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Sample records for beetle biomass abundance

  1. Assessing the Ecological Response of Dung Beetles in an Agricultural Landscape Using Number of Individuals and Biomass in Diversity Measures.

    PubMed

    Cultid-Medina, C A; Escobar, F

    2016-04-01

    The global increase in demand for productive land requires us to increase our knowledge of the value of agricultural landscapes for the management and conservation of biodiversity, particularly in tropical regions. Thus, comparative studies of how different community attributes respond to changes in land use under different levels of deforestation intensity would be useful. We analyzed patterns of dung beetle diversity in an Andean region dominated by sun-grown coffee. Diversity was estimated using two measures of species abundance (the number of individuals and biomass) and was compared among four types of vegetation cover (forest, riparian forest, sun-grown coffee, and pastures) in three landscape plots with different degrees of deforestation intensity (low, intermediate, and high). We found that dung beetle diversity patterns differed between types of vegetation cover and degree of deforestation, depending on whether the number of individuals or biomass was used. Based on biomass, inequality in the dung beetle community was lowest in the forest, and increased in the sun-grown coffee and pastures across all levels of deforestation, particularly for the increasing dominance of large species. The number of beetles and biomass indicate that the spatial dominance of sun-grown coffee does not necessarily imply the drastic impoverishment of dung beetle diversity. In fact, for these beetles, it would seem that the landscape studied has not yet crossed "a point of no return." This system offers a starting point for exploring biodiversity management and conservation options in the sun-grown coffee landscapes of the Colombian Andes.

  2. Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how spatial effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were strong effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting strong spatial patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., strong effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of spatial processes on the plant-herbivore interactions.

  3. Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass in beech forests of various ages

    PubMed Central

    Jelaska, Lucija Šerić; Dumbović, Vlatka; Kučinić, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass (MIB) were analysed in three different successional stages of beech tree stands (60, 80 and 150 years old). Carabid beetles were captured using pitfall traps placed at nine sites (three per age class) in the Papuk Mountain of East Croatia during 2008. A cluster analysis identified three groupings that corresponded to the beech age classes. MIB values increased with stand age, ranging from 255 in 60-year-old stand to 537 in the oldest forests. The 80-year-old stand showed the highest species richness and diversity values. With respect to species composition, large species such as Carabus scheidleri and Carabus coriaceus were dominant only in the oldest forests. Furthermore, species that overwinter in the larval stage were more abundant in the oldest forests (45% of the total number of individuals from the 150-year-old stand) than in the younger ones (20% of individuals from 60-year-old, and 22% of individuals from 80-year-old stands). Our results showed that the analyses of species composition and life history traits are valuable for estimating the conservation values of older forests. Although the investigated sites form part of a continuous forested area and are only a couple of kilometres apart, MIB values detect significant differences associated with forest age and can be a useful tool in evaluating the degree to which a forest reflects a natural state. PMID:21738423

  4. Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass in beech forests of various ages.

    PubMed

    Jelaska, Lucija Šerić; Dumbović, Vlatka; Kučinić, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass (MIB) were analysed in three different successional stages of beech tree stands (60, 80 and 150 years old). Carabid beetles were captured using pitfall traps placed at nine sites (three per age class) in the Papuk Mountain of East Croatia during 2008. A cluster analysis identified three groupings that corresponded to the beech age classes. MIB values increased with stand age, ranging from 255 in 60-year-old stand to 537 in the oldest forests. The 80-year-old stand showed the highest species richness and diversity values. With respect to species composition, large species such as Carabus scheidleri and Carabus coriaceus were dominant only in the oldest forests. Furthermore, species that overwinter in the larval stage were more abundant in the oldest forests (45% of the total number of individuals from the 150-year-old stand) than in the younger ones (20% of individuals from 60-year-old, and 22% of individuals from 80-year-old stands). Our results showed that the analyses of species composition and life history traits are valuable for estimating the conservation values of older forests. Although the investigated sites form part of a continuous forested area and are only a couple of kilometres apart, MIB values detect significant differences associated with forest age and can be a useful tool in evaluating the degree to which a forest reflects a natural state.

  5. Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Dods, Patti L; Elliott, John E

    2008-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, management efforts used to control mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have included treatment of infested trees with an organic arsenic pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). Cumulative pesticide applications over a large geographic area have generated concerns about arsenic loading in the environment and potential toxicity to nontarget wildlife. We investigated woodpecker foraging patterns in infested stands with and without MSMA treatment using a combination of tree debarking indices, point count surveys, and radiotelemetry methods in addition to insect flight traps to measure mountain pine beetle emergence. Debarking indices indicated woodpecker foraging of MSMA-treated trees was significantly lower than nontreated trees in all sampling years. However, approximately 40% of MSMA trees had some evidence of foraging. Focal observations of foraging woodpeckers and point count surveys in MSMA treatment areas further confirmed that several species of woodpeckers regularly used MSMA stands during the breeding season. Radio-tagged Hairy (Picoides villosus) and Three-toed (Picoides dorsalis) Woodpeckers spent on average 13% and 23% (range 0-66%) of their time, respectively, in treated stands, despite the fact that these areas only comprised on average 1-2% of their core home range (1 km2). MSMA strongly reduced the emergence of several bark beetle (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) species including the mountain pine beetle, and there was a highly significant positive relationship between Dendroctonus beetle abundance and Three-toed Woodpecker abundance. This study identifies the potential negative impact that forest management practices using pesticides can have on woodpecker populations that depend on bark beetles and their host trees.

  6. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  7. Global Distribution of Microbial Abundance and Biomass in Subseafloor Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Pockalny, R. A.; Adhikari, R. R.; Smith, D. C.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Previously published cell counts were mostly from ocean margins and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Cell counts from these environments are generally similar from site to site and decrease logarithmically with sediment depth, although there can be sharp peaks of high cell densities in zones of anaerobic methane-oxidation. Recent counts from the South Pacific Gyre and the North Pacific Gyre are several orders of magnitude lower and show a more rapid decrease with depth than all previously published datasets. With these new data available, total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. The differences between cell counts from ocean margins and upwelling areas and cell counts from oceanic gyres raise three questions. First, how does the abundance of microbes in subseafloor sediment vary throughout the world ocean? Second, what property or properties are likely to control that variation? Third, how does this variation affect estimates of total subseafloor sedimentary biomass and Earth's total biomass? To address these questions, we compiled our cell counts from the South Pacific Gyre, the North Pacific Gyre and the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean with previously published counts and parameterized the cell distribution at each site and determined two parameters, (i) cell concentration at 1 mbsf and (ii) rate of decrease in cell counts with depth. Both parameters are strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance to shore. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9*1029 cells (corresponding to 4.1 Pg C and ~0.6% of Earth's total living biomass). This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate

  8. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  9. Habitat selection determines abundance, richness and species composition of beetles in aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Binckley, Christopher A; Resetarits, William J

    2005-09-22

    Distribution and abundance patterns at the community and metacommunity scale can result from two distinct mechanisms. Random dispersal followed by non-random, site-specific mortality (species sorting) is the dominant paradigm in community ecology, while habitat selection provides an alternative, largely unexplored, mechanism with different demographic consequences. Rather than differential mortality, habitat selection involves redistribution of individuals among habitat patches based on perceived rather than realized fitness, with perceptions driven by past selection. In particular, habitat preferences based on species composition can create distinct patterns of positive and negative covariance among species, generating more complex linkages among communities than with random dispersal models. In our experiments, the mere presence of predatory fishes, in the absence of any mortality, reduced abundance and species richness of aquatic beetles by up to 80% in comparison with the results from fishless controls. Beetle species' shared habitat preferences generated distinct patterns of species richness, species composition and total abundance, matching large-scale field patterns previously ascribed to random dispersal and differential mortality. Our results indicate that landscape-level patterns of distribution and species diversity can be driven to a large extent by habitat selection behaviour, a critical, but largely overlooked, mechanism of community and metacommunity assembly.

  10. Abundance, biomass and production of juvenile flatfish in southeastern kattegat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    Abundance, biomass and production of juvenile 0- and 1-group flatfish were estimated at 1.5 to 11.0 m depth from May 1984 to May 1987 in southeastern Kattegat. Species studied were: Plaice, Pleuronectes platessa (L.), sole, Solea solea (L.), dab, Limanda limanda (L.), turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), brill, Scophthalmus rhombus (L.), and flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.). Highest abundance and biomass of 0- and 1-group flatfish occurred in July and August each year. Plaice, sole, turbot, brill and flounder were mainly found as 0-group at 1.5 to 5.0 m, but as 1-group they also occupied deeper water. 0- and 1-group dab occurred in the highest density at 5.0 to 11.0 m. Total summer (May to September) production at 1.5 to 5.0 m of the dominant species, plaice, sole and dab, were 98, 23 and 88 g AFDW per 100 m 2 during the three years investigated. Corresponding figures for the depth range 5.0 to 11.0 m were 12, 13 and 53 g AFDW per 100 m 2. Effects of eutrophication on the area as a nursery ground for flatfish are discussed.

  11. Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

  12. Relationships beetween the regional distribution of carabid beetles ( Coleoptera, Carabidae) and the abundance of their potential prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemain, Matthieu; Loreau, Michel; Daufresne, Tanguy

    We studied regional variation in abundance of carabid beetles in relation to both abiotic factors and prey availability in 19 forest sites, with a focus on the relationship between the distributions of the carabid beetle Abax ater Villers and its prey, earthworms. No significant correlation was found between the abundance of Abax ater and any of the abiotic factors considered. On the other had, litter thickness was strongly associated with the composition and structure of the whole carabid community: an increase in litter thickness was accompanied by a decrease in both total carabid abundance and carabid species richnes, and by an increase in the proportion of forest species. The relationship between the regional distributions of abundance of carabid beetles and their potential prev was very different for soil-dwelling and litter-dwelling prey. There was a significant pattern of association between low soil prey abundance and low carabid abundance, which suggests that carabid abundance is partly controlled by prey numbers in the soil. On the other hand, there was a significant pattern of association between high prey density per volume of litter and low Abax ater abundance, thus showing a negative relationship between the abundance of this species and prey density in the litter. We propose two complementary hypotheses to explain this pattern: prey depletion by predation in the litter, and biased sampling of carabids due to differential mobility. The prey depletion hypothesis considers that soil acts as a refuge from predation, so that prey numbers in the soil control carabid abundance, while dominant carabids in turn deplete prey and control their abundance in the litter. This hypothesis suggests a complex relationship between the abundances of carabids and their prey.

  13. Effects of bark beetle outbreaks on species composition, biomass, and nutrient distribution in a mixed deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Henderson, G.S.; Harris, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    The increment of forest biomass and nutrient content on Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee, from 1967 to 1983 was interrupted by two bark beetle outbreaks. An outbreak of the southern pine beetle in the early 1970s and an outbreak of the hickory borer in the late 1970s, early 1980s killed a number of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and hickory (Carya spp.) respectively. Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) growth increased over this 16-year period, especially in response to the mortality of shortleaf pine. The net result of these events was little change in total biomass but a substantial shift in species composition (from pine to yellow-poplar) in the Pine forest type over this period. No species has yet responded to the mortality of hickory. Due to the shift in species composition in the Pine type, calcium and magnesium accumulation rates in biomass increased but foliage biomass decreased over the inventory period. There was little change in foliage biomass or nutrient content in other forest types. The beetle attacks, combined with apparently natural self-thinning, caused a large increase in standing dead biomass and in nutrient return via tree fall. This increased rate of return will substantially alter forest floor nutrient content and availability, especially with regard to calcium and nitrogen.

  14. Japanese Interest in "Hotaru" (Fireflies) and "Kabuto-Mushi" (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-04-10

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, "Hotaru" and "Kabuto-mushi" in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan.

  15. SPECIES-ABUNDANCE-BIOMASS RESPONSES BY ESTUARINE MACROBENTHOS TO SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic community responses can be measured through concerted changes in univariate metrics, including species richness, total abundance, and total biomass. The classic model of pollution effects on marine macroinvertebrate communities recognizes that species/abundance/bioma...

