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Sample records for beef sausage patties

  1. Shelf life of ground beef patties treated by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W T; Weese, J O

    1998-10-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbial populations in ground beef patties vacuum package and irradiated frozen at target doses of 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy were determined. Irradiated samples were stored at 4 or -18 degrees C for 42 days, and mesophilic aerobic plate counts (APCs) were periodically determined. Fresh ground beef (initial APC of 10(2) CFU/g) treated with 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy was acceptable (< 10(7) CFU/g) for 42 days at 4 degrees C. The 1.0 kGy-treated beef samples were acceptable microbiologically (< 10(7) CFU/g) after 42 days but developed an unacceptable off-odor after 21 days. Shelf life diminished in fresh ground beef patties with an initial APC of 10(4) CFU/g. Only beef patties treated with 7.0 kGy were found to be acceptable at 42 days. Beef patties treated at 1.0 and 3.0 kGy reached spoilage APC levels (> 10(7) CFU/g) by day 14 and 21, respectively, whereas patties treated at 5.0 kGy did not spoil until 42 days. The nonirradiated control samples for both batches of ground beef spoiled within 7 days. Microbial counts in ground beef patties stored at -18 degrees C did not change over the 42-day period. Shelf life of ground beef patties stored at 4 degrees C may be extended with gamma radiation, especially at 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial microbial load in ground beef samples was an important shelf life factor.

  2. Evaluation of Frozen Beef Patties Containing Soy Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    19 (10) kg of ground beef, 11 (10) kg as preformed patties, and 9 (10) kg as bulk ground beef which is used for such items as chili , meat loaf, meat...storage 34 9* Effect of location in box on composition and rancidity. 35 10. Flavor of patties, without condiments, evaluated by a 52-member...acceptability of patties, without condiments, evaluated by a 52-member consumer panel • 41 16. Effect of storage on organoleptic traits of all frozen

  3. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section 319.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  4. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section 319.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  5. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section 319.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  6. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty. PMID:26760934

  7. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty.

  8. Noni puree (Morinda citrifolia) mixed in beef patties enhanced color stability.

    PubMed

    Tapp, W Nathan; Yancey, Janeal W S; Apple, Jason K; Dikeman, Michael E; Godbee, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of various fiber additions on lipid digestion during in vitro digestion of beef patties.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Lim, B O; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various fiber additions on lipid digestion during the in vitro digestion of beef patties. The control patties were prepared with 90.5% lean meat and 9.5% tallow. Treatments consisted of 90% lean meat with 9.5% tallow and either 0.5% cellulose, 0.5% chitosan, or 0.5% pectin. The beef patties were then passed through an in vitro digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juices. The change in structure and properties of the lipid droplets was monitored by laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. In general, there was a decrease in lipid droplet diameter as the droplets moved from mouth to stomach to small intestine. The amount of free fatty acid dramatically increased after in vitro digestion in all beef patties. The amount of free fatty acid was, however, lower in beef patties containing chitosan and pectin than other beef patties after in vitro digestion. Beef patties containing various fibers had lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values than samples with no fibers. Among the samples to which fibers were added, chitosan and pectin had lower TBARS than beef patties with cellulose. The cholesterol content decreased after in vitro digestion in all beef patties but was not different among the beef patties before and after in vitro digestion. These results enhance our understanding of the physicochemical and structural changes that occur to ground beef within the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Beef patty composition: effects of fat content and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Berry, B W; Leddy, K

    1984-06-01

    Patties from ground round, ground chuck , and regular ground beef containing 14%, 19%, and 24% fat, respectively, were cooked by six different methods and analyzed for compositional differences. Cooking methods were electric broiling , charbroiling , roasting, convection heating, frying, and microwave heating. Percent yield, fat, and moisture of cooked patties were significantly affected (p less than .05) by the interaction of fat level and cooking method. Except for patties cooked by broiling or convection heating, patty yields decreased with increasing fat levels. Leaner formulations of ground beef increased in fat percentage with cooking, while patties processed to contain more fat initially decreased in fat percentage following cooking. Microwave cooking always produced patties containing the least fat and caloric content in comparison with other methods. Increasing levels of fat in the raw patty formulation did not appear to affect substantially the total caloric value of the patties following cooking. Cooked patties processed to have 14% fat contained slightly more water and less fat than patties having 24% fat. At current retail prices, cooked patties made to have 14% fat cost +0.20 more per patty than patties produced to contain 24% fat, regardless of the method of cooking.

  11. Preserving pre-rigor meat functionality for beef patty production.

    PubMed

    Claus, J R; Sørheim, O

    2006-06-01

    Three methods were examined for preserving pre-rigor meat functionality in beef patties. Hot-boned semimembranosus muscles were processed as follows: (1) pre-rigor ground, salted, patties immediately cooked; (2) pre-rigor ground, salted and stored overnight; (3) pre-rigor injected with brine; and (4) post-rigor ground and salted. Raw patties contained 60% lean beef, 19.7% beef fat trim, 1.7% NaCl, 3.6% starch, and 15% water. Pre-rigor processing occurred at 3-3.5h postmortem. Patties made from pre-rigor ground meat had higher pH values; greater protein solubility; firmer, more cohesive, and chewier texture; and substantially lower cooking losses than the other treatments. Addition of salt was sufficient to reduce the rate and extent of glycolysis. Brine injection of intact pre-rigor muscles resulted in some preservation of the functional properties but not as pronounced as with salt addition to pre-rigor ground meat.

  12. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties with added glutinous rice flour.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hae Chang; Cho, Hyunnho; Hong, Jae Joon; Ryu, Rae Kyeong; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine if glutinous rice flour (GRF) could be a functional food additive to potentially replace corn starch (CS), soy protein isolate (SPI) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) to improve the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties. GRF had a lower cook loss among the treatment groups due to an increase in fat and moisture retentions (p<0.05). GRF lowered texture profile values for hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness (p<0.05) of the patties, which are generally beneficial for this product. The beef patties with GRF were juicier and more tender than the control and other treatments (p<0.05). Hedonic scores for juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability were the highest for the beef patties with 1 and 3% GRFs, suggesting that GRF may be an effective functional ingredient to improve the textural quality of seasoned beef patties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of low-and high-fat beef patties: effect of high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Carballo, J; Fernandez, P; Carrascosa, A V; Solas, M T; Colmenero, F J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the consequences of applying high pressures (100 and 300 MPa for 5 or 20 min) on characteristics such as water- and fat-binding properties, texture, color, microstructure, and microbiology of low-fat (9.2%) and high-fat (20.3%) beef patties. In nonpressurized patties, the low-fat product exhibited significantly poorer (P < 0.05) binding properties and higher (P < 0.05) Kramer shear force and Kramer energy than did high-fat patties. Although high pressure did not clearly influence the binding properties of low- and high-fat beef patties, it did produce a rise in the Kramer shear force and energy which were more pronounced at 300 MPa. High pressures altered patty color, the extent of alteration depending on fat content, pressure, and pressurizing time. Pressurizing high- and low-fat beef patties at 300 MPa not only produced a lethal effect (P < 0.05) on microorganisms, but caused sublethal damage as well.

  14. Frozen storage stability of beef patties incorporated with extracts from ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus).

    PubMed

    Reihani, S F S; Tan, Thuan-Chew; Huda, Nurul; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-07-15

    In Malaysia, fresh ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus) are eaten raw with rice. In this study, beef patties incorporated with extracts of ulam raja (UREX) and commercial green tea extract (GTE) added individually at 200 and 500 mg/kg were stored at -18°C for up to 10 weeks. Lipid oxidation, cooking yield, physicochemical properties, textural properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of the beef patties were compared between those incorporated with UREX, GTE and the control (pure beef patty). Incorporation of UREX or GTE at 500 mg/kg into beef patties reduced the extent of lipid oxidation significantly (P<0.05). UREX showed a strong lipid oxidation inhibitory effect, comparable with GTE. In addition, a significant improvement (P<0.05) in cooking yield and textural properties was also recorded. However, incorporation of UREX and GTE into beef patties showed no significant influence (P>0.05) on the colour, pH, proximate composition and overall sensory acceptability of the patties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    PubMed

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of commercial propolis extract in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Sánchez, Rey D; Torrescano-Urrutia, Gastón R; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Galland, Belinda; Torres-Llanez, María J; Sánchez-Escalante, Armida

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis extract (PE) to reduce lipid oxidation and microbial growth on beef patties during refrigerated storage. Beef patties were manufactured by incorporating PE in 4 different treatments: (1) Control (no PE addition); (2) commercial propolis 1 (2% w/w; CP1); (3) commercial propolis 2 (2% w/w; CP2); and (4) noncommercial propolis (2% w/w; NCP). Raw patties were wrapped with polyvinyl chloride and stored at 2 °C for 8 d. Total phenolic content (TPC), free-radical scavenging activity (FRS), and polyphenolic content of the PE were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CnDs), metmyoglobin (MetMb%), pH variation, and color (L*, a*, b*, C*, and h*), and microbial growth (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria) of patty samples were measured. NCP treatment demonstrated the highest FRS (64.8% at 100 μg/mL), which correlated with TPC and the presence of polyphenolic compounds. Lipid oxidation (78.54%, TBARS; 45.53%, CnD; 58.57%, MetMb) and microbial mesophilic and psychrotrophic growth (19.75 and 27.03%, respectively) values were reduced by NCP treatment in refrigerated samples after 8 d. These results indicate that PE has great potential as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial additive to extend the shelf life of beef patties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Effects of soy hull pectin and insoluble fiber on physicochemical and oxidative characteristics of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Miller, Danika K; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pectin and insoluble fiber isolated from soy hulls on water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Beef patties were formulated with no dietary fiber (control), 1% soy hull pectin, insoluble fiber, or their mixture (1:1), respectively. The addition of soy hull pectin significantly decreased display weight loss and increased cook yield of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. In addition, no significant difference in hardness between fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties was observed for all dietary fiber treatments. However, incorporation of insoluble soy hull fiber decreased color and lipid oxidation stabilities of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Our results indicate that the incorporation of soy hull pectin could be an effective non-meat ingredient to minimize water loss and hardness defects of frozen beef patties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of beef patties incorporated with destoned olive cake powder.

    PubMed

    Hawashin, Majed D; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Ahmed, Isam A Mohamed; Ghafoor, Kashif; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-12-01

    The biological efficacy of different concentrations (2%, 4%, and 6%) of destoned olive cake (DOC) as improvers of the quality, storability, and safety of beef patties was investigated. Increasing the percentage of DOC in the patties improved (P≤0.05) the protein and fat contents, cooking yield, moisture and fat retention, total phenolic, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, while the dimensional shrinkage and TBARS showed a progressive reduction. The pH of the patties decreased gradually with the storage time. DOC-incorporated patties showed significantly (P≤0.05) lower total plate count than untreated. Surface color values of raw beef patties were decreased gradually with the storage time. Throughout the storage period, all the sensory traits of non-formulated patties were significantly (P≤0.05) reduced, whereas the formulated patties revealed considerable stability of all characters. Overall, this study identified antioxidant and antimicrobial potentiality of DOC, which could pave the way for its use as an extender of the shelf life of the patties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-fat beef patties with augmented omega-3 fatty acid and CLA levels and influence of grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Sarriés, María V; Insausti, Kizkitza; Mendizabal, José A

    2014-11-01

    The effects of raising the omega-3 fatty acid (FA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), or omega-3 FA plus CLA levels on beef by means of dietary supplementation and of adding grape seed extract (250 mg/kg meat product) in beef patties stored at 2 ± 1 °C in aerobic packaging under simulated retail display conditions for 6 d was evaluated by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), pH, and instrumental color measurement values and by means of sensory analysis. The pH, instrumental color measurements, and sensory attribute values for patties made from beef with augmented omega-3 FA and/or CLA contents were similar to the values for the control patties made from beef from animals fed a conventional diet. Adding GSE lowered oxidation levels on day 6 (P < 0.001) and did not affect the instrumental color or sensory analysis results during the display period. This suggests that omega-3 FA and CLA-augmented beef could be used to make low-fat beef patties having characteristics similar to those of conventional beef patties while being more in keeping with currently recommended nutritional guidelines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education. PMID:26610557

  1. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  2. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-07-31

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  3. Determination of the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing. Following cooking to 74°C, patties were cut into quarters and served to consumers. Consumers ( = 112) evaluated samples in 2 rounds for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, texture liking, and overall liking. Each trait was also rated as either acceptable or unacceptable. In the first round of testing, samples were blind evaluated, with no information about the treatments provided to consumers, but in the second round, product type and brand were disclosed prior to sample evaluation. Additionally, texture profile and shear force analyses were performed on patties from each treatment. Few differences were observed for palatability traits during blind consumer testing; however, during informed testing, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin was rated greatest ( < 0.05) for all palatability traits other than juiciness. Also, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin had increased ( < 0.05; (consumer informed score - consumer blind score)/consumer blind score) ratings for tenderness (17.4%), juiciness (36.5%), flavor liking (23.3%), texture liking (18.2%), and overall liking (24.7%) due to brand disclosure. Increased ( < 0.05) ratings were found for CAB products for multiple traits due to treatment disclosure, whereas the only non-CAB-branded product that received increased ( < 0.05) ratings during informed testing was 90/10 ground beef for tenderness and juiciness. Texture results indicated that decreased fat level increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and

  4. Effects of lactate and modified atmospheric packaging on premature browning in cooked ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Mancini, R A; Ramanathan, R; Suman, S P; Konda, M K R; Joseph, P; Dady, G A; Naveena, B M; López-López, I

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of lactate and modified atmosphere packaging on raw surface color, lipid oxidation, and internal cooked color of ground beef patties. Eight chubs (85% lean) were divided in half and each half was either assigned to the control (no lactate) or mixed with 2.5% lactate (w/w). Following treatment, patties were prepared and packaged in either vacuum, PVC (atmospheric oxygen level), high-oxygen (80% O(2)+20% CO(2)), or 0.4% CO (30% CO(2)+69.6% N(2)) and stored for 0, 2, or 4days at 2 degrees C. After storage, raw surface color and lipid oxidation were measured and patties were cooked to either 66 degrees C or 71 degrees C. Lactate improved (p<0.05) color stability of PVC, high-oxygen, and vacuum packaged raw patties, but had no effect (p>0.05) on the a * values and visual color scores of patties in 0.4% CO. Lactate decreased (p<0.05) lipid oxidation in all packaging atmospheres. Nevertheless, high-oxygen and PVC-packaged patties had more (p<0.05) lipid oxidation than patties in CO and vacuum. Lactate had no effect (p>0.05) on premature browning, whereas patties packaged in high-oxygen demonstrated premature browning. Conversely, cooked patties in 0.4% CO and vacuum were more red (p<0.05) than both high-oxygen and PVC-packaged patties. Although lactate improved raw color stability, it did not minimize premature browning in cooked ground beef patties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trained sensory panel and consumer evaluation of the effects of gamma irradiation on palatability of vacuum-packaged frozen ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-12-01

    The objectives for this experiment were to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on 1) the palatability of vacuum-packaged frozen ground beef patties by trained sensory panel and 2) consumer evaluation of the taste of hamburgers made with those patties. Boxes (4.5 kg) of frozen (-28 degrees C) ground beef patties (113.4 g/patty, 19% fat) from a commercial supplier were irradiated at a commercial gamma irradiation facility at one of three levels (0, 3.0, or 4.5 kGy). All boxes were stored at 28 degrees C for 27 to 29 d after irradiation before evaluation by a trained descriptive attribute sensory panel and for 62 to 104 d after irradiation before consumer evaluation. The trained panel evaluated grilled patties for ground beef aroma intensity, off-aroma, and off-flavor on 4-point scales (4 = intense, none, and none; 1 = none, intense, and intense, respectively) and ground beef flavor intensity, tenderness, and juiciness on 8-point scales (8 = extremely intense, tender, or juicy; 1 = extremely bland, tough, or dry). Control patties had more intense (P<.05) ground beef aroma (3.1 vs 2.6), less off-aroma (3.3 vs 2.6), and more intense ground beef flavor (4.9 vs. 4.3) than irradiated patties. However, there were no differences (P>.05) in any sensory trait between frozen ground beef patties treated with 3.0 or 4.5 kGy of gamma irradiation. There were no differences (P>.05) among treatments for tenderness (6.3, 6.6, and 6.7) or juiciness ratings (5.7, 5.9, and 5.9), respectively, for 0, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy. The consumers evaluated taste of a hamburger that included their choice of condiments on a 10-point scale (10 = excellent; 1 = terrible). Hamburgers made with patties treated with 4.5 kGy were rated lower (P<.05) in taste than hamburgers made with either control patties or those treated with 3.0 kGy (6.5, 6.6, and 6.2, respectively, for 0, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy); however, all doses were rated at some level of "fair." These results imply that hamburgers made from ground

  6. The Effects of Prolonged Feeding Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE) Operational Rations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Chicken Ala King Frankfurters Ham/Chicken Loaf Ham Slices Meatballs W/Barbeque Sauce Pork Sausage Patties Turkey W/Grayy 74 74 74 74 74 74...Slices Meatballs W/Barbeque Sauce Pork Sausage Patties Turkey W/Gravy 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 22 22 24 23 19 20 20...Beef w/Spiced Sauce Beef Patty Beef Stew Chicken A La King Frankfurters Ham Slices Ham and Chicken Loaf Meatballs w/BBQ Sauce Pork Sausage

  7. Response surface methodology for predicting quality characteristics of beef patties added with flaxseed and tomato paste.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela Melendres, M; Camou, J P; Torrentera Olivera, N G; Alvarez Almora, E; González Mendoza, D; Avendaño Reyes, L; González Ríos, H

    2014-05-01

    Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of flaxseed flour (FS) and tomato paste (TP) addition, from 0 to 10% and 0 to 20% respectively, on beef patty quality characteristics. The assessed quality characteristics were color (L, a, and b), pH and texture profile analysis (TPA). Also, sensory analysis was performed for the assessment of color, juiciness, firmness, and general acceptance. FS addition reduced L and a values and decreased weight loss of cooked products (P<0.05). An opposite effect was observed when TP was added (P<0.05). All TPA parameters decreased when percentages of FS and TP were increased in the formulation of beef patties. Furthermore, FS and TP addition adversely affected the sensory characteristics of the cooked product (P<0.05); nevertheless, all sensory characteristics evaluated had an acceptable score (>5.6). Thus FS and TP are ingredients that can be used in beef patty preparation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of oat's soluble fibre (β-glucan) as a fat replacer on physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of low-fat beef patties.

    PubMed

    Piñero, M P; Parra, K; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Arenas de Moreno, L; Ferrer, M; Araujo, S; Barboza, Y

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding oat fibre source of β-glucan (13.45%) on physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory traits of low-fat (<10%) beef patties as compared to 20% fat control patties. Significant (p<0.05) improvements in cooking yield (74.19%), and retentions of fat (79.74%) and moisture (48.41%) of low-fat patties were attributed to the water binding ability of β-glucan. Because of larger water retentions moisture contents of raw and cooked low-fat patties were higher (p<0.05) than those of the control patties. Cholesterol content was similar across formulations. Low-fat and control beef patties remained stable in microbiological quality during 60days frozen storage. Low-fat patties were found to be of lower degree of likeness in the taste but juicer than control (p<0.05). Besides appearance, tenderness and colour were not affected by the addition of oat's soluble fibre. Oat fibre can be used successfully as a fat substitute in low-fat beef patties.

  9. Inhibitory activity of Asian spices on heterocyclic amines formation in cooked beef patties.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Jirapakkul, Wannee; Smith, J Scott

    2011-10-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed when foods are cooked at high temperatures. Numerous reports have shown that natural antioxidants from spices, fruits, chocolate, and tea can inhibit formation. In this study, we evaluated HCA formation in the presence of 5 of Asian spices: galangal (Alpinia galangal), fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata), turmeric (Curcuma longa), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum). HCA levels were compared to patties containing rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), of which the inhibitory effect is well documented. Inhibition of HCA formation by the spices was evaluated in beef patties cooked at 204 °C (400 °F) for 10 min. All spices were mixed into patties at 0.2% before cooking, and HCAs levels were measured in the final product. All patties, including the control, contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl -6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The average HCA content of the control patties was 7 ng/g MeIQx and 6.53 ng/g PhIP. Turmeric (39.2% inhibition), fingerroot (33.5% inhibition), and galangal (18.4% inhibition) significantly decreased HCAs compared with the control. But, only turmeric and fingerroot were as effective as rosemary in preventing HCA formation. The HCA inhibition in patties containing spices was significantly correlated to the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.80) and the scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.84) of the spices as measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results of this study suggest that addition of Asian spices can be an important factor in decreasing the levels of HCAs in fried beef patties. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Effects of acerola fruit extract on sensory and shelf-life of salted beef patties from grinds differing in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Guàrdia, M D; Díaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A; Arnau, J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of added acerola fruit extract on sensory and shelf-life of beef patties were evaluated. Ground beef was obtained from young bulls fed one of four diets (CON: control, LIN: linseed, CLA: conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: LIN plus CLA). Pre-salted (1.8% w/w) beef patties (7.7% fat) with (0.15% w/w) or without acerola were packed in modified atmosphere (80%O2:20%CO2) and displayed in a retail case for 8days. There were no interactions between diet and antioxidant treatments. LIN and/or CLA had no effect on color and lipid stability during display. However, LIN increased n-3 fatty acids in beef and tended to increase intensity of rancid flavor. Addition of acerola extended shelf-life by at least 3 days by improving color and lipid stability and a decreased trend in intensity of rancid flavor of patties without affecting microbial counts. Thus, the use of acerola as a natural antioxidant can be considered an effective method to retard color and lipid oxidation in beef patties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of lyophilised and powdered Gentiana lutea root in fresh beef patties stored under different atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Azman, Nurul A M; Gordon, Michael H; Skowyra, Monika; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, María Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Gentiana lutea root is a medicinal herb that contains many active compounds which contribute to physiological effects, and it has recently attracted much attention as a natural source of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the colour, pH, microbial activities, sensory quality and resistance to lipid oxidation (through the thiobarbituric acid method) during storage of beef patties containing different concentrations of G. lutea. Fresh beef patties were formulated with 0-5 g kg(-1) of G. lutea and 0 or 0.5 g kg(-1) of ascorbic acid and packed in two different atmospheres, Modified Atmosphere 1 (MAP1) and Modified Atmosphere 2 (MAP2), and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. MAP1 contained 20:80 (v/v) O2:CO2 and MAP2 contained 80:20 (v/v) O2:CO2. G. lutea extracts possessed antioxidant activity measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Beef patties containing 2 g kg(-1) of lyophilised G. lutea were stable towards lipid oxidation in both atmospheres (P < 0.05). Beef patties containing a combination of 2 g kg(-1) G. lutea and 0.5 g kg(-1) ascorbic acid showed significantly reduced changes in colour and in lipid oxidation (P < 0.05). The results from this study demonstrate the potential of G. lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier meat commodities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of the Quality of Beef Patties Formulated with Dried Pumpkin Pulp and Seed

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate quality attributes of beef patties formulated with dried pumpkin pulp and seed mixture (PM). Four different meatball formulations were prepared where lean was replaced with PM as C (0% PM), P2 (2% PM), P3 (3% PM) and P5 (5% PM). Utilization of PM decreased moisture and increased ash content of the patties. Incorporation of 5% PM (P5) increased the pH value of both uncooked and cooked patties compared to C group. Increasing levels of PM increased water-holding capacity. No significant differences were found in cooking yield and diameter change with the addition of PM. Incorporation of PM increased fat and decreased moisture retention of the samples. a* values were decreased with PM addition, where L* values did not differ among treatments and b* values were similar in C, P3 and P5 samples. Textural properties were mostly equivalent to control samples with the incorporation of PM even at higher concentrations. The addition of PM did not significantly affect any of the sensory scores tested. These results indicated that utilization of PM presents the opportunity to decrease the amount of meat besides to improve healthier profile without causing negative changes in physical, chemical and technological quality of beef patties. PMID:29725220

  13. Evaluation of the Quality of Beef Patties Formulated with Dried Pumpkin Pulp and Seed.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu, M; Kavuşan, H S; İpek, G; Öztürk, B

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate quality attributes of beef patties formulated with dried pumpkin pulp and seed mixture (PM). Four different meatball formulations were prepared where lean was replaced with PM as C (0% PM), P2 (2% PM), P3 (3% PM) and P5 (5% PM). Utilization of PM decreased moisture and increased ash content of the patties. Incorporation of 5% PM (P5) increased the pH value of both uncooked and cooked patties compared to C group. Increasing levels of PM increased water-holding capacity. No significant differences were found in cooking yield and diameter change with the addition of PM. Incorporation of PM increased fat and decreased moisture retention of the samples. a* values were decreased with PM addition, where L* values did not differ among treatments and b* values were similar in C, P3 and P5 samples. Textural properties were mostly equivalent to control samples with the incorporation of PM even at higher concentrations. The addition of PM did not significantly affect any of the sensory scores tested. These results indicated that utilization of PM presents the opportunity to decrease the amount of meat besides to improve healthier profile without causing negative changes in physical, chemical and technological quality of beef patties.

  14. Oxidative stability of cooked, frozen, reheated beef patties: effect of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Colindres, Paola; Brewer, M Susan

    2011-03-30

    The effect of selected antioxidants (grape seed extract (GS), oleoresin rosemary (OR), water-soluble oregano extract (WO), propyl gallate (PG), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)) on sensory, color and oxidative stability of cooked, frozen, reheated ground beef patties was evaluated. Beef lean and trim were ground; antioxidants and salt were added. Patties were cooked (71 °C), overwrapped in commercial polyvinyl chloride film, and stored frozen (-18 °C), then evaluated monthly for 6 months. Flavor, odor and color were determined using a descriptive panel. Instrumental color was determined by a spectrocolorimeter. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). After 6 months of storage, PG and GS samples had lower rancid odor scores and TBARS than controls. Control samples and those containing BHT did not differ statistically in sensory grassy or rancid odor, indicating that they were the most oxidized. TBARS correlated with grassy, rancid, cardboard and beef odors during the 6-month storage period. Based on TBARS, the order of effectiveness of the antioxidants was PG and GS > OR > BHA > WO and BHT > control. TBARS were well correlated with sensory evaluations of odor and flavor. Antioxidants also protected a* values during storage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Technological characteristics of pre- and post-rigor deboned beef mixtures from Holstein steers and quality attributes of cooked beef sausage.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Holtcamp, Alexander J; Campbell, Yan L; Burnett, Derris; Schilling, Mark W; Dinh, Thu T N

    2018-06-07

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of deboning time (pre- and post-rigor), processing steps (grinding - GB; salting - SB; batter formulation - BB), and storage time on the quality of raw beef mixtures and vacuum-packaged cooked sausage, produced using a commercial formulation with 0.25% phosphate. The pH was greater in pre-rigor GB and SB than in post-rigor GB and SB (P < .001). However, deboning time had no effect on metmyoglobin reducing activity, cooking loss, and color of raw beef mixtures. Protein solubility of pre-rigor beef mixtures (124.26 mg/kg) was greater than that of post-rigor beef (113.93 mg/kg; P = .071). TBARS were increased in BB but decreased during vacuum storage of cooked sausage (P ≤ .018). Except for chewiness and saltiness being 52.9 N-mm and 0.3 points greater in post-rigor sausage (P = .040 and 0.054, respectively), texture profile analysis and trained panelists detected no difference in texture between pre- and post-rigor sausage. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of hot water pasteurizing treatments on the microbiological condition of manufacturing beef used for hamburger patty manufacture.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Bryant, J; Badoni, M

    2001-02-15

    Ten 12-kg lots of manufacturing beef from a single packing plant were obtained from a hamburger patty manufacturing plant. Each lot was divided into two, 6-kg portions, one of which was not treated while the other was treated with water of 85 degrees C. A portion from one lot was treated for 15 s. A portion from each of three lots was treated for 30 s, three portions were treated for 45 s, and three were treated for 60 s. Twenty-five pieces of meat from each portion were swabbed over areas of 100 cm2. Subsequently, each portion was first coarsely ground then finely ground, with twenty-five 100-g samples being taken from each portion at each stage of grinding. Each swab and sample of ground meat was separately processed for the enumeration of total aerobic counts, coliforms and Escherichia coli at levels of detection of 1 cfu/cm2, 1 cfu/100 cm2 and 1 cfu/100 cm2, respectively, for swab samples; and at a level of detection of 1 cfu/g for all three types of bacteria in samples of ground beef. A 250-kg batch of manufacturing beef was treated with water of 85 degrees C for 60 s. The product was processed through commercial equipment for manufacturing frozen hamburger patties. The flavour of patties prepared from the pasteurized product was compared with the flavour of patties prepared during normal commercial operation of the equipment. The weight of the manufacturing beef was not affected by the treatments. Similar total numbers of coliforms or E. coli were recovered per 2500 cm2 from the 25 swab samples or per 25 g from the 25 ground beef samples from each untreated portion. As the ratio of the surface area in cm2 to the weight in g would likely be < or = 1, the similar numbers indicated that swab sampling was inefficient for recovering coliforms and E. coli from the meat. However, coliforms and E. coli were recovered more frequently from swab than from ground beef samples from treated portions. Thus, some swabs from all three portions of beef treated for 30 s yielded

  18. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p<0.05) values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). Furthermore, there were no significant (p>0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (P<0.05), obviously by e-beam irradiation compared to gamma-ray and X-ray (P<0.05). The redness of pork sausages was increased by gamma-ray irradiation, whereas it decreased by e-beam irradiation depending on absorbed dose level. No significant changes in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  1. Evaluation of a rapid method for measurement of catalase activity in cooked beef and sausage.

    PubMed

    Davis, C E; Cyrus, S

    1998-02-01

    Catalase (CAT) activity in ground beef and pork was determined on samples cooked from 60 to 71.1 degrees C. One-gram samples of ground round (4% fat), hamburger (24% fat), and commercial pork sausage (38%fat) were cooked in a controlled-temperature waterbath at 65, 68.3 and 71 degrees C. Chilled samples were immersed in direct contact with the cooking water; the test samples were removed every 15 s and immediately immersed in an ice-water bath (O to 1 degrees C) to quick-chill the samples to prevent temperature over-run. Samples retained high (HMB value 20+, over range) CAT activity through 90, 60, and 45 s at 65, 68.3, and 71 degrees C, respectively, before showing rapid activity decreases. Four USDA-FSIS approved meat patty heating processes (66.1 degrees C, 41 s; 67.2 degrees C, 26 s; 68.3 degrees C, 16 s; and 69.4 degrees C, 10 s) were analyzed for CAT activity in meat frozen prior to cooking was slightly lower (P < 0.05) than in degrees C meat. CAT activity decreased (P < 0.05) among meat treated at 66.1 degrees C for 41 s, at 67.2 degrees C for 26 s, and at 68.3 degrees C for 16 s, but the treatment at 68.3 degrees C for 16 s was not different (P < 0.05) from that at 69.4 degrees C for 10 s. These results show this rapid (20 to 25 min) CAT activity test could be used to establish activity values at specific end-point temperatures for model heat-processed ground beef or sausage products and may be useful to USDA FSIS process inspectors and food processors in quality assurance and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) programs for thermal input verification.

  2. The effects of multiple antimicrobial interventions on processing, lipid, textural, instrumental color and sensory characteristics when used in a ground beef patty production system.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Villarreal, J R; Pohlman, F W; Johnson, Z B; Brown, A H

    2003-11-01

    The impact of multiple antimicrobial interventions on ground beef processing, lipid, textural, instrumental color and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Beef trimmings were treated with 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride followed by 10% trisodium phosphate (CT), 200-ppm chlorine dioxide followed by 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CLC), 200-ppm chlorine dioxide followed by 10% trisodium phosphate (CLT), or 2% lactic acid followed by 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (LC) and compared to an untreated control (C). Sensory panelists found LC and CT treatments similar (P>0.05) in grinding ability to C. By day 2 of display, CT, CLT and LC patties were redder (a(∗); P<0.05) than C. Sensory panelists found CT patties redder (P<0.05) than C by day 2 of display. Sensory panelists found CT and CLT juicier than C. Therefore, the use of these multiple antimicrobial intervention agents on beef trimmings may improve sensory characteristics and shelf-life of ground beef patties.

  3. Effects of natural antioxidants on colour stability, lipid oxidation and metmyoglobin reducing activity in raw beef patties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Qian; Dai, Ruitong; Ni, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    Minced meats undergo oxidative changes and develop rancidity more quickly than intact muscle since grinding exposes more of the muscle surface to air and microbial contamination. Due to concerns about toxicological safety of synthetic antioxidants, recent studies have put more focus on natural antioxidant compounds derived from food components. The effects of four natural antioxidants (vitamin E, carnosine, grape seed extract and tea catechins) on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in raw beef patties during refrigerated (4°C) storage were investigated and the results were compared with butylated hydroxyanisole treatment patties. The correlation of lipid oxidation, colour and metmyoglobin reducing activity of beef patties were also studied. Samples treated with carnosine had the highest redness values on the eighth day. Tea catechins, vitamin E and grape seed extract showed higher protective effect against lipid oxidation than carnosine. Metmyoglobin reducing activity increased greatly in all samples during the storage. Significant correlation between redness value and lipid oxidation was demonstrated, while a weak correlation between metmyoglobin reducing activity and any other parameters was shown.

  4. Alternative natural seasoning to improve the microbial stability of low-salt beef patties.

    PubMed

    García-Lomillo, Javier; González-SanJosé, M A Luisa; Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, M A Dolores; Muñiz-Rodríguez, Pilar

    2017-07-15

    The meat industry is seeking new strategies to reduce the sodium content of meat products without shortening their shelf-life. Natural seasonings as salt alternatives are more appreciated than chemical preservatives and also enable the incorporation of interesting nutrients. The present work studies the potential of a new red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS), derived from wine pomace, to inhibit spoilage growth in beef patties with different salt levels (2%, 1.5% and 1%) held in storage at 4°C. The use of RWPS (2% w/w) improved the microbial stability of the patties, delaying total aerobic mesophilic, and lactic acid bacteria growth, especially in samples with low salt levels. Satisfactory results were obtained in modified-atmosphere and air-packaged patties. RWPS also enabled the incorporation of fiber and phenolic compounds, and increased potassium and calcium levels. In summary, RWPS presented an interesting potential as a seasoning in meat products, enabling salt reduction without compromising their microbial stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory activities of some vitamins on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel; Wang, Mingfu

    2013-09-04

    The capacities of 15 vitamins to inhibit the formation of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol were examined in beef patties. Their inhibitory activities were tested at a concentration of 0.4 mmol in 30 g of beef. Among them, L-ascorbic acid, retinoic acid, and α-(±)-tocopherol were found to exert a potent inhibitory effect (30-50%) on 7-ketocholesterol formation and (~20%) on 7α-hydroxycholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol formations. Pyridoxamine inhibited 7-ketocholesterol formation by 60% with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) from that achieved in the control setup. To further elucidate the possible inhibitory mechanism of pyridoxamine against cholesterol oxidation, a chemical model with pyridoxamine added in the cholesterol oxidation system (heated at 140 °C for 240 min in dimethyl sulfoxide) was employed. It was demonstrated that pyridoxamine could directly react with 7-ketocholesterol via the addition reaction. The reaction involved a nucleophilic attack of the free amine group of pyridoxamine on 7-ketocholesterol (an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound). This type of reaction was also found to occur in beef patties by chromatographic and spectral analyses.

  6. Temperature of frozen storage affects the nature and consequences of protein oxidation in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2014-03-01

    The effect of three frozen storage temperatures (-8, -18 and -80 °C) on protein oxidation in beef patties was studied through the analysis of novel oxidation markers. Additionally, the connection between lipid and protein oxidation and the impact of the latter on particular quality traits (water holding capacity, color and texture) of subsequently processed beef patties (cooking/cold-stored) were investigated. Protein oxidation was measured as the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and formation of diverse lysine oxidation products (α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, α-aminoadipic acid and Schiff bases). Lipid oxidation was assessed by levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hexanal. A significant effect of storage temperature on protein oxidation was detected. Frozen storage increased the susceptibility of meat proteins to undergo further oxidation during processing. Timely interactions were found between lipid and protein oxidation. Plausible mechanisms by which oxidative damage to proteins may have an impact in particular quality traits are thoroughly discussed. © 2013.

  7. Levels of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in ground beef patties irradiated by low-energy X-ray and gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj M; Smith, J Scott

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation improves food safety and maintains food quality by controlling microorganisms and extending shelf life. However, acceptance and commercial adoption of food irradiation is still low. Consumer groups such as Public Citizen and the Food and Water Watch have opposed irradiation because of the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) in irradiated, lipid-containing foods. The objectives of this study were to measure and to compare the level of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in ground beef irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays. Beef patties were irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays (Cs-137) at 3 targeted absorbed doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The samples were extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus, and the 2-DCB concentration was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05) with irradiation dose for gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties. There was no significant difference in 2-DCB concentration between gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties (P > 0.05) at all targeted doses. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Effects of Beef Fat Replacement with Gelled Emulsion Prepared with Olive Oil on Quality Parameters of Chicken Patties.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Nacak, Berker; Karabıyıkoğlu, Merve

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using gelled emulsion (olive oil 46%, inulin 9%, gelatin 3%) as fat replacer on some quality parameters of chicken patties. For this purpose GE, prepared with olive oil, gelatin and inulin was replaced with beef fat at a level of 0%, 25%, 50%, 100% (C, G25, G50, G100). In this study syneresis, thermal stability, centrifuge and creaming stability of gelled emulsion were analyzed. Chemical composition, technological paramerers (cooking yield, water holding capacity, diameter reduction, fat and moisture retention) and textural and sensory properites were evaluated in comparision to control patties. High thermal stability was recorded in GE (93%), also creaming stability results showed that GE protected its stability without any turbidity and separation of the layer. The complete replacement of beef fat with GE showed detrimental effect on all investigated cooking characteristics except fat retention. Replacement of beef fat with GE at a level of 50% resulted similar cooking characteristics with C samples. Color parameters of samples were affected by GE addition, higher CIE b* values observed with respect to GE concentration. The presence of GE significantly affected textural behaviors of samples ( p <0.05). Our results showed that GE prepared with inulin and olive oil is a viable fat replacer for the manufacture of chicken patty.

  9. Effects of Beef Fat Replacement with Gelled Emulsion Prepared with Olive Oil on Quality Parameters of Chicken Patties

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using gelled emulsion (olive oil 46%, inulin 9%, gelatin 3%) as fat replacer on some quality parameters of chicken patties. For this purpose GE, prepared with olive oil, gelatin and inulin was replaced with beef fat at a level of 0%, 25%, 50%, 100% (C, G25, G50, G100). In this study syneresis, thermal stability, centrifuge and creaming stability of gelled emulsion were analyzed. Chemical composition, technological paramerers (cooking yield, water holding capacity, diameter reduction, fat and moisture retention) and textural and sensory properites were evaluated in comparision to control patties. High thermal stability was recorded in GE (93%), also creaming stability results showed that GE protected its stability without any turbidity and separation of the layer. The complete replacement of beef fat with GE showed detrimental effect on all investigated cooking characteristics except fat retention. Replacement of beef fat with GE at a level of 50% resulted similar cooking characteristics with C samples. Color parameters of samples were affected by GE addition, higher CIE b* values observed with respect to GE concentration. The presence of GE significantly affected textural behaviors of samples (p<0.05). Our results showed that GE prepared with inulin and olive oil is a viable fat replacer for the manufacture of chicken patty. PMID:28747823

  10. Influence of red wine pomace seasoning and high-oxygen atmosphere storage on carcinogens formation in barbecued beef patties.

    PubMed

    García-Lomillo, Javier; Viegas, Olga; Gonzalez-SanJose, Maria L; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) are carcinogenic compounds formed in barbecued meat. Conditions that reduce their formation are of major interest. This study aims to evaluate the influence of red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS) and high-oxygen atmosphere storage on the formation of PAHs and HAs in barbecued beef patties. In general, the levels of PAHs and HAs quantified were low. The storage (9days) promoted higher formation of PAHs in control patties without increase of HAs. RWPS patties cooked at preparation day presented higher levels of PAHs and HAs than control. Nevertheless, RWPS patties cooked after storage presented lower levels of PAHs and HAs than control. ABTS assay pointed out that higher radical scavenging activity may be related to with lower PAHs or HAs formation. In conclusion, RWPS can be an interesting ingredient to inhibit the formation of cooking carcinogens in barbecued patties stored at high-oxygen atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of heterocyclic amine formation in beef patties by ethanolic extracts of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Smith, J Scott

    2010-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed during cooking muscle foods at high temperature. Inhibition of HCAs by rosemary extracts were evaluated with beef patties cooked at 191 degrees C (375 degrees F) for 6 min each side and 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side. Five rosemary extracts extracted with different solvents were used in this study: extract 100W (100% water), 10E (10% ethanol), 20E (20% ethanol), 30E (30% ethanol), and 40E (40% ethanol). The 5 extracts were directly added to beef patties at 3 levels (0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5%) before cooking and HCA contents were extracted and quantified. All of the patties contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). There was no statistical difference in the inhibition of HCAs in the 0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5% rosemary extracts. All rosemary extracts significantly decreased the levels of MeIQx and PhIP at both cooking conditions. When cooking at 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side, rosemary extracts 10E and 20E were superior to rosemary extracts 100W, 30E, and 40E in inhibiting HCA formation. Rosemary extract 20E showed the greatest inhibition of MeIQx (up to 91.7%) and PhIP (up to 85.3%). The inhibiting effect of rosemary extracts on HCA formation corresponded to their antioxidant activity based on a DPPH scavenging assay. Rosemary extract 10E and 20E contain a mixture of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid. It is possible that these compounds might act synergistically in inhibiting the formation of HCAs.

  12. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  13. Beef muscle isolation has no detrimental effect on premium ground beef programs.

