Belgian Blue beef cattle. A total of 10 cases occurred in three herds which were in close proximity of each other and shared the same veterinary practice. M. bovis could be cultured from seroma fluid in five of the six referred animals, mostly in pure culture and was isolated from multiple chronic sites of infection (arthritis and mastitis) as well. DNA fingerprinting of the isolates targeting two insertion sequence elements suggested spread of M. bovis from chronic sites of infection (udder and joints) to the postsurgical seromas. Identical genetic profiles were demonstrated in two animals from two separate farms, suggesting spread between farms. Mortality rate in the referred animals positive for M. bovis in a seroma was 80% (4/5), despite intensive treatment. A massive increase in antimicrobial use was observed in every affected farm. These observations demonstrate involvement of mycoplasmas in outbreaks of postsurgical seromas in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Industrial pollution with copper and other heavy metals in a beef cattle ranch.

    PubMed

    Parada, R; Gonzalez, S; Bergqvist, E

    1987-04-01

    Experimental evidence of air borne heavy metal pollution as the cause of a disease of unknown etiology in beef cattle was obtained. Analysis of metals in natural grasses and leaves of tree defined Cu, Zn and Pb as the major pollutants, with Cd being a minor one. Emissions from a Cu smelter were traced as the main source of metallic pollution. No evidence of metal accumulation in the soil was found, mainly because of the short duration and intermittent pattern of pollution. A progressive intake of the several heavy metals contained in dusts deposited on the grasses was considered the cause of the sickness; this was associated with the grazing of cattle on contaminated grasses. The most severe cases were found in the most polluted pastures. Excepting Cd, the concentrations of the metals in the livers and kidneys of affected cattle were high. No overlapping of the respective ranges between test and control samples from both organs was found. Mean hepatic levels of Cu (925.7 mg/kg DM), Zn (491.2 mg/kg) and Pb (26.7 mg/kg) reflected the decreasing order of the concentrations of these elements in the polluted grasses. The main clinical and pathological features of this disease were discussed in light of the organic levels of the investigated metals. Disease could not be ascribed to a pure chronic toxicosis with any one of these.

  3. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  4. Effect of temperature and retention time on methane production from beef cattle waste

    SciTech Connect

    Varel, V.H.; Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.

    1980-08-01

    The effect of temperature and retention time on the rate of methane production from waste of beef cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated by using continuously mixed 3-liter working volume anaerobic fermentors. The temperatures ranged from 30 to 65/sup 0/C with 5/sup 0/C increments between fermentors. The fermentors were fed once per day with 6% volatile solids (organic matter). Retention time for each temperature was varied from 18 to 2.5 days. After 3-volume turnovers, samples were obtained on 4 consecutive days. The highest methane production rate (liters/liter of fermentor per day) and methane yield at that rate (liters/gram of volatile solids) were 1.27 and 0.19 at 9 days and 30/sup 0/C, 1.60 and 0.16 at 6 days and 35/sup 0/C, 2.28 and 0.23 at 6 days and 40/sup 0/C, 2.42 and 0.24 at 6 days and 45/sup 0/C, 2.83 and 0.14 at 3 days and 50/sup 0/C, 2.75 and 0.14 at 3 days and 55/sup 0/C, 3.18 and 0.14 at 2.5 days and 60/sup 0/C, and 1.69 and 0.17 at 6 days and 65/sup 0/C. Volatile solids degradation at these retention times and temperatures was between 46 and 54%. The concentrations of volatile acids in the 30 to 55/sup 0/C fermentors were generally below 2000 mg/liter, with the exception of the 3-day retention time. The 60 and 65/sup 0/C fermentors were usually above this level for all retention times. These studies indicate potential rates of methane production from the fermentation of untreated waste of beef cattle fed high-grain finishing diets. This information should serve as preliminary guidelines for various kinetic analyses and aid in economic evaluations of the potential feasibility of fermenting beef cattle waste to methane.

  5. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  6. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to optimize performance and carcass value of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Huang, Y; Das, A K; Yang, Q; Duarte, M S; Dodson, M V; Zhu, M-J

    2013-03-01

    Beef cattle are raised for their lean tissue, and excessive fat accumulation accounts for large amounts of waste. On the other hand, intramuscular fat or marbling is essential for the palatability of beef. In addition, tender beef is demanded by consumers, and connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of beef. Recent studies show that myocytes, adipocytes, and fibroblasts are all derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during embryonic development. It appears that during early embryogenesis, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic-fibrogenic lineages; myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells whereas adipogenic-fibrogenic lineage cells develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle where reside adipocytes, fibroblasts, and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells (the counterpart of satellite cells). Strengthening myogenesis (i.e., formation of muscle cells) enhances lean growth, promoting intramuscular adipogenesis (i.e., formation of fat cells) increases marbling, and reducing intramuscular fibrogenesis (i.e., formation of fibroblasts and synthesis of connective tissue) improves overall tenderness of beef. Because the abundance of progenitor cells declines as animals age, it is more effective to manipulate progenitor cell differentiation at an early developmental stage. Nutritional, environmental, and genetic factors shape progenitor cell differentiation; however, up to now, our knowledge regarding mechanisms governing progenitor cell differentiation remains rudimentary. In summary, altering mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation through nutritional management of cows, or fetal programming, is a promising method to improve cattle performance and carcass value.

  7. Whole genome sequences of the USMARC beef cattle diversity panel v2.9 aligned to the bovine reference genome assembly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes from 96 beef sires from 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle was created. These sires with minimal pedigree relationships, represent >99% of the germplasm used in the US beef industry circa 2000. The group is estimated to contain more than 187 u...

  8. Rump and shoulder muscles from grass and linseed fed cattle as important sources of n-3 fatty acids for beef consumers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ground beef has potential to be a relatively inexpensive and sustainable source of n-3 FA for people who frequently consume it, but don’t consume n-3 containing fish. To enhance n-3 FA content in ground beef, we evaluated FA content in pertinent muscles from grass-fed cattle that were supplemented ...

  9. Studies on nematode infections of beef cattle in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Smeal, M G; Hotson, I K; Mylrea, P J; Jackson, A R; Campbell, N J; Kirton, H C

    1977-12-01

    The occurrence and seasonal trends of nematode parasite infections in beef cattle on the Tablelands and North Coast regions of New South Wales are described, based on worm counts from 627 spring-born steers slaughtered at 2-monthly intervals from 6 to 24 months of age. The predominant parasites were Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei and Cooperia spp. Large burdens of adult Ostertagia were seen in 12-month-old animals in late winter and early spring, and later in 18- to 20-month-old cattle in the following late summer and autumn. These infections often resulted in outbreaks of clinical parasitism. Massive numbers of inhibited early fourth stage larvae (EL4) also accumulated in the yearlings during their first spring, reached peaks in mid-summer and then declined. The possibility of their resumption of development to mature worms in the late summer and autumn period is discussed. Adult T. axei showed a similar seasonal trend to Ostertagia and may have increased the severity of outbreaks of clinical disease. Cooperia populations of EL4 and adult worms were highest in weaners during winter, but lower numbers thereafter indicated a strong resistance to re-infection. In addition, Haemonchus placei occurred frequently on the North Coast both as EL4 and adults in cattle of all ages up to 20 months. Of the other cattle nematodes, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Trichuris spp occurred in low numbers, mainly in weaners. Bunstomum phlebotomum and H. contortus occurred sporadically on the North Coast and Tablelands respectively. Intestinal Trichostronglyus spp, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Dictyocaulus viviparus were seen occasionally and Nematodirus spp were not seen. There was a poor relationship between worm counts and faecal egg counts. Cooperia spp dominated the egg counts, while those for other genera were generally low and did not reflect the relative abundance or seasonal changes in worm numbers.

  10. Differential Haematobia irritans infestation levels in beef cattle raised in silvopastoral and conventional pasture systems.

    PubMed

    de S Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Nicodemo, Maria Luiza F; Gusmão, Marcos R; Pezzopane, José Ricardo M; Bilhassi, Talita B; Santana, Clarissa H; Gonçalves, Thuane C; Rabelo, Márcio D; Giglioti, Rodrigo

    2017-11-15

    The use of silvopastoral systems (SPS) can be a good alternative to reduce the environmental impacts of livestock breeding in Brazil. One of the reasons for its scarce adoption is the lack of information on health and productivity of cattle raised under these conditions. The experiment reported here was designed to compare the infestation by external parasites - the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus), horn fly (Haematobia irritans), and larvae of the botfly (Dermatobia hominis) - in beef cattle raised in a SPS and a conventional pasture system (CPS), evaluated for 24 months. Data on air and soil temperature, solar radiation, wind incidence and water balance were used to characterize the SPS and CPS. R. microplus adult females and D. hominis larvae were counted on the body of each animal to determine the parasites burdens, but we did not find significant differences between the two systems. Horn flies counts on animals' body, and analysis of the horn fly and its pupal parasitoids associated with the dung pats were obtained in the two systems. Horn fly infestation was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the SPS (13.17±3.46) in comparison with the CPS (24.02±4.43). In SPS and CPS, respectively, the mean densities of pupae of H. irritansin dung pats were 9.8 and 10.7; the mean density of adults of H. irritans, 3.7 and 3.5; and the density of its pupal parasitoids were 20.5 and 5.4. The effect of production system was significant (p<0.05) only for the occurrence of pupal parasitoids of the horn fly, where the greatest occurrences of these natural enemies were in the SPS. These data indicate that natural enemies were able to control, at least partially, the horn fly populations in the cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence for pleiotropism and recent selection in the PLAG1 region in Australian Beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fortes, M R S; Kemper, K; Sasazaki, S; Reverter, A; Pryce, J E; Barendse, W; Bunch, R; McCulloch, R; Harrison, B; Bolormaa, S; Zhang, Y D; Hawken, R J; Goddard, M E; Lehnert, S A

    2013-12-01

    A putative functional mutation (rs109231213) near PLAG1 (BTA14) associated with stature was studied in beef cattle. Data from 8199 Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Tropical Composite cattle were used to test the associations between rs109231213 and various phenotypes. Further, 23 496 SNPs located on BTA14 were tested for association with these phenotypes, both independently and fitted together with rs109231213. The C allele of rs109231213 significantly increased hip height, weight, net food intake, age at puberty in males and females and decreased IGF-I concentration in blood and fat depth. When rs109231213 was fitted as a fixed effect in the model, there was an overall reduction in associations between other SNPs and these traits but some SNPs remained associated (P < 10(-4) ). Frequency of the mutant C allele of rs109231213 differed among B. indicus (0.52), B. taurus (0.96) and Tropical Composite (0.68). Most chromosomes carrying the C allele had the same surrounding 10 SNP haplotype, probably because the C allele was introgressed into Brahman from B. taurus cattle. A region of reduced heterozygosity surrounds the C allele; this is small in B. taurus but 20 Mb long in Brahmans, indicating recent and strong selection for the mutant allele. Thus, the C allele appears to mark a mutation that has been selected almost to fixation in the B. taurus breeds studied here and introduced into Brahman cattle during grading up and selected to a frequency of 0.52 despite its negative effects on fertility. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Determination of lying behavior patterns in healthy beef cattle by use of wireless accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Robért, Bradley D; White, Brad J; Renter, David G; Larson, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    To describe daily, hourly, and animal-to-animal effects on lying behavior in steers. 25 crossbred beef steers. Wireless accelerometers were used to record behavioral data for cattle housed in a drylot cattle research facility during two 20-day periods (winter 2007 [n = 10 steers] and spring 2008 [15]). Behavioral data were categorized into lying, standing, and walking behaviors for each time point recorded. Logistic regression models were used to determine potential associations between the percentage of time spent lying and several factors, including time (hour) of day, day of trial, and steer. Lying behavior was significantly associated with hour of day, and a distinct circadian rhythm was identified. Steers spent > 55% of the time between 8:00 pm and 4:00 am lying and were most active (<30% lying behavior) during feeding periods (6:00 am to 7:00 am and 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm). Model-adjusted mean percentage of time spent lying was significantly associated with study day and was between 45% and 55% on most (27/40 [67.5%]) days. Lying behavior varied significantly among steers, and mean ± SD percentage of time spent lying ranged from 28.9 ± 6.1 % to 66.1 ± 6.6%. Cattle had distinct circadian rhythm patterns for lying behavior, and percentage of time spent lying varied by day and among steers. Researchers need to account for factors that affect lying patterns of cattle (ie, time of day, day of trial, and individual animal) when performing research with behavioral outcomes.

  13. Selected Insecticide Delivery Devices for Management of Horn Flies (Haematobia irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) on Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Payne, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of the beef cattle industry. Horn fly adults are blood feeders that remain in constant contact with cattle, providing management opportunities via insecticide-impregnated ear tags. Controlling horn flies in the United States is time consuming and costly, but failure to implement management can lead to weight loss and decreased weight gain of calves and yearlings. In the past decade, new chemical combinations have been impregnated into ear tags for pest management. The objectives of this project were to 1) evaluate the efficacy of ear tags against horn fly populations and 2) determine if reduced fly density results in economic return. During 2013, data were compiled by insecticide class; treated cows averaged fly reductions of 198 (s = 38.91; n = 3) for macrocyclic lactone treatments, 175 (s = 62.74; n = 4) for pyrethroid treatments, and 174 (s = 35.28; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments compared with untreated animals (214; s = 50.38; n = 9). During 2014, mean fly reductions were 187 (s = 14.15; n = 4) for macrocyclic lactone, 147 (s = 61.41; n = 13) for pyrethroid, and 143 (s = 77.16; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments relative to the untreated (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). A novel technology, the VetGun application system, tested in 2014, resulted in fly reductions (121 ±, n = 4), but means were not statistically significant from the control (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). Treatment of cattle with ear tags significantly reduced horn fly numbers compared with untreated cattle.

  14. Genome-wide association studies of female reproduction in tropically adapted beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hawken, R J; Zhang, Y D; Fortes, M R S; Collis, E; Barris, W C; Corbet, N J; Williams, P J; Fordyce, G; Holroyd, R G; Walkley, J R W; Barendse, W; Johnston, D J; Prayaga, K C; Tier, B; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A

    2012-05-01

    The genetics of reproduction is poorly understood because the heritabilities of traits currently recorded are low. To elucidate the genetics underlying reproduction in beef cattle, we performed a genome-wide association study using the bovine SNP50 chip in 2 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds, Brahman and Tropical Composite. Here we present the results for 3 female reproduction traits: 1) age at puberty, defined as age in days at first observed corpus luteum (CL) after frequent ovarian ultrasound scans (AGECL); 2) the postpartum anestrous interval, measured as the number of days from calving to first ovulation postpartum (first rebreeding interval, PPAI); and 3) the occurrence of the first postpartum ovulation before weaning in the first rebreeding period (PW), defined from PPAI. In addition, correlated traits such as BW, height, serum IGF1 concentration, condition score, and fatness were also examined. In the Brahman and Tropical Composite cattle, 169 [false positive rate (FPR) = 0.262] and 84 (FPR = 0.581) SNP, respectively, were significant (P < 0.001) for AGECL. In Brahman, 41% of these significant markers mapped to a single chromosomal region on BTA14. In Tropical Composites, 16% of these significant markers were located on BTA5. For PPAI, 66 (FPR = 0.67) and 113 (FPR = 0.432) SNP were significant (P < 0.001) in Brahman and Tropical Composite, respectively, whereas for PW, 68 (FPR = 0.64) and 113 (FPR = 0.432) SNP were significant (P < 0.01). In Tropical Composites, the largest concentration of PPAI markers were located on BTA5 [19% (PPAI) and 23% (PW)], and BTA16 [17% (PPAI) and 18% (PW)]. In Brahman cattle, the largest concentration of markers for postpartum anestrus was located on BTA3 (14% for PPAI and PW) and BTA14 (17% PPAI). Very few of the significant markers for female reproduction traits for the Brahman and Tropical Composite breeds were located in the same chromosomal regions. However, fatness and BW traits as well as serum IGF1 concentration

  15. Prenatal muscle fiber development and bundle structure in beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, E; Lembcke, C; Wegner, J; Maak, S

    2013-08-01

    Muscle fiber development during gestation determines the muscle structure at birth and establishes the conditions for muscle development in growing cattle. Differences in muscle structure among beef cattle breeds and between beef and dairy cattle are obvious already shortly after birth. The objective of the study was to investigate the development of muscle fibers and muscle fiber bundle structure in semitendinosus muscle of divergent cattle breeds from 3 mo of gestation until birth. Fetuses of German Angus (GA), Galloway (GW), Belgian Blue (BB), and Holstein Friesian (HF) were harvested at 3, 4.5, 6, or 9 mo of gestation. Muscle sections were analyzed for fiber size and types as well as for bundle structure. The results confirmed that primary muscle fiber development occurs mainly during the first trimester of gestation. All fibers were initially positive for fetal fast myosin. Slow myosin as a marker for fiber maturation was detected in primary fibers at 3 mo of gestation showing a weak immunostaining. During the second trimester, the intensity of immunostaining strongly increased indicating increased slow myosin protein expression. Concurrently, the shape of primary fibers changed from myotubes to myofibers whereas the size stayed nearly constant. The main increase in muscle mass during the second trimester was caused by secondary fiber development. As an example, the ratio between secondary and primary fibers increased in Holstein Friesian fetuses from 5.9 at 4.5 mo of gestation to 21.6 at 6 mo of gestation. Primary and secondary fibers continued to growth during the third trimester. Regional differences in the density of slow muscle fibers were detected leading to greater variation within the muscle than among breeds. Structural organization of muscle fibers in muscle fiber bundles developed early in fetal life. At first, large main bundles were visible. Smaller structural units defined as primary bundles were measurable at 6 mo of gestation when most fibers

  16. Repeatability and genotypic correlations of reproductive and productive traits of crossbred beef cattle dams.

    PubMed

    Silva, L N; Gasparino, E; Torres Júnior, R A A; Euclides Filho, K; Silva, L O C; Alencar, M M; Souza Júnior, M D; Battistelli, J V F; Silva, S C C

    2015-05-22

    Beef cattle production requires reproductive efficiency. However, measures of reproductive traits are not usually collected; consequently, correlated traits that could be used as indicators would be useful. We examined associations between measures of reproductive and productive efficiency that could be used as selection indicators. Data from 194 dams of the genetic groups Angus x Nelore, Caracu x Nelore, and Valdostana x Nelore collected over 4 years were used. The reproductive traits analyzed were days to heat (DH), calving interval (CI), days to calving (DC), and pregnancy rate (PR). The productive traits were dam weight (DW), body condition score (BCS), calf weight (CW), and weaning rate (WR). The effects on the model were: year, genetic group, reproductive status (RS), age, reproductive rest, and breed of bull (CW and WR). Multivariate analyses were performed, using the Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. We conclude that the reproductive measures are ineffective as selection indicators, whereas using dam weight may be a good alternative.

  17. [Endemic and epidemic bovine neosporosis: description of two events in beef cattle].

    PubMed

    Calandra, Patricio M; Di Matía, José M; Cano, Dora B; Odriozola, Ernesto R; García, Juan A; Späth, Ernesto J A; Odeón, Anselmo C; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Morrell, Eleonora L; Campero, Carlos M; Moore, Dadín P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe two events in which Neospora caninum was involved in bovine abortions in beef cattle. In the first event, 11 abortions in 57 heifers were recorded in 45 days. One aborted heifer was 5 times more likely to be seropositive than a non-aborted heifer (OR=4.9; IC 1.2-19.9) (p<0.05). In the second event, no association between serological results and abortions were observed (OR=0,69; 0,06-7,31) (p>0.05). Neither antibodies nor isolation of other pathogens were achieved in any case. On the contrary, antibodies and pathognomonic histopathological lesions were observed in the four fetuses from both cases. Interestingly, the findings in the first event suggest the epidemic behavior of the disease. In contrast, in the second event it appears that few abortions were due to N. caninum, suggesting the presence of endemic neosporosis.

  18. Generation of exogenous germ cells in the ovaries of sterile NANOS3-null beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ideta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shiro; Seki-Soma, Marie; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Chiba, Shiori; Komaki, Haruna; Ito, Tetsuya; Konishi, Masato; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Sendai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Blastocyst complementation (BC) systems have enabled in vivo generation of organs from allogeneic pluripotent cells, compensating for an empty germ cell niche in gene knockout (KO) animals. Here, we succeeded in producing chimeric beef cattle (Wagyu) by transferring allogenic germ cells into ovaries using somatic cell nuclear transfer and BC technology. The KO of NANOS3 (NANOS3−/−) in Wagyu bovine ovaries produced a complete loss of germ cells. Holstein blastomeres (NANOS3+/+) were injected into NANOS3−/− Wagyu embryos. Subsequently, exogenous germ cells (NANOS3+/+) were identified in the NANOS3−/− ovary. These results clearly indicate that allogeneic germ cells can be generated in recipient germ cell-free gonads using cloning and BC technologies. PMID:27117862

  19. Generation of exogenous germ cells in the ovaries of sterile NANOS3-null beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shiro; Seki-Soma, Marie; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Chiba, Shiori; Komaki, Haruna; Ito, Tetsuya; Konishi, Masato; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Sendai, Yutaka

    2016-04-27

    Blastocyst complementation (BC) systems have enabled in vivo generation of organs from allogeneic pluripotent cells, compensating for an empty germ cell niche in gene knockout (KO) animals. Here, we succeeded in producing chimeric beef cattle (Wagyu) by transferring allogenic germ cells into ovaries using somatic cell nuclear transfer and BC technology. The KO of NANOS3 (NANOS3(-/-)) in Wagyu bovine ovaries produced a complete loss of germ cells. Holstein blastomeres (NANOS3(+/+)) were injected into NANOS3(-/-) Wagyu embryos. Subsequently, exogenous germ cells (NANOS3(+/+)) were identified in the NANOS3(-/-) ovary. These results clearly indicate that allogeneic germ cells can be generated in recipient germ cell-free gonads using cloning and BC technologies.