  16. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  17. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2013-07-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 350 m, has a mean of 8.4 μg C L-1, median of 0.2 μg C L-1 and a standard deviation of 63.5 μg C L-1. The global annual average estimate of macrozooplankton biomass in the top 350 m, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid-latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global

  18. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass has a mean of 8.4 μg C l-1, median of 0.15 μg C l-1 and a standard deviation of 63.46 μg C l-1. The global annual average estimate of epipelagic macrozooplankton, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. Biomass is highest in the tropics, decreasing in the sub-tropics and increasing slightly towards the poles. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted in the most part by the lack of information on the size of the

  19. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles attracted to different ages of cow dung at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruchunnan, Ganaswary; Foo, Ng Yong; Ling, Wee Suk; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    The attractiveness of cow dung of different ages towards dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was studied in Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve from February to April 2014. A total of 1,371 individuals belonging to 29 species and 11 genera had successfully collected in traps baited with cow dung aged at 1, 3 and 5 days. Cow dung was highly attractive at first 24 hours, and its attractiveness greatly reduced at Day 3 and Day 5. The result shows significant differences in the means of abundance (F = 4.60, d f= 2 & 24, P = 0.02) and species richness (F = 15.13, df = 2 & 24, P = 5.6 × 10-5). Bray Curtis similarity index indicated high community similarity between trap captures on Day 3 and Day 5 (59.7 %) compare to Day 1 (15.1 %) that leads to an assumption that some species preferentially colonized fresh dung while some species prefer aged dung. Species Copris agnus, Onthophagus aphodiodes, O. rorarius, O. orientalis, O. rutilans, O. vulpes, Oniticellus tessellatus and Paragymnopleurus maurus were captured on Day-1, while O. peninsularis and O. sumaveiensis captured on Day-3 and Day-5. Among the 11 genera, Onthophagus species was found to be most abundant with 762 individuals representing 55.6 % of the total captures. The most abundant species was Sisyphus thoracicus with 524 individuals (38.2 %). The dung beetle fauna's species accumulation curve in Tasik Chini did not reach to an asymptote suggesting more sampling effort is needed.

  20. Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern South Dakota on alfalfa and soybean relative to tillage, fertilization, and yield.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Leslie; Pikul, Joseph L; West, Mark S

    2010-06-01

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without added nitrogen (N). Populations were also sampled early and late season in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Beetles were present in alfalfa by late May and most were reproductively active within a week, but their presence in alfalfa did not always precede soybean emergence. Most beetles taken from alfalfa in late fall were teneral; all were previtellogenic and unmated. Reproductively active beetles were detected in soybeans as soon as seedlings emerged. A partial second generation apparently occurred each year. First-generation beetles started to emerge in soybean fields during the first or third week of July but, whether emergence started early or late, most beetles emerging after July seemingly failed to mature their eggs and started leaving soybeans within several weeks of eclosion. This pattern suggested that any second generation arose from only the earliest emerging beetles of the first generation, with later emerging individuals having to overwinter before reproducing. Thus, any factors delaying emergence of the first generation, such as delayed soybean planting, could potentially limit its reproductive capacity through winter mortality. Cumulative seasonal beetle counts were lower in N-treated subplots and in ridge-tilled compared with chisel-tilled plots. Soybean grain yield increased with decreases in peak abundance of first-generation beetles and with N fertilization.

  1. Redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) abundance and perference of Persea spp. in the new world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the fungus that causes laure...

  2. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  3. Micronekton abundance and biomass in Hawaiian waters as influenced by seamounts, eddies, and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; De Forest, Lisa G.; Domokos, Reka

    2011-05-01

    Micronekton abundance, biomass, and community composition was determined from 58 Cobb trawl samples taken from 2005 to 2008 at several locations in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The results indicated a strong influence of the lunar illumination on micronekton abundance and biomass. This effect was evident in shallow night tows and probably was the result of lunar light affecting the nighttime depths of migrating species. The abundance and biomass of micronekton is remarkably consistent between years and areas in Hawaiian waters after the affects of moon phase are accounted for. Micronekton, principally migratory myctophids, were reduced over the summit of Cross Seamount but not Finch Seamount that has a summit below the daytime depth of most migrators. However, during a new moon, micronekton abundance over Cross seamount was similar to surrounding areas either because of altered migration patterns or because predators such as tunas cannot forage as effectively at night without lunar illumination. Species belonging to the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary layer community were found to vary in presence and abundance between years at Cross Seamount suggesting that a consistent seamount associated fauna does not exist. Sparse sampling of a cyclonic mid-ocean eddy suggested very high micronekton abundance and biomass both in shallow waters at night but also at depth during the day. Although preliminary, these results suggest that eddies may aggregate the micronekton which probably feed on the enhanced secondary productivity.

  4. Community composition, abundance and biomass of zooplankton in Zhangzi Island waters, Northern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiehui; Zhang, Guangtao; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Shiwei; Zhao, Zengxia; Wan, Aiyong

    2016-12-01

    Samples were collected monthly from the sea area around Zhangzi Island, northern Yellow Sea, from July 2009 to June 2010. Vertical net towing was used to examine spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Overall, Calanus sinicus and Saggita crassa were the dominant species found during the study period, while the amphipod Themisto gracilipes was dominant in winter and spring. Vast numbers of the ctenophore species of the genus Beroe were found in October and November. It was not possible to count them, but they constituted a large portion of the total zooplankton biomass. Zooplankton species diversity was highest in October, and species evenness was highest in April. Zooplankton abundance (non-jellyfish) and biomass were highest in June and lowest in August, with annual averages of 131.3 ind./m³ and 217.5 mg/m³, respectively. Water temperature may be responsible for the variations in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Beroe biomass was negatively correlated with other zooplankton abundance. Longterm investigations will be carried out to learn more about the influence of the environment on zooplankton assemblages.

  5. Use of Droplet Digital PCR for Estimation of Fish Abundance and Biomass in Environmental DNA Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Uchii, Kimiko; Takahara, Teruhiko; Matsuhashi, Saeko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    An environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis method has been recently developed to estimate the distribution of aquatic animals by quantifying the number of target DNA copies with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). A new quantitative PCR technology, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), partitions PCR reactions into thousands of droplets and detects the amplification in each droplet, thereby allowing direct quantification of target DNA. We evaluated the quantification accuracy of qPCR and ddPCR to estimate species abundance and biomass by using eDNA in mesocosm experiments involving different numbers of common carp. We found that ddPCR quantified the concentration of carp eDNA along with carp abundance and biomass more accurately than qPCR, especially at low eDNA concentrations. In addition, errors in the analysis were smaller in ddPCR than in qPCR. Thus, ddPCR is better suited to measure eDNA concentration in water, and it provides more accurate results for the abundance and biomass of the target species than qPCR. We also found that the relationship between carp abundance and eDNA concentration was stronger than that between biomass and eDNA by using both ddPCR and qPCR; this suggests that abundance can be better estimated by the analysis of eDNA for species with fewer variations in body mass. PMID:25799582

  6. Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, Karla B.; O'Neil, Keri L.; Bythell, John C.; Sebens, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 ± 1949 SD individuals m−3, but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93–96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m−3 and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

  7. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were

  8. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies) and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  9. Relationships between plant diversity and the abundance and α-diversity of predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a mature Asian temperate forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems.

  10. Relationships between Plant Diversity and the Abundance and α-Diversity of Predatory Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Mature Asian Temperate Forest Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582

  11. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-huai; Gao, Yang; Fang, Hong-da

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the meiobenthic abundance and biomass in the Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary in July-August 2006 (summer), April 2007 (spring), and October 2007 (autumn). A total of 15 meiobenthic groups were recorded, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Ostracoda, Kinorhyncha, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Gnathostomulida, Nemertea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Sipuncula, Echiura, and other unidentified taxa. The average abundance of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 272.1 +/- 281.9, 165.1 +/- 147.1 and 246. 4 +/- 369.3 ind 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda was the most dominant group in abundance, accounting for 86.8%, 83.5%, and 93.4% of the total, respectively, followed by Polychaeta, and benthic Copepoda. The meiobenthic abundance had an uneven vertical distribution. 54.1% of the meibenthos were in 0-2 cm sediments, 35.2% were in 2-5 cm sediments, and 10.8% were in 5-10 cm sediments. 87.4% of nematodes were distributed in 0-5 cm sediments. The average biomass of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 374.6 +/- 346.9, 274.1 +/- 352.2, and 270.8 +/- 396.0 microg 10 cm(-2), and Polychaeta was the most dominant group in biomass, accounting for 30.1%, 46.7% and 46.0%, respectively, followed by Nematoda (25.2%, 20.1%, and 34.0%), and Ostracoda (20.6%, 15.3%, and 14.8%). The horizontal distribution of the meiobenthos had a trend of increasing from north to south, and being higher at east than at west. The meiobenthic abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with water depth.

  12. A global diatom database - abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, K.; Arístegui, J.; Armand, L.; Assmy, P.; Beker, B.; Bode, A.; Breton, E.; Cornet, V.; Gibson, J.; Gosselin, M.-P.; Kopczynska, E.; Marshall, H.; Peloquin, J.; Piontkovski, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Quéguiner, B.; Schiebel, R.; Shipe, R.; Stefels, J.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Varela, M.; Widdicombe, C.; Yallop, M.

    2012-04-01

    Phytoplankton identification and abundance data are now commonly feeding plankton distribution databases worldwide. This study is a first attempt to compile the largest possible body of data available from different databases as well as from individual published or unpublished datasets regarding diatom distribution in the world ocean. The data obtained originate from time series studies as well as spatial studies. This effort is supported by the Marine Ecosystem Model Inter-Comparison Project (MAREMIP), which aims at building consistent datasets for the main Plankton Functional Types (PFT) in order to help validate biogeochemical ocean models by using carbon (C) biomass derived from abundance data. In this study we collected over 293 000 individual geo-referenced data points with diatom abundances from bottle and net sampling. Sampling site distribution was not homogeneous, with 58% of data in the Atlantic, 20% in the Arctic, 12% in the Pacific, 8% in the Indian and 1% in the Southern Ocean. A total of 136 different genera and 607 different species were identified after spell checking and name correction. Only a small fraction of these data were also documented for biovolumes and an even smaller fraction was converted to C biomass. As it is virtually impossible to reconstruct everyone's method for biovolume calculation, which is usually not indicated in the datasets, we decided to undertake the effort to document, for every distinct species, the minimum and maximum cell dimensions, and to convert all the available abundance data into biovolumes and C biomass using a single standardized method. Statistical correction of the database was also adopted to exclude potential outliers and suspicious data points. The final database contains 90 648 data points with converted C biomass. Diatom C biomass calculated from cell sizes spans over eight orders of magnitude. The mean diatom biomass for individual locations, dates and depths is 141.19 μg C l-1, while the median

  13. A global diatom database - abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, K.; Arístegui, J.; Armand, L.; Assmy, P.; Beker, B.; Bode, A.; Breton, E.; Cornet, V.; Gibson, J.; Gosselin, M.-P.; Kopczynska, E.; Marshall, H.; Peloquin, J.; Piontkovski, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Quéguiner, B.; Schiebel, R.; Shipe, R.; Stefels, J.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Varela, M.; Widdicombe, C.; Yallop, M.

    2012-11-01

    Phytoplankton identification and abundance data are now commonly feeding plankton distribution databases worldwide. This study is a first attempt to compile the largest possible body of data available from different databases as well as from individual published or unpublished datasets regarding diatom distribution in the world ocean. The data obtained originate from time series studies as well as spatial studies. This effort is supported by the Marine Ecosystem Model Inter-Comparison Project (MAREMIP), which aims at building consistent datasets for the main plankton functional types (PFTs) in order to help validate biogeochemical ocean models by using carbon (C) biomass derived from abundance data. In this study we collected over 293 000 individual geo-referenced data points with diatom abundances from bottle and net sampling. Sampling site distribution was not homogeneous, with 58% of data in the Atlantic, 20% in the Arctic, 12% in the Pacific, 8% in the Indian and 1% in the Southern Ocean. A total of 136 different genera and 607 different species were identified after spell checking and name correction. Only a small fraction of these data were also documented for biovolumes and an even smaller fraction was converted to C biomass. As it is virtually impossible to reconstruct everyone's method for biovolume calculation, which is usually not indicated in the datasets, we decided to undertake the effort to document, for every distinct species, the minimum and maximum cell dimensions, and to convert all the available abundance data into biovolumes and C biomass using a single standardized method. Statistical correction of the database was also adopted to exclude potential outliers and suspicious data points. The final database contains 90 648 data points with converted C biomass. Diatom C biomass calculated from cell sizes spans over eight orders of magnitude. The mean diatom biomass for individual locations, dates and depths is 141.19 μg C l-1, while the median

  14. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Southern Yellow Sea in winter].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-nan; Huang, Yong; Hua, Er

    2007-02-01

    A two cruises investigation on the meiobenthos in the continental shelf of Southern Yellow Sea was made in January 2003 and January 2004. The results showed that the average abundance of meiobenthos was (954.20 +/- 269.47) ind x 10 cm(-2) and ( 1 186.12+/- 486.07) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the biomass was (954.38+/-403.93) microg x10 cm(-2) and (1 120.72+/-487.21 ) mg x 10 cm(-2) in January 2003 and January 2004, respectively, with no significant difference observed. A total of twenty meiobenthic groups were identified. Free-living marine nematodes was the most dominant group in abundance, with a relative dominance of 87% in 2003 and 90% in 2004, followed by benthic harpacticoids copepoda, polychaeta and kinorhyncha. In terms of biomass, the dominant groups were nematoda (34% -38%), polychaeta (25% -33%), ostracoda (9% -22%) and copepoda (8%). 96. 64% of the meiobenthos distributed in the top 0-5 cm of sediment, while 72. 48% of nematode and 89. 46% of copepoda were in the top 0-2 cm of the sediment. Meiobenthos biomass had significant correlation with the sand and silt contents of sediment and the content of Chl-a. The species composition and biodiversity analyses of six representative stations indicated that there were three meiobenthos communities in the study area, i. e. , inshore, cold waters mass, and transitional communities.