    PubMed

    Ohman, C E; Wiegand, B R; Gruen, I U; Lorenzen, C L

    2015-08-01

    This experiment evaluated whether isolating certain muscles from the chuck for retail sale and excluding them from ground beef mix changes the number of days that ground chuck is acceptable to consumers. Chucks were harvested from twenty-four beef steers, and were allocated to either traditional or innovative fabrication methods. Resulting ground beef patties were stored in retail simulation conditions for 7days to determine color and oxidative stability. Raw patties were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxymyoglobin concentration, objective color by Minolta Chromameter, and by a trained sensory panel for odor, color and percent discoloration. No differences (P>0.05) were observed between traditional and innovative style patties for TBARS, sensory odor or color, or oxymyoglobin concentration. Minolta Chromameter readings revealed more substantial fading (P<0.05) in traditional patties compared with innovative style patties. This study demonstrated that removing certain muscles from the ground chuck mix does not cause detrimental consequences in resulting ground chuck patties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Antioxidant effects of soy sauce on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw beef patties during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Soo-Yoen; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effects of soy sauce on lipid oxidation and color stability of raw beef patties. Raw beef patties were formulated with four solutions such as NaCl (sodium chloride solution), NaCl/SS (1:1 ratio of sodium chloride and soy sauce solution), SS (soy sauce solution), or SS/A (soy sauce solution combined with 0.05% ascorbic acid) in the same salt concentration. Addition of soy sauce resulted in the decreased pH, lightness, and increased yellowness. Treatment SS/A had the lowest percent of metmyoglobin during storage (P<0.05). A reduction (P<0.05) in the 2-thiobarbituric acid, peroxide, and conjugated diene concentration as result of soy sauce addition were observed in treatments SS and SS/A at the end of the storage period. There were no differences (P>0.05) in free fatty acid concentration at the end of storage. The combined addition of soy sauce and ascorbic acid greatly improved (P<0.05) color stability and retarded lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System. Marine Corps ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Galley and Sanitation Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Scrambled Eggs Hard Boiled Eggs Bacon Sausage Patties Lyonnaise Potatoes Apricot Quick Coffee Cake Assorted Dry Cereals Assorted Fresh Fruits Bread and...Butter Assorted Beverages Lunch Baked Spanish Beef Patties Lyonnaise Potatoes Stewed Tomatoes Hamburger Buns Apple Crisp Assorted Beverages Dinner...Yellow Cake with Chocolate Frosting Assorted Beverages 5. 16 SEPTEMBER 1981 Breakfast Scrambled Eggs Hard Boiled Eggs Ham Creamed Beef Lyonnaise Potatoes

  16. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Kyong-Haeng; Kim, Hee-Yun

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, α-tocopherol, or β-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO 2 to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  17. Process optimization and consumer acceptability of salted ground beef patties cooked and held hot in flavored marinade.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Subash; Cornforth, Daren; Nummer, Brian A

    2010-09-01

    Food safety is paramount for cooking hamburger. The center must reach 71 °C (or 68 °C for 15 s) to assure destruction of E. coli O157:H7 and other food pathogens. This is difficult to achieve during grilling or frying of thick burgers without overcooking the surface. Thus, the feasibility of partially or completely cooking frozen patties in liquid (93 °C water) together with hot holding in liquid was investigated. Initial studies demonstrated that compared to frying, liquid cooking decreased (P < 0.05) patty diameter (98 compared with 93 mm) and increased (P < 0.05) thickness (18.1 compared with 15.6 mm). Liquid cooked patties had greater weight loss (P < 0.05) immediately after cooking (29 compared with 21%), but reabsorbed moisture and were not different from fried patties after 1 h hot water holding (61 °C). Protein and fat content were not affected by cooking method. However, liquid cooked patties were rated lower (P < 0.05) than fried patties for appearance (5.7 compared with 7.5) and flavor (5.9 compared with 7.5). An 8-member focus group then evaluated methods to improve both appearance and flavor. Salted, grill-marked patties were preferred, and caramel coloring was needed in the marinade to obtain acceptable flavor and color during liquid cooking or hot holding. Patties with 0.75% salt that were grill-marked and then finish-cooked in hot marinade (0.75% salt, 0.3% caramel color) were rated acceptable (P < 0.05) by consumers for up to 4 h hot holding in marinade, with mean hedonic panel ratings > 7.0 (like moderately) for appearance, juiciness, flavor, and texture. Grill-marked and marinade-cooked ground beef patties reached a safe internal cooking temperature without overcooking the surface. Burgers cooked using this method maintained high consumer acceptability right after cooking and for up to 4 h of hot holding. Consumers and foodservice operations could use this method without specialized equipment, and instead use inexpensive and common equipment

  18. Comparison of flavor changes in cooked-refrigerated beef, pork and chicken meat patties.

    PubMed

    Rhee, K S; Anderson, L M; Sams, A R

    2005-10-01

    Beef and pork longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) and chicken breast (B) and thigh (T) muscles excised 24 h postmortem were ground by muscle/species group, formed into patties, pan-fried, refrigerated for 0, 3 or 6 days, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for intensity of specific flavors. The rate of decline in species-specific natural meat flavor intensity and the rate of increase in "cardboard" (CBD) flavor intensity during the first half of the 6-day storage were fastest for beef, while such decline and increase during the entire storage period were slowest for chicken B. Overall trends of natural meat flavor and CBD intensity changes for chicken T appeared more like those for the red meats than chicken B. It was concluded that, while flavor deterioration can occur in cooked-stored meats from all the species, quantitative or the magnitude of differences between species would depend on muscle types and sensory terms/method used.

  19. Effect of frozen storage, different thawing methods and cooking processes on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercially shaped beef patties.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-03-01

    The effect of common handling practices (i.e., freezing, thawing and cooking) of beef patties on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated. Inoculated ground beef was stored at -22 °C for 5 and 75 days. After thawing at 4 °C/16 h, 20 °C/12 h, in microwave/22-24 min, or without prior thawing, beef patties (90 g) were shaped and cooked in oven-broiler or in pan-grill to internal temperatures of 60 °C or 71 °C. Cooking in oven-broiler was more effective compared to pan-grill, especially when cooked to 71 °C. Defrosting methods did not affect significantly (P ≥ 0.05) the survival of the pathogens during subsequent cooking. Frozen storage for 75 days enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7, as the pathogen survived 3.1 logCFU/g when cooked in oven-broiler at 71 °C. Results may supplement the existing guidelines for the appropriate practices, associated with freezing, thawing and cooking of patties in households or catering services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 9 CFR 319.145 - Italian sausage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 319.145 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... accordance with § 319.6. (2) “Italian Sausage with Beef,” “Italian Sausage with Veal,” or “Italian Sausage with Beef and Veal,” shall be prepared so that fresh or frozen pork constitutes the major portion of...

  1. 9 CFR 319.145 - Italian sausage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 319.145 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... accordance with § 319.6. (2) “Italian Sausage with Beef,” “Italian Sausage with Veal,” or “Italian Sausage with Beef and Veal,” shall be prepared so that fresh or frozen pork constitutes the major portion of...

  2. 9 CFR 319.145 - Italian sausage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 319.145 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... accordance with § 319.6. (2) “Italian Sausage with Beef,” “Italian Sausage with Veal,” or “Italian Sausage with Beef and Veal,” shall be prepared so that fresh or frozen pork constitutes the major portion of...

  3. Rheological and microstructural properties of beef sausage batter formulated with fish fillet mince.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ala; Jafarpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rheological properties and microstructure of beef meat sausage batter, incorporated with different percentages of fish fillet mince (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), were investigated and compared to the control (0 % fish). By increasing the proportion of fish fillet mince to the sausage formula up to 35 % and 50 %, hardness was increased by 40 % and 16 %, respectively, (P < 0.05), whereas, cohesiveness and springiness showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). In terms of temperature sweep test, storage modulus (G') of control sample faced a substantial slop from 10 °C to 58 °C, corresponding to the lowest magnitude of G' at its gelling point (~58°), but completed at around 70 °C, as same as the other treatments. Whereas the gelling point of batter sample with 50 % fish mince remained at nearly 42 °C, which was remarkably lowest among all treatments, indicating the better gel formation process. SEM micrographs revealed a previous orderly set gel before heating in all treatments whereas after heating up to 90 °C gel matrices became denser with more obvious granular pattern and aggregated structure, specifically in sample with 50 % fish mince. In conclusion, addition of fish mince up to 50 % into beef sausage formula, positively interacted in gel formation process, without diminishing its rheological properties.

  4. Quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in frozen ground beef patties consumed by young children in French households.

    PubMed

    Delignette-Muller, M L; Cornu, M

    2008-11-30

    A quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in frozen ground beef patties consumed by children under 10 years of age in French households was conducted by a national study group describing an outbreak which occurred in France in 2005. Our exposure assessment model incorporates results from French surveys on consumption frequency of ground beef patties, serving size and consumption preference, microbial destruction experiments and microbial counts on patties sampled from the industrial batch which were responsible for the outbreak. Two different exposure models were proposed, respectively for children under the age of 5 and for children between 5 and 10 years. For each of these two age groups, a single-hit dose-response model was proposed to describe the probability of hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) as a function of the ingested dose. For each group, the single parameter of this model was estimated by Bayesian inference, using the results of the exposure assessment and the epidemiological data collected during the outbreak. Results show that children under 5 years of age are roughly 5 times more susceptible to the pathogen than children over 5 years. Exposure and dose-response models were used in a scenario analysis in order to validate the use of the model and to propose appropriate guidelines in order to prevent new outbreaks. The impact of the cooking preference was evaluated, showing that only a well-done cooking notably reduces the HUS risk, without annulling it. For each age group, a relation between the mean individual HUS risk per serving and the contamination level in a ground beef batch was proposed, as a tool to help French risk managers.

  5. Development of low-fat and low-calorie beef sausage using modified starch as fat replacement agent.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mehrdad; Oghabi, Firouz

    2012-04-01

    The effects of modified waxy maize starch (MWMS, 10-32.5 g kg(-1)) as a replacement for varying levels of oil or both oil and wheat flour (WF) on the chemical and technological characteristics of 60% beef sausages were investigated. Addition of MWMS increased water-holding capacity and decreased moisture content and both cooking and purge losses. Incorporation of MWMS improved organoleptic acceptance compared with control sausages. Sausage formula 5 (F5), containing 20 g kg(-1) MWMS and 50 g kg(-1) WF, was better (P < 0.05) than all other formulae. The total caloric content of the sausages decreased significantly with decreasing fat level (P < 0.05); for example, the decrease in fat content of 57.4% in F5 led to a significant decrease in energy value of 34.9% (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of cooking and in vitro digestion on the stability of co-enzyme Q10 in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph P

    2014-05-01

    The use of CoQ10 fortification in the production of a functional food has been demonstrated in the past but primarily for dairy products. This study aimed to determine the bio-accessibility of CoQ10 in processed meat products, beef patties and pork breakfast sausages, fortified with CoQ10. Both the patties and sausages were fortified with a micellarized form of CoQ10 to enhance solubility to a concentration of 1mg/g of sample (NovaSolQ®). An assay was developed combining in vitro digestion and HPLC analysis to quantify the CoQ10 present in fortified products (100mg/g). The cooking retention level of CoQ10 in the products was found to be 74±1.42% for patties and 79.69±0.75% for sausages. The digestibility for both products ranged between 93% and 95%, sausages did have a higher digestibility level than patties but this was not found to be significant (P<0.01). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple,olive,and onion powders and clove bud oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylamidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP) in grilled ground beef patties. Ground beef with added apple...

  8. Effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestibility of lipid and cholesterol oxidation products in beef during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, beef patties were encapsulated with 3% chitosan, pectin, onion powder, or green tea powder and the beef patties were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model. The total lipid digestibility was lowest (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with chitosan and pectin after digestion in the small intestine. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were significantly lower (p<0.05) for beef patties encapsulated with chitosan and pectin, when compared with the control, after digestion in the small intestine. In contrast, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity was highest (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with onion powder and green tea powder after digestion in the small intestine. The total cholesterol oxidation product (COP) content was significantly lower (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with biopolymers than in the control after digestion in the small intestine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of chopping time, meat source and storage temperature on the colour of New Zealand type fresh beef sausages.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Mikkelsen, V L; Swan, J E

    1998-05-01

    The colour stability of finely chopped fresh sausages made from post-rigor, pre-rigor salt added (1.5% w/w) or pre-rigor no salt added beef mince was evaluated using a Hunter Miniscan (L (∗) a (∗) b (∗)) and sensory colour panel. Batters were chopped for various times and sausages stored at -1.5 °, + 4.0 ° and + 8.0 °C. Regardless of meat source or chopping time, colour stability was greatest at -1.5 °C. Panellists found the colour of all sausages stored at -1.5 °C acceptable for at least six days. Sausages made from unsalted pre-rigor mince had markedly better colour stability than those made from the other meats, especially when stored at 4 °C or 8 °C.

  10. Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men.

    PubMed

    Archer, Bridie J; Johnson, Stuart K; Devereux, Helen M; Baxter, Amynta L

    2004-04-01

    The present study examined whether replacing fat with inulin or lupin-kernel fibre influenced palatability, perceptions of satiety, and food intake in thirty-three healthy men (mean age 52 years, BMI 27.4 kg/m(2)), using a within-subject design. On separate occasions, after fasting overnight, the participants consumed a breakfast consisting primarily of either a full-fat sausage patty (FFP) or a reduced-fat patty containing inulin (INP) or lupin-kernel fibre (LKP). Breakfast variants were alike in mass, protein and carbohydrate content; however the INP and LKP breakfasts were 36 and 37 % lower in fat and 15 and 17 % lower in energy density respectively compared with the FFP breakfast. The participants rated their satiety before breakfast then evaluated patty acceptability. Satiety was rated immediately after consuming the breakfast, then over the subsequent 4.5 h whilst fasting. Food consumed until the end of the following day was recorded. All patties were rated above 'neither acceptable or unacceptable', however the INP rated lower for general acceptability (P=0.039) and the LKP lower for flavour (P=0.023) than the FFP. The LKP breakfast rated more satiating than the INP (P=0.010) and FFP (P=0.016) breakfasts. Total fat intake was 18 g lower on the day of the INP (P=0.035) and 26 g lower on the day of the LKP breakfast (P=0.013) than the FFP breakfast day. Energy intake was lower (1521 kJ) only on the day of the INP breakfast (P=0.039). Both inulin and lupin-kernel fibre appear to have potential as fat replacers in meat products and for reducing fat and energy intake in men.

  11. Consumer-orientated development of hybrid beef burger and sausage analogues.

    PubMed

    Neville, Michelle; Tarrega, Amparo; Hewson, Louise; Foster, Tim

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid meat analogues, whereby a proportion of meat has been partially replaced by more sustainable protein sources, have been proposed to provide a means for more sustainable diets in the future. Consumer testing was conducted to determine consumer acceptability of different formulations of Hybrid beef burgers and pork sausages in comparison with both meat and meat-free commercial products. Acceptability data were generated using the 9-point hedonic scale. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questioning was used to determine the sensory attributes perceived in each product as well as information on the attributes of consumers' ideal products. It was identified that Hybrid products were generally well liked among consumers and no significant differences in consumer acceptability (p > .05) were identified between Hybrid and full meat products, whereas meat-free products were found to be less accepted. However, Hybrid sausages received higher acceptability scores (6.00-6.51) than Hybrid burgers (5.84-5.92) suggesting that format may have a large impact on consumer acceptability of Hybrid products. Correspondence Analysis (CA) indicated that Hybrid products were grouped with meat products in their sensory attributes. Penalty analysis found that a "meaty flavor" was the largest factor driving consumer acceptability in both burgers and sausages. Cluster analysis of consumer acceptability data identified key differences in overall acceptability between different consumer groups (consumers who only eat meat products and consumers who eat both meat and meat-free products). The Hybrid concept was found to bridge the acceptability gap between meat and meat-free products; however, further product reformulation is required to optimize consumer acceptability.

  12. The effect of low-fat beef patties formulated with a low-energy fat analogue enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid oxidation and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Alejandre, Marta; Passarini, Denis; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2017-12-01

    A new low-energy gelled emulsion containing algae oil was developed as animal fat replacer. Its stability was evaluated under different storage conditions: 4V (4°C/vacuum), 4NV (4°C/no vacuum), 25V (25°C/vacuum) and 25NV (25°C/no vacuum). According to moisture, hardness, color and lipid oxidation data, 4°C under vacuum (4V) was selected as the best condition. Once the gelled emulsion was characterized, its effectiveness as fat analogue was demonstrated in beef patties. Reformulated patties were produced with 100% of animal fat replacement and compared to conventional patties (9%fat). A 70%fat reduction was achieved in the new patties, mainly due to a reduction in the saturated fatty acids. Also, decreased n-6 (76%lower content) and increased eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (55%higher content) were noticed in the new formulation. The incorporation of the gelled emulsion containing reduced amount of n-6 fatty acids and increased amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) reduced the oxidation status of the patties and their sensory evaluation resulted in acceptable scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Edible Coating Enriched With Kaffir Lime Leaf Essential Oil (Citrus hystrix DC) on Beef Sausage Quality During Frozen Storage (-18°±2°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, R.; Kawiji; Khasanah, L. U.; Solikhah, R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating enriched with kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) leaves essential oil at various concentration on beef sausage quality during frozen storage (-18°±2°C). The concentration of kaffir lime leaves essential oil enriched in edible coating were varied at 0%; 0.2%; 1.4%. Microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics (TPC, color, TBA, TVB, and pH) were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of storage. The result showed that edible coating with the addition of kaffir lime leaves essential oils decreased the microbial growth, TVB value, and TBA value of beef sausage. The color and pH of samples can be stabilized during storage. The selected kaffir lime leaves essential oil concentrations based on microbial, physical, and chemical characteristics of beef sausages during frozen storage at -18°C was 0.2%.

  14. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  15. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison Study of Quality Attributes of Ground Beef and Veal Patties and Thermal Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 after Double Pan-Broiling Under Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, KaWang; McKeith, Amanda Gipe; Shen, Cangliang; McKeith, Russell

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the quality variation and thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in non-intact beef and veal. Coarse ground beef and veal patties (2.1 cm thick, 12.4 cm diameter, 180 g) inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, aerobically stored before double pan-broiling for 0–360 s without rest or to 55, 62.5, 71.1, and 76 °C (internal temperature) with 0.5- or 3.5-min rest. Microbial population and qualities including color, cooking losses, pH, water activity, fat, and moisture content, were tested. After cooking the beef and veal patties, the weight losses were 17.83–29%, the pH increased from 5.53–5.60 to 5.74–6.09, the moisture content decreased from 70.53–76.02% to 62.60–67.07%, and the fat content increased (p < 0.05) from 2.19–6.46% to 2.92–9.45%. Cooking beef and veal samples with increasing internal temperatures decreased a* and b* values and increased the L* value. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was more sensitive to heat in veal compared to beef with shorter D-value and “shoulder” time. Cooking to 71.1 and 76 °C reduced E. coli O157:H7 by >6 log CFU/g regardless of rest time. Cooking to 55 °C and 62.5 °C with a 3.5-min rest achieved an additional 1–3 log CFU/g reduction compared to the 0.5-min rest. Results should be useful for developing risk assessment of non-intact beef and veal products. PMID:29278379

  17. Consumer preferences for beef color and packaging did not affect eating satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C E; Cornforth, D P; Whittier, D

    2001-04-01

    We investigated whether consumer preferences for beef colors (red, purple, and brown) or for beef packaging systems (modified atmosphere, MAP; vacuum skin pack, VSP; or overwrap with polyvinyl chloride, PVC) influenced taste scores of beef steaks and patties. To test beef color effects, boneless beef top loin steaks (choice) and ground beef patties (20% fat) were packaged in different atmospheres to promote development of red, purple, and brown color. To test effects of package type, steaks and patties were pre-treated with carbon monoxide in MAP to promote development of red color, and some meat was repackaged using VSP or PVC overwrap. The differently colored and packaged meats were separately displayed for members of four consumer panels who evaluated appearance and indicated their likelihood to purchase similar meat. Next, the panelists tasted meat samples from what they had been told were the packaging treatments just observed. However, the meat samples actually served were from a single untreated steak or patty. Thus, any difference in taste scores should reflect expectations established during the visual evaluation. The same ballot and sample coding were used for both the visual and taste evaluations. Color and packaging influenced (P<0.001) appearance scores and likelihood to purchase. Appearance scores were rated red>purple >brown and PVC >VSP>MAP. Appearance scores and likelihood to purchase were correlated (r=0.9). However, color or packaging did not affect (P>0.5) taste scores. Thus, consumer preferences for beef color and packaging influenced likelihood to purchase, but did not bias eating satisfaction.

  18. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    PubMed

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  19. Effect of phenolic compounds from spices consumed in China on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by UPLC-MS/MS and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; Li, Yang; He, Zhiyong; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were used to exploit the effect and further synergistic or antagonistic interactions of main phenolic compounds with the same ratios as in spices consumed in China, on the profiles of HAs in roast beef patties. Quantitative levels of harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), DMIP (2-amino-1,6-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), 1,5,6-TMIP (2-amino-1,5,6-trimethylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) were detected in all of the beef patties. The formation of most of these seven HAs was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by phenolic compounds. Mixed and corresponding single phenolic compounds had different effects on HA profiles. DMIP, 1,5,6-TMIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were investigated as differentiating factors for single compounds, while harman and MeIQx for mixed ones. Moreover, certain combination of phenolic compounds have synergistic on harman, norharman and MeIQx, but antagonistic effects on the formation of DMIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx. The results may shed light on the mechanism for the effects of spices on the formation of HAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the hygienic performances of hamburger patty production processes.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Rahn, K; Sloan, K; McMullen, L M

    1997-05-20

    The hygienic conditions of the hamburger patties collected from three patty manufacturing plants and six retail outlets were examined. At each manufacturing plant a sample from newly formed, chilled patties and one from frozen patties were collected from each of 25 batches of patties selected at random. At three, two or one retail outlet, respectively, 25 samples from frozen, chilled or both frozen and chilled patties were collected at random. Each sample consisted of 30 g of meat obtained from five or six patties. Total aerobic, coliform and Escherichia coli counts per gram were enumerated for each sample. The mean log (x) and standard deviation (s) were calculated for the log10 values for each set of 25 counts, on the assumption that the distribution of counts approximated the log normal. A value for the log10 of the arithmetic mean (log A) was calculated for each set from the values of x and s. A chi2 statistic was calculated for each set as a test of the assumption of the log normal distribution. The chi2 statistic was calculable for 32 of the 39 sets. Four of the sets gave chi2 values indicative of gross deviation from log normality. On inspection of those sets, distributions obviously differing from the log normal were apparent in two. Log A values for total, coliform and E. coli counts for chilled patties from manufacturing plants ranged from 4.4 to 5.1, 1.7 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 1.5, respectively. Log A values for frozen patties from manufacturing plants were between < 0.1 and 0.5 log10 units less than the equivalent values for chilled patties. Log A values for total, coliform and E. coli counts for frozen patties on retail sale ranged from 3.8 to 8.5, < 0.5 to 3.6 and < 0 to 1.9, respectively. The equivalent ranges for chilled patties on retail sale were 4.8 to 8.5, 1.8 to 3.7 and 1.4 to 2.7, respectively. The findings indicate that the general hygienic condition of hamburgers patties could be improved by their being manufactured from only manufacturing beef

  1. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05). Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  2. Innovations in the development of healthier chicken sausages formulated with different lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Andrés, S C; Zaritzky, N E; Califano, A N

    2009-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids are critical nutrients for human health and the fortification of foods with these fatty acids is an important emerging area from the commercial and academic point of view. Development, characterization, and changes during refrigerated vacuum storage of low-fat chicken sausages formulated with preemulsified squid oil were examined and compared with those formulated with beef tallow. Physicochemical analysis and process yield after heat treatment were determined; the heat-treated sausages were evaluated by purge loss, color, texture, microstructure by SEM, microbial counts, fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation, and sensory analysis during refrigerated vacuum storage. Process yield of both formulations was higher than 97% and purge losses during storage were lower than 7%. Purge losses of oil-formulated sausages were lower than those with beef tallow. Sausages with squid oil resulted in higher lightness, lower redness and yellowness, and lower texture profile analysis parameters than the formulation prepared with beef tallow. Microstructure of both formulations was similar, except for the fat droplets that microscopic observations showed in the sausages made with beef tallow. Low lipid oxidation was detected in formulation with squid oil due to the the combination of ingredients and storage conditions. Microbial counts of both products were less than 5 log cfu/g at the end of 90 d of storage. The sausage formulated with squid oil presented more than 30 and 40 g/100 g of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid and linoleic acid. Both products showed safe sanitary conditions, good sensory acceptability, and presented very good stability and quality attributes, but sausages formulated with squid oil showed a better fatty acid profile according to nutritional criteria.

  3. Detection of premature browning in ground beef using an optical-fibre-based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, C.; O'Farrell, M.; Lewis, E.; Flanagan, C.; Kerry, J. F.; Jackman, N.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on an optical fibre based sensor system to detect the occurrence of premature browning in ground beef. Premature browning (PMB) occurs when, at a temperature below the pasteurisation temperature of 71°C, there are no traces of pink meat left in the patty. PMB is more frequent in poorer quality beef or beef that has been stored under imperfect conditions. The experimental work pertaining to this paper involved cooking fresh meat and meat that has been stored in a freezer for, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months and recording the reflected spectra and temperature at the core of the product, during the cooking process, in order to develop a classifier based on the spectral response and using a Self-Organising Map (SOM) to classify the patties into one of four categories, based on their colour. The combination of both the classifier and temperature data can be used to determine the presence of PMB for a given patty and can thus be used for Quality Control by food producers.

  4. Escherichia albertii Inactivation following l-Lactic Acid Exposure or Cooking in Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Jones-Ibarra, Amie M; Wall, Kayley R; Vuia-Riser, Jennifer; Kerth, Chris R; Castillo, Alejandro; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Escherichia albertii is an emerging foodborne pathogen recovered from young children and adults exhibiting symptoms of gastroenteritis via pathogenesis factors including attaching and effacing lesions, cytolethal distending toxin, and Shiga toxin variants. Study objectives were to determine E. albertii survival following (i) exposure to lactic acid as a function of solution pH and incubation period and (ii) cooking ground beef patties to different endpoint temperatures. E. albertii was incubated in phosphate buffer containing 3.0% l-lactic acid adjusted to pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 7.0; survivors were determined every 30 min for 150 min. Ground beef patties (80% lean) were cooked to temperature endpoints simulating undercooking (62°C), the minimum temperature for safe cooking (71.1°C), and cooking to well done (76°C). Maximal pathogen reduction was observed after a 30-min exposure to pH 3.0 l-lactic acid. Reductions of 3.9, 4.4, and 4.9 log CFU/g were obtained following cooking ground beef patties to 62, 71.1, and 76°C, respectively, but the reductions did not differ as a function of the endpoint cooking temperature (P ≥ 0.05). E. albertii may be controlled on beef through the proper application of antimicrobial interventions and cooking.

  5. Fate of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on a commercial open-flame gas or a clamshell electric grill.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Phillips, John; Chen, Vivian; Eblen, Denise R; Cook, L Victor; Mohr, Tim B; Esteban, Emilio; Bauer, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    Both high-fat and low-fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, respectively) were inoculated with a 6-strain cocktail of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g). Patties were pressed (ca. 2.54 cm thick, ca. 300 g each) and then refrigerated (4°C, 18 to 24 h), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks) and then thawed (4°C for 18 h or 21°C for 10 h) before being cooked on commercial gas or electric grills to internal temperatures of 60 to 76.6°C. For E. coli O157:H7, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased E. coli O157:H7 numbers from an initial level of ca. 7.0 log CFU/g to a final level of ≤1.0 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 1.1 to 3.1 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, E. coli O157:H7 numbers decreased to ca. 1.7 or ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased to ca. 0.7 to 3.7 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For STEC, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased pathogen numbers from ca. 7.0 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 0.7 to 3.6 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, STEC numbers decreased to a final level of ca. 1.5 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased from ca. 7.0 to ca. 0.8 to 4.3 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. Thus, cooking ground beef patties that were refrigerated, frozen, or freeze-thawed to internal temperatures of 71.1 and 76.6°C was effective for eliminating ca. 5.1 to 7.0 log CFU of E. coli O157:H7 and STEC per g.

  6. Evaluation of consumer-style cooking methods for reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Suk; Lee, Sun-Young; Hillers, Virginia N; McCurdy, Sandra M; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) under conditions simulating consumer-style cooking methods. To compare a double-sided grill (DSG) with a single-sided grill (SSG), two different cooking methods were used for the SSG: for the one-turnover (OT-SSG) method, a patty was turned once when the internal temperature reached 40 degrees C, and for the multiturnover (MT-SSG) method, a patty was turned every 30 s. Patties (100 g, n = 9) inoculated with a five-strain mixture of E. coli O157: H7 at a concentration of 10(7) CFU/g were cooked until all three temperature readings (for two sides and the center) for a patty were 71.1 degrees C. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 cells were enumerated on sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) agar and on phenol red agar base with 1% sorbitol (SPRAB). The order of the cooking methods with regard to the cooking time required for the patty to reach 71.1 degrees C was as follows: DSG (2.7 min) < MT-SSG (6.6 min) < OT-SSG (10.9 min). The more rapid, higher-temperature cooking method was more effective (P < 0.01) in destroying E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. E. coli O157:H7 reduction levels were clearly differentiated among treatments as follows: OT-SSG (4.7 log10 CFU/g) < MT-SSG (5.6 log10 CFU/g) < DSG (6.9 log10 CFU/g). Significantly larger numbers of E. coil O157:H7 were observed on SPRAB than on SMAC agar. To confirm the safety of ground beef cooked to 71.1 degrees C, additional patties (100 g, n = 9) inoculated with lower concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 (10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g) were tested. The ground beef cooked by the OT-SSG method resulted in two (22%) of nine samples testing positive after enrichment, whereas no E. coli O157:H7 was found for samples cooked by the MT-SSG and DSG methods. Our findings suggest that consumers should be advised to either cook ground beef patties in a grill that cooks the top

  7. Quality Characteristics of a Low-Fat Beef Patty Enriched by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Sarriés, María Victoria; Ibañez, Francisco C; Beriain, María José

    2018-02-01

    Olive and linseed oils have high contents of oleic acid and n-3 fatty acids (FA), respectively. Vitamin D 3 , an essential nutrient, is in low contents in meat. This study investigated the potential application of olive and linseed oils' mixture as a backfat replacer, and vitamin D 3 as a supplement, in order to develop a product enriched by polyunsaturated FAs and vitamin D 3 . Two treatments were manufactured: conventional (C: 0% emulsion, 0 μg vitamin D 3 /100 g product) and modified (M: 10.9% emulsion/, 8.3 μg vitamin D 3 /100 g product). The quality characteristics and cooking effects on the FA and vitamin D 3 contents were assessed. The sensory properties of cooked patties were not affected by olive and linseed oils' mixture (P > 0.05). The instrumental textural parameters were lower in cooked M patties (P < 0.01), except springiness (P = 0.766) that was not affected by formulation. The contents of α-linoleic acid in M patty were 19-fold higher than those from C patty. The contents of n-3 and n-6 were higher in M patty (P < 0.05) than in C patty. Although cooking decreased the content of vitamin D 3 in M patty (6.7 compared with 5.2 μg/100 g product), considerable increments were achieved compared to C patty. There is an increasing demand of consumers for healthier meat products; therefore, the improvement of their nutritional profile without negatively affecting quality characteristics is key factor for meat sector. This study emphasizes the feasibility of using the combination of olive and linseed oils' mixture and vitamin D 3 to yield new meat products with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D 3 . The effectiveness of combination of oils mixture and vitamin D 3 tested in this study is proven and the high contribution of vitamin D 3 and some fatty acids of nutritional interest identified. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during cooking of hamburger patties.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Philipp; Walte, Hans-Georg C; Matzen, Sönke; Hensel, Jann; Kiesner, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The role of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn's disease in humans has been debated for many years. Milk and milk products have been suggested as possible vectors for transmission since the beginning of this debate, whereas recent publications show that slaughtered cattle and their carcasses, meat, and organs can also serve as reservoirs for MAP transmission. The objective of this study was to generate heat-inactivation data for MAP during the cooking of hamburger patties. Hamburger patties of lean ground beef weighing 70 and 50 g were cooked for 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 min, which were sterilized by irradiation and spiked with three different MAP strains at levels between 10² and 10⁶ CFU/ml. Single-sided cooking with one flip was applied, and the temperatures within the patties were recorded by seven thermocouples. Counting of the surviving bacteria was performed by direct plating onto Herrold's egg yolk medium and a three-vial most-probable-number method by using modified Dubos medium. There was considerable variability in temperature throughout the patties during frying. In addition, the log reduction in MAP numbers showed strong variations. In patties weighing 70 g, considerable bacterial reduction of 4 log or larger could only be achieved after 6 min of cooking. For all other cooking times, the bacterial reduction was less than 2 log. Patties weighing 50 g showed a 5-log or larger reduction after cooking times of 5 and 6 min. To determine the inactivation kinetics, a log-linear regression model was used, showing a constant decrease of MAP numbers over cooking time.

  9. Spoilage and safety characteristics of ground beef packaged in traditional and modified atmosphere packages.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J C; Alvarado, M; Stephens, T P; Kellermeier, J D; Tittor, A W; Miller, M F; Brashears, M M

    2008-02-01

    Two separate studies, one with pathogen-inoculated product and one with noninoculated product, were conducted to determine the safety and spoilage characteristics of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and traditional packaging of ground beef patties. Ground beef patties were allotted to five packaging treatments (i) control (foam tray with film overwrap; traditional), (ii) high-oxygen MAP (80% 02, 20% CO2), (iii) high-oxygen MAP with added rosemary extract, (iv) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP (0.4% CO, 30% CO2, 69.6% N2), and (v) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP with added rosemary extract. Beef patties were evaluated for changes over time (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days) during lighted display. Results indicated low-oxygen carbon monoxide gas flush had a stabilizing effect on meat color after the formation of carboxymyoglobin and was effective for preventing the development of surface discoloration. Consumers indicated that beef patties packaged in atmospheres containing carbon monoxide were more likely to smell fresh at 7, 14, and 21 days of display, but the majority would probably not consume these products after 14 days of display because of their odor. MAP suppressed the growth of psychrophilic aerobic bacteria when compared with control packages. Generally, control packages had significantly higher total aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus counts than did modified atmosphere packages. In the inoculated ground beef (approximately 10(5) CFU/g) in MAP, Escherichia coli O157 populations ranged from 4.51 to 4.73 log CFU/g with no differences among the various packages, but the total E. coli O157:H7 in the ground beef in the control packages was significantly higher at 5.61 log CFU/g after 21 days of storage. On days 14 and 21, the total Salmonella in the ground beef in control packages was at 5.29 and 5.27 log CFU/g, respectively, which was significantly higher than counts in the modified atmosphere packages (3.99 to 4.31 log CFU/g on day 14 and 3.76 to 4.02 log CFU

  10. Consumer sensory evaluation, fatty acid composition, and shelf-life of ground beef with subcutaneous fat trimmings from different carcass locations.

    PubMed

    Kerth, Chris R; Harbison, Amanda L; Smith, Stephen B; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-06-01

    Brisket, chuck, plate, flank, and round subcutaneous fat trim were used to produce ground beef patties then evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, volatile chemical compounds and consumer sensory evaluation. Color, TBARS, consumer sensory evaluation, and cook/freezer loss did not differ (P>0.05) among carcass fat locations. Percentage stearic acid was lower (P=0.044) in the ground beef using brisket fat than using the chuck and flank fat. Patties made with brisket fat were higher in cis-vaccenic acid (P=0.016) and the saturated to monounsaturated fatty acid ratio (P=0.018) than all other sources of subcutaneous fat. Butanedione was highest (P=0.013) in patties using flank and plate fat. Ground beef with brisket fat was higher (P=0.003) than all other sources for beefy aroma. Altering the profile of non-polar, triglyceride fatty acids has no effect on sensory flavor or major volatile chemical compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (p<0.05), respectively, after use of marinades containing the highest extract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in Gaborone (Botswana) retail stores.

    PubMed

    Samaxa, Ronald Gaelekolwe; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated PCR method. The PCR assay results were in full concordance with those of the conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella. Sixty-five (21.7%) of 300 samples were positive for Salmonella by both the conventional culture method and PCR assay. Even though more chicken samples contained Salmonella than did any other sausage type, the difference in the presence of Salmonella among the four sausages types was not significant. Eleven serotypes were identified, and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae II was most prevalent in all the sausage types. Beef sausages generally had higher mesophilic bacterial counts than did the other three sausage types. However, higher microbial counts were not reflective of the presence of salmonellae. Susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica serotypes to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined, and Salmonella Muenchen was resistant to the widest array of agents and was mostly isolated from chicken sausages. Regardless of the meat of origin, all 65 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents: amikacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, and tombramycin. This resistance profile group was the most common in all four sausage types, comprising 90% of all Salmonella isolates from beef, 71% from pork, 63% from mutton, and 35% from chicken. These results suggest that raw sausages pose a risk of transmitting multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates to consumers.

  13. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Neurosurgical patties: adhesion and damage mitigation.

    PubMed

    Stratton-Powell, Ashley A; Anderson, Ian A; Timothy, Jake; Kapur, Nikil; Culmer, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Neurosurgical patties are textile pads used during most neurosurgical operations to protect tissues, manage the fluid environment, control hemostasis, and aid tissue manipulation. Recent research has suggested that, contrary to their aim, patties adhere to brain tissue and cause damage during removal. This study aimed to characterize and quantify the degree of and consequences resulting from adhesion between neurosurgical patties and brain tissue. Using a customized peel apparatus, the authors performed 90° peel tests on 5 patty products: Policot, Telfa, Americot, Delicot, and Ray-Cot (n = 247) from American Surgical Company. They tested 4 conditions: wet patty on glass (control), wet patty on wet brain peeled at 5 mm/sec (wet), dry patty on wet brain peeled at 5 mm/sec (dry), and wet patty on wet brain peeled at 20 mm/sec (speed). The interaction between patty and tissue was analyzed using peel-force traces and pre-peel histological analysis. Adhesion strength differed between patty products (p < 0.001) and conditions (p < 0.001). Adhesion strength was greatest for Delicot patties under wet (2.22 mN/mm) and dry (9.88 mN/mm) conditions. For all patties, damage at the patty-tissue interface was proportional to the degree of fiber contact. When patties were irrigated, mechanical adhesion was reduced by up to 550% compared with dry usage. For all patty products, mechanical (destructive) and liquid-mediated (nondestructive) adhesion caused damage to neural tissue. The greatest adhesion occurred with Delicot patties. To mitigate patty adhesion and neural tissue damage, surgeons should consider regular irrigation to be essential during neurosurgical procedures.

  15. Quantification of meat proportions by measuring DNA contents in raw and boiled sausages using matrix-adapted calibrators and multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Köppel, René; Eugster, Albert; Ruf, Jürg; Rentsch, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of meat proportions in raw and boiled sausage according to the recipe was evaluated using three different calibrators. To measure the DNA contents from beef, pork, sheep (mutton), and horse, a tetraplex real-time PCR method was applied. Nineteen laboratories analyzed four meat products each made of different proportions of beef, pork, sheep, and horse meat. Three kinds of calibrators were used: raw and boiled sausages of known proportions ranging from 1 to 55% of meat, and a dilution series of DNA from muscle tissue. In general, results generated using calibration sausages were more accurate than those resulting from the use of DNA from muscle tissue, and exhibited smaller measurement uncertainties. Although differences between uses of raw and boiled calibration sausages were small, the most precise and accurate results were obtained by calibration with fine-textured boiled reference sausages.

  16. Effect of hot-boned pork on the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage.

    PubMed

    Guerrero Legarreta, I; Usborne, W R; Ashton, G C

    1987-01-01

    The first experiment evaluated the effect of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) addition to hot-boned meat, in different proportions, upon the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage patties. Dry ice had some negative effects at levels of 20% to 40%, such as hardening and colour fading of samples, although it increased water-holding capacity of the sausage. In the second experiment three proportions of hot-boned meat and chilled meat were evaluated as a means to extend the retail storage time of fresh pork sausage links. Hot-boned pork was treated by three methods: freezing the meat before grinding, salting and freezing, and salting plus dry ice addition. The results favoured the use of 50% hot-boned meat and 50% chilled meat, for which the lowest hardness and oxidation values were obtained. Microbial counts and hue values showed no significant variation among the three treatments. Salting and freezing hot-boned meat before grinding was the method which produced the best overall quality. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  18. Effect of cheese as a fat replacer in fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Ercoşkun, Hüdayi

    2014-08-01

    The effects of beef fat substitution with kashar cheese were studied in traditional Turkish fermented sausage; sucuk. Six sucuk formulations were prepared by replacing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of beef fat was substituted with kashar cheese. The fat substitution of fat with kashar cheese decreased fat content and increased protein content of the product that affected the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of products. Saturated fatty acid content increased and unsaturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids amount were decreased as the cheese amount increased. The formulation with 10% substitution of beef fat with cheese took the best sensory overall acceptability scores followed by 20% and control groups.

  19. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine.

    PubMed

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1988-11-01

    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  20. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in southern Sweden associated with consumption of fermented sausage; aspects of sausage production that increase the risk of contamination

    PubMed Central

    SARTZ, L.; De JONG, B.; HJERTQVIST, M.; PLYM-FORSHELL, L.; ALSTERLUND, R.; LÖFDAHL, S.; OSTERMAN, B.; STÅHL, A.; ERIKSSON, E.; HANSSON, H.-B.; KARPMAN, D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections occurred in southern Sweden during autumn 2002. A matched case-control study was performed and indicated an association between consumption of fermented sausage and EHEC infection (odds ratio 5·4, P<0·002). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified a strain of E. coli O157:H7 in clinical faecal isolates, which was identical to a strain isolated from sausage samples obtained from households of infected individuals. A combination of microbiological and epidemiological results established a link between sausage consumption and the outbreak in 30 out of a total of 39 investigated cases. Contaminated beef was suspected to be the source of infection. Delayed start of fermentation, lack of heat-treatment and a short curing period in cold temperature were identified as the main factors enabling EHEC survival. EHEC can survive throughout the entire production process of fermented sausage if curing conditions are inadequate. PMID:17445322

  1. The characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated during the traditional production of Užička sausage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borović, B.; Velebit, B.; Vesković, S.; Lakićević, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    Užička sausage is a traditionally fermented dry sausage that is produced in western Serbia. It is made of beef and pork with the addition of solid fat and natural spices. The whole manufacturing process lasted for 21 days. The goal of this study was to create a collection of lactic acid bacteria isolated during the ripening and identify them using molecular methods. A total of 50 isolates from different stages of ripening (fermentation and drying) were identified by molecular methods. Leuconococcus mesenteroides, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus sakei were the predominant microorganisms in Užička sausage.

  2. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    PubMed Central

    Gebrelul, Sebhatu

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran. PMID:26904643

  3. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Malekian, Fatemeh; Khachaturyan, Margarita; Gebrelul, Sebhatu; Henson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  4. Evaluation of the antioxidant activities and nutritional properties of ten edible plant extracts and their application to fresh ground beef.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Min, Sea C; Shin, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Ah Reum; Kim, So Yeon; Han, Jaejoon

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we assessed the antioxidant efficacy and nutritional value of 10 leafy edible plants and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation. We measured total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and vitamin C, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents of 70% ethanol and water extracts of the edible plants. Based on these results, we investigated the effects of butterbur and broccoli extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and color parameters were tested periodically during 12 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p≤0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p≤0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P < 0.05) water before pumping and bind less (P < 0.05) water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P < 0.01). Treatments did not affect loin purge loss, steak cook loss, and expressible moisture (P > 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins.

  6. Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-04-01

    Quality of fermented sausages is affected by acidifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and colour- and flavour-promoting coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whether or not used as starter culture. Artisan fermented sausages are often perceived as superior to industrial variants, partially because of the specific microbiota due to spontaneous acidification, which may be considered as an artisan characteristic. Therefore, two kinds of spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages were prepared (Belgian-type salami and Boulogne sausage), but with addition of a Staphylococcus carnosus culture. The Belgian-type salami was made from pork and beef, whereas the Boulogne sausage contained pork and horse meat. In all cases, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant LAB species present on the raw materials and during fermentation, whereas enterococci remained present in the background. Enterobacteriaceae vanished after fermentation. The CNS species diversity on the raw materials was large and differed between the pork, beef, and horse meat. Nevertheless, this species diversity was annihilated during fermentation by the added S. carnosus culture. The volatiles fraction was mainly composed of aldehydes that originated from lipid oxidation and spices-derived compounds. Aromatic compounds that are typically associated to CNS activity, such as end-products from the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids, were not present in the Belgian-type salami and only marginally present in the Boulogne sausage. In conclusion, spontaneous acidification of Belgian-type fermented sausages leads to dominance of L. sakei and is no guarantee for bacterial contribution to the aroma profile when S. carnosus is added as a starter culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the kind... shall be named “(Kind) Patties.” ...

  8. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the kind... shall be named “(Kind) Patties.” ...

  9. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the kind... shall be named “(Kind) Patties.” ...

  10. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.

    PubMed

    Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A

    2016-02-16

    Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation.

    PubMed

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products.

  12. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  13. Validation of cooking times and temperatures for thermal inactivation of Yersinia pestis strains KIM5 and CDC-A1122 in irradiated ground beef.