  20. Ruminal pH predictions for beef cattle: Comparative evaluation of current models.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, M A; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated 8 empirical models for their ability to accurately predict mean ruminal pH in beef cattle fed a wide range of diets. Models tested that use physically effective fiber (peNDF) as a dependent variable were Pitt et al. (1996, PIT), Mertens (1997, MER), Fox et al. (2004, FOX), Zebeli et al. (2006, ZB6), and Zebeli et al. (2008, ZB8), and those that use rumen VFA were Tamminga and Van Vuuren (1988, TAM), Lescoat and Sauvant (1995, LES), and Allen (1997, ALL). A data set of 65 published papers (231 treatment means) for beef cattle was assembled that included information on animal characteristics, diet composition, and ruminal fermentation and mean pH. Model evaluations were based on mean square prediction error (MSPE), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and regression analysis. The prediction potential of the models varied with low root MSPE (RMSPE) values of 4.94% and 5.37% for PIT and FOX, RMSPE values of 9.66% and 12.55% for ZB6 and MER, and intermediate RMSPE values of 5.66% to 6.26% for the other models. For PIT and FOX, with the lowest RMSPE, approximately 96% of MSPE was due to random error, whereas for ZB6 and MER, with the highest RMSPE, 15.85% and 23.42% of MSPE, respectively, was due to linear bias, and 37.19% and 60.12% of the error, respectively, was due to deviation of the regression slope from unity. The CCC was greatest for PIT (0.67) and FOX (0.62), followed by 0.60 for LES and TAM, 0.52 for ZB8, 0.39 for MER, 0.34 for ALL, and 0.22 for ZB6. Residuals plotted against model-predicted values showed linear bias (P < 0.001) for all models except PIT (P = 0.976) and FOX (P = 0.054) and mean bias (P < 0.001) except for FOX (P = 0.293), LES (P = 0.215), and TAM (P = 0.119). The study showed that the empirical models PIT and FOX, based on peNDF, and LES and TAM, based on VFA, are preferred over the others for prediction of mean ruminal pH in beef cattle fed a wide range of diets. Several animal (BW and intake), diet (forage and OM

  1. Resistance status of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from southeastern Nebraska beef cattle feedlots to selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Marçon, Paula C R G; Thomas, Gustave D; Siegfried, Blair D; Campbell, John B; Skoda, Steven R

    2003-06-01

    The status of resistance to three insecticides (permethrin, stirofos, and methoxychlor), relative to a laboratory-susceptible colony, was evaluated in field populations of house flies, Musca domestica L., collected from two beef cattle feedlots in southeastern Nebraska. Topical application and residual exposure to treated glass surfaces were suitable methods for determining the resistance status of house flies to permethrin, stirofos, or methoxychlor. However, in most cases, residual exposure was more sensitive in resistance detection (i.e., higher resistance ratios). The field populations tested were moderately resistant to permethrin (RR = 4.9-fold and RR = 7.3-fold, for topical application and residual exposure, respectively) and extremely resistant to stirofos and methoxychlor (not accurately quantifiable because of low mortality at the highest possible concentrations or doses). Probable explanations for the resistance status of these house fly populations and implications for global feedlot fly management are discussed.

  2. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992,in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of >/=1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus. Thus, following the outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in 1989-1990, herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus had developed rapidly in the breeding cows and heifers. Subsequently, in the next two years, there was a dramatic decline in the number of calves born persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  3. Phenotypic plasticity of composite beef cattle performance using reaction norms model with unknown covariate.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Cardoso, F F; Albuquerque, L G; Ferraz, J B S

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of genotype by environment interaction (G × E) and to characterize the phenotypic plasticity of birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), postweaning weight gain (PWG) and yearling scrotal circumference (SC) in composite beef cattle using the reaction norms model with unknown covariate. The animals were born between 1995 and 2008 on 33 farms located throughout all Brazilian biomes between latitude -7° and -31°, longitude -40° and -63°. The contemporary group was chosen as the environmental descriptor, that is, the environmental covariate of the reaction norms. In general, higher estimates of direct heritability were observed in extreme favorable environments. The mean of direct heritability across the environmental gradient ranged from 0.05 to 0.51, 0.09 to 0.43, 0.01 to 0.43 and from 0.12 to 0.26 for BW, WW, PWG and SC, respectively. The variation in direct heritability observed indicates a different response to selection according to the environment in which the animals of the population are evaluated. The correlation between the level and slope of the reaction norm for BW and PWG was high, indicating that animals with higher average breeding values responded better to improvement in environmental conditions, a fact characterizing a scale of G × E. Low correlation between the intercept and slope was obtained for WW and SC, implying re-ranking of animals in different environments. Genetic variation exists in the sensitivity of animals to the environment, a fact that permits the selection of more plastic or robust genotypes in the population studied. Thus, the G × E is an important factor that should be considered in the genetic evaluation of the present population of composite beef cattle.

  4. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  5. Seasonal variation in vitamin D status of beef cattle reared in the central United States.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lippolis, J D; Kuehn, L A; Reinhardt, T A

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to retrospectively measure seasonal sunlight-associated variation in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. The concentration of 25OHD was measured in crossbred animals born from March to May in 2011 and 2012. Vitamin D status 2 to 3 mo after birth (period 1) was only available for 2012 calves and was measured in June 2012. Period 1 animals had serum 25OHD concentrations of 26.3 ± 1.5 ng/mL. The 25OHD concentrations for late summer (period 2) were 46.6 ± 1.4 and 51.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL for 2011 and 2012, respectively. Serum concentration of 25OHD in early fall (period 3) were 63.8 ± 1.4 and 55.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL for calves in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Values observed for both late summer and early fall indicated vitamin D sufficiency (P < 0.001) compared with period 1. With diminishing exposure to ultraviolet B and consuming ∼800 IU or 1800 IU (2011 and 2012, respectively) of supplemental vitamin D, the calves' midwinter (period 4) 25OHD concentrations fell to 15.2 ± 1.6 and 16.7 ± 1.5 ng/mL for 2011 and 2012, respectively, after 4 to 5 mo on a finishing diet (P < 0.0001). This is considered vitamin D insufficiency in most species. Results indicate that calves are marginally sufficient to insufficient for vitamin D based on serum 25OHD concentrations soon after birth and during winter. Some individual animals would be classified vitamin D deficient. In the absence of sufficient UVB exposure, the dietary vitamin D requirements for rapidly growing beef cattle may need to be increased.

  6. Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe < or = 3.5 dSm(-1), but areas 5 and 6 exceeded this concentration and reached maximum values of 5.5 and 7.0 dS m(-1), respectively. Higher values in area 6 were probably due to the presence of a rocky layer at 0.3 m depth, leaving a thin soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area.

  7. The potential of 3-nitrooxypropanol to lower enteric methane emissions from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated if 3-nitrooxypropanol reduces enteric methane (CH4) emissions when added to the diet of beef cattle. The effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on related variables including diet digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and ruminal microorganisms were also investigated. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (549 ± 64.3 kg [mean BW ± SD]) were fed a high forage diet (backgrounding diet) supplemented with 4 levels of 3-nitrooxypropanol (0, 0.75, 2.25 and 4.50 mg/kg BW). The experiment was designed as a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 2 groups of heifers and four 28-d periods. Methane emissions were measured during 3 consecutive days using metabolic chambers. Up to a 5.8% reduction in ad libitum DMI was observed when 2.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol was fed (P = 0.03). Increasing level of 3-nitrooxypropanol linearly (P < 0.001) reduced CH4, with 33% less CH4 (corrected for DMI) at the highest level of supplementation compared with the control. Feed energy lost as CH4 was also reduced when 3-nitrooxypropanol was supplemented (P < 0.001). Molar proportion of acetate was reduced (P < 0.001) and that for propionate increased (P < 0.001) with increasing dose of 3-nitrooxypropanol, which in turn led to a reduction in the acetate to propionate ratio (P < 0.001). Total copy numbers of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes for bacteria, methanogens, and 18S rRNA genes for protozoa in ruminal contents were not affected by 3-nitrooxypropanol supplementation (P ≥ 0.31). There was no effect of 3-nitrooxypropanol on DM (P = 0.1) digestibility in the total tract. The use of 4.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol in beef cattle consuming a backgrounding diet was effective in reducing enteric CH4 emissions without negatively affecting diet digestibility.

  8. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype block structure in a composite beef cattle breed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps and the characterization of haplotype block structure at the population level are useful parameters for guiding genome wide association (GWA) studies, and for understanding the nature of non-linear association between phenotypes and genes. The elucidation of haplotype block structure can reduce the information of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) into the information of a haplotype block, reducing the number of SNPs in a coherent way for consideration in GWA and genomic selection studies. Results The maximum average LD, measured by r2 varied between 0.33 to 0.40 at a distance of < 2.5 kb, and the minimum average values of r2 varied between 0.05 to 0.07 at distances ranging from 400 to 500 kb, clearly showing that the average r2 reduced with the increase in SNP pair distances. The persistence of LD phase showed higher values at shorter genomic distances, decreasing with the increase in physical distance, varying from 0.96 at a distance of < 2.5 kb to 0.66 at a distance from 400 to 500 kb. A total of 78% of all SNPs were clustered into haplotype blocks, covering 1,57 Mb of the total autosomal genome size. Conclusions This study presented the first high density linkage disequilibrium map and haplotype block structure for a composite beef cattle population, and indicates that the high density SNP panel over 700 k can be used for genomic selection implementation and GWA studies for Canchim beef cattle. PMID:25573652

  9. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of > or = 1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8076288

  10. Effect of subsidy regimes on economic values of functional traits in beef cattle breeding.

    PubMed

    Wolfová, M; Pribyl, J; Wolf, J; Zahrádková, R

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the impact of five monetary subsidy regimes on economic values of traits in a cow-calf pasture production system with surplus calves fed for slaughter. The following regimes were analysed: (1) maximum prices for slaughter animals actually received in the Czech Republic during 2004, with no subsidies of any kind; (2) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of permanent grassland and per calf born; (3) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land, per hectare of pasture and meadow, per beef cow in a forage system and per livestock unit; (4) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land; (5) no subsidies, but prices received for slaughter animals that covered production costs and resulted in 1% profitability. The modelled farm showed negative profit under real price conditions with no subsidies (regime 1), which led to an underestimation of economic values for functional traits. The same results were obtained in regimes in which subsidies did not depend on the number of animals (3) or on meat production from the enterprise (4). Economic values of production traits (growth and carcass traits) did not vary among subsidy regimes. To determine optimum economic values for functional traits in beef cattle, we advocate using the method applied in subsidy regime 5, no subsidies but prices for slaughter animals that cover production cost and a small profit.

  11. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; de Souza, Marcela Maria

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  12. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  13. Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products in South Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P A; Cerdán Malo, A T; Ellin, M; Ashton, R; Harkin

    2001-02-28

    A 1 year study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products from retail butchers' shops was performed in the Sheffield area. Each month, samples of rectal faeces were collected immediately after slaughter from 400 cattle and 600 sheep, and 400-430 samples of raw meat products were purchased from butchers' shops. Meat samples were also obtained from 1500 beef and 1500 lamb carcasses. All samples were examined for E. coli O157 by enrichment culture, immunomagnetic separation and culture of magnetic particles onto cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar. Raw meat products were also examined for numbers of generic E. coli by a standard membrane culture method. E. coli O157 was isolated from 620 (12.9%) of 4800 cattle, 100 (7.4%) of 7200 sheep, 21 (1.4%) of 1500 beef carcasses, 10 (0.7%) of 1500 lamb carcasses and from 22 (0.44%) of 4983 raw meat products. E. coli O157 was isolated more frequently from lamb products (0.8%) than from beef products (0.4%). Numbers of generic E. coli in meat products reached seasonal peaks in July and August with counts of > 10(4)/g occurring more frequently in lamb products (50.8 and 42.4%, respectively) than in beef products (19.3 and 23.8%, respectively). The majority of E. coli O157 strains, from animals, carcasses and meat samples, were isolated during the summer. Most were verocytotoxigenic as determined by Vero cell assay and DNA hybridisation, eaeA gene positive and contained a 92 kb plasmid. The isolates were compared with 66 isolates from human cases over the same period. A combination of phage type, toxin genotype and plasmid analysis allowed subdivision of all the E. coli O157 isolates into 96 subtypes. Of these subtypes, 53 (55%) were isolated only from bovine faecal samples. However, 61 (92%) of the 66 isolates from humans belonged to 13 subtypes which were also found in the animal population.

  14. The effects of acute versus chronic health challenges on the behavior of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Szyszka, O; Tolkamp, B J; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-12-01

    The changes in behavior associated with a (subclinical) acute and a chronic health challenge were investigated to assess their potential value for the development of an early disease detection system in beef cattle. The hypothesis was that acute challenges would lead to acute but transient changes in behavior, whereas the converse would be the case during chronic challenges, with changes taking longer to develop, but being more persistent. For this purpose, Holstein-Friesian beef bulls were challenged either with a repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenous bolus given at 3 increasing doses over the course of 5 d, or with a single dose of the abomasal parasite Ostertagia ostertagi, acting as models of acute and chronic challenge respectively. A third unchallenged group acted as controls. Fecal and blood samples were taken regularly and analyzed for fecal egg counts (FEC), pepsinogen concentration and LPS antibodies. A sensor was fitted to the front leg of each bull to record activity and posture. Video recordings were taken to monitor drinking and feeding behavior. Antibodies to LPS were detected only after the third LPS challenge. Fecal egg counts were detected 3 wk post infection, and pepsinogen increased roughly at the same time in parasitized bulls. Body weight of parasitized animals was reduced relative to controls after 17 d post infection (P < 0.001), whereas there was no difference in performance between the LPS and control animals (P > 0.05). Effects of LPS on behavior lasted only for a few hours, presenting themselves as reduction in activity approximately 10 h after the first challenge (P = 0.057). The clearest behavioral changes due to parasitism were on posture. Parasitized animals had less frequent (P = 0.003), but longer lying episodes (P = 0.038) than controls. Once established, these changes persisted for 30 d post infection. However, there was no treatment effect on overall activity, measured by the number of steps taken or on total lying time

  15. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was significantly (p<0.05) retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a*) was kept higher (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage. PMID:25178378

  16. Lack of antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2 virus in beef and dairy cattle and horses in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; Konoby, C; West, K H; Allan, G M; Krakowka, S; McNeilly, F; Meehan, B; Walker, I

    2001-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a recently recognized agent that is consistently associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting disease in swine. There are conflicting data concerning the ability of this virus to infect and cause disease in other species. To determine if normal cattle, cattle affected with various illnesses, and normal horses in endemic areas of PCV2 infection in swine have had PCV2 infections, 100 randomly selected bovine sera, 100 equine sera, and 100 colostrum samples from clinically normal dairy cattle were examined for the presence of antibodies to porcine circoviruses by using ELISAs. All samples tested were negative for antibodies to porcine circoviruses. As well, a seronegative neonatal Holstein calf and 6 seronegative, 6-month-old beef calves that were experimentally infected with PCV2 failed to develop antibodies to the virus. These results suggest that natural infection of cattle and horses with PCV2 does not occur, or is a rare event, in western Canada. PMID:11424578

  17. Bayesian analysis of parent-specific transmission ratio distortion in seven Spanish beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Cañas-Álvarez, J J; González-Rodríguez, A; Puig-Oliveras, A; Fina, M; Piedrafita, J; Molina, A; Díaz, C; Baró, J A; Varona, L

    2017-02-01

    Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is the departure from the expected Mendelian ratio in offspring, a poorly investigated biological phenomenon in livestock species. Given the current availability of specific parametric methods for the analysis of segregation data, this study focused on the screening of TRD in 602 402 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering all autosomal chromosomes in seven Spanish beef cattle breeds. On average, 0.13% (n = 786) and 0.01% (n = 29) of genetic markers evidenced sire- or dam-specific TRD respectively. There were no single nucleotide polymorphisms accounting for both sire- and dam-specific TRD at the same time, and only one marker (rs43147474) accounted for (sire-specific) TRD in all seven breeds. It must be noted that rs43147474 is located in the fourth intronic region of the GTP-binding protein 10 gene, and this locus has been previously linked to the maintenance of mitochondria and nucleolar architectures. Alternatively, other candidate genes surround this hot-spot for sire-specific TRD in the cattle genome, and they are related to embryonic and postnatal lethality as well as prostate cancer, among others. This research characterized the distribution of TRD in the bovine genome, highlighting heterogeneous results when comparing across breeds.

  18. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of live weight gain of 11.85 kg, compared to untreated group, 9.05 and 9.41 kg compared to those treated with more ineffective avermectins which showed efficacy of 0 and 48.2 %, respectively. A significant (P < 0.05) and weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) between the eggs per gram (EPG) and body weight was observed, indicating that even the low mean EPG (175 ± 150) observed at day 0 in the control group, with predominance of Haemonchus sp., was responsible for production losses. These results indicate that control of nematode parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria.

  19. Polymorphisms in the GHRL gene and their associations with traits of economic interest in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Braz, C U; Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Gil, F M M; Fonseca, P D S; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z; Oliveira, H N; Tonhati, H

    2015-12-28

    The hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach wall, has an orexigenic function, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and affects the energy balance of the animal. Therefore, the ghrelin gene (GHRL) is considered to be a good candidate marker for the identification of traits of great economic importance in cattle, such as those associated with feed intake, growth, and carcass quality. The use of molecular genetic markers associated with such traits permits the earlier and more accurate identification of superior animals, thus reducing the interval between generations, and increasing the genetic gain. Six SNPs were found in the GHRL gene, located in intron 3, intron 4, and exon 5. The positions of the SNPs on the gene and the substitutions were: g.2184A>G, g.2347T>C, g.4469T>C, g.4548A>G, g.4663T>C, and g.4729T>C (GenBank accession No. JX565585). After analysis of linkage disequilibrium, association tests were performed between four SNPs with the traits year weight for males, yearling weight for females, dry matter intake, loin eye area, and rump fat thickness (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle.

  20. Modelling the growth curve of Maine-Anjou beef cattle using heteroskedastic random coefficients models

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Granié, Christèle; Heude, Barbara; Foulley, Jean-Louis

    2002-01-01

    A heteroskedastic random coefficients model was described for analyzing weight performances between the 100th and the 650th days of age of Maine-Anjou beef cattle. This model contained both fixed effects, random linear regression and heterogeneous variance components. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference of growth curves between animals born as twin and single bull calves. The method was based on log-linear models for residual and individual variances expressed as functions of explanatory variables. An expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was proposed for calculating restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of the residual and individual components of variances and covariances. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess hypotheses about parameters of this model. Growth of Maine-Anjou cattle was described by a third order regression on age for a mean growth curve, two correlated random effects for the individual variability and independent errors. Three sources of heterogeneity of residual variances were detected. The difference of weight performance between bulls born as single and twin bull calves was estimated to be equal to about 15 kg for the growth period considered. PMID:12270103

  1. Relationship of fatty acid composition to intramuscular fat content in beef from crossbred Wagyu cattle.

    PubMed

    Kazala, E C; Lozeman, F J; Mir, P S; Laroche, A; Bailey, D R; Weselake, R J

    1999-07-01

    The deposition of i.m. fat, or marbling, in cattle is recognized as a desirable carcass trait in North American beef grading schemes. In order to investigate the relationship between degree of marbling and fatty acid composition of whole bovine muscle, we extracted the total lipid from pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) (n = 23) and longissimus (n = 36) muscles from Wagyu crossbred cattle that were assigned Canadian Grading Agency marbling scores ranging from 1 to 8 on an inverse 10-point scale (i.e., a score of 1 indicated "very abundant" marbling and a score of 10 would be assigned to a carcass "devoid" of marbling). Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of the total lipid and triacylglycerol fractions were resolved and quantified through GLC. Marbling scores were negatively associated with total lipid from both PCD (r = -.57, P < .01) and longissimus (r = -.80, P < .001). Differences between PCD and longissimus were found for almost all FAME studied from both lipid fractions, but no differences (P > .05) were seen when the monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) ratios were compared. Heifers had higher (P < .05) oleic acid content and lower (P < .05) palmitic acid content in lipid extracted from both muscles, resulting in higher (P < .05) MUFA/SFA ratios than those for steers. The relative amount of myristic acid increased as the lipid content (total lipid and triacylglycerol) increased in either longissimus (r values from .48 to .55; n = 36; P < .01) or PCD muscles (r from .67 to .76; n = 23; P < .001). The relative amount of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12 isomer) from total lipid was negatively associated with all chemical measurements of lipid from the longissimus (r from -.52 to -.64; n = 36; P < .001) and PCD muscles (r from -.75 to -.85; n = 23; P < .001). This association was not significant (P > .1) for either muscle when linoleic acid from the triacylglycerol fraction was examined, suggesting the negative association between this fatty acid and lipid

  2. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A.; Register, Karen B.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Neill, John D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  3. Technical note: Estimating body weight and body composition of beef cattle trough digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R A; Monteiro, G R; Assis, G J F; Busato, K C; Ladeira, M M; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-12-01

    The use of digital images could be a faster and cheaper alternative technique to assess BW, HCW, and body composition of beef cattle. The objective of this study was to develop equations to predict body and carcass weight and body fat content of young bulls using digital images obtained through a Microsoft Kinect device. Thirty-five bulls with an initial BW of 383 (±5.38) kg (20 Black Angus, 390 [±7.48] kg initial BW, and 15 Nellore, 377 [±8.66] kg initial BW) were used. The Kinect sensor, installed on the top of a cattle chute, was used to take infrared light-based depth videos, recorded before the slaughter. For each animal, a quality control was made, running and pausing the video at the moment that the animal was standing with its body and head in line. One frame from recorded videos was selected and used to analyze the following body measurements: chest width, thorax width, abdomen width, body length, dorsal height, and dorsal area. From these body measurements, 23 indexes were generated and tested as potential predictors. The BW and HCW were assessed with a digital scale, whereas empty body fat (EBF) was estimated through ground samples of all tissues. To better understand the relationship among the measurements, the correlations between final BW (488 [±10.4] kg), HCW (287 [±12.5] kg), EBF (14 [±0.610] % empty BW) content, body measurements (taken through digital images), and developed indexes were evaluated. The REG procedure was used to develop the regressions, and the important independent variables were identified using the options STEPWISE and Mallow's Cp in the SELECTION statement. Chest width was the trait most related to weights and the correlations between this measurement and BW and HCW were above 0.85. The analysis of linear regressions between observed and predicted values showed that all models pass through the origin and have a slope of unity (null hypothesis [H]: = 0 and = 1; ≥ 0.993). The models to estimate BW and HCW of Angus and

  4. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    PubMed

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the PLAG1 Gene for Knuckle, Biceps and Shank Weight in Simmental Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Huijiang; Zhu, Bo; Niu, Hong; Zhang, Wengang; Xia, Jiangwei; Gao, Xue; Li, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Carcass traits of beef cattle have been genetically improved to increase yield of high quality meat. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful method to identify genetic variants associated with carcass traits. For the 770K genotyped SNPs from 1141 Chinese Simmental cattle, we used the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) to perform a genome-wide association study for knuckle, biceps and shank of beef carcass traits. Seventeen significantly associated SNPs were found, which are located on BTA6, BTA14 and BTA15. Interestingly, one pleiotropic quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN), named BovineHD1400007259 (p < 10−8) within the well-known gene region PLAG1-CHCHD7 on BTA14, was found to govern variation of the knuckle, biceps and shank traits. The QTN accounted for 8.6% of phenotypic variance for biceps. In addition, 16 more SNPs distributed on BTA14 were detected as being associated with the carcass traits. PMID:27997562

  6. The extent of linkage disequilibrium in beef cattle breeds using high-density SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between molecular markers impacts genome-wide association studies and implementation of genomic selection. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms makes it possible to investigate LD at an unprecedented resolution. In this work, we characterised LD decay in breeds of beef cattle of taurine, indicine and composite origins and explored its variation across autosomes and the X chromosome. Findings In each breed, LD decayed rapidly and r2 was less than 0.2 for marker pairs separated by 50 kb. The LD decay curves clustered into three groups of similar LD decay that distinguished the three main cattle types. At short distances between markers (< 10 kb), taurine breeds showed higher LD (r2 = 0.45) than their indicine (r2 = 0.25) and composite (r2 = 0.32) counterparts. This higher LD in taurine breeds was attributed to a smaller effective population size and a stronger bottleneck during breed formation. Using all SNPs on only the X chromosome, the three cattle types could still be distinguished. However for taurine breeds, the LD decay on the X chromosome was much faster and the background level much lower than for indicine breeds and composite populations. When using only SNPs that were polymorphic in all breeds, the analysis of the X chromosome mimicked that of the autosomes. Conclusions The pattern of LD mirrored some aspects of the history of breed populations and showed a sharp decay with increasing physical distance between markers. We conclude that the availability of the HD chip can be used to detect association signals that remained hidden when using lower density genotyping platforms, since LD dropped below 0.2 at distances of 50 kb. PMID:24661366

  7. Bacterial Communities Associated with Shiga-Toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) in Beef Cattle Feedlot Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The life cycle of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) in beef cattle feedlots involves two habitats: the warm, nutrient rich primary habitat of the lower gastrointestinal tract of cattle and the generally cool, nutrient limiting secondary habitat outside of the animal, including...