  15. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an savanna.

    PubMed

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

    2010-12-01

    In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity, functional groups. Species richness in the three dung types and in the two soil types was similar. However, warthog dung and sandy-rich soil appeared the preferred habitat resources, in terms of abundance and biomass, while hippopotamus dung hosted the lowest values for these parameters. The analysis of functional groups revealed that slow-burying tunnellers held the major role, both in terms of abundance and biomass, and were mainly found in warthog dung.

  16. Fish wariness is a more sensitive indicator to changes in fishing pressure than abundance, length or biomass.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Jordan S; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Claudet, Joachim; Langlois, Tim J; Wilson, Shaun K; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2017-01-31

    Identifying the most sensitive indicators to changes in fishing pressure is important for accurately detecting impacts. Biomass is thought to be more sensitive than abundance and length, while the wariness of fishes is emerging as a new metric. Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) that involve the opening and closing of an area to fishing are the most common form of fisheries management in the western Pacific. The opening of PHCs to fishing provides a unique opportunity to compare the sensitivity of metrics, such as abundance, length, biomass and wariness, to changes in fishing pressure. Diver-operated stereo video (stereo-DOV) provides data on fish behavior (using a proxy for wariness, minimum approach distance) simultaneous to abundance and length estimates. We assessed the impact of PHC protection and harvesting on the abundance, length, biomass, and wariness of target species using stereo-DOVs. This allowed a comparison of the sensitivity of these metrics to changes in fishing pressure across four PHCs in Fiji, where spearfishing and fish drives are common. Before PHCs were opened to fishing they consistently decreased the wariness of targeted species but were less likely to increase abundance, length, or biomass. Pulse harvesting of PHCs resulted in a rapid increase in the wariness of fishes but inconsistent impacts across the other metrics. Our results suggest that fish wariness is the most sensitive indicator of fishing pressure, followed by biomass, length, and abundance. The collection of behavioral data simultaneously with abundance, length, and biomass estimates using stereo-DOVs offers a cost-effective indicator of protection or rapid increases in fishing pressure. Stereo-DOVs can rapidly provide large amounts of behavioral data from monitoring programs historically focused on estimating abundance and length of fishes, which is not feasible with visual methods.

  17. Relative importance of phosphorus, fish biomass, and watershed land use as drivers of phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Matt W; Zimmer, Kyle D; Herwig, Brian R; Hanson, Mark A; Wright, Robert G; Vaughn, Sean R; Younk, Jerry A

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes is potentially influenced by ambient phosphorus concentrations, nutrient loading accentuated by human activities in lake watersheds, and abundance of planktivorous and benthivorous fish. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed the relative importance of these factors influencing phytoplankton abundance over large spatial scales. We assessed relative influences of watershed characteristics, total phosphorus concentrations, and fish biomass on phytoplankton abundance in 70 shallow lakes in western Minnesota (USA) during summer 2005 and 2006. Our independent variables included total phosphorus (TP), benthivore biomass, planktivore biomass, summed planktivore and benthivore biomass (summed fish), areal extent of agriculture in the watershed, region (prairie versus parkland lakes), and year. Predictive models containing from one to three independent variables were compared using an information theoretic approach. The most parsimonious model consisted of TP and summed fish, and had over 10,000-fold greater support compared to models using just TP or summed fish, or models comprised of other variables. We also found no evidence that relative importance of predictor variables differed between regions or years, and parameter estimates of TP and summed fish were temporally and spatially consistent. TP and summed fish were only weakly correlated, and the model using both variables was a large improvement over using either variable alone. This indicates these two variables can independently increase phytoplankton abundance, which emphasizes the importance of managing both nutrients and fish when trying to control phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes.

  18. Modelling long-term impacts of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, albedo, and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Parrott, Lael; Price, David T.; Ramankutty, Navin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing major outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) in forests of western North America has led to considerable research efforts. However, many questions remain unaddressed regarding its long-term impacts, especially when accounting for the range of possible responses from the non-target vegetation (i.e., deciduous trees and lower-canopy shrubs and grasses). We used the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) process-based ecosystem model along with the recently incorporated Marauding Insect Module (MIM) to quantify, over 240 years, the impacts of various MPB outbreak regimes on lodgepole pine merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, surface albedo, and the net radiative forcing on global climate caused by the changes in ecosystem carbon and albedo. We performed simulations for three locations in British Columbia, Canada, with different climatic conditions, and four scenarios of various coexisting vegetation types with variable growth release responses. The impacts of MPB outbreaks on merchantable biomass (decrease) and surface albedo (increase) were similar across the 12 combinations of locations and vegetation coexistence scenarios. The impacts on ecosystem carbon and radiative forcing, however, varied substantially in magnitude and sign, depending upon the presence and response of the non-target vegetation, particularly for the two locations not subjected to growing-season soil moisture stress; this variability represents the main finding from our study. Despite major uncertainty in the value of the resulting radiative forcing, a simple analysis also suggested that the MPB outbreak in British Columbia will have a smaller impact on global temperature over the coming decades and centuries than a single month of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. Moreover, we found that (1) outbreak severity (i.e., per-event mortality) had a stronger effect than outbreak return interval on the variables studied, (2) MPB

  19. [Effects of Slope Position and Soil Horizon on Soil Microbial Biomass and Abundance in Karst Primary Forest of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-zhen; Su, Yi-rong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiang-bi; He, Xun-yang

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effects of slope position and soil horizon on soil microbial biomass and abundance, chloroform fumigation extraction methods and real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR) were adopted to quantify the changes of soil microbial biomass C, N and abundance of bacteria and fungi, respectively. Soil samples were harvested from three horizons along profile, i. e., leaching horizon (A, 0-10 cm), transitional horizon (AB, 30-50 cm) and alluvial horizon (B, 70-100 cm), which were collected from the upper, middle and lower slope positions of a karst primary forest ecosystem. The results showed that slope position, soil horizon and their interaction significantly influenced the soil microbial biomass and abundance (P < 0.05). Different from A horizon, where SMBC was greater in lower than in upper slope position (P < 0.05), SMBC in AB and B horizons were highest in middle slope position. Similarly, SMBN was greater in lower than in upper slope position for A, AB and B horizons. Besides soil bacterial abundance in B horizon and fungal abundance in AB layer, the middle slope position had the highest value for all the three soil horizons (P < 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that soil organic carbon, available nitrogen and pH were the key factors responsible for SMBC and SMBN variation, respectively, while the important factors responsible for the variation of bacteria abundance were available nitrogen and available phosphorus, and that for fungi abundance variation were available potassium.

  20. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests.

  1. Factors influencing bark beetle outbreaks after forest fires on the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, María J; Ayres, Matthew P

    2011-10-01

    Fires are among the most globally important disturbances in forest ecosystems. Forest fires can be followed by bark beetle outbreaks. Therefore, the dynamic interactions between bark beetle outbreaks and fire appear to be of general importance in coniferous forests throughout the world. We tested three hypotheses of how forest fires in pine ecosystems (Pinus pinaster Alton and P. radiata D. Don) in Spain could alter the population dynamics of bark beetles and influence the probability of further disturbance from beetle outbreaks: fire could affect the antiherbivore resin defenses of trees, change their nutritional suitability, or affect top-down controls on herbivore populations. P. radiata defenses decreased immediately after fire, but trees with little crown damage soon recovered with defenses higher than before. Fire either reduced or did not affect nutritional quality of phloem and either reduced or had no effect on the abundance, diversity, and relative biomass of natural enemies. After fire, bark beetle abundance increased via rapid aggregation of reproductive adults on scorched trees. However, our results indicate that for populations to increase to an outbreak situation, colonizing beetles must initiate attacks before tree resin defenses recover, host trees must retain enough undamaged phloem to facilitate larval development, and natural enemies should be sufficiently rare to permit high beetle recruitment into the next generation. Coincidence of these circumstances may promote the possibility of beetle populations escaping to outbreak levels.

  2. A database of marine phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition in Australian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Claire H.; Coughlan, Alex; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Ajani, Penelope; Armbrecht, Linda; Atkins, Natalia; Bonham, Prudence; Brett, Steve; Brinkman, Richard; Burford, Michele; Clementson, Lesley; Coad, Peter; Coman, Frank; Davies, Diana; Dela-Cruz, Jocelyn; Devlin, Michelle; Edgar, Steven; Eriksen, Ruth; Furnas, Miles; Hassler, Christel; Hill, David; Holmes, Michael; Ingleton, Tim; Jameson, Ian; Leterme, Sophie C.; Lønborg, Christian; McLaughlin, James; McEnnulty, Felicity; McKinnon, A. David; Miller, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; Nayar, Sasi; Patten, Renee; Pritchard, Tim; Proctor, Roger; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Raes, Eric; Rissik, David; Ruszczyk, Jason; Slotwinski, Anita; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Tattersall, Katherine; Thompson, Peter; Thomson, Paul; Tonks, Mark; Trull, Thomas W.; Uribe-Palomino, Julian; Waite, Anya M.; Yauwenas, Rouna; Zammit, Anthony; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2016-06-01

    There have been many individual phytoplankton datasets collected across Australia since the mid 1900s, but most are unavailable to the research community. We have searched archives, contacted researchers, and scanned the primary and grey literature to collate 3,621,847 records of marine phytoplankton species from Australian waters from 1844 to the present. Many of these are small datasets collected for local questions, but combined they provide over 170 years of data on phytoplankton communities in Australian waters. Units and taxonomy have been standardised, obviously erroneous data removed, and all metadata included. We have lodged this dataset with the Australian Ocean Data Network (http://portal.aodn.org.au/) allowing public access. The Australian Phytoplankton Database will be invaluable for global change studies, as it allows analysis of ecological indicators of climate change and eutrophication (e.g., changes in distribution; diatom:dinoflagellate ratios). In addition, the standardised conversion of abundance records to biomass provides modellers with quantifiable data to initialise and validate ecosystem models of lower marine trophic levels.