    PubMed

    Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Juneja, Vijay K; Tamplin, Mark L; Luchansky, John B

    2009-03-01

    Irradiated ground beef samples (ca. 3-g portions with ca. 25% fat) inoculated with Yersina pestis strain KIM5 (ca. 6.7 log CFU/g) were heated in a circulating water bath stabilized at 48.9, 50, 52.5, 55, 57.5, or 60 degrees C (120, 122, 126.5, 131, 135.5, and 140 degrees F, respectively). Average D-values were 192.17, 34.38, 17.11, 3.87, 1.32, and 0.56 min, respectively, with a corresponding z-value of 4.67 degrees C (8.41 degrees F). In related experiments, irradiated ground beef patties (ca. 95 g per patty with ca. 25% fat) were inoculated with Y. pestis strains KIMS or CDC-A1122 (ca. 6.0 log CFU/g) and cooked on an open-flame gas grill or on a clam-shell type electric grill to internal target temperatures of 48.9, 60, and 71.1 degrees C (120, 140, and 160 degrees F, respectively). For patties cooked on the gas grill, strain KIM5 populations decreased from ca. 6.24 to 4.32, 3.51, and < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at 48.9, 60, and 71.1 degrees C, respectively, and strain CDC-A1122 populations decreased to 3.46 log CFU/g at 48.9 degrees C and to < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at both 60 and 71.1 degrees C. For patties cooked on the clam-shell grill, strain KIM5 populations decreased from ca. 5.96 to 2.53 log CFU/g at 48.9 degrees C and to < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at 60 or 71.1 degrees C, and strain CDC-A1122 populations decreased from ca. 5.98 to < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at all three cooking temperatures. These data confirm that cooking ground beef on an open-flame gas grill or on a clam-shell type electric grill to the temperatures and times recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code, appreciably lessens the likelihood, severity, and/or magnitude of consumer illness if the ground beef were purposefully contaminated even with relatively high levels of Y. pestis.

  14. Detection of premature browning in ground beef with an integrated optical-fibre based sensor using reflection spectroscopy and fibre Bragg grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Farrell, M.; Sheridan, C.; Lewis, E.; Zhao, W. Z.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Kerry, J.; Jackman, N.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on an optical fibre based sensor system to detect the occurrence of premature browning in ground beef. Premature browning (PMB) occurs when, at a temperature below the pasteurisation temperature of 71°C, there are no traces of pink meat left in the patty. PMB is more frequent if poorer quality beef or beef that has been stored under imperfect conditions. The experimental work pertaining to this paper involved cooking fresh meat and meat that has been stored in a freezer for, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months and recording the reflected spectra and temperature at the core of the product, during the cooking process, in order to develop a classifier based on the spectral response and using a Self-Organising Map (SOM) to classify the patties into one of four categories, based on their colour. Further tests were also carried out on developing an all-optical fibre sensor for measuring both the temperature and colour in a single integrated probe. The integrated probe contains two different sensor concepts, one to monitor temperature, based on Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) technology and a second for meat quality, based on reflection spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range.

  15. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg−1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some

  16. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties. PMID:27621696

  17. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  18. Children Facing School: Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, William

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the comic strip "Peanuts" characters Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty as they illustrate children's difficulties in school and their emotional responses to school. Explores how Sally illustrates the conflict between the creative impulses of childhood with school demands, while Patty illustrates the extent to which many children…

  19. Field Evaluation of Improved MRE (Meal, Ready-to-Eat), MRE VII, and MRE IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    SLICES MEATBALLS W/RICE IN TOMATO SAUCE* TUNA W/NOODLES* CHICKEN W/ RICE* ESC. POTATOES W/HAM CHUNKS* STARCHES CRACKERS POTATOES AU GRATIN...HAM/ CHIC KEN LOAF 4.9 0.39 HAM SLICES 7.7 0.21 MEATBALLS W/BBQ SAUCE* 6.5 0.24 PORK SAUSAGE PATTIES 6.6 0.25 TURKEY W/ GRAVY* 7.6 0. 17...FRANKFURTERS HAM/CHICKEN LOAF OR CHICKEN LOAF HAM SLICES MEATBALLS W/BBQ SAUCE PORK SAUSAGE PATTIES TURKEY W/GRAVY STARCHES CRACKERS BEANS W/TOMATO

  20. Identification of offal adulteration in beef by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Sezer, Banu; Bilge, Gonca; Baytur, Süleyman Efe; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-01

    Minced meat is the major ingredient in sausages, beef burgers, and similar products; and thus it is the main product subjected to adulteration with meat offal. Determination of this kind of meat adulteration is crucial due to religious, economic and ethical concerns. The aim of the present study is to discriminate the beef meat and offal samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To this end, LIBS and multivariate data analysis were used to discriminate pure beef and offal samples qualitatively and to determine the offal mixture adulteration quantitatively. In this analysis, meat samples were frozen and LIBS analysis were performed. The results indicate that by using principal component analysis (PCA), discrimination of pure offal and offal mixture adulterated beef samples can be achieved successfully. Besides, adulteration ratio can be determined using partial least square analysis method (PLS) with 0.947 coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and 3.8% of limit of detection (LOD) values for offal mixture adulterated beef samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Field Evaluation of the B Ration in a Hot Weather Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    from the B Ration at breakfast (see Figure 7). Reducing the frequency of serving eggs at breakfast would help to lower overall intake of dietary...king .. Beef w/BBQ sauce .. Beef stew Frankfurters Meatballs w/BBQ sauce Ham/chicken loaf Beef w/gravy Beef patties Pork patties...sauce and peas with mushrooms. The B Ration foods disliked the most were the grilled breakfast meat, scrambled eggs , hash brown potatoes, cottage

  2. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Kwon, Yun-Joong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of multilayered fish oil (FO) emulsion without or with trans-cinnamaldehyde on pork patties. Multilayered FO (-primary, -secondary, -tertiary) emulsions were prepared using a layer-by-layer deposition technique with Tween 20, chitosan, and low methoxyl pectin, and were added to pork patties at the same concentration. Pork patties were then stored for 20 d in a refrigerator (5℃) to study changes in quality. The results showed that the pH value of all samples significantly decreased but cooking loss increased during storage (p<0.05). However, water-holding capacity and moisture content showed no remarkable difference between treatments and storage periods (p>0.05). All pork patties containing multilayered FO (treated samples) showed higher values for lightness and significantly lower values for yellowness compared to control pork patties (untreated sample). Lipid oxidation was higher in treated pork patties than in control pork patties during storage. In addition, lipid oxidation and total viable bacterial count in pork patties decreased as the number of coating layers increased. However, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness of all samples showed no significant change during storage (p>0.05) as compared to fresh pork patties. Furthermore, these did not remarkable change with addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde in all pork patties. From our results, we suggest that FO emulsion did not affect the texture characteristics of fresh pork patties, indicating that it could be used to improve the quality of pork patties by contributing high-quality fat such as unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26761802

  3. Development and quality assessment of carrageenan incorporated low fat chevon patties.

    PubMed

    Nayak, N K; Pathak, V

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to develop and assess the quality of carrageenan incorporated chevon patties with the objective of reducing fat content. Efficacy of carrageenan as fat replacers (0.3, 0.6 & 0.9 %) was assessed for development of low fat chevon patties. Emulsion stability and cooking yield increased with the increase in levels of carrageenan. Significantly ( P  < 0.05) lower fat and cholesterol contents and higher moisture and fat retention were observed in formulation with carrageenan. No significant difference in the mineral content in either of the treatment was recorded. Incorporation of fat replacer in chevon patties demonstrated significant effect on all the textural parameters except adhesiveness. Results of color value illustrated that lightness (L*) value differ significantly. Sensory scores were higher or comparable for patties containing 0.6 % carrageenan as compared to control. Hence, carrageenan was observed to be suitable as fat replacer for producing low fat chevon meat patties.

  4. Effects of various cooking conditions on acrylamide formation in rolled patty.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynak, E; Ova, Gulden

    2009-06-01

    In this study on acrylamide formation, the effects of the type of frying oil, frying period and covering with egg during frying of a rolled patty (a traditional Turkish carbohydrate-rich food) were investigated. The differences between frying periods were statistically significant for each oil (p < 0.01). For comparable frying periods, the maximum acrylamide content was found in the rolled patties fried with sunflower oil, and the minimum acrylamide content was found in the rolled patties fried with corn oil. A decrease of 39-65% in acrylamide formation in the rolled patties covered with egg was found for each of the three types of oil. In addition, a high linear correlation (R > 0.90) was found between L (light) values and acrylamide amounts.

  5. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply: (1) Patty. A shaped and formed, comminuted, flattened cake of meat food product. (2) Comminuted. A...

  6. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply: (1) Patty. A shaped and formed, comminuted, flattened cake of meat food product. (2) Comminuted. A...

  7. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply: (1) Patty. A shaped and formed, comminuted, flattened cake of meat food product. (2) Comminuted. A...

  8. Development of gluten-free fish (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) patties by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Romero, Mara C; Fogar, Ricardo A; Rolhaiser, Fabiana; Clavero, Verónica V; Romero, Ana M; Judis, María A

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a fish-based product suitable for people with celiac disease. Water and gluten-free flours (rice, corn, amaranth or quinoa) were added to improve cooking yield, texture parameters and as an aid in improving quality attributes such as taste and juiciness. Cooking yields of patties containing gluten-free flours were higher than control and maximum values ranged between 91 and 93%. Hardness was higher in patties made with amaranth or quinoa flour, whereas cohesiveness and springiness were higher in patties made with corn and rice flour, respectively. Response surface methodology was used to optimize patties formulations. Optimized formulations were prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. Also, nutritional value and consumer acceptance of optimized formulations were analysed. Flours addition affected proximate composition increasing carbohydrates, total fat and mineral content compared to control. Sensory evaluation showed that no differences were found in the aroma of products. Addition of rice flour increased juiciness and tenderness whereas taste, overall acceptance and buying intention were higher in control patty, followed by patties made with corn flour. The present investigation shows good possibilities for further product development, including the scale up at an industrial level.

  9. Effects of Jet-Milled Defatted Soy Flour on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Hamburger Patties

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the physicochemical and sensorial properties of hamburger patties made with three different defatted soybean flour (DSF) preparations which differed in particle size. Coarse (Dv50=259.3±0.6 µm), fine (Dv50=91.5±0.5 µm), and superfine (Dv50=3.7±0.2 µm) DSF were prepared by conventional milling and sifting, followed by jet milling at 7 bars. Hamburger patties containing 5% of each DSF were prepared for a property analysis. The hamburger patties made with 5% superfine DSF showed the lowest cooking loss among the treatment groups (p<0.05). The patties with superfine DSF also retained the texture profile values of the control patties in terms of hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness, while the addition of coarse and fine DSF increased the hardness and chewiness significantly (p<0.05). The sensorial results of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) indicate that the patties containing superfine DSF were softer and tenderer than the controls (p<0.05). Although the overall acceptability of the patties made with coarse and fine DSF was poor, the overall acceptability of the superfine DSF patty was the same as that of the control patty. These results suggest that superfine DSF is an excellent food material that can supply dietary fiber, while maintaining the physical characteristics and texture of hamburger patty. PMID:29725205

  10. Effects of Jet-Milled Defatted Soy Flour on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Hamburger Patties.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Young-Min; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Lee, Dong-Un

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the physicochemical and sensorial properties of hamburger patties made with three different defatted soybean flour (DSF) preparations which differed in particle size. Coarse (Dv 50 =259.3±0.6 µm), fine (Dv 50 =91.5±0.5 µm), and superfine (Dv 50 =3.7±0.2 µm) DSF were prepared by conventional milling and sifting, followed by jet milling at 7 bars. Hamburger patties containing 5% of each DSF were prepared for a property analysis. The hamburger patties made with 5% superfine DSF showed the lowest cooking loss among the treatment groups ( p <0.05). The patties with superfine DSF also retained the texture profile values of the control patties in terms of hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness, while the addition of coarse and fine DSF increased the hardness and chewiness significantly ( p <0.05). The sensorial results of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) indicate that the patties containing superfine DSF were softer and tenderer than the controls ( p <0.05). Although the overall acceptability of the patties made with coarse and fine DSF was poor, the overall acceptability of the superfine DSF patty was the same as that of the control patty. These results suggest that superfine DSF is an excellent food material that can supply dietary fiber, while maintaining the physical characteristics and texture of hamburger patty.

  11. Heterocyclic amine content in beef cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness and gravy made from meat drippings.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Rothman, N; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Brown, E D; Swanson, C A; Rhodes, D; Rossi, S; Felton, J S; Levander, O A

    1998-04-01

    Meats cooked at high temperatures sometimes contain heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that are known mutagens and animal carcinogens, but their carcinogenic potential in humans has not been established. To investigate the association between HCAs and cancer, sources of exposure to these compounds need to be determined. Beef is the most frequently consumed meat in the United States and for this study we determined HCA values in beef samples cooked in ways to represent US cooking practices, the results of which can be used in epidemiological studies to estimate HCA exposure from dietary questionnaires. We measured five HCAs [2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)] in different types of cooked beef using solid-phase extraction and HPLC. Steak and hamburger patties were pan-fried, oven-broiled, and grilled/barbecued to four levels of doneness (rare, medium, well done or very well done), while beef roasts were oven cooked to three levels of doneness (rare, medium or well done). The measured values of the specific HCAs varied with the cut of beef, cooking method, and doneness level. In general, MeIQx content increased with doneness under each cooking condition for steak and hamburger patties, up to 8.2 ng/g. PhIP was the predominant HCA produced in steak (1.9 to 30 ng/g), but was formed only in very well done fried or grilled hamburger. DiMeIQx was found in trace levels in pan-fried steaks only, while IQ and MeIQ were not detectable in any of the samples. Roast beef did not contain any of the HCAs, but the gravy made from the drippings from well done roasts had 2 ng/g of PhIP and 7 ng/g of MeIQx. Epidemiological studies need to consider the type of meat, cooking method and degree of doneness/surface browning in survey questions to adequately assess

  12. Development of a non-tissue adherent neurosurgical patty and an ex vivo testing system to evaluate adherent characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Manabu; Taniguchi, Mai; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Seike, Nobuhisa; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-05-01

    Neurosurgical patties are the most frequently used instruments during neurosurgical procedures, and their high performance is required to ensure safe operations. They must offer cushioning, water-absorbing, water-retaining, and non-tissue adherent characteristics. Here, the authors describe a revised neurosurgical patty that is superior in all respects to the conventional patty available in Japan. Patty characteristics were critically and scientifically evaluated using various in vitro assays. Moreover, a novel ex vivo evaluation system focusing on the adherent characteristics of the neurosurgical patty was developed. The proposed assay could provide benchmark data for comparing different neurosurgical patties, offering neurosurgeons objective data on the performance of patties. The newly developed patty was also evaluated in real neurosurgical settings and showed superb performance during various neurosurgical procedures.

  13. Quality preservation of reduced sodium pork patties: effects of antioxidants on colour and lipid stability.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jen-Hua; Wang, Shu-Tai; Ockerman, Herbert W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lipid oxidation and colour change of precooked pork patties with reduced sodium and added antioxidants. This study can fill the gap of antioxidant application between meat products with regular and low salt content. For precooked pork patties, addition of sodium tripolyphosphate and carnosine increased pH values and cooking yields. Patties with ascorbic acid had significantly higher a* values compared to the other samples. There was no significant difference of b* values among treatments. Precooked pork patties with sodium tripolyphosphate or carnosine had significantly higher L* values compared to other patties. The addition of antioxidants reduced lipid oxidation in precooked pork patties during refrigerated storage, except for the addition of 0.5% carnosine. Tripolyphosphate and ascorbic acid were successfully proven to be effective in retarding lipid oxidation and preserve the colour stability in reduced salt pork patties. This study provides a preliminary foundation of keeping meat products from lipid oxidation and maintaining in better stability. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidative Activity of Various Levels of Ethanol Extracted Tomato Powder and Application to Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate antioxidant activity of tomato powder extracted by various concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%) and to evaluate the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of pork patties with ethanol extracted tomato (EET) powder. No differences in the contents of total of individual phenolic compounds including gallic acid and catechin, were observed among the treatments ( p >0.05). Among the various concentrations, 50% and 75% EET powder showed the highest free radical scavenging and iron chelating activities ( p <0.05). Lipid peroxidation was retarded in linoleic acid emulsion with the addition of 50% and 75% EET powder (0.1%). Based on the model study, five pork patties were actually manufactured; control patty, reference patty with 0.01% of butylated hydroxytoluene, patty with 1% of water extracted tomato (WET), and patties with 0.5 and 1.0% of EET. Addition of 1% WET and EET decreased pH value, and increased redness values of pork patties, as compared to the control ( p <0.05). Pork patties with WET (1.0%) and EET (0.5% and 1.0%) had lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values compared with control patties after 7 d of storage ( p <0.05). Pork patties containing EET powder showed lower total bacterial and Enterobacteriaceae counts than control patties ( p <0.05). In conclusion, WET and EET (50%) could be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in meat products.

  15. Identification of Pork Adulteration in Processed Meat Products Using the Developed Mitochondrial DNA-Based Primers

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Yukyung; Oh, Hyemin; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-01-01

    The identification of pork in commercially processed meats is one of the most crucial issues in the food industry because of religious food ethics, medical purposes, and intentional adulteration to decrease production cost. This study therefore aimed to develop a method for the detection of pork adulteration in meat products using primers specific for pig mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA sequences for pig, cattle, chicken, and sheep were obtained from GenBank and aligned. The 294-bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop region was selected as the pig target DNA sequence and appropriate primers were designed using the MUSCLE program. To evaluate primer sensitivity, pork-beef-chicken mixtures were prepared as follows: i) 0% pork-50% beef-50% chicken, ii) 1% pork-49.5% beef-49.5% chicken, iii) 2% pork-49% beef-49% chicken, iv) 5% pork-47.5% beef-47.5% chicken, v) 10% pork-45% beef-45% chicken, and vi) 100% pork-0% beef-0% chicken. In addition, a total of 35 commercially packaged products, including patties, nuggets, meatballs, and sausages containing processed chicken, beef, or a mixture of various meats, were purchased from commercial markets. The primers developed in our study were able to detect as little as 1% pork in the heat treated pork-beef-chicken mixtures. Of the 35 processed products, three samples were pork positive despite being labeled as beef or chicken only or as a beef-chicken mix. These results indicate that the developed primers could be used to detect pork adulteration in various processed meat products for application in safeguarding religious food ethics, detecting allergens, and preventing food adulteration. PMID:28747833

  16. The effect of preheated tendon as a lean meat replacement on the properties of fine emulsion sausages.

    PubMed

    Sadler, D H; Young, O A

    1993-01-01

    Tendon from beef hind leg muscles was used to replace some of the lean in a conventional emulsion formulation. The tendon was homogenized and either used raw or preheated for 2·5 h at a range of temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80°C) before use. Texture analysis and sensory evaluation were performed on cylinders of cooked sausage. Texture analysis was carried out on formulations which had 20% of meat protein replaced by 20% tendons which were raw or had been preheated to 50, 60, 70, or 80°C. Fracturability decreased by about 40% with raw tendon, but was restored to within 20% of the no-replacement control if the tendon had been preheated. Hardness was approximately doubled by replacement with raw tendon or tendon heated at 50°C. At temperatures higher than that, hardness returned to approximately no-replacement levels. For sensory evaluation (0-25% replacement; preheating at 70°C), sausages were assessed by a 12-member panel for texture, flavour and overall acceptability. All attributes decreased with increasing collagen content, the decrease being less marked with preheated tendon. Thus more connective tissue could be added for the same panel score if the tissue was preheated. Comparison of the texture profile and the panel scores for texture at the same lean replacement level suggested that reduced fracturability was the texture parameter that panellists objected to when heated tendon replaced some of the lean. Other researchers have shown that connective tissue preheated to 100°C before addition in emulsion sausages results in improved yields and better sensory attributes, but the present results show that temperatures as low as 60°C can be effective for beef tendon. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Quantitative detection of pork in commercial meat products by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miju; Yoo, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Young; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2016-11-01

    The TaqMan® real-time PCR assay using the mitochondrial D-loop region was developed for the quantitative detection of pork in processed meat products. The newly designed primers and probe specifically amplified pork without any cross-reactivity with non-target animal species. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 0.1pg of heat-treated pork meat and 0.1% (w/w) pork meat in beef and chicken meat mixtures. The quantitative real-time PCR assay was applied to analyze the pork meat content in 22 commercial processed meat products including jerkies, press hams, sausages, hamburger patties and steaks, grilled short rib patties, and nuggets. The developed real-time PCR method was able to detect pork meat in various types of processed meat products that declared the use of pork meat on their label. All processed meat products that declared no use of pork meat showed a negative result in the assay. The method developed in this study showed sensitivity and specificity in the quantification of pork meat in commercial processed meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Assessment of Escherichia coli O157 illness from consumption of hamburgers in the United States made from Australian manufacturing beef.

    PubMed

    Kiermeier, Andreas; Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the risk of contracting illness due to the consumption in the United States of hamburgers contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of serogroup O157 produced from manufacturing beef imported from Australia. We have used a novel approach for estimating risk by using the prevalence and concentration estimates of E. coli O157 in lots of beef that were withdrawn from the export chain following detection of the pathogen. For the purpose of the present assessment an assumption was that no product is removed from the supply chain following testing. This, together with a number of additional conservative assumptions, leads to an overestimation of E. coli O157-associated illness attributable to the consumption of ground beef patties manufactured only from Australian beef. We predict 49.6 illnesses (95%: 0.0-148.6) from the 2.46 billion hamburgers made from 155,000 t of Australian manufacturing beef exported to the United States in 2012. All these illness were due to undercooking in the home and less than one illness is predicted from consumption of hamburgers cooked to a temperature of 68 °C in quick-service restaurants. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Evaluation of the Ration, Cold Weather during a 10-Day Cold Weather Field Training Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-15

    Ham Slices Meatballs with BBQ Sauce Pork Patty Turkey with Gravy Crackers Jelly Peanut Butter Applesauce Mixed Fruits Peaches Strawberries...King Frankfurters Ham & Chicken Loaf Ham Slices Meatballs & BBQ Sauce Pork Patty Turkey with Gravy Crackers Jelly Peanut Butter Cheese...1/2 3/4 1 Meatballs w/barbeque sauce 41 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 Pork sausage patties 32 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 Turkey w/gravy 38 1/4 1/2 3/4 1

  20. UK bovine carcass meat consumed as burgers, sausages and other meat products: by birth cohort and gender.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J D; Bird, S M

    2002-01-01

    The most likely human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is dietary, through beef mechanically recovered meat (MRM) and head meat used in burgers, sausages and other meat products. The majority, reportedly 90% of beef MRM and 80% of head meat, was used in burgers. To enable quantification of UK dietary exposure to BSE, we quantified bovine carcass meat consumed as burgers, sausages and other meat products by birth cohort, gender and calendar period (1980-1989, 1990-1996). Synthesis of dietary data (cross-sectional National Dietary and Nutrition Surveys, and serial National Food Surveys and Realeat Surveys) to simulate weekly consumption by one-thousandth of the UK population in each year from 1980 to 1996. In 1980-1989, the highest number of consumers (per 7 days) of all three food groups was in the 1940-1969 birth cohort - averaging 3.7 million male consumers of burgers, 2.6 million of sausages and 8.5 million of other meat products. The post-1969 birth cohort had the next highest number of consumers of burgers (1.8 million males). In 1990-1996, consumer numbers declined for the two older cohorts, most strikingly for burgers (down to 2.5 million males in the 1940-1969 cohort). The 1940-1969 cohort retained the highest number of consumers of sausages and other meat products, and second place for burgers. Male consumption was higher, even in the pre-1940 birth cohort where, for demographic reasons, female consumers outnumbered males. In the post-1969 birth cohort, female consumption of bovine carcass meat weight as burgers increased from 68 tonnes in 1980-1989 to 81 tonnes in 1990-1996, and male consumption increased more markedly (by 41%) from 84 tonnes to 119 tonnes; and similarly for other meat products. Properly marshalled age-group and gender-specific consumption data contribute to a clearer understanding of the demography of those who were at risk of dietary exposure to BSE and of when their exposure intensity was greatest. Other countries may

  1. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in various bovine tissues used for the production of natural sausage casings.

    PubMed

    Wijnker, Joris J; Haas, Bernd; Berends, Boyd R

    2012-02-01

    Bovine intestines, bladders and oesophagus are used for the production of natural casings ("beef casings") as edible sausage containers. Derived from cattle experimentally infected with FMDV (initial dosage 10(4) TCID(50)/mL, strain A Iran 97), these beef casings were treated with sodium chloride (NaCl) or phosphate supplemented salt (P-salt). In addition, different in-vitro experiments using beef casings were done on a small scale with other FMDV strains (A Turkey 06, C-Oberbayern and O(1) Manisa) as "proof of principle". Based on the combined results of the in-vivo and in-vitro experiments, it can be concluded that the storage period of 30 days at 20 °C in NaCl is sufficiently effective to inactivate a possible contamination with FMDV in beef casings and that the usage of P-salt does not clearly enhance the inactivation of FMDV infectivity. Storage of salted beef casings at about 20 °C for 30 days is already part of the Standard Operating Procedures (included in HACCP) of the international casing industry and can therefore be considered as a protective measure for the international trade in natural casings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) formation in emulsified porcine patties by phenolic-rich avocado (Persea americana Mill.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Petrón, María Jesus; Estévez, Mario

    2012-03-07

    The effect of phenolic-rich extracts from avocado peel on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chill storage was studied. Eight COPs (7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 20α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestanetriol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, and 5,6α-epoxycholesterol) were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The addition of avocado extracts (∼600 GAE/kg patty) to patties significantly inhibited the formation of COPs during cooking. Cooked control (C) patties contained a larger variety and greater amounts of COPs than the avocado-treated (T) counterparts. COPs sharply increased in cooked patties during the subsequent chilled storage. This increase was significantly higher in C patties than in the T patties. Interestingly, the amount of COPs in cooked and chilled T patties was similar to those found in cooked C patties. The mechanisms implicated in cholesterol oxidation in a processed meat product, the protective effect of avocado phenolics, and the potential implication of lipid and protein oxidation are thoroughly described in the present paper.

  3. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty.

  4. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jeon; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics.

  5. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  6. Food Service Alternatives for Meals Away from the Dining Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Chicken Salad Ham Salad Italian Cold Cuts Roast Beef Ham Turkey Hot Meatball with Cheese Hot Sausage Egg Roll Fried Rice Beef and Vegetables Desserts...Salami Provolone American Cheese Swiss Cheese Tuna Salad Egg Salad Chicken Salad Ham Salad *Hot Sausage *Hot Meatball with Cheese Chili Beef...Cake Ham Brownies Hot Sausage Puddings Hot Meatball with Cheese Jello Shaved Steak with Pie Eggs Cookies Cheese Cole Slaw Onions Macaroni Salad Peppers

  7. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Maomao; He, Zhiyong; Zheng, Zongping; Qin, Fang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-08

    The effects of Chinese spices on the profiles of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven HA categories were investigated in roast beef patties using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and principal component analysis. Three groups of HAs, imidazopyridines (PhIP, DMIP, and 1,5,6-TMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx), and β-carbolines (harman and norharman), were detected and quantified in all of the samples. The results demonstrated that the total HA and imidazopyridine profiles could clearly be affected by 1% pricklyash peel (14.1 ± 0.76 and 6.06 ± 0.32 ng/g), chilli (41.0 ± 0.01 and 23.0 ± 0.52 ng/g), and cumin (59.9 ± 2.44 and 31.1 ± 3.06 ng/g), in comparison with control values of 21.8 ± 2.40 and 14.3 ± 2.04 ng/g, respectively. The difference was only significant (p < 0.05) for cumin. The imidazoquinoxaline profile was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% pricklyash peel (0.57 ± 0.05 ng/g) and cumin (2.36 ± 0.20 ng/g) compared to the control (1.16 ± 0.11 ng/g). The β-carboline profile was only markedly (p < 0.05) affected by 1% cumin (26.4 ± 0.82 ng/g) compared to the control (6.26 ± 0.26 ng/g). In general, pricklyash peel inhibited HA formation, whereas star anise, fennel, cumin, chilli, and black pepper promoted HA formation. The findings could facilitate the selection of spices in meat processing to minimize HA formation.

  8. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply...

  9. Some quality aspects of fish patties prepared from an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Sehgal, H S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, G K; Thind, S S

    2008-05-01

    Six different types of fish patties were prepared from de-boned meat of three weight groups (250 500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, using two extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). The weight of the fish and the type of the extender affected the nutritional quality of the patties. Cooking lowered the crude protein but increased the total lipid, total soluble sugars, and contents of the patties. Cooking yield increased with an increase in the weight of the fish. Similarly, the use of corn flour as the extender resulted in a higher cooking yield and higher fat retention capacity than boiled potato. The type of extender had no effect on the water-holding capacity of the patties. The weight of the fish and the extender had no significant effect on appearance, colour, flavour, taste, and the overall acceptability of the product. However, the patties prepared from 250-500 g and 501-750 g weight groups with corn flour as the extender had a significantly higher score for their texture. The total plate count suggested that the patties were safe (from microbiological point of view) up to a storage period of 80 days.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Brown Soybean Ethanolic Extracts and Application to Cooked Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Hee; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Jang, Sung-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The brown soybean extract (BE, extracted by distilled water, 50%, 75%, and 95% ethanol) were analyzed for their total phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical-scavenging activity to determine antioxidant activities. Brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenol and anthocyanin content compared to the other treatments (p<0.05). Then, brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol was applied to pork patties at different concentration (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) and lipid oxidation was evaluated during 15 d of refrigerated storage. Addition of BE significantly increased redness and pH values, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, TBARS value of pork patties decreased significantly (p<0.05) as BE concentration increased. In sensory evaluation, pork patties with 0.1% BE had significantly higher score than other treatments in flavor and overall acceptability (p<0.05). Consequently, these results indicate that 0.1% BE could be an effective natural antioxidant to inhibit lipid oxidation in pork patties.

  11. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section 319.141 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Sausage § 319.141 Fresh pork sausage. “Fresh Pork Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh pork or frozen...

  12. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section 319.141 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Sausage § 319.141 Fresh pork sausage. “Fresh Pork Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh pork or frozen...

  13. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section 319.141 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Sausage § 319.141 Fresh pork sausage. “Fresh Pork Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh pork or frozen...

  14. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  15. Peanut skin extract reduces lipid oxidation in cooked chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Munekata, P E S; Calomeni, A V; Rodrigues, C E C; Fávaro-Trindade, C S; Alencar, S M; Trindade, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of peanut skin extract and its effect on the color and lipid oxidation of cooked chicken patties over 15 d of refrigerated storage. The extract was obtained using 80% ethanol and evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, reducing power based on the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) reagent, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The patties were made with ground thigh fillets, chicken skin, and 2% salt. They were homogenized and divided into the following two groups: a control treatment without antioxidants and a peanut skin treatment with 70 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg per patty. Analyses of the fatty acid profiles, instrumental colors (L*, a*, and b*) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were performed on d 1, 8, and 15 of storage at 1±1ºC. The peanut skin extract resulted in a phenolic content of 32.6±0.7 mg GAE/g dry skin, an antioxidant activity (FRAP) of 26.5±0.8 6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g dry skin, and an efficient concentration (EC50) of 46.5 μg/mL. The total unsaturated fatty acid was approximately 73%, and 39% of this fatty acid content was monounsaturated. The peanut skin extract slowed the decrease in the a* values (P<0.05) but reduced the L* and b* values compared to the control samples during storage (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation was minimized by the peanut skin extract (P<0.05), which resulted in a maximum value of 0.97 malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg compared to values that were close 19 mg MDA/kg patties in the control sample at the end of storage period. Thus, it can be concluded that although peanut skin extract causes little color change, it can be applied as a natural antioxidant to cooked chicken patties because it efficiently inhibits lipid oxidation in this product during refrigerated storage. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect themore » shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force.« less

  17. Development of Sausages Containing Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Choi, J S; Choi, Y J; Lee, S J; Lee, S Y; Hur, S J

    2015-07-01

    Pork meat sausages were prepared using protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). In terms of the color, compared to the controls before and after storage, the redness (a*) was significantly higher in sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate. After storage, compared to the other sausage samples, the yellowness (b*) was lower in the sausages containing ascorbate and sodium erythorbate. TBARS was not significantly different among the sausage samples before storage, whereas TBARS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in the sausagescontainingascorbate and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, the color was significantly higher in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. The "off-flavor" and overall acceptability were significantly lower in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates than in the other sausage samples. In most of the developed countries, meat from spent laying hens is not consumed, leading toan urgent need for effectively utilization or disposal methods. In this study, sausages were prepared using spent laying hens and protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat. Sausage can be made by spent laying hens hydrolysates, although overall acceptability was lower than those of other sausage samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W.

    2004-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4±2°C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly ( p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation.

  19. Effect of Fresh Garlic on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Changes of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two levels (1.4 vs 2.8%) of fresh garlic on lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties were evaluated. Hunter color (L, a, b), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative volatile compounds, total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the pork patties with or without fresh garlic were measured during storage at 4℃. Addition of fresh garlic decreased redness (a), while increased pH and yellowness (b) values of the fresh pork patties were observed, regardless of the levels added. The TBARS values of the pork patties were increased with the addition of fresh garlic (p<0.05). Similar results were observed in oxidative volatile compounds. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected in the patties (5 sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl-(E)-propenyl-disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, and the 8 other oxidative compounds, including 1-pentanol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal and nonanal). Fresh garlic accelerated development of oxidative products in the pork patties, especially hexanal and the total oxidative volatile compounds. However, the addition of 1.4 and 2.8% of fresh garlic inhibited the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, indicating low total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae than the controls. PMID:26761498

  20. Effects of Lemon Balm on the Oxidative Stability and the Quality Properties of Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Yang-Il

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on various quality and antioxidant activity of hamburger patties. Lemon balm extract (LBE) showed the highest amount of total polyphenol (801.00 mg TAE/g DW) and flavonoids (65.05 mg RA/g DW). The IC50 value of DPPH hydroxyl scavenging of LBE was 132 μg/mL. The hamburger patties were prepared by 0% (N), 0.1% (L1), 0.5% (L2), and 1.0% (L3) of the lemon balm powder. The addition of lemon balm powder increased the chewiness value, but did not affect the hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness values. Lemon balm powder had positive effects on sensory evaluation of patties. The pH of all patties decreased with longer storage period. 2-Thiobarbituric acid value, volatile basic nitrogen content, and the total microbial counts of hamburger patties in the L3 group were lower, compared to those of the normal (N group). In conclusion, the L3 group had significantly delayed lipid peroxidation compared to other treatment groups. However, the addition of lemon balm powder into patties showed no significantly influence on proximate composition, calorie contents, water holding capacity and cooking loss of patties. Therefore, lemon balm might be a useful natural antioxidant additive in meat products. PMID:26761292

  1. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates.

  2. The Learning Path of Patty Loew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolo, Mark Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Three years ago, while researching archival photographs and records for a documentary on American Indian war veterans, Dr. Patty Loew stumbled upon a long forgotten film about her Ojibwe grandfather's World War I unit buried in the basement stacks of the Wisconsin Historical Society. Though it was a remarkable find, the truth is, for Loew, it was…

  3. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  4. Validation of a polymerase chain reaction aided transcript titration assay (PATTY) for topoisomerase II in lung cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, A M; Van Ark-Otte, J; Smit, E F; Postmus, P E; Giaccone, G

    This report describes the validation of a polymerase chain reaction aided transcript titration assay (PATTY) for tumor samples. The results obtained with the PATTY were compared to those of RNase protection in a set of 7 human lung cancer cell lines and in 23 non-small cell lung cancer samples derived from resected patients. Whereas between PATTY and RNase protection assay a good correlation was observed in the cell lines (r = 0.74, p = 0.057), no correlation was observed within the tumor samples (r = 0.06, p = 0.78). This was also the case when only tumors with a high percentage of tumor cells (> 90%) were selected. Although PATTY is a valuable tool to measure mRNA expression in cell lines, our results caution the use of PATTY in human tumor samples without proper validation. The possible causes of these results are discussed.

  5. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144...

  6. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144...

  7. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section 319.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 319.160 Smoked pork sausage. “Smoked Pork Sausage” is pork sausage that is smoked with hardwood or...

  8. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section 319.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 319.160 Smoked pork sausage. “Smoked Pork Sausage” is pork sausage that is smoked with hardwood or...

  9. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section 319.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 319.160 Smoked pork sausage. “Smoked Pork Sausage” is pork sausage that is smoked with hardwood or...

  10. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in experimentally contaminated French sausages.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, D; Delignette-Muller, M L; Christieans, S; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    2005-05-25

    Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogens dealt with by the food. The bacterium has been found in every part along the pork processing industry from the slaughterhouse to the cutting room and the delicatessen factories. During the fermentation and drying of sausages, L. monocytogenes tends to decrease substantially. However, despite the various hurdles in the dry sausage manufacturing process, L. monocytogenes is able to survive and is detected in the final products. The present study has evaluated growth and survival of eight different L. monocytogenes strains (originating from sausage, sausage industry environment and from clinical cases of listeriosis) in experimentally inoculated French sausages with 10(4) cfu g(-1). This study points out the fact that the decrease of L. monocytogenes contamination rate during the manufacturing process of sausages is strain dependent (p < 0.001) and mainly due to the drying and maturation step than to the fermentation itself. Whatever the strains studied, almost no decrease of the contamination rate was noted during the fermentation step. However hurdle-adapted strains (those isolated from sausages or sausage industry environment) were more difficult to cure from sausages (decrease by 1.5 log10) than non-adapted strains (decrease by 3 log10) at the end of the drying period (day 35), when sausages were ready for consumption. These sausages became safe only at the best before date. As a consequence, L. monocytogenes and more particularly those "adapted" strains might represent a very important issue for hygienists since these strains originating from sausages or production environment themselves are likely to contaminate sausages during manufacturing and remain in the final products. However, the high inoculum levels used in the study (10(4) cfu g(-1)) are not representative of the natural contamination of L. monocytogenes commonly encountered in the raw material for sausages. If

  11. 9 CFR 319.140 - Sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... respect to products consisting partly of poultry, sausage is the coarse or finely comminuted meat food... be used as binders in those sausages in which the use of such class of substances is permitted: pork...

  12. 9 CFR 319.140 - Sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... respect to products consisting partly of poultry, sausage is the coarse or finely comminuted meat food... be used as binders in those sausages in which the use of such class of substances is permitted: pork...

  13. 9 CFR 319.140 - Sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... respect to products consisting partly of poultry, sausage is the coarse or finely comminuted meat food... be used as binders in those sausages in which the use of such class of substances is permitted: pork...

  14. 9 CFR 319.140 - Sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... respect to products consisting partly of poultry, sausage is the coarse or finely comminuted meat food... be used as binders in those sausages in which the use of such class of substances is permitted: pork...

  15. 9 CFR 319.140 - Sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... respect to products consisting partly of poultry, sausage is the coarse or finely comminuted meat food... be used as binders in those sausages in which the use of such class of substances is permitted: pork...

  16. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  17. Effect of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Subcritical Water Processing on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patty during Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) addition on the quality characteristics of pork patties. The SPHs was prepared by subcritical water process (SWP) at 180℃ without holding time and mixed with the pork patty components at varying concentrations (0-3%), and the patties were stored at 4℃ for 14 d. As quality parameters, instrumental color, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force were measured at the end of storage. Regardless of SPHs concentration, the addition of SPHs significantly manifested low L* and high a* values compared to those of untreated control (p<0.05). For b* value, addition of SPHs in the 0.5-1.5% was unaffected, while >2.0% of SPHs caused significantly lower b* than control (p<0.05). The color changes in pork patties with and without SPHs were also identified in visual appearance where the pork patties containing 0.5-2.0% showed bright red color which was comparable to brownish color of control and patties containing >2.5% SPHs. Lipid oxidation was delayed by the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs, while it was accelerated by the addition of 3% SPHs. The pH of patties increased with increasing concentration of SPHs, whereas there were no significant differences in WHC and shear force of patties. Consequently, the results indicated that the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs had a potential advantage in suppressing oxidative deterioration of fat-containing meat products during chilled storage. PMID:26761879

  18. Effect of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Subcritical Water Processing on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patty during Chilled Storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Bo-Bae; Min, Sang-Gi; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) addition on the quality characteristics of pork patties. The SPHs was prepared by subcritical water process (SWP) at 180℃ without holding time and mixed with the pork patty components at varying concentrations (0-3%), and the patties were stored at 4℃ for 14 d. As quality parameters, instrumental color, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force were measured at the end of storage. Regardless of SPHs concentration, the addition of SPHs significantly manifested low L* and high a* values compared to those of untreated control (p<0.05). For b* value, addition of SPHs in the 0.5-1.5% was unaffected, while >2.0% of SPHs caused significantly lower b* than control (p<0.05). The color changes in pork patties with and without SPHs were also identified in visual appearance where the pork patties containing 0.5-2.0% showed bright red color which was comparable to brownish color of control and patties containing >2.5% SPHs. Lipid oxidation was delayed by the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs, while it was accelerated by the addition of 3% SPHs. The pH of patties increased with increasing concentration of SPHs, whereas there were no significant differences in WHC and shear force of patties. Consequently, the results indicated that the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs had a potential advantage in suppressing oxidative deterioration of fat-containing meat products during chilled storage.

  19. Descriptive texture analyses of cooked patties made of chicken breast with the woody breast condition.

    PubMed

    Brambila, G Sanchez; Chatterjee, Debolina; Bowker, B; Zhuang, H

    2017-09-01

    The woody breast (WB) condition negatively influences the texture characteristics and quality of intact broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major). But the impact of WB on ground meat is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of WB on the texture and cook loss of ground meat made of broiler breast fillets. Broiler breasts (deboned 3 h postmortem) were collected on 3 separate trial d from the commercial deboning line and classified into normal and severe WB fillet categories. Individual fillets were either ground and formed into patties or left intact prior to being stored for 7 d at -20°C. Samples were then cooked directly from the frozen state to an endpoint temperature of 76 °C for cook loss, instrumental (patties: Allo-Kramer shear; fillets: Warner-Bratzler shear), and descriptive sensory analysis of texture. Cook loss was greater (P < 0.05) in intact WB fillets compared to that in intact normal fillets, but there was no difference (P > 0.05) between WB and normal patties. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in shear force between normal and WB samples regardless of meat type. Sensory analysis showed that average scores of springiness and hardness of intact WB fillets were greater than those of normal fillets (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in average scores for sensory attributes cohesiveness, hardness, juiciness, fibrous, and rate of breakdown between WB and normal patties. WB patties exhibited lower springiness and chewiness scores (P < 0.05) than normal patties. Data suggest that undesirable differences in sensory texture characteristics between cooked intact WB and normal breast meat can be minimized in a ground product. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2017.

  20. Potential chemical markers for the identification of irradiated sausages.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Akram, Kashif; Nam, Ki Chang; Min, Byungrok; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2012-09-01

    Hydrocarbons, gas compounds, and off-odor volatiles were determined for irradiated (0 or 5 kGy) commercial sausages with different fat contents (16% and 29%) during a 60-d storage period at 4 °C. Total of 4 hydrocarbons (C14:1, C15:0, C16:2, and C17:1) were detected only in irradiated sausages: the amount of C16:2 was the highest, followed by C17:1, C14:1, and C15:0. The concentrations of hydrocarbons decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with storage, but were still detectable at the end of 60-d storage. Irradiated sausages produced significantly higher amounts of CO than the nonirradiated ones. CH(4) was detected only in irradiated sausages. Dimethyl disulfide was detected only in irradiated sausages and its concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with storage. Fat content of sausages showed a significant effect on the production and retention of hydrocarbons, gas compounds, and sulfur volatiles in irradiated sausages during storage. Some hydrocarbons (C16:2, C17:1, C14:1, and C15:0), CH(4) , and dimethyl disulfide were only found in irradiated sausages indicating that these compounds can be used as potential markers for irradiated sausages. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Effects of peptide fractions with different isoelectric points from wheat gluten hydrolysates on lipid oxidation in pork meat patties.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Imazu, Hiroko; Matsumura, Yasuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) was fractionated on the basis of the amphoteric nature of sample peptides by preparative isoelectric focusing (autofocusing). Cooked pork patties were stored at 4 and 20 °C in the dark. WGH and autofocusing fractions suppressed the oxidation of lipids in the patties. The acidic (pI < 3.0) and basic (pI > 9.0) autofocusing fractions suppressed lipid oxidation in the cooked patties to a greater extent than other fractions and WGH. Each autofocusing fraction was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and Fe(2+) chelating assays; however, none of the in vitro assays predicted the suppressive effect of WGH on lipid oxidation in the cooked patties. These findings suggest that the microdistribution of peptides in food systems and their interaction with food matrix compounds play a significant role in the suppression of lipid oxidation in meat patties rather than radical scavenging activity.