  8. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The feasibility of using an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with only simple preparation steps to determine flunixin plasma concentrations in healthy beef cattle was explored. Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin free acid in a cross-over design by subcutaneo...

  9. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  10. Estimation of the intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus thoracis in crossbred beef cattle based on live animal measurements.

    PubMed

    Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Purwin, Cezary

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of live animal measurements in estimating the intramuscular fat (IMF) content of m. longissimus thoracis (MLT) in beef cattle. Live animal measurements were performed in young crossbred bulls (96) and steers (59), the offspring of Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and beef bulls (Limousin, Hereford and Charolais), at the end of the fattening period. The content of intramuscular fat was determined in samples from MLT by chemical analyses. A prediction model was developed by stepwise regression. In the validation model, the values of R(2)=0.74, RMSE=0.37% were determined. The results indicate that selected biometric (chest width, chest girth) ultrasound measurements (thickness of subcutaneous rump and back fat) and selected blood parameters (triglycerides) can be used to predict IMF content with satisfactory precision and accuracy. The analyzed parameters could constitute a valuable tool in the process of selecting beef quality traits and determining the slaughter value of young beef cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting contamination of beef by material from genetically engineered cattle.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2009-08-01

    Prion protein knockout (PRNP(-/-)) cattle have been developed and may be used to produce bovine material such as serum, collagen, and gelatin. However, genetically engineered animals (GE animals) must not be imported or made commercially available in Japan, because they are not authorized for food use in Japan. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) to develop method of detection for neomycin- and the puromycin-resistance genes in beef samples. Plasmids containing the neomycin-resistance gene and the puromycin-resistance gene were used as standard reference molecules. The results clearly showed that the method we developed is capable of quantitatively detecting the neomycin- and the puromycin-resistance genes in the plasmids in the presence of genomic DNA extracted from a beef sample. We also applied the method to testing of beef samples imported from the United States (U.S.). This method will make it possible to monitor beef for contamination by material from GE cattle to assure food safety.

  12. Beef quality of young Angus×Nellore cattle supplemented with rumen-protected lipids during rearing and fatting periods.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E N; Polizel Neto, A; Roça, R O; Faria, M H; Resende, F D; Siqueira, G R; Pinheiro, R S B

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluated the beef quality parameters of 108 bulls randomly administered to three treatments during rearing in pastures and two treatments during fatting in feedlots, including mineral and rumen-protected lipids. Meat and fat color, cooking yield, shear force, sensorial traits and chemical and fatty acid compositions were evaluated. Generally, the beef quality parameters were not affected by the rumen protected lipids; however, supplementation with rumen-protected lipids during the rearing period yielded darker beef and brighter fat and increased beef tenderness in meat aged for 28days compared to the meat from animals that received only mineral supplementation. In addition, the percent of meat polyunsaturated fatty acids was negatively affected by the inclusion of protected lipids, yielding 5.58 and 3.72% in animals fed with and without rumen-protected lipids, respectively, during the fatting period.

  13. The potential for modification in cloning and vitrification technology to enhance genetic progress in beef cattle in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W; Walton, Simon; Swain, David L; Walsh, Kerry B; Vajta, Gábor

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in embryology and related research offer considerable possibilities to accelerate genetic improvement in cattle breeding. Such progress includes optimization and standardization of laboratory embryo production (in vitro fertilization - IVF), introduction of a highly efficient method for cryopreservation (vitrification), and dramatic improvement in the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) in terms of required effort, cost, and overall outcome. Handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified version of somatic cell nuclear transfer, offers the potential for relatively easy and low-cost production of clones. A potentially modified method of vitrification used at a centrally located laboratory facility could result in cloned offspring that are economically competitive with elite animals produced by more traditional means. Apart from routine legal and intellectual property issues, the main obstacle that hampers rapid uptake of these technologies by the beef cattle industry is a lack of confidence from scientific and commercial sources. Once stakeholder support is increased, the combined application of these methods makes a rapid advance toward desirable traits (rapid growth, high-quality beef, optimized reproductive performance) a realistic goal. The potential impact of these technologies on genetic advancement in beef cattle herds in which improvement of stock is sought, such as in northern Australia, is hard to overestimate. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established. PMID:26119172

  15. Modeling shade tree use by beef cattle as a function of black globe temperature and time of day.

    PubMed

    Foust, Amanda M; Headlee, William L

    2017-08-22

    Increasing temperatures associated with global climate change threaten to disrupt agricultural systems such as beef production, yet relatively little is known about the use of natural tree shade to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress on beef cattle. In this study, we evaluated how temperature and time of day influenced the utilization of tree shade in relation to coloration, orientation, and behavior of beef cattle in a pasture system. Temperatures in shade and direct sunlight were measured using black globe temperature (BGT) data loggers. Time-lapse images from game cameras were used to obtain counts of shade usage, coloration, orientation, and behavior of cattle throughout the daytime hours. In general, we found that shade utilization and most of the predominating orientations and behaviors differed significantly (P < 0.05) by both time of day (Hour) and BGT in direct sunlight (BGTsun), while interactions between these two effects (Hour × BGTsun) were often nonsignificant. The mean percentage of the herd using shade was highest in mid-morning (87-96%) and early afternoon (97%), but also increased with BGTsun regardless of the time of day; these trends were similar for both dark- and light-colored cattle. Lying down was the dominant behavior exhibited in the shade, while foraging was the most prevalent behavior in the sun. When herd shade usage was lowest in mid- to late-afternoon (<1%) we also observed an increase in the use of heat-mitigating orientations in the sun (37-47%). We discuss some practical implications of these results, including the potential use of temperature thresholds to interpret cattle behaviors and shade usage.

  16. Modeling shade tree use by beef cattle as a function of black globe temperature and time of day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foust, Amanda M.; Headlee, William L.

    2017-08-01

    Increasing temperatures associated with global climate change threaten to disrupt agricultural systems such as beef production, yet relatively little is known about the use of natural tree shade to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress on beef cattle. In this study, we evaluated how temperature and time of day influenced the utilization of tree shade in relation to coloration, orientation, and behavior of beef cattle in a pasture system. Temperatures in shade and direct sunlight were measured using black globe temperature (BGT) data loggers. Time-lapse images from game cameras were used to obtain counts of shade usage, coloration, orientation, and behavior of cattle throughout the daytime hours. In general, we found that shade utilization and most of the predominating orientations and behaviors differed significantly (P < 0.05) by both time of day (Hour) and BGT in direct sunlight (BGTsun), while interactions between these two effects (Hour × BGTsun) were often nonsignificant. The mean percentage of the herd using shade was highest in mid-morning (87-96%) and early afternoon (97%), but also increased with BGTsun regardless of the time of day; these trends were similar for both dark- and light-colored cattle. Lying down was the dominant behavior exhibited in the shade, while foraging was the most prevalent behavior in the sun. When herd shade usage was lowest in mid- to late-afternoon (<1%) we also observed an increase in the use of heat-mitigating orientations in the sun (37-47%). We discuss some practical implications of these results, including the potential use of temperature thresholds to interpret cattle behaviors and shade usage.

  17. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: predictability of feedlot cattle growth performance.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; DiLorenzo, N; McMeniman, J P; Defoor, P J

    2011-06-01

    Predicting performance is vital to management and marketing decisions in commercial feedlots. Agreement between performance predicted from NE equations or empirical regression relationships and actual performance is generally very good, suggesting that factors affecting performance by finishing cattle are fairly well documented. The challenge for feedlot managers is to predict performance with limited information at the start of the feeding period. Data on sex and initial shrunk BW (ISBW) are typically available when cattle start on feed. Relationships between ISBW, sex, and performance were evaluated using 3,363 pen records collected over 4 yr from 3 commercial feedlots in the Texas Panhandle. Mixed-model regression was used to account for random effects of feedlot × season × year and fixed effects of ISBW (range = 227 to 451 kg), sex (steer or heifer), and ISBW × sex (P < 0.10 for all variables evaluated). Previously developed equations indicated that with intercept and slope adjustments for sex, ISBW accounted for 76 and 84% of the variation in DMI and final shrunk BW (FSBW), respectively. Similarly, newly developed regression equations that included ISBW, sex, and ISBW × sex accounted for 46 and 81% of the variation in ADG and HCW, respectively. Initial BW was negatively related to G:F (R(2) = 0.22). Including early DMI data (DMI from d 8 to 28) increased R(2) and decreased prediction error for DMI, indicating that updating predictions with interim intake data might prove beneficial. An independent data set (781 lots of steers and heifers) collected during 1 yr from 2 Texas Panhandle feedlots was used to validate equations developed with the larger database. Dry matter intake predicted from ISBW and sex accounted for 69% of the variation in observed DMI (SE of prediction = 0.47; mean bias = 0.42 kg). Predicting DMI with ISBW, sex, and DMI from d 8 to 28 of the feeding period increased r(2) to 0.76 and slightly decreased the SE of prediction (0.42 kg), but

  19. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: 1. Metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test in beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperamental cattle are behaviorally, physiologically, and immunologically different in comparison to calm cattle. Recently, the metabolic differences between temperamental and calm cattle have begun to be explored; temperamental cattle maintain greater circulating concentrations of non-esterified ...

  20. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  1. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, Ralf M.; McGinn, Sean M.; Crenna, Brian P.; Flesch, Thomas K.; Hayden, Katherine L.; Li, Shao-Meng

    2009-12-01

    In Canada approximately 45% of ammonia (NH 3) emissions are attributed to dairy and beef cattle industries. The present study focused on NH 3 emissions from a beef feedlot with a one-time capacity of 17,220 head. The aim was to improve the Canadian NH 3 emission inventories and air quality forecasting capabilities. A Cessna 207, equipped with a fast-response NH 3/NO y detector and a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, was flown in a grid pattern covering an area of 8 × 8 km centered on a feedlot (800 × 800 m) at altitudes ranging from 30 to 300 m above ground. Stationary ground measurements of NH 3 concentration and turbulence parameters were made downwind of the feedlot. Three flights were conducted under varying meteorological conditions, ranging from very calm to windy with near-neutral stratification. NH 3 mixing ratios up to 100 ppbv were recorded on the calm day, up to 300 m above ground. An average feedlot NH 3 emission rate of 76 ± 4 μg m -2 s -1 (equivalent to 10.2 g head -1 h -1) was estimated. Characteristics of the measured NH 3 plume were compared to those predicted by a Lagrangian dispersion model. The spatially integrated pattern of NH 3 concentrations predicted and measured agreed but the measured was often more complex than the predicted spatial distribution. The study suggests that the export of NH 3 through advection accounted for about 90% of the emissions from the feedlot, chemical transformation was insignificant, and dry deposition accounted for the remaining 10%.

  2. Prevalence and concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in beef cattle paddock soils and forage.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Douglas G; Kuczynska, Ewa

    2010-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoan of great interest because of its widespread occurrence in surface waters, high degree of infectivity, and difficulty of risk management associated with its presence and control. Information about environmental loading and seasonal prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts is important for development of watershed management plans to protect public health. Healthy adult beef cattle are known to shed oocysts into the environment, and Cryptosporidium oocysts are often present all year in streams and groundwater in livestock agriculture areas. Surface soil and forage samples from 12 Virginia, United States, paddocks were analyzed bimonthly over 3 years for the presence and concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Half of the paddocks were grazed by stocker beef from November to September. The other half were managed for hay, but were grazed for a few days by the same animals in late fall and early spring to clean up late fall forage regrowth. Annual mean oocyst prevalences in soil were 57.9% and 48.4% in pasture and hay paddocks, respectively. Mean annual oocyst prevalences on forage were 52.4% and 40.5% in pasture and hay paddocks, respectively. Prevalence and concentration of oocysts on hay forage was highest in summer. Oocyst concentrations increased with increasing prevalences in both management systems. Wild animals appeared to be efficient vectors for oocyst distribution among paddocks. Canopy management, short-cycle rotational grazing, and control of wildlife are potential strategies for reduction of Cryptosporidium oocysts in pasture and lessening risk of contamination of water supplies, but further studies are needed before recommendations can be made.

  3. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (P<0.001). Resulting models were validated with an independent dataset of 172 treatment means from 20 studies. To illustrate the scale of improvement on predicted CH4 outputs from the current whole-farm prediction approach (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]), equations developed in the present study (NewEqs) were compared with the IPCC equation {CH4 (g/d)=[(GEI×Ym)×1,000]/55.65}, in which GEI is GE intake and Ym is the CH4 emission factor, in calculating CH4 outputs from 4 diverse beef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total

  4. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    PubMed

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  5. Genotype × environment interaction in individual performance and progeny tests in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Raidan, F S S; Passafaro, T L; Fragomeni, B O; Josahkian, L A; Pereira, I G; Toral, F L B

    2015-03-01

    The study reported here evaluated genotype × environment interaction in individual performance and progeny tests in beef cattle. Genetic parameters for final weight (FW), ADG, and scrotal circumference (SC) of 33,013 Nellore young bulls tested on pasture or in feedlots were analyzed. The posterior means (and highest posterior density interval with 90% of samples [HPD90]) of heritability for traits measured on pasture-raised and feedlot-raised animals were 0.44 (HPD90 = 0.40 to 0.48) and 0.50 (HPD90 = 0.43 to 0.56) for FW, 0.26 (HPD90 = 0.23 to 0.29) and 0.26 (HPD90 = 0.20 to 0.32) for ADG, and 0.53 (HPD90 = 0.48 to 0.59) and 0.65 (HPD90 = 0.55 to 0.74) for SC, respectively. The posterior means (and HPD90) of genetic correlations for FW, ADG, and SC on pasture and in feedlots were 0.75 (HPD90 = 0.66 to 0.87), 0.49 (HPD90 = 0.31 to 0.66), and 0.89 (HPD90 = 0.83 to 0.97), respectively. When the selection intensity was kept the same for both the environments, the greatest direct responses for FW and ADG were exhibited by the animals reared and selected in feedlots. The correlated responses relative to production on pasture and based on selection in feedlots were similar to the direct responses, whereas the correlated responses for production in feedlots and based on selection on pasture were lower than the direct responses. When the selection intensity on pasture was higher than the selection intensity in feedlots, the responses to direct selection were similar for both the environments and correlated responses obtained in feedlots by selection on pasture were similar to the direct responses in feedlots. Analyses of few or poor indicators of genotype × environment interaction result in incorrect interpretations of its existence and implications. The present work demonstrated that traits with lower heritability are more susceptible to genotype × environment interaction and that selection intensity plays an important role in the study of genotype × environment

  6. Validation of national genetic evaluations for maternal beef cattle traits using Irish field data.

    PubMed

    McHugh, N; Cromie, A R; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2014-04-01

    Genetic evaluations provide information to aid in breeding decisions that increase long-term performance of animals and herds. However, to date no study has been undertaken to investigate the accuracy of the Irish maternal genetic evaluations in beef cattle. The objective, therefore, of this study was to quantify the relationship between phenotypic performance and measures of genetic merit for predominantly maternal-related traits in Irish beef cattle. The association between animal EBV for calving interval, age at first calving, and both direct and maternal weaning weight with the respective phenotypic performance was quantified using a fixed effects model; the expectation for the regression coefficient of phenotypic performance on EBV was one. The association between genetic merit for cow survival, perinatal mortality, calving assistance, and calving dystocia with the log of the odds of the respective trait was quantified using logistic regression. The association analyses were conducted using field data on up to 38,619 records from 5,236 herds. Age at first calving increased linearly by 0.32 ± 0.15 (P = 0.03) days per day increase in EBV for age at first calving. Calving interval increased by, on average, 0.58 ± 0.16 (P = 0.002) days per day increase in EBV for calving interval although the association differed by parity with a greater association in pluriparae. Weaning weight increased linearly by 1.74 ± 0.09 and 0.84 ± 0.16 kg (P < 0.001) per kilogram increase in EBV for direct and maternal weaning weight, respectively. The log of the odds of a cow surviving to next lactation increased linearly by 0.16 ± 0.03 (P < 0.001) per unit increase in EBV for cow survival. The log of the odds of an assisted calving or dystocia both increased linearly by 0.21 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01, respectively, per unit increase in EBV for direct calving difficulty (P < 0.001). The log of the odds of a dead calf at birth increased linearly by 0.93 ± 0.13 (P < 0.001) per unit

  7. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  8. Technical note: Evaluation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Mang, A V; Cook, N; Orsel, K; Timsit, E

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral observations are important to detect illness in beef cattle. However, traditional observation techniques are time and labor intensive and may be subjective. The objective was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle (Fedometer [FEDO]; ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel). Sixteen steers (initial BW ± SD = 326 ± 46 kg) were fitted with data loggers (FEDO) on their left front leg and housed in a pen with a feedbunk equipped with an antenna emitting an electromagnetic field that reached 30 ± 2 cm in front of the feedbunk. Feedbunk attendance (duration of visit and frequency of meals) measured by FEDO was compared with live observations (27 observational periods lasting between 72 and 240 min; mean 126 min). Lying time and frequency of lying bouts were compared with previously validated accelerometers fitted to the hind leg (10 steers equipped for 10 to 12 d; HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger [HOBO]; Onset Computer Corporation, Pocasset, MA). Step counts were compared with video recordings (15 observations for 6-min intervals in 6 steers). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), accounting for repeated measures, and limits of agreement were computed. Comparison between FEDO and observed time at the feedbunk yielded a CCC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99). All 68 meal events observed were recorded by FEDO. However, FEDO recorded 4 meal events during the 27 observational periods that were not observed. Lying time measured by HOBO and FEDO were highly correlated (CCC = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99). However, frequency of lying bouts measured by FEDO was only moderately correlated to HOBO (CCC = 0.71; 95% CI 0.63-0.77); FEDO underestimating the number of lying bouts (on average, 0.4 fewer bouts per 6 h). Step count by FEDO was moderately correlated to video observations (CCC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-0.89); FEDO overestimating the number of steps (on average, 5 more steps per 6 min). In conclusion, the FEDO

  9. Accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in Angus and Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Schenkel, F; Vinsky, M; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-10-01

    In beef cattle, phenotypic data that are difficult and/or costly to measure, such as feed efficiency, and DNA marker genotypes are usually available on a small number of animals of different breeds or populations. To achieve a maximal accuracy of genomic prediction using the phenotype and genotype data, strategies for forming a training population to predict genomic breeding values (GEBV) of the selection candidates need to be evaluated. In this study, we examined the accuracy of predicting GEBV for residual feed intake (RFI) based on 522 Angus and 395 Charolais steers genotyped on SNP with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 Beadchip for 3 training population forming strategies: within breed, across breed, and by pooling data from the 2 breeds (i.e., combined). Two other scenarios with the training and validation data split by birth year and by sire family within a breed were also investigated to assess the impact of genetic relationships on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Three statistical methods including the best linear unbiased prediction with the relationship matrix defined based on the pedigree (PBLUP), based on the SNP genotypes (GBLUP), and a Bayesian method (BayesB) were used to predict the GEBV. The results showed that the accuracy of the GEBV prediction was the highest when the prediction was within breed and when the validation population had greater genetic relationships with the training population, with a maximum of 0.58 for Angus and 0.64 for Charolais. The within-breed prediction accuracies dropped to 0.29 and 0.38, respectively, when the validation populations had a minimal pedigree link with the training population. When the training population of a different breed was used to predict the GEBV of the validation population, that is, across-breed genomic prediction, the accuracies were further reduced to 0.10 to 0.22, depending on the prediction method used. Pooling data from the 2 breeds to form the training population resulted in accuracies increased

  10. Genetic control of residual variance of yearling weight in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Iung, L H S; Neves, H H R; Mulder, H A; Carvalheiro, R

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence for genetic variability in residual variance of livestock traits, which offers the potential for selection for increased uniformity of production. Different statistical approaches have been employed to study this topic; however, little is known about the concordance between them. The aim of our study was to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on yearling weight (YW; 291.15 ± 46.67) in a Nellore beef cattle population; to compare the results of the statistical approaches, the two-step approach and the double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM); and to evaluate the effectiveness of power transformation to accommodate scale differences. The comparison was based on genetic parameters, accuracy of EBV for residual variance, and cross-validation to assess predictive performance of both approaches. A total of 194,628 yearling weight records from 625 sires were used in the analysis. The results supported the hypothesis of genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on YW in Nellore beef cattle and the opportunity of selection, measured through the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance (0.10 to 0.12 for the two-step approach and 0.17 for DHGLM, using an untransformed data set). However, low estimates of genetic variance associated with positive genetic correlations between mean and residual variance (about 0.20 for two-step and 0.76 for DHGLM for an untransformed data set) limit the genetic response to selection for uniformity of production while simultaneously increasing YW itself. Moreover, large sire families are needed to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for residual variance, as indicated by the low heritability estimates (<0.007). Box-Cox transformation was able to decrease the dependence of the variance on the mean and decreased the estimates of genetic parameters for residual variance. The transformation reduced but did not eliminate all the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance

  11. Neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥ 100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low

  12. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment.

  13. Hair Analysis to Monitor the Illegal Use of Salbutamol in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Liu, Shengsheng; Tang, Chaohua; Su, Chuanyou; Meng, Qingshi

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the concentrations of salbutamol residues in red and white hair of cattle during and after salbutamol administration. Three Chinese Simmental beef cattle received an oral administration of 150 μg/kg body weight/d salbutamol for 21 consecutive days. Salbutamol concentrations were determined on Days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of administration and on Days 7, 14, 28, 42, and 70 following the last administration dose using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of salbutamol that eluted from hair were determined. The results revealed that salbutamol concentrations were higher in red hair than in white hair on the same sampling day (P < 0.01). In red hair, salbutamol concentrations increased from 29.82 ± 1.8 ng/g on Day 1 of administration to 442.55 ± 250.29 ng/g on Day 21 of administration, and decreased to 33.36 ± 19.22 ng/g on Day 70 after the last administration. In white hair, salbutamol concentrations changed from 4.25 ± 0.32 ng/g on Day 1 of administration to 33.81 ± 6.44 ng/g and 12.25 ± 2.51 ng/g on Days 14 and 70, respectively, after the last administration. The concentrations of salbutamol that eluted from white hair on Days 1 and 7 were 22.94 ± 2.00 ng/g and 92.94 ± 22.49 ng/g, respectively. Our findings revealed that hair is an appropriate biological matrix for assessing the illegal use of salbutamol in animal husbandry.

  14. Chemical and physical changes following co-composting of beef cattle feedlot manure with phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Larney, Francis J; Nichol, Connie K; Olson, Andrew F; Miller, Jim J; Demaere, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss during beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot manure composting may contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and increase ammonia (NH(3)) in the atmosphere while decreasing the fertilizer value of the final compost. Phosphogypsum (PG) is an acidic by-product of phosphorus (P) fertilizer manufacture and large stockpiles currently exist in Alberta. This experiment examined co-composting of PG (at rates of 0, 40, 70, and 140 kg PG Mg(-1) manure plus PG dry weight) with manure from feedlot pens bedded with straw or wood chips. During the 99-d composting period, PG addition reduced total nitrogen (TN) loss by 0.11% for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate. Available N at the end of composting was significantly higher for wood chip-bedded (2180 mg kg(-1)) than straw-bedded manure treatments (1820 mg kg(-1)). Total sulfur (TS) concentration in the final compost increased by 0.19 g kg(-1) for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate from 5.2 g TS kg(-1) without PG addition. Phosphogypsum (1.6 g kg(-1) P) addition had no significant effect on total phosphorus (TP) concentration of the final composts. Results from this study demonstrate the potential of PG addition to reduce overall N losses during composting. The accompanying increase in TS content has implications for use of the end-product on sulfur-deficient soils. Co-composting feedlot manure with PG may provide an inexpensive and technologically straightforward solution for managing and improving the nutrient composition of composted cattle manure.