  3. A database of marine phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition in Australian waters

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Claire H.; Coughlan, Alex; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Ajani, Penelope; Armbrecht, Linda; Atkins, Natalia; Bonham, Prudence; Brett, Steve; Brinkman, Richard; Burford, Michele; Clementson, Lesley; Coad, Peter; Coman, Frank; Davies, Diana; Dela-Cruz, Jocelyn; Devlin, Michelle; Edgar, Steven; Eriksen, Ruth; Furnas, Miles; Hassler, Christel; Hill, David; Holmes, Michael; Ingleton, Tim; Jameson, Ian; Leterme, Sophie C.; Lønborg, Christian; McLaughlin, James; McEnnulty, Felicity; McKinnon, A. David; Miller, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; Nayar, Sasi; Patten, Renee; Pritchard, Tim; Proctor, Roger; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Raes, Eric; Rissik, David; Ruszczyk, Jason; Slotwinski, Anita; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Tattersall, Katherine; Thompson, Peter; Thomson, Paul; Tonks, Mark; Trull, Thomas W.; Uribe-Palomino, Julian; Waite, Anya M.; Yauwenas, Rouna; Zammit, Anthony; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    There have been many individual phytoplankton datasets collected across Australia since the mid 1900s, but most are unavailable to the research community. We have searched archives, contacted researchers, and scanned the primary and grey literature to collate 3,621,847 records of marine phytoplankton species from Australian waters from 1844 to the present. Many of these are small datasets collected for local questions, but combined they provide over 170 years of data on phytoplankton communities in Australian waters. Units and taxonomy have been standardised, obviously erroneous data removed, and all metadata included. We have lodged this dataset with the Australian Ocean Data Network (http://portal.aodn.org.au/) allowing public access. The Australian Phytoplankton Database will be invaluable for global change studies, as it allows analysis of ecological indicators of climate change and eutrophication (e.g., changes in distribution; diatom:dinoflagellate ratios). In addition, the standardised conversion of abundance records to biomass provides modellers with quantifiable data to initialise and validate ecosystem models of lower marine trophic levels. PMID:27328409

  4. Monthly changes in the abundance and biomass of zooplankton and water quality parameters in Kukkarahalli Lake of Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Beenamma; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand M

    2011-09-01

    Zooplankton abundance and distribution are of ecological importance, as they are very sensitive to change, therefore zooplankton make ideal indicators of aquatic ecosystem. This study carried out on the abundance of rotifer, cladoceran, cyclopoid-copepod and ostracod zooplankton groups and biomass of total zooplankton were studied every month for one year. It is interesting and noteworthy to note that Calanoid and Harpacticoid zooplankton groups and free carbon dioxide were completely absent in all the four sampling sites throughout the study year. About 53% of the variation in the abundance of Cladoceran, 55% of variation in the Cyclopoid-copepod, 39% of variation in the ostracod and 53% of variation in the abundance of total zooplankton were mainly due to pH. Interestingly, negative relationship was found between the total zooplankton and concentration of phosphate as in this lake 67% decrease in wet biomass was mainly because of phosphate, where as 47% of dry biomass of total zooplankton was positively correlated with conductivity.

  5. Seasonal occurrence and relative abundance of aphids on potato plants with classical and transgenic characters of resistance to Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    PubMed

    Ashouri, A

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal abundance and dynamics of potato-infesting aphids were studied in two seasons, on potato Solanum tuberosum L. with various types of transgenic and classical resistance to primary pests, especially the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). The lines tested were the NewLeaf potato, a transgenic expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis CryIIIA toxin (BTT); NYL 235-4 a parental line derived from S. berthaultii (NYL) with a high density of glandular trichomes; and a transgenic line expressing oryzacystatln I (OCI), a proteinase inhibitor gene from rice; potatoes from two commercial cultivars, Superior and Kennebec, served as controls. Over the two seasons, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and, to a lesser extent, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) were by far the most abundant aphids observed in the experimental plots. M. persicae was observed relatively late in the season, and was most abundant on the Kennebec-OCI potato. Macrosiphum euphorbiae was more regular over seasons, and its highest densities were observed on the NYL 235-4 line. The population of M. euphorbiae showed markedly different patterns on the five lines studied, which was clearly related to potato plant phenology. Density of M. euphorbiae was observed on the NYL 235-4 line, in late July and early August.

  6. Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m in the southern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Tomoe; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2010-08-01

    Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m depth were studied at a single station of the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea (53°28'N, 177°00'W, depth 3779 m) on the 14th June 2006. Both abundance and biomass of copepods were greatest near the surface layer and decreased with increase in depth. Abundance and biomass of copepods integrated over 0-3000 m were 1,390,000 inds. m -2 and 5056 mg C m -2, respectively. Copepod carcasses occurred throughout the layer, and the carcass:living specimen ratio was the greatest in the oxygen minimum layer (750-100 m, the ratio was 2.3). A total of 72 calanoid copepod species belonging to 34 genera and 15 families occurred in the 0-3000 m water column (Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida were not identified to species level). Cluster analysis separated calanoid copepod communities into 5 groups (A-E). Each group was separated by depth, and the depth range of each group was at 0-75 m (A), 75-500 m (B), 500-750 m (C), 750-1500 m (D) and 1500-3000 m (E). Copepods were divided into four types based on the feeding pattern: suspension feeders, suspension feeders in diapause, detritivores and carnivores. In terms of abundance the most dominant group was suspension feeders (mainly Cyclopoida) in the epipelagic zone, and detritivores (mainly Poecilostomatoida) were dominant in the meso- and bathypelagic zones. In terms of biomass, suspension feeders in diapause (calanoid copepods Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) were the major component (ca. 10-45%), especially in the 250-3000 m depth. These results are compared with the previous studies in the same region and that down to greater depths in the worldwide oceans.

  7. Planktonic food web structure at a coastal time-series site: I. Partitioning of microbial abundances and carbon biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, David A.; Connell, Paige E.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Schnetzer, Astrid; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Countway, Peter D.; Kim, Diane Y.

    2017-03-01

    Biogeochemistry in marine plankton communities is strongly influenced by the activities of microbial species. Understanding the composition and dynamics of these assemblages is essential for modeling emergent community-level processes, yet few studies have examined all of the biological assemblages present in the plankton, and benchmark data of this sort from time-series studies are rare. Abundance and biomass of the entire microbial assemblage and mesozooplankton (>200 μm) were determined vertically, monthly and seasonally over a 3-year period at a coastal time-series station in the San Pedro Basin off the southwestern coast of the USA. All compartments of the planktonic community were enumerated (viruses in the femtoplankton size range [0.02-0.2 μm], bacteria + archaea and cyanobacteria in the picoplankton size range [0.2-2.0 μm], phototrophic and heterotrophic protists in the nanoplanktonic [2-20 μm] and microplanktonic [20-200 μm] size ranges, and mesozooplankton [>200 μm]. Carbon biomass of each category was estimated using standard conversion factors. Plankton abundances varied over seven orders of magnitude across all categories, and total carbon biomass averaged approximately 60 μg C l-1 in surface waters of the 890 m water column over the study period. Bacteria + archaea comprised the single largest component of biomass (>1/3 of the total), with the sum of phototrophic protistan biomass making up a similar proportion. Temporal variability at this subtropical station was not dramatic. Monthly depth-specific and depth-integrated biomass varied 2-fold at the station, while seasonal variances were generally <50%. This study provides benchmark information for investigating long-term environmental forcing on the composition and dynamics of the microbes that dominate food web structure and function at this coastal observatory.

  8. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  9. Hydrodynamic control of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in northern Svalbard waters (79-81°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Søreide, Janne E.; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Sundfjord, Arild; Hop, Haakon; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Nøst Hegseth, Else

    2008-10-01

    The spatial variation in mesozooplankton biomass, abundance and species composition in relation to oceanography was studied in different climatic regimes (warm Atlantic vs. cold Arctic) in northern Svalbard waters. Relationships between the zooplankton community and various environmental factors (salinity, temperature, sampling depth, bottom depth, sea-ice concentrations, algal biomass and bloom stage) were established using multivariate statistics. Our study demonstrated that variability in the physical environment around Svalbard had measurable effect on the pelagic ecosystem. Differences in bottom depth and temperature-salinity best explained more than 40% of the horizontal variability in mesozooplankton biomass (DM m -2) after adjusting for seasonal variability. Salinity and temperature also explained much (21% and 15%, respectively) of the variability in mesozooplankton vertical distribution (ind. m -3) in August. Algal bloom stage, chlorophyll- a biomass, and depth stratum accounted for additional 17% of the overall variability structuring vertical zooplankton distribution. Three main zooplankton communities were identified, including Atlantic species Fritillaria borealis, Oithona atlantica, Calanus finmarchicus, Themisto abyssorum and Aglantha digitale; Arctic species Calanus glacialis, Gammarus wilkitzkii, Mertensia ovum and Sagitta elegans; and deeper-water inhabitants Paraeuchaeta spp., Spinocalanus spp., Aetideopsis minor, Mormonilla minor, Scolecithricella minor, Gaetanus ( Gaidius) tenuispinus, Ostracoda, Scaphocalanus brevicornis and Triconia borealis. Zooplankton biomasses in Atlantic- and Arctic-dominated water masses were similar, but biological "hot-spots" were associated with Arctic communities.

  10. Salix transect of Europe: patterns in the most abundant chrysomelid beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) herbivores of willow from Greece to Arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Canty, Roy; Ruzzier, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Chrysomelid beetles associated with willow (Salix spp.) were surveyed at 41 sites across Europe, from Greece (lat. 38.8 °N) to arctic Norway (lat. 69.7 °N). New information In all, 34 willow-associated chrysomelid species were encountered, of which eight were very abundant. The abundant species were: Crepidodera aurata Marsham, 1802 at 27 sites, Phratora vitellinae (Linnaeus, 1758) at 21 sites, Galerucella lineola (Fabricius, 1781) at 19 sites, Crepidodera fulvicornis (Fabricius, 1792) at 19 sites, Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting, 1781) at 11 sites, Crepidodera plutus (Latreille, 1804) at nine sites, Chrysomela vigintipunctata Scopoli, 1763 at nine sites and Gonioctena pallida (Linnaeus, 1758) at eight sites. The mean number of willow associated chrysomelid morphospecies at each site was 4.2. Around 20% of the total variance in chrysomelid distribution could be accounted for by latitude, but this is mainly due to distinctive occurrence patterns at the northern and southern parts of the transect. There was a paucity of chrysomelids at Greek sites and a distinctively northern faunal composition at sites north of Poland. Considerable site-to-site variation in colour was noted, except in G. lineola, which was chromatically invariant. PMID:27956853

  11. Dung Beetle Community and Functions along a Habitat-Disturbance Gradient in the Amazon: A Rapid Assessment of Ecological Functions Associated to Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Rodrigo F.; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

  12. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  13. Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

  14. Variegated tropical landscapes conserve diverse dung beetle communities

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Background Conserving biodiversity in tropical landscapes is a major challenge to scientists and conservationists. Current rates of deforestation, fragmentation, and land use intensification are producing variegated landscapes with undetermined values for the conservation of biological communities and ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigate the importance of tropical variegated landscapes to biodiversity conservation, using dung beetle as focal taxa. Methods The study was carried out in 12 variegated landscapes where dung beetles were sampled using six pitfall traps, 30 m apart from each other, along a transect in each studied landscape use and cover classes—LUCC (forest fragment and corridor, coffee plantation, and pasture). We baited each pitfall trap with 30 g of human feces and left open for a 48 h period. We also measured three environmental variables reflecting structural differences among the studied classes: canopy cover, local vegetation heterogeneity and soil sand content. Results We collected 52 species and 2,695 individuals of dung beetles. We observed significant differences in the mean species richness, abundance and biomass among classes, with forest fragments presenting the highest values, forest corridors and coffee plantations presenting intermediate values, and pastures the lowest values. Regarding community structure, we also found significant differences among classes. Canopy cover was the only variable explaining variation in dung beetle species richness, abundance, biomass, and community structure. The relative importance of spatial turnover was greater than nestedness-resultant component in all studied landscapes. Discussion This study evaluated the ecological patterns of dung beetle communities in variegated tropical landscapes highlighting the importance of these landscapes for conservation of tropical biodiversity. However, we encourage variegation for the management of landscapes that have already been fragmented or as a

  15. Abundance and biomass responses of microbial food web components to hydrology and environmental gradients within a floodplain of the River Danube.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Goran

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the relationships of time-dependent hydrological variability and selected microbial food web components. Samples were collected monthly from the Kopački Rit floodplain in Croatia, over a period of 19 months, for analysis of bacterioplankton abundance, cell size and biomass; abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and nanophytoplankton; and concentration of chlorophyll a. Similar hydrological variability at different times of the year enabled partition of seasonal effects from hydrological changes on microbial community properties. The results suggested that, unlike some other studies investigating sites with different connectivity, bacterioplankton abundance, and phytoplankton abundance and biomass increased during lentic conditions. At increasing water level, nanophytoplankton showed lower sensitivity to disturbance in comparison with total phytoplankton biomass: this could prolong autotrophic conditions within the floodplain. Bacterioplankton biomass, unlike phytoplankton, was not impacted by hydrology. The bacterial biomass less affected by hydrological changes can be an important additional food component for the floodplain food web. The results also suggested a mechanism controlling bacterial cell size independent of hydrology, as bacterial cell size was significantly decreased as nanoflagellate abundance increased. Hydrology, regardless of seasonal sucession, has the potential to structure microbial food webs, supporting microbial development during lentic conditions. Conversely, other components appear unaffected by hydrology or may be more strongly controlled by biotic interactions. This research, therefore, adds to understanding on microbial food web interactions in the context of flood and flow pulses in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  16. How does landscape use influence small mammal diversity, abundance and biomass in hedgerow networks of farming landscapes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Nadia; Burel, Françoise; Butet, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Over the last decades, profound changes in agricultural practices in the world have led to modifications of land-use as well as landscape structure and composition. Major changes resulted in enlargement of parcel size, increase of cultivated areas and drastic reduction of permanent elements such as woods, hedges or natural meadows. In this context we chose to investigate the composition and structure of small mammal communities in the hedgerow networks of three landscape units of Western France (Brittany) differing by their level of agricultural land-use intensity and hedgerow network density: a slightly intensified dense hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC1), a moderately intensified and fragmented hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC2) and a highly intensified landscape unit on an area reclaimed from the sea (POL). Characterization of small mammal communities was performed using live trapping on permanent habitats (eight hedges per landscape unit). In each of the 24 trapping units, a standardized method was used consisting of a baited 100-m trap-line. Diversity indices were used to compare the three communities. Species richness didn't vary across landscapes whereas Shannon's index of diversity underlined a clear difference between, on the one hand, the most intensified landscape unit (POL) which displayed the lowest diversity and, on the other hand, the two other less intensified units. The abundance of small mammals differed between the three sites: they were significantly more numerous in the hedges of the most intensified site than in hedges of the two other sites. Differences between species also appeared: for example, the Bank vole ( Clethrionomys glareolus) was very characteristic of POL, whereas the Pygmy shrew ( Sorex minutus) was much more associated with BOC sites. Within hedges, like for abundance, small mammal biomass was the highest in the most intensified site (POL > BOC2 = BOC1). On the contrary, at the landscape scale, biomass was the lowest in

  17. Abundance of (14)C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO(2) emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes (14)C and (12)C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in (14)C and reflect the (14)CO(2) abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying (14)C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper (14)C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated (14)C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135pMC.