  2. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Antioxidative Fish Skin Peptide or Fish Skin Peptide-loaded Nanoliposomes during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing-Jing; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Soojin; Choi, Mi-Jung; Cho, Youngjae

    2017-01-01

    Marine fish skin peptides (FSP) have been widely studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We aimed to use a natural antioxidant, FSP, to replacing synthetic preservatives in a pork patty model, which is safer for human body. Moreover, nano-liposome technology can be applied for masking the fishy smell and improving the stability of this peptide. Therefore, in this study, the effects of FSP and FSP-loaded liposomes (FSPL) on pork patty were evaluated through the tests of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, cooking loss, texture, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and the pH value, during 14 d of refrigerated (4°C) storage. The results showed that all FSP-treated patties had lower TBARS values than control patties, which indicated an inhibitory effect of FSP on lipid oxidation. This effect in the patties depended on the FSP concentration. However, FSPL-treated patties showed significantly higher and undesirable TBARS values compared to the control, and this effect depended on the FSPL concentration. None of the physicochemical results showed remarkable changes except the pH and VBN values. Therefore, this study provides evidence that FSP has great potential to inhibit the lipid oxidation of pork patties and is capable of maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life. However, it is necessary to study the application of FSP treatments greater than 3% to improve the antioxidant effect on pork patties and search for other coating materials and technology to reduce the drawbacks of FSP.

  3. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level. PMID:28115892

  4. Anti-oxidant effect of extracts of kinnow rind, pomegranate rind and seed powders in cooked goat meat patties.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Narsaiah, K; Borah, A

    2010-05-01

    To overcome the disadvantages of using synthetic anti-oxidants in meat products, an investigation was carried out to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect of extracts of fruit by-products viz., kinnow rind powder (KRP), pomegranate rind powder (PRP) and pomegranate seed powder (PSP) in goat meat patties. Total phenolics content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and effect of these extracts on instrumental color, sensory attributes and TBARS values during storage (4+/-1 degrees C) of goat meat patties were evaluated. Results showed that these extracts are rich sources of phenolic compounds having free radical scavenging activity. Hunter Lab L value significantly (P<0.05) lowered in PRP followed by PSP and KRP patties. Sensory evaluation indicated no significant differences among patties. Further, a significant (P<0.5) reduction in TBARS values (lipid oxidation) during storage of goat meat patties was observed in PRP, PSP and KRP as compared to control patties. Average TBARS values (mg/kg meat) during refrigerated storage (4+/-1 degrees C) were significantly lower in PRP, followed by PSP and KRP as compared to control. The overall anti-oxidant effect was in the order of PRP>PSP>KRP. It was concluded that extracts of above fruits by-product powders have potential to be used as natural anti-oxidants in meat products. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of soy protein using the isotope method (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) for commercial brands of beef hamburger.

    PubMed

    Ducatti, Rhani; de Almeida Nogueira Pinto, José Paes; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Ducatti, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Hamburgers (beef patties) may be adulterated through the overuse of protein extenders. Among vegetables, soy protein is the best substitute for animal protein. These ingredients help to reduce the cost of producing a final product, and they maximize profits for fraudulent industries. Moreover, the ingestion of soy or other non-meat proteins by allergic individuals may present a health risk. In addition, monitoring by supervisory bodies is hampered by a lack of appropriate analytical methodologies. Within this context, the aim of this study was to determine and quantify the levels of added soy protein by determination of (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. A total of 100 beef hamburger samples from 10 commercial brands were analyzed. Only three samples of the G brand were within the standards set the Brazilian legislation. The remaining 97 samples from 10 commercial brands contained >4% soy protein; therefore, they are adulterated and not in compliance with the current legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ground Beef High in Total Fat and Saturated Fatty Acids Decreases X Receptor Signaling Targets in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong H; Gharahmany, Ghazal; Walzem, Rosemary L; Meade, Thomas H; Smith, Stephen B

    2018-03-01

    We hypothesized that consumption of saturated fatty acids in the form of high-fat ground beef for 5 weeks would depress liver X receptor signaling targets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that changes in gene expression would be associated with the corresponding changes in lipoprotein cholesterol (C) concentrations. Older men (n = 5, age 68.0 ± 4.6 years) and postmenopausal women (n = 7, age 60.9 ± 3.1 years) were assigned randomly to consume ground-beef containing 18% total fat (18F) or 25% total fat (25F), five patties per week for 5 weeks with an intervening 4-week washout period. The 25F and 18F ground-beef increased (p < 0.05) the intake of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, but the 25F ground-beef increased only the intake of oleic acid (p < 0.05). The ground-beefs 18F and 25F increased the plasma concentration of palmitic acid (p < 0.05) and decreased the plasma concentrations of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenic acids (p < 0.05). The interventions of 18F and 25F ground-beef decreased very low-density lipoprotein C concentrations and increased particle diameters and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-I-C and LDL-II-C concentrations (p < 0.05). The ground-beef 25F decreased PBMC mRNA levels for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette A, ATP binding cassette G1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, and LDL receptor (LDLR) (p < 0.05). The ground-beef 18F increased mRNA levels for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (p < 0.05). We conclude that the increased LDL particle size and LDL-I-C and LDL-II-C concentrations following the 25F ground-beef intervention may have been caused by decreased hepatic LDLR gene expression. © 2018 AOCS.

  7. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  8. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  9. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Antioxidative Fish Skin Peptide or Fish Skin Peptide-loaded Nanoliposomes during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jing-Jing; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Soojin; Choi, Mi-Jung; Cho, Youngjae

    2017-01-01

    Marine fish skin peptides (FSP) have been widely studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We aimed to use a natural antioxidant, FSP, to replacing synthetic preservatives in a pork patty model, which is safer for human body. Moreover, nano-liposome technology can be applied for masking the fishy smell and improving the stability of this peptide. Therefore, in this study, the effects of FSP and FSP-loaded liposomes (FSPL) on pork patty were evaluated through the tests of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, cooking loss, texture, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and the pH value, during 14 d of refrigerated (4°C) storage. The results showed that all FSP-treated patties had lower TBARS values than control patties, which indicated an inhibitory effect of FSP on lipid oxidation. This effect in the patties depended on the FSP concentration. However, FSPL-treated patties showed significantly higher and undesirable TBARS values compared to the control, and this effect depended on the FSPL concentration. None of the physicochemical results showed remarkable changes except the pH and VBN values. Therefore, this study provides evidence that FSP has great potential to inhibit the lipid oxidation of pork patties and is capable of maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life. However, it is necessary to study the application of FSP treatments greater than 3% to improve the antioxidant effect on pork patties and search for other coating materials and technology to reduce the drawbacks of FSP. PMID:29147099

  10. Effect of some plant starches and carrageenan as fat substitutes in chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Prabhakaran, P; Tanwar, V K; Biswas, S

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different flours on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken patties. pH; cooking yield %; water holding capacity (WHC); proximate analysis (cooked); cholesterol content; and storage stability studies of control (Con) and sorghum flour (SF; 10%w/w), finger millet flour (FMF; 10%w/w), and carrageenan (Cgn; 0.5% w/w) treated chicken patties were observed in this study. Texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters like hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and sensory parameters were estimated on cooked patties. Highly significant (P < 0.01) difference in fat %, total ash %, and cholesterol content; significant (P < 0.05) difference in moisture % (cooked); and no significant (P > 0.05) difference in pH, WHC, and protein % among control and treatments were noticed. Storage stability was dependent on treatments and storage periods. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in different TPA parameters among the treatments, except for hardness value. Sensory scores showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between Con and treatments.

  11. Consumer perception and acceptance of pork and chicken sausage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.

  12. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald's.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Elsa H; Frank, Erica; McIntosh, Nichole F

    2005-05-01

    McDonald's has sold >100 billion beef-based hamburgers worldwide with a potentially considerable health impact. This paper explores whether there would be any advantages if the next 100 billion burgers were instead plant-based burgers. Nutrient composition of the beef hamburger patty and the McVeggie burger patty were obtained from the McDonald's website; sales data were obtained from the McDonald's customer service. Consuming 100 billion McDonald's beef burgers versus the same company's McVeggie burgers would provide, approximately, on average, an additional 550 million pounds of saturated fat and 1.2 billion total pounds of fat, as well as 1 billion fewer pounds of fiber, 660 million fewer pounds of protein, and no difference in calories. These data suggest that the McDonald's new McVeggie burger represents a less harmful fast-food choice than the beef burger.

  14. Effects of Partial Substitution of Lean Meat with Pork Backfat or Canola Oil on Sensory Properties of Korean Traditional Meat Patties (Tteokgalbi)

    PubMed Central

    Imm, Bue-Young; Kim, Chung Hwan; Imm, Jee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Korean traditional meat patties (Tteokgalbi) were prepared by replacing part of the lean meat content with either pork backfat or canola oil and the effect of substitution on sensory quality of the meat patties was investigated. Compared to the control patties, pork-loin Tteokgalbi with 10% pork backfat or 10% canola oil had significantly higher overall acceptability and higher perceived intensity of meat flavor, sweetness, umami, and oiliness. The pork-loin patties containing 10% fat also had lower perceived firmness, toughness, and chalkiness of than the control Tteokgalbi. The chicken breast Tteokgalbi with 10% canola oil had the lowest perceived firmness and chalkiness (control > pork backfat > canola oil). No significant difference was noted in the overall acceptability of chicken breast patties with 10% pork backfat and those with 10% canola oil. These results indicate that substituting 10% of lean meat of Tteokgalbi with fat improved the sensory acceptability of the product for Korean customers regardless of the lean meat and/or fat source used in the patties. Lean meat patties formulated with a limited amount of vegetable oil such as canola oil can be a healthy option for Korean consumers by providing desirable fatty acid profiles without sacrificing sensory quality of the product. PMID:26761287

  15. Effects of Partial Substitution of Lean Meat with Pork Backfat or Canola Oil on Sensory Properties of Korean Traditional Meat Patties (Tteokgalbi).

    PubMed

    Imm, Bue-Young; Kim, Chung Hwan; Imm, Jee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Korean traditional meat patties (Tteokgalbi) were prepared by replacing part of the lean meat content with either pork backfat or canola oil and the effect of substitution on sensory quality of the meat patties was investigated. Compared to the control patties, pork-loin Tteokgalbi with 10% pork backfat or 10% canola oil had significantly higher overall acceptability and higher perceived intensity of meat flavor, sweetness, umami, and oiliness. The pork-loin patties containing 10% fat also had lower perceived firmness, toughness, and chalkiness of than the control Tteokgalbi. The chicken breast Tteokgalbi with 10% canola oil had the lowest perceived firmness and chalkiness (control > pork backfat > canola oil). No significant difference was noted in the overall acceptability of chicken breast patties with 10% pork backfat and those with 10% canola oil. These results indicate that substituting 10% of lean meat of Tteokgalbi with fat improved the sensory acceptability of the product for Korean customers regardless of the lean meat and/or fat source used in the patties. Lean meat patties formulated with a limited amount of vegetable oil such as canola oil can be a healthy option for Korean consumers by providing desirable fatty acid profiles without sacrificing sensory quality of the product.

  16. Patti Labbe | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Looking back, Patti Labbe realizes that she’s always felt at home working in quality control. She got her start in the field soon after graduating college, and it’s been a part of her life ever since. “QC work was a great fit for me,” she sa

  17. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-06

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  19. Grading of Chinese Cantonese Sausage Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Aiping; Zhu, Susu; He, Yong; Zhang, Chu

    2017-01-01

    Fast and accurate grading of Chinese Cantonese sausage is an important concern for customers, organizations, and the industry. Hyperspectral imaging in the spectral range of 874–1734 nm, combined with chemometric methods, was applied to grade Chinese Cantonese sausage. Three grades of intact and sliced Cantonese sausages were studied, including the top, first, and second grades. Support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) techniques were used to build two different models. Second derivative spectra and RF were applied to select optimal wavelengths. The optimal wavelengths were the same for intact and sliced sausages when selected from second derivative spectra, while the optimal wavelengths for intact and sliced sausages selected using RF were quite similar. The SVM and RF models, using full spectra and the optimal wavelengths, obtained acceptable results for intact and sliced sausages. Both models for intact sausages performed better than those for sliced sausages, with a classification accuracy of the calibration and prediction set of over 90%. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometric methods could be used to grade Chinese Cantonese sausages, with intact sausages being better suited for grading. This study will help to develop fast and accurate online grading of Cantonese sausages, as well as other sausages. PMID:28757578

  20. Effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasonova, V. V.; Tunieva, E. K.

    2017-09-01

    The use of nitrate-containing vegetable powders instead of sodium nitrite in meat products requires changes in technological production parameters in order to obtain traditional organoleptic characteristics in the finished products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages. Cooked sausage samples were: control with nitrite curing mixture; type 1 sausages with chard powder and ascorbic acid; type 2 sausages with chard powder and sodium ascorbate. To transform nitrate ions contained in the vegetable chard powder to nitrite ions using a denitrifying culture, preliminary thermal treatments were used: 30 and 60 min at 40±2°C, after which the sausages were cooked until a temperature of 72±2°C was achieved. The sausages were stored for 40 days at 0-6°C. When sausage meat was initially held at 40°C for 60 min, a homogenous pink colour formed in the sausages with the vegetable powder. The indicators of lightness, redness and yellowness in cooked sausages as well as the indicators of instrumental odour assessment did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The indicators of colour stability during storage were 1.1-3.0% higher in the sausages with the chard powder compared to the control. The mass fraction of sodium nitrite in the experimental sausages was 2.0-2.2 higher than in the control (p>0.05). As a result of cooked sausage storage, the differences in the sodium nitrite content in the control and types 1 and 2 sausages were similar. During storage, the mass fraction of sodium nitrite decreased in types 1 and 2 sausages by 55.6 and 54.8%, respectively (p<0.05). Cooked sausages with the chard powder contained 2.1-2.4 times more sodium nitrate than did control sausages (p<0.05). However, all tested sausage samples complied with legislative requirements in terms of their sodium nitrite and nitrate levels.

  1. Emulsion stability, thermo-rheology and quality characteristics of ground pork patties prepared with soy protein isolate and carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-qin; Zhang, Wan-gang; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2015-11-01

    Plant proteins and polysaccharides are often utilised in ground meat products as meat binders, gelling agents, texture stabilisers or fat substitutes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the incorporation of 57 g kg(-1) soy protein isolate (SPI), 7 g kg(-1) carrageenan (CAR) and SPI/CAR mixture on the quality of ground pork patties. Ground pork patties with individual SPI and CAR or SPI/CAR mixture showed either retained or improved emulsion stability, physicochemical properties and dynamic rheology compared with control samples. Although there were no significant colour differences among treatments, samples with SPI/CAR mixture presented higher texture profile values for hardness and chewiness compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). Patties with additives showed significantly lower cooking loss and better thermal emulsion stability than control samples owing to a lower release rate of water and fat (P < 0.05). Compared with control samples or those with individual SPI and CAR, patties with SPI/CAR mixture formed a smoother and more continuous structure with a more compact protein matrix. The results indicate that a mixture of SPI and CAR can be effectively used as a functional ingredient to improve the quality of ground pork patties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Protein oxidation in emulsified cooked burger patties with added fruit extracts: Influence on colour and texture deterioration during chill storage.

    PubMed

    Ganhão, Rui; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2010-07-01

    The influence of protein oxidation, as measured by the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method, on colour and texture changes during chill storage (2 degrees C, 12days) of cooked burger patties was studied. Extracts from arbutus-berries (Arbutus unedoL., AU), common hawthorns (Crataegus monogynaL., CM), dog roses (Rosa caninaL., RC) and elm-leaf blackberries (Rubus ulmifoliusSchott., RU) were prepared, added to burger patties (3% of total weight) and evaluated as inhibitors of protein oxidation and colour and texture changes. Negative (no added extract, C) and positive control (added quercetin; 230mg/kg, Q) groups were also considered. The significant increase of protein carbonyls during chill storage of control burger patties reflect the intense oxidative degradation of the muscle proteins. Concomitantly, an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness was found to take place in burger patties throughout refrigerated storage. Most fruit extracts as well as Q significantly reduced the formation of protein carbonyls and inhibited colour and texture deterioration during chill storage. Likely mechanisms through which protein oxidation could play a major role on colour and texture changes during chill storage of burger patties are discussed. Amongst the extracts, RC was most suitable for use as a functional ingredient in processed meats since it enhanced oxidative stability, colour and texture properties of burger patties with no apparent drawbacks. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative stability of n-3-enriched chicken patties under different package-atmosphere conditions.

    PubMed

    Penko, Ana; Polak, Tomaž; Lušnic Polak, Mateja; Požrl, Tomaž; Kakovič, Damir; Žlender, Božidar; Demšar, Lea

    2015-02-01

    The oxidation processes were studied in chicken patties, enriched with n-3 fatty acids, after 8days of storage at 4°C, under different aerobic conditions, and following heat treatment. Significant effects were seen on lipid and cholesterol oxidation and the sensory qualities for whole flaxseed addition in the chicken feed (i.e., n-3 fatty acid enrichment), and for the different package-atmosphere conditions. For the raw chicken patties, n-3 enrichment increased the colour L(∗) values while, after the heat treatment, there were higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), and the rancidity was more pronounced. In comparison with the low O2 (<0.5%) package-atmosphere condition, O2 enrichment (80%) increased the instrumentally measured colour values, TBARs, total and individual COPs, and the rancidity became pronounced. The most suitable package-atmosphere condition of these raw n-3-enriched chicken patties is a very low O2 atmosphere, with or without an O2 scavenger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory profiles of spices against free and protein-bound heterocyclic amines of roast beef patties as revealed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; He, Zhiyong; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie; Cao, Dongsheng; Guo, Fengxian; Zeng, Maomao

    2017-11-15

    The effects of various levels of chili pepper, Sichuan pepper, and black pepper on the amounts of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven categories of both free and protein-bound states in roast beef patties were assessed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis. Three groups of HA, including imidazopyridines (DMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-MeIQx), and β-carbolines (norharman and harman), were detected and quantified in both their free and protein-bound states, whereas PhIP was detected only in its free state, and imidazoquinolines (IQ, IQ[4,5-b], and MeIQ), α-carbolines (AαC and MeAαC), and phenylpyridines (Phe-P-1) were detected only in their protein-bound states. The results demonstrate that the peppers at all three levels had significant inhibitory effects on free PhIP, DMIP, MeIQx, and 4,8-DiMeIQx and could promote free norharman. Harman was significantly suppressed by chili pepper and black pepper, but enhanced by Sichuan pepper. All 11 protein-bound HAs, with the exception of IQ, IQ[4,5-b], and MeIQx with added chili pepper, were significantly reduced by the three peppers. The total amounts of the free and protein-bound states of all 11 HAs (1692.4 ± 78.9 ng g -1 ), imidazopyridines (5.5 ± 0.2 ng g -1 ), imidazoquinolines (7.2 ± 0.2 ng g -1 ), imidazoquinoxalines (6.9 ± 0.2 ng g -1 ), α-carbolines (20.1 ± 0.4 ng g -1 ), and β-carbolines (1651.7 ± 79.5 ng g -1 ) were suppressed by each level of all of the three peppers except for 0.5% and 1.0% chili pepper. Our findings may facilitate the inhibition of HA formation in the processing of meat products.

  5. Effects of Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) Seeds Powder on Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Cuong, Tran Van; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the powder produced by ball-milling the outer layer of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seeds on the physicochemical properties as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties over 14 d of refrigerated storage (4±1℃). Five pork patty treatments were produced containing three different concentrations of annatto seeds, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% (ANT0.1, ANT0.25, ANT0.5), 0.1% ascorbic acid (AA0.1), and a control (CTL). Based on the results, annatto seed powder appeared to show antioxidant activity. The Hunter color values of pork patties were affected by the addition of annatto seed powder, which increased the redness and yellowness values, but decreased the lightness of the patties (p<0.05). To evaluate the antioxidative effects of annatto on pork patties, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (POV) were analyzed over 14 d of refrigerated storage. Treatments containing annatto seed showed lower TBARS and POV than control (CTL) samples (p<0.05). The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) of the pork patties containing annatto seeds were lower than that of CTL at the end of storage (p<0.05). Although no differences in total bacterial counts were observed between control and treated patties, those containing annatto seeds had lower microbial counts for Enterobacteriacease than CTL or AA 0.1%. Therefore, annatto seed powder might be a good source of natural antioxidants for the production of meat products. PMID:27621688

  6. Dose-dependent changes of chemical attributes in irradiated sausages.

    PubMed

    Nam, K C; Lee, E J; Ahn, D U; Kwon, J H

    2011-05-01

    To determine the effects of irradiation on the chemical attributes of sausages, TBARS values, volatile compounds, gaseous compounds, and hydrocarbons of vacuum-packaged sausages were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. A sulfur-containing volatile (dimethyl disulfide), a gas (methane), and radiation-induced hydrocarbons (1-tetradecene, pentadecane, heptadecane, 8-heptadecene, eicosane, 1, 7-hexadecadiene, hexadecane) were mainly detected in irradiated sausages and the concentrations of these compounds were irradiation dose-dependent with R(2) = 0.9585, 0.9431, and 0.9091-0.9977, respectively. Especially methane and a few hydrocarbons were detected only in irradiated sausages and their amounts were dose-dependent. On the other hand, TBARS values, other off-odor volatiles (carbon disulfide, hexanal), and gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide) were found both in irradiated and nonirradiated sausages. Therefore, it is suggested that radiation-induced hydrocarbons (1-tetradecene, pentadecane, heptadecane, 8-heptadecene, eicosane, 1, 7-hexadecadiene, hexadecane), dimethyl disulfide, and methane can be used as markers for irradiated sausages. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Avocado by-products as inhibitors of color deterioration and lipid and protein oxidation in raw porcine patties subjected to chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2011-10-01

    Processing of avocados generates an important amount of by-products such as peels and seeds that are rich in bioactive substances with proven radical suppressing activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of peel and seed extracts from two avocado varieties-'Hass' and 'Fuerte'-as inhibitors of lipid and protein oxidation and color deterioration of raw porcine patties during chilled storage (4 °C/15 days). Avocado extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduced the loss of redness and the increase of lightness during storage of porcine patties. 'Fuerte' extracts were more efficient at inhibiting discoloration of chilled patties than 'Hass' extracts. Patties treated with avocado extracts had significantly lower amounts of TBA-RS than control ones throughout the storage. 'Hass' avocado extracts significantly inhibited the formation of protein carbonyls in chilled patties at day 15. The present results highlight the potential usage of extracts from avocado by-products as ingredients for the production of muscle foods with enhanced quality traits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality characteristics of low fat ostrich meat patties formulated with either pork lard or modified corn starch, soya isolate and water.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Mellett, F D

    2003-10-01

    A trained taste panel could not distinguish (P>0.05) between ostrich meat patties containing either 10% pork lard or 10% of a modified starch/protein isolate (fat replacer) mixture. The panel could distinguish between the types of ostrich muscle/meat cuts used with a significant (P<0.05) number preferring ostrich patties made from meat containing a higher collagen content (±3% vs <1%). The chemical analysis of the patties showed that within the meat classes (Class fillet-de-membraned, Class A-very lean off-cuts and Class B-off-cuts containing visual connective tissue and some fat), the patties containing the pork fat had a +6% higher total fat content than those containing the fat replacer. The fatty acid profiles of the various products were in accordance with the meat type and fat or fat replacer used. The mineral profile was as expected for lean ostrich meat that had spices added. It is concluded that fat replacers can be used successfully for the production of low fat ostrich patties without any negative quality attributes being perceived.

  9. Back to the Future with Patty Smith Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Generations after her passing, Patty Smith Hill (1868-1946) remains a towering figure in the world of early childhood education. Her words continue to offer insight, not only for those who work with young children, but also for those who help to prepare the teachers of young children for the important work they do--for those who both engage in and…

  10. Salmonella risk in imported fresh beef, beef preparations, and beef products.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, P; Ranta, J; Maijala, R

    2006-08-01

    Additional guarantees (AGs) for Salmonella in imported defined animal-derived foods were agreed on for Finland when it was admitted to the European Community. The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of these AGs on the prevalence of Salmonella in the Finnish beef supply and the adequacy of their scope. According to the quantitative Bayesian model, the efficacy of AGs was mainly dependent on the proportions of different beef categories imported and the true prevalence in the countries of origin. According to the model, AGs were able to reach their target in the referred year 1999 and kept the true Salmonella prevalence of beef imports below 1% with quantified uncertainty. The extension of AGs to all imported fresh beef would have reduced the Salmonella prevalence of beef imports from three- to fourfold, whereas expanding the implementation of AGs to all imports of fresh beef, beef preparations, and beef products would have resulted in a sixfold decrease. If current AGs targeting fresh beef intended to be sold as fresh or to be processed by the Finnish industry with processes not achieving 70 degrees C were not implemented, the 95% credible interval of Salmonella prevalence in the Finnish beef supply would be 0.2 to 1.3% (mean, 0.6%) instead of 0.1 to 1.2% (mean, 0.5%). However, if the prevalence in the exporting countries were to rise or the main import countries and/or magnitudes were to change, AGs would be of greater importance.

  11. Biogenic amine content in dry fermented sausages as influenced by a producer, spice mix, starter culture, sausage diameter and time of ripening.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Sládková, P; Dohnal, V

    2009-11-01

    Sixteen types of dry fermented sausages were commercially produced as combinations of two producers (designated K and R), two starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus, C; Lactobacillus curvatus+Staphylococcus carnosus, F), two spicing mixtures (H; P) and two casing diameters (4.5cm, T; 7cm, W), and were sampled at days zero, 14, 28 (end of ripening), 49, 70, 91 and 112 (samples were stored at 15°C and relative humidity of 70% between days 28 and 112). Tyramine and putrescine content (Y, mgkg(-1)) increased (P<0.01) with increasing time of ripening/storage (X, days): Y=52.0+5.19X-0.0275X(2) (R(2)=0.60) and Y=37.0+3.45X-0.0192X(2) (R(2)=0.23), respectively. Smaller diameter (T), spice mix containing red pepper (P) and starter culture C decreased (P<0.05) both tyramine and putrescine content in the sausages as compared to the W, H and F counterparts, respectively; content of both amines was lower (P<0.05) in the K-sausages than in the R-sausages. Tyramine content in the sausages at the time interval 28days of ripening+21days of storage was in the range from 170 (KHCU sausage combination) to 382 (RHFS) mgkg(-1).

  12. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  13. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  14. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  15. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  16. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. 318.17 Section 318.17 Animals and Animal... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products must be produced using processes ensuring that the products meet the...

  17. Avocado, sunflower and olive oils as replacers of pork back-fat in burger patties: effect on lipid composition, oxidative stability and quality traits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of avocado, sunflower and olive oils used as back-fat replacers, on the fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, volatiles profile and color and texture properties of cooked pork patties. The vegetable oils modified the fatty acid profiles of the patties by lowering the percentages of SFA (from 36.96% to ~25.30%) and reducing the atherogenic index (from 0.41 to ~0.24). Vegetable oils had higher amounts of antioxidant compounds such as tocopherols (10.8-53.9 mg/100 g) than back-fat (5.9 mg/100 g). Consistently, patties manufactured with the oils had significantly lower amounts of lipid and protein oxidation products than control patties. Avocado oil contributed with specific aroma-active terpenes to patties and had a significant impact on particular color and texture parameters. The results from this study highlight the technological applications of the vegetable oils as food ingredients in the design of healthier meat commodities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on quality and refrigerated storage stability of patties prepared from sutchi catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prakash Chandra; Raju, C V; Lakshmisha, I P; Singh, Rajkumar Ratankumar; Sofi, Faisal Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The ability of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in changing physical, chemical, microbial and sensory properties of fish patties prepared from sutchi catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) was investigated. Two batches of fresh patties were prepared, one batch was treated with 15 % button mushroom (TP) and other batch was a control (CP) without mushroom. The patties were packed in polythene bags and stored under refrigerated condition (6 ± 2 ºC) without adding any preservatives for the estimation of storage stability. The analyses of patties were conducted at regular intervals of 3 days. The results showed that, Peroxide value, Thiobarbituric acid value, Free fatty acids increased significantly in CP at the end of 12 days whereas the TP was within the acceptable limit up to 16 days. Total volatile base nitrogen and Trimethylamine nitrogen also showed a similar trend. The Total plate count and Aerobic spore formers showed an increasing trend in CP when compared to TP. The sensory scores showed that the overall acceptability of CP were lower than TP, which was acceptable even after 16 days of storage. The present study showed that, the quality and storage stability of TP were observed to be in good condition up to 16 days and started deteriorating 20th day onwards, whereas the CP were acceptable only up to 12 days. Therefore it can be recommended that, addition of 15 % of button mushroom to sutchi catfish patty not only increases the nutritional quality but also increases the shelf life of patties under refrigerated storage.

  19. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Hur, I C; Kim, I S; Jin, S K

    2013-02-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  20. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  1. The effect of kimchi on the microbiological stability of fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Joo-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The effects of kimchi and freeze-dried kimchi-powder added to raw meat mixtures on the microbiological quality of fermented sausage were studied. The results clearly demonstrated that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) integrated via the addition of kimchi as well as kimchi-powder were well adapted to the new habitat of fermenting sausage, reaching maximum numbers of 8.65-8.80 log₁₀ cfu/g after 1-2 days of fermentation. In all kimchi and kimchi-powder sausages, the growth of Enterobacteriaceae was completely inhibited throughout the processing period (<2 log₁₀ cfu/g). The sausage batches containing more than 10% kimchi and 2% kimchi-powder showed no growth of S. aureus, whereas the control and another kimchi sausage batch reflected the growth of S. aureus (3.68-4.72 log₁₀ cfu/g). As a result, the addition of kimchi (≥10%) and kimchi-powder to the sausage mixture prior to fermentation produced the microbiological stability required for fermented sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Freezing of meat raw materials affects tyramine and diamine accumulation in spontaneously fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Bover-Cid, Sara; Miguelez-Arrizado, M Jesús; Luz Latorre Moratalla, L; Vidal Carou, M Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amine accumulation was studied in spontaneously fermented sausages (Fuet) manufactured from unfrozen-fresh meat (U-sausages) and frozen-thawed meat (F-sausages). The aim was to investigate whether the frozen storage of raw materials affects the microbial composition and its aminogenic activity during sausage fermentation. Tyramine was the major amine in all sausages. Although the final levels were similar, tyramine accumulated more rapidly in F-sausages, which contained putrescine as the second amine. By contrast, U-sausages accumulated much more cadaverine than putrescine. F-sausages showed a slightly lower pH and free amino acid content as well as higher counts of technological flora (lactic acid and gram positive catalase positive bacteria) and lower counts of enterobacteria. Therefore, to freeze the meat raw materials for few days before sausage manufacture could be a useful practice, especially for the artisan fermented sausages (without starter), because it helps to reduce enterobacteria development and cadaverine production.

  3. Meat mixture detection in Iberian pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Somovilla, V; España-España, F; De Pedro-Sanz, E J; Gaitán-Jurado, A J

    2005-11-01

    Five homogenized meat mixture treatments of Iberian (I) and/or Standard (S) pork were set up. Each treatment was analyzed by NIRS as a fresh product (N=75) and as dry-cured sausage (N=75). Spectra acquisition was carried out using DA 7000 equipment (Perten Instruments), obtaining a total of 750 spectra. Several absorption peaks and bands were selected as the most representative for homogenized dry-cured and fresh sausages. Discriminant analysis and mixture prediction equations were carried out based on the spectral data gathered. The best results using discriminant models were for fresh products, with 98.3% (calibration) and 60% (validation) correct classification. For dry-cured sausages 91.7% (calibration) and 80% (validation) of the samples were correctly classified. Models developed using mixture prediction equations showed SECV=4.7, r(2)=0.98 (calibration) and 73.3% of validation set were correctly classified for the fresh product. These values for dry-cured sausages were SECV=5.9, r(2)=0.99 (calibration) and 93.3% correctly classified for validation.

  4. Predicting survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausage using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, A; Jayas, D S; Holley, R A

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency required the meat industry to ensure Escherichia coli O157:H7 does not survive (experiences > or = 5 log CFU/g reduction) in dry fermented sausage (salami) during processing after a series of foodborne illness outbreaks resulting from this pathogenic bacterium occurred. The industry is in need of an effective technique like predictive modeling for estimating bacterial viability, because traditional microbiological enumeration is a time-consuming and laborious method. The accuracy and speed of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for this purpose is an attractive alternative (developed from predictive microbiology), especially for on-line processing in industry. Data from a study of interactive effects of different levels of pH, water activity, and the concentrations of allyl isothiocyanate at various times during sausage manufacture in reducing numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were collected. Data were used to develop predictive models using a general regression neural network (GRNN), a form of ANN, and a statistical linear polynomial regression technique. Both models were compared for their predictive error, using various statistical indices. GRNN predictions for training and test data sets had less serious errors when compared with the statistical model predictions. GRNN models were better and slightly better for training and test sets, respectively, than was the statistical model. Also, GRNN accurately predicted the level of allyl isothiocyanate required, ensuring a 5-log reduction, when an appropriate production set was created by interpolation. Because they are simple to generate, fast, and accurate, ANN models may be of value for industrial use in dry fermented sausage manufacture to reduce the hazard associated with E. coli O157:H7 in fresh beef and permit production of consistently safe products from this raw material.

  5. Didn't Someone Invite Patty? How Patty Smith Hill's Vision of International Education Has Crossed the Border in a Most Unusual Place!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Catherine A.

    This paper distills the history of early childhood education in Russia as a backdrop to a discussion of Patty Smith Hills visit to the nursery schools and kindergartens of the Soviet Union in the 1930s. The paper begins with a discussion of the introduction of early childhood education in the late 1800s, the lack of educational advances during the…

  6. Effect of d-allulose on rheological properties of chicken breast sausage.

    PubMed

    Hadipernata, M; Ogawa, M; Hayakawa, S

    2016-09-01

    d-Allulose (Alu), a rare sugar, was applied to chicken breast sausage as a sucrose (Suc) substitute. The ratio (w/w) of Alu to Suc in sugar that was added to the sausage batter was 0/1 (A0S1), 3/7 (A3S7), 7/3 (A7S3), and 1/0 (A1S0). The total amount of Suc used was 2.5% of the weight of minced chicken breast meat. Substituting Suc with Alu did not affect water content, cooking loss, breaking stress, breaking strain, and modulus of elasticity of chicken breast sausage, but a 100% substitution with Alu caused a 10% decrease in viscosity and a 31% decrease in expressible water. A significant difference appeared in the rheological properties of elasticity, viscosity, and water-holding capacity of chicken breast sausage frozen-stored (-20°C) for 90 d. Particularly, the modulus of elasticity for A1S0 chicken breast sausage was 19% higher than that of the control A0S1 chicken breast sausage, suggesting that Alu appreciably reduced the deterioration in elasticity that is caused by long-term frozen storage of sausage. The quality improvement of frozen-stored chicken breast sausage demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of the application of Alu to frozen foods. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Impacts of Irradiation Sources on Quality Attributes of Low-salt Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the impacts of irradiation sources on quality attributes of low-salt sausage during refrigerated storage. Control sausage was prepared with 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), whereas low-salt sausage was formulated with 0.75% NaCl (a 50% reduction; L-control). Sausage samples were vacuum-packaged, and low-sausages were irradiated with gamma-ray, electron-beam and X-ray at 5 kGy, respectively. The samples were stored at 4°C for 28 d to determine changes in quality attributes. The pH of low-salt sausages was unaffected by irradiation at 5 kGy (p>0.05). Higher redness values were found at irradiated low-salt sausages compared to control (p<0.05). The hardness, gumminess and chewiness of control sausage were higher than those of low-salt sausages (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the textural parameters between low-salt sausage treatments. The overall sensory acceptability score of irradiated/low-salt sausages were lower than L-control due to decreased scores for cooked meat flavor but increased radiolytic off-flavor (p<0.05). The initial 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values of irradiated/low-salt sausages were higher than control and L-control (p<0.05). However, the TBARS values of irradiated treatments were significantly lower than control at the end of storage. Irradiation could effectively inhibit the microorganism growth (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas spp.) in low-salt sausages (p<0.05). Therefore, our findings show that irradiation could be to improve microbial safety of low-salt sausages, and suggest that further studies should be necessary to reducing radiolytic off-flavor of irradiated/low-salt sausages. PMID:29147093

  8. Comparison of spice-derived antioxidants and metal chelators on fresh beef color stability.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karin; Cornforth, Daren

    2010-08-01

    Effects of Type I antioxidants eugenol and rosmarinic acid were compared to those of Type II antioxidants milk mineral (MM), sodium tripolyphosphpate (STPP), and phytate in raw ground beef held for 14 days at 4 degrees C in oxygen-permeable polyvinylchloride. Meat color stability was measured as % oxymyoglobin, Hunter a * value, chroma, and hue angle. Significant correlations (P<0.0001) were observed between all color measurement methods. By day 14, STPP-treated patties lost more red color (P<0.05 for a* and hue angle) and had higher thiobarbituric acid values than other treatments. By day 14, MM was as effective as eugenol and rosmarinate at preventing oxymyoglobin oxidation (72, 76, and 71% retained, respectively) and red color loss as measured by a * (9.2, 9.4, and 10.9), hue angle (58.4, 56.2, and 53.5), and chroma (17, 17, and 18), but was unable to inhibit microbial growth as effectively as the spice-derived antioxidants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of a brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata) extract containing laminarin and fucoidan on the quality and shelf-life of fresh and cooked minced pork patties.

    PubMed

    Moroney, N C; O'Grady, M N; O'Doherty, J V; Kerry, J P

    2013-07-01

    A spray-dried seaweed extract containing laminarin (L, 9.3%) and fucoidan (F, 7.8%) (L/F extract) from brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata) was added directly to minced pork (M. longissimus dorsi) (LD) at levels of 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w). Fresh and cooked minced pork patties were stored in modified atmosphere packs containing 80% O2:20% CO2 and 70% N2:30% CO2, respectively, for up to 14 days at 4 °C. The L/F extract reduced the surface redness ('a*' values) of fresh patties as a function of concentration. The L/F extract (0.5%) exerted the greatest lipid pro-oxidant activity in fresh patties. The L/F extract (0.5%) significantly decreased (P<0.05) lipid oxidation in cooked patties. The L/F extract had no effect on the microbiological status, pH, water holding capacity (WHC) or cook loss of patties. Pork patties containing 0.01% L/F were preferred by sensory panellists. Further research will focus on the use of refined purified seaweed extracts in functional meat products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of wheat bran and dried carrot pomace addition on quality characteristics of chicken sausage

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective Effect of addition of wheat bran (WB) and dried carrot pomace (DCP) on sensory, textural, colour, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of chicken sausage were evaluated. Methods WB and DCP were used as a source of dietary fibre at 3%, 6%, and 9% level individually. Different quality attributes of sausages were estimated. One product from each source with very good sensory acceptability was selected to analyze dietary fibre content and shelf life under refrigerated storage. Results Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre enriched sausage was comparable with control and a further increase in fibre level resulted in a decrease in sensory acceptability. Fibre enriched sausages were significantly harder and less cohesive than control sausage. Significant increase in gumminess and chewiness was observed at 6% level in WB treated sausages and 9% level in DCP treated sausages. Moisture content decreased significantly in all treated sausages, protein content decreased significantly in DCP-2 and DCP-3 sausages while fat content decreased in all WB and DCP-3 treated sausages in comparison to control. The fibre enriched sausage had significantly higher dietary fibre and lower cholesterol content. Cooking yield and emulsion stability increased in treated sausages and a significant difference was noticed at 6% level in both types of sausages. pH of WB treated sausages was significantly higher and DCP treated sausage significantly lower in comparison to control. Conclusion The results of present study indicate that fibre enriched chicken sausage with moderate acceptability can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP each up to 9% level. Chicken sausage with very good acceptability, higher dietary fibre content and storability up to 15 days at refrigerated temperature can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP at 6% level each. PMID:28823131

  11. Antioxidant properties of selected Oriental non-culinary/nutraceutical herb extracts as evaluated in raw and cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Rhee, K S

    2005-05-01

    Ethanol extracts of white peony (WP), red peony (RP), sappanwood (SW), Moutan peony (MP), rehmania (RE) or angelica (AN) were individually added to ground goat meat at 0.5-2.0% (g dry extract/100 g final meat sample), and raw and cooked samples were aerobically refrigerated for 0, 3 or 6 days. These extracts and rosemary extract (RO) were also individually added to salted or unsalted ground beef at 0.01-0.25% and refrigerated as raw or cooked patties. WP, RP, RE, SW and MP markedly reduced (P<0.05) lipid oxidation in cooked-stored goat meat. With 0.25% of WP, RP, SW, MP or RO in beef, lipid oxidation during storage was minimal in raw and cooked patties (plain or salted); raw patty redness values at day 6 were higher (P<0.05) for SW, WP, RP or MP than RO treatment or the control. At 0.01%, SW was more antioxidative (P<0.05) than the other extracts.

  12. Patty Smith Hill, Gifted Early Childhood Educator of the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudnitski, Rose A.

    1995-01-01

    This article chronicles the development of Patty Smith Hill, eminent educator of the Progressive Era. Hill was largely responsible for adding kindergarten to the elementary school curriculum, was the author of the "Happy Birthday" song, and a member of the Woman's Suffrage Movement. (DB)

  13. 8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)quercetin from onion/beef soup induces autophagic cell death in colon cancer cells through ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueliang; Fan, Daming; Zheng, Zong-Ping; Li, Edmund T S; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid, widely distributed in edible fruits and vegetables, was reported to effectively inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation in a food model (roast beef patties) with itself being converted into a novel compound 8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)quercetin (8-CEPQ). Here we investigated whether 8-CEPQ could be formed in a real food system, and tested its anticancer activity in human colon cancer cell lines. LC-MS was applied for the determination of 8-CEPQ formation in onion/beef soup. Anticancer activity of 8-CEPQ was evaluated by using cell viability assay and flow cytometry. Results showed that 8-CEPQ suppressed proliferation and caused G 2 phase arrest in colon cancer cells. Based on immunofluorescent staining assay, western blot assay, and RNA knockdown data, we found that 8-CEPQ did not cause apoptotic cell death. Instead, it induced autophagic cell death. Moreover, treatment with 8-CEPQ induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated 8-CEPQ-induced autophagy and reversed 8-CEPQ-mediated cell growth inhibition. Our results demonstrate that 8-CEPQ, a novel quercetin derivative, could be formed in onion/beef soup. 8-CEPQ inhibited colon cancer cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death through ERK activation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reduction of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in production of fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Holck, Askild L; Axelsson, Lars; Rode, Tone Mari; Høy, Martin; Måge, Ingrid; Alvseike, Ole; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Omer, Mohamed K; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even

    2011-11-01

    After a number of foodborne outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli involving fermented sausages, some countries have imposed regulations on sausage production. For example, the US Food Safety and Inspection Service requires a 5 log(10) reduction of E. coli in fermented products. Such regulations have led to a number of studies on the inactivation of E. coli in fermented sausages by changing processing and post-processing conditions. Several factors influence the survival of E. coli such as pre-treatment of the meat, amount of NaCl, nitrite and lactic acid, water activity, pH, choice of starter cultures and addition of antimicrobial compounds. Also process variables like fermentation temperature and storage time play important roles. Though a large variety of different production processes of sausages exist, generally the reduction of E. coli caused by production is in the range 1-2 log(10). In many cases this may not be enough to ensure microbial food safety. By optimising ingredients and process parameters it is possible to increase E. coli reduction to some extent, but in some cases still other post process treatments may be required. Such treatments may be storage at ambient temperatures, specific heat treatments, high pressure processing or irradiation. HACCP analyses have identified the quality of the raw materials, low temperature in the batter when preparing the sausages and a rapid pH drop during fermentation as critical control points in sausage production. This review summarises the literature on the reduction verotoxigenic E. coli in production of fermented sausages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages.