  15. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration.

  16. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration. PMID:26733733

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-07-14

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips.

  18. Clinical and Serological Dynamics of Besnoitia besnoiti Infection in Three Endemically Infected Beef Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Expósito, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; García-Lunar, P; Rojo-Montejo, S; Zabala, J; Serrano, M; Alvarez-García, G

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of bovine besnoitiosis were studied in an area where the disease is endemic. A four-year longitudinal study was conducted for the first time in three infected beef cattle herds located in the Urbasa-Andía Mountains (Navarra, Spain). Each herd was visited four to seven times, and clinical and serological prevalence rates and incidence rates were estimated. Clinical inspections to identify compatible clinical signs with the disease stages were conducted at the beginning and end of the study. Serological assessment was initially performed by ELISA. Seronegative animals with clinical signs and seropositive animals with relative index per cent (RIPC) values lower than 30 that did not increase during the study period were analysed by Western blot to optimize the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test. Clinical prevalence rates were slightly higher (62% on average) than the seroprevalence rates (50% on average), and tissue cysts located in the vestibulum vaginae and sclera were the most frequently detected clinical signs. The proportion of seropositive animals with clinical signs varied from 16.7% to 73.6% among the herds, and 17% of cattle with clinical signs proved to be seronegative by both serological tests. An average 22% serological incidence rate was also reported in addition to clinical incidence rates that varied from 12.5% to 16.7%. Additionally, parasitemia was investigated in the herd that showed the highest clinical and seroprevalence rates. Only one PCR positive blood sample was detected. Thus, the role that blood may play in parasite transmission needs to be further investigated. Infected herds maintained both high prevalence and incidence rates in the absence of control measures and a high number of parasite carriers. Finally, economic impact studies on reproductive and productive losses associated with besnoitiosis need to be performed to implement a cost-benefit control programme.

  19. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; Daures, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Behavior, type traits, and muscular development are of interest for beef cattle breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of candidate genes, which enables gene-based selection and provides insight in the genetic architecture of these traits. The objective of the current study was to perform a GWAS for 3 behavior traits, 12 type traits, and muscular development in Charolais cattle. Behavior traits, including aggressiveness at parturition, aggressiveness during gestation period, and maternal care, were scored by farmers. Type traits, including udder conformation, teat, feet and legs, and locomotion, were scored by trained classifiers. Data used in the GWAS consisted of 3,274 cows with phenotypic records and genotyping information for 44,930 SNP. When SNP had a false discovery rate (FDR) smaller than 0.05, they were referred to as significant. When SNP had a FDR between 0.05 and 0.20, they were referred to as suggestive. Four significant and 12 suggestive regions were detected for aggressiveness during gestation, maternal care, udder balance, teat thinness, teat length, foot angle, foot depth, and locomotion. These 4 significant and 12 suggestive regions were not supported by other significant SNP in close proximity. No SNP with major effects were detected for behavior and type traits, and SNP associations for these traits were spread across the genome, suggesting that behavior and type traits were influenced by many genes, each explaining a small part of genetic variance. The GWAS identified 1 region on chromosome 2 significantly associated with muscular development, which included the myostatin gene (), which is known to affect muscularity. No other regions associated with muscular development were found. Results showed that the myostatin region associated with muscular development had pleiotropic effects on udder volume, teat thinness, rear leg, and leg angle.

  20. Genetic variation in monoamine oxidase A and analysis of association with behaviour traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lühken, G; Glenske, K; Brandt, H; Erhardt, G

    2010-10-01

    Husbandry of beef cattle requires animals that do not behave aggressively or timidly. The enzyme monoamine oxidase A and the coding gene (MAOA) play an important role in the complex regulation of behaviour. The complete coding region and a part of the non-coding sequence of the bovine MAOA gene have been analysed in 20 German Angus and 20 German Simmental bulls and cows with the aim of detecting genetic variability. These two cattle breeds are known to differ regarding their behaviour during handling. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, three of which were found in the coding region of the gene (exons III and XV). One of the SNPs located in exon XV (NC_007331.3:g.80340C>T) was found to be a non-synonymous mutation. The minor allele frequency of this resulting amino acid substitution was significantly different between 543 German Angus and 417 German Simmental calves (0.39 and 0.49, respectively). The potential functional impact of this polymorphism has been tested by in silico analysis, as well as by association analysis using behaviour scores of the genotyped calves for three behaviour tests that assessed the animals' temperament during tethering, weighing or social separation. In silico analysis did not deliver consistent results arguing for or against a functional impact of the studied amino acid substitution on the function of the biological protein. No significant association was found between this MAOA polymorphism and the behaviour-related scores analysed in the study. Copyright 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Cooled semen for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Borges-Silva, Juliana C; Silva, Márcio R; Marinho, Daniel B; Nogueira, Eriklis; Sampaio, Deiler C; Oliveira, Luiz Orcírio F; Abreu, Urbano G P; Mourão, Gerson B; Sartori, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the use of cooled semen in a fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) program compared with frozen-thawed semen to improve pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Ejaculates of three bulls were collected and divided into two treatments: (1) frozen-thawed semen and (2) cooled semen. Egg-yolk extender without glycerol was used for the cooled semen treatment. Straws (25×10(6) spermatozoa) were submitted to cooling for preservation at 5°C for 24h, after which FTAI was performed. Nelore cows (n=838) submitted to FTAI were randomly inseminated using frozen-thawed semen or cooled semen. There was a 20% increase in the pregnancy per AI (P AI(-1)) using cooled semen compared with frozen-thawed semen (59.9±4.7 vs 49.4±5.0%; P<0.005). There was no difference in P AI(-1) among the bulls (P=0.40). The frozen-thawed semen had fewer functional spermatozoa than did the cooled semen when evaluated by sperm motility (61.7 vs 81.0%), slow thermoresistance test (41.7 vs 66.7%) and hypoosmotic swelling test (38.3 vs 53.7%; P<0.05). The percentage of sperm abnormalities did not differ between the freeze-thawing and cooling processes (18.6 vs 22.1%; P>0.05). Because there was less damage to spermatozoa and improvement in P AI(-1), the use of cooled semen instead of frozen-thawed semen is an interesting approach to increase reproductive efficiency in cattle submitted to a FTAI protocol.

  2. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-09-08

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  3. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P < 0.10) for an association with the previously described marker in GPE6. Closer examination of the GPE6 data revealed that the source of the tendency was an association (P < 0.02) with marbling in animals of Wagyu inheritance. Animals having Wagyu background and inheriting the TT genotype had a greater marbling score (599 +/- 20) than those inheriting the CC (540 +/- 10) or the CT (541 +/- 11) genotype. No association was detected with any other carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961-2010.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China׳s beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961-2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18Mt to 5.86Mt and from 7.93kt-29.56kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09Mt and 0.12 to 7.90kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961-2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961-2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices.

  5. Performance of genomic selection under a single-step approach in autochthonous Spanish beef cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Mouresan, E-F; Altarriba, J; Moreno, C; Munilla, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Varona, L

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated different strategies for implementing a single-step genomic selection programme in two autochthonous Spanish beef cattle populations (Pirenaica-Pi and Rubia Gallega-RG). The strategies were compared in terms of accuracy attained under different scenarios by simulating genomic data over the known genealogy. Several genotyping approaches were tested, as well as, other factors like marker density, effective population size, mutation rate and heritability of the trait. The results obtained showed gains in accuracy with respect to pedigree BLUP evaluation in all cases. The greatest benefit was obtained when the candidates to selection had their genotypes included in the evaluation. Moreover, genotyping the individuals with the most accurate predictions maximized the gains but other suboptimal strategies also yielded satisfactory results. Furthermore, the gains in accuracy increased with the marker density reaching a plateau at around 50,000 markers. Likewise, the effective population size and the mutation rate have also shown an effect, both increasing the accuracy with decreasing values of these population parameters. Finally, the results obtained for the RG population showed greater gains compared to the Pi population, probably attributed to the wider implantation of artificial insemination. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Bayesian inference in genetic parameter estimation of visual scores in Nellore beef-cattle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the components of variance and genetic parameters for the visual scores which constitute the Morphological Evaluation System (MES), such as body structure (S), precocity (P) and musculature (M) in Nellore beef-cattle at the weaning and yearling stages, by using threshold Bayesian models. The information used for this was gleaned from visual scores of 5,407 animals evaluated at the weaning and 2,649 at the yearling stages. The genetic parameters for visual score traits were estimated through two-trait analysis, using the threshold animal model, with Bayesian statistics methodology and MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampler for Animal Models) threshold software. Heritability estimates for S, P and M were 0.68, 0.65 and 0.62 (at weaning) and 0.44, 0.38 and 0.32 (at the yearling stage), respectively. Heritability estimates for S, P and M were found to be high, and so it is expected that these traits should respond favorably to direct selection. The visual scores evaluated at the weaning and yearling stages might be used in the composition of new selection indexes, as they presented sufficient genetic variability to promote genetic progress in such morphological traits. PMID:21637450

  7. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 μg m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  8. Residues of Salbutamol and Identification of Its Metabolites in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi; Du, Wei; Bo, Tao; Zhao, Qingyu; Liang, Xiaowei; Liu, Shengsheng; Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Junmin

    2017-04-05

    Salbutamol, a selective β2-agonist, endangers the safety of animal products because of its illegal use in food animals. In this work, residues of salbutamol and its metabolites were investigated to select appropriate targets and marker residues for monitoring the illegal use of salbutamol. Ten metabolites of salbutamol were identified from plasma, urine, liver, and kidney samples; of these, six were newly identified. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the parent (nonconjugated) and total (conjugated + nonconjugated) salbutamol concentrations in plasma, urine, liver, and kidney tissues. Salbutamol residues in urine were relatively higher than those in plasma and other internal tissues during the dosing period and were rapidly eliminated from plasma, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues during the withdrawal time. Total salbutamol was identified as more preferable than parent salbutamol as a marker residue, and urine and eye tissues were found to be more suitable as targets for preslaughter and postslaughter monitoring of the illegal use of salbutamol in beef cattle.

  9. Characterization of multi-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from beef cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Nakano, Motoki; Kitagawa, Wataru; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Hirai, Katsuya; Asano, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistance bacteria is increasing, which is a particular concern on livestock farms. We previously isolated 1,347 antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli strains from the feces of beef cattle on 14 Japanese farms. In the present study, the genetic backgrounds and phylogenetic relationships of 45 AMR isolates were characterized by the chromosome phylotype, AMR phenotype, AMR genotype, and plasmid type. These isolates were classified into five chromosome phylotypes, which were closely linked to the farms from which they were isolated, suggesting that each farm had its own E. coli phylotype. AMR phenotype and plasmid type analyses yielded 8 and 14 types, all of which were associated with the chromosomal phylotype and, thus, to the original farms. AMR genotype analysis revealed more variety, with 16 types, indicating both inter- and intra-farm diversity. Different phylotype isolates from the same farm shared highly similar plasmid types, which indicated that plasmids with AMR genes could be transferred between phylotypes, thereby generating multi-antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This ecological study demonstrated that the chromosome phylotype was strongly correlated with the farm from which they were isolated, while the AMR phenotype, genotype, and plasmid type were generally correlated with the chromosome phylotype and farm source.

  10. Understanding beef-cattle farming management strategies by identifying motivations behind farmers' priorities.

    PubMed

    Magne, M A; Cerf, M; Ingrand, S

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify and better understand management strategies that help livestock farmers adapt to changes in their production contexts, a fundamental challenge. A total of nine beef-cattle farmers were interviewed three times over 1 year to discuss 13 dimensions of livestock farming (e.g. reproduction, feeding, sales, etc.). Characterisation of management strategies rested on three main factors: (i) ranking of the dimensions according to the degree to which farmers desired to control them, (ii) reasons for the ranking and (iii) management guidelines. Although farmers agreed upon the rank of certain dimensions, such as herd management, they differed on that of others, such as sales and administration/regulations. Four motivation categories were identified: risk, pleasure, efficiency and ability to control the dimension. Three management guidelines were identified, which indicated that farmers managed for future survival of their farms at different scales (animal/herd v. whole-farm), involving different resources (biological v. financial) and based on different animal categories (reproductive cows v. animals sold). These results improve understanding of individual livestock farmers and their current management strategies by integrating the motivations behind their strategies. For this reason, they constitute methodological elements that agricultural advisors can use to provide relevant information to farmers while accommodating differences in farm management.

  11. Maternal energy status of beef cattle during single and twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Koong, L J; Anderson, G B; Garrett, W N

    1982-03-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the metabolizable energy (ME) intake and ME requirement for beef heifers and cows during twin pregnancy. Weekly feed consumption and body weights were recorded during the last trimester of twin pregnancy for 19 Hereford cows and 16 Hereford heifers. The same data were recorded for six Hereford cows and eight Hereford heifers that calved singles. ME intake per unit of metabolic body size was higher for heifers than cows (P less than .05), but was not affected by whether the dam was pregnant with a single or with twins. In general, ME intake decreased during the last trimester of pregnancy. During this time, heifers and cows with singles gained weight (pregnant weight minus weight of the conceptus), while dams with twins lost weight (P less than .01). The greatest weight loss for dams with twins was observed late in pregnancy. The ME requirement of pregnancy was greater for dams with twins than singles (P less than 0.01), and the difference in maintenance ME requirement approached significance (P less than .10). The high ME requirement for the twin pregnancy and the weight loss experienced by dams during the last trimester may have implications for management decisions pertaining to the prevention of complications that often occur with twin pregnancy in cattle.

  12. Candidate gene region for control of rib eye area in Canchim beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, S L; Gouveia, G V; Gasparin, G; Alencar, M M; Gouveia, J J S; Regitano, L C A

    2011-06-21

    Investigation of molecular marker effects on production traits is essential to define marker assisted selection strategies in beef cattle. We looked for a possible association of molecular markers and backfat thickness (BFT) and rib eye area (REA) in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and MA (offspring of Charolais bulls and 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Zebu cows) animals raised exclusively on pasture. Traits were measured on 987 individuals from seven herds from two Brazilian States (São Paulo and Goiás), in March and April from 2005 to 2007, when animals were, on average, 19 months of age. Five microsatellite markers lying in QTL regions for BFT and REA (BMS490 and ETH10 on chromosome 5, INRA133 and ILSTS090 on chromosome 6, and BMS2142 on chromosome 19) were genotyped and association analyses were performed under an animal model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. After correction for multiple tests, a significant effect of microsatellite BMS490 on REA was observed, suggesting that at least one QTL affecting carcass traits in this region of the BTA5. No significant effect on BFT was observed for these markers.

  13. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian; Parker, David B; Snow, Daniel D; Zhou, Zhi; Li, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3×10(-1) copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) infections in transported commingled beef cattle and sole-source ranch calves

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Robert W.; Step, Douglas L.; Wahrmund, Jackie; Burge, Lurinda J.; Payton, Mark E.; Cook, Billy J.; Burken, Dirk; Richards, Chris J.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated bovine coronavirus (BCV) in both beef calves direct from the ranch and commingled, mixed-source calves obtained from an auction market. The level of BCV-neutralizing antibodies found in the calves varied among ranches in 2 different studies in a retained-ownership program (ROP), from the ranch to the feedlot. Calves with low levels of BCV-neutralizing antibodies (16 or less) were more likely to be treated for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) than those with higher titers. In 3 studies of commingled, mixed-source calves, BCV was recovered from calves at entry to the feedlot and the infections were cleared by day 8. The BCV was identified in lung samples [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collection] as well as in nasal swabs. Calves with low levels of BCV-neutralizing antibodies at entry were most likely to be shedding BCV. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from both healthy and sick calves, but not from sick calves after 4 d arrival at the feedlot. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) should be considered along with other bovine respiratory viruses in the diagnosis of etiologies in bovine respiratory disease, especially for animals that become sick shortly after arrival. If approved vaccines are developed, it would be best to carry out vaccination programs before calves are weaned, giving them sufficient time to gain active immunity before commingling with other cattle. PMID:22210995

  15. Evaluation of indirect biomarkers for detecting corticosteroids used as illegal growth promoters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vascellari, M; Pozza, G; Poppi, L; Capello, K; Angeletti, R; Ravarotto, L; Andrighetto, I; Mutinelli, F

    2008-08-02

    The histological status of the thymus, blood cortisol concentration and circulating neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were evaluated in 349 slaughtered beef cattle, to assess the potential of these parameters as indirect biomarkers of the illegal use of corticosteroids in meat production. The livers of 20 of the animals were analysed chemically for residues of corticosteroids. The morphology of the thymus was examined for adipose tissue infiltration, cortical atrophy and 'starry sky' appearance, and on the basis of these characteristics, the animals were considered to be negative, suspected or positive for illegal corticosteroid treatment. The animals considered to be negative had a mean cortisol concentration that was significantly higher (29 ng/ml) than that of the animals suspected for corticosteroid treatment (22 ng/ml). Using the chemical analysis as the gold standard for identifying illegally treated animals, the histological examination of the thymus had a sensitivity of 100 per cent and a specificity of 85 per cent. The samples that were positive by chemical analysis had cortisol concentrations of less than 2.0 ng/ml, whereas the mean cortisol concentration of the negative samples was 10.3 ng/ml.

  16. Whole genome scan reveals the genetic signature of African Ankole cattle breed and potential for higher quality beef.

    PubMed

    Taye, Mengistie; Kim, Jaemin; Yoon, Sook Hee; Lee, Wonseok; Hanotte, Olivier; Dessie, Tadelle; Kemp, Stephen; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2017-02-09

    Africa is home to numerous cattle breeds whose diversity has been shaped by subtle combinations of human and natural selection. African Sanga cattle are an intermediate type of cattle resulting from interbreeding between Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Recently, research has asserted the potential of Sanga breeds for commercial beef production with better meat quality as compared to Bos indicus breeds. Here, we identified meat quality related gene regions that are positively selected in Ankole (Sanga) cattle breeds as compared to indicus (Boran, Ogaden, and Kenana) breeds using cross-population (XP-EHH and XP-CLR) statistical methods. We identified 238 (XP-EHH) and 213 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes, of which 97 were detected from both statistics. Among the genes obtained, we primarily reported those involved in different biological process and pathways associated with meat quality traits. Genes (CAPZB, COL9A2, PDGFRA, MAP3K5, ZNF410, and PKM2) involved in muscle structure and metabolism affect meat tenderness. Genes (PLA2G2A, PARK2, ZNF410, MAP2K3, PLCD3, PLCD1, and ROCK1) related to intramuscular fat (IMF) are involved in adipose metabolism and adipogenesis. MB and SLC48A1 affect meat color. In addition, we identified genes (TIMP2, PKM2, PRKG1, MAP3K5, and ATP8A1) related to feeding efficiency. Among the enriched Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO BP) terms, actin cytoskeleton organization, actin filament-based process, and protein ubiquitination are associated with meat tenderness whereas cellular component organization, negative regulation of actin filament depolymerization and negative regulation of protein complex disassembly are involved in adipocyte regulation. The MAPK pathway is responsible for cell proliferation and plays an important role in hyperplastic growth, which has a positive effect on meat tenderness. Results revealed several candidate genes positively selected in Ankole cattle in relation to meat quality characteristics. The genes

  17. Cell Biology Symposium: genetics of feed efficiency in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Crowley, J J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing food production for the growing human population off a constraining land base will require greater efficiency of production. Genetic improvement of feed efficiency in cattle, which is cumulative and permanent, is one likely vehicle to achieving efficiency gains. The objective of this review is to summarize genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits in dairy and beef cattle and also to address some of the misconceptions associated with feed efficiency in these sectors, as well as discuss the potential use of feed efficiency in breeding programs. A meta-analysis of up to 39 scientific publications in growing cattle clearly showed that genetic variation in feed efficiency exists with a pooled heritability for residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion efficiency of 0.33 ± 0.01 (range of 0.07 to 0.62) and 0.23 ± 0.01 (range of 0.06 to 0.46), respectively. Heritability estimates for feed efficiency in cows were lower; a meta-analysis of up to 11 estimates revealed heritability estimates for gross feed efficiency and RFI of 0.06 ± 0.010 and 0.04 ± 0.008, respectively. Meta-analysis of genetic correlations between feed intake, feed efficiency and other performance traits are presented, and selection index theory is used to calculate the proportion of genetic variation in feed intake that can be explained by easy to measure, and often already collected, data. A large proportion of the genetic variation in feed intake could be explained in both growing animals and lactating animals using up to 5 predictor traits, including BW, growth rate, milk yield, body composition, and linear type traits reflecting body size and muscularity. Knowledge of genetic merit for feed intake can be used, along with estimates of genetic merit for energy sinks, to calculate genetic merit for feed efficiency. Therefore, the marginal benefit of collecting actual feed intake data, using the genetic parameters used in this study, appears to be low. There is now sufficient

  18. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle.

  19. Detection of selection signatures in dairy and beef cattle using high-density genomic information.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuping; McParland, Sinead; Kearney, Francis; Du, Lixin; Berry, Donagh P

    2015-06-19

    Artificial selection for economically important traits in cattle is expected to have left distinctive selection signatures on the genome. Access to high-density genotypes facilitates the accurate identification of genomic regions that have undergone positive selection. These findings help to better elucidate the mechanisms of selection and to identify candidate genes of interest to breeding programs. Information on 705 243 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3122 dairy and beef male animals from seven cattle breeds (Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein-Friesian, Limousin and Simmental) were used to detect selection signatures by applying two complementary methods, integrated haplotype score (iHS) and global fixation index (FST). To control for false positive results, we used false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment to calculate adjusted iHS within each breed and the genome-wide significance level was about 0.003. Using the iHS method, 83, 92, 91, 101, 85, 101 and 86 significant genomic regions were detected for Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein-Friesian, Limousin and Simmental cattle, respectively. None of these regions was common to all seven breeds. Using the FST approach, 704 individual SNPs were detected across breeds. Annotation of the regions of the genome that showed selection signatures revealed several interesting candidate genes i.e. DGAT1, ABCG2, MSTN, CAPN3, FABP3, CHCHD7, PLAG1, JAZF1, PRKG2, ACTC1, TBC1D1, GHR, BMP2, TSG1, LYN, KIT and MC1R that play a role in milk production, reproduction, body size, muscle formation or coat color. Fifty-seven common candidate genes were found by both the iHS and global FST methods across the seven breeds. Moreover, many novel genomic regions and genes were detected within the regions that showed selection signatures; for some candidate genes, signatures of positive selection exist in the human genome. Multilevel bioinformatic analyses of the detected candidate genes

  20. Characteristics of beef cattle operations in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following the launch of the Beef Checkoff’s U.S. Beef Industry Sustainability Assessment in 2011, region-specific collection of beef production information is underway to provide data for a benchmark national life cycle assessment. The aim of this factsheet is to summarize data gathered from online ...