  18. Linking functional group richness and ecosystem functions of dung beetles: an experimental quantification.

    PubMed

    Milotić, Tanja; Quidé, Stijn; Van Loo, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Dung beetles form an insect group that fulfils important functions in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. These include nutrient cycling through dung removal, soil bioturbation, plant growth, secondary seed dispersal and parasite control. We conducted field experiments at two sites in the northern hemisphere temperate region in which dung removal and secondary seed dispersal were assessed. Dung beetles were classified in three functional groups, depending on their size and dung manipulation method: dwellers, large and small tunnelers. Other soil inhabiting fauna were included as a fourth functional group. Dung removal and seed dispersal by each individual functional group and combinations thereof were estimated in exclusion experiments using different dung types. Dwellers were the most diverse and abundant group, but tunnelers were dominant in terms of biomass. All dung beetle functional groups had a clear preference for fresh dung. The ecosystem services in dung removal and secondary seed dispersal provided by dung beetles were significant and differed between functional groups. Although in absolute numbers more dwellers were found, large tunnelers were disproportionally important for dung burial and seed removal. In the absence of dung beetles, other soil inhabiting fauna, such as earthworms, partly took over the dung decomposing role of dung beetles while most dung was processed when all native functional groups were present. Our results, therefore, emphasize the need to conserve functionally complete dung ecosystems to maintain full ecosystem functioning.

  19. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass--Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol.

    PubMed

    Elbrecht, Vasco; Leese, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads). Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I). Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II). Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR-based metabarcoding

  20. Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

  1. Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 μg DW or 2.5 μg AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

  2. A metabolic and body-size scaling framework for parasite within-host abundance, biomass, and energy flux.

    PubMed

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2013-08-01

    Energetics may provide a useful currency for studying the ecology of parasite assemblages within individual hosts. Parasite assemblages may also provide powerful models to study general principles of ecological energetics. Yet there has been little ecological research on parasite-host energetics, probably due to methodological difficulties. However, the scaling relationships of individual metabolic rate with body or cell size and temperature may permit us to tackle the energetics of parasite assemblages in hosts. This article offers the foundations and initial testing of a metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework for parasites in hosts. I first provide equations to estimate energetic flux through observed parasite assemblages. I then develop metabolic scaling theory for parasite abundance, energetics, and biomass in individual hosts. In contrast to previous efforts, the theory factors in both host and parasite metabolic scaling, how parasites use host space, and whether energy or space dictates carrying capacity. Empirical tests indicate that host energetic flux can set parasite carrying capacity, which decreases as predicted considering the scaling of host and parasite metabolic rates. The theory and results also highlight that the phenomenon of "energetic equivalence" is not an assumption of MTE but a possible outcome contingent on how species partition resources. Hence, applying MTE to parasites can lend mechanistic, quantitative, predictive insight into the nature of parasitism and can inform general ecological theory.

  3. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  4. Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  5. Zoobenthic biomass limited by phytoplankton abundance: evidence from parallel changes in two long-term data series in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukema, J. J.; Cadée, G. C.; Dekker, R.

    2002-10-01

    We address the question of whether year-to-year variability in pelagic algal food supply can explain long-term variability in macrozoobenthic biomass in an estuarine area. Starting in the early 1970s, quantitative data were frequently collected in standardized ways in the western part of the Dutch Wadden Sea on (1) concentrations of phytoplankton species and chlorophyll (and rates of primary production) in the main tidal inlet (Marsdiep) and (2) numerical densities and biomass of macrozoobenthic animals (and growth rates in a few species) in a nearby extensive tidal-flat area (Balgzand). In both data series, the most distinctive feature was a sudden change that took place around 1980, viz. a rather sudden and persisting doubling of concentrations of chlorophyll and algal cells and of primary production rates, as well as of numerical densities and biomass of zoobenthos. From these parallel changes we hypothesise that algal food largely determines the abundance of zoobenthos in the Wadden Sea. The following observations substantiate this hypothesis: (1) the significant correlation between annual mean values of chlorophyll concentration and overall mean numerical density and biomass of zoobenthos (as estimated after an appropriate time lag), (2) the observed limitation of zoobenthic biomass doubling (after the doubling of food supply) to areas with already high biomass values (where food demand was high and food could therefore be in short supply), (3) the limitation of a strong response to changes in food supply to functional groups that are directly dependent on algal food, i.e. suspension and deposit feeders, as opposed to carnivores, (4) the significant correlation between annual growth rates in Macoma balthica and food supply in the growing season, particularly in areas close to the tidal inlet where food concentrations were monitored. Some other factors were identified that could decisively influence zoobenthic abundance locally and/or temporarily. Harsh

  6. Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael; Six, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    Insect fungus gardens consist of a community of interacting microorganisms that can have either beneficial or detrimental effects to the farmers. In contrast to fungus-farming ants and termites, the fungal communities of ambrosia beetles and the effects of particular fungal species on the farmers are largely unknown. Here, we used a laboratory rearing technique for studying the filamentous fungal garden community of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees. Raffaelea sulfurea and Fusicolla acetilerea were transmitted in spore-carrying organs by gallery founding females and established first in new gardens. Raffaelea sulfurea had positive effects on egg-laying and larval numbers. Over time, four other fungal species emerged in the gardens. Prevalence of one of them, Paecilomyces variotii, correlated negatively with larval numbers and can be harmful to adults by forming biofilms on their bodies. It also comprised the main portion of garden material removed from galleries by adults. Our data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii. Fungal diversity in gardens of ambrosia beetles appears to be much lower than that in gardens of fungus-culturing ants, which seems to result from essential differences in substrates and behaviours.

  7. [Effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in Huangfuchuan watershed, Inner Mongolia of North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Run-Run; Liu, Xin-Min

    2013-03-01

    By using pitfall trap method, and taking the croplands and natural grasslands under different soil and water loss control measures as sampling plots, an investigation was conducted on the dung beetle assemblages in the Huangfuchuan watershed of Inner Mongolia from September 2007 to September 2008, aimed to understand the effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. A total of 6169 dung beetles were captured, belonging to 15 species, 5 genus, and 2 families. The dominant species were Aphodius rectus and Onthophagus gibbulus, accounting for 66. 54% and 13. 26% of the total captured beetles, respectively. A lack of the species suitable for living in woodland habitats was the basic feature of the dung beetle assemblages. As compared with the control, all test soil and water loss control measures did not cause an obvious increase of species richness, biomass, and abundance of the dung beetle assemblages. The biomass and species richness of the assemblages as well as the abundance of the functional groups II and III had a significant negative correlation with the average tree (grass) height. Under the effects of long-term agricultural cultivation and the lack of large herbivores, the species richness and abundance of the functional group I (larger paracoprids and telocoprids) were lower than those of the functional groups II (relatively smaller paracoprids) and II (endocoprids), the main components of the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. The faeces of the residents and livestock in the study region provided abundant foods for the dung beetle assemblages, inducing the relatively high abundance and spices richness of the assemblages occurred in the croplands nearby the villages. Our results suggested that natural grasslands were the suitable habitats for the dung beetles in Huangfuchuan watershed. At regional scale, to popularize the successful experiences of comprehensive soil and water loss control

  8. A Doubling of Microphytobenthos Biomass Coincides with a Tenfold Increase in Denitrifier and Total Bacterial Abundances in Intertidal Sediments of a Temperate Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  9. Large spatial scale variability in bathyal macrobenthos abundance, biomass, α- and β-diversity along the Mediterranean continental margin.

    PubMed

    Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project ("Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna"), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the α-diversity and β-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and α-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the β-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas.

  10. Large Spatial Scale Variability in Bathyal Macrobenthos Abundance, Biomass, α- and β-Diversity along the Mediterranean Continental Margin

    PubMed Central

    Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project (“Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna”), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the α-diversity and β-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and α-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the β-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas. PMID:25225909

  11. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A

    2013-09-12

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one-fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle-angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future.

  12. RNA-sequencing analysis reveals abundant developmental stage-specific and immunity-related genes in the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Knorr, E; Vilcinskas, A

    2014-02-01

    The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) is a major pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and other cruciferous crops in Europe. Pesticide-resistant pollen beetle populations are emerging, increasing the economic impact of this species. We isolated total RNA from the larval and adult stages, the latter either naïve or immunized by injection with bacteria and yeast. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was carried out to establish a comprehensive transcriptome catalogue and to screen for developmental stage-specific and immunity-related transcripts. We assembled the transcriptome de novo by combining sequence tags from all developmental stages and treatments. Gene expression data based on normalized read counts revealed several functional gene categories that were differentially expressed between larvae and adults, particularly genes associated with digestion and detoxification that were induced in larvae, and genes associated with reproduction and environmental signalling that were induced in adults. We also identified many genes associated with microbe recognition, immunity-related signalling and defence effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes. Digital gene expression analysis revealed significant differences in the profile of AMPs expressed in larvae, naïve adults and immune-challenged adults, providing insight into the steady-state differences between developmental stages and the complex transcriptional remodelling that occurs following the induction of immunity. Our data provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms used by phytophagous insects and could lead to the development of more effective control strategies for insect pests.

  13. Influence of fertilization on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in organic potato production.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Lynch, D H; Martin, R C

    2008-04-01

    The abundance of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in organically grown potato did not change significantly in response to increasing rates of dehydrated poultry manure. However, peaks of abundance of larvae were shifted forward in time in response to the high rate of organic fertilizer. Tests using excised foliage showed that the shift was not caused by differential larval mortality or longer developmental times. Time allocation to resting, walking, and feeding by adults was similar regardless of fertilizer rate. Adult foliage consumption was unaffected by organic fertilizer rates in no choice tests and significantly affected in few choice tests. A 22% longer larval development time on plants treated with low fertilizer rate than on plants with high rate was the most significant effect. Even though maximum plant height, canopy, biomass, and yield were significantly smaller in the organic than in conventional plots, the suitability of the plants was not affected except for reduced feeding by summer beetles. Summer adults spent less time feeding and consumed two to five times less foliage on organic potato than on inorganically fertilized and conventionally produced plants. The overall influence of fertilizer on Colorado potato beetle populations was limited and therefore can only play a secondary role in management strategies for organic potato. Avoidance of excessive organic fertilizer that promotes short larval development time and extension of the period over which large Colorado potato beetle larvae are present should be recommended.

  14. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    SciTech Connect

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.

  15. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    DOE PAGES

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; ...

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yieldmore » was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.« less

  16. Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

  17. Effects of relay-intercropping sorghum with winter wheat, alfalfa, and cotton on lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) abundance and species composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creating conditions that enhance the abundance of resident populations of natural enemies in agroecosystems is considered critical to the efficiency of biological control of insect pests. We conducted a study to determine the potential of relay intercropping for enhancing the abundance of aphidopha...