    PubMed

    Fista, G A; Bloukas, J G; Siomos, A S

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of sausages and select the most appropriate, to determine the optimum level of selected vegetable and to improve its effectiveness on quality characteristics of sausages, in comparison to the addition of nitrites (100 ppm), by using a starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus and ascorbate. The nitrate content of leek ranged from 213 to 255 ppm and that of onion was 79 ppm. Sausages produced with leek had higher (p<0.05) nitrite content (1.3-2.1 ppm) and a (∗)(+) values and higher scores for sensory attributes than sausages with onion. Sausages made with the total leek plant had the highest score for overall acceptability. The higher the leek level the higher the nitrate and nitrite content of sausages and the lower the redness, a (∗)(+). Sausages with 240 g of leek/kg had the highest (p<0.05) overall acceptability. Sausages with higher leek level had an intensive wrinkling on the surface and also an intensive and undesirable green colour. Sausages produced with 240 g of leek/kg had the same low level of nitrate and nitrite content, higher weight losses and lower pH values after the 3rd day of storage, compared to sausages produced with the addition of sodium nitrite. The addition of starter culture and ascorbic acid improved the redness (a (∗)) of sausages and reduced the 2-thiobarbituric acid value. Sausages with leek, starter culture and ascorbic acid had the highest score for odour and taste and overall acceptability.

  16. Inhibitory effect of phosphates on magnesium lactate efflorescence formation in dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Walz, Felix H; Gibis, Monika; Schrey, Pia; Herrmann, Kurt; Reichert, Corina L; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to prevent the phenomena of efflorescence formation on the surface of dry fermented sausages due to the complexation of efflorescence forming cations with phosphates. Efflorescence formation is a critical issue constituting a major quality defect, especially of dry fermented sausages. Different phosphates (di- and hexametaphosphate) were added (3.0g/kg) to the sausage batter. As a hypothesis, these additives should complex with one of the main efflorescence-causing substances such as magnesium. The formation of efflorescences was determined for dry fermented sausages without phosphate addition, with diphosphate, or hexametaphosphate addition during 8weeks of storage under modified atmosphere. The visual analyses of the sausage surface revealed high amounts of efflorescences for the control (42.2%) and for the sausages with added diphosphate (40.9%), whereas the sausages containing hexametaphosphate had significantly reduced amounts of efflorescence formation, showing only 11.9% efflorescences after 8weeks of storage. This inhibition was a result of strong complexation of hexametaphosphate with magnesium ions, thus preventing the diffusion of magnesium towards the sausage surface. This can be explained by the magnesium content on the sausage surface that increased by 163.9, 127.8, and 52.8% for the sausages without phosphate, diphosphate, and hexametaphosphate addition, respectively. The mass transport of lactate and creatine was not affected by phosphate addition. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirmed that, theoretically, 4.5g/kg of diphosphate or 2.8g/kg hexametaphosphate are required to complex 0.2g/kg magnesium ions naturally occurring in dry fermented sausages and, thus, the chosen overall phosphate concentration of 3.0g/kg was enough when adding hexametaphosphate, but not for diphosphate, to inhibit the efflorescence formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of pork adulteration in processed meat by species-specific PCR-QIAxcel procedure based on D-loop and cytb genes.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Hassan; El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2014-12-01

    Detection of pork meat adulteration in "halal" meat products is a crucial issue in the fields of modern food inspection according to implementation of very strict procedures for halal food labelling. Present study aims at detecting and quantifying pork adulteration in both raw and cooked manufactured sausages. This is by applying an optimized species-specific PCR procedure followed by QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Manufacturing experiment was designed by incorporating pork with beef meat at 0.01 to 10 % substitution levels beside beef and pork sausages as negative and positive controls, respectively. Subsequently, sausages were divided into raw and cooked sausages then subjected to DNA extraction. Results indicated that PCR amplifications of mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) genes by porcine-specific primers produced 185 and 117 bp pork-specific DNA fragments in sausages, respectively. No DNA fragments were detected when PCR was applied on beef sausage DNA confirming primers specificity. For internal control, a 141-bp DNA fragment of eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified from pork and beef DNA templates. Although PCR followed by either QIAxcel or agarose techniques were efficient for targeted DNA fragments differentiation even as low as 0.01 % (pork/meat: w/w). For proficiency, adequacy, and performance, PCR-QIA procedure is highly sensitive, a time-saver, electronically documented, mutagenic-reagent free, of little manual errors, accurate in measuring PCR fragments length, and quantitative data supplier. In conclusion, it can be suggested that optimized PCR-QAI is considered as a rapid and sensitive method for routine pork detection and quantification in raw or processed meat.

  18. Quality of comminuted sausages formulated from mechanically deboned poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Mielnik, Maria B; Aaby, Kjersti; Rolfsen, Knut; Ellekjær, Marit R; Nilsson, Astrid

    2002-05-01

    Comminuted sausages formulated with mechanically deboned poultry meat-MDPM (turkey or chicken, frame or neck) treated in different ways before production (vacuum packed MDPM or air packed skeletons deboned at production) and stored frozen for 6 or 18 weeks have been studied using a full-factorial design and chemical, physical and sensory analysis. MDPM was obtained from a Beehive separator. Comminuted sausages with MDPM from turkey frames, stored at -25 °C as skeletons, packed in air for 18 weeks developed marked rancid odour and flavour which could also be detected by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the concentration of volatile compounds. Vacuum packed mechanically deboned meat irrespective of species and carcass part could be stored for up to 18 weeks and used in formulation of sausages without any serious changes in their sensory profiles. Instrumental colour differences between sausages were mainly due to species. Turkey sausages were darker, redder and less yellow than chicken sausages. Moisture and fat contents were influenced by carcass part and to a lesser extent depended on species and storage time. Principal least squares regression (PLS2) showed close relationships between instrumental parameters and sensory attributes. TBARS, hexanal and volatile compounds were highly correlated with rancid flavour while redness (a(∗)) was strongly related to sensory colour hue and colour strength.

  19. Ethanol Extracts from Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Act as Natural Antioxidants and Antimicrobial Agents in Uncooked Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of mistletoe (Viscum album L. var. coloratum Ohwi; VAL) extract in uncooked pork patties was evaluated. Three concentrations of VAL extract (0.1 [T1], 0.5% [T2] and 1.0% [T3]) along with 0.02% ascorbic acid as a positive control (V) were added to ground pork and pork patties were prepared. Incorporation of VAL extract decreased (p<0.05) the pH of the pork patties throughout the storage time and reduced (p<0.01) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values after day 14 of storage. Total plate counts of the VAL extract-treated samples and V-treated samples were also significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the control (C) throughout the storage period. In addition, odor scores of the VAL extract-treated patties were lower than those of the C- or V-treated samples on 3rd day of the storage period. These results demonstrated that the VAL extract acts as a natural antioxidant in uncooked pork products. PMID:26732334

  20. Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in chicken sausages.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Gema; Martínez, Lorena; Castillo, Julian; Ros, Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Olive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction processes (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g 100 g -1 walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g 100 g -1 ) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out. The sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT 2 and HXT 3 ) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion. These results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The application of high-pressure treatment in the reduction of phosphate levels in breakfast sausages.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, C C; Cruz-Romero, M C; Troy, D J; Mullen, A M; Kerry, J P

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of high pressure (HP) treatment of pork meat at 150 or 300 MPa for 5 min before manufacturing sausages on the reduction of phosphate levels and compared to sausages manufactured with untreated pork meat (control sausages). Improvement in perceived saltiness, juiciness and overall flavour was observed in sausages manufactured using HP-treated meat at 150 MPa and 0% phosphate, compared to control sausages. Sausages manufactured using meat HP-treated at 150 MPa and 0.25% phosphate (P<0.05) improved hardness of sausages. HP-treated meat at 300 MPa and 0% phosphate decreased juiciness and adhesiveness, while at 0.25% phosphate, adversely affected emulsion stability and sensory attributes. HP treatment did not affect significantly the lightness of the sausages; however, elimination of phosphate reduced (P<0.05) the yellowness, while HP treatment at 150 MPa with 0.25 or 0.5% phosphate increased (P<0.05) redness. HP reatment at 150 MPa has potential for reducing phosphate levels in sausages without significant changes in their functionality and improved acceptability. © 2013.

  2. Fat substitutes in processing of sausages using piramutaba waste.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia; Dos Santos Galvão, Giane Célia; da Conceição Amaral Ribeiro, Suezilde; de Fátima Amaral Ribeiro, Carmelita; Park, Kil Jin

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fat substitute in processing of sausages prepared with surimi of waste from piramutaba filleting. The formulation ingredients were mixed with the fat substitutes added according to a fractional planning 2(4-1), where the independent variables, manioc starch (Ms), hydrogenated soy fat (F), texturized soybean protein (Tsp) and carrageenan (Cg) were evaluated on the responses of pH, texture (Tx), raw batter stability (RBS) and water holding capacity (WHC) of the sausage. Fat substitutes were evaluated in 11 formulations and the results showed that the greatest effects on the responses were found to Ms, F and Cg, being eliminated from the formulation Tsp. To find the best formulation for processing piramutaba sausage was made a complete factorial planning of 2(3) to evaluate the concentrations of fat substitutes in an enlarged range. The optimum condition found for fat substitutes in the sausages formulation were carrageenan (0.51%), manioc starch (1.45%) and fat (1.2%).

  3. Evaluation of salt, polyphosphates and their blends at different levels on physicochemical properties of buffalo meat and patties.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, A S; Sharma, N; Kondaiah, N

    1989-01-01

    The effects of sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) and their blends at different levels (0·3, 0·5 and 0·7%), along with 2% sodium chloride on certain quality parameters of buffalo meat and patties were evaluated. The SPP, STPP and phosphate blends significantly increased pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), emulsifying capacity (EC), extractability of salt soluble proteins (SSP), colour of ground meat, decreased cooking loss (CL), improved emulsion stability (ES) and enhanced yield, texture and moisture retention of cooked patties. Compared to these phosphates, SAPP and SHMP had significantly poorer effects on improving the quality of meat and patties. The order of effectiveness of phosphates was SPP > STPP > SHMP. In general, pH, WHC, SSP, ES, yield and moisture content of patties increased progressively with increasing level of phosphate while CL decreased. Among blends containing two polyphosphates, those of 90% SPP + 10% SHMP and 75% SPP + 25% STPP were relatively more effective. A phosphate blend consisting of 65% SPP, 17·5% STPP and 17·5% SAPP was equally effective as that of SPP in improving the functionality of hot and chilled meat and had the advantage of reducing the amount of sodium by 3%. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Partial replacement of pork back-fat by vegetable oils in burger patties: effect on oxidative stability and texture and color changes during cooking and chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2011-09-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the impact of partial back-fat replacement (50%) by avocado (A), sunflower (S), and olive (O) oil on the chemical composition, oxidative stability, color, and texture of porcine burger patties (10% fat) subjected to oven cooking (170 °C/18 min) and chilling (+ 4 °C/15 d). The addition of vegetable oils caused a significant reduction of saturated fatty acids and a concomitant enrichment in unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of vegetable oils to porcine patties caused a significant reduction of TBARS formed as a result of cooking and the subsequent chilling. The usage of vegetable oils as back-fat replacers had no impact on the formation of protein carbonyls. Porcine patties with A- and O-patties displayed a more favorable ratio between volatiles contributing to rancidity and those contributing pleasant odor notes. Treated and control patties underwent similar discoloration during processing. The usage of vegetable oils and particularly, avocado and olive oils, as back-fat replacers, could be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and technological properties of porcine patties. The present study highlights the potential nutritional and technological benefits of replacing animal fat by vegetable oils in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chilling. The industrial application of vegetable oils in processed meat products would meet the current consumers' interest towards healthier food products. In addition, the usage of avocado oil would contribute to boost the avocado industry by providing an additional value to a by-product of great biological significance. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of pre-cooking methods on the chemical and sensory deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties during chilled storage and microwave reheating.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Morcuende, David; Madruga, Marta S; Hernández-López, Silvia H; Silva, Fábio A P; Ventanas, Sonia; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pre-cooking methods, namely, boiling (BL), roasting (RT) and grilling (GR), refrigerated storage (14 days/+4 °C) and microwave reheating on chicken patties were studied. Physical, chemical and sensory parameters were evaluated in order to correlate the chemical deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties with the acceptance of the odor. Chemical deterioration was evaluated through the chemical composition, Maillard compounds, Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles. Sensory deterioration (odor liking) was performed by an acceptance test with hedonic scale. According to the TBARS values and volatile compounds generated in the head space during the examined stages, the pre-cooking method and the storage time had a significant effect on lipid oxidation, whereas reheating in a microwave had a negligible impact. At each succeeding processing stage, panelists gave lower odor scores to all samples and no significant differences were found between treatments at any stage. RT and GR patties showed less intense chemical changes and presented higher acceptation scores by the sensory panel than BL patties. Thus, the choice of pre-cooking method and control of storage conditions plays a key role in the inhibition of oxidative changes in ready-to-eat chicken patties.

  6. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyun; Peng, Xinyan; Li, Xinling; Wu, Jingjuan; Guo, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values ( p <0.05), while also controlling the production of protein carbonyls ( p <0.05). However, the addition of clove extract promoted reduced thiol group content in sausages ( p <0.05). Sausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values ( p <0.05) and increased a* values ( p <0.05) when compared with the control. Similarly, texture deterioration was retarded in sausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d.

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation and storage on the quality attributes of sausages with different fat contents.

    PubMed

    Kwon, J H; Nam, K C; Lee, E J; Kang, H J; Ahn, D U

    2010-02-01

    Sausages with different fat contents (16 or 29%) were purchased from local stores, vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable bags, and irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The changes in quality attributes of irradiated sausages were determined during storage at 4 degrees C. The 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of sausages were not affected by fat content but were increased after irradiation (5 kGy). Storage for 60 d increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of nonirradiated sausages (P < 0.05) but had no effect on irradiated sausages. The numbers of volatile compounds and the amounts of total volatiles were increased by irradiation in both the high-fat (29% fat) and low-fat (16% fat) sausages. Dimethyl sulfide was detected only in irradiated sausages, regardless of fat content (P < 0.05), but it disappeared after 60 d of storage. Pentane and 1-heptene were detected only in irradiated samples after 60 d of storage. Low-fat sausages had greater L* values, but had lesser a* and b* values than high-fat sausages. Irradiation and storage had little effect on either the exterior or interior color (L*, a*, and b* values) of sausages. Fat content had no effect on the sensory variables of sausages, regardless of irradiation and storage. However, irradiated sausages had significantly stronger off-odors and off-flavors than nonirradiated sausages regardless of fat content (P < 0.05). This indicated that fat content in sausages had a minimal effect on the quality of irradiated sausages during storage.

  8. Amorphous cellulose gel as a fat substitute in fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Wagner, Roger; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Rodrigues Pollonio, Marise Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of their pork back fat content replaced by amorphous cellulose gel. The sausage production was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The final products were submitted to a consumer study, and the volatile compounds of the final products were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by GC/MS. The reformulated fermented sausages had significant reductions in fat and cholesterol, and the volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidation were also reduced in the final products. These results suggest that the substitution of up to 50% of the pork back fat content by amorphous cellulose gel can be accomplished without a loss of product quality, enabling the production of fermented sausages with the levels of fat and cholesterol decreased by approximately 45% and 15%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    PubMed

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  10. Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Ju-Ho; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Choi, Yang-Il; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows; Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: CONTROL + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (p<0.01). Additionally, interaction of them significantly affected the ash, chewiness and hardness values of restructured sausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality.

  11. Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Ju-Ho; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows; Control: Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: Control + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (p<0.01). Additionally, interaction of them significantly affected the ash, chewiness and hardness values of restructured sausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality. PMID:27499674

  12. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  13. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  14. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  15. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  16. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  17. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effect of starter cultures on survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Čajna sausage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bošković, M.; Tadić, V.; Đorđević, J.; Glišić, M.; Lakićević, B.; Dimitrijević, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during the production of Čajna sausage with short maturation time. Sausage batter was inoculated with three different serotypes 4b and serotype 1/2a of L. monocytogenes. Control sausages were without any starter culture added; the second batch was inoculated with strains of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus, and the third batch was inoculated with strains of Debaryomyces hansenii, Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus. After 18 days of ripening, L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the sausages, but during this fermentation and drying, the numbers of this pathogen was lower in the sausages inoculated with starter cultures.

  19. The Quality Improvement of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages Formulated by Substituting Pork Back fat with Rice Bran Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Seo, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don; Rahman, M. Shafiur; Yang, Han-Sul

    2018-01-01

    The effects of pork back fat (PBF) substitution with various concentrations of rice bran oil (RBO) (50%, 45%, 40% and 35%) on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of emulsion-type pork sausages were studied. The modified pork sausages were compared with control sausages produced using PBF only. The sausages with RBO had significantly lower (p<0.05) moisture content than the control sausages. Sausages made from PBF substituted with 40% RBO showed the lowest cooking loss. Substitution of PBF with RBO had no significant effect on the emulsion stability of pork sausages. All sausages with RBO showed significantly lower (p<0.05) hardness values than control sausages. Sausages with RBO also had significantly higher values (p<0.05) of unsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid contents than the controls. RBO substitution had no effect on the flavor intensity of sausages, but it improved the tenderness and produced a softer texture. PMID:29725230

  20. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accountedmore » for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.« less

  1. Effect of antioxidants on the quality of irradiated sausages prepared with turkey thigh meat.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Ahn, D U

    2002-08-01

    The effects of antioxidants on the flavor and color of electron-beam-irradiated turkey sausages were studied. Sausages were prepared from turkey thigh meat, NaCl (2.0%), phosphate (0.5%), water (10%), and one of five antioxidant treatments (none, vitamin E, sesamol, rosemary extract, or gallic acid at 0.02%). Sausages were stuffed and cooked in an 85 C smokehouse to an internal temperature of 74 C, then chilled and sliced to 1.5-cm thickness, and vacuum-packaged. Packaged sausages were randomly divided into three groups and irradiated at 0, 1.5 or 3.0 kGy, using an electron beam. Volatiles, color, 2-TBA-reactive substances values, and sensory characteristics were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of sesamol was the highest, followed by vitamin E and gallic acid; rosemary extract had the weakest antioxidant effect. Irradiation induced red color in sausages, but addition of gallic acid, rosemary extract, or sesamol reduced it. Gallic acid was very effective in lowering the redness of irradiated and nonirradiated sausages. The redness (a*) values of sausages with added gallic acid that were irradiated at 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy were 1.49,2.03, and 2.29, respectively, whereas those of control sausages under the same irradiation conditions were 2.58, 2.81, and 3.25, respectively. The reduction of redness in irradiated sausages by antioxidants was not related to CO, because antioxidants had no effect on CO production by irradiation. The amount of total volatiles was decreased significantly by antioxidants, but antioxidants had minimal effect on the off-flavor of turkey sausages induced by irradiation.

  2. Effect of degree of cutting of leek on physicochemical characteristics of Greek traditional sausages.

    PubMed

    Papastamatiou, F; Gerasopoulos, D; Siomos, A; Bloukas, J G

    2007-04-01

    Fresh-cut leek is one of the principal ingredients of Greek traditional sausages. In this study the effect of the degree of cutting of leek on the physicochemical traits of Greek traditional sausages was investigated. Leek was cut to three different degrees (coarse, medium and fine), before being mixed with meat, salt and seasonings; the mixture was placed in natural casings and stored for six days at 15-18°C. Sausages lost about 25% of their initial weight by the end of storage. While pH decreased in all treatments, it was significantly more so (to pH 4.1) in sausages with fine-cut leek, from as early as the second day of storage. During storage all sausages showed a decrease in lightness and a change in colour from yellow to red. The internal atmosphere of the sausages with fine-cut leek showed peak CO(2) concentrations of 30% while those with coarse and medium-cut leek showed peak CO(2) concentrations of 20% by day one of storage and equibrated to 5%. Ethylene in the internal atmosphere of sausages with fine and medium-cut leek peaked by day one at 5.5μll(-1) but to only 2μll(-1) for those with coarse-cut leek. Sausage nitrate content and antioxidant capacity did not show major differences between treatments. Fine-cut leek contributed to sausage stability and quality more rapidly than medium or coarse-cut leek.

  3. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values (p<0.05), while also controlling the production of protein carbonyls (p<0.05). However, the addition of clove extract promoted reduced thiol group content in sausages (p<0.05). Sausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values (p<0.05) and increased a* values (p<0.05) when compared with the control. Similarly, texture deterioration was retarded in sausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d. PMID:28316478

  4. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Antioxidant activity of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract and its inhibitory effect on lipid and protein oxidation of pork patties during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Jia, Na; Kong, Baohua; Liu, Qian; Diao, Xinping; Xia, Xiufang

    2012-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) in raw pork patties during chilled storage. The extracting conditions of frozen BCE including ethanol concentrations (0-100%) and extracting times (0.25-12h) were studied. BCE extracted with 40% ethanol for 2h had the highest anthocyanin content, the strongest radical scavenging activities as well as the second strongest reducing power. BCE was condensed and added to pork patties at 5, 10 or 20 g/kg. Compared with the control, BCE treatments significantly decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values and carbonyls formation and reduced the sulfhydryl loss of pork patties in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), which showed that the BCE significantly inhibited lipid and protein oxidation. The BCE-treated patties showed significantly higher redness (P<0.05) than the control. The findings demonstrated strong potential for BCE as a natural antioxidant in meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Botsaris, George; Orphanides, Antia; Yiannakou, Evgenia; Gekas, Vassilis; Goulas, Vlasios

    2015-12-01

    Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages.

  7. Sensory properties, consumer liking and choice determinants of Lucanian dry cured sausages.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Carlucci, Angela; Bragaglio, Andrea; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Based on a food choice questionnaire we identified as the most influential aspects affecting consumer choice of Lucanian dry cured sausages: taste, animal health and addition of preservatives. Therefore, as a second step we conducted a study to assess the effect of preservative addition on sausage sensory properties and consumer liking, with a particular emphasis on taste. The addition of preservatives did not change the perception of taste attributes by an experienced panel, whereas differences were detected in terms of odor, texture and color attributes. However, consumers did not express a preference for a particular product in terms of overall liking, taste/flavor liking and texture liking, whereas appearance liking was higher for sausages containing preservatives. Since sausage taste was unaffected by the addition of preservative, in order to prevent the potentially detrimental effect of a label indicating their presence, producers should make an effort to obtain high quality Lucanian dry cured sausages without using them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The quality evaluation of frankfurter-type sausages from hand and mechanically deboned turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Radomyski, T; Niewiarowicz, A

    1987-03-01

    A quality evaluation was made of frankfurter-type sausages made from hand and mechanically deboned meat from various parts of turkey carcasses. The results led to the conclusions that despite some differences in objective measurements of the sausage quality, mechanically deboned turkey meat can be considered as an exclusive meat raw material for the production of frankfurter-type sausages. The quality of sausages from mechanically deboned turkey meat from wings and frames with skin was the least satisfactory.

  9. Effect of thyme/cumin essential oils and butylated hydroxyl anisole/butylated hydroxyl toluene on physicochemical properties and oxidative/microbial stability of chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, effects of thyme/cumin essential oils (EO) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA)/butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) on physicochemical properties and storage stability of chicken patties were compared in different storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d). It was found that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between physicochemical properties of patty samples treated with EO and the synthetic antioxidants. The EO showed similar performance to those of BHA and BHT in limiting TBARS values of chicken patty samples. Similarity in performance was also the case for microbial stability (total aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid, and coliform bacteria as well as molds and yeasts); namely, their effects were significant (P < 0.05). Effect of thyme EO was significant (P < 0.05) and remarkable, not allowing any coliform bacteria to grow in the samples. Given that EO were obtained from natural sources, the data suggested that the EO might be more useful than their synthetic counterparts, BHA and BHT, as additives for chicken patties to maintain oxidative/microbial stability and increase shelf life.

  10. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (p<0.05). The weight losses were significantly higher in high fat formulations during the first 4 days, whereas those were higher in low fat ones after 10 days of storage (p<0.05). Fat reduction was responsible for an increase in shear force values after 3 days of storage. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value of the low fat samples was significantly higher (p<0.05). Low fat sausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss. PMID:26732335

  11. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  12. Characterisation and microstructure of reduced-fat chicken patties made with a novel polymer from Agrobacterium radiobacter k84.

    PubMed

    Calliari, Caroline Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Castro-Goméz, Raúl Jorge Hernan; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-04-15

    Chicken patties elaborated with a novel polymer from Agrobacterium radiobacter k84 (ARB) were characterised during 60days of frozen storage. After cooking, formulations without ARB (F0), with ARB 5 g/100 g (F5) and ARB 10 g/100 g (F10) presented 4.23%, 2.83% and 0.11% fat, respectively. No differences were observed to water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force among formulations. Microstructural analysis showed formation of meat emulsion for F5 and gel for F10. Colour and chicken flavour decreased with increase of ARB; no difference was found for tenderness among the formulations. Overall acceptance showed higher scores for F0 when compared to F5 and F10. Lipid oxidation was not a limiting factor for stability of patties; all formulations presented suitable microbiological quality over the assessed period. These results suggest ARB as a promising fat substitute, capable of maintain the quality aspects of chicken patties, although a negative impact in colour has been found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Enhancing Ration Components Program: Supplemental Carbohydrate Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-28

    Drink 369.6 30 MENU 2: R DAY AMOUNT BREAKFAST WEIGHT (g) 8 oz. Orange Juice 236.0 5 oz. Scrambled Eggs 142.0 2 ea. Sausage Patties 113.1 2 ea...Drink 369.6 DINNER Spaghetti with Meatballs 6 oz. Spaghetti 170.4 2 pats Margarine 10.0 6 oz. Spaghetti Sauce 170.4 6 oz. Meatballs 170.4 1 oz

  14. Efficacy of Sweet Potato Powder and Added Water as Fat Replacer on the Quality Attributes of Low-fat Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Verma, Akhilesh K; Chatli, Manish Kumar; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Pavan; Mehta, Nitin

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of sweet potato powder (SPP) and water as a fat replacer in low-fat pork patties. Low-fat pork patties were developed by replacing the added fat with combinations of SPP and chilled water. Three different levels of SPP/chilled water viz. 0.5/9.5% (T-1), 1.0/9.0% (T-2), and 1.5/8.5% (T-3) were compared with a control containing 10% animal fat. The quality of low-fat pork patties was evaluated for physico-chemical (pH, emulsion stability, cooking yield, aw), proximate, instrumental colour and textural profile, and sensory attributes. The cooking yield and emulsion stability improved (p<0.05) in all treatments over the control and were highest in T-2. Instrumental texture profile attributes and hardness decreased, whereas cohesiveness increased compared with control, irrespective of SPP level. Dimensional parameters (% gain in height and % decrease in diameter) were better maintained during cooking in the low-fat product than control. The sensory quality attributes juiciness, texture and overall acceptability of T-2 and T-3 were (p<0.05) higher than control. Results concluded that low-fat pork patties with acceptable sensory attributes, improved cooking yield and textural attributes can be successfully developed with the incorporation of a combination of 1.0% SPP and 9.0% chilled water.

  15. Efficacy of Sweet Potato Powder and Added Water as Fat Replacer on the Quality Attributes of Low-fat Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akhilesh K.; Chatli, Manish Kumar; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Pavan; Mehta, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of sweet potato powder (SPP) and water as a fat replacer in low-fat pork patties. Low-fat pork patties were developed by replacing the added fat with combinations of SPP and chilled water. Three different levels of SPP/chilled water viz. 0.5/9.5% (T-1), 1.0/9.0% (T-2), and 1.5/8.5% (T-3) were compared with a control containing 10% animal fat. The quality of low-fat pork patties was evaluated for physico-chemical (pH, emulsion stability, cooking yield, aw), proximate, instrumental colour and textural profile, and sensory attributes. The cooking yield and emulsion stability improved (p<0.05) in all treatments over the control and were highest in T-2. Instrumental texture profile attributes and hardness decreased, whereas cohesiveness increased compared with control, irrespective of SPP level. Dimensional parameters (% gain in height and % decrease in diameter) were better maintained during cooking in the low-fat product than control. The sensory quality attributes juiciness, texture and overall acceptability of T-2 and T-3 were (p<0.05) higher than control. Results concluded that low-fat pork patties with acceptable sensory attributes, improved cooking yield and textural attributes can be successfully developed with the incorporation of a combination of 1.0% SPP and 9.0% chilled water. PMID:25557822

  16. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Botsaris, George; Orphanides, Antia; Yiannakou, Evgenia; Gekas, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages. PMID:27904382

  17. Effect of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extracts on protein and lipid oxidation in cooked pork meat patties enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexandros; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, Georgios

    2014-01-30

    The effect of olive leaf extracts on lipid and protein oxidation of cooked pork patties refrigerated stored for 9 days was evaluated. Patties were prepared from longissimus dorsi muscle of pigs, and dietary supplemented with linseed oil. Results showed that dietary linseed oil modified the fatty acid composition of pork patties by increasing (P ≤ 0.05) n-3 (α-linolenic acid) and decreasing (P ≤ 0.05) n-6 (linoleic acid) fatty acids. Olive leaf extracts at supplementation levels of 200 and, especially, of 300 mg gallic acid equivalents kg⁻¹ meat, delayed lipid oxidation by reducing (P ≤ 0.05) both primary (conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides) and secondary (malondialdehyde) oxidation products. They also inhibited protein oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner by reducing (P ≤ 0.05) protein carbonyls and increasing (P ≤ 0.05) protein sulfhydryls. In addition, they improved sensory attributes of the n-3 enriched patties. Results suggested that olive leaf extracts might be useful to the meat industry as an efficient alternative to synthetic antioxidants. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Presence of N-nitrosamines in canned liver patty.

    PubMed

    Bosnir, Jasna; Smit, Zdenko; Puntarić, Dinko; Horvat, Tomislav; Klarić, Maja; Simić, Spomenka; Zorić, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The presence of N-nitrosamines was determined in samples of industrially manufactured liver patty stored at different temperatures for a variable period of time. Sample preparation included steam distillation and extraction of redistilled samples with dichlormethane. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatography--mass spectrometry system (GC-MS-SIM). Study results expressed as total N-nitrosamines, including methylethyl-, diethyl- and dibutyl-N-nitrosamines, ranged from 0.0008 to 2.997 mg/kg, which significantly exceeded the recommended value of 0.002 mg/kg. The increase in the formation of N-nitrosamines was directly dependent on the length and temperature of product storage.

  19. Flavour profiles of dry sausages fermented by selected novel meat starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Erkkilä, S; Petäjä, E; Eerola, S; Lilleberg, L; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Suihko, M L

    2001-06-01

    Probiotic or bioprotective Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, LC-705 and E-97800 as well as Pediococcus pentosaceus E-90390 and Lactobacillus plantarum E-98098 were studied for their ability to act as main fermenting organisms in the manufacturing process of dry sausages. In the preliminary tests, their abilities to produce lactic acid and biogenic amines, histamine or tyramine, were studied in MRS broth and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The strains produced higher or equal amounts of lactic acid compared to control and were amine negative. During the actual fermentation process of dry sausages the numbers of inoculated bacteria increased from the level 6.5-7.0 log cfu/g to 8.0-9.0 log cfu/g. The most fast growing strains were P. pentosaceus E-90390 and the control while the growth of L. plantarum E-98098 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were the slowest. The pH value of the sausages decreased from 5.6 to 4.9-5.0. The presence of these experimental strains as major organisms in the sausages after fermentation and ripening was confirmed on the bases of their genetic fingerprints. The flavour profiles of the experimental sausages produced by these probiotic or protective strains were similar with that produced by the commercial meat starter culture and commercial North European dry sausage recipe.

  20. Oxidative stability and lipid oxidation flavoring volatiles in antioxidants treated chicken meat patties during storage.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Imran, Ali; Hussain, Shahzad

    2017-02-01

    Chicken meat contains higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are susceptible to oxidative deterioration ultimately leading towards lower consumer acceptability for chicken meat products. Accordingly, meat processing industries are looking for combinations of natural antioxidants to enhance the oxidative stability and consumer acceptability of meat based products. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of directly added quercetin dihydrate in combination with α-tocopherol on oxidative stability, color characteristics, total carbonyls and flavor volatile compounds in chicken meat patties. Considering the preliminary studies, 3 levels of quercetin dihdrate @ 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg meat in combination with α-tocopherol at the rate 100 and 200 mg/kg meat were added to develop chicken meat patties and were stored at refrigeration temperature for 7 days. The oxidative stability of the antioxidant treated patties was determined by measuring malonaldehydes using TBARS and total carbonyls assay. The color (Lightness, redness and yellowness) of the patties was determined by using Konica Minolta Color Meter. Moreover, the volatile compounds were measured through gas chromatography at various storage intervals. The results elucidated that quercetin dehydrate inclusion at the rate of 50 mg/kg meat as well as particularly 100 mg/kg meat decreased the oxidation by reducing generation of malonaldehydes and total carbonyls in treated patties. Highest value for TBARS at initiation of storage was reported in (T 0 ) as 1.93 ± 0.02 whereas lowest were reported in T 6 and T 5 as 0.37 ± 0.01 and 0.38 ± 0.03 that were increased to 3.47 ± 0.14, 0.90 ± 0.05 and 0.94 ± 0.34 at the completion of storage. Moreover, the lowest carbonyls also reported in T6 and the values at various storage intervals (1st, 3rd and 7th) were as 0.59 ± 0.025, 0.77 ± 0.015 and 1.02 ± 0.031, respectively. The antioxidants inclusion also

  1. Where's the beef? Retail channel choice and beef preferences in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Colella, Florencia; Ortega, David L

    2017-11-01

    Argentinean beef is recognized and demanded internationally. Locally, consumers are often unable to afford certified beef products, and may rely on external cues to determine beef quality. Uncovering demand for beef attributes and marketing them accordingly, may require an understanding of consumers' product purchasing strategies, which involves retailer choice. We develop a framework utilizing latent class analysis to identify consumer groups with different retailer preferences, and separately estimate their demand for beef product attributes. This framework accounts for the interrelationship between consumers' choice of retail outlets and beef product preferences. Our analysis of data from the city of Buenos Aires identifies two groups of consumers, a convenience- (67%) and a service- (33%) oriented group. We find significant differences in demand for beef attributes across these groups, and find that the service oriented group, while not willing to pay for credence attributes, relies on a service-providing retailer-namely a butcher-as a source of product quality assurance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of different drying temperatures on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of water-soluble tomato powders and on their use in pork patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-02-01

    Tomato and tomato products provide various antioxidant activities, which could be changed by the processing method. This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of water-soluble tomato powder (WSTP) as affected by different oven temperatures (60, 80 and 100°C), and to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and antioxidative activities of pork patties containing these powders. The contents of total phenolic compounds of WSTP ranged from 22.2 to 69.6 g kg(-1) dry matter. The antioxidant activities increased significantly with increasing drying temperatures (P < 0.05). The physico-chemical properties of pork patties containing tomato powders were also evaluated. WSTP at 100°C showed the highest redness value compared to those dried at 60 and 80°C. Lipid oxidation of pork patties was retarded by 7 days with the addition of WSTP. In particular, pork patties containing WSTP showed antimicrobial activity at 14 days of refrigerated storage, regardless of drying temperatures. WSTP, especially prepared at 100°C, could be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in meat products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings

    Treesearch

    Hassan K. Sreenath; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented...

  4. Retort beef aroma that gives preferable properties to canned beef products and its aroma components.

    PubMed

    Migita, Koshiro; Iiduka, Takao; Tsukamoto, Kie; Sugiura, Sayuri; Tanaka, Genichiro; Sakamaki, Gousuke; Yamamoto, Yasufumi; Takeshige, Yusuke; Miyazawa, Toshio; Kojima, Ayako; Nakatake, Tomoko; Okitani, Akihiro; Matsuishi, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the properties and responsible compounds for the aromatic roast odor (retort beef aroma) that commonly occurs in canned beef products and could contribute to their palatability. The optimal temperature for generating retort beef aroma was 121°C. An untrained panel evaluated both uncured corned beef and canned yamato-ni beef and found that they had an aroma that was significantly (P < 0.01) similar to the odor of 121°C-heated beef than 100°C-heated beef. The panel also noted that the aroma of 121°C-heated beef tended to be (P < 0.1) preferable than that of 100°C-heated beef. These results suggest that retort beef aroma is one constituent of palatability in canned beef. GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis of the volatile fraction obtained from 100°C- and 121°C-heated beef showed that the amounts of pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and diacetyl were higher in the 121°C-heated beef than in the 100°C-heated beef. GC-sniffing revealed that the odor quality of pyrazines was similar to that of retort beef aroma. Therefore, pyrazines were suggested to be a candidate responsible for the retort beef aroma. Analysis of commercial uncured corned beef and cured corned beef confirmed the presence of pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Partial Fat Replacement by Boiled Quinoa on the Quality Characteristics of a Dry-Cured Sausage.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Diez, Ana; Caro, Irma; Castro, Amaya; Salvá, Bettit K; Ramos, Daphne D; Mateo, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage. Three types of sausages were prepared: a control (C; no fat replacement; 30% of pork back-fat), a quinoa half-fat (50% of fat replacement; 15% of pork back-fat), and a quinoa low-fat (LF; 85% of fat replacement; 4.5% of pork back-fat) sausage. Sausages were analyzed for proximate and microbial composition, volatile compounds, and instrumental texture and color. Descriptive and hedonic sensory analyses were also performed. Fat reduction resulted in higher aw , protein content, hardness, chewiness and redness values and spice-derived volatile levels, and in lower cohesiveness values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the descriptive sensory analysis showed a higher pungent flavor and lower juiciness in LF sausages than in C sausages (P < 0.05). In spite of those differences, fat reduction did not result in a decreased overall acceptance of the sausages by consumers. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and soybean oil effects on quality characteristics of pork patties studied by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunkyung; Joo, Nami

    2013-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect and interactions of processing variables such as roselle extract (0.1-1.3%), soybean oil (5-20%) on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked pork patties. It was found that reduction in thickness, pH, L* and b* values decreased; however, water-holding capacity, reduction in diameter and a* values increased, respectively, as the amount of roselle increased. Soybean oil addition increased water-holding capacity, reduction in thickness, b* values of the patties. The hardness depended on the roselle and soybean oil added, as its linear effect was negative at p<0.01. The preference of color, tenderness, juiciness, and overall quality depend on the addition of roselle and soybean oil. The maximum overall quality score (5.42) was observed when 12.5 g of soybean oil and 0.7 g of roselle extract was added. The results of this optimization study would be useful for meat industry that tends to increase the product yield for patties using the optimum levels of ingredients by RSM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of various types of starch when used in meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Skrede, G

    1989-01-01

    Technological and sensory properties of meat sausages formulated with 4·0% of either potato flour, modified (acetylated distarch phosphate) potato starch, wheat, corn or tapioca starch were compared. Sausages were analyzed after cooking at temperatures between 65 and 85°C followed by storage at 5°C and -25°C. Characteristics evaluated were weight loss during cooking and storage, instrumentally and sensory assessed firmness, taste and smell of sausages. The results revealed differences in the suitability of starches for use in meat sausages. Part of the differences could be ascribed to differences in gelatination properties of the starches. With the criteria used for evaluating quality, potato flour was rated as the best suited starch followed by wheat starch while tapioca was rated as the least suited. Corn starch required cooking temperatures above 75°C and showed relatively low freeze/thaw stability. The modified potato starch stored well both above and below the freezing point. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Production of cured meat color in nitrite-free Harbin red sausage by Lactobacillus fermentum fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Kong, Baohua; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum was substituted for nitrite to produce cured pink color in a Chinese-style sausage. Treatments included inoculations (10(4), 10(6), and 10(8)CFU/g meat) followed by fermentation at 30°C for 8h and then at 4°C for 16h. Control sausage (with sodium nitrite, 60mg/kg meat) was cured at 4°C for 24h without L. fermentum. The UV-Vis spectra of pigment extract from L. fermentum-treated sausage were identical to that of nitrosylmyoglobin (NO-Mb) formed in nitrite-treated control. The NO-Mb concentration and the colorimetric a(∗) value of sausage treated with 10(8)CFU/g meat of L. fermentum essentially replicated those in nitrite-cured meat. Free amino acid content in sausage treated with L. fermentum was greater and the pH slightly lower compared with the nitrite-cured control sample. This study showed that L. fermentum has the potential to substitute for nitrite in the sausage production.

  9. Preference evaluation of ground beef by untrained subjects with three levels of finely textured beef

    PubMed Central

    Depue, Sandra Molly; Neilson, Morgan Marie

    2018-01-01

    After receiving bad publicity in 2012 and being removed from many ground beef products, finely textured beef (referred to as ‘pink slime’ by some) is making a comeback. Some of its proponents argue that consumers prefer ground beef containing finely textured beef, but no objective scientific party has tested this claim—that is the purpose of the present study. Over 200 untrained subjects participated in a sensory analysis in which they tasted one ground beef sample with no finely textured beef, another with 15% finely textured beef (by weight), and another with more than 15%. Beef with 15% finely textured beef has an improved juiciness (p < 0.01) and tenderness (p < 0.01) quality. However, subjects rate the flavor-liking and overall likeability the same regardless of the finely textured beef content. Moreover, when the three beef types are consumed as part of a slider (small hamburger), subjects are indifferent to the level of finely textured beef. PMID:29342174

  10. A Review of Patti Lather's "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy," Patti Lather explores the relationship between science and policy. In this review Rosser explores how Lather argues for the use of all forms of research to make policy that is democratic, complex and messy.

  11. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned...

  12. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned...

  13. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned...

  14. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned...

  15. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned...