  1. Characteristics of beef cattle operations in the Northern Plains (Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following the U.S. Beef Industry Sustainability Assessment launched by the Beef Checkoff Program in 2011, region-specific collection of beef production and associated feed and manure management data is on-going to provide the basis for a benchmark national life cycle assessment. This factsheet summa...

  2. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  3. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level.

  5. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Freua, M C; Do, D N; Ventura, R V; Kadarmideen, H N; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-10-17

    Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feedlots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle and 943,577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genome-wide association analysis was performed for dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake with a Bayesian Lasso procedure. Genes within 50-kb SNPs, most relevant for explaining the genomic variance, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target phenotypes and showed that almost all genomic variances were in the SNPs located in the intergenic and intronic regions. We further identified five main metabolic pathways related to ion transport, body composition, and feed intake control, which influenced the four phenotypes simultaneously. The systems genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

  6. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  7. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes

    2010-11-08

    Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas.

  8. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas. PMID:21076547

  9. Substitution of Wheat for Corn in Beef Cattle Diets: Digestibility, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Serum Metabolite Contents and Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. F.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Wan, F. C.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.; Zhang, X. L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different amounts of wheat, as a partial or whole substitute for corn, on digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, serum metabolite contents and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle. Four Limousin×LuXi crossbred cattle with a body weight (400±10 kg), fitted with permanent ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal cannulas, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four treatments: Control (100% corn), 33% wheat (33% substitution for corn), 67% wheat (67% substitution for corn), and 100% wheat (100% substitution for corn) on a dry matter basis. The results showed that replacing corn with increasing amounts of wheat increased the apparent digestibility values of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p<0.05). While the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were lower with increasing amounts of wheat. Digestive enzyme activities of lipase, protease and amylase in the duodenum were higher with increasing wheat amounts (p<0.05), and showed similar results to those for the enzymes in the ileum except for amylase. Increased substitution of wheat for corn increased the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between those given only corn and those given 33% wheat. Increasing the substitution of wheat for corn increased the molar proportion of acetate and tended to increase the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Cattle fed 100% wheat tended to have the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration compared with control (p<0.05), whereas no differences were observed among the cattle fed 33% and 67% wheat. These findings indicate that wheat can be effectively used to replace corn in moderate amounts to meet the energy and fiber requirements of beef cattle. PMID:26954111

  10. Effects of fish meal in beef cattle diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Mandell, I B; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Holub, B J; Campbell, C P

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the effects of fish meal (FM) in beef cattle diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus muscle in 63 yearling steers (335 +/- 23 kg). High-moisture corn and alfalfa silage diets were supplemented with either a corn gluten/blood meal mixture or FM at 10% of the diet. Fish meal contained (as-is basis) 5.87 g/kg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 9.84 g/kg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Seven strategies were developed to feed either a control diet (no FM) or diets containing 5 or 10% FM with FM fed for either 56, 112, or 168 d before slaughter. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected (P > .10) by FM feeding but DMI decreased. Within FM diets, cattle fed 5% FM consumed more (P < .01) DM and gained more (P < .02) than cattle fed 10% FM. Carcass traits were not affected (P > .05) by feeding strategy except for fatter (P < .05) and lower (P < .06) yielding carcasses in cattle fed 5 vs 10% FM diets. Fish meal feeding increased (P < .01) concentrations of (n-3) FA, including EPA and DHA, and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of arachidonic acid. Increasing the amount of dietary FM further increased (P < .01) concentrations of EPA and DHA and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of (n-6) FA. We estimate that a 114-g steak from cattle fed 10% FM would supply 35 to 90% of the current average daily intake of EPA and DHA in North America. The results indicate that FM may have a role in niche marketing of beef provided that eating quality is not compromised.

  11. Cattle temperament influences metabolism:3. Metabolic response to a feed restriction challenge in beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies have demonstrated metabolic differences between calm and temperamental cattle. Specifically, Temperamental cattle exhibit greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to Calm cattle. It is...

  12. The contribution of migrant breeds to the genetic gain of beef traits of German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, S; Wellmann, R; Hamann, H; Bennewitz, J

    2014-12-01

    During the past decades, migrant contributions have accumulated in many local breeds. Cross-breeding was carried out to mitigate the risk of inbreeding depression and to improve the performance of local breeds. However, breeding activities for local breeds were not as intensive and target oriented as for popular high-yielding breeds. Therefore, even if performance improved, the gap between the performance of local and popular breeds increased for many traits. Furthermore, the genetic originality of local breeds declined due to the increasing contributions of migrant breeds. This study examined the importance of migrant breed influences for the realization of breeding progress of beef traits of German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle. The results show that there is a high amount of migrant contributions and their effects on performance are substantial for most traits. The effect of the French cattle breed Montbéliard (p-value 0.014) on daily gain of Vorderwald bulls at test station was positive. The effects of Vorderwald ancestors (p-value for daily gain 0.007 and p-value for net gain 0.004) were positive for both traits under consideration in the population of Hinterwald cattle. Additionally, the effect of remaining breeds (p-value 0.030) on net gain of Hinterwald cattle in the field was also positive. The estimated effect of Fleckvieh ancestors on net gain of Hinterwald cattle was even larger but not significant. Breeding values adjusted for the effects of the migrant breeds showed little genetic trend.

  13. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  14. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  15. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows--a comparison of beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (P<0.05) higher oxytocin (88.6±9.2 vs. 62.8±9.2 pg/ml saliva) and cortisol (1.3±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 ng/ml saliva) levels, but lower heart rates (80.0±2.0 vs. 95.8±2.0bpm) than S cows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior.

  16. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in young beef cattle in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wernicki, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stęgierska, D; Adaszek, Ł; Kalinowski, M; Puchalski, A; Dec, M

    2015-01-01

    In view of the scarcity of information concerning viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in beef cattle in Poland, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the BVDV in young beef cattle from selected herds in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland. The material consisted of 78 sera obtained from beef cattle from 15 farms, aged 6-12 months. The anti-BVDV antibody level in the sera was estimated with an ELISA kit, and detection of the BVDV was carried out by standard PCR and one step Real-Time RT-PCR. The ELISA results showed a high degree (80%) of positivity in 5 of the 78 samples. In 7 samples the degree of positivity was in the very low range: < 40%. Of the 78 cDNA samples, the presence of genetic material with a length of 288 bp was found by standard PCR in 3 sera. The genetic material of BVDV was also found in the sera of the same three calves by Real-Time HRM PCR. BVDV infection in young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland is not a significant problem. This was confirmed by the positive ELISA results for 6.4% of the animals and the positive PCR results for 3.9%. The percentage of positive beef herds was about 8.6%. However, due to the severe nature of the disease and rapid transmission of the virus, regular monitoring of BVDV should be carried out.

  17. Association of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and a SNP in the CDC10 gene with growth-related traits in Japanese Black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tong, B; Li, G P; Sasaki, S; Muramatsu, Y; Ohta, T; Kose, H; Yamada, T

    2015-04-01

    Growth performance, as well as marbling, is the main breeding objective in Japanese Black (JB) cattle, the major beef breed in Japan. The septin 7 (CDC10) gene, involved in cellular proliferation, is located within a genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for growth-related traits. In this study, we first showed that the expression levels of the CDC10 gene in the skeletal muscle were higher in JB steers with extremely high growth performance than in JB steers with extremely low growth, using real-time PCR. Further, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), NC_007302.5:g.63264949G>C, was detected in the promoter region of the CDC10 gene and genotyped in three Japanese cattle breeds (known as 'Wagyu' in Japan) and the Brown Swiss dairy cattle breed. All four cattle populations showed a moderate genetic diversity at the SNP of the CDC10 gene. An association analysis indicated that the SNP was associated with growth-related traits in JB cattle. These findings suggest possible effects of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and the SNP of the CDC10 gene on growth-related traits in JB cattle. The CDC10 SNP may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase beef productivity in JB beef cattle.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  19. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO) in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Methods Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA) was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1) Normal cyclicity; 2) Cessation of luteal activity; 3) Prolonged luteal activity; 4) Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. Results The mean (SD) OLA was 41 d (20). Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%); cessation of luteal activity (5%); erratic luteal activity (6%). Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. Conclusions This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases negatively affect

  20. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam D; Lystad, Marit L; Reksen, Olav; Ropstad, Erik; Waldmann, Andres; Nafstad, Ola; Karlberg, Knut

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO) in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA) was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1) Normal cyclicity; 2) Cessation of luteal activity; 3) Prolonged luteal activity; 4) Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. The mean (SD) OLA was 41 d (20). Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%); cessation of luteal activity (5%); erratic luteal activity (6%). Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases negatively affect reproductive performance in purebred beef

  1. Effects of feeding whole cottonseed and cottonseed products on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cranston, J J; Rivera, J D; Galyean, M L; Brashears, M M; Brooks, J C; Markham, C E; McBeth, L J; Krehbiel, C R

    2006-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of whole cottonseed or cottonseed products on performance and carcass characteristics of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 beef steers (initial BW = 381 +/- 31.7 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets with 10% (DM basis) basal roughage, and whole cottonseed or individual cottonseed components (cottonseed hulls, meal, and oil). Over the entire feeding period, ADG did not differ (P = 0.95), but DMI increased (P = 0.07) and G:F decreased (P = 0.06) for steers fed the cottonseed diets compared with the control diet. Dressing percent (P = 0.02) and marbling scores (P = 0.02) of carcasses from steers fed the cottonseed diets were less than for steers fed the control diet. In Exp. 2, 150 beef steers (initial BW = 364 +/- 9.9 kg) were used to determine the effects of whole cottonseed or pelleted cottonseed (PCS) on performance and carcass characteristics. Cattle were fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets in which whole cottonseed or PCS replaced all of the dietary roughage, supplemental fat, and supplemental natural protein of the control diet. Over the entire feeding period, steers fed the cottonseed diets had lower (P = 0.04) DMI and greater (P < 0.01) G:F than steers fed the control diet. Carcass characteristics did not differ (P = 0.16 to 0.96) among dietary treatments. In Exp. 3, 150 beef heifers (initial BW = 331 +/- 17.1 kg) were used to determine the effects of PCS or delinted, whole cottonseed (DLCS) on performance and carcass characteristics. Heifers were fed rolled corn-based finishing diets in which cottonseed replaced the dietary roughage, supplemental fat, and all or part of the supplemental natural protein of the control diet. Over the entire feeding period, ADG, DMI, and G:F of heifers fed the control diet did not differ (P = 0.19 to 0.80) from those of the cottonseed diets; however, heifers fed the diets containing PCS had greater ADG (P = 0.03) and G:F (P = 0.09) than heifers fed

  2. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  3. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  4. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  5. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  6. Evaluation of Fecal Indicators and Pathogens in a Beef Cattle Feedlot Vegetative Treatment System.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Miller, Daniel N; Snow, Daniel D; Henry, Christopher G; Santin, Monica; Woodbury, Bryan L

    2017-01-01

    Runoff from open-lot animal feeding areas contains microorganisms that may adversely affect human and animal health if not properly managed. One alternative to full manure containment systems is a vegetative treatment system (VTS) that collects runoff in a sediment basin and then applies it to a perennial vegetation (grass) treatment area that is harvested for hay. Little is known regarding the efficacy of large-scale commercial VTSs for the removal of microbial contaminants. In this study, an active, pump-based VTS designed and built for a 1200-head beef cattle feedlot operation was examined to determine the effects of repeated feedlot runoff application on fecal indicator microorganisms and pathogens over short-term (2 wk) and long-term (3 yr) operations and whether fecal bacteria were infiltrating into deeper soils within the treatment area. In a short-term study, fecal bacteria and pathogen numbers declined over time in soil. Measurements of total coliforms and Enterococcus counts taken on control soils were not effective as fecal indicators. The repeated application of manure-impacted runoff as irrigation water did not enrich the pathogens or fecal indicators in the soil, and no evidence was seen to indicate that pathogens were moving into the deeper soil at this site. These results indicate that large-scale, active VTSs reduce the potential for environmental contamination by manure-associated bacteria. Also, this study has implications to full-containment systems that apply runoff water to land application areas (cropland) and the fate of pathogens in the soils of land application sites.

  7. Modelling female fertility traits in beef cattle using linear and non-linear models.

    PubMed

    Naya, H; Peñagaricano, F; Urioste, J I

    2017-06-01

    Female fertility traits are key components of the profitability of beef cattle production. However, these traits are difficult and expensive to measure, particularly under extensive pastoral conditions, and consequently, fertility records are in general scarce and somehow incomplete. Moreover, fertility traits are usually dominated by the effects of herd-year environment, and it is generally assumed that relatively small margins are kept for genetic improvement. New ways of modelling genetic variation in these traits are needed. Inspired in the methodological developments made by Prof. Daniel Gianola and co-workers, we assayed linear (Gaussian), Poisson, probit (threshold), censored Poisson and censored Gaussian models to three different kinds of endpoints, namely calving success (CS), number of days from first calving (CD) and number of failed oestrus (FE). For models involving FE and CS, non-linear models overperformed their linear counterparts. For models derived from CD, linear versions displayed better adjustment than the non-linear counterparts. Non-linear models showed consistently higher estimates of heritability and repeatability in all cases (h(2 ) < 0.08 and r < 0.13, for linear models; h(2 ) > 0.23 and r > 0.24, for non-linear models). While additive and permanent environment effects showed highly favourable correlations between all models (>0.789), consistency in selecting the 10% best sires showed important differences, mainly amongst the considered endpoints (FE, CS and CD). In consequence, endpoints should be considered as modelling different underlying genetic effects, with linear models more appropriate to describe CD and non-linear models better for FE and CS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus synchronization in postpartum beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Malik, A.; Wahid, H.; Rosnina, Y.; Kasim, A.; Sabri, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate estrus response and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (AI) following estrus synchronization using CIDR in postpartum beef cattle. A total of 100 cows were randomly divided into three groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were artificially inseminated at 48-50 h (n=30), 53-55 h (n=30) and 58-60 h (n=40) after CIDR removal, respectively. Estrus synchronization was carried out using a CIDR containing 1.38 mg progesterone. All cows were given 2 mg estradiol benzoate, intramuscularly on the day of CIDR insertion (D 0). The CIDR was removed after 8 days and 125 μg of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was injected intramuscularly. One day after CIDR removal all cows were given 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (D 9). Cows were observed visually for estrus after removal of CIDR. Between 30 and 32 days after timed AI, pregnancy was determined using transrectal ultrasonography. The first estrus observation which is approximately 32 h after CIDR removal showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among the three groups. The onset response of estrus after 32 h removal of CIDR was less than 10% in all three groups 6.6% (G1), 6.8% (G2) and 7.3% (G3). Furthermore, percentages of estrus response (D 10) following CIDR removal were 76.6%, 75.0% and 77.5%. The difference between on D 9 and D 10 estrus response were statistically significant (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates were 23.3% (G1), 26.6% (G2) and 37.5% (G3), which were not significant (P>0.05). PMID:26623282

  9. Concomitant fungal and Mycobacterium bovis infections in beef cattle in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kuria, Joseph N; Gathogo, Stephen M

    2013-07-31

    Bovine tuberculosis is an important zoonosis and accurate diagnosis is important for its surveillance. Post-mortem diagnosis may, however, be compromised by lesions caused by other pathogens. In an investigation on its prevalence in slaughter cattle in Kenya, Mycobacterium bovis and dimorphic fungi were inadvertently identified separately or concurrently in tuberculous lesions. Beef carcasses were inspected for lesions in two abattoirs in Nairobi. Tissues with lesions were collected and transported to the laboratory. Smears of lesions were stained by acid-fast procedure and examined microscopically. Lesions were cultured in Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and in BBL™ Mycobacterium growth indicator tubes (MGIT) media. Mycobacteria isolates in LJ medium were identified by DNA typing. Smears of BBLTM MGIT cultures were acid-fast stained and examined microscopically. Tissue sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff reagent before examination. Of the 929 carcasses examined, 176 had granulomatous lesions. Dimorphic fungi were detected as acid-fast negative cells in 58 (32.9; 33.5%) of the lesion smears, either alone (29.0; 16.4%) or concurrently with acid-fast bacilli (29.0; 16.4%). The fungi were also detected in some BBL TM MGIT-culture smears and lesioned tissue sections. The fungi were identified, by means of cellular morphology, as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Blastomyces dermatitidis. A total of 64 isolates of mycobacteria were recovered in LJ medium, 19 of which were identified as M. bovis. The present report documents native P. brasiliensis infections outside the presumed endemic region and B. dermatitidis infections in a livestock animal. The findings further indicate the importance of dimorphic fungi as a differential diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in the region.

  10. Inference of population structure of purebred dairy and beef cattle using high-density genotype data.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M M; Berry, D P; Kearney, J F; McParland, S; Buckley, F; Purfield, D C

    2017-01-01

    Information on the genetic diversity and population structure of cattle breeds is useful when deciding the most optimal, for example, crossbreeding strategies to improve phenotypic performance by exploiting heterosis. The present study investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the most prominent dairy and beef breeds used in Ireland. Illumina high-density genotypes (777 962 single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) were available on 4623 purebred bulls from nine breeds; Angus (n=430), Belgian Blue (n=298), Charolais (n=893), Hereford (n=327), Holstein-Friesian (n=1261), Jersey (n=75), Limousin (n=943), Montbéliarde (n=33) and Simmental (n=363). Principal component analysis revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey formed non-overlapping clusters, representing distinct populations. In contrast, overlapping clusters suggested geographical proximity of origin and genetic similarity between Limousin, Simmental and Montbéliarde and to a lesser extent between Holstein, Friesian and Belgian Blue. The observed SNP heterozygosity averaged across all loci was 0.379. The Belgian Blue had the greatest mean observed heterozygosity (HO=0.389) among individuals within breed while the Holstein-Friesian and Jersey populations had the lowest mean heterozygosity (HO=0.370 and 0.376, respectively). The correlation between the genomic-based and pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients was weak (r=0.171; P<0.001). Mean genomic inbreeding estimates were greatest for Jersey (0.173) and least for Hereford (0.051). The pair-wise breed fixation index (F st) ranged from 0.049 (Limousin and Charolais) to 0.165 (Hereford and Jersey). In conclusion, substantial genetic variation exists among breeds commercially used in Ireland. Thus custom-mating strategies would be successful in maximising the exploitation of heterosis in crossbreeding strategies.

  11. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd--1st case in 27 years: Case report.

    PubMed

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Elvander, Marianne; Westermark, Therese; Hartzell, Lisbeth Nisu; Norström, Agneta Karlsson; Ehrs, Sara; Knutsson, Rickard; Englund, Stina; Andersson, Ann-Christin; Granberg, Malin; Bäckman, Stina; Wikström, Per; Sandstedt, Karin

    2010-02-01

    After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative agent.

  12. Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus synchronization in postpartum beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Malik, A; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Kasim, A; Sabri, M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate estrus response and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (AI) following estrus synchronization using CIDR in postpartum beef cattle. A total of 100 cows were randomly divided into three groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were artificially inseminated at 48-50 h (n=30), 53-55 h (n=30) and 58-60 h (n=40) after CIDR removal, respectively. Estrus synchronization was carried out using a CIDR containing 1.38 mg progesterone. All cows were given 2 mg estradiol benzoate, intramuscularly on the day of CIDR insertion (D 0). The CIDR was removed after 8 days and 125 μg of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was injected intramuscularly. One day after CIDR removal all cows were given 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (D 9). Cows were observed visually for estrus after removal of CIDR. Between 30 and 32 days after timed AI, pregnancy was determined using transrectal ultrasonography. The first estrus observation which is approximately 32 h after CIDR removal showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among the three groups. The onset response of estrus after 32 h removal of CIDR was less than 10% in all three groups 6.6% (G1), 6.8% (G2) and 7.3% (G3). Furthermore, percentages of estrus response (D 10) following CIDR removal were 76.6%, 75.0% and 77.5%. The difference between on D 9 and D 10 estrus response were statistically significant (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates were 23.3% (G1), 26.6% (G2) and 37.5% (G3), which were not significant (P>0.05).

  13. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  14. Adiposity and adipogenic gene expression in four different muscles in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martínez del Pino, Lara; Arana, Ana; Alfonso, Leopoldo; Mendizábal, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical site and divergent functionalities of muscles can be related to differences in IMF content, metabolism and adipogenic gene expression. Then, potential differences in different muscles in beef cattle were studied. As a second objective, the main sources of experimental variability associated to RT-qPCR results were analyzed following a nested design in order to implement appropriate experimental designs minimizing gene expression variability. To perform the study Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semitendinosus (SM), Masseter (MS), Sternomandibularis (ST) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples of Pirenaica young bulls (n = 4) were collected for IMF, collagen and protein quantification, analysis of adipocyte size distribution and gene expression (PPARG, CEBPA, FAPB4 and WNT10B). A greater IMF content was observed in MS and SM muscles, which had a bimodal adipocyte size distribution while it was unimodal in the muscles LT and ST. This suggest that the different IMF accretion in the muscles studied might be related to different rates of hyperplasia and hypertrophy and that IMF might develop later in LT and ST muscles. The former differences were not mirrored by the expression of the genes analyzed, which might be related to the different contribution of mature and non-mature adipocytes to the total gene expression. When comparing IMF and SAT gene expression, late and early developing tissues respectively, expression of PPARG, CEBPA and FABP4 was higher in the SAT, in agreement with bigger cell size and numbers. The variability study indicates that the analytical factors that add higher variability to the gene expression are the sampling and RT and therefore, it would be appropriate to include those replicates in the design of future experiments. Based on the results, the use of MS and SM muscles could allow less expensive experimental designs and bigger sample size that could permit the detection of lower relevant differences in gene expression. PMID

  15. Cluster and meta-analyses of genetic parameters for feed intake traits in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Diaz, I D P S; Crews, D H; Enns, R M

    2014-06-01

    A data set based on 50 studies including feed intake and utilization traits was used to perform a meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates using the variance between studies of genetic parameters for average daily gain (ADG); residual feed intake (RFI); metabolic body weight (MBW); feed conversion ratio (FCR); and daily dry matter intake (DMI) in beef cattle. The total data set included 128 heritability and 122 genetic correlation estimates published in the literature from 1961 to 2012. The meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model where the restricted maximum likelihood estimator was used to evaluate variances among clusters. Also, a meta-analysis using the method of cluster analysis was used to group the heritability estimates. Two clusters were obtained for each trait by different variables. It was observed, for all traits, that the heterogeneity of variance was significant between clusters and studies for genetic correlation estimates. The pooled estimates, adding the variance between clusters, for direct heritability estimates for ADG, DMI, RFI, MBW and FCR were 0.32 ± 0.04, 0.39 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.02, 0.31 ± 0.03 and 0.26 ± 0.03, respectively. Pooled genetic correlation estimates ranged from -0.15 to 0.67 among ADG, DMI, RFI, MBW and FCR. These pooled estimates of genetic parameters could be used to solve genetic prediction equations in populations where data is insufficient for variance component estimation. Cluster analysis is recommended as a statistical procedure to combine results from different studies to account for heterogeneity.

  16. Impact of microbial efficiency to predict MP supply when estimating protein requirements of growing beef cattle from performance.