  18. Microbial community abundance and biomass along a 180° transect in the equatorial Pacific during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Susan L.; Landry, Michael R.; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, CéCile

    2003-12-01

    As part of the French Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Etude du Broutage en Zone Equatoriale program, we investigated the distributions of microorganisms (bacteria and protists <200 μm) in the upper 120 m of the equatorial Pacific from 8°S to 8°N, along 180°. Population distributions, determined by a combination of flow cytometry, microscopy and spectrofluorometry, were closely related to physical features across the study site. Phytoplankton biomass, ranging from 1.2 to 34.2 μg C L-1 and averaging 15.5 μg C L-1, was most enhanced in the divergence zone. Carbon to chlorophyll ratios were also enhanced in the divergence zone and showed distinct latitudinal variations. Heterotrophic biomass, excluding ciliates, was patchy across the area, ranging from 5 to 36 μg C L-1 and averaging 13 μg C L-1. Prokaryotic species (Prochlorococcus spp., Synechococcus spp., and heterotrophic bacteria) showed similar patterns of abundance, with the main feature being their distributional asymmetry to the south of the equator. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass were enriched in the convergent zone at 4°-5°N between the South Equatorial Current and the North Equatorial Counter Current. Heterotrophic biomass exceeded phytoplankton biomass in the more nutrient-impoverished waters to the north and in the branch of a tropical instability wave eddy. Microplankton represented only a small portion of the total autotrophic carbon and was comprised mostly of dinoflagellates. Large species dominated the relatively modest diatom biomass. Food web interactions and biogeochemical fluxes in the central equatorial Pacific may be significantly influenced by temporal and spatial variability of the microbial community associated with physical features of the region.

  19. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

  20. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  1. Investigating the association of fish abundance and biomass with cold-water corals in the deep Northeast Atlantic Ocean using a generalised linear modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, Matthias F.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Davies, Andrew J.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; van den Beld, Inge M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex three-dimensional structures that can support a diverse macro- and megafaunal community. These reef structures provide important biogenic habitats that can act as refuge, feeding, spawning and nursery areas for fish. However, quantitative data assessing the linkage between CWC and fish are scarce. The North Atlantic Ocean is a key region in the worldwide distribution of Lophelia pertusa, which is thought to be the most widespread frame-work forming cold-water coral species in the world. This study examined the relationship between fish and CWC reefs in the northeast Atlantic Ocean by means of video and remotely sensed data from three different CWC communities (Rockall Bank, Hatton Bank and the Belgica Mound Province). Using a tethered camera system, 37 transects were recorded during a period of 8 years. Fish-coral association was investigated using a generalised linear modelling (GLM) approach. Overall, Lepidion eques was the most abundant fish species present (143 ind. ha-1). Other common species were Sigmops bathyphilus (17 ind. ha-1), Synaphobranchus kaupii (15 ind. ha-1), Helicolenus dactylopterus (16 ind. ha-1) and Mora moro (7 ind. ha-1). The highest fish biomass was measured for Lophius piscatorius (26.3 kg ha-1). Other species with a high biomass were Helicolenus dactylopterus (4.3 kg ha-1), Lepidion eques (13.2 kg ha-1) and Mora moro (7.8 kg ha-1). Overall, no significant difference in fish abundance and biomass was found at coral framework habitats compared to non-coral areas. The relationship between fish and coral framework varied among fish species and study site. Fish count and length modelling results showed that terrain variables explain a small proportion of the variation of our data. Depth, coral-framework and terrain rugosity were generally the most important explanatory variables, but this varied with species and study site.

  2. Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities in deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Iida, Taichi; Soga, Masashi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae), on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae), carrion beetles (Silphidae), and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site) and lakeshore areas (control site) and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites. Results showed that although both species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were significantly higher at the lakeshore site, those of dung and carrion beetles were higher at the island site. It was additionally observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was higher at the lakeshore site, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was higher at the island site, whereas that of large species did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. Abundance of two body sizes (small and large) of carrion beetles were both higher at the island site. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated that an increase in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further changes in ecosystem functions and services in this region.

  3. Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities in deciduous forests

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Taichi; Soga, Masashi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae), on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae), carrion beetles (Silphidae), and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site) and lakeshore areas (control site) and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites. Results showed that although both species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were significantly higher at the lakeshore site, those of dung and carrion beetles were higher at the island site. It was additionally observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was higher at the lakeshore site, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was higher at the island site, whereas that of large species did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. Abundance of two body sizes (small and large) of carrion beetles were both higher at the island site. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated that an increase in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further changes in ecosystem functions and services in this region. PMID:27833427

  4. Geographic and bathymetric trends in abundance, biomass and body size of four grenadier fishes along the Iberian coast in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Palmer, Miquel; Gordon, John D. M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study is a mesoscale analysis of latitude and depth related trends in abundance, biomass and body size of the four grenadier species Caelorinchus caelorhincus, Hymenocephalus italicus, Nezumia aequalis and Trachyrinchus scabrus inhabiting the deep western Mediterranean. We have analysed data from seven annual bottom trawl surveys, carried out down to 800 m depth along the Iberian Mediterranean coast covering a distance of approximately 1200 km. The objectives were to establish general patterns in the mesoscale distribution of abundance, biomass and body size of deep-water grenadier fishes and also analyse the consistency of the bathymetric distribution of these parameters along a large latitudinal gradient. Five complementary series of analyses have been completed. The first focussed on describing the general patterns of abundance and size by correspondence canonical analysis, CCA, in the area. The second and third series focussed on the existence of temporal, geographical and bathymetric trends of abundance, weight and mean size by analysis of covariance, ANCOVA and multiple regression analysis. The fourth series compared the frequency distributions of body length. Finally, the last series focussed on the patterns of abundance versus size. The total number of individuals of all four grenadier species captured in 260 bottom trawls amounted to 27,435 and their weight was 1404 kg. No general trends for the four species have been observed between years. All four species showed a general pattern of increasing size with depth, which, except in the case of C. caelorhincus, was consistent along a large latitudinal gradient. Nezumia aequalis was unique in showing the same noticeable trend of increasing abundance with depth along the entire latitudinal range, but with clear differences in the intercepts. The abundance of N. aequalis and C. caelorhincus decreased significantly northwards. Hymenocephalus italicus was the least abundant species and had a

  5. The effect of inundation frequency on ground beetle communities in a channelized mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.

    2012-04-01

    Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Porębianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body

  6. Spatial variation in abundance, size and orientation of juvenile corals related to the biomass of parrotfishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Trapon, Melanie L; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    For species with complex life histories such as scleractinian corals, processes occurring early in life can greatly influence the number of individuals entering the adult population. A plethora of studies have examined settlement patterns of coral larvae, mostly on artificial substrata, and the composition of adult corals across multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, relatively few studies have examined the spatial distribution of small (≤50 mm diameter) sexually immature corals on natural reef substrata. We, therefore, quantified the variation in the abundance, composition and size of juvenile corals (≤50 mm diameter) among 27 sites, nine reefs, and three latitudes spanning over 1000 km on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Overall, 2801 juveniles were recorded with a mean density of 6.9 (±0.3 SE) ind.m(-2), with Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites accounting for 84.1% of all juvenile corals surveyed. Size-class structure, orientation on the substrate and taxonomic composition of juvenile corals varied significantly among latitudinal sectors. The abundance of juvenile corals varied both within (6-13 ind.m(-2)) and among reefs (2.8-11.1 ind.m(-2)) but was fairly similar among latitudes (6.1-8.2 ind.m(-2)), despite marked latitudinal variation in larval supply and settlement rates previously found at this scale. Furthermore, the density of juvenile corals was negatively correlated with the biomass of scraping and excavating parrotfishes across all sites, revealing a potentially important role of parrotfishes in determining distribution patterns of juvenile corals on the Great Barrier Reef. While numerous studies have advocated the importance of parrotfishes for clearing space on the substrate to facilitate coral settlement, our results suggest that at high biomass they may have a detrimental effect on juvenile coral assemblages. There is, however, a clear need to directly quantify rates of mortality and growth of juvenile corals to understand the relative

  7. Abundance, biomass, vertical migration and estimated development rate of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the southern Gulf of Maine during late spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Edward G.; Gilman, Sharon L.; Campbell, Robert G.; Durbin, Ann G.

    Abundance, biomass, diel vertical migration and estimated in situ development in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were investigated during late spring in 1988 and 1989 in the southern Gulf of Maine. This region is an important feeding ground for the planktivorous right whale, Eubalaena glacialis. The 1988 study took place during the declining spring bloom, with phytoplankton biomass variable, but relatively high. The 1989 study occurred after seasonal stratification, and phytoplankton biomass was low. During the 1988 cruise the dominant stage in C. finmarchicus shifted from C1-C2 to C4-C5. Stage durations during 1988 (4.0 days for C3 and 6.6 days for C4), estimated from the temporal change in stage distribution, were similar to maximal values observed in the laboratory. In contrast, during 1989 stages C4 and C5 were dominant throughout the study period and development rate was slow (estimated C4 stage duration about 24 days). Diel vertical migration patterns changed, from an absence of migration at the first two 1988 stations where younger stages predominated (C1-C3), to a very strong diel vertical migration at the later 1988 stations where stages C3-C3 predominated. This was not a simple ontogenetic change in migratory behavior since all copepodite stages at each station showed similar patterns. During 1989 dense aggregations of C. finmarchicus remained in the surface layer both day and night, and no diel vertical migration was observed. A small, nonmigratory population of late-stage C. finmarchicus was found at depth. Individual body size of these copepods was considerably greater than those found at the surface. Differences in development rate between years reflect differences in the food environment, brought about by seasonal hydrographic changes and the development of more intense stratification. Diel vertical migration patterns, however, did not show a simple relation with food availability, and it is suggested that predation may play an important role in

  8. Latitudinal variations in the abundance, biomass, taxonomic composition and estimated production of epipelagic mesozooplankton along the 155°E longitude in the western North Pacific during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Matsuno, K.; Abe, Y.; Arima, D.; Imai, I.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 100 mesozooplankton samples collected with NORPAC nets from a 0 to 150-m depth at latitudinal stations (35-44°N) along 155°E each May from 2002 through 2011 were analyzed. The mesozooplankton abundance at each station varied from 39 to 1106 ind. m-3. The mesozooplankton biomass was consistently higher (80-100 mg DM m-3) in the transition domain (40-42°N) than the biomass in the other domains. An empirical metabolic rate-based carbon budget model indicated that production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders was highest (120-175 mg C m-2 d-1) in the transition domain. A comparison between the production of the mesozooplankton suspension feeders and the food requirement of mesozooplankton carnivores indicated that the latter was well fulfilled by the former in the subarctic and transition domains. However, the food requirement of the mesozooplankton carnivores was near equal to or exceeded the production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders in the subtropical domain. As an annual event, the feeding migration of epipelagic fish to the transition and subarctic domains in summer may be interpreted by their utilization of the excess secondary production (production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders).

  9. Zooplankton abundance and biomass size spectra in the East Antarctic sea-ice zone during the winter-spring transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jake R.; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.; Jones, Hugh J.; Buchanan, Pearse J.; Crawford, Christine M.; James, Lainey C.; Johnson, Robert; Meiners, Klaus M.; Virtue, Patti; Westwood, Karen; Kawaguchi, So

    2016-09-01

    Sea ice is an influential feature in Southern Ocean-Antarctic marine environments creating a 2-phase vertical ecosystem. The lack of information on how this system influences community structure during the winter-spring transition, however, is largely lacking. Zooplankton form the link that bridges these environments, with the meiofaunal and algal communities within sea ice directly influencing the epipelagic zooplankton community at the ice-water interface. A combination of methods including sea-ice coring, umbrella net sampling and Laser Optical Plankton Counter were used to describe the vertical structure of zooplankton and meiofaunal communities. The distribution of meiofauna and chlorophyll a both played important roles in structuring the zooplankton community within this dynamic region. Many dominant taxa, including Calanus propinquus and Oithona similis, directly responded to the high availability of algae present within the bottom strata of sea ice. The sea-ice associated species Stephos longipes represented a strong link between this 2-phase ecosystem. Observations of the vertical distribution of biomass obtained from the LOPC suggests that the responses of these species to the sea ice directly influences the vertical structure of zooplankton during the winter-spring transition.

  10. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  11. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dena M.; Marcot, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  12. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today.