  16. Effects of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Varying Subcritical Media on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Bo-Bae; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) prepared by varying subcritical media on the physicochemical properties of pork patties. For resource of SPH, two different soybean species (Glycine max Merr.) of Daewonkong (DWK) and Saedanbaek (SDB) were selected. SPH was prepared by subcritical processing at 190℃ and 25 MPa under three different of media (water, 20% ethanol and 50% ethanol). Solubility and free amino group content revealed that water was better to yield larger amount of SPH than ethanol/water mixtures, regardless of species. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution of SPH was also similar between two species, while slightly different Mw distribution was obtained by subcritical media. For pork patty application, 50% ethanol treatment showed clear red color comparing to control after 14 d of storage. In addition, ethanol treatment had better oxidative stability than control and water treatment based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. For eating quality, although 20% ethanol treatment in SDB showed slightly higher cooking loss than control, generally addition of SPH did not affect the water-binding properties and hardness of pork patties. Consequently, the present study indicated that 50% ethanol was the best subcritical media to produce SPH possessing antioxidant activity, and the SPH produced from DWK exhibited better antioxidant activity than that produced SDB.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-01-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage’s quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l’Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  18. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg-1, and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg-1. Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups. PMID:26760744

  19. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  20. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    PubMed

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  1. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P < 0.05). Sausages treated with TA and DSE were found to have higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness values compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Addition of different phenolic compounds or extract did not influence the sensory color of sausages. Furthermore, sensory quality was also found to be superior in TA and CT treated sausages. Therefore, pure phenolic compounds (TA and CT) proved to be more effective in retaining microbial and sensorial qualities of camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. EFFECT OF A SAUSAGE OSCILLATION ON RADIO ZEBRA-PATTERN STRUCTURES IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sijie; Yan, Yihua; Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: sjyu@nao.cas.cn

    2016-07-20

    Sausage modes that are axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic oscillations of solar coronal loops are characterized by variation of the plasma density and magnetic field, and hence cause time variations of the electron plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency. The latter parameters determine the condition for the double plasma resonance (DPR), which is responsible for the appearance of zebra-pattern (ZP) structures in time spectra of solar type IV radio bursts. We perform numerical simulations of standing and propagating sausage oscillations in a coronal loop modeled as a straight, field-aligned plasma slab, and determine the time variation of the DPR layer locations. Instant valuesmore » of the plasma density and magnetic field at the DPR layers allowed us to construct skeletons of the time variation of ZP stripes in radio spectra. In the presence of a sausage oscillation, the ZP structures are shown to have characteristic wiggles with the time period prescribed by the sausage oscillation. Standing and propagating sausage oscillations are found to have different signatures in ZP patterns. We conclude that ZP wiggles can be used for the detection of short-period sausage oscillations and the exploitation of their seismological potential.« less

  3. Modeling the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium during fermentation, drying, and storage of soudjouk-style fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Juneja, Vijay K; Ingham, Steven C; Ingham, Barbara H; Luchansky, John B

    2009-02-28

    This study quantified and modeled the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium in soudjouk-style fermented sausage during fermentation, drying, and storage. Batter prepared from ground beef (20% fat), seasonings, starter culture, and dextrose was separately inoculated with a multi-strain mixture of each pathogen to an initial inoculum of ca. 6.5 log(10) CFU/g in the batter. The sausages were subsequently fermented at 24 degrees C with a relative humidity (RH) of 90% to 95% for 3 to 5 days to ca. pH 5.2, pH 4.9 or pH 4.6, then dried at 22 degrees C to a(w) 0.92, a(w) 0.89, or a(w) 0.86, respectively, and then stored at 4, 21, or 30 degrees C for up to 60 days. Lethality of the three pathogens was modeled as a function of pH, a(w) and/or storage temperature. During fermentation to pH 5.2 to pH 4.6, cell reductions ranged from 0 to 0.9 log(10) CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7, 0.1 to 0.5 log(10) CFU/g for L. monocytogenes, and 0 to 2.2 log(10) CFU/g for S. Typhimurium. Subsequent drying of sausages of pH 5.2 to pH 4.6 at 22 degrees C with 80% to 85% RH for 3 to 7 days to a(w) of 0.92 to a(w) 0.86 resulted in additional reductions that ranged from 0 to 3.5 log(10) CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7, 0 to 0.4 log(10) CFU/g for L. monocytogenes, and 0.3 to 2.4 log(10) CFU/g for S. Typhimurium. During storage at 4, 21, or 30 degrees C the reduction rates of the three pathogens were generally higher (p<0.05) in sausages with lower pH and lower a(w) that were stored at higher temperatures. Polynomial equations were developed to describe the inactivation of the three pathogens during fermentation, drying, and storage. The applicability of the resulting models for fermented sausage was evaluated by comparing model predictions with published data. Pathogen reductions estimated by the models for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium were comparable to 67% and 73% of published data, respectively. Due to limited published data for L. monocytogenes, the

  4. Sensory properties and fatty acids profiles of fermented dry sausages made of pork meat from various breeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parunović, N.; Radović, Č.; Savić, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the parallel examinations on fatty acid profiles and sensory properties of fermented dry sausages are presented. Three types of kulen and sremska sausages were made, which varied depending on the percentage of meat and fat derived from different pig breeds: autochthonous (Swallow-Belly Mangalitsa and Moravka) and commercial (Swedish Landrace). In sausages made from meat of commercial pig breed, the highest cholesterol content was detected. However, sausage made from the Mangalitsa pork meat contained higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), and lower saturated fatty acid levels (SFA).The level of polyunsaturated (PUFA) in sausage made of Landrace pork meat was significantly higher than levels in other types. These differences between fatty acids were mostly deriving by higher total n-6 PUFA content. In a sausage made of Mangulitsa meat, the values of atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indexes are lower. Kulen and sremska sausages made from the Mangalitsa pork meat was superior in terms of colour, odour, taste, after taste and overall acceptability. This study demonstrate that pig breed have an effect on the chemical content, fatty acids profiles and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages.

  5. High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200 MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200 MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1 MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200 MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1 MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P₂ peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  7. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages: Effect on sensory properties and volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Chen; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael A; Karlsson, Anders H

    2017-08-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages might be an interesting tool to boost flavour and reduce salt content in cooked sausages with no negative effect on saltiness or overall flavour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fast-sausage oscillations in coronal loops with smooth boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: The effect of the transition layer (shell) in nonuniform coronal loops with a continuous radial density profile on the properties of fast-sausage modes are studied analytically and numerically. Methods: We modeled the coronal waveguide as a structured tube consisting of a cord and a transition region (shell) embedded within a magnetic uniform environment. The derived general dispersion relation was investigated analytically and numerically in the context of frequency, cut-off wave number, and the damping rate of fast-sausage oscillations for various values of loop parameters. Results: The frequency of the global fast-sausage mode in the loops with a diffuse (or smooth) boundary is determined mainly by the external Alfvén speed and longitudinal wave number. The damping rate of such a mode can be relatively low. The model of coronal loop with diffuse boundary can support a comparatively low-frequency, global fast-sausage mode of detectable quality without involving extremely low values of the density contrast. The effect of thin transition layer (corresponds to the loops with steep boundary) is negligible and produces small reductions of oscillation frequency and relative damping rate in comparison with the case of step-function density profile. Seismological application of obtained results gives the estimated Alfvén speed outside the flaring loop about 3.25 Mm/s.

  9. Effect of nitrate and nitrite curing salts on microbial changes and sensory quality of non-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Y; Vila, R; Toldrá, F; Flores, J

    1998-07-21

    The effects of nitrate and nitrite curing salts on microbial changes and sensory quality of non-fermented sausages of small diameter were investigated. During pre-ripening (day 5), levels of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were slightly higher in nitrite-made sausages than in those made with nitrate. In contrast, nitrite discouraged the growth of psychrotrophs as occurs in fermented sausages. By the end of ripening (day 26), levels of microorganisms were similar in both batches of sausages except for psychrotrophs being higher in those made with nitrite. Nitrate-made sausages showed higher aroma and taste intensity.

  10. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    PubMed

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. However, the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of SP50 and the control. Of the cooking properties measured, SP100 had lower (P < 0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention than the control. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) performed by 12 trained panelists showed that sensory characteristic (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) scores of SP100 were lower than those of SP50 and the control. The use of surimi powder in fish sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages.

  11. Application of winter mushroom powder as an alternative to phosphates in emulsion-type sausages.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeehwan; Lee, Juri; Jo, Kyung; Jo, Cheorun; Song, Minho; Jung, Samooel

    2018-05-01

    This research evaluated the utilization of winter mushrooms as a replacement for phosphate in emulsion-type sausages. Winter mushroom powder (WMP) was added to the sausages at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/w), and phosphate was added at 0.3% as a positive control. The WMP additions above 1.0% increased the pH of meat batter and efficiently inhibited the exudation of fat from the sausages (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of sausages was inhibited by the addition of WMP (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the addition of phosphate and WMP provided different instrumental texture properties. However, no adverse effects were observed with respect to the color and sensory properties of the sausages containing WMP, except for that containing 2.0% WMP. Therefore, this research indicates that WMP can effectively replace phosphate in meat products, and that the most effective addition level may be 1.0% WMP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emancipating Subjects in Science Education: Taking a Lesson from Patti Lather and Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the conversation started by Patti Lather in her forum response to "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity", in terms of engaging the thought of Jacques Ranciere. Ranciere can offer (science) educators a more definitive example of (possible) emancipatory political…

  13. Sensory Characterization and Consumer Preference Mapping of Fresh Sausages Manufactured with Goat and Sheep Meat.

    PubMed

    Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. 9 CFR 319.145 - Italian sausage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... containing at least 85 percent meat, or combination of meat and fat, with the total fat content constituting... fresh or frozen pork, or pork and pork fat, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species) in... Sausage” shall be prepared with fresh or frozen beef or beef and beef fat. “Italian Veal Sausage” or...

  15. Utilization of adzuki bean extract as a natural antioxidant in cured and uncured cooked pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Jayawardana, Barana C; Hirano, Tomomi; Han, Kyu-Ho; Ishii, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomoko; Shibayama, Shinichi; Fukushima, Michihiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Shimada, Ken-ichiro

    2011-10-01

    A commercial adzuki bean extract (AE) was evaluated for antioxidant effectiveness in cured and uncured cooked pork sausages. TBARS values, instrumental color evaluation and sensory panel scores were assessed. For uncured sausages, AE at 0.2% was equally effective as 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in reducing TBARS values. Similarly, AE at 0.2% significantly (P<0.01) reduced the TBARS in cured sausages. Incorporation of 0.2% AE into sausages produced higher (P<0.05) CIE lab color a* value and lower (P<0.05) L* and b* values. Sensory panels did not detect any difference in color, odor, taste, flavor, and overall acceptance in uncured pork sausages with addition of 0.2% AE. However, there were adverse changes in the color and odor of cured sausages, even though the taste, flavor, and overall acceptance were similar. Therefore, the results suggest that AE is a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  17. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Rhizome as an Antioxidant Dietary Fiber in Cooked Sausage: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Il; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant ( p >0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly ( p <0.05) decreased when the level of lotus rhizome powder was increased in the sausages. The addition of lotus rhizome powder to sausages at over 1% resulted in significantly ( p <0.05) darker and less red color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant ( p <0.05) reduction in cooking loss was observed when more than 1% of lotus rhizome powder was added to sausages. The textural properties of sausages were unaffected by the inclusion of lotus rhizome except for springiness and chewiness. On the manufacture day, control sausage had significantly ( p <0.05) higher TBARS value than treatments. Regarding sensory characteristics, increased levels of lotus rhizome powder decreased ( p <0.05) color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food.

  18. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Rhizome as an Antioxidant Dietary Fiber in Cooked Sausage: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant (p>0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly (p<0.05) decreased when the level of lotus rhizome powder was increased in the sausages. The addition of lotus rhizome powder to sausages at over 1% resulted in significantly (p<0.05) darker and less red color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in cooking loss was observed when more than 1% of lotus rhizome powder was added to sausages. The textural properties of sausages were unaffected by the inclusion of lotus rhizome except for springiness and chewiness. On the manufacture day, control sausage had significantly (p<0.05) higher TBARS value than treatments. Regarding sensory characteristics, increased levels of lotus rhizome powder decreased (p<0.05) color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food. PMID:28515646

  19. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Methods Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella’s was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. Results The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C*, and lower h°) and darker (lower L*) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Conclusion Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM. PMID:28920407

  20. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    PubMed

    Massingue, Armando Abel; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a *, C *, and lower h °) and darker (lower L *) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  1. Evaluation of the antioxidant effect of ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) extract alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in raw chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Hwang, K E; Kim, H W; Choi, Y S; Lee, S Y; Yeo, E J; Ham, Y K; Choi, S M; Lee, M A; Kim, C J

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the inhibition of lipid oxidation of raw chicken patties by the antioxidants ascorbic acid (Aa), ganghwayakssuk extracts (GE), and their combination (Aa + GE). All antioxidant combinations were effective at delaying lipid oxidation compared with the control or Aa. A combination of Aa + GE (0.05% Aa + 0.2% GE) was the most effective for delaying lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances, conjugated dienes, and peroxide formation). The color values of all samples were significantly affected by adding GE. Additionally, the redness, color difference, and hue values of all treatments, except for Aa, were lower than those of the control as the amount of GE increased. The total viable bacterial counts of samples with GE 0.2 and Aa + GE 0.2 were significantly affected during storage (P < 0.05). The results suggest that adding an antioxidant combination reduced the oxidative stress and microbial growth of raw chicken patties stored for 12 d under normal refrigeration temperature, which may extend the shelf life of chicken patties.

  2. Effects of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Varying Subcritical Media on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) prepared by varying subcritical media on the physicochemical properties of pork patties. For resource of SPH, two different soybean species (Glycine max Merr.) of Daewonkong (DWK) and Saedanbaek (SDB) were selected. SPH was prepared by subcritical processing at 190℃ and 25 MPa under three different of media (water, 20% ethanol and 50% ethanol). Solubility and free amino group content revealed that water was better to yield larger amount of SPH than ethanol/water mixtures, regardless of species. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution of SPH was also similar between two species, while slightly different Mw distribution was obtained by subcritical media. For pork patty application, 50% ethanol treatment showed clear red color comparing to control after 14 d of storage. In addition, ethanol treatment had better oxidative stability than control and water treatment based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. For eating quality, although 20% ethanol treatment in SDB showed slightly higher cooking loss than control, generally addition of SPH did not affect the water-binding properties and hardness of pork patties. Consequently, the present study indicated that 50% ethanol was the best subcritical media to produce SPH possessing antioxidant activity, and the SPH produced from DWK exhibited better antioxidant activity than that produced SDB. PMID:27499657

  3. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities.

    PubMed

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne; Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise H; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-04-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour was followed by L(∗)a(∗)b measurements and the content of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbFe(II)NO) quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR). MbFe(II)NO was rapidly formed in sausages with added nitrite independent of the presence of nitrite reducing bacteria, whereas the rate of MbFe(II)NO formation in sausages with added nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFe(II)NO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial for ensuring optimal colour formation during initial fermentation stages.

  4. Effect of oven cooking method on formation of heterocyclic amines and quality characteristics of chicken patties: steam-assisted hybrid oven versus convection ovens.

    PubMed

    Isleroglu, Hilal; Kemerli, Tansel; Özdestan, Özgül; Uren, Ali; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking method in comparison with convection ovens (natural and forced) on quality characteristics (color, hardness, cooking loss, soluble protein content, fat retention, and formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines) of chicken patties. The cooking experiments of chicken patties (n = 648) were conducted at oven temperatures of 180, 210, and 240°C until 3 different end point temperatures (75, 90, and 100°C) were reached. Steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking enabled faster cooking than convection ovens and resulted in chicken patties having lower a* and higher L* value, lower hardness, lower fat, and soluble protein content (P < 0.05), and higher cooking loss than convection ovens. Steam-assisted hybrid oven could reduce the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines that have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on humans. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. The isolation of salmonellas from British pork sausages and sausage meat.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D.; Boag, K.; Hall, M. L.; Shipp, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1974, 1467 packets (3309 samples) of pork sausages and sausage meat produced by two large and two medium sized manufacturers and several local butchers were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these, 435 packets (786 samples) were found to contain salmonellas, but there was a wide variation in the isolation rates according to the producer. The salmonella incidence in samples from several small and two medium sized producers was low (0-11%) while the results from the two large producers investigated showed a striking difference, the rate of salmonella contamination in the product of one was low (about 2%) and in that of the other consistently high (40-60%). A comparison of liquid enrichment media, incubation temperatures and selective agar media was also carried out to determine the most efficient combination for the isolation of salmonellas from minced meat products. The results showed that (a) incubation of enrichment cultures at 43 degrees C. yielded a consistently greater number of salmonella isolations that at 37 degrees C., regardless of plating medium, (b) tetrathionate broth A (Rolfe) was superior to selenite broth as en enrichment medium at both 37 and 43 degrees C. and (c) brilliant green agar gave better results than deoxycholate citrate sucrose agar and bismuth sulphite agar as a selective medium. PMID:1100710

  6. The isolation of salmonellas from British pork sausages and sausage meat.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Boag, K; Hall, M L; Shipp, C R

    1975-10-01

    Between 1969 and 1974, 1467 packets (3309 samples) of pork sausages and sausage meat produced by two large and two medium sized manufacturers and several local butchers were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these, 435 packets (786 samples) were found to contain salmonellas, but there was a wide variation in the isolation rates according to the producer. The salmonella incidence in samples from several small and two medium sized producers was low (0-11%) while the results from the two large producers investigated showed a striking difference, the rate of salmonella contamination in the product of one was low (about 2%) and in that of the other consistently high (40-60%). A comparison of liquid enrichment media, incubation temperatures and selective agar media was also carried out to determine the most efficient combination for the isolation of salmonellas from minced meat products. The results showed that (a) incubation of enrichment cultures at 43 degrees C. yielded a consistently greater number of salmonella isolations that at 37 degrees C., regardless of plating medium, (b) tetrathionate broth A (Rolfe) was superior to selenite broth as en enrichment medium at both 37 and 43 degrees C. and (c) brilliant green agar gave better results than deoxycholate citrate sucrose agar and bismuth sulphite agar as a selective medium.

  7. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

  8. Studies on emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages incorporating skeletal and offal meat with different levels of pork fat.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, K R; Sharma, N

    1990-01-01

    Ready-to-eat emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages were developed by using a combination of 80% meat components with 20% pork back fat. The meat components were constituted of 70 parts buffalo skeletal meat and 30 parts offal meat (rumen meat and heart meat in equal proportions). The emulsion stability, cooking losses of emulsions and sausages, composition of cooked sausages, eating quality of sausages and the microscopic characteristics of the raw emulsion and cooked sausages were studied. The light microscope micrograph of the raw emulsion showed uniformly well distributed fat globules embedded in a dense protein gel. The cooked emulsion also showed uniformly sized fat globules well distributed in a fine, compact, coagulated protein gel, which retained their original spherical shape. Good quality emulsion-type sausages could be produced having a high emulsion stability (0·87 ± 0·07 ml fat release/100 g emulsion); a low emulsion cooking loss (9·60 ± 0·60%) and a low sausage cooking loss (8·83 ± 0·48%). The overall acceptability of sausages was also high. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Meat species identification and Halal authentication using PCR analysis of raw and cooked traditional Turkish foods.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Çağın, Ilknur; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-07-01

    The method performance characteristics of commercially available PCR kits for animal species identification were established. Comminuted meat products containing different levels of pork were prepared from authentic beef, chicken, and turkey. These meat products were analysed in the raw state and after cooking for 20 min at 200 °C. For both raw and cooked meats, the PCR kit could correctly identify the animal species and could reliably detect the addition of pork at a level below 0.1%. A survey of 42 Turkish processed meat products such as soudjouk, salami, sausage, meatball, cured spiced beef and doner kebap was conducted. Thirty-six samples were negative for the presence of pork (<0.1%) and four were found to be correctly labelled as containing pork. However, one sausage sample was labelled as containing 5% beef, but beef DNA was not detected and a meatball sample labelled as 100% beef was found to contain chicken. Another turkey meatball sample was predominantly chicken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of cranberry concentrate (Vaccinium macrocarpon) to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef and its antimicrobial mechanism related to the downregulated slp, hdeA and cfa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vivian C H; Qiu, Xujian; de los Reyes, Benildo G; Lin, Chih-Sheng; Pan, Yingjie

    2009-02-01

    The possible use of cranberry concentrate (CC) as a natural food preservative was studied by examining its antimicrobial effect on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef, its organoleptical effect on beef patties, and its antimicrobial mechanism on the gene regulation level. Inoculated ground beef was added with CC and stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. Bacteria were detected on day 0, 1, 3, and 5. Cranberry concentrate (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% w/w) reduced total aerobic bacteria 1.5 log, 2.1 log, and 2.7 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 0.4 log, 0.7 log, and 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively, when compared to the control on day 5. Fifty panelists evaluated the burgers supplemented with CC. No differences in appearance, flavor, and taste were found among burgers with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% CC. The expression of E. coli O157:H7 cyclopropane fatty acyl phospholipid synthase (cfa), hypothetical protein (hdeA), outer membrane porin protein C (ompC), hyperosmotically inducible periplasmic protein (osmY), and outer membrane protein induced after carbon starvation (slp) genes with or without CC (2.5% v/v) treatment was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the control, slp, hdeA, and cfa were markedly downregulated, ompC was slightly downregulated, while osmY was slightly affected.

  11. Quality of hurdle treated pork sausages during refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) storage.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2010-06-01

    Pork sausages developed using hurdle technology was evaluated during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C). Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also tried. Hurdle treatment significantly (p <0.05) reduced the rate of deterioration of quality characteristics of pork sausages during storage, as indicated by TBARS and tyrosine values. Incorporation of hurdles decreased the growth of different spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Combination of pH, water activity, vacuum packaging and reheating inhibited the growth of yeast and molds up to 12 days, while additional dipping of sausages in 1% potassium sorbate solution prior to packaging inhibited their growth even on 30(th) day of storage. Incorporation of hurdles resulted in initial reduction in all the sensory attributes, but they helped to maintain these attributes for significantly longer period compared to control. Hurdle treated sausages exhibited no spoilage signs even on day 30, while the control sausages were found acceptable only up to 18 days.

  12. Effect of Rice Bran and Wheat Fibers on Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Taek; Lee, Jin-kyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Lee, Ju-Ho; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Yang-Il; Chung, Yoon-Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effect of rice bran fiber (RBF) and wheat fibers (WF) on microbiological and physicochemical properties of fermented sausages during ripening and storage. The experimental design included three treatments: Control, no addition; RBF, 1.5%; and WF, 1.5%. During the ripening periods, the addition of dietary fibers rapidly decreased pH and maintained high water activity values of fermented sausages (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria were more prevalent in fermented sausages with rice bran fiber than control and sausages with added wheat fiber. During cold storage, lower pH was observed in sausages with dietary fibers (p<0.05), and the water activity and color values were reduced as the storage period lengthened. Fermented sausages containing dietary fibers were higher in lactic acid bacteria counts, volatile basic nitrogen and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values compared to the control (p<0.05). The results indicate that, the addition of dietary fibers in the fermented sausages promotes the growth of lactic bacteria and fermentation, and suggests that development of functional fermented sausages is possible. PMID:29805280

  13. Nitrite formation from vegetable sources and its use as a preservative in cooked sausage.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-04-01

    Due to the potential health risk associated with nitrites, nitrite alternatives from natural sources in meat products have been investigated. We compared the nitrate contents of young radish, lettuce and commercial vegetable powder (cabbage and Chinese cabbage). We also investigated the effect of incubation time and salt addition on vegetable nitrite formation from vegetable sources. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of vegetable nitrite in cooked sausage were also compared with sodium nitrite. Young radish produced the greatest amount of nitrite after 24 h of incubation at 38 °C. On average, an approximately 32% reduction of nitrite was observed in sausage during 4 weeks of storage. Lipid oxidation in sausage was significantly prevented by vegetable nitrite produced from vegetable powder or young radish. The colour of the sausage prepared with young radish was most similar to that of the sausage with sodium nitrite. The addition of young radish to sausage significantly prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at 4 °C and Staphylococcus aureus at 8 °C. Young radish was more effective as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent as compared to commercial vegetable powder, which is currently used to make natural meat products, indicating that young radish has a high potential as a natural preservative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Tryptophan depletion and formation of alpha-aminoadipic and gamma-glutamic semialdehydes in porcine burger patties with added phenolic-rich fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ganhão, Rui; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2010-03-24

    The effect of added fruit extracts on the oxidation of muscle proteins in porcine burger patties subjected to cooking and chill storage was studied. Extracts from arbutus berries (Arbutus unedo L., AU), common hawthorns (Crataegus monogyna L., CM), dog roses (Rosa canina L., RC), and elm-leaf blackberries (Rubus ulmifolius Schott, RU) were prepared, characterized, added to burger patties (3% of total weight), and evaluated as inhibitors of protein oxidation. Negative (no added extract, C) and positive control (added quercetin, 230 mg/kg, Q) groups were also included in the design. Protein oxidation was assessed by means of tryptophan loss using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and formation of the specific protein carbonyls alpha-aminoadipic (AAS) and gamma-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Both advanced methodologies (FS and LC-MS) were found to be reliable and specific protein oxidation measurements that allow us to gain chemical insight into protein oxidation. The mechanisms likely involved in the oxidative reactions affecting proteins during cooking and storage of burger patties are profusely discussed. Phenolic-rich fruit extracts protected tryptophan residues against oxidation and inhibited the formation of both semialdehydes in burger patties during cooking and subsequent chill storage. In general, RC, RU, and AU were the most effective inhibitors of protein oxidation, with this effect being more intense than that of pure polyphenols like quercetin. These fruit extracts could be considered functional ingredients as their antioxidant actions contribute to the enhancement of the nutritional value of the meat products.

  15. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

  16. Lipid and colour stability of Milano-type sausages: effect of packing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, E; Dorigoni, V; Badiani, A; Chizzolini, R

    2002-05-01

    Lipid and colour oxidative changes in Milano-type fermented sausages were studied in relation to packing conditions and extended storage under fluorescent light. Matured sausages were sliced and packed under vacuum or in protective atmosphere (100% N(2)) and exposed in a display cabinet to mimic commercial conditions of light and temperature for 2 months. Lipid oxidation was measured by the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COP), whereas the oxidation of nitrosylmyoglobin was evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Lipid oxidation and discolouration were positively related in vacuum-packed sausages: TBARS and COP values increased significantly concurrently with increasing brown scores. Protective atmosphere came out to be more efficient than vacuum in controlling fatty acid oxidation and, to a lesser extent, cholesterol and pigment degradation: TBARS values remained constant during the whole storage period whereas cholesterol oxides and brown colour scores gradually increased but remained lower than those of vacuum-packed sausages. Higher residual oxygen in vacuum packing could be responsible for the observed differences in oxidative stability.

  17. Effects of composite surface coating and pre-drying on the properties of kabanosy dry sausage.

    PubMed

    Tyburcy, Andrzej; Kozyra, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Coating of dry sausages with renewable materials could be an alternative to vacuum packaging. In this study kabanosy dry sausage was coated with a composite emulsion and stored for 7 or 15 days at 4-6 degrees C. Effects of different emulsion formulas (0.5 or 1% w/w of kappa-carrageenan and 5 or 10% w/w of glycerol) and pre-drying of coated sausages (at 50 degrees C for 1.5h) were investigated. Carrageenan concentration had a significant effect (Psausage surface but little influence on the barrier properties of the coatings. At both glycerol concentration levels, coatings had no visible cracks and were easily removed from the sausage surface after 7 and 15 days of storage. The colour values of coatings (L*, a*, and b*) changed along with the decreasing water activity during storage. Pre-drying of coated sausages reduced peeled product weight loss after storage. The financial analysis showed that among coatings tested the best proved to be the emulsion containing (w/w): 5% glycerol, 5% gelatin, 0.5% carrageenan, 20% lard, 20% beeswax, and 50% water. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings.

    PubMed

    Sreenath, Hassan K; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented sausages, and other fungi, which were introduced to enable the curing process, produced small amounts of cellulases on RCC in both liquid and solid cultivations. During continued incubation for 15-60 days in solid substrate cultivation (SSC) on RCC support, the fungus Penicillium sp isolate BT-F-1 degraded the casings' dry weights by 15-50% and decreased their tensile strengths by ~75%. Similarly commercial cellulase(s) resulted in 20-50% degradation of RCC in 48 h. During incubation with Penicillium sp BT-F-1, the surface structure of RCC collapsed, resulting in loss of strength and stability of casings. The matrix of industrial RCC comprised 88-93% glucose polymer residues with 0.8-4% xylan impurities. Premature casing failure appeared to result from operating conditions in the manufacturing process that allowed xylan to build up in the extrusion bath. The sausage fungus Penicillium sp BT-F-1 produced xylanases to break down soft xylan pockets prior to slow cellulosic dissolution of RCC.

  19. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes, together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored “ready to eat” (RTE) foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un-) published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed. PMID:28231188

  20. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-03-12

    The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes , together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored "ready to eat" (RTE) foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un-) published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  1. Development of Non-prey Baits for Delivery of Acetaminophen to Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam. Version 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    BTS including commercial snake steak sausages, cotton rolls, plastic lizards, commercial canned meats, shrimp, chicken meat, and beef, but none were...experiment. Beef baits (≈ 5 g) were prepared from U.S. Chill bottom round roast ; DNM were 4-7 g. Seven experiments were conducted and Table 1

  2. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Abdalrahman, Lubna S.; Wells, Harrington; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts), and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80%) followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50%) then pork 43/99 (43.3%). No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products. PMID:25927961

  3. Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) trim hamburger and sausage subjected to different smoking techniques.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vitória Regina Takeuchi; Souza Franco, Maria Luiza Rodrigues; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; de Souza, Vera Lúcia Ferreira; Gasparino, Eliane; Coutinho, Marcos Eduardo; Tanamati, Augusto; Del Vesco, Ana Paula

    2014-02-01

    Caiman, as well as having skin that, after tanning, produces leather of high added value, exceptional quality and good market value, also possesses a meat with a remarkably smooth taste and appearance. This study aimed to characterize hamburger and sausages made from Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) meat trim. Hot smoked products contained less moisture than the unsmoked products. Protein and ash were higher, respectively, for hot smoked hamburger and sausage. Lipids had greater presence in hot smoked sausage (9.72%), whereas in the burgers they were higher in the liquid smoked burgers (6.71%). The hot smoked products had lower water activity. Hot smoked products displayed less luminance, but the a* and b* chroma were higher in smoked hamburgers. Taste, texture and general acceptability were significant for the hamburger, whereas for the sausage there was a significant effect for texture, salt and purchase intent. For all the products, the hot smoking resulted in the lowest acceptability. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  5. A PCR-aided transcript titration assay (PATTY) to measure topoisomerase I gene expression in human tumor specimens.

    PubMed

    Meersma, G J; Bakker, M; Groen, H J; Van der Zee, A G; Jensen, P B; Giaccone, G; De Vries, E G; Smit, E F

    1999-01-01

    Topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibitors are promising anticancer agents with demonstrated activity against a wide range of solid tumors. Quantitative information on topol mRNA levels in tumor biopsies may predict response to topo I inhibitors. A polymerase chain reaction aided transcript titration assay (PATTY) was developed to allow quantitation of topol mRNA in small samples. Concentrations of topol mRNA in total RNA samples were estimated by RT-PCR analysis in a human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line (GLC,) and its topotecan (GL2C/SK and F) and camptothecin (GL2C/Campt) resistant sublines, human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and ovarian carcinoma samples. Topol PATTY showed a decreased topo I mRNA level in GLC2/SK and F (4.5 pg/100 ng total RNA) and GLC,/Campt (2.2 pg/100 ng total RNA), respectively, compared to the parent cell line GLC2 (5.4 pg/100 ng total RNA). Topol protein levels as measured by Western blotting were compatible with topol mRNA levels. Median (range) topol mRNA levels were 3.23 (2.33-5.10) pg/100 ng total RNA in resected NSCLC specimen (n = 6), and 2.03 (0.54-0.95) pg/100 ng total RNA in resected ovarian cancer specimen (n = 6). We conclude that topol PATTY is a new assay that quantitates topol mRNA levels in cell lines and small tumor samples.

  6. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    PubMed

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental sustainability of beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Hu, Ping; Lou, Lijiao; Zhan, Jianlong; Fan, Min; Li, Dan; Liao, Qianwei

    2017-12-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus (SR6) and Lactobacillus paracasei (SR10-1) were assessed for their antioxidant activities and inoculated into sausages to investigate their effects on quality during fermentation. The results showed that L. curvatus SR6 had better DPPH• scavenging activity (59.67% ± 6.68%) and reducing power (47.31% ± 4.62%) and L. paracasei SR10-1 had better OH• scavenging activity (285.67% ± 2.00%) and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity (63.89% ± 0.93%). The superoxide dismutase activity of the cell culture fluid was greater than 47.00 U/mL, and the catalase activity of the cell-free extracts was greater than 1.00 U/mL. In the sausage model, lactic acid bacteria rapidly became the dominant microflora and reduced the moisture content, water activity, nitrite, and pH. The bacteria significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the sausage extracts, which improved the sensory characteristics and safety of the sausages. These results illustrate that both strains have excellent antioxidant activities and can be used as antioxidant starters in fermented meat products. The study illustrated the antioxidant and antioxidase activities of Lactobacillus curvatus SR6 and Lactobacillus paracasei SR10-1 and demonstrated the changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of fermented sausages. The findings provide valuable information for the meat industry on the application of functional starters in fermented meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Effect of sage (Salvia officinalis) on the oxidative stability of Chinese-style sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Lin, Y H; Leng, X J; Huang, M; Zhou, G H

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sage, at levels of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/w), on the oxidative stability of Chinese-style sausage stored at 4°C for 21 days. The results showed that inclusion of sage in sausages resulted in lower L* values (P<0.05) and higher a* values (P<0.05) compared to the control. During refrigerated storage, sausages containing sage showed significantly retarded increases in TBARS values, and in the formation of protein carbonyls (P<0.05), but showed accelerated losses of thiol groups (P<0.05). Addition of sage to the sausages at levels of 0.1% and 0.15% reduced textural deterioration during refrigerated storage (P<0.05). Sage used in this study had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of starter culture, spice mix and storage time and temperature on biogenic amine content of dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Smělá, D; Pechová, P; Kalhotka, L; Stencl, J; Klejdus, B

    2004-08-01

    Two types of dry fermented sausage differing in spicing mixture and the diameter (low content of red pepper+diameter 80 mm, H-sausage; high content of red pepper+diameter 55 mm, P-sausage, respectively) were produced in parallel with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus+Staphylococcus carnosus, B-samples and S. carnosus+Staphylococcus xylosus+Lactobacillus farciminis, F-samples, respectively). The sausages were ripened 21 days and subsequently stored 91 days at the room temperature. Concentration of both most abundant amines, putrescine and tyramine (y; mg/kg DM) increased significantly (P<0.01) in HB-sausage during ripening (x; days): y=2.5+18.13x-0.3144x(2) (R(2)=0.99) and y=0.7+8.17x-0.1130x(2) (R(2)=0.99), and also during storage: y=127.3+5.123x (R(2)=0.79) and y=26.0+3.211x (R(2)=0.74), respectively. At the end of ripening, putrescine (247 mg/kg DM) and tyramine (123 mg/kg DM) content in the HB-sausage was higher (P<0.05) than in the PB-sausage (12 and 9 mg/kg DM, respectively), concentration of either of these amines was negligible (1 mg/kg DM) in either type of F-inoculated sausage. Both starter culture and sausage type influenced significantly (P<0.001) both putrescine and tyramine content in the sausage; starter accounted for 57% and 55% of total variability in putrescine and tyramine content, respectively. Due to the significant (P<0.05) increase of total aerobic counts in the HB-sausage between the end of ripening and the 7th day of storage, followed by the significant (P<0.01) increase of the sum of total biogenic amines between the end of ripening (425 mg/kg DM) and the end of storage (1029 mg/kg DM), the storage of the dry fermented sausages at the room temperature should not be recommended.

  11. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  12. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    PubMed

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  14. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, Maria João

    2015-11-06

    Dry-fermented sausages are meat products highly valued by many consumers. Manufacturing process involves fermentation driven by natural microbiota or intentionally added starter cultures and further drying. The most relevant fermentative microbiota is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, producing mainly lactate and contributing to product preservation. The great diversity of LAB in dry-fermented sausages is linked to manufacturing practices. Indigenous starters development is considered to be a very promising field, because it allows for high sanitary and sensorial quality of sausage production. LAB have a long history of safe use in fermented food, however, since they are present in human gastrointestinal tract, and are also intentionally added to the diet, concerns have been raised about the antimicrobial resistance in these beneficial bacteria. In fact, the food chain has been recognized as one of the key routes of antimicrobial resistance transmission from animal to human bacterial populations. The World Health Organization 2014 report on global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance reveals that this issue is no longer a future prediction, since evidences establish a link between the antimicrobial drugs use in food-producing animals and the emergence of resistance among common pathogens. This poses a risk to the treatment of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This review describes the possible sources and transmission routes of antibiotic resistant LAB of dry-fermented sausages, presenting LAB antibiotic resistance profile and related genetic determinants. Whenever LAB are used as starters in dry-fermented sausages processing, safety concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance should be addressed since antibiotic resistant genes could be mobilized and transferred to other bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water as a source of nitrite for emulsion-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; In Yong, Hae; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the possible use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source in curing process. Emulsion-type sausages were manufactured with PTW, celery powder containing nitrite, and synthetic sodium nitrite at a concentration of nitrite ion 70mgkg(-1). In terms of sausage quality, there were no noticeable effects of PTW on the total aerobic bacterial counts, color, and peroxide values of sausages compared with those of celery powder and sodium nitrite throughout 28days of storage at 4°C. Sausage with added PTW had lower concentrations of residual nitrite compared to those of added celery powder and sodium nitrite during the storage period (P<0.05). The sensory properties of PTW-treated and sodium nitrite-treated sausages were not different, whereas the sausage with added celery powder received the lowest scores in taste and acceptability. From the results, it is concluded that PTW can be used as a nitrite source equivalent to a natural curing agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of high-pressure treatment in the reduction of salt levels in reduced-phosphate breakfast sausages.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Claire C; Cruz-Romero, Malco C; Troy, Declan; Mullen, Anne M; Kerry, Joe P

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment of pork meat before manufacturing sausages with reduced salt levels and compared them to sausages manufactured with untreated meat (control sausages). A 2×5 factorial design was set up incorporating two pressure levels (0 or 150 MPa) and five salt levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%). Most quality attributes were affected when salt levels were reduced below 1.5%. Fat loss (FL) was (P<0.05) affected by salt level; samples with <1.5% salt had the highest FL. HP treatment increased emulsion stability and reduced cook loss (CL) compared to control sausages. Increased CL was observed when salt was reduced below 2.0%. Salt reduction below 1.5% adversely affected colour, sensory and texture attributes. Independent of salt, HP treatment affected adversely juiciness and cohesiveness while adhesiveness was improved. Overall, there is potential to manufacture sausages maintaining organoleptic and functional properties traditionally associated with sausages using HP treated meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant activities of purple rice bran extract and its effect on the quality of low-NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Chen, M-H; Green, B W

    2009-04-01

    Purple rice bran contains high amounts of natural antioxidants that consist of water- and lipid-soluble compounds. Hexane-insoluble and hexane-soluble fractions were separated from 100% methanolic extract from purple rice bran (RBE-HI and RBE-HS, respectively). Total anthocyanin, tannin, flavonoid, and phenolics contents were determined in those fractions, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capability, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and iron chelating capability (ICC). RBE-HI and RBE-HS were also added to restructured patties made from minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. Lipid oxidation, color, and/or textural properties were determined for raw and cooked patties during a 12-d storage at 4 degrees C. All antioxidant indices, except for ICC, of RBE-HI were significantly higher than those of RBE-HS due probably to its higher anthocyanin content (P < 0.05). RBE-HS showed higher ICC (P < 0.05). However, both fractions showed similar antioxidant activity in raw and cooked patties during storage, resulting from the complexity of antioxidant action in food systems. Textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness) in cooked patties with RBE-HS and RBE-HI were well maintained during storage, but changed significantly in the control (P < 0.05). Only RBE-HS limited microbial growth in raw patties during storage (P < 0.05), but its inhibitory effect was marginal because of low-dose and physical interactions with the matrix. L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of raw and cooked patties decreased significantly by both fractions, whereas b* (yellowness) was significantly decreased by RBE-HI and increased by RBE-HS (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that purple rice bran extract is applicable to meat products as a natural preservative, but color change in the products may limit its application.

  18. Impact of Debaryomyces hansenii strains inoculation on the quality of slow dry-cured fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Cano-García, Liliana; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-04-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii strains, M4 and P2, isolated from natural fermented sausages were inoculated in slow fermented sausages to study their effect on processing parameters, microbial population, volatile compound and sensory characteristics. The inoculation of D. hansenii strains, M4 and P2, did not affect the ripening process as no differences in pH and Aw were detected. The dominance of the inoculated yeast strains along the process was followed by RAPDs of M13 minisatellite. The inoculated yeasts, P2 and M4, were recovered at the end of the ripening process although P2 appeared in higher counts than M4. The sausages inoculated with P2 resulted in a decrease in lipid oxidation values (TBARS) and a reduction of lipid-oxidation derived aldehydes in addition to a highest acid compound abundance. M4 inoculated sausages resulted in highest sulphur containing compound abundance. However, no differences in consumer acceptance were detected. Moreover, both yeast strains were responsible for the generation of ethyl methyl-branched ester compounds in the dry-cured sausages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteriological Survey of Fresh Pork Sausage Produced at Establishments Under Federal Inspection1

    PubMed Central

    Surkiewicz, Bernard F.; Johnston, Ralph W.; Elliott, R. Paul; Simmons, E. Ruth

    1972-01-01

    At the time of manufacture, 75% of 67 sets of finished fresh pork sausage collected in 44 plants had aerobic plate counts in the range of 500,000 or fewer/g; 88% contained 100 or fewer E. coli/g; and 75% contained 100 or fewer S. aureus/g (geometric means of 10 samples). Salmonellae were isolated from 28% of 529 samples of pork trimmings used for sausage, and from 28% of 560 finished sausage samples. Semiquantitative analysis revealed that salmonellae were at low levels; more than 80% of the salmonellae-positive samples were positive only in 25-g portions (negative in 1.0- and 0.1-g portions). PMID:4553799

  20. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p<0.05). The redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of reduced-fat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (p<0.05). With increasing BSG pre-emulsion concentration, the fat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05). The BSG pre-emulsion improves the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05), and the reduction in fat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages. PMID:26760933

  1. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  2. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Yoen; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage.

  3. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  4. Textural and sensory properties of low fat pork sausages with added hydrated oatmeal and tofu as texture-modifying agents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Sung-Gil; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Park, Gu-Boo; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2007-02-01

    Low fat sausages were prepared with added hydrated oatmeal or tofu as texture-modifying agents at levels of 10%, 15%, and 25% (w/w), respectively. The effects of the type and level of texture-modifying agents on the physical and sensory properties of low fat sausages were investigated. The water-holding capacity in sausage products increased by increasing the hydrated oatmeal level, but no significant differences was observed by the addition of tofu. The higher level of the agents produced a sausage product with less cooking loss and with a softer texture. The moisture absorption measurements suggest that the decrease in hardness of oatmeal-added sausage products may be due to the higher water-retention properties of oatmeal in response to heat treatment, while that of tofu-added sausage products may be associated with a weaker internal structure of tofu than the pork loin. The sensory evaluations indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in a low fat sausage was attained when the hydrated oatmeal or tofu were at their 15% addition level, respectively.

  5. Field Feeding System to Support USMC Forces in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Swedish Meatballs Ham Slices Beef Pot Roast/Gravy Franks/Brine Chili Con Carne Roast Beef/Gravy Spaghetti/ Meatballs Canadian Bacon/Brinea Stuffed...Peppers Roast Chicken/Gravy Pork/BBQ Sauce Entrees Creamed Ground Beefa Beef Swiss Steak/Gravy Pork Sausage Linksa Scrambled Eggs /Hama Turkey...83. At the time of the analysis there were no commercially available Tray Pack breakfast items. Due to their nature, breakfast entrees (i.e., eggs

  6. Effect of carrageenan level and packaging during ripening on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages produced with olive oil.