    PubMed

    Watson, A K; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E; MacDonald, J C; Wilkerson, V A

    2017-07-01

    Data from 16 trials were compiled to calculate microbial CP (MCP) production and MP requirements of growing cattle on high-forage diets. All cattle were individually fed diets with 28% to 72% corn cobs in addition to either alfalfa, corn silage, or sorghum silage at 18% to 60% of the diet (DM basis). The remainder of the diet consisted of protein supplement. Source of protein within the supplement varied and included urea, blood meal, corn gluten meal, dry distillers grains, feather meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and wet distillers grains. All trials included a urea-only treatment. Intake of all cattle within an experiment was held constant, as a percentage of BW, established by the urea-supplemented group. In each trial the base diet (forage and urea supplement) was MP deficient. Treatments consisted of increasing amounts of test protein replacing the urea supplement. As protein in the diet increased, ADG plateaued. Among experiments, ADG ranged from 0.11 to 0.73 kg. Three methods of calculating microbial efficiency were used to determine MP supply. Gain was then regressed against calculated MP supply to determine MP requirement for maintenance and gain. Method 1 (based on a constant 13% microbial efficiency as used by the beef NRC model) predicted an MP maintenance requirement of 3.8 g/kg BW and 385 g MP/kg gain. Method 2 calculated microbial efficiency using low-quality forage diets and predicted MP requirements of 3.2 g/kg BW for maintenance and 448 g/kg for gain. Method 3 (based on an equation predicting MCP yield from TDN intake, proposed by the Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model [BCNRM]) predicted MP requirements of 3.1 g/kg BW for maintenance and 342 g/kg for gain. The factorial method of calculating MP maintenance requirements accounts for scurf, endogenous urinary, and metabolic fecal protein losses and averaged 4.2 g/kg BW. Cattle performance data demonstrate formulating diets to meet the beef NRC model recommended

  17. Interactions between climatological variables and sheltering behavior of pastoral beef cattle during sunny weather in a temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Rosselle, L; Permentier, L; Verbeke, G; Driessen, B; Geers, R

    2013-02-01

    Concerns in regard to thermal discomfort experienced by cattle are increasing, especially in the summer time. It is important to determine whether or not pastured beef cattle would make use of shade during sunny circumstances in a temperate climate. If so, scientifically based guidelines may need to be formulated for translation into legislation aiming to protect animal welfare. Approximately 255 beef cattle on 18 pastures were observed from July 2010 through November 2010 in central Belgium. Pastures having either natural or artificial shelter for animal protection but similar with respect to agricultural and climatological characteristics were included in the study. The analysis of data focused on the effect of weather conditions on sheltering behavior of cattle, with pasture as a random factor. During sunny weather, ambient temperature had a significant influence on the use of shade (P < 0.0001): the greater the environmental temperature was, the more cattle on a pasture were located in a shaded area. Ambient temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH) both tended to have a positive relation with shade use. However, the expected impact of their combined effect was not found, probably because of the strong negative correlation between RH and Ta (r = -0.7122) in the studied region. Greater wind speed (WS) reduced the need for shade, even at a greater Ta (P < 0.0001). Both Ta and solar radiation (RAD) influenced use of shade, but the interaction or combined effect was not significant. The variability of shade use between the pastures in this study could be explained by the surface of shade present on the pasture. It is rather self-evident that cows made more use of shade when a greater percentage of the surface area was shaded, but the presence of remaining nonshaded area kept the alternative choice reliable. On the basis of the fact that more cattle being observed in a shaded area was associated with a higher dry air temperature, it can be concluded that providing

  18. Prevalence and molecular epidemiological characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Japanese black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Hasegawa, Megumi; Esaki, Hidetake; Muramatsu, Masatake; Hirayama, Norio; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in Japanese black beef cattle from the three major production regions of Japan. We collected and examined 291 fecal samples from Japanese black beef cattle in Hokkaido, Chubu, and Kyushu. Of the 3,147 E. coli isolates, 1,397 (44.4%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics; these included 553 (39.8%) of 1,388 isolates from Hokkaido, 352 (54.4%) of 647 isolates from Chubu, and 492 (44.2%) of 1,112 isolates from Kyushu. The difference in resistance rates between the three regions was significant. The antibiotics with the highest rates of resistance were oxytetracycline and dihydrostreptomycin (35.8% each), followed by ampicillin (21.4%). Further, E. coli isolates from calves had higher resistance rates than those from growing cattle and mature cattle, and the calf isolates showed high rates of resistance to gentamicin (20.2%), enrofloxacin (9.4%), and ceftiofur (4.2%). In addition, the high degrees of similarity in the genotypes of the isolates and in the resistance patterns on each farm suggest that resistance bacteria and resistance genes were horizontally transferred. Most isolates, in each of the three regions, harbored resistance genes such as blaTEM, strA, strB, aphA1, aphAI-IAB, and catI. In contrast to the isolates from Kyushu, most of which harbored aacC2, tetB, and dfrA12, the isolates from Hokkaido and Chubu harbored a variety of resistance genes. Furthermore, the prevalence of genes for resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim differed significantly between the regions. This is the first large-scale study describing and comparing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from different regions in Japan. The results will contribute to improving food safety and promoting careful usage of antimicrobial agents.

  19. Fatty Acid Profiles, Meat Quality, and Sensory Palatability of Grain-fed and Grass-fed Beef from Hanwoo, American, and Australian Crossbred Cattle.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Hwa; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles in relation to meat quality traits and sensory palatability of grain-fed and grass-fed beef from Hanwoo, American, and Australian crossbred cattle were examined in this study. There were significant (p<0.001) differences in fat content and fatty acid compositions between grain-fed and grass-fed beef. Grain-fed Hanwoo had significantly (p<0.001) lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion but higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) proportion compared to grass-fed cattle. The proportion of oleic acid in grain-fed Hanwoo was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that in grass-fed Hanwoo, Australian crossbred, or American crossbred cattle. Grain-fed Hanwoo had significantly (p<0.001) lower percentages of drip loss and cooking loss compared to other cattle. Overall palatability panel scores of grain-fed cattle were significantly (p<0.001) higher than those of grass-fed cattle. Consequently, sensory overall palatability was negatively correlated with proportions of SFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), but positively correlated with the proportion of MUFA. In particular, the proportion of oleic acid was strongly and positively correlated with fat content (r=0.91, p<0.001) and overall palatability (r=0.92, p<0.001). These results implied that high-concentrate grain-fed could increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and the proportion of oleic acid, thus increasing the sensory palatability of Hanwoo beef.

  20. Fatty Acid Profiles, Meat Quality, and Sensory Palatability of Grain-fed and Grass-fed Beef from Hanwoo, American, and Australian Crossbred Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles in relation to meat quality traits and sensory palatability of grain-fed and grass-fed beef from Hanwoo, American, and Australian crossbred cattle were examined in this study. There were significant (p<0.001) differences in fat content and fatty acid compositions between grain-fed and grass-fed beef. Grain-fed Hanwoo had significantly (p<0.001) lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion but higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) proportion compared to grass-fed cattle. The proportion of oleic acid in grain-fed Hanwoo was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that in grass-fed Hanwoo, Australian crossbred, or American crossbred cattle. Grain-fed Hanwoo had significantly (p<0.001) lower percentages of drip loss and cooking loss compared to other cattle. Overall palatability panel scores of grain-fed cattle were significantly (p<0.001) higher than those of grass-fed cattle. Consequently, sensory overall palatability was negatively correlated with proportions of SFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), but positively correlated with the proportion of MUFA. In particular, the proportion of oleic acid was strongly and positively correlated with fat content (r=0.91, p<0.001) and overall palatability (r=0.92, p<0.001). These results implied that high-concentrate grain-fed could increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and the proportion of oleic acid, thus increasing the sensory palatability of Hanwoo beef. PMID:28515638

  1. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  2. 206 CRISPR/Cas9-MEDIATED REPAIR OF THE NHLRC2 LOCUS IN BEEF CATTLE.

    PubMed

    Polkoff, K M; Lotti, S N; Beever, J E; Wheeler, M B

    2016-01-01

    In cattle, a mutation in the NHL-repeat containing 2 genes causes a heritable abnormality referred to as developmental duplications. Calves homozygous for this mutation are affected with a broad range of phenotypes resulting from abnormal neural crest cell migration, most commonly manifested as polymelia, the presence of additional limbs. This mutation has become highly prevalent in Angus beef cattle, as lines of cattle with high genetic merit have been shown to have an increased allele frequency of the mutation. The mutation has been identified as a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a valine to alanine substitution in a highly conserved protein-coding region of the gene. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology has been shown to induce changes in the genome by using a guide RNA to target a specific site paired with a Cas-9 protein to create a break in the DNA. These breaks are repaired by either nonhomologous end joining or homology-directed repair. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the editing efficiency of CRISPR/Cas-9 proteins paired with site-specific guide RNA using cell lines derived from animals homozygous and heterozygous for the NHLRC2 mutation. Bovine fetal fibroblasts of both genotypes were grown in DMEM/F10 media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.01µgmL(-1) of basic fibroblast growth factor, 1mLL(-1) penicillin streptomycin, and 1mLL(-1) of amphotericin B. Cells were plated in a 6-well plate at 80,000 cells/well 48h before transfection. Two 20-nucleotide guide RNA targeting the genome near the developmental duplications mutation were designed and ligated into pSpCas9(BB)-2A-GFP CRISPR plasmids. Six microliters of Fugene 6 was added to 150µL of Opti-MEM followed by 2µg of plasmid DNA and complexed at 37°C for 15min before being added to each well. At 24h after transfection, cells were detached with trypsin and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. When wells were confluent, DNA was extracted using 65µL of

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010–2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  5. Changes in the Microbiological Characteristics of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) Beef Exposed to Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation Prior to Refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Yong-Jae; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated with regards to the microbial growth inhibitory effect on the shelf life of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) beef prior to refrigerated storage. The Hanwoo samples were exposed to UV radiation (4.5 mW/cm(2)) for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min. The UV-irradiated beef that was exposed for 20 min showed significantly reduced mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial populations to the extent of approximately 3 log cycles, as compared to that of non-irradiated beef. About 2.5 Log CFU/g of mesophilic bacteria were different compared with UV-irradiated and nonirradiated meat. UV irradiation showed the most significant growth inhibition effects on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. Coliform and Gram-negative bacteria were also reduced by 1 log cycle. The population of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 decreased significantly to 53.33, 39.68, and 45.76% after 10 min of UV irradiation. They decreased significantly to 84.64, 80.76, and 84.12%, respectively, after 20 min of UV irradiation. The results show that UV irradiation time and the inhibitory effect were proportional. These results verified that UV radiation prior to refrigeration can effectively reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of meat and improve the meat's microbial safety.

  6. Changes in the Microbiological Characteristics of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) Beef Exposed to Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation Prior to Refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-jae

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated with regards to the microbial growth inhibitory effect on the shelf life of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) beef prior to refrigerated storage. The Hanwoo samples were exposed to UV radiation (4.5 mW/cm2) for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min. The UV-irradiated beef that was exposed for 20 min showed significantly reduced mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial populations to the extent of approximately 3 log cycles, as compared to that of non-irradiated beef. About 2.5 Log CFU/g of mesophilic bacteria were different compared with UV-irradiated and nonirradiated meat. UV irradiation showed the most significant growth inhibition effects on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. Coliform and Gram-negative bacteria were also reduced by 1 log cycle. The population of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 decreased significantly to 53.33, 39.68, and 45.76% after 10 min of UV irradiation. They decreased significantly to 84.64, 80.76, and 84.12%, respectively, after 20 min of UV irradiation. The results show that UV irradiation time and the inhibitory effect were proportional. These results verified that UV radiation prior to refrigeration can effectively reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of meat and improve the meat’s microbial safety. PMID:26761679

  7. Effects of fibre digestibility and level of roughage on performance and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Dannylo Oliveira; Mesquita, Bruno de Sousa; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Santana, Miguel Henrique de Almeida; Silva, Luis Felipe Prada

    2017-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate effects of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility and level of fresh sugarcane on intake, body fatness, carcass characteristics, and rumen kinetics and fermentation of beef cattle. Forty-eight Nellore young bulls were used in a complete randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Eight rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDF digestibility (NDFD) were used. Experimental diets were formulated with 20 or 40% of sugarcane on a dry matter (DM) basis. High-NDFD genotype associated with the lower level of roughage in the diet promoted greater DM intake, resulting in greater body gain. Sugarcane with high-NDFD increased final body weight, hot carcass weight, and back-fat thickness. Animals receiving the genotype with high NDFD had greater rump-fat thickness only with 40% sugarcane in the diet. Animals receiving the low-NDFD genotype at 20% of the diet had lower NDF passage rate. Rumen pH was greater for diets with greater NDF content. There was greater proportion of butyrate in the rumen of animals receiving diets with greater NDF content. In conclusion, high-NDFD sugarcane increased final body and carcass weight, HCW, and fat thickness. When associated with lower inclusion of roughage in the diet, it can also increase DM intake and body weight gain of beef cattle.

  8. Genomic analyses of tropical beef cattle fertility based on genotyping pools of Brahman cows with unknown pedigree.

    PubMed

    Reverter, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Fortes, M R S; McCulloch, R; Lyons, R E; Moore, S; Nicol, D; Henshall, J; Lehnert, S A

    2016-10-01

    We introduce an innovative approach to lowering the overall cost of obtaining genomic EBV (GEBV) and encourage their use in commercial extensive herds of Brahman beef cattle. In our approach, the DNA genotyping of cow herds from 2 independent properties was performed using a high-density bovine SNP chip on DNA from pooled blood samples, grouped according to the result of a pregnancy test following their first and second joining opportunities. For the DNA pooling strategy, 15 to 28 blood samples from the same phenotype and contemporary group were allocated to pools. Across the 2 properties, a total of 183 pools were created representing 4,164 cows. In addition, blood samples from 309 bulls from the same properties were also taken. After genotyping and quality control, 74,584 remaining SNP were used for analyses. Pools and individual DNA samples were related by means of a "hybrid" genomic relationship matrix. The pooled genotyping analysis of 2 large and independent commercial populations of tropical beef cattle was able to recover significant and plausible associations between SNP and pregnancy test outcome. We discuss 24 SNP with significant association ( < 1.0 × 10) and mapped within 40 kb of an annotated gene. We have established a method to estimate the GEBV in young herd bulls for a trait that is currently unable to be predicted at all. In summary, our novel approach allowed us to conduct genomic analyses of fertility in 2 large commercial Brahman herds managed under extensive pastoral conditions.

  9. Syndromic surveillance of abortions in beef cattle based on the prospective analysis of spatio-temporal variations of calvings.

    PubMed

    Bronner, A; Morignat, E; Fournié, G; Vergne, T; Vinard, J-L; Gay, E; Calavas, D

    2015-12-21

    Our objective was to study the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to identify spatio-temporal clusters of drops in the number of calvings among beef cows during the Bluetongue epizootic of 2007 and 2008, based on calving seasons. France was partitioned into 300 iso-populated units, i.e. units with quite the same number of beef cattle. Only 1% of clusters were unlikely to be related to Bluetongue. Clusters were detected during the calving season of primary infection by Bluetongue in 28% (n = 23) of the units first infected in 2007, and in 87% (n = 184) of the units first infected in 2008. In units in which a first cluster was detected over their calving season of primary infection, Bluetongue was detected more rapidly after the start of the calving season and its prevalence was higher than in other units. We believe that this type of syndromic surveillance system could improve the surveillance of abortive events in French cattle. Besides, our approach should be used to develop syndromic surveillance systems for other diseases and purposes, and in other settings, to avoid "false" alarms due to isolated events and homogenize the ability to detect abnormal variations of indicator amongst iso-populated units.

  10. Associations of polymorphisms in the Pit-1 gene with growth and carcass traits in Angus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Davis, M E; Hines, H C

    2004-08-01

    The Pit-1 gene was studied as a candidate for genetic markers of growth and carcass traits. Angus beef cattle that were divergently selected for high- or low-blood serum IGF-I concentration were used in this study. The single-strand conformation polymorphism method was used to identify polymorphism in the Pit-1 gene including regions from intron 2 to exon 6. Two polymorphisms, Pit1I3H (HinfI) and Pit1I3NL (NlaIII), were detected in intron 3 of the Pit-1 gene. One polymorphism, Pit1I4N (BstNI), was found in intron 4, and a single nucleotide polymorphism, Pit1I5, was found in intron 5. The previously reported polymorphism in exon 6, Pit1E6H (HinfI), was also studied in 416 Angus beef cattle. Associations of the polymorphisms with growth traits, carcass traits, and IGF-I concentration were analyzed using a general linear model procedure. No significant associations were observed between these polymorphisms and growth and carcass traits.

  11. Syndromic surveillance of abortions in beef cattle based on the prospective analysis of spatio-temporal variations of calvings

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, A.; Morignat, E.; Fournié, G.; Vergne, T.; Vinard, J-L; Gay, E.; Calavas, D.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to study the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to identify spatio-temporal clusters of drops in the number of calvings among beef cows during the Bluetongue epizootic of 2007 and 2008, based on calving seasons. France was partitioned into 300 iso-populated units, i.e. units with quite the same number of beef cattle. Only 1% of clusters were unlikely to be related to Bluetongue. Clusters were detected during the calving season of primary infection by Bluetongue in 28% (n = 23) of the units first infected in 2007, and in 87% (n = 184) of the units first infected in 2008. In units in which a first cluster was detected over their calving season of primary infection, Bluetongue was detected more rapidly after the start of the calving season and its prevalence was higher than in other units. We believe that this type of syndromic surveillance system could improve the surveillance of abortive events in French cattle. Besides, our approach should be used to develop syndromic surveillance systems for other diseases and purposes, and in other settings, to avoid “false” alarms due to isolated events and homogenize the ability to detect abnormal variations of indicator amongst iso-populated units. PMID:26687099

  12. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  13. Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multibreed beef cattle populations derived from deregressed breeding values and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Weber, K L; Thallman, R M; Keele, J W; Snelling, W M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; McDaneld, T G; Allan, M F; Van Eenennaam, A L; Kuehn, L A

    2012-12-01

    Genomic selection involves the assessment of genetic merit through prediction equations that allocate genetic variation with dense marker genotypes. It has the potential to provide accurate breeding values for selection candidates at an early age and facilitate selection for expensive or difficult to measure traits. Accurate across-breed prediction would allow genomic selection to be applied on a larger scale in the beef industry, but the limited availability of large populations for the development of prediction equations has delayed researchers from providing genomic predictions that are accurate across multiple beef breeds. In this study, the accuracy of genomic predictions for 6 growth and carcass traits were derived and evaluated using 2 multibreed beef cattle populations: 3,358 crossbred cattle of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Germplasm Evaluation Program (USMARC_GPE) and 1,834 high accuracy bull sires of the 2,000 Bull Project (2000_BULL) representing influential breeds in the U.S. beef cattle industry. The 2000_BULL EPD were deregressed, scaled, and weighted to adjust for between- and within-breed heterogeneous variance before use in training and validation. Molecular breeding values (MBV) trained in each multibreed population and in Angus and Hereford purebred sires of 2000_BULL were derived using the GenSel BayesCπ function (Fernando and Garrick, 2009) and cross-validated. Less than 10% of large effect loci were shared between prediction equations trained on (USMARC_GPE) relative to 2000_BULL although locus effects were moderately to highly correlated for most traits and the traits themselves were highly correlated between populations. Prediction of MBV accuracy was low and variable between populations. For growth traits, MBV accounted for up to 18% of genetic variation in a pooled, multibreed analysis and up to 28% in single breeds. For carcass traits, MBV explained up to 8% of genetic variation in a pooled, multibreed analysis and up to 42% in

  14. Pharmacokinetics of ruminally dosed sodium [36Cl]chlorate in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C E; Craigmill, A L; Caton, J S; Anderson, R C; Smith, D J

    2007-08-01

    The recently recognized potential of sodium chlorate as a possible preharvest food safety tool for pathogen reduction in meat animals has spurred interest in the pharmacokinetics of intraruminally dosed chlorate. Six Loala cattle were assigned (one heifer and one steer per treatment) to one of three intraruminal doses of radiolabeled sodium [36Cl]chlorate (21, 42, or 63 mg/kg body weight) administered in four equal aliquots over a 24-h period. Blood and serum were collected (29 samples in 48 h). Total radioactive residues were measured and the radioactive moieties were speciated. Chlorate appeared rapidly in blood and serum after dosing. For animals administered a dose of 42 or 63 mg/kg, the half-life of absorption was estimated at 0.6-0.9 h. Serum chlorate concentrations progressively increased with aliquot administration until peaking at 6-21 parts per million at 26 h. Between aliquot administrations, serum chlorate levels typically peaked in 3.5 h or less. The half-life of chlorate elimination ranged between 6.9 and 11 h, depending on the dose. Ultimately, absorption of chlorate removes it from its desired site of action, the lower gastrointestinal tract, thereby reducing its efficacy. Further research is needed to develop a chlorate formulation that will allow passage to the lower gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of seven regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, ...

  16. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  17. Bayesian estimates of genetic parameters for pre-conception traits, gestation length and calving interval in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, G; Goyache, F; Becerra, J; Moreno, C; Sánchez, L; Altarriba, J

    2009-08-01

    A total of 5253 records obtained from 2081 Rubia Gallega beef cows managed using artificial insemination as the only reproduction system were analysed to estimate genetic parameters for days to first insemination (DFI), days from first insemination to conception (FIC), number of inseminations per conception (IN), days open (DO), gestation length (GL) and calving interval (CI) via multitrait Bayesian procedures. Estimates of the mean of posterior distribution of the heritability of DFI, FIC, IN, DO, GL and CI were, respectively, 0.050, 0.078, 0.071, 0.053, 0.037 and 0.085 and the corresponding estimates for repeatability of these traits were 0.116, 0.129, 0.147, 0.138, 0.082 and 0.132, respectively. No significant genetic correlations associated to DFI or GL were found. However, genetic correlations between the other four analysed traits were high and significant. Genetic correlations between FIC and IN, DO and CI were similar and higher than 0.85. Genetic correlations of IN-DO and IN-CI were over 0.65. The highest genetic correlation was estimated for the pair DO-CI (0.992) that can be considered the same trait in genetic terms. Results indicated that DFI can be highly affected by non-genetic factors thus limiting its usefulness to be used as an earlier indicator of reproductive performance in beef cattle. Moreover, GL could not be associated to the reproductive performance of the cow before conception. The other four analysed traits, FIC, IN, DO and CI, have close genetic relationships. The inclusion of IN as an earlier indicator of fertility in beef cattle improvement programs using artificial insemination as the main reproductive system can be advisable due to the low additional recording effort needed.

  18. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    PubMed

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels.

  19. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  20. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle...

  1. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, bovine WGS databases comprised of related influential sires from relatively few breeds tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our ...

  2. Effects of feeding condensed distillers solubles and crude glycerin alone or in combination on finishing beef cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding condensed distillers solubles (DS) and crude glycerin alone or in combination on performance of finishing beef cattle and in vitro fermentation. In both experiments, dietary treatments consisted of a steam flaked corn (SFC) based diet...

  3. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact, and management of growth-promoting steroids used in the US beef cattle industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth promoting steroids and steroid-like compounds (GPSC) used by the US beef cattle industry are potential contaminants to water resources. Manure generated in concentrated animal feeding operations contains GPSCs that may enter the environment. Several studies have focused on off-site impacts of...