  13. Removal rates of native and exotic dung by dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a fragmented tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Sandra; Favila, Mario E

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests to pastures, cattle dung has become an exotic alternative and abundant food for dung beetles. This study compares dung removal rates of native (monkey) and exotic (cow) dung in different-sized fragments of tropical rain forests, during the dry and rainy seasons at the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. Dung removal rates were affected by season, dung type, and the interaction between resource type and season. During the dry season, the removal rates of monkey dung were somewhat similar than during the rainy season, whereas the removal rates of cow dung were much higher during the rainy season. Dung beetle biomass and species richness were almost three times greater in monkey dung than in cow dung. Monkey dung attracted species belonging to the dweller, roller, and tunneler guilds; cow dung attracted mostly tunnelers. Therefore, the use of exotic dung may result in a biased misconception of the rates of dung removal in tropical forest and an underestimation of dung beetle diversity. This study highlights the importance of working with natural tropical forest resources when attempting to identify realistic tendencies concerning processes in natural habitats and those modified by fragmentation and by other human activities.

  14. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  15. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  16. Comparative water relations of adult and juvenile tortoise beetles: differences among sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Appel, Arthur G; Eubanks, Micky D

    2003-08-01

    Relative abundance of two sympatric tortoise beetles varies between drought and 'wet' years. Differing abilities to conserve water may influence beetle survival in changing environments. Cuticular permeability (CP), percentage of total body water (%TBW), rate of water loss and percentage of body lipid content were determined for five juvenile stages and female and male adults of two sympatric species of chrysomelid beetles, the golden tortoise beetle, Charidotella bicolor (F.) and the mottled tortoise beetle, Deloyala guttata (Olivier). There were significant differences in %TBW and lipid content among juvenile stages. Second instars had the greatest difference in CP (37.98 and 11.13 microgcm(-2)h(-1)mmHg(-1) for golden and mottled tortoise beetles, respectively). Mottled tortoise beetles had lower CP and greater %TBW compared with golden tortoise beetles, suggesting that they can conserve a greater amount of water and may tolerate drier environmental conditions. This study suggests that juvenile response to environmental water stress may differentially affect the survival of early instars and thus affect the relative abundance of adult beetles in the field. This is supported by the low relative abundance of golden tortoise beetle larvae in a drought year and the higher abundance in two 'wet' years.

  17. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra.

  18. The evolution of agriculture in beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Farrell, B D; Sequeira, A S; O'Meara, B C; Normark, B B; Chung, J H; Jordal, B H

    2001-10-01

    Beetles in the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae are unusual in that they burrow as adults inside trees for feeding and oviposition. Some of these beetles are known as ambrosia beetles for their obligate mutualisms with asexual fungi--known as ambrosia fungi--that are derived from plant pathogens in the ascomycete group known as the ophiostomatoid fungi. Other beetles in these subfamilies are known as bark beetles and are associated with free-living, pathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that facilitate beetle attack of phloem of trees with resin defenses. Using DNA sequences from six genes, including both copies of the nuclear gene encoding enolase, we performed a molecular phylogenetic study of bark and ambrosia beetles across these two subfamilies to establish the rate and direction of changes in life histories and their consequences for diversification. The ambrosia beetle habits have evolved repeatedly and are unreversed. The subfamily Platypodinae is derived from within the Scolytinae, near the tribe Scolytini. Comparison of the molecular branch lengths of ambrosia beetles and ambrosia fungi reveals a strong correlation, which a fungal molecular clock suggests spans 60 to 21 million years. Bark beetles have shifted from ancestral association with conifers to angiosperms and back again several times. Each shift to angiosperms is associated with elevated diversity, whereas the reverse shifts to conifers are associated with lowered diversity. The unusual habit of adult burrowing likely facilitated the diversification of these beetle-fungus associations, enabling them to use the biomass-rich resource that trees represent and set the stage for at least one origin of eusociality.

  19. The Effect of the Landscape Matrix on the Distribution of Dung and Carrion Beetles in a Fragmented Tropical Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species. PMID:20673066

  20. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  1. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas.

  2. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  3. Bark beetle effects on fuel profiles across a range of stand structures in Douglas-fir forests of Greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Donato, Daniel C; Harvey, Brian J; Romme, William H; Simard, Martin; Turner, Monica G

    2013-01-01

    Consequences of bark beetle outbreaks for forest wildfire potential are receiving heightened attention, but little research has considered ecosystems with mixed-severity fire regimes. Such forests are widespread, variable in stand structure, and often fuel limited, suggesting that beetle outbreaks could substantially alter fire potentials. We studied canopy and surface fuels in interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii v. glauca) forests in Greater Yellowstone, Wyoming, USA, to determine how fuel characteristics varied with time since outbreak of the Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). We sampled five stands in each of four outbreak stages, validated for pre-outbreak similarity: green (undisturbed), red (1-3 yr), gray (4-14 yr), and silver (25-30 yr). General linear models were used to compare variation in fuel profiles associated with outbreak to variation associated with the range of stand structures (dense mesic forest to open xeric parkland) characteristic of interior Douglas-fir forest. Beetle outbreak killed 38-83% of basal area within stands, generating a mix of live trees and snags over several years. Canopy fuel load and bulk density began declining in the red stage via needle drop and decreased by approximately 50% by the silver stage. The dead portion of available canopy fuels peaked in the red stage at 41%. After accounting for background variation, there was little effect of beetle outbreak on surface fuels, with differences mainly in herbaceous biomass (50% greater in red stands) and coarse woody fuels (doubled in silver stands). Within-stand spatial heterogeneity of fuels increased with time since outbreak, and surface-to-crown continuity decreased and remained low because of slow/sparse regeneration. Collectively, results suggest reduced fire potentials in post-outbreak stands, particularly for crown fire after the red stage, although abundant coarse fuels in silver stands may increase burn residence time and heat release. Outbreak

  4. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  5. Carabid Beetles as Parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid habit is uncommon in beetles; only 11 beetle families include parasitoid species. Three tribes of 76 in the Carabidae are known to have species in which larvae are pupal ectoparasitoids: Brachinini, Peleciini, and Lebiini. The first larval instar is the free-living, host-finding stage...

  6. Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

  7. Metabarcoding of fungal communities associated with bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirsten E; Hopkins, Kevin; Inward, Daegan J G; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-03-01

    Many species of fungi are closely allied with bark beetles, including many tree pathogens, but their species richness and patterns of distribution remain largely unknown. We established a protocol for metabarcoding of fungal communities directly from total genomic DNA extracted from individual beetles, showing that the ITS3/4 primer pair selectively amplifies the fungal ITS. Using three specimens of bark beetle from different species, we assess the fungal diversity associated with these specimens and the repeatability of these estimates in PCRs conducted with different primer tags. The combined replicates produced 727 fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for the specimen of Hylastes ater, 435 OTUs for Tomicus piniperda, and 294 OTUs for Trypodendron lineatum, while individual PCR reactions produced on average only 229, 54, and 31 OTUs for the three specimens, respectively. Yet, communities from PCR replicates were very similar in pairwise comparisons, in particular when considering species abundance, but differed greatly among the three beetle specimens. Different primer tags or the inclusion of amplicons in separate libraries did not impact the species composition. The ITS2 sequences were identified with the Lowest Common Ancestor approach and correspond to diverse lineages of fungi, including Ophiostomaceae and Leotiomycetes widely found to be tree pathogens. We conclude that Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding reliably captures fungal diversity associated with bark beetles, although numerous PCR replicates are recommended for an exhaustive sample. Direct PCR from beetle DNA extractions provides a rapid method for future surveys of fungal species diversity and their associations with bark beetles and environmental variables.

  8. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Nicole A; Zhao, Anthony; Munshi-South, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970's. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970's were not detected in 2015. These results indicate that

  9. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Nicole A.; Zhao, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These results indicate

  10. Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Feer, François

    2013-06-01

    The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role.

  11. Do birds and beetles show similar responses to urbanization?

    PubMed

    Gagné, Sara A; Fahrig, Lenore

    2011-09-01

    To date, the vast majority of studies in urban areas have been carried out on birds, yet it is not known whether the responses of birds to urbanization are congruent with those of other taxa. In this paper, we compared the responses of breeding birds and carabid beetles to urbanization, specifically asking whether the emerging generalizations of the effects of extreme levels of urbanization on birds (declines in total species richness and the richness of specialist species, increases in total abundance and the abundances of native generalist and introduced species, and community simplification, including increasing similarity) could also be applied to ground beetles. We also directly tested for congruence between birds and ground beetles using correlations between variables describing bird and beetle community structure and correlations between bird and beetle distance matrices describing community dissimilarity between pairs of sampling locations. Breeding bird and carabid beetle community data were collected in Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec, Canada, in two groups of sites: developed sites representing the predictor variable within-site housing density, and forested sites adjacent to development representing the predictor variable neighboring housing density (each site was 0.25 km2). Breeding birds and carabid beetles do not respond similarly to increasing within-site housing density but do exhibit some similar responses to increasing neighboring housing density. Birds displayed strong declines in diversity, compositional changes, and community simplification in response to increasing within-site housing density. Forest and introduced species of birds and beetles responded similarly to increasing housing density within a site, but responses of overall diversity and open-habitat species richness and patterns of community simplification differed between birds and beetles. Increasing neighboring housing density resulted in increases in the abundances of

  12. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  13. Seasonal composition, abundance and biomass of the subestuarine fish assemblage in Solís Chico (Río de la Plata estuary, Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Plavan, A Acuña; Gurdek, R; Muñoz, N; Gutierrez, J M; Spósito, M; Correa, P; Caride, A

    2016-10-24

    The large estuaries can present long narrow branches called subestuaries or tidal creeks. These types of subsystems are distributed along the Uruguayan coast of the Río de la Plata estuary and are very important as nursery and refuge areas for fish. For the first time, the seasonal composition and abundance of the fish community of the Solís Chico subestuary was studied by using beach and gill nets. Fourteen species, mainly euryhaline (86%) presented a significant representation of juvenile stages. The fish community was dominated by Odontesthes argentinensis, Platanichthys platana, Mugil liza, Brevoortia aurea, Micropogonias furnieri and Paralichthys orbignyanus, similar to adjacent subestuaries. While Micropogonias furnieri and B. aurea were the most abundant species, some other species were rarely caught. A seasonal variation of the fish assemblage abundance was detected, with higher values in autumn showing a positive correlation with temperature. Species that complete their life cycle in the Río de la Plata estuary, some of which are relevant to fisheries (64% of the analyzed species) were captured in the Solís Chico subestuary. The importance of this environment as a transitional system for some estuarine fish species is advised.

  14. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  15. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    ScienceCinema

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  16. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  17. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  18. Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009)

    PubMed Central

    Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650–2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the

  19. Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009).

    PubMed

    Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650-2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the

  20. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services.

  1. Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.

    PubMed

    Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-05-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems.

  2. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Korasaki, Vanesca; Lopes, José; Gardner Brown, George; Louzada, Julio

    2013-06-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness, abundance, composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the community aspects (abundance, richness, composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat, rotten fish, pig dung and decaying banana). A total of 1 719 individuals were collected, belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes. The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness. The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits. Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment, all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type. Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities, even small ones, can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  3. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) with almost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here, we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successful radiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species have shifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges. PMID:26467617

  4. Euphausiid distribution along the Western Antarctic Peninsula—Part A: Development of robust multi-frequency acoustic techniques to identify euphausiid aggregations and quantify euphausiid size, abundance, and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Gareth L.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Stanton, Timothy K.; Ashjian, Carin J.

    2008-02-01

    Methods were refined and tested for identifying the aggregations of Antarctic euphausiids ( Euphausia spp.) and then estimating euphausiid size, abundance, and biomass, based on multi-frequency acoustic survey data. A threshold level of volume backscattering strength for distinguishing euphausiid aggregations from other zooplankton was derived on the basis of published measurements of euphausiid visual acuity and estimates of the minimum density of animals over which an individual can maintain visual contact with its nearest neighbor. Differences in mean volume backscattering strength at 120 and 43 kHz further served to distinguish euphausiids from other sources of scattering. An inversion method was then developed to estimate simultaneously the mean length and density of euphausiids in these acoustically identified aggregations based on measurements of mean volume backscattering strength at four frequencies (43, 120, 200, and 420 kHz). The methods were tested at certain locations within an acoustically surveyed continental shelf region in and around Marguerite Bay, west of the Antarctic Peninsula, where independent evidence was also available from net and video systems. Inversion results at these test sites were similar to net samples for estimated length, but acoustic estimates of euphausiid density exceeded those from nets by one to two orders of magnitude, likely due primarily to avoidance and to a lesser extent to differences in the volumes sampled by the two systems. In a companion study, these methods were applied to the full acoustic survey data in order to examine the distribution of euphausiids in relation to aspects of the physical and biological environment [Lawson, G.L., Wiebe, P.H., Ashjian, C.J., Stanton, T.K., 2008. Euphausiid distribution along the Western Antarctic Peninsula—Part B: Distribution of euphausiid aggregations and biomass, and associations with environmental features. Deep-Sea Research II, this issue [doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.11.014

  5. Inter-assemblage facilitation: the functional diversity of cavity-producing beetles drives the size diversity of cavity-nesting bees.