    PubMed

    Koutsopoulos, D A; Koutsimanis, G E; Bloukas, J G

    2008-05-01

    Eight low-fat fermented sausages were produced with partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil. The total fat content of the sausages was 10% of which 8% was animal fat and 2% was olive oil. The sausages were produced with two types of carrageenan (ι- and κ-) in four levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). ι-Carrageenan had a better effect (p<0.05) than κ-carrageenan on such characteristics as pH, weight loss and lipid oxidation of the sausages, as well as, on sensory attributes. Low-fat fermented sausages with κ-carrageenan had the same (p>0.05) firmness as high-fat commercial sausages (control). The carrageenan level of 3% negatively affected the firmness of the sausages. In a 2nd experiment, a high-fat control (30% total fat) and three low-fat fermented sausages (10% total fat) with olive oil were produced with three levels of ι-carrageenan (0%, 1% and 2%). Low-fat sausages were vacuum packed for the last two weeks of ripening. ι-Carrageenan added at levels up to 2% had a positive effect (p<0.05) on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the low-fat fermented sausages. The application of vacuum packaging over last two weeks of ripening improved the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the sausages and resulted in sensory attributes equal to or better than the high-fat controls.

  7. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05) improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato). Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01) contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake. PMID:23595133

  8. State Patty's Day: College Student Drinking and Local Crime Increased on a Student-Constructed Holiday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Patrick, Megan E.; Morgan, Nicole R.; Bezemer, Denille H.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    College student alcohol consumption is a major concern, and is known to increase during the celebration of special events. This study examined a student-constructed holiday, State Patty's Day, at a university with a dominant drinking culture using three sources of data--coded data from Facebook groups, daily web surveys from first-year students (N…

  9. The Shape of a Sausage: A Challenging Problem in the Calculus of Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Many familiar household objects (such as sausages) involve the maximization of a volume under geometric constraints. A flexible but inextensible membrane bounds a volume which is to be filled to capacity. In the case of the sausage, a full analytic solution is here provided. Other related but more difficult problems seem to demand approximate…

  10. Application of Baechu-Kimchi Powder and GABA-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Hun; Kang, Ki Moon

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical, microbiological, and quality characteristics of a new type of fermented sausage manufactured by incorporating Baechu-kimchi powder and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count was at the maximum level by day nine of ripening in inoculated sausages, accompanied by a rapid decrease in the pH. The addition of kimchi powder decreased the lightness (L*) and increased the redness (a*) and, yellowness (b*) values, while also significantly increasing the hardness and chewiness of the sausage (p<0.05). Moreover, although the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased in all samples during the study period, this increase was lower in the kimchi-treated samples, indicating a reduction in lipid oxidation. Overall, our results show that the addition of Baechu-kimchi powder to sausages reduced the off-flavor properties and improved the taste profile of the fermented sausage in sensory evaluations. The GABA content of all fermented sausages increased from 17.42-25.14 mg/kg on the third day of fermentation to 60.95-61.47 mg/kg on the thirtieth day. These results demonstrate that Baechu-kimchi powder and GABA-producing LAB could be functional materials in fermented sausage to improve quality characteristics. PMID:29725201

  11. Application of high pressure processing to reduce verotoxigenic E. coli in two types of dry-fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Omer, M K; Alvseike, O; Holck, A; Axelsson, L; Prieto, M; Skjerve, E; Heir, E

    2010-12-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the survival of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in two types of Norwegian type dry-fermented sausages was studied. Two different types of recipes for each sausage type were produced. The sausage batter was inoculated with 6.8 log(10) CFU/g of VTEC O103:H25. After fermentation, drying and maturation, slices of finished sausages were vacuum packed and subjected to two treatment regimes of HPP. One group was treated at 600 MPa for 10 min and another at three cycles of 600 MPa for 200 s per cycle. A generalized linear model split by recipe type showed that these two HPP treatments on standard recipe sausages reduced E. coli by 2.9 log(10) CFU/g and 3.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. In the recipe with higher levels of dextrose, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite E. coli reduction was 2.7 log(10) CFU/g in both treatments. The data show that HPP has a potential to make the sausages safer and also that the effect depends somewhat on recipe. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz; Filali, Fouzia Rhazi; El Allaoui, Abdellah; Sfendla, Anis

    2017-01-01

    In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different factors affecting it contamination with this bacterium. To this end, 156 samples of sausages were taken in various shopping sites during one year from March 2014 to February 2015. The microbiological analysis was carried out using the specific medium for isolation and identification of C. perfringens. ANOVA test was used for Statistical analysis (p< 0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of C. perfringens in 77.56% (121 of 156) samples, with 88.88% (32 of 36) in street vendors, 79.16% (19 of 24) in a weekly market, 70.83% (51 of 72) in butchery and 62.5% (15 of 24) in a supermarket. The average rate was 2.42 Log CFU/g, with a minimum value of 0 CFU/g recorded in several outlets and a maximum value of 6.05 Log CFU/g recorded in butchery. This study reveals that the contamination rate of sausages with C. perfringens is related to the sausages origin, retail sites and seasonal variations related to temperature increase. PMID:29201661

  13. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y., E-mail: yylau@umich.edu

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kinkmore » and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode.« less

  14. Effect of sous vide processing on physicochemical, ultrastructural, microbial and sensory changes in vacuum packaged chicken sausages.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Khansole, Panjab S; Shashi Kumar, M; Krishnaiah, N; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Deepak, S J

    2017-01-01

    The processing of sous vide chicken sausages was optimized under vacuum packaging condition and cooking at 100 ℃ for 30 min (SV30), 60 min (SV60) and 120 min (SV120) and compared with aerobically cooked control at 100 ℃ for 30 min. Sous vide processing of chicken sausages (SV30) produced higher (p < 0.05) cooking yield, Hunterlab a* values and sensory attributes without affecting proximate composition and shear force values relative to control. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy results revealed no significant changes in protein quality and emulsion ultra-structure due to SV30 processing relative to control sausages. Sous vide processing of chicken sausages enriched with rosemary diterpene phenols retained the freshness and quality up to 120 days during storage at 4 ± 1 ℃ relative to control sausages that were spoiled on 20th day. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth remained below the spoilage levels for all the SV-processed sausages throughout the storage and addition of rosemary diterpene mixture at 0.02% v/w reduced the microbial growth and improved (p < 0.05) the sensory attributes. Our results demonstrate that sous vide processing minimizes lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken sausages with improved product quality and shelf-life at 4 ± 1 ℃. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The effect of yeast extract addition on quality of fermented sausages at low NaCl content.

    PubMed

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Wagner, Roger; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Fermented sausages with 25% or 50% of their NaCl replaced by KCl and supplemented with 1% or 2% concentrations of yeast extract were produced. The sausage production process was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. After production, the sausage samples were submitted to a consumer study and their volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The replacement of NaCl by KCl did not significantly influence the physical, chemical or microbiological characteristics. The sensory quality of the fermented sausages with a 50% replacement was poor compared with the full-salt control samples. The use of yeast extract at a 2% concentration increased volatile compounds that arose from amino acids and carbohydrate catabolism. These compounds contributed to the suppression of the sensory-quality defects caused by the KCl introduction, thus enabling the production of safe fermented sausages that have acceptable sensory qualities with half as much sodium content. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Miklos, Rikke; Lametsch, René; Arnau, Jacint

    2013-03-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of cryoprotectant levels on storage stability of surimi from Nemipterus japonicus and quality of surimi-based products.

    PubMed

    U, Parvathy; George, Sajan

    2014-05-01

    A study was undertaken with the aim of reducing the concentration of cryoprotectants in surimi without adversely affecting frozen storage stability. Minced meat from a tropical fish, Nemipterus japonicus, was strained, water leached and mixed with different levels of sucrose-sorbitol (1:1) mixture (henceforth called sugar mixture), quick frozen at -35 °C and frozen stored at -20 °C. The surimi samples were subjected to storage stability studies for a period of 5 months. Water leaching resulted in slight absorption of water by meat and reduction in protein, fat and mineral contents. Surimi was found to have moderately white colour. Sensory evaluation studies were conducted on three products, viz., sausage, patty and cake, prepared using surimi containing different concentrations of sugar mixture. Sugar mixture content varying from 0% (control) to 4% in surimi resulted in products that were more acceptable to the taste panelists compared those with 6% and 8% sugar mixture. During frozen storage of surimi pH and total plate count remained nearly steady for all sugar mixture concentrations and throughout the storage period. Moisture content appeared to remain constant during storage, but decreased with increase in sugar concentration. The salt soluble nitrogen content of surimi and gel strength of sausage prepared from it decreased with storage period in all surimi samples, and increased with sugar mixture concentration. Expressible water content of surimi sausage showed an increasing trend with storage period of surimi and a decreasing trend with sugar mixture concentration. Sensory evaluation parameters-elasticity, sweetness and preference-remained more or less steady during storage. However elasticity and sweetness increased and preference decreased with sugar mixture concentration beyond 4%. Elasticity and gel strength of surimi sausage seemed to be much lower for control compared to even the lowest concentration of sugar (2%) used. A concentration of 2 to 4

  19. Nutritional value and potential chemical food safety hazards of selected Polish sausages as influenced by their traditionality.

    PubMed

    Halagarda, Michał; Kędzior, Władysław; Pyrzyńska, Ewa

    2018-05-01

    Traditional food products have been regaining consumer interest worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in nutritional value of traditional and conventional Polish sausages and to determine potential chemical hazards connected with these products. The research material consisted of 5 varieties of registered traditional sausages and 4 varieties of conventional sausages. The nutritional value was identified based on selected indicators: protein, fat, NaCl, total ash, water, Feder's number, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Zn, Cr, Cu; whereas the chemical food safety - based on: nitrates and nitrites, total and added phosphorus, Cd, Pb. The results of this study show that traditional sausages have higher content of protein, zinc, magnesium and potassium as well as lower concentrations of calcium, water and total ash, plus lower water to protein ratio in comparison to conventional counterparts. Polyphosphates are not used in the production of traditional sausages and the amounts of added nitrites are at low levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is there a potential consumer market for low-sodium fermented sausages?

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Bibiana A; Campagnol, Paulo C B; da Cruz, Adriano G; Morgano, Marcelo A; Wagner, Roger; Pollonio, Marise A R

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl levels in dry fermented sausages were reduced by 50% or were substituted with KCl, CaCl2 , or a blend of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). The quality, safety, and the potential consumer market of dry fermented sausages were assessed. Neither 50% reduction of the NaCl content nor the substitution of 50% of the NaCl with KCl influenced the fermentation and maturation process. However, when CaCl2 was used as the substitute salt (50%), there was a significant decrease in pH, an increase in the water activity, and a decrease in lactic acid and micrococcus bacterial counts. Overall, the sensory acceptance decreased in dry fermented sausages with reduced sodium content. However, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping revealed potential for commercialization of samples with 50% of the NaCl content substituted with KCl or with a mixture of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible products produced in whole or in part from beef, exclusive of milk and products made therefrom. ...

  2. Safety improvement and preservation of typical sensory qualities of traditional dry fermented sausages using autochthonous starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Lebert, Isabelle; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Latorre-Moratalla, Mariluz; Vidal-Carou, Carmen; Zanardi, Emanuela; Conter, Mauro; Lebecque, Annick

    2008-08-15

    Traditional dry fermented sausages are manufactured without addition of starter cultures in small-scale processing units, their fermentation relying on indigenous microflora. Characterisation and control of these specific bacteria are essential for the sensory quality and the safety of the sausages. The aim of this study was to develop an autochthonous starter culture that improves safety while preserving the typical sensory characteristics of traditional sausages. An autochthonous starter composed of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus isolated from a traditional fermented sausage was developed. These strains were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and their production of biogenic amines. This starter was evaluated in situ at the French traditional processing unit where the strains had been isolated. Effects of the autochthonous starter were assessed by analysing the microbial, physico-chemical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of the sausages. Inoculation with the chosen species was confirmed using known species-specific PCR assays for L. sakei and S. equorum and a species-specific PCR assay developed in this study for S. succinus. Strains were monitored by pulse-field gel electrophoresis typing. Addition of autochthonous microbial starter cultures improved safety compared with the traditional natural fermentation of sausages, by inhibiting the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, decreasing the level of biogenic amines and by limiting fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation. Moreover, autochthonous starter did not affect the typical sensory quality of the traditional sausages. This is the first time to our knowledge that selection, development and validation in situ of autochthonous starter cultures have been carried out, and also the first time that S. equorum together with S. succinus have been used as starter cultures for meat fermentation. Use of autochthonous starter cultures is an effective tool for limiting

  3. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  4. Ochratoxin A reduction in meat sausages using processing methods practiced in households.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Kovačević, Dragan; Vulić, Ana; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of ochratoxin A (OTA) reduction in home-made meat products. Meat sausages (n = 50) produced from raw materials coming from pigs exposed to OTA-contaminated feed, were subject to common heat processes practiced in households (cooking, frying and baking). Concentrations of OTA in pre- and post-processed products were quantified using a validated immunoassay method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and confirmed using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In line with the differences in recipes used and the degree of OTA accumulation in raw materials, OTA concentrations established in Mediterranean and roast sausages were lower than those found in liver and blood sausages. Baking of contaminated sausages at the temperatures of 190-220°C (for 60 min) resulted in significant reduction of OTA levels (75.8%), while 30-min cooking (at 100°C) and frying (at 170°C) proved to be significantly less effective (e.g. yielding OTA reductions of 7.4% and 12.6%, respectively). The results pointed out that despite high OTA stability, heat processes are capable of reducing its concentration in home-made meat products, depending on the processing modality used.

  5. Oxidation phenomena and color properties of grape pomace on nitrite-reduced meat emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Fatemeh; Zeynali, Fariba; Hoseini, Ebrahim; Behmadi, Homa; Savadkoohi, Sobhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of different levels of red grape pomace (1 and 2%, w/w) on the color changes, lipid oxidation (TBARS), antioxidant activity, microbial counts, total phenol content and sensory attributes of the sausages formulated with various levels of sodium nitrite (30, 60 and 120mg/kg). It was found that the addition of grape pomace (1%, w/w) in combination of reduced nitrite levels to the beef sausage samples reduced TBARS content and the degree of lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity and total phenol contents were further evaluated based on DPPH scavenging activity method. A significant reduction in lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of systems containing grape pomace was observed, following by an increase in the oxidative stability and the radical scavenging activity. Acceptability of beef sausages was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the addition of grape pomace and had relatively greater scores from a sensory point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Image analysis with the computer vision system and the consumer test in evaluating the appearance of Lucanian dry sausage.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Di Bello, Gerardo; Braghieri, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The object of the investigation was the Lucanian dry sausage appearance, meant as color and visible fat ratio. The study was carried out on dry sausages produced in 10 different salami factories and seasoned for 18 days on average. We studied the effect of the raw material origin (5 producers used meat bought from the market and other 5 producers used meat from pigs bred in their farms) and of the salami factories or brands on meat color, fat color and visible fat ratio in dry sausages. The sausages slices were photographed and the images were analysed with the computer vision system to measure the changes in the colorimetric characteristics L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma and in the visible fat area ratio. The last parameter was assessed on the slice surface using image binarization. A consumer test was conducted to determine the relationship between the perception of visible fat on the sausage slice surface and acceptability and preference of this product. The consumers were asked to look carefully at the 6 sausages slices in a photo, minding the presence of fat, and to identify (a) the slices they considered unacceptable for consumption and (b) the slice they preferred. The results show that the color of the sausage lean part varies in relation to the raw material employed and to the producer or brand (P<0.001). Besides, the sausage meat color is not uniform in some salami factories (P<0.05-0.001). In all salami factories the sausages show a high uniformity in fat color. The visible fat ratio of the sausages slices is higher (P<0.001) in the product from salami factories without pig-breeding farm. The fat percentage is highly variable (P<0.001) among the sausages of each salami factory. On the whole, the product the consumers consider acceptable and is inclined to eat has a low fat percentage (P<0.001). Our consumers (about 70%) prefer slices which are leaner (P<0.001). Women, in particular, show a higher preference for the leanest (P<0.001). © 2013.

  7. Investigation of the Effects of Inulin and β-Glucan on the Physical and Sensory Properties of Low-Fat Beef Burgers Containing Vegetable Oils: Optimisation of the Formulation Using D-Optimal Mixture Design

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Roya; Khaksar, Ramin; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Amiri, Zohre; Komeili, Rozita; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, the D-optimal mixture design methodology was applied to determine the optimised proportions of inulin, β-glucan and breadcrumbs in formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing pre-emulsified canola and olive oil blend. Also, the effect of each of the ingredients individually as well as their interactions on cooking characteristics, texture, colour and sensory properties of low-fat beef burgers were investigated. The results of this study revealed that the increase of inulin content in the formulations of burgers led to lower cooking yield, moisture retention and increased lightness, overall acceptability, mouldability and desired textural parameters. In contrast, incorporation of β-glucan increased the cooking yield, moisture retention and decreased lightness, overall acceptability, mouldability and desired textural parameters of burger patties. The interaction between inulin and β-glucan improved the cooking characteristics of the burgers without significantly negative effect on the colour or sensory properties. The results of the study clearly stated that the optimum mixture for the burger formulation consisted of (in g per 100 g): inulin 3.1, β-glucan 2.2 and breadcrumbs 2.7. The texture parameters and cooking characteristics were improved by using the mixture of inulin, β-glucan and breadcrumbs, without any negative effects on the sensory properties of the burgers. PMID:27904378

  8. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage.

  9. The effect of hyaluronic acid addition on the properties of smoked homogenised sausages.

    PubMed

    Zając, Marzena; Kulawik, Piotr; Tkaczewska, Joanna; Migdał, Władysław; Filipczak-Fiutak, Magda; Fiutak, Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    This research studied the possibility of using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a food additive for meat emulsions to create a novel functional food with improved rheological and water binding properties. Sausages with 200 and 500 g kg -1 water addition were supplemented with 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g kg -1 of HA and stored for 14 days in vacuum. Rheology, texture, weight losses, proximate composition and microbiological analyses were performed together with the sensory evaluation of produced sausages. Surprisingly, the results show that the addition of 0.05 and 0.1 g kg -1 HA reduced yield and the stability of meat emulsion by causing water outflow from the product and decreased the sensory scores of the produced sausages. The sausage with 500 g kg -1 water and 0.01 g kg -1 HA addition was the only economically viable option for introducing the product on the market. HA has a potential of being a perfect functional food additive for meat industry, although further research regarding processing conditions should be performed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Detection and genome characterization of bovine polyomaviruses in beef muscle and ground beef samples from Germany.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, Donina; Ehlers, Bernhard; Mäde, Dietrich; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Seidler, Tassilo; Johne, Reimar

    2017-01-16

    Polyomaviruses are small, non-enveloped, circular double-stranded DNA viruses. Some polyomaviruses can induce tumors and cancer under certain circumstances. The bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) 1-3 have been only scarcely analyzed so far. It was hypothesized that the consumption of beef meat containing polyomaviruses could contribute to the development of cancer in humans. In order to assess the distribution of the BPyV genome in meat from Germany, 101 beef muscle samples and 10 ground beef samples were analyzed here. A specific sample preparation method combined with or without rolling circle amplification (RCA), and BPyV-specific PCRs were developed and applied. BPyV-1 DNA was detected in 1/101 (1%) samples from beef meat and in 2/10 (20%) ground beef samples. BPyV-2 DNA was detected in 3/10 (30%) ground beef samples, whereas BPyV-3 was not detected in the samples. Application of RCA did not increase the detection rate in ground beef samples. Sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated the presence of BPyV-1, BPyV-2a and BPyV-2b. The whole genome of a BPyV-1 strain from ground beef meat showed 97.8% sequence identity to the BPyV-1 reference strain and that of a BPyV-2a strain from ground beef meet showed 99.9% sequence identity to strain 2aS11. It can be concluded that BPyV genomes can be frequently detected in ground beef samples, although higher sample numbers should be investigated in future to confirm this finding. Further studies should focus on the infectivity, tumorigenicity and heat resistance of the contained viruses in order to assess the risk of cancer induction through consumption of BPyVs present in beef products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polysaccharides in Spirulina platensis Improve Antioxidant Capacity of Chinese-Style Sausage.

    PubMed

    Luo, Aiguo; Feng, Jia; Hu, Bianfang; Lv, Junping; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Xie, Shulian

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the effect of Spirulina platensis polysaccharides (SPP) at 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (wt/wt) of Chinese-style sausages on lipid peroxidation, microbiological and sensory properties during 24 d stored at 4 °C. During the storage, pH, lightness (L * ) values, DPPH radical scavenging activity and sensory scores decreased with time and TBARS, TVB-N, mesophilic, and psychrotrophic total viable counts increased. However, the magnitude of the changes was attenuated with the addition of SPP as compared to control. Samples containing SPP had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lower TBARS values compared with the control, and the antioxidant effect was dose-dependent. The addition of 0.5% SPP maintained stable redness (a * ) values of sausages, although there was no positive effect on the microbiological status. Moreover, the addition of SPP prevented the decrease of aroma, flavor and sensory acceptance of samples. The results suggested incorporation of SPP could decrease lipid peroxidation and improve sensory properties of Chinese-style sausage. There is a great need for adding natural antioxidants to healthier meat and meat products. Spirulina platensis polysaccharides (SPP) had strong antioxidant activity. The addition of SPP to Chinese-style pork sausage could inhibit lipid peroxidation, to extend the shelf life of meat products. SPP were very potential to be used to replace synthetic antioxidants in meat and meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked sausages by migration into polyethylene packaging.

    PubMed

    Semanová, Jana; Skláršová, Božena; Šimon, Peter; Šimko, Peter

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work was a study of interactions between a smoked meat product and plastic packaging to find a possibility of elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from smoked sausages by migration into the packaging. Smoked meat sausages were packed into o-polyamide/low density polyethylene laminated film and content of four PAH was determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min by HPLC. During this time, total PAH4 content decreased from 30.1 to 5.7 μg/kg, benzo[a]anthracene decreased from 11.5 to 2.1 μg/kg, chrysene from 9.4 to 1.9 μg/kg, benzo[b]fluoranthene from 5.3 to 0.6 μg/kg and benzo[a]pyrene from 3.9 to 1.1 μg/kg while PAH4 content in non-packed sausages remained at a constant level. So, while sausages did not meet European safety limits set for PAH4 content of 12 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene before packaging, these limits were met at the end of the experiment. This decrease was brought about by migration of PAH4 from sausages into low density polyethylene packaging bulk and the measure of decrease can be predicted by a kinetic equation, making it possible to calculate PAH content equal to any time of experiment as well as the time of interaction necessary to fulfil EU legislative limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Konjac gel as pork backfat replacer in dry fermented sausages: processing and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Herrero, A M; Rodriguez-Salas, L; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2012-10-01

    The effect of replacing animal fat (0%, 50% and 80% of pork backfat) by an equal proportion of konjac gel, on processing and quality characteristics of reduced and low-fat dry fermented sausage was studied. Weight loss, pH, and water activity of the sausage were affected (P<0.05) by fat reduction and processing time. Low lipid oxidation levels were observed during processing time irrespective of the dry sausage formulation. The fat content for normal-fat (NF), reduced-fat (RF) and low-fat (LF) sausages was 29.96%, 19.69% and 13.79%, respectively. This means an energy reduction of about 14.8% for RF and 24.5% for LF. As the fat content decreases there is an increase (P<0.05) in hardness and chewiness and a decrease (P<0.05) in cohesiveness. No differences were appreciated (P>0.05) in the presence of microorganisms as a result of the reformulation. The sensory panel considered that NF and RF products had acceptable sensory characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of small peptides arising from hydrolysis of meat proteins in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    López, Constanza M; Bru, Elena; Vignolo, Graciela M; Fadda, Silvina G

    2015-06-01

    In this study, proteolysis and low molecular weight (LMW) peptides (<3kDa) from commercial Argentinean fermented sausages were characterized by applying a peptidomic approach. Protein profiles and peptides obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC-MS, respectively, allowed distinguishing two different types of fermented sausages, although no specific biomarkers relating to commercial brands or quality were recognized. From electrophoresis, α-actin, myoglobin, creatine kinase M-type and L-lactate dehydrogenase were degraded at different intensities. In addition, a partial characterization of fermented sausage peptidome through the identification of 36 peptides, in the range of 1000-2100 Da, arising from sarcoplasmic (28) and myofibrillar (8) proteins was achieved. These peptides had been originated from α-actin, myoglobin, and creatine kinase M-type, but also from the hydrolysis of other proteins not previously reported. Although muscle enzymes exerted a major role on peptidogenesis, microbial contribution cannot be excluded as it was postulated herein. This work represents a first peptidomic approach for fermented sausages, thereby providing a baseline to define key peptides acting as potential biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the ripening time under vacuum and packaging film permeability on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Liaros, N G; Katsanidis, E; Bloukas, J G

    2009-12-01

    The effect of vacuum ripening of low-fat fermented sausages packaged in films with different permeabilities on their microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics was studied. High-fat control sausages were produced with 30% initial fat and low-fat sausages with 10% initial fat. The low-fat sausages were separated into: (a) non-packaged (control) and (b) packaged under vacuum on 7th, 12th and 17th day of processing, remaining under vacuum during the ripening period for 21, 16 and 11days, respectively, in three different oxygen (100, 38 and⩽5cm(3)/m(2)/24h/1atm) and water vapour (4.5, <2.5 and 1g/m(2)24h) permeability plastic bags. Vacuum packaging reduced (p<0.05) the weight loss, the hardness and extent of lipid oxidation in the sausages, increased (p<0.05) their lightness, but had no effect (p>0.05) on the redness, compared to the control sausages. Packaging low-fat fermented sausages under vacuum for the last 11days of ripening in packaging film with high permeability increased (p<0.05) the lactic acid bacteria count. The same product packaged in film with medium permeability had a higher (p<0.05) Micrococcaceae count and the same (p>0.05) hardness and overall acceptability as the high-fat control sausages. A ripening time of 11days and the medium packaging film permeability were the most appropriate conditions for the vacuum packaging of low-fat fermented sausages.

  16. Correlation between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage and almonds during masticatory performance test.

    PubMed

    Sumonsiri, P; Thongudomporn, U; Paphangkorakit, J

    2018-04-27

    The correlation between chewing and gastric function is best reflected when the same food type is used during both tests. We proposed frankfurter sausage as test food for masticatory performance as it can also be used in gastric emptying test. The suitability of frankfurter sausage to determine masticatory performance, however, has never been examined. To examine the correlations between the median particle size of frankfurter sausage and almonds (as standard test food) after different numbers of chewing cycles. Twenty-seven subjects performed masticatory performance tests by chewing 2 types of test foods, that is, a piece of almond or 5-g frankfurter sausage cubes placed in a sealed latex bag, for 5 and 15 chewing cycles. For each individual, right and left sides were tested separately. Chewed samples obtained from both sides were pooled. Median particle sizes were determined using a multiple sieving method. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine any correlation between median particle sizes of the 2 test foods after 5 and 15 cycles. Median particle sizes after 5 and 15 cycles were 2.04 ± 0.87 and 0.95 ± 0.58 mm for almonds and 4.16 ± 0.19 and 3.73 ± 0.25 mm for frankfurter sausage, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage after 15 cycles and that of chewed almonds after 5 and 15 cycles (r = .76, P < .01 and r = .52, P = .01, respectively). Frankfurter sausage chewed for 15 cycles may be suitable for the determination of masticatory performance in conjunction with gastric emptying test. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM. PMID:27621694

  18. Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM.

  19. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  20. Mechanical properties of a Gelidium corneum edible film containing catechin and its application in sausages.

    PubMed

    Ku, K-J; Hong, Y-H; Song, K B

    2008-04-01

    We prepared an edible Gelidium corneum (GC) film containing catechin and examined the microbial growth and quality change during storage of sausages packaged with the film. Incorporation of catechin in the film improved film tensile strength and water vapor permeability. The film's antimicrobial activity against Eschericha coli O157:H7 increased with increasing catechin concentrations and resulted in a decrease in the populations of the bacteria by 1.93 log CFU/g at 150 mg of catechin. For the sausage samples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, the samples packed with the GC film showed a decrease in populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 1.81 and 1.44 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 5 d of storage. In addition, the sausage samples packed with the GC film had lower degrees of lipid oxidation. The results suggest that sausages can be packed with GC film to extend shelf life.

  1. Beef, Real Food for Real People: An Industrial Analysis of the Beef Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    poultry . In 1989 Amrericans spent an average of $3.89 per person per week on beef products. Consumer bought $21 billion in beef products in 1989; they...or decreases in price. If the price of beef gets to high, consumers will switch their purchase to another red meat, poultry or seafood. TECHNOLOGY...The beginning of organized labor in meatpacking occurred with the -- •formation of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workman of North America

  2. On the nature of fast sausage waves in coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Karam

    2018-05-01

    The effect of the parameters of coronal loops on the nature of fast sausage waves are investigated. To do this three models of the coronal loop considered, a simple loop model, a current-carrying loop model and a model with radially structured density called "Inner μ" profile. For all the models the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations solved analytically in the linear approximation and the restoring forces of oscillations obtained. The ratio of the magnetic tension force to the pressure gradient force obtained as a function of the distance from the axis of the loop. In the simple loop model for all values of the loop parameters the fast sausages wave have a mixed nature of Alfvénic and fast MHD waves, in the current-carrying loop model with thick annulus and low density contrast the fast sausage waves can be considered as purely Alfvénic wave in the core region of the loop, and in the "Inner μ" profile for each set of the parameters of the loop the wave can be considered as a purely Alfvénic wave in some regions of the loop.

  3. Pasting characteristics of starch-lipid composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch-lipid composites (SLC) have been used as fat replacers and stabilizers in beef patties, dairy products, and baked goods. The SLC are produced by mixing aqueous starch slurry with a lipid source, and steam jet-cooking. The SLC may be dried using a drum drier and then milled in a Retch mill. ...

  4. Optimum hexametaphosphate concentration to inhibit efflorescence formation in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Walz, Felix H; Gibis, Monika; Fritz, Maren; Herrmann, Kurt; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of efflorescences on the surface of dry fermented sausages represents a current issue for the meat processing industry. Preventing the efflorescence formation by the addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) was shown to be promising in a previous study. The optimum SHMP addition was studied by adding SHMP (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0g/kg) directly to the sausage batter. Visual and chemical analyses were conducted during 8weeks of storage under modified atmosphere. Visual analyses revealed significant lower amounts of efflorescences on the sausage surface after 8weeks when 1.0 (27.1%), 3.0 (9.0%), and 5.0g/kg SHMP (3.4%) were added, compared to the control with 38.0% efflorescences. SHMP significantly affected the occurrence (8weeks) of magnesium on the surface: +85.5%, +23.7%, +3.5%, and -28.2% for 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0g/kg, respectively. The addition of 4.785g/kg was calculated to fully inhibit the formation of efflorescences by complexing magnesium ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  6. Chemical and optical characterization of white efflorescences on dry fermented sausages under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Walz, Felix H; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-11-01

    Dry fermented sausages that are packed under modified atmosphere are often affected by the formation of white crystals on the surface. These so called efflorescences are rejected by consumers and lead to high financial losses for the meat processing industry. In this study, the distribution of efflorescence-causing components was investigated over the sausage profile during 8 weeks of storage under modified atmosphere at 4 °C. In addition, two visual methods (image and sensory analyses) were compared regarding the ability to quantify the efflorescence content. The initial formation of efflorescences was observed after 2 weeks (7%). After 4 weeks of storage, 23.4% of the sausage surface was covered with efflorescences, and the amount of efflorescences did not change significantly by the end of storage. Furthermore, chemical analyses revealed that magnesium (increased by 98.1%), lactate (increased by 54.2%) and creatine (increased by 51.8%) are enriched on the sausage surface during storage. Sensory and image analyses lead to comparable results (r = 0.992) and therefore both are suitable to quantify the amount of efflorescences. The moisture gradient in the interior of the sausages which is built upon drying is supposed to be the driving force for the movement of efflorescence-causing compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The sensory quality of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages during storage.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Brodowska, Marta; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Górska-Horczyczak, Elżbieta; Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Wojtasik-Kalinowska, Iwona; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    New meat products tailored to consumer health should be characterised by reduced sodium, fat and cholesterol contents and other health-promoting benefits. However, the food sector's greatest challenge is allergen-free production. Consumers are not willing to compromise the sensory quality of meat products for health. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of the storage time on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages. The study focused on pork-ostrich sausages produced in accordance with a new patented technology, which focused on eliminating cross-contamination on-line in the plant, eliminating cross-contamination after preparation, and eliminating spices with high allergy potential. The production was focused on reducing fat (by approximately 50%) and salt (by approximately 30%) levels. No changes in the texture parameters of the sausage were observed during storage time; however, some changes in colour were observed. There were no significant differences in sensory consumer acceptability of pork-ostrich sausage after 14 days of storage; thus, it may be stated that the instrumentally assessed differences in colour did not influence consumer acceptance. The applied fat and NaCl reduction in the pork-ostrich sausages contributed to high consumer ratings and was not correlated with saltiness acceptability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Monitoring of staphylococcal starters in two French processing plants manufacturing dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Corbiere Morot-Bizot, S; Leroy, S; Talon, R

    2007-01-01

    The growth and survival of Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus were monitored during sausage manufacture in two processing plants. The gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci isolated from the processing plants F10 and F11 were identified by Staphylococcus-specific PCR and species-specific oligonucleotide array. In the inoculated products with starter cultures, 90% of staphylococcal strains isolated in F10 were identified as S. xylosus and 10% as S. carnosus. In F11, 77% were identified as S. xylosus and 20% as S. carnosus. Staphylococcus xylosus dominated the staphylococcal microbiota while S. carnosus survived during the process. The pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that all S. xylosus and S. carnosus strains isolated corresponded to the starter strains inoculated. The two starter strains of S. xylosus co-dominated in the isolates from sausages of F11, whereas the strain with pattern A1 was dominant in the isolates from sausages of F10. In the environments, no S. carnosus and S. xylosus were found, whereas Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were the main species isolated. This work highlighted the domination of S. xylosus starter strains, which showed a strong capacity to grow during sausage process, while S. carnosus survived during the process. Successful implantation of starter cultures is obviously a prerequisite for their contribution to sensorial qualities. Thus, the monitoring of the growth and the survival of S. xylosus and S. carnosus are required to guarantee a well-adapted starter culture. This study revealed that the two Staphylococcus species are suitable for manufacturing sausages in processing plants with very different capacities of production.

  9. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  10. Impact on the physical and sensory properties of salt-and fat-reduced traditional Irish breakfast sausages on various age cohorts acceptance.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Paula M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-09-01

    The properties of varying salt and fat levels in traditional breakfast sausages were investigated. Sausages were produced with fat levels of: 30%, 20% and 15%. Fat was replaced with pea extract. Salt levels employed were: 2.5%, 1.1% and 0.0%. A reduced sodium salt which contains 45% less sodium than standard salt was used. Sensory analysis was conducted on consumers (n = 228): 18-40 yrs., 41-64 yrs. and 65-85 yrs. The 18-40 yr. olds preferred sausages containing 20% fat, 41-64 yr. olds preferred sausages with 15% fat, 65+ age group preferred sausages containing 30% fat. The 18-40 yr. olds preferred high salt samples, 41-64 yr. olds displayed no salt preference, while the 65+ age group preferred high salt sausages. Sausage formulation choice was found to be driven by texture for the younger age cohort, flavour for the middle age cohort and visual aspects from the oldest age cohort. There is a need to understand how meat products might be reformulated different age palates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of Origanum majorana L. essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in sausage.

    PubMed

    Busatta, C; Vidal, R S; Popiolski, A S; Mossi, A J; Dariva, C; Rodrigues, M R A; Corazza, F C; Corazza, M L; Vladimir Oliveira, J; Cansian, R L

    2008-02-01

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity in fresh sausage of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) essential oil against several species of bacteria. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 10 selected aerobic heterotrophic bacterial species. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil based on the highest MIC value was tested in a food system comprising fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with a fixed concentration of Escherichia coli and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Results showed that addition of marjoram essential oil to fresh sausage exerted a bacteriostatic effect at oil concentrations lower than the MIC, while a bactericidal effect was observed at higher oil concentrations which also caused alterations in the taste of the product.

  12. The Effects of 60 Days of Tray Ration Consumption in Marine Combat Engineers While Deployed on Great Inagua Island, Bahamas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Turkey Eggs Fruit Sausage Vegetables Spaghetti and Meatballs Potatoes BBQ Ribs Chocolate Cake Strawberry Oatmeal Western Omlet Beef Stew Chow Mein...Stir Fry Juice 2 Potatoes Rice 2 Hamburgers Eggs With Sausage 2 Eggs in General Meatballs Table 10.10. T Ration items Marines tired of at breakfast...the three test periods. RESULTS Ratinas of T and B Breakfasts Significant main effect acceptability ratings were observed between eggs (T Ration

  13. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two efficient nitrite-reducing Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented pork (Nanx Wudl) as competitive starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jiapeng; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jinchun; Yang, Junna; Chen, Wenhua; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Dong pork product (Nanx Wudl) were investigated for their potential as starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausages. Based on preliminary screening, Lactobacillus plantarum CMRC6 and Lactobacillus sakei CMRC15, both showing excellent nitrite-reducing capacity, were used as single-strain starter cultures. For comparison, a commercial composite starter was also tested. In CMRC6 and CMRC15-inoculated sausages, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora and improved the microbiological safety by suppression of Enterobacteriaceae growth. Nitrite content of all inoculated sausages declined rapidly during ripening compared to non-inoculated. Texture profiles analysis showed inoculated sausages had more pronounced textural development during ripening. Sensory evaluation indicated CMRC6 and CMRC15-fermented sausages had comparable or more desirable organoleptic characteristics than sausage made with commercial starters. Therefore, CMRC6 and CMRC15 are promising candidates as multi-functional starter cultures for microbiological safety and residual nitrite control in gourmet Chinese dry sausage production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tyramine and histamine risk assessment related to consumption of dry fermented sausages by the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Comas-Basté, O; Bover-Cid, S; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2017-01-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the main dietary bioactive amines related to acute adverse health effects. Dry fermented sausages can easily accumulate high levels of these hazards and are frequently consumed in Spain. The present work aims to assess the exposure to tyramine and histamine from the consumption of dry fermented sausages by the Spanish population and to assess the risk to suffer acute health effects from this exposure. A probabilistic estimation of the exposure to these hazards was derived combining probability distributions of these amines in dry fermented sausages (n = 474) and their consumption by the Spanish population. The mean dietary exposure to tyramine and histamine was 6.2 and 1.39 mg/meal, respectively. The risk of suffering hypertensive crisis or histamine intoxication by healthy population due to tyramine or histamine intake, respectively, exclusively from dry fermented sausages, can be considered negligible. For individuals under treatment with MAOI drugs, the probability to surpass the safe threshold dose (6 mg/meal) was estimated as 34%. For patients with histamine intolerance, even the presence of this amine in food is not tolerable and it could be estimated that 7000 individuals per million could be at risk to suffer the related symptoms after consuming dry fermented sausages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of caliber size and fat level on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Souza, James; Ahmed, Rafath; Strange, Philip; Barbut, Shai; Balamurugan, S

    2018-02-02

    Dry fermented sausages (DFS) have been subject to numerous validation studies, as pathogen reduction heavily relies on both ingredients and processing. In this study the effect of product caliber size (32, 55, 80mm), and fat level (low, 9.67%; high, 18.46% wt/wt) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 during DFS production was examined. Sausages containing a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 10 7 CFU/g were manufactured and monitored for changes in physicochemical properties and inoculated E. coli O157:H7 numbers were enumerated during the DFS production stages and log reduction rates were calculated. Significant (P<0.01) reduction in pH from 5.9 to 4.9 was observed in all sausages within 72h of fermentation; however, the observed pH reduction was not significantly (P>0.05) different among sausages of different caliber size or fat levels. No significant (P>0.05) reduction in a w was observed during fermentation of the sausages. However, during the drying phase, sausages with larger caliber sizes required a significantly longer duration of drying to achieve the same a w of smaller caliber size sausages. For instance, to achieve an a w of ≤0.9, following 5days of fermentation/curing, 80mm caliber sausages required up to 27days of drying compared with 13 and 6days for 55 and 32mm caliber size sausages, respectively. Fat levels on the other hand did not significantly (P>0.05) effect the reduction of a w during drying of the sausages. During the fermentation stage there was a significant and rapid reduction in E. coli O157:H7 counts by about 1.1- to 1.4-log units, but was not significantly different among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels. Considering the whole process, only caliber size had a significant effect on log reduction of E. coli O157:H7. ANOVA of log reduction rates of E. coli O157:H7 among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels revealed no significant differences during the fermentation, however, during the drying of the

  17. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee Insights from a qualitative study in four EU countries.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lynn; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Kügler, Jens O; Hocquette, Jean-François; Ueland, Øydis; Grunert, Klaus G

    2010-04-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their expectations, particularly with respect to beef tenderness. The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Participants express some reserve related to the possible upgrading of lower value cuts, too much standardisation, and the fact that tenderness is to some extent subjective. They further require the system to be simple, sufficiently documented and independent-party controlled. This study indicates good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can contribute to market development and improved competitiveness of the European beef industry. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  19. Superintegrability of geodesic motion on the sausage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Heinze, Martin; Medina-Rincon, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Reduction of the η-deformed sigma model on AdS_5× S5 to the two-dimensional squashed sphere (S^2)η can be viewed as a special case of the Fateev sausage model where the coupling constant ν is imaginary. We show that geodesic motion in this model is described by a certain superintegrable mechanical system with four-dimensional phase space. This is done by means of explicitly constructing three integrals of motion which satisfy the sl(2) Poisson algebra relations, albeit being non-polynomial in momenta. Further, we find a canonical transformation which transforms the Hamiltonian of this mechanical system to the one describing the geodesic motion on the usual two-sphere. By inverting this transformation we map geodesics on this auxiliary two-sphere back to the sausage model. This paper is a tribute to the memory of Prof Petr Kulish.

  20. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture and fat contents, but lower protein content than the treatments (p<0.05). The sausages in the T2 and T5 had decreased pH values after 3 wk storage (p<0.05). The lightness value was lowest in the T3, while the yellowness values were lowest in the T5 during the storage. The TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values were lowest in the control in all storage times (p<0.05). However, the sausage in the control had higher VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) value than the treatments during the 1 wk storage (p<0.05). All treatments had significantly higher hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness values (p<0.05) than the control. The results indicated that corn starch, chicken breast and surimi can used as a pork replacer, that it also improves the physicochemical and texture properties of pork sausages. PMID:26761892

  1. Competitiveness and antibacterial potential of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in different types of fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Ravyts, Frédéric; Barbuti, Silvana; Frustoli, Maria Angela; Parolari, Giovanni; Saccani, Giovanna; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2008-09-01

    Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria in fermented sausage production contributes to food safety. This is sometimes hampered by limited efficacy in situ and by uncertainty about strain dependency and universal applicability for different sausage types. In the present study, a promising antilisterial-bacteriocin producer, Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494, was applied as a coculture in addition to commercial fermentative starters in different types of dry-fermented sausages. The strain was successful in both Belgian-type sausage and Italian salami that were artificially contaminated with about 3.5 log CFU g(-1) of Listeria monocytogenes. After completion of the production process, this led to listerial reductions of up to 1.4 and 0.6 log CFU g(-1), respectively. In a control sausage, containing only the commercial fermentative starter, the reduction was limited to 0.8 log CFU g(-1) for the Belgian-type recipe, where pH decreased from 5.9 to 4.9, whereas an increase of 0.2 log CFU g(-1) was observed for Italian salami, in which the pH rose from 5.7 to 5.9 after an initial decrease to pH 5.3. In a Cacciatore recipe inoculated with 5.5 log CFU g(-1) of L. monocytogenes and in the presence of L. sakei CTC 494, there was a listerial reduction of 1.8 log CFU g(-1) at the end of the production process. This was superior to the effect obtained with the control sausage (0.8 log CFU g(-1)). Two commercial antilisterial cultures yielded reductions of 1.2 and 1.5 log CFU g(-1). Moreover, repetitive DNA sequence-based PCR fingerprinting demonstrated the competitive superiority of L. sakei CTC 494.