  4. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of bovine Babesia spp., Theileria orientalis, and Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Efstratiou, Artemis; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2017-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria orientalis, and Anaplasma marginale are significant tick-borne pathogens that affect the health and productivity of cattle in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we used PCR to detect the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, and T. orientalis in 279 beef cattle from Western Thailand and A. marginale in 608 beef cattle from the north, northeastern, and western regions. The PCRs were performed using species-specific primers based on the B. bovis spherical body protein 2 (BboSBP2), B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP), and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes. To determine the genetic diversity of the above parasites, amplicons of B. bovis and B. bigemina ITS1-5.8s rRNA gene-ITS2 regions (B. bovis ITS, B. bigemina ITS), ToMPSP, and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the prevalence of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis, and A. marginale in the Western region was 11.1, 12.5, 7.8, and 39.1 %, respectively. Coinfections of two or three parasites were observed in 17.9 % of the animals sampled. The study revealed that the prevalence of A. marginale in the western region was higher than in the north and northeastern regions (7 %). Sequence analysis showed the BboSBP2 gene to be more conserved than B. bovis ITS in the different isolates and, similarly, the BbiRAP-1a was more conserved than B. bigemina ITS. In the phylogenetic analysis, T. orientalis MPSP sequences were classified into types 3, 5, and 7 as previously reported. A. marginale MSP4 gene sequences shared high identity and similarity with each other and clustered with isolates from other countries. This study provides information on the prevalence and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in beef cattle and highlights the need for effective strategies to control these pathogens in Thailand.

  5. Corpus luteum development and function after supplementation of long-acting progesterone during the early luteal phase in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Pugliesi, G; Oliveria, M L; Scolari, S C; Lopes, E; Pinaffi, F V; Miagawa, B T; Paiva, Y N; Maio, J R G; Nogueira, G P; Binelli, M

    2014-02-01

    Strategic supplementation of P4 may be used to increase conception rates in cattle, but timing of supplementation in relation to ovulation, mass of supplementary P4 and formulation of the P4-containing supplement has not been determined for beef cattle. Effects of supplementation of long-acting progesterone (P4) on Days 2 or 3 post-ovulation on development, function and regression of corpus luteum (CL) were studied in beef cattle. Cows were synchronized with an oestradiol/P4-based protocol and treated with 150 or 300 mg of long-acting P4 on Day 2 or 3 post-ovulation (6-7 cows/group). Colour-doppler ultrasound scanning and blood sample collection were performed from Day 2-21.5. Plasma P4 concentrations were greater (p < 0.05) from Day 2.5-5.5 in the Day 2-treated groups and from Day 3.5-5.5 in the Day 3-treated cows than in the control group. CL area and blood flow during Day 2-8.5 did not differ (p > 0.05) among groups, suggesting no effect of P4 treatment on luteal development. The frequency of cows that began luteolysis before Day 15 was greater (p < 0.04) in cows treated with 300 mg than in the controls, but there were no differences between non-treated and 150 mg-treated cows. The interval from pre-treatment ovulation to functional and structural luteolysis was shorter (p < 0.01) in the combined P4-treated groups than in the control cows. In conclusion, was showed for the first time that long-acting P4 supplementation on Day 2 or 3 post-ovulation increases P4 concentrations for ≥3 day, has no effect on luteal development, but anticipates the beginning of luteolysis in beef cattle. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.

  7. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  9. Survey of the knowledge, attitudes and practice of Italian beef and dairy cattle veterinarians concerning the use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Busani, L; Graziani, C; Franco, A; Di Egidio, A; Binkin, N; Battisti, A

    2004-12-04

    Between June and September 2002 a telephone survey of Italian beef and dairy cattle veterinarians was made to obtain information about their use of antibiotics and their perception of the problem of antimicrobial resistance. A total of 106 veterinarians, selected at random from the membership lists of two professional societies, were interviewed by telephone, using a structured questionnaire concerning their background, training and continuing education activities, and current type of practice; their diagnostic, treatment, and prophylactic practices for mastitis, calf scours and respiratory disease; and their perception of the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance. The median age of the interviewees was 42.5 (range 28 to 75) years; 62 per cent treated only dairy cattle, 10 per cent treated only beef cattle and 28 per cent treated both. Laboratory support was requested 'frequently' or 'always' by 67 per cent of the veterinarians when treating mastitis, by 37 per cent when treating calf scours and by 17 per cent when treating respiratory diseases. Twenty per cent reported using prophylactic antibiotics 'often' or 'sometimes' for calf scours, 28 per cent for respiratory diseases, and 62 per cent reported their use 'always' or 'often' for mastitis. Fluoroquinolones, phenicols or third/fourth-generation cephalosporins were prescribed as first-choice drugs by 54 per cent for calf scours, by 12 per cent for bacterial respiratory diseases and by 6 per cent for mastitis. Therapeutic failure was reported 'often' (21 per cent) or 'sometimes' (64 per cent) and was the main predictor in a multivariate model of the use of newer antibiotics. The level of awareness of the problem of antibiotic resistance was high, although more than half of the interviewees were confident that new antimicrobial drugs were already available to replace those of lower effectiveness.

  10. Effects of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, methane emissions, and in vitro fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Henry, D D; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Ciriaco, F M; Kohmann, M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan was evaluated as a feed additive to mitigate in vivo CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Twenty-four crossbred heifers (BW = 318 ± 35 kg) were used in a randomized block design replicated in 2 periods. The design included a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, which included diet (high concentrate [HC] or low concentrate [LC]) and 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0% of chitosan inclusion (DM basis). Diets were offered ad libitum and individual intake was recorded. An in vitro experiment to analyze chitosan’s effect on fermentation parameters and gas production kinetics was performed. A diet effect (P < 0.01) was observed for CH4 emissions expressed as grams/day, grams/kilogram of BW0.75, and grams/kilogram of DMI. Heifers consuming the LC diet produced 130 g of CH4/d vs. 45 g of CH4/d in those consuming the HC diet. Incubation fluid pH increased linearly (P < 0.05) when chitosan was included in HC substrates. In vitro CH4 production was not affected (P > 0.10) by chitosan in HC substrate; however, when incubated with the LC substrate, CH4 production increased quadratically (P < 0.01) as chitosan inclusion increased. A digestibility marker × diet interaction occurred (P < 0.05) for DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. Diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) occurred for DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility when Cr2O3 was used. When TiO2 was used, diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for NDF and ADF. However, using indigestible NDF as an internal marker, DM and OM digestibility were improved (P < 0.05) by 21 and 19%, respectively, when chitosan was included in LC diets. In conclusion, feeding up to 1% of chitosan (DM basis) to heifers consuming a LC diet increased apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by chitosan feeding, regardless of type of diet, and heifers consuming a 36% concentrate diet produced 2.6 times more methane per day than those consuming an 85% concentrate diet.

  11. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Marques, M O; Girotto, R; Santos, F A; Sala, R V; Barbuio, J P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-01-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy. Copyright © 2014

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with feed efficiency in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background General, breed- and diet-dependent associations between feed efficiency in beef cattle and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes were identified on a population of 1321 steers using a 50 K SNP panel. Genomic associations with traditional two-step indicators of feed efficiency – residual feed intake (RFI), residual average daily gain (RADG), and residual intake gain (RIG) – were compared to associations with two complementary one-step indicators of feed efficiency: efficiency of intake (EI) and efficiency of gain (EG). Associations uncovered in a training data set were evaluated on independent validation data set. A multi-SNP model was developed to predict feed efficiency. Functional analysis of genes harboring SNPs significantly associated with feed efficiency and network visualization aided in the interpretation of the results. Results For the five feed efficiency indicators, the numbers of general, breed-dependent, and diet-dependent associations with SNPs (P-value < 0.0001) were 31, 40, and 25, and with haplotypes were six, ten, and nine, respectively. Of these, 20 SNP and six haplotype associations overlapped between RFI and EI, and five SNP and one haplotype associations overlapped between RADG and EG. This result confirms the complementary value of the one and two-step indicators. The multi-SNP models included 89 SNPs and offered a precise prediction of the five feed efficiency indicators. The associations of 17 SNPs and 7 haplotypes with feed efficiency were confirmed on the validation data set. Nine clusters of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway categories (mean P-value < 0.001) including, 9nucleotide binding; ion transport, phosphorous metabolic process, and the MAPK signaling pathway were overrepresented among the genes harboring the SNPs associated with feed efficiency. Conclusions The general SNP associations suggest that a single panel of genomic variants can be used regardless of breed and diet. The breed- and diet

  13. Endoparasites in calves of beef cattle herds: management systems dependent and genetic influences.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Michael; Gauly, Matthias; Bauer, Christian; Failing, Klaus; Erhardt, Georg; Zahner, Horst

    2005-08-10

    Prevalences and intensities of excretion of faecal stages of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Eimeria spp., Strongyloides papillosus and strongyles were determined in a German upland area in German Angus (GA) and German Simmental (GS) suckler of beef cattle herds covering two winter housing periods and the grazing season between them. Influences of the housing systems applied (maintenance on deep litter with (DL+) and without run-out (DL--), on slatted floor (SF) or by winter run-out yarding (WO)), breed differences and genetic influences by the sire were determined by statistical analyses; levels of IgG antibodies to E. bovis antigen were measured by ELISA. G. duodenalis was observed with a maximum prevalence of 38% in 4 weeks old calves, a cumulative incidence of 58% 9 weeks after birth and with generally low intensities. C. parvum infections were relatively rare with cumulative incidences of 20--25% in week 5 after birth. Highest prevalences were associated with housing system DL-- and a long-lasting calving period. Cumulative incidence of Eimeria spp. was almost 100%. E. bovis predominated by far followed by E. ellipsoidalis/zuernii. Mean maximum intensity of 1000 OpG occurred in week 7 after birth. Up to an age of the calves of 7 weeks >75% of all oocysts belonged to E. bovis. Prevalences and excretion intensities were lowest under the housing conditions SF and WO. Maternal antibodies in calves to E. bovis antigen were directly and inversely correlated with mean OpG values in GA and GS calves, respectively. S. papillosus was common with a cumulative incidence of 53% 9 weeks after birth and occurred independent of the housing system. Mean strongyle egg prevalence was 50% with 50--100 EpG by means throughout the grazing season. Egg excretion intensity in the early months of grazings was correlated with the age of the calves at turnout to pasture. Under the conditions of housing system DL-- GA calves could better control S. papillosus infections than

  14. Short-term effects of silage volatile compounds on feed intake and digestion in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Goulart, R S; Zopollatto, M; Santos, V P; Toledo Filho, S G; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Lima, J R; Santos, M C; Nussio, L G

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether fermentation end products in silage affect intake and digestion in beef cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for sample collection. Steers were housed in a tie-stall barn and individually fed once daily at 0800 h. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were as follows: 60% corn silage plus 40% concentrate (CON), 60% corn silage with added ethanol (2.8% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (ET), and 60% corn silage with added lactic acid (5.4% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (LA). The DMI was similar (P = 0.41) across treatments (average 11.7 kg/d); however, the LA treatment increased the ruminal pH (P = 0.01) and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Diet digestibility decreased by 2.2 to 2.5 percentage units when the DM content was determined by oven drying (at 105°C) rather than by toluene distillation. The treatments in Exp. 2 were as follows: 75% sugarcane silage with no volatile fraction (oven dried at 60°C and rehydrated) and 25% concentrate (75D), 75% sugarcane silage (original moisture content) and 25% concentrate (75W), and 40% sugarcane silage and 60% concentrate (40W). Approximately 21% of the DM content of sugarcane silage consisted of volatile compounds. The presence of these compounds did not alter the DMI (P = 0.36) but did increase both the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01) and the fractional absorption rates of valerate (P < 0.01) and ethanol (P = 0.02) in the empty reticulorumen. The 40W diet led to a greater DMI (40W = 9.79 vs. 75W = 6.19 kg/d; P < 0.01), which altered most of the measured variables traditionally associated with high-concentrate diets. As in Exp. 1, diet digestibility decreased by 1.5 to 5.4 units when the DM content was determined by oven drying at 105°C rather than by toluene distillation. In this short-term study, volatile

  15. Genetic grouping strategies in selection efficiency of composite beef cattle ( × ).

    PubMed

    Petrini, J; Pertile, S F N; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S; Mattos, E C; Figueiredo, L G G; Mourão, G B

    2015-02-01

    The inclusion of genetic groups in sire evaluation has been widely used to represent genetic differences among animals not accounted for by the absence of parentage data. However, the definition of these groups is still arbitrary, and studies assessing the effects of genetic grouping strategies on the selection efficiency are rare. Therefore, the aim in this study was to compare genetic grouping strategies for animals with unknown parentage in prediction of breeding values (EBV). The total of 179,302 records of weaning weight (WW), 29,825 records of scrotal circumference (SC), and 70,302 records of muscling score (MUSC) from Montana Tropical animals, a Brazilian composite beef cattle population, were used. Genetic grouping strategies involving year of birth, sex of the unknown parent, birth farm, breed composition, and their combinations were evaluated. Estimated breeding values were predicted for each approach simulating a loss of genealogy data. Thereafter, these EBV were compared to those obtained in an analysis involving a real relationship matrix to estimate selection efficiency and correlations between EBV and animal rankings. The analysis model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups and class of the dam age at calving, the covariates of additive and nonadditive genetic effects, and age, and the additive genetic effect of animal as random effects. A second model also included the fixed effects of genetic group. The use of genetic groups resulted in means of selection efficiency and correlation of 70.4 to 97.1% and 0.51 to 0.94 for WW, 85.8 to 98.8% and 0.82 to 0.98 for SC, and 85.1 to 98.6% and 0.74 to 0.97 for MUSC, respectively. High selection efficiencies were observed for year of birth and breed composition strategies. The maximum absolute difference in annual genetic gain estimated through the use of complete genealogy and genetic groups were 0.38 kg for WW, 0.02 cm for SC, and 0.01 for MUSC, with lower differences obtained when year of birth

  16. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  17. Seasonal methane emissions from a beef cattle feedyard on the U.S. southern High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are a significant source of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. As cattle production systems intensify, a better understanding of CH4 emissions from cattle feedyards is needed to build more accurate emission inventories, help develop better predictive mo...

  18. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in ...

  19. Tracking the sources of salmonella in ground beef produced from nonfed cattle.

    PubMed

    Koohmaraie, Mohammad; Scanga, John A; De La Zerda, Michael J; Koohmaraie, Bijan; Tapay, Lourdes; Beskhlebnaya, Vika; Mai, Tam; Greeson, Kay; Samadpour, Mansour

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the source(s) of Salmonella contamination in ground beef. One hundred dairy cows were harvested in a U.S. commercial beef processing plant. Samples of hides, carcasses after hide removal and before exposure to antimicrobial intervention, carcasses after all antimicrobial interventions, superficial cervical lymph nodes from the chuck, trim, ground beef, and air were obtained. Ninety-six percent of the hide samples, 47% of the carcasses before intervention, 18% of the lymph nodes, 7.14% of the trim, and 1.67% of the ground beef samples were positive for Salmonella. None of the samples obtained from the carcasses after the full complement of interventions and none of the air samples were positive for Salmonella. All Salmonella-positive samples were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and eight DNA Xba I restriction patterns were identified. The majority of isolates had one of two restriction digest patterns. The strain isolated from ground beef had the same pattern as the strains isolated from hides and from carcasses immediately after hide removal. The Salmonella isolates from trim samples and lymph nodes also had the same restriction digest pattern. These results indicate that hide and lymph nodes are the most likely sources of Salmonella in ground beef. Dressing practices that effectively reduce or eliminate the transfer of bacteria from hide to carcass and elimination of lymph nodes as a component of raw ground beef should be considered as measures to reduce Salmonella contamination of ground beef. Because total elimination of lymph nodes from ground beef is not possible, other approaches should be explored. Easily accessible lymph nodes could be screened for Salmonella very early in the slaughter process. When the results are positive for Salmonella, the corresponding carcasses should be fabricated separately at the end of the production run, and the trim from these carcasses should be subjected to a

  20. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma

  1. Feeding value of field pea as a protein source in forage-based diets fed to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Encinias, A M; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S

    2012-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of field peas as a protein source in diets for beef cattle. In the first study, 4 cultivars of field pea were incubated in situ to determine rate and extent of CP disappearance. Results indicate that field pea cultivars vary in CP content (22.6, 26.1, 22.6, and 19.4%, DM basis for Profi, Arvika, Carneval, and Trapper, respectively). Soluble protein fraction ranged from 34.9% for Trapper to 54.9% for Profi. Degradable CP fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for Trapper compared with the other cultivars, and no differences (P ≥ 0.25) were observed among Profi, Arvika, and Carneval. Rate of CP degradation differed (P ≤ 0.03) for all cultivars, with Profi being the greatest and Trapper the smallest (10.8, 10.0, 8.1, and 6.3 ± 1.4%/h for Profi, Carneval, Arvika, and Trapper, respectively). Estimated RDP was not different (P = 0.21) for all 4 cultivars. In the second study, 30 crossbred beef steers (301 ± 15 kg) were individually fed and used to evaluate effects of field pea processing (whole, rolled, or ground) on steer performance. Diets contained 40% field pea grain. Growing steers consuming whole field pea had greater ADG (P = 0.08) than those consuming processed field pea (1.69, 1.52, and 1.63 ± 0.05 kg/d, for whole, rolled, and ground, respectively). However, DMI (kg/d and as % of BW) and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.24). In the third study, 35 individually fed gestating beef cows (694 ± 17 kg) were used to evaluate the use of field pea as a protein supplement for medium quality grass hay (9.3% CP). Treatments consisted of whole field peas at 1) 0 g (CON), 2) 680 g (FP680), 3) 1,360 g (FP1360), and 4) 2,040 g (FP2040), and 5) 1,360 g of 74% barley and 26% canola meal (BCM). Total intake (forage + supplement) of gestating beef cows increased with increasing field pea level (linear, P = 0.01; supplemented vs. nonsupplemented, P = 0.01). In summary, protein quantity and rate of ruminal protein degradation

  2. The environmental impact of growth-promoting compounds employed by the United States beef cattle industry: history, current knowledge, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kolok, Alan S; Sellin, Marlo K

    2008-01-01

    The current state of knowledge regarding the environmental impact of growth-promoting compounds associated with the U.S. beef cattle industry is extensive in some areas but virtually nonexistent in others. The compounds administered to the cattle are quite well understood, as are bovine metabolism and excretion. If the sex and age of the cattle on the feedlot are known, the metabolites excreted by the cattle should be predictable with a great deal of accuracy. The fate, transport, and biological effects of growth-promoting compounds are just beginning to be studied. Most of the research conducted on the fate and transport of growth-promoting compounds has focused on 17beta-E2; however, much of this research was not conducted using feedlot runoff or manure. Studies are needed that focus specifically on manures and runoff from experimental or commercial feedlots. To date, the degree to which growth-promoting compounds are released from feedlots in a bioavailable form remains a point of speculation. The environmental fate and transport of TBA, P, and MGA have not been well studied. Comparisons between the fate and transport of T and 17beta-E2, however, make it clear that compounds with similar structure may behave very differently once released into the environment. Considering that 17beta-E2 is a naturally occurring estrogen and that TBA is a nonaromatizable androgen, it is not surprising that these compounds directly impact the reproductive physiology of fishes. The effects of these two compounds have been well documented, as has been described here; however, the effects of P and MGA exposures have gone largely uninvestigated. This is a serious critical gap in our knowledge base because progestogins play an important role in sex steroid synthesis and reproduction. Clearly, additional research on the consequences of exposures to P and MGA is warranted. The majority of research investigating the effects of 17beta-E2 and TBA metabolites on fish has been conducted in

  3. Genetic correlation of longevity with growth, post-mortem, docility and some morphological traits in the Pirenaica beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Moreno, C; Altarriba, J

    2012-06-01

    Survival or longevity is an economically relevant trait in cattle. However, it is not currently included in cattle selection criteria because of the delayed recording of phenotypic data and the high computational demand of survival techniques under proportional hazard models. The identification of longevity-correlated traits that can be early registered in lifetime would therefore be very useful for beef cattle selection processes. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic correlation of survival (SURV) with: growth - birth weight (BW), weight at 120 days (W120), weight at 210 days (W210); carcass - cold carcass weight (CCW), conformation (CON), fatness (FAT) and meat colour (COL); teat morphology - teat thickness (TT), teat length (TL) and udder depth (UD); leg morphology - forward (FL) and backward legs (BL); milk production (MILK) and docility (DOC). In the statistical analysis, SURV was measured in discrete-time intervals and modelled via a sequential threshold model. A series of independent bivariate Bayesian analyses between cow survival and each recorded trait were carried out. The posterior mean estimates (and posterior standard deviation) for the heritability of SURV was 0.05 (0.01); and for the relevant genetic correlations with SURV were 0.07 (0.04), 0.12 (0.05), 0.10 (0.05), 0.15 (0.05), -0.18 (0.06), 0.33 (0.06) and 0.27 (0.15) for BW, W120, W210, CCW, CON, FAT and COL, respectively.

  4. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive and some peri-natal variables in a mixed breed beef cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, R W; Gifford, D R

    1994-01-12

    Calving success (CS), days to calving (DC), birth weight (BW) and calving ease (CE) were studied in a mixed breed (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford and Simmental × Hereford) beef cattle herd. DC was not normally distributed and a number of transformations failed in normalising it. Repeatabilities were estimated by analysis of variance. Inclusion (or exclusion) of non calvers and the transformations studied had little effect on the repeatability of DC, which ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The repeatabilities for CS, BW and CE were 0.08, 0.26 and 0.03, respectively. The residual correlations of CS with DC and functions of DC were high (-0.68 or greater), whereas the correlations among DC and functions of DC were close to one. The correlations of DC with BW and CE varied little with the transformation applied to DC, ranging from 0.26 to 0.28 and 0.10 to 0.12, respectively. The correlation between BW and CE was 0.06. The study points to a number of problems associated with the use of DC as a reproductive variable in beef cattle. It is concluded that although DC is currently a useful field reproductive variable, the search for appropriate female reproductive traits should continue. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Reproduktions- und Perinatal-Variable in einer gemischtrassigen Fleisch-Rinderherde Abkalbeerfolg (CS), Tage bis Abkalbung (DC), Geburtsgewicht (BW) und Kalbeleichtigkeit (CE) wurden in einer gemischtrassigen (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford und Simmental × Hereford) Mutterkuhherde untersucht. DC waren nicht normalverteilt und konnte auch durch eine Reihe von Transformationen nicht normalisiert werden. Wiederholbarkeiten wurden mit Varianzanalyse geschätzt. Berücksichtigung (oder Nichtberücksichtigung) von Nichtkalbungen und die Transformationen hatten wenig Wirkung auf Wiederholbarkeit von DC, die zwischen 0,10 und 0,12 war. Wiederholbarkeiten für CS, BW und CE waren 0,08, 0,26 und 0,03. Die Restkorrelation von CS mit DC und Funktionen von DC waren hoch (- 0,68 oder stärker), w

  6. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E P; Pires, Alexandre V; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope "housing to field application" by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO₂eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ~80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO₂eq per kg lwg(-1)). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO₂eq kg lwg(-1) or 95% (±45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (±47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems.