    PubMed

    Sydenham, Markus A K; Häusler, Lise D; Moe, Stein R; Eldegard, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Inter-specific interactions are important drivers and maintainers of biodiversity. Compared to trophic and competitive interactions, the role of non-trophic facilitation among species has received less attention. Cavity-nesting bees nest in old beetle borings in dead wood, with restricted diameters corresponding to the body size of the bee species. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the functional diversity of cavity-producing wood boring beetles - in terms of cavity diameters - drives the size diversity of cavity-nesting bees. The invertebrate communities were sampled in 30 sites, located in forested landscapes along an elevational gradient. We regressed the species richness and abundance of cavity nesting bees against the species richness and abundance of wood boring beetles, non-wood boring beetles and elevation. The proportion of cavity nesting bees in bee species assemblage was regressed against the species richness and abundance of wood boring beetles. We also tested the relationships between the size diversity of cavity nesting bees and wood boring beetles. The species richness and abundance of cavity nesting bees increased with the species richness and abundance of wood boring beetles. No such relationship was found for non-wood boring beetles. The abundance of wood boring beetles was also related to an increased proportion of cavity nesting bee individuals. Moreover, the size diversity of cavity-nesting bees increased with the functional diversity of wood boring beetles. Specifically, the mean and dispersion of bee body sizes increased with the functional dispersion of large wood boring beetles. The positive relationships between cavity producing bees and cavity nesting bees suggest that non-trophic facilitative interactions between species assemblages play important roles in organizing bee species assemblages. Considering a community-wide approach may therefore be required if we are to successfully understand and conserve wild bee

  6. A Multi-omics Approach to Understand the Microbial Transformation of Lignocellulosic Materials in the Digestive System of the Wood-Feeding Beetle Odontotaenius disjunctus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceja Navarro, J. A.; Karaoz, U.; White, R. A., III; Lipton, M. S.; Adkins, J.; Mayali, X.; Blackwell, M.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Brodie, E.; Hao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Odontotaenius disjuctus is a wood feeding beetle that processes large amounts of hardwoods and plays an important role in forest carbon cycling. In its gut, plant material is transformed into simple molecules by sequential processing during passage through the insect's digestive system. In this study, we used multiple 'omics approaches to analyze the distribution of microbial communities and their specific functions in lignocellulose deconstruction within the insect's gut. Fosmid clones were selected and sequenced from a pool of clones based on their expression of plant polymer degrading enzymes, allowing the identification of a wide range of carbohydrate degrading enzymes. Comparison of metagenomes of all gut regions demonstrated the distribution of genes across the beetle gut. Cellulose, starch, and xylan degradation genes were particularly abundant in the midgut and posterior hindgut. Genes involved in hydrogenotrophic production of methane and nitrogenases were more abundant in the anterior hindgut. Assembled contigs were binned into 127 putative genomes representing Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and Nematodes. Eleven complete genomes were reconstructed allowing to identify linked functions/traits, including organisms with cellulosomes, and a combined potential for cellulose, xylan and starch hydrolysis and nitrogen fixation. A metaproteomic study was conducted to test the expression of the pathways identified in the metagenomic study. Preliminary analyses suggest enrichment of pathways related to hemicellulosic degradation. A complete xylan degradation pathway was reconstructed and GC-MS/MS based metabolomics identified xylobiose and xylose as major metabolite pools. To relate microbial identify to function in the beetle gut, Chip-SIP isotope tracing was conducted with RNA extracted from beetles fed 13C-cellulose. Multiple 13C enriched bacterial groups were detected, mainly in the midgut. Our multi-omics approach has allowed us to characterize the contribution of

  7. Influence of bark beetles outbreaks on the carbon balance of western United States forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently bark beetle outbreaks have been increasing in western United States forests due to increases in temperatures and prolonged occurrence of droughts. Bark beetle outbreaks transfer carbon from the live photosynthesizing pools to the dead respiring pool where carbon slowly decomposes into the atmosphere causing landscapes to change from a net sink to source of carbon. Previous studies have usually been conducted at small localized areas, focused only on one or two bark beetle types or encompass a single outbreak event. The literature largely ignores the influence of bark beetle mortality on carbon balance at both local and regional scales by focusing on multiple bark beetles types and events. This study uses a combination of the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model driven by remotely sensed biophysical observations, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) derived post-disturbance biomass regeneration trajectories, and mortality rates obtained from Aerial Detection Survey (ADS) insect outbreak polygons. The synthesis of the carbon cycle based modeling approach and different data products results in characteristic carbon trajectories for Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration associated with insect outbreaks. This study demonstrates that bark beetle events change landscapes from a sink to source of carbon at a local scale but at a larger regional level the influence of bark beetle outbreaks are not prominent compared to other disturbance agents.

  8. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  9. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  10. Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  11. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  12. Local and Regional Effects on Community Structure of Dung Beetles in a Mainland-Island Scenario

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat

  13. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat

  14. Associational Patterns of Scavenger Beetles to Decomposition Stages.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Nestor D

    2015-07-01

    Beetles associated with carrion play an important role in recycling organic matter in an ecosystem. Four experiments on decomposition, one per season, were conducted in a semirural area in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Melyridae are reported for the first time of forensic interest. Apart from adults and larvae of Scarabaeidae, thirteen species and two genera of other coleopteran families are new forensic records in Argentina. Diversity, abundance, and species composition of beetles showed differences between stages and seasons. Our results differed from other studies conducted in temperate regions. Four guilds and succession patterns were established in relation to decomposition stages and seasons. Dermestidae (necrophages) predominated in winter during the decomposition process; Staphylinidae (necrophiles) in Fresh and Bloat stages during spring, summer, and autumn; and Histeridae (necrophiles) and Cleridae (omnivores) in the following stages during those seasons. Finally, coleopteran activity, diversity and abundance, and decomposition rate change with biogeoclimatic characteristics, which is of significance in forensics.

  15. Host Acceptance and Larval Competition between the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study sought to determine whether competitive displacement of S. mul...

  16. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2008-08-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from

  17. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  18. Influences of Different Large Mammalian Fauna on Dung Beetle Diversity in Beech Forests

    PubMed Central

    Enari, Hiroto; Koike, Shinsuke; Sakamaki, Haruka

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on biological relationships between mammalian species richness and the community structure of dung beetles in cool-temperate forests in the northernmost part of mainland Japan. The composition of beetle assemblages was evaluated at 3 sites in undisturbed beech forests with different mammalian fauna. In spring and summer 2009, beetles were collected at each site using pitfall traps baited with feces from Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata Blyth (Primates: Cercopithecidae); Asiatic black bears, Ursus thibetanus Cuvier (Carnivora: Ursidae); Japanese serows, Capricornis crispus Temminck (Artiodactyla: Bovidae); and cattle. In the present study, 1,862 dung beetles representing 14 species were collected, and most dung beetles possessed the ecological characteristic of selecting specific mammalian feces. The present findings indicated that although species diversity in dung beetle assemblages was not necessarily positively correlated with mammalian species richness in cool-temperate forests, the absence of the macaque population directly resulted in the marked reduction of the beetle abundance, with the loss of the most frequent species, Aphodius eccoptus Bates (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) during spring. PMID:23909510

  19. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy.

  20. Heterotrophic succession within dung-inhabiting beetle communities in northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Rosa; Gutiérrez, David

    1999-09-01

    Successional patterns of beetles inhabiting dung pats were examined during May and July 1993 in a mountain area in northern Spain (Picos de Europa). Beetles belonging to six families were caught during the course of succession (30 d). Coprophagous beetles were more abundant in dung pats than predatory beetles (89 and 11 %, respectively). A trophic sequence was observed in relation to age of the dung, coprophagous beetles occurring earlier in the dung than predatory beetles. The pattern was observed on two occasions during the season, though succession proceeded somewhat faster in July than in May. These results suggest that food availability and microclimatic conditions in dung pats appear to determine the successional occurrence of beetle taxa. On the other hand, coprophagous species ( Aphodius) were poorly segregated along the successional axis. Null models failed to support the hypothesis that successional overlap and differences in successional mean occurrence between species could be the result of competition. Successional patterns at the specific level probably reflect differences in behaviour, such as pat location, feeding, mating, egg-laying and larva requirements, rather than competitive replacement.

  1. Influences of different large mammalian fauna on dung beetle diversity in beech forests.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Koike, Shinsuke; Sakamaki, Haruka

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on biological relationships between mammalian species richness and the community structure of dung beetles in cool-temperate forests in the northernmost part of mainland Japan. The composition of beetle assemblages was evaluated at 3 sites in undisturbed beech forests with different mammalian fauna. In spring and summer 2009, beetles were collected at each site using pitfall traps baited with feces from Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata Blyth (Primates: Cercopithecidae); Asiatic black bears, Ursus thibetanus Cuvier (Carnivora: Ursidae); Japanese serows, Capricornis crispus Temminck (Artiodactyla: Bovidae); and cattle. In the present study, 1,862 dung beetles representing 14 species were collected, and most dung beetles possessed the ecological characteristic of selecting specific mammalian feces. The present findings indicated that although species diversity in dung beetle assemblages was not necessarily positively correlated with mammalian species richness in cool-temperate forests, the absence of the macaque population directly resulted in the marked reduction of the beetle abundance, with the loss of the most frequent species, Aphodius eccoptus Bates (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) during spring.

  2. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  3. Carrion beetles succession in three different habitats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    A main objective of the study is the establishment of a forensic entomological database for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Decomposition processes and beetle succession were analysed on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats (agricultural, desert and urban) in the period from May to July 2014. Due to the effects of the high temperature at the study sites, carrion reached the dry stage within 12 days in the agricultural habitat, and 6 days in the desert and urban habitats. A total of 125 beetles belonging to eight species and five families were collected during the decaying process, with their abundances increasing from the fresh to decay stages. The prevailing species belonged to the families of Dermestidae and Histeridae. It was not possible to confirm any definitive relationship between the occurrence of a single species and a particular stage of decomposition. The beetle communities were also not distinctively different between desert and urban habitats, but a distinct community was evident in the agriculture habitat. In addition, there were distinct beetle communities between the decay stage and the other stages. The dry stage recorded the lowest number of beetles. This study indicated that, the habitat type had an effect on the decay process and the abundance rate of the beetles.

  4. [Ecological description of the ground beetle population (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in northern taiga meadows of Arkhangel'sk Region].

    PubMed

    Filippov, B Iu; Zezin, I S

    2006-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of ground beetle population was studied in northern taiga meadows of the Arkhangelsk Region. Meadows in the northern forest zone proved to harbor 91 ground beetle species. Carabid complexes formed in the intrazonal biocenoses of the northern forest zone can be as rich as the topical groups of the family in the southern forest zone by the number of species and ecological diversity. Ecological properties of the fauna and ground beetle population proved similar in different parts of the forest zone. The proportion of stenobiotic meadow species proved to decrease while that of ecologically plastic ones increased from south to north. The proportion of the genus Harpalus decreased in the ground beetle population while the number of Amara species remained unaltered and their abundance increased. The changes in the species composition caused no transformation of the ecological structure of ground beetle population since they are limited to a single life form or guild.

  5. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  6. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  7. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  8. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  9. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  10. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  11. The response of beetles to group selection harvesting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The environmental protection and sustainable management of our remaining forests are increasingly important concerns. Group selection harvesting is an uneven-aged forest management practice that removes patches of desirable trees to create small openings mimicking natural disturbances. To determine the effects of this technique on beetles, malaise and pitfall traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the forest surrounding artificially created gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Beetles were generally more abundant and species rich in the centers of younger gaps than in the centers of older gaps or in the forest surrounding them. There were relatively few differences in the abundance and richness of beetles between old gaps and the surrounding forest but species composition differed considerably. These differences may be explained by the uneven distribution of various resources.

  12. Short-Term Responses of Ground-Dwelling Beetles to Ice Storm-Induced Treefall Gaps in a Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forest in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Periodic natural disturbances shape the mosaic character of many landscapes and influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. In this study, we tested the effect of ice storm-induced treefall gaps on ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in different-aged successional stands of subtropical broad-leaved forest in southeastern China. We evaluated the relative importance of gap-phase microhabitat type (within gap, gap