  2. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15 Section 319.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of...

  3. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15 Section 319.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of...

  4. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15 Section 319.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of...

  5. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15 Section 319.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of...

  6. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15 Section 319.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of...

  7. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on content of nitrosamines in cooked pork sausage.

    PubMed

    Song, I H; Kim, W J; Jo, C; Ahn, H J; Kim, J H; Byun, M W

    2003-06-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) levels in pork sausage was studied. Emulsion-type cooked pork sausage was manufactured and packaged in aerobic, CO2 (100%), N2 (100%), and CO2/N2 (25%/75%) environments, respectively, and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma irradiation. The nitrosamine contents were significantly reduced by irradiation, and the reduction of nitrosamines was more extensive with modified atmosphere packaging than with aerobic packaging. The correlation coefficient between irradiation dose and nitrosamine content indicated that irradiation can reduce the levels of nitrosamines. The combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging is effective in enhancing the chemical safety of sausage by reducing nitrosamines, if present, as well as enhancing the microbial safety of cooked pork sausage.

  8. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (P<0.05). Also, the reduction of moisture content, and the increase of cooking loss significantly occurred by the addition of 0.2% C. sappan extract. Also, the texture properties and sensory of sausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of high pressure processing on textural and microbiological quality of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausage during chilled storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunnath, Sarika; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Jaganath, Bindu; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2015-10-01

    The non-thermal high pressure (HP) processing was studied on fish sausage to enhance the quality during chilled storage. Pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausages, packed in poly amide casing under vacuum were subjected to 400, 500 and 600 MPa pressures (dwell time: 10 min and ramp rate: 300 MPa/min) and compared with heat-set samples for physico-chemical and microbial quality parameters. Pressurized samples formed softer and glossier gels with a slight reduction in water-holding capacity. HP made the texture of sausage softer, cohesive and less chewy and gummier than heat-treated ones. Folding test seen higher acceptance values in samples treated at 500 and 600 MPa, during storage. Maximum log reduction in microbial count was observed in 600 MPa immediately, and significant difference in cooked and pressurized sausages was seen only up to 7th day. This revealed the potential application of HP in replacing conventional heat treatment for sausages preparation with enhanced shelf-life.

  11. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-10-31

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples.

  12. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  13. 9 CFR 319.182 - Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... liverwurst. 319.182 Section 319.182 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... made from fresh, cured, and/or frozen pork, beef, and/or veal and at least 30 percent pork, beef, and/or veal livers computed on the weight of the fresh livers. It may also contain pork and/or beef fat...

  14. 9 CFR 319.182 - Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... liverwurst. 319.182 Section 319.182 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... made from fresh, cured, and/or frozen pork, beef, and/or veal and at least 30 percent pork, beef, and/or veal livers computed on the weight of the fresh livers. It may also contain pork and/or beef fat...

  15. 9 CFR 319.182 - Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... liverwurst. 319.182 Section 319.182 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... made from fresh, cured, and/or frozen pork, beef, and/or veal and at least 30 percent pork, beef, and/or veal livers computed on the weight of the fresh livers. It may also contain pork and/or beef fat...

  16. 9 CFR 319.182 - Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... liverwurst. 319.182 Section 319.182 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... made from fresh, cured, and/or frozen pork, beef, and/or veal and at least 30 percent pork, beef, and/or veal livers computed on the weight of the fresh livers. It may also contain pork and/or beef fat...

  17. 9 CFR 319.182 - Braunschweiger and liver sausage or liverwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... liverwurst. 319.182 Section 319.182 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... made from fresh, cured, and/or frozen pork, beef, and/or veal and at least 30 percent pork, beef, and/or veal livers computed on the weight of the fresh livers. It may also contain pork and/or beef fat...

  18. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the meaning...

  19. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the meaning...

  20. Mapping of beef, sheep and goat food systems in Nairobi - A framework for policy making and the identification of structural vulnerabilities and deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Pablo; Fèvre, Eric M; Murungi, Maurice K; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Kiambi, Stella; Ahmed, Sohel; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    distribution of popular products, such as beef sausages, to middle and low-end market. For the small ruminant food system, 73% of the low season supply flows through a single large informal market, Kiamaiko, located in an urban informal settlement. No grading is done for these animals or the meat produced. Large companies were reported to export up to 90% of their products. Lack of traceability and control of animal production was a common feature in all chains. The mapping presented provides a framework for policy makers and institutions to understand and design improvement plans for the Nairobi ruminant food system. The structural deficiencies and vulnerabilities identified here indicate the areas of intervention needed.

  1. Salt-stressed fresh cut leek accelerates CO₂ and C₂H₄ production and enhances the development of quality characteristics of traditional Greek sausages during storage.

    PubMed

    Madentzidou, Eleftheria; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Siomos, Anastasios; Bloukas, Ioannis

    2012-12-01

    Fresh cut leek was mixed with salt for 0.5 (IM) and 5 (LM) min or remained untreated (control) and stored alone or mixed with minced meat and seasonings, cased and stored at 15 °C for 7 days. The fresh cut leek and sausage metabolics and sausage microbiological and physicochemical traits were measured during storage. Sausages with LM leek had significantly higher counts of lactic acid bacteria, faster rates of pH drop and dehydration and increased red color compared with the other treatments. Sausage to fresh cut leek peaks of CO₂ or C₂H₄ production was 5 or 2 fold higher in LM than the other treatments indicating that the sausage flora was the source of both. The use of salt-stressed fresh cut leek before manufacture of sausages enhances microbial activity as well as its stability and shortens the necessary storage time needed for the development of the quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds...

  3. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds...

  4. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds...

  5. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds...

  6. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds...

  7. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from cattle...

  8. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (p<0.05) by formulation and cooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of MUFAs and PUFAs (both n-3 and n-6); the difference was greater (p<0.05) in the pan-fried patties. Fatty acid retention was generally better in pan-fried than in grilled samples. When cooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Storage stability of cooked sausages containing vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Papavergou, E J; Ambrosiadis, J A; Psomas, J

    1995-01-01

    Comminuted cooked sausages were produced using standard industrial practices, by substituting corn oil, sunflower oil, cotton seed oil, soybean oil and hydrogenated vegetable fat for animal fat. When processed, products were assessed for their stability with respect to autoxidation and change in organoleptic properties during vacuum-packed storage in a domestic refrigerator at 4 degrees C. Data obtained indicated that changes in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and organoleptic properties of products produced using corn oil, sunflower oil and hydrogenated vegetable fat were similar to those observed for reference material produced using lard. In the case of samples produced using soybean and cotton seed oil, TBA value changes were more pronounced, but did not exceed acceptable limits. A more rapid deterioration of organoleptic characteristics was also observed for the same samples, which showed flavour problems after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C. Substitution of plant oils for lard considerably reduced the cholesterol content and increased the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids of cooked sausages.

  10. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  11. Shelf life of cooked goat blood sausage prepared with the addition of heart and kidney.

    PubMed

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Ferreira, V C S; Araújo, I B S; Dalmás, P S; Madruga, M S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the effect of two packaging formats (vacuum packaging and over-wrap packaging) on the shelf life of cooked sausage prepared with blood, heart, kidney and goat meat fragments under storage at 4±1°C for a period of 90 days. The storage time and type of packaging significantly affected the chemical (pH, moisture, protein and TBARS number), physical (shear force) and microbial (mould and yeast) parameters of cooked sausage. Vacuum packaging maintained the microbiological and chemical qualities of cooked goat blood sausage for a longer period of time (63 days) compared to over-wrap packaging (41 days) and could be a viable alternative to refrigerated storage of the product for quality maintenance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elucidation of key aroma compounds in traditional dry fermented sausages using different extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    The use of different extraction techniques - solid phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) - can deliver different aroma profiles and it is essential to determine which is most suitable to extract the aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages. Forty-five aroma-active compounds were detected by SPME and SAFE, with 11 of them reported for the first time as aroma compounds in dry fermented sausages: ethyl 3-hydroxy butanoate, trimethyl pyrazine, D-pantolactone, isobutyl hexanoate, ethyl benzoate, α-terpineol, ethyl 3-pyridinecarboxylate, benzothiazole, 2,3-dihydrothiophene, methyl eugenol, γ-nonalactone. The aroma concentration and odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Flavour reconstitution analyses were performed using 20 odorants with OAVs above 1 obtained from the SAFE and SPME extracts to prepare the aroma model. SPME and SAFE techniques were complementary and necessary to reproduce the overall dry fermented sausage aroma. The final aroma model included the odorants from both extraction techniques (SPME and SAFE) but it was necessary to incorporate the compounds 2,4-decadienal (E,E), benzothiazole, methyl eugenol, α-terpineol, and eugenol to the final aroma model to evoked the fresh sausage aroma although a lowest cured meat aroma note was perceived. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p < 0.05) differed in their chemical composition: celery products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p < 0.05) more stable during these processes. At the end of the ripening process the sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effect of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extracts on protein and lipid oxidation of long-term frozen n-3 fatty acids-enriched pork patties.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios; Botsoglou, Nikolas

    2014-10-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated the protective effects of olive leaf extracts on the oxidation of pork patties from n-3 fatty acid-enriched meat during refrigerated storage. The target of the present study was to examine these effects during frozen storage. Results showed that frozen storage accelerated (P=0.05) both lipid and protein oxidation in pork patties, but an addition of olive leaf extract at 200mg gallic acid equivalent/kg improved sensory attributes by delaying oxidation of lipids (reduction (P=0.05) of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), and of proteins (reduction (P=0.05) of protein carbonyls and inhibition (P=0.05) of the decrease of protein sulfhydryls). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Outbreak of Salmonella Goldcoast infections linked to consumption of fermented sausage, Germany 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, V.; Leitmeyer, K.; Jensen, E.; Metzel, U.; Meczulat, H.; Weise, E.; Werber, D.; Tschaepe, H.; Kreienbrock, L.; Glaser, S.; Ammon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella Goldcoast (SGC), an uncommon serotype in Germany, was identified in 25 isolates between 1 April and 7 May 2001. To determine the cause of the outbreak, we conducted a matched case-control study including 24 cases and 51 controls. In a multivariable regression model, only consumption of a raw fermented sausage manufactured by a local company remained significant (adjusted odds ratio 20.0, 95 % confidence interval 2.7-302.5). SGC isolated from case-patients shared an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. A part of the produced raw fermented sausage was sold after only 4 days of fermentation. Samples from the premises and products of the company were negative for SGC. However, short-time raw fermented sausage is more likely to contain pathogens. Irradiation of raw ingredients is not accepted by German consumers, thus strict adherence to good manufacturing practices, the use of HACCP programmes as well as on-farm programmes remain crucial to reduce Salmonella. PMID:15473151

  16. Outbreak of Salmonella Goldcoast infections linked to consumption of fermented sausage, Germany 2001.

    PubMed

    Bremer, V; Leitmeyer, K; Jensen, E; Metzel, U; Meczulat, H; Weise, E; Werber, D; Tschaepe, H; Kreienbrock, L; Glaser, S; Ammon, A

    2004-10-01

    Salmonella Goldcoast (SGC), an uncommon serotype in Germany, was identified in 25 isolates between 1 April and 7 May 2001. To determine the cause of the outbreak, we conducted a matched case-control study including 24 cases and 51 controls. In a multivariable regression model, only consumption of a raw fermented sausage manufactured by a local company remained significant (adjusted odds ratio 20.0, 95 % confidence interval 2.7-302.5). SGC isolated from case-patients shared an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. A part of the produced raw fermented sausage was sold after only 4 days of fermentation. Samples from the premises and products of the company were negative for SGC. However, short-time raw fermented sausage is more likely to contain pathogens. Irradiation of raw ingredients is not accepted by German consumers, thus strict adherence to good manufacturing practices, the use of HACCP programmes as well as on-farm programmes remain crucial to reduce Salmonella.

  17. Actin proteolysis during ripening of dry fermented sausages at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Berardo, A; Devreese, B; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Van Royen, G; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2017-04-15

    In dry fermented sausages, myofibrillar proteins undergo intense proteolysis generating small peptides and free amino acids that play a role in flavour generation. This study aimed to identify small peptides arising from actin proteolysis, as influenced by the type of processing. Two acidification profiles were imposed, in order to mimic the pH normally obtained in southern-type and northern-type dry fermented sausages. The identification of peptides was done by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in a data-independent positive mode of acquisition (LC-MS E ). During manufacturing of the dry fermented sausages, actin was highly proteolysed, especially in nine regions of the sequence. After fermentation, 52 and 42 actin-derived peptides were identified at high and low pH, respectively, which further increased to 66 and 144 peptides, respectively, at the end of ripening. Most peptides were released at the cleavage sites of cathepsins B and D, which thus play an important role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality and shelf life evaluation of fermented sausages of buffalo meat with different levels of heart and fat.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Srivastava, P K

    2007-04-01

    Investigations were carried to study the effect of heart incorporation (0%, 15% and 20%) and increasing levels of fat (20% and 25%) on physicochemical (pH, moisture content and thiobarbituric acid, TBA number) and microbiological (total plate count and yeast and mold count) quality and shelf life of semi dry sausages of buffalo meat during refrigerated storage (4°C). Different levels of fat significantly (p<0.05) increased the pH of the sausage samples. However different levels of heart incorporation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect pH, moisture content and TBA number of sausage samples. Fresh samples had pH, moisture content and TBA number in the range of 5.15-5.28, 42.4-47.4% and 0.073-0.134 respectively. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) increased TBA number of control samples while storage did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the TBA number of sodium ascorbate (SA) treated samples. Total plate counts of twelve sausage samples were f under the TFTC (too few to count) limit at the initial stage. Incorporation of different levels of heart and also increasing levels of fat did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the log TPC/g values. Yeast and molds were not detected in twelve samples of semi dry fermented sausages in their fresh condition. Storage revealed that there was a consistent decrease in pH, and moisture content. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) reduced both pH and moisture contents. TBA number and total plate counts and yeast and mold counts of controls were found to increase significantly (p<0.05) during refrigerated storage. However, in SA treated sausage, only TPC and yeast and mold count significantly (p<0.05) increased during refrigerated storage. Shelf life of the sausages was found to be 60 days under refrigerated storage (4°C).

  19. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  20. Effect of six different starter cultures on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Hur, Sun Jin

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of six different starter cultures of enterobacteria on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion. Before digestion, the concentration of residual nitrite was dependent on starter culture in fermented sausage and ranged from 25.2 to 33.2mg/kg. Among the six starter cultures of enterobacteria, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Staphylococcus carnosus showed higher nitrite depletion ability than the other three strains in fermented sausages. The concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages was significantly (p<0.05) decreased after stomach digestion and ranged from 17.4 to 21.6mg/kg. Enterobacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and/or Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) effectively increased the degree of depletion of residual nitrite in large intestine digestion. In conclusion, starter cultures could influence the concentration of residual nitrite during in vitro human digestion. They could deplete residual nitrite in fermented sausages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pressure resistance of cold-shocked Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef gravy and peptone water.

    PubMed

    Baccus-Taylor, G S H; Falloon, O C; Henry, N

    2015-06-01

    (i) To study the effects of cold shock on Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells. (ii) To determine if cold-shocked E. coli O157:H7 cells at stationary and exponential phases are more pressure-resistant than their non-cold-shocked counterparts. (iii) To investigate the baro-protective role of growth media (0·1% peptone water, beef gravy and ground beef). Quantitative estimates of lethality and sublethal injury were made using the differential plating method. There were no significant differences (P > 0·05) in the number of cells killed; cold-shocked or non-cold-shocked. Cells grown in ground beef (stationary and exponential phases) experienced lowest death compared with peptone water and beef gravy. Cold-shock treatment increased the sublethal injury to cells cultured in peptone water (stationary and exponential phases) and ground beef (exponential phase), but decreased the sublethal injury to cells in beef gravy (stationary phase). Cold shock did not confer greater resistance to stationary or exponential phase cells pressurized in peptone water, beef gravy or ground beef. Ground beef had the greatest baro-protective effect. Real food systems should be used in establishing food safety parameters for high-pressure treatments; micro-organisms are less resistant in model food systems, the use of which may underestimate the organisms' resistance. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Energy content, sensory properties, and microbiological shelf life of German bologna-type sausages produced with citrate or phosphate and with inulin as fat replacer.

    PubMed

    Nowak, B; von Mueffling, T; Grotheer, J; Klein, G; Watkinson, B-M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of reducing energy content (9% to 48%) in bologna-type sausages by replacing fat with inulin and to study the effects of substituting citrate for phosphate in the traditional sausage formula. German-type mortadella was produced, and fat was replaced with increasing amounts of inulin as a frozen gel to yield 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12% inulin in the final product. In another part of the study, citrate was substituted for the phosphate in the recipe. All sausages produced were sliced, packaged under a modified atmosphere (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)), and stored for 23 d at +7 degrees C. Sausage quality was determined by chemical and instrumental texture profile analyses, color measurement, sensory evaluation, and microbiological testing. Replacing fat with inulin led to significant energy content reductions of up to 47.5% (with 12% inulin). However, the sensory properties of these sausages were also different from those of the control mortadella: fracturability fell, hardness and adhesiveness rose, and color became darker. In general, the substitution of citrate for phosphate significantly reduced the negative effects of inulin. There were no significant differences in microbiological stability between different inulin batches but there were significant differences between phosphate and citrate batches. Overall, the energy content of bologna-type sausages produced with citrate and with up to 6% inulin as a fat replacer was 22% lower than that of the control sausages. Furthermore, the sensory attributes (texture, color) of these 6% inulin-citrate sausages were comparable to the control sausages, and the sausages were microbiologically stable for 23 d of storage.

  3. Minced beef is more rapidly digested and absorbed than beef steak, resulting in greater postprandial protein retention in older men.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Bart; Groen, Bart B L; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; de Lange, Anneke; Kiskini, Alexandra; Kuklinski, Marjan; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Luc J C

    2013-07-01

    Older individuals generally experience a reduced food-chewing efficiency. As a consequence, food texture may represent an important factor that modulates dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent postprandial protein balance. We assessed the effect of meat texture on the dietary protein digestion rate, amino acid availability, and subsequent postprandial protein balance in vivo in older men. Ten older men (mean ± SEM age: 74 ± 2 y) were randomly assigned to a crossover experiment that involved 2 treatments in which they consumed 135 g of specifically produced intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled beef, which was provided as beef steak or minced beef. Meat consumption was combined with continuous intravenous L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-(2)H2]tyrosine infusion to assess beef protein digestion and absorption kinetics as well as whole-body protein balance and skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates. Meat protein-derived phenylalanine appeared more rapidly in the circulation after minced beef than after beef steak consumption (P < 0.05). Also, its availability in the circulation during the 6-h postprandial period was greater after minced beef than after beef steak consumption (61 ± 3% compared with 49 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.01). The whole-body protein balance was more positive after minced beef than after beef steak consumption (29 ± 2 compared with 19 ± 3 μmol phenylalanine/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates did not differ between treatments when assessed over a 6-h postprandial period. Minced beef is more rapidly digested and absorbed than beef steak, which results in increased amino acid availability and greater postprandial protein retention. However, this does not result in greater postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01145131.

  4. Effect of In Vitro Human Digestion on Biogenic Amine (Tyramine) Formation in Various Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Hur, Sun Jin

    2018-03-01

    Biogenic amines are formed in various fermented foods by microbial amino acid decarboxylation activities, and ingestion of these amines may cause human illness. However, the effect of digestion on the biogenic amines in fermented sausages has not been studied. This study was conducted to determine the effect of in vitro human digestion with the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei on concentrations of the biogenic amine tyramine in six types of fermented sausages. Tyramine concentration was not significantly changed until simulated digestion in the small intestine. However, tyramine concentration for all sausage samples was increased after simulated digestion in the large intestine. Addition of E. coli and L. casei dramatically increased the tyramine concentrations ( P < 0.05). This result indicates that enterobacteria increase biogenic amine concentrations during human digestion.

  5. Sodium lactate addition on the quality and shelf life of refrigerated sliced poultry sausage packaged in air or nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Pikul, Jan

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium lactate addition on shelf-life extension of sliced poultry sausage packaged both in air and nitrogen atmospheres and stored in refrigerated conditions. Basic chemical composition, pH, and malonaldehyde content were assayed and color measurement using the reflection method was carried out. Microbiological examination consisted of determination of total number of aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and number of lactic acid bacteria. Sensory evaluation of products was performed. Microbiological and sensory quality of sliced poultry meat sausage was dependent on the addition during production of sodium lactate and the composition of gases (air or nitrogen) used in packaging. Slices of poultry sausage with 1% as well as 2% of sodium lactate maintained their initial quality of evaluated sensory attributes longer, irrespective of the applied gases. Sodium lactate inhibited growth of aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. Sodium lactate also inhibited the formation of malonaldehyde in sliced poultry sausage during refrigerated storage. The effectiveness of this process depended on the concentration of sodium lactate addition. It was concluded that 1% as well as 2% addition of sodium lactate could extend the shelf life of sliced poultry sausage packaged in air atmosphere and stored at 5 to 7 degrees C by 3 or 4 times, respectively. Sliced poultry sausage treated with 2% sodium lactate packed in nitrogen had the longest (35-day) shelf life. This was a sevenfold increase in the shelf life of sliced poultry sausage compared with the control.

  6. Effect of nitrate and nitrite curing salts on microbial changes and sensory quality of rapid ripened sausages.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Y; Vila, R; Toldrá, F; Nieto, P; Flores, J

    1997-07-22

    The effect of the use of either nitrite or nitrate curing salts on microbial changes and sensory quality in rapid ripened sausages inoculated with a mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus sake and Staphylococcus carnosus) was investigated. Lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcaceae were not greatly affected by the added curing salt. Conversely, the inhibition exerted by nitrite on the undesirable flora (Enterobacteriaceae and psychrotrophs) was evident from the early stages of the processing keeping highly significant differences (P < 0.01) with respect to nitrate made sausages till the end of the ripening stage. The use of nitrite in sausage processing was found to reduce hygienic risks.

  7. An evaluation of the effectiveness of FreshCase technology to extend the storage life of whole muscle beef and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Woerner, D R; Hasty, J D; McCullough, K R; Geornaras, I; Sofos, J N; Belk, K E

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the maximum time of refrigerated storage before aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria (APB) grew to a level indicative of spoilage (7 log cfu/g) or other indicators of spoilage were observed for whole muscle beef and ground beef packaged using FreshCase technology. Storage life for beef steaks stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C was 36 d, with ground beef stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C lasting 10 d. Additionally, greater ( < 0.05) a* (redness) values were detected in FreshCase packaged samples of both beef steaks and ground beef over storage time. At the point of spoilage, off-odors were detected at very low levels in all samples along with low thiobarbituric acid values (< 2 mg malonaldehyde/kg). Therefore, use of FreshCase technology in whole muscle beef and ground beef is a viable option to extend storage life.

  8. Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, Sonia; Puolanne, Eero; Tuorila, Hely

    2010-07-01

    Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries).

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Purchas, R W

    2008-11-01

    The dromedary camel is a good source of meat especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the performance of other meat animals. This is because of its unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. The average birth weight of camels is about 35kg, but it varies widely between regions, breeds and within the same breed. The meat producing ability of camels is limited by modest growth rates (500g/day). However, camels are mostly produced under traditional extensive systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at older ages after a career in work, racing or milk production. Camels reach live weights of about 650kg at 7-8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400kg with dressing-out percentage values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore halves (cranial to rib 13) significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has been described as raspberry red to dark brown in colour and the fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is similar in taste and texture to beef. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than beef, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Recently, camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisplinary research into efficient production systems, and improved meat technology and marketing.

  10. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging on the physicochemical characteristics of sausage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Hee-Yun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2004-09-01

    This study is to investigate the combined effects of irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) on the color, nitrosoheme pigments (NO-Mb), residual nitrite and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in sausage during storage. Sausage with air, vacuum, CO 2, N 2, or CO 2/N 2 packaging was irradiated at 5 kGy. Irradiation reduced the red color of sausage, and a vacuum or MAP was effective in minimizing the loss of redness. The reduction of NO-Mb was observed by irradiation, while the MAP was more effective in maintaining the NO-Mb than the aerobic ones. Residual nitrite was reduced by irradiation, and the contents were lower under vacuum or MAP than aerobic ones. NDMA was significantly reduced by irradiation.

  11. Influence of inoculation levels and processing parameters on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in German style fermented turkey sausages.

    PubMed

    Alter, Thomas; Bori, Anouchka; Hamedi, Ahmad; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Fehlhaber, Karsten

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of inoculum levels and manufacturing methods on the survival of Campylobacter (C.) jejuni in raw fermented turkey sausages. Sausages were prepared and inoculated with C. jejuni. After inoculation, these sausages were processed and ripened for 8 days. Samples were taken throughout the ripening process. The presence of C. jejuni was established bacteriologically. Additionally, lactic acid bacteria were enumerated, pH values and water activity were measured to verify the ripening process. To detect changes in genotype and verify the identity of the recovered clones, AFLP analysis was carried out on the re-isolated strains. Whereas no C. jejuni were detectable when inoculating the sausages with the lowest inoculum (0.08-0.44 log(10) cfu/g sausage emulsion), C. jejuni were detectable for 12-24h by enrichment when inoculated with approximately 2 log(10) cfu/g. After inoculation with 4 and 6 log(10) cfu/g respectively, C. jejuni were detectable without enrichment for 12-48 h and by enrichment for 144 h at the most. The greatest decrease of the C. jejuni population occurred during the first 4 h of ripening. Only a very high inoculum level allowed the survival of the organism during a fermentation process and during ripening to pose a potential risk for consumers. Lower initial Campylobacter inoculums will be eliminated during proper ripening of the sausages, if sufficient decrease in water activity and pH-value is ensured.

  12. The effects of cereal additives in low-fat sausages and meatballs. Part 2: Rye bran, oat bran and barley fibre.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Karin; Godard, Ophélie; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Tornberg, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Rye bran, oat bran and barley fibre have been compared as additives in low-fat sausages and meatballs. The water/protein ratio and starch content were constant to allow direct comparisons. Oat bran was the best alternative in low-fat sausages due to its gelling ability upon heating. These sausages exhibited low process (0.9%) and frying losses (10.9%), and high values of firmness (11.0 N) and sensory acceptance. The sausages containing barley fibre, with the highest amount of soluble β-glucan, had high losses (3.8% and 19.6%) and the lowest firmness (4.6 N). Rye bran was suitable in meatballs, probably due to its particulate nature, which is more acceptable in this type of meat product, where the gelling properties are not as important as in sausages. There was no significant difference between the firmness of meatballs containing rye bran (6.1 N) and the reference (7.5 N), after pan-frying. Meatballs with oat bran or barley fibre were less firm (3.6 N and 2.0 N). © 2013.

  13. Rapid Quantitative Detection of Lactobacillus sakei in Meat and Fermented Sausages by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Belén; Jofré, Anna; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria; Aymerich, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    A quick and simple method for quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in fermented sausages was successfully developed. It is based on Chelex-100-based DNA purification and real-time PCR enumeration using a TaqMan fluorescence probe. Primers and probes were designed in the L. sakei 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region, and the assay was evaluated using L. sakei genomic DNA and an artificially inoculated sausage model. The detection limit of this technique was approximately 3 cells per reaction mixture using both purified DNA and the inoculated sausage model. The quantification limit was established at 30 cells per reaction mixture in both models. The assay was then applied to enumerate L. sakei in real samples, and the results were compared to the MRS agar count method followed by confirmation of the percentage of L. sakei colonies. The results obtained by real-time PCR were not statistically significantly different than those obtained by plate count on MRS agar (P > 0.05), showing a satisfactory agreement between both methods. Therefore, the real-time PCR assay developed can be considered a promising rapid alternative method for the quantification of L. sakei and evaluation of the implantation of starter strains of L. sakei in fermented sausages. PMID:16957227

  14. Rapid quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in meat and fermented sausages by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Martín, Belén; Jofré, Anna; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria; Aymerich, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    A quick and simple method for quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in fermented sausages was successfully developed. It is based on Chelex-100-based DNA purification and real-time PCR enumeration using a TaqMan fluorescence probe. Primers and probes were designed in the L. sakei 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region, and the assay was evaluated using L. sakei genomic DNA and an artificially inoculated sausage model. The detection limit of this technique was approximately 3 cells per reaction mixture using both purified DNA and the inoculated sausage model. The quantification limit was established at 30 cells per reaction mixture in both models. The assay was then applied to enumerate L. sakei in real samples, and the results were compared to the MRS agar count method followed by confirmation of the percentage of L. sakei colonies. The results obtained by real-time PCR were not statistically significantly different than those obtained by plate count on MRS agar (P > 0.05), showing a satisfactory agreement between both methods. Therefore, the real-time PCR assay developed can be considered a promising rapid alternative method for the quantification of L. sakei and evaluation of the implantation of starter strains of L. sakei in fermented sausages.

  15. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Survey of instrument grading assessments of beef carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The instrument grading assessments for the 2011 National Beef Quality Audit evaluated seasonal trends of beef carcass quality and yield attributes over the course of the year. One week of instrument grading data, HCW, gender, USDA quality grade (QG), and yield grade (YG) factors, were collected ever...

  16. Effect of apple pomace fiber and pork fat levels on quality characteristics of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-06-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat level from 30 to 25 and 20% by partially substituting pork fat with 1 and 2% apple pomace fiber were investigated based on the evaluation of physicochemical properties and textural properties of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages. Increased fat level resulted in decreased moisture content, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and yellowness of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages, whereas, an increase in fat content, caloric energy, pH, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness was observed. The results showed that uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausage samples with increased apple pomace fiber level had lower cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, pH, and redness. The results from this study show that inclusion of apple pomace fiber in the formulation will successfully reduce fat content in emulsion sausages, while improving quality characteristics relative to regular-fat (30%) control. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Changes in protein structures to improve the rheology and texture of reduced-fat sausages using high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Yu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Haibo; Han, Minyi; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the role of high-pressure processing (HPP) for improving the functional properties of meat batters and the textural properties of reduced-fat sausages. Application of 200MPa pressure at 10°C for 2min to pork batters containing various fat contents (0-30%) affected their rheological properties, cooking losses, color, textual properties and their protein imaging. The results revealed that both application of 200MPa and increasing fat content decreased cooking loss, as well as improved the textural and rheological properties. Cooking losses, texture and sensory evaluation of 200MPa treated sausages having 20% fat were similar to those of the 0.1MPa treated sausages having 30% fat. Principal component analysis revealed that certain quality attributes were affected differently by the levels of fat addition and by HPP. These findings indicated the potential of HPP for improving yield and texture of emulsion-type sausages having reduced fat contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Between-Meal Food Intake for Reservists Training in the Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-06

    GUM, MRE MR6816 58 HAM/CHICKEN LOAF, MRE MR6302 13 JELLY, MRE MR6903 45 MAPLE NUT CAKE, MRE MR6805 23 MEATBALLS W/BBQ SAUCE, MRE MR6310 28 PEACHES...0530-1630 HR) (cont’d) FOOD ITEM FREQUENCY DEVILED HAM 5 DINNER ROLL 1 DONUT, FILLED, PLAIN 4 DRESSING, ASST, REG 10 EGG , BOILED or SCRAMBLED 4 FRUIT...MARGARINE, PATTIE 1 MCDONALD’S SAUSAGE & EGG MCMUFFIN 1 MELBA TOAST, 1 PIECE 4 MILK, CHOCOLATE, UHT 9 MILK, WHITE, UHT 2% 18 MILK, SKIM, PROTEIN 3 18 BETWEEN

  19. Combination of garlic essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate, and nisin Z as bio-preservatives in fresh sausage.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Monyque Kais; Gumiela, Aline Marzaleck; Bordin, Keliani; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; Macedo, Renata Ernlund Freitas de

    2018-09-01

    The effects of natural antimicrobial compounds (garlic essential oil [GO], allyl isothiocyanate [AITC], and nisin Z [NI]) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fresh sausage were assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) towards Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Lactobacillus plantarum were determined in vitro. Sausages inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, were treated with different combinations of antimicrobials and assessed for microbiological and physicochemical parameters during storage (6C for 20 d). Treatments that presented the greatest antimicrobial effects were subjected to sensory evaluation. Combinations of 20 mg/kg NI + 125 μL/kg GO + 62.5 μL/kg AITC or 20 mg/kg NI + 62.5 μL/kg GO + 125 μL/kg AITC were effective in reducing E. coli O157H7 and spoilage lactic acid bacteria, and maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fresh sausage. Combinations of NI, GO and AITC were effective to improve the safety and the shelf life of fresh sausage, with no impact on its sensory acceptance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of fat content on aroma generation during processing of dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2011-03-01

    Dry fermented sausages with different fat contents were produced (10%, 20% and 30%). The effect of fat content and ripening time on sensory characteristics, lipolysis, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds generation was studied. Also, the key aroma components were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and olfactometry. High fat sausages showed the highest lipolysis and lipid oxidation, determined by free fatty acid content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), respectively. A total of 95 volatile compounds were identified using SPME, GC and mass spectrometry (MS). Fat reduction decreased the generation of lipid derived volatile compounds during processing while those generated from bacterial metabolism increased, although only at the first stages of processing. The consumers preference in aroma and overall quality of high and medium fat sausages was related to the aroma compounds hexanal, 2-nonenal, 2,4-nonadienal, ethyl butanoate and 1-octen-3-ol which contributed green, medicinal, tallowy, fruity and mushroom notes. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermented meat sausages from game and venison: what are the opportunities and limitations?

    PubMed

    Chakanya, Chido; Arnaud, Elodie; Muchenje, Voster; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-04-10

    An increase in the acceptance, demand and production of game meat and venison has been experienced globally. Game meat and venison fit into consumers' ideology of healthy and environmentally friendly meat when compared to domesticated animals. Opportunities exist to explore the use of these meat sources in developing new products, particularly as game meat and venison in their fresh state are sometimes perceived as being tough. Consumers have shown a trend for trying exciting new products with different organoleptic qualities, and fermented sausages occupy a special niche in the gastro-economic trade. In this review, the production potential of game meat and venison and its prospective use in the development of fermented sausages are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the importance of meat characteristics in textural and sensorial development as well as the safety of fermented sausages. Additionally, consumers' perception of venison and game meat is discussed. Possible areas of research and knowledge gaps are highlighted, particularly the potential use of meat with high pH and microbial load. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The antioxidative activity of plant extracts in cooked pork patties as evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lise R; Byrne, Derek V; Bertelsen, Grete; Skibsted, Leif H

    2004-11-01

    Antioxidative efficiency of extracts of rosemary, green tea, coffee and grape skin in precooked pork patties was investigated during storage under retail conditions (10 days, 4 °C, atmospheric air), using descriptive sensory profiling following reheating and quantitative measurements of hexanal, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and vitamin E as indicators of lipid oxidation. The initial oxidative status of pork patties (evaluated by ANOVA) showed a significant lower level of secondary oxidation products and higher levels of vitamin E in patties with extracts incorporated, indicating that the extracts retarded lipid oxidation during processing of the meat. Data analysis for the storage study was based on qualitative overview of sensory/chemical variation by principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative ANOVA-PLSR for determination of the relationship between design variables (days of chill-storage, extract treatment) versus sensory-chemical variables and PLSR for elucidating the predictive ability of the chemical methods for sensory terms. Lipid oxidation was seen to involve a decrease in perception of meat flavour/odour and a concomitant increase in the off-flavour/odours linseed, rancid. TBARS, hexanal and vitamin E were all significant predictive indices (P<0.05) for the majority of the sensory terms, while vitamin E through negative correlation with TBARS and hexanal displayed its antioxidative effect and thus, its ability to preserve sensory fresh meat flavour/odour. The effect of the various extracts incorporated in the product was clearly related to the degree of lipid oxidation and an overall ranking of the antioxidative efficiency of extracts in declining order became apparent: Rosemary>Grape skin>Tea>Coffee>Reference. Furthermore, the relation between extracts and vitamin E indicated that the extracts, to some extent, interacted with the vitamin and prevented it from degrading. In conclusion, the rosemary extract displayed potential

  3. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat is...

  5. Evaluation and application of microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines in hamburger patties.

    PubMed

    Aeenehvand, Saeed; Toudehrousta, Zahra; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Mashayekh, Morteza; Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2016-01-01

    This study developed an analytical method based on microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of three polar heterocyclic aromatic amines from hamburger patties. Effective parameters controlling the performance of the microextraction process, such as the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, microwave time, nature of alkaline aqueous solution, pH and salt amount, were optimized. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1), with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) better than 0.9993. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seven analyses were between 3.2% and 6.5%. The recoveries of those compounds in hamburger patties were from 90% to 105%. Detection limits were between 0.06 and 0.21 ng g(-1). A comparison of the proposed method with the existing literature demonstrates that it is a simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive, and it gives good enrichment factors and detection limits for determining HAAs in real hamburger patties samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of lysine-derived oxidation products and loss of tryptophan during processing of porcine patties with added avocado byproducts.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-04-18

    The effects of the addition of avocado oil and a phenolic-rich avocado peel extract on protein oxidation were studied in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chilled storage. Protein oxidation was assessed by means of tryptophan loss and the formation of specific lysine oxidation products, such as α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS), α-aminoadipic acid (AAA), and Schiff bases. In the present paper, quantitative data of AAA are reported for the first time on a food matrix. The addition of the avocado extract inhibited the formation of AAS, AAA, and Schiff bases in patties during cooking and subsequent chilled storage. The antioxidant effect may respond to the protecting effect of phenolic compounds, mainly procyanidins, found on the avocado extract. Apparently, the combination of both strategies (back-fat replacement and addition of avocado extract) does not lead to an enhanced advantage on the oxidative stability of the product. The novel methodologies used in the present study enable a better comprehension of the mechanisms and consequences of protein oxidation in food systems.

  7. Fate of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Production of Pickled Sausage by Using a Cold Fill Process.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Nelson J; Cutter, Catherine N; Campbell, Jonathan A

    2016-10-01

    Preservation by pickling has been used for many years to extend the shelf life of various types of food products. By storing meat products in a brine solution containing an organic acid, salt, spices, as well as other preservatives, the pH of the product is reduced, thus increasing the safety and shelf life of the product. Pickling may involve the use of heated brines to further add to the safety of the food product. When precooked, ready-to-eat (RTE) sausages are pickled with a heated brine solution, the process is referred to as hot filling. However, hot filling has been shown to affect the clarity of the brine, making the product cloudy and unappealing to consumers. Because of the potential quality defects caused by higher temperatures associated with hot fill pickling, cold fill pickling, which uses room temperature brine, is preferred by some pickled sausage manufacturers. Because little information exists on the safety of cold fill, pickled sausages, a challenge study was designed using a brine solution (5% acetic acid and 5% salt at 25°C) to pickle precooked, RTE sausages inoculated with a pathogen cocktail consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Montevideo, Listeria monocytogenes , and Staphylococcus aureus . All pathogens were reduced ~6.80 log CFU/g in 72 h when enumerated on nonselective media. On selective media, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes decreased 6.33 and 6.35 log CFU/g in 12 h, respectively whereas S. aureus was reduced 6.80 log CFU/g in 24 h. Sausages experienced significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in pH over the 28 days of storage, whereas no significant differences were observed in water activity (P =0.1291) or salt concentration of the sausages (P =0.1445) or brine (P =0.3180). The results of this experiment demonstrate that cold fill pickling can effectively reduce and inhibit bacterial pathogens.

  8. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section 319.101 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing...

  9. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section 319.101 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing...

  10. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section 319.101 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing...

  11. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section 319.101 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing...

  12. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section 319.101 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing...

  13. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh...

  14. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh...

  15. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh...

  16. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh...

  17. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh...

  18. Assessment of high and low enterotoxin A producing Staphylococcus aureus strains on pork sausage.

    PubMed

    Zeaki, Nikoleta; Cao, Rong; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Rådström, Peter; Schelin, Jenny

    2014-07-16

    Three Staphylococcus aureus strains representing different alleles of the Siphoviridae prophage-encoded enterotoxin A (SEA) gene, including two high-SEA-producing strains and one low-SEA-producing strain were studied to investigate sea expression and SEA formation on a frankfurter type of sausage. The effect of lactic acid, an antimicrobial compound used as a preservative in food, was also investigated on the same product. All three strains were grown on pork sausages at 15°C for 14days in the presence or absence of lactic acid (1 or 2% v/v). Growth, sea mRNA expression and SEA formation were regularly monitored and compared between non-treated and treated sausages. For all experiments performed, the extracellular SEA formation significantly differed between the high- and low-SEA-producing strains, although growth and viability were overall the same. For the low producer (Sa51), the accumulated amount of extracellular SEA formed after 14days was close to the detection limit (less than 1ng/g) in all conditions; while Sa21 and Sa17, the two high-producing strains, formed 250±25.37ng/g and 750±82.65ng/g in non-treated sausage and 150±75.75ng/g and 300±83.89ng/g when treated with 1% lactic acid, respectively, after 14days. Sausages treated with 2% lactic acid followed the same pattern as above, but with an extended lag phase to 4days and reduced levels of enterotoxin formed for all strains. The difference in the level of SEA between the two high-producing strains is most likely due to the different clonal lineages of the sea-encoded Siphoviridae phages where induction of the prophage potentially could be the reason for higher production of SEA in one of the lines. Furthermore, a prolonged expression of sea gene in the two high-producing strains was observed during the entire incubation period, while the sea expression was under the detection limit in the low-producing strain. This study indicates that the high-SEA-producing strains, especially the strains with the

  19. Listeria monocytogenes presence during fermentation, drying and storage of Petrovská klobása sausage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janković, V.; Mitrović, R.; Lakićević, B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of human listeriosis cases appear to be caused by consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated at the time of consumption with high levels of Listeria monocytogenes. Although strategies to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes in RTE products are critical for reducing the incidence of human listeriosis, this pathogen is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. The aims of the present study were to investigate the occurrence, presence and elimination of L. monocytogenes in Petrovská klobása sausage during processing, fermentation, drying and storage. L. monocytogenes, which was detected at the beginning of the production cycle, disappeared before day 30. The pathogen decline was much faster in those sausages which were dried in controlled, industrial conditions than in those dried applying the traditional, household technique.

  20. Impacts of post-mortem ageing prior to freezing on technological and oxidative properties of coarse ground lamb sausage in a model system

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Juhui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Farouk, Mustafa M.; Brad Kim, Yuan H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ageing time of lamb loins prior to freezing on technological characteristics and oxidation stability of coarse ground lamb loin sausage using in a model system. Methods Lamb loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 25) were aged at −1.5°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 8 wk and then frozen for the remaining days (a total of 30 wk). The aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were ground, and model sausages were formulated with 75% aged/frozen/thawed lamb loin, 25% water, 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. The pH and thaw/purge loss of aged/frozen/thawed lamb loins were evaluated, and protein functionality (protein solubility and emulsifying capacity), water-holding capacity and textural properties of model sausages were determined. Cooked model sausages were vacuum-packaged in a plastic bag and displayed under continuous fluorescent natural white light (3°C±1°C). Colour and lipid oxidation of the cooked model sausages were evaluated on 0 and 21 d of display storage. Results Ageing prior to freezing had no impact on pH and purge/thaw loss of lamb loins and the colour of cooked sausages (p>0.05) made from the loins. Lamb loins aged for at least 3 wk prior to freezing numerically improved total and myofibrillar protein solubilities (p>0.05) and emulsion activity index (p = 0.009) of meat batter, but decreased cooking loss (p = 0.003) and lipid oxidation (p<0.05) of model sausages. Conclusion This study suggests that post-mortem ageing of raw meat prior to freezing could improve water-holding capacity and lipid oxidative stability of sausage made from the meat. PMID:28183171