  7. The effects of energy and protein supplementation strategy and frequency on the performance of beef cattle that grazed on Tanzania grass pastures during the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Miorin, R L; Saad, R M; Silva, L D F; Galbeiro, S; Cecato, U; Junior, F L Massaro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different supplementation strategies for finishing Nellore beef cattle on pastures of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Tanzania'). The experiment was performed in a 12 ha area divided into 12 paddocks of 1 ha each. Forty-eight, 2-year-old, non-castrated Nellore cattle with an initial body weight (BW) of 384 kg (SEM = 21) were used in this study. The following supplementation strategies were evaluated: (1) mineral supplement supplied once per week (MS), (2) energy and protein supplement with intake regulator (2 g/kg BW) supplied once per week (EPS1), (3) energy and protein supplement (7 g/kg BW) supplied daily (EPS2), and (4) energy and protein supplement (7 g/kg BW) supplied three times per week (EPS3). The average daily gain (ADG) of animals receiving EPS3 was 0.177 kg/day higher than those receiving EPS1 (p < 0.01), 0.233 kg/day higher than the MS group, and not significantly different from EPS2. Animals in MS and EPS1 groups exhibited the lowest ADG. The ADG was not significantly different between EPS1 and EPS2 animals, but was 0.203 kg/day higher for EPS2 animals than for MS. Animals receiving only mineral supplementation spent more time grazing than the other supplementation groups tested (p < 0.01). We therefore conclude that Tanzania guinea grass is nutritionally limited and can be amended using supplements, thereby increasing animal performance. Animal performance was higher with increased protein and energy supplementation (7 g/kg BW), independent of the frequency with which supplements were administered.

  8. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-08-16

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits.

  9. Impact of beef cattle diets containing corn or sorghum distillers grains on beef color, fatty acid profiles, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Gill, R K; VanOverbeke, D L; Depenbusch, B; Drouillard, J S; Dicostanzo, A

    2008-04-01

    Strip loins from 236 carcasses from crossbred yearling steers were collected on each of 2 slaughter dates (slaughter 1 or 2) to determine the effects of feeding corn or sorghum distillers grains (DG) on beef color, fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, tenderness, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn (SFC) diet without (control) or with 15% (DM basis) corn dry or wet DG (CDDG and CWDG) or sorghum dry or wet DG (SDDG and SWDG) and alfalfa hay (R). Additional treatments included SDDG or SWDG with no alfalfa hay (NR). In slaughter 2, steaks from steers fed SFC had lesser L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed DG. When comparing sorghum and corn DG steaks, the same color differences were detected. Steaks from steers fed sorghum DG had lower L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed corn DG. Also, L* values in steaks from steers fed SWDG with R were greater (P < 0.05) than those from steers fed SWDG with NR. In slaughter 1, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) steak n-6 fatty acid concentrations compared with SFC. In both slaughter groups, feeding dry DG increased (P < 0.05) steak linoleic acid concentrations compared with wet DG. In slaughter 2, feeding corn DG diets increased (P < 0.05) linoleic acid concentrations of steaks compared with sorghum DG diets. In addition, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid in steaks resulted from feeding SDDG or SWDG with R compared with those sorghum treatments with NR. In each slaughter group, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) the n-6:n-3 ratio of steaks compared with SFC, and feeding corn DG increased (P < 0.05) this ratio compared with sorghum DG. Furthermore, steaks from steers fed corn DG had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of trans-vaccenic acid than those from steers fed sorghum DG. In slaughter 1, the CLA isomer 18:2, trans-10, cis-12 was greater (P < 0.05) in steaks from DG diets. On d 1 of retail display, steaks from

  10. Environmental sustainability of beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in beef cattle from transport to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Beach, John C; Murano, Elsa A; Acuff, Gary R

    2002-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of typical production practices during the transport of cattle on the resulting incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the feces, on the hides, and on the carcasses of these cattle and in the environment (trucks, holding pens, and knock boxes). Various factors were evaluated, including the type of animal (feedlot cattle vs. adult pasture cattle), the breed of cattle, the body condition of the animal, the age of the animal, the time of feed and water withdrawal, the contamination level of the transport vehicle at the feedlot or farm, the transport time, the time cattle were held in the holding pen at the plant, and the contamination level of the holding pen. Four groups of each type of animal were sampled on different days. Samples were collected from cattle prior to transport and after transport (rectal and hide swabs) as well as from the carcasses of these cattle. Pre- and posttransit samples were also taken from the transport vehicle and from the holding pen and knock box at the slaughter facility. For feedlot cattle, fecal shedding stayed fairly constant for both organisms before and after transport (3 to 5% for Salmonella and 64 to 68% for Campylobacter). However, the shedding rate for adult cattle increased from 1 to 21% for Salmonella but stayed constant for Campylobacter (6 to 7%). Contamination of hides with Salmonella increased for both animal types from a level of 18 to 20% to a level 50 to 56%. For Campylobacter, the contamination level decreased from 25 to 13% for feedlot cattle but remained unchanged for adult animals (1 to 2%). Nineteen percent of feedlot cattle carcasses and 54% of adult cattle carcasses tested positive for Salmonella, while only2% of feedlot cattle carcasses and none of the adult cattle carcasses tested positive for Campylobacter. Thus, for feedlot cattle, the factors considered in this study did not affect the shedding of either organism but did affect the contamination

  12. Genetic associations among average annual productivity, growth traits, and stayability: a parallel between Nelore and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship among average annual productivity of the cow (PRODAM), yearling weight (YW), postweaning BW gain (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and stayability in the herd for at least 6 yr (STAY) of Nelore and composite beef cattle. Measurements were taken on animals born between 1980 and 2010 on 70 farms located in 7 Brazilian states. Estimates of heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were obtained by Bayesian approach with 5-trait animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regressing means of estimated breeding values by year of birth. The heritability estimates were between 0.14 and 0.47. Estimates of genetic correlation among female traits (PRODAM and STAY) and growth traits ranged from -0.02 to 0.30. Estimates of genetic correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.94 among growth traits indicating that selection for these traits could be successful in tropical breeding programs. Genetic correlations among all traits were favorable and simultaneous selection for growth, productivity, and stayability is therefore possible. Genetic correlation between PRODAM and STAY was 0.99 and 0.85 for Nelore and composite cattle, respectively. Therefore, PRODAM and STAY might be influenced by many of the same genes. The inclusion of PRODAM instead of STAY as a selection criterion seems to be more advantageous for tropical breeding programs because the generation interval required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for PRODAM is shorter. Average annual genetic changes were greater in Nelore than in composite cattle. This was not unexpected because the breeding program of composite cattle included a large number of farms, different production environments, and genetic level of the herds and breeds. Thus, the selection process has become more difficult in this population.

  13. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (<2, 2-<4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  14. Methane emissions, feed intake, and performance of finishing beef cattle offered maize silages harvested at 4 different stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-04-01

    This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P < 0.001) than with any of the maize silage treatments. Starch digestibility did not differ across maize silage maturities; however, a linear (P = 0.009) decrease in NDF digestibility was observed. Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed

  15. A review of composting as a management alternative for beef cattle feedlot manure in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Hao, Xiying

    2007-12-01

    Composting is gaining increased acceptance as a management alternative for the large volumes of manure produced by southern Alberta's beef cattle feedlots. Research on windrow composting of feedlot manure was initiated at the Lethbridge Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 1996. Early studies looked at physical and chemical changes during composting. Studies have also been conducted on greenhouse gas emissions during composting and the effect of composting on reduction of pathogens, parasites and weed seed viability. The quality of commercially-produced composts at southern Alberta feedlots has been examined as has the mineralization rates of soil-applied composts. This paper reviews results from our feedlot manure composting research program.

  16. Increased mortality in groups of cattle administered the β-adrenergic agonists ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Loneragan, Guy H; Thomson, Daniel U; Scott, H Morgan

    2014-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two β-adrenergic agonists (βAA) for in-feed administration to cattle fed in confinement for human consumption. Anecdotal reports have generated concern that administration of βAA might be associated with an increased incidence of cattle deaths. Our objectives, therefore, were to a) quantify the association between βAA administration and mortality in feedlot cattle, and b) explore those variables that may confound or modify this association. Three datasets were acquired for analysis: one included information from randomized and controlled clinical trials of the βAA ractopamine hydrochloride, while the other two were observational data on zilpaterol hydrochloride administration to large numbers of cattle housed, fed, and cared for using routine commercial production practices in the U.S. Various population and time at-risk models were developed to explore potential βAA relationships with mortality, as well as the extent of confounding and effect modification. Measures of effect were relatively consistent across datasets and models in that the cumulative risk and incidence rate of death was 75 to 90% greater in animals administered the βAA compared to contemporaneous controls. During the exposure period, 40 to 50% of deaths among groups administered the βAA were attributed to administration of the drug. None of the available covariates meaningfully confounded the relationship between βAA and increased mortality. Only month of slaughter, presumably a proxy for climate, consistently modified the effect in that the biological association was generally greatest during the warmer months of the year. While death is a rare event in feedlot cattle, the data reported herein provide compelling evidence that mortality is nevertheless increased in response to administration of FDA-approved βAA and represents a heretofore unquantified adverse drug event.

  17. Increased Mortality in Groups of Cattle Administered the β-Adrenergic Agonists Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Loneragan, Guy H.; Thomson, Daniel U.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two β-adrenergic agonists (βAA) for in-feed administration to cattle fed in confinement for human consumption. Anecdotal reports have generated concern that administration of βAA might be associated with an increased incidence of cattle deaths. Our objectives, therefore, were to a) quantify the association between βAA administration and mortality in feedlot cattle, and b) explore those variables that may confound or modify this association. Three datasets were acquired for analysis: one included information from randomized and controlled clinical trials of the βAA ractopamine hydrochloride, while the other two were observational data on zilpaterol hydrochloride administration to large numbers of cattle housed, fed, and cared for using routine commercial production practices in the U.S. Various population and time at-risk models were developed to explore potential βAA relationships with mortality, as well as the extent of confounding and effect modification. Measures of effect were relatively consistent across datasets and models in that the cumulative risk and incidence rate of death was 75 to 90% greater in animals administered the βAA compared to contemporaneous controls. During the exposure period, 40 to 50% of deaths among groups administered the βAA were attributed to administration of the drug. None of the available covariates meaningfully confounded the relationship between βAA and increased mortality. Only month of slaughter, presumably a proxy for climate, consistently modified the effect in that the biological association was generally greatest during the warmer months of the year. While death is a rare event in feedlot cattle, the data reported herein provide compelling evidence that mortality is nevertheless increased in response to administration of FDA-approved βAA and represents a heretofore unquantified adverse drug event. PMID:24621596

  18. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  19. A multi-trait, meta-analysis for detecting pleiotropic polymorphisms for stature, fatness and reproduction in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V-1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups.

  20. A Multi-Trait, Meta-analysis for Detecting Pleiotropic Polymorphisms for Stature, Fatness and Reproduction in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E.; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J.; Goddard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V−1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups. PMID:24675618

  1. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL.

  2. Understanding the role of sulfur-thiamine interaction in the pathogenesis of sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Amat, S; McKinnon, J J; Olkowski, A A; Penner, G B; Simko, E; Shand, P J; Hendrick, S

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the role of sulfur (S) in the pathogenesis of S-induced polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in beef cattle in the context of thiamine status and metabolism. Thiamine, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) status in rumen fluid, blood and brain tissue were determined in beef heifers fed 2 levels of S [low S (LS) vs. high S (HS)] at 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C). High S diet did not affect ruminal and blood thiamine status. Interestingly, however, HS diet showed increased brain thiamine levels. No gross or histopathological changes indicative of PEM were detected in the brains of the heifers. Of note, during the course of the present study, we documented an outbreak of S-induced PEM in commercial feedlot steers. Brain thiamine variables in experimental animals fed HS diet were then contrasted with brain thiamine status in PEM affected feedlot steers. Interestingly, in clinically normal animals, exposure to HS diet resulted in increased levels of both TMP and TPP in the brain tissue, in comparison to animals fed LS diet. In contrast, the PEM affected brains showed overall lower levels of thiamine phosphates. It is noteworthy that TPP levels were 36.5% lower, despite 4.9-fold higher free thiamine in PEM brains compared to normal brains. Our results indicate that high dietary S may increase the metabolic demand for TPP, and that animals incapable of maintaining requisite levels of brain TPP are at high risk to develop fulminant cerebrocortical necrosis.

  3. Effect of phase-feeding crude protein on performance and carcass characteristics of crossbred beef bulls: an application to reduce nitrogen compounds in beef cattle diets.

    PubMed

    de Melo Amaral, Paloma; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Detmann, Edenio; Santos, Stefanie Alvarenga; Prados, Laura Franco; Silva Mariz, Lays Débora; Alves, Lyvian Cardoso; Menezes, Ana Clara Baião; Villadiego, Faider Alberto Castaño; Novaes, Marco Aurélio Schiavo; de Sales Silva, Flávia Adriane

    2014-02-01

    Beef cattle (24) with an average initial body weight of 417 ± 54 kg were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design with six repetitions. The factors studied were two levels of CP: 11 (low CP) or 13 % (high CP) in the initial feedlot phase (days 1 - 36) and in the final phase (days 37 - 72). After 36 days, half of the bulls fed with each level of CP were selected to reverse the CP level. No interaction was observed (P > 0.05) between the level of protein in the initial and final phases on the intake of the nutrients evaluated. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the protein levels in the initial and final phases on intake of dry matter, organic matter, CP, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. No differences were observed among treatments (P > 0.05) for average daily gain (X = 1.99 kg/day) and carcass traits. We conclude that it is possible to feed Holstein-Zebu crossed bulls with an average daily gain of approximately 2 kg using a fixed level of 11 % CP during the entire feedlot period, and this diet is economically viable and environmentally sound.

  4. Genetic parameters for both a liver damage phenotype caused by and antibody response to phenotype in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Twomey, A J; Sayers, R G; Carroll, R I; Byrne, N; Brien, E O'; Doherty, M L; McClure, J C; Graham, D A; Berry, D P

    2016-10-01

    is a helminth parasite of economic importance to the global cattle industry, with documented high international herd prevalence. The objective of the present study was to generate the first published genetic parameter estimates for liver damage caused by as well as antibody response to in cattle. Abattoir data on the presence of live , or -damaged livers, were available between the years 2012 and 2015, inclusive. A second data set was available on cows from 68 selected dairy herds with a blood ELISA test for antibody response to in autumn 2015. Animals were identified as exposed by using herd mate phenotype, and only exposed animals were retained for analysis. The abattoir data set consisted of 20,481 dairy cows and 75,041 young dairy and beef animals, whereas the study herd data set consisted of 6,912 dairy cows. (Co)variance components for phenotypes in both data sets were estimated using animal linear mixed models. Fixed effects included in the model for both data sets were contemporary group, heterosis coefficient, recombination loss coefficient, parity, age relative to parity/age group, and stage of lactation. An additional fixed effect of abattoir by date of slaughter was included in the model for the analysis of the abattoir data. Direct additive genetic effects and a residual effect were included as random effects for all analyses. After data edits, the prevalence of liver damage caused by in cows and young cattle was 47% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of a positive antibody response to in cows from the study herd data was 36% after data edits. The heritability of as a binary trait for dairy cows in abattoir data and study herd data was 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.02, respectively; heritability in young cattle was 0.01 ± 0.005. The additive genetic SD of as a binary trait was 0.069 and 0.050 for cows and young cattle from the abattoir data, respectively, and 0.112 from the study herd cows. The genetic correlation between liver damage caused by in

  5. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: 2. Metabolic response to an insulin sensivitiy test in beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) fou...

  6. Urolithiasis in a herd of beef cattle associated with oxalate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-02-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  7. Enteric methane production from beef cattle that vary in feed efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellip...

  8. Eradication of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (Bovine Herpesvirus 1) from a Herd of Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was eradicated from a 150 cow beef herd at the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta. Tests used to accomplish this included standard and modified serum-virus neutralization tests and an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. These results and those of preliminary pilot studies in the herd and in a nonvaccinated, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infected 450 cow beef herd suggest that eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection can be considered as a practical control alternative to vaccination, and that young animals in purebred herds could be monitored serologically and isolated, to enhance their eligibility for entry into artificial insemination studs or for export. PMID:17422544

  9. Genetic correlation estimates between beef fatty acid profile with meat and carcass traits in Nellore cattle finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Fabieli Loise Braga; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; de Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes; Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Peripolli, Elisa; Ferrinho, Adrielle Matias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Mazalli, Mônica Roberta; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Tonhati, Humberto; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; de Oliveira Silva, Rafael Medeiros; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Aguilar, Ignacio; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic-quantitative relationships between the beef fatty acid profile with the carcass and meat traits of Nellore cattle. A total of 1826 bulls finished in feedlot conditions and slaughtered at 24 months of age on average were used. The following carcass and meat traits were analysed: subcutaneous fat thickness (BF), shear force (SF) and total intramuscular fat (IMF). The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis samples was determined. Twenty-five FAs (18 individuals and seven groups of FAs) were selected due to their importance for human health. The animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip and, after quality control for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only 470,007 SNPs from 1556 samples remained. The model included the random genetic additive direct effect, the fixed effect of the contemporary group and the animal's slaughter age as a covariable. The (co)variances and genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method, considering an animal model (single-step GBLUP). A total of 25 multi-trait analyses, with four traits, were performed considering SF, BF and IMF plus each individual FA. The heritability estimates for individual saturated fatty acids (SFA) varied from 0.06 to 0.65, for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) it varied from 0.02 to 0.14 and for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) it ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The heritability estimates for Omega 3, Omega 6, SFA, MUFA and PUFA sum were low to moderate, varying from 0.09 to 0.20. The carcass and meat traits, SF (0.06) and IMF (0.07), had low heritability estimates, while BF (0.17) was moderate. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with BF were 0.04, 0.64 and -0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with SF were 0.29, -0.06 and -0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with IMF were 0.24, 0

  10. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated insertion/deletion polymorphisms of the prion protein gene in the four beef cattle breeds from North China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang-Yuan; Feng, Fu-Ying; Xue, Su-Yuan; Hou, Ting; Liu, Hui-Rong

    2011-10-01

    Two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP), a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter region and a 12-bp indel within intron I, are associated with the susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. In the present study, the polymorphism frequencies of the two indels in four main beef cattle breeds (Hereford, Simmental, Black Angus, and Mongolian) from North China were studied. The results showed that the frequencies of deletion genotypes and alleles of 23- and 12-bp indels were lower, whereas the frequencies of insertion genotypes and alleles of the two indels were higher in Mongolian cattle than in the other three cattle breeds. In Mongolian cattle, the 23-bp insertion / 12-bp insertion was the major haplotype, whereas in Hereford, Simmental, and Black Angus cattle, the 23-bp deletion / 12-bp deletion was the major haplotype. These results demonstrated that Mongolian cattle could be more resistant to BSE, compared with the other three cattle breeds, because of its relatively low frequencies of deletion genotypes and alleles of 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms. Thus, this race could be important for selective breeding to improve resistance against BSE in this area.

  11. Seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H. Morgan; Sorensen, Ole; Wu, John T.Y.; Chow, Eva Y.W.; Manninen, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in Alberta was conducted. The seroprevalence of MAP in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. Using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3–23.4%). Seroprevalence of MAP differed by agroecological region; specifically, cattle and herds in areas with high soil pH (> 7.0), southern latitudes, and arid climates had a moderately reduced risk of infection (P < 0.10). Seroprevalence of NC infection was 9.7% among adult beef cattle province-wide — these levels also varied by agroecological region — with 91.0% of herds infected overall. PMID:17494367

  12. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Michael P.; Smith, Timothy P.L.; Carnahan, Jacky K.; Basnayake, Veronica; Qiu, Jiansheng; Simpson, Barry; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in global beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene ( EPAS1), a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle. The identity and quality of genomic sequences were verified by comparing WGS genotypes to those derived from other methods. The average read depth, genotype scoring rate, and genotype accuracy exceeded 14, 99%, and 99%, respectively. The 96 genomes were used to discover four amino acid variants encoded by EPAS1 (E270Q, P362L, A671G, and L701F) and confirm two variants previously associated with disease (A606T and G610S). The six EPAS1 missense mutations were verified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assays, and their frequencies were estimated in a separate collection of 1154 U.S. cattle representing 46 breeds. A rooted phylogenetic tree of eight polypeptide sequences provided a framework for evaluating the likely order of mutations and potential impact of EPAS1 alleles on the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia in U.S. cattle. This public, whole genome resource facilitates in silico identification of protein variants in diverse types of U.S. beef cattle, and provides a means of translating WGS data into a practical biological and evolutionary context for generating and testing hypotheses. PMID:27746904

  13. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Results Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P < 0.05) by diet type, with greater abundance observed while animals were offered the LF compared to the HF diet. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in abundance of specific rumen methanogen species may not contribute to variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species. PMID:25276350

  14. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses. PMID:27608639

  15. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P < 0.05) by diet type, with greater abundance observed while animals were offered the LF compared to the HF diet. These findings suggest that differences in abundance of specific rumen methanogen species may not contribute to variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species.

  16. Biological control of trichostrongyles in beef cattle by the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of a fungal formulation based on the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed in the control of cattle trichostrongyles. Twenty male Nellore calves, six-month-old, divided in two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus) were fed on a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens naturally infected with larvae of bovine trichostrongyles. Animals of the treated group received doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets orally (1 g/10 kg live weight, twice a week), for 12 months. Feces samples were collected for egg count (eggs per gram of feces-EPG) and coprocultures during 12 months. There was a significant reduction in EPG (56.7%) and infective larvae (L3) in coprocultures (60.5%) for animals of the treated group in relation to the control group at the end of the study. There was a significant reduction of L3 (64.5%) in herbage samples collected up to 0-20 cm from fecal pats and 73.2% in distant samples (20-40 cm) between the fungus-treated group and the control group. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced trichostrongylid in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in beef cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost.

  18. The monster we don't see: subclinical BRD in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2014-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most expensive disease affecting United States cattle. Recently weaned calves are the focus of prevention and treatment research. Identifying affected cattle early in the course of BRD is difficult. Intervention during the early stages of BRD improves treatment outcomes; however, cattle as prey animals are excellent at hiding signs of disease, especially if the caregiver has not gained their trust. Depression, appetite loss, and changes in respiratory character are the principal signs used to identify BRD. Rectal temperatures from cattle pulled for treatment are a final measure of evaluation. Cattle suffering from subclinical BRD frequently escape identification and treatment. Observations of lungs at packing plants for anterior ventral (AV) lesions frequently document higher BRD incidence rates than observed pre-harvest, suggesting subclinical BRD is common. Data from numerous studies document lower average daily gains (ADG) from cattle with AV lung lesions at packing plants that were not treated for BRD compared with cattle with normal lungs. Scoring lung lesions at the packing plant can be a useful tool for gaining insight into BRD incidence. Data indicate that BRD lowers ADG by 0.2 lbs on average, and lowers the USDA Quality Grade by 50 marbling points.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Mycobacterium bovis Strains Isolated from Beef Cattle in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Lidia; Lagrave, Lorena; Nishibe, Christiane; Ribas, Augusto C A; Zumárraga, Martín J; Almeida, Nalvo F; Araújo, Flábio R

    2017-07-13

    This work reports the draft genome sequences of the Mycobacterium bovis strains M1009 and M1010, isolated from the lymph nodes of two infected cows on a beef farm in Paraguay. Comparative genomics between these strains and other regional strains may provide more insights regarding M. bovis epidemiology in South America. Copyright © 2017 Sanabria et al.

  20. Nitrogen sustainability and beef cattle feedyards: introduction and influence of pen surface conditions and diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greater public awareness of the potential effects of agriculture on the environment calls for beef production systems that are sustainable with regard to the environment, society, and the economy. Reactive nitrogen (N) from feedyards could negatively influence air and water quality in the event of v...

  1. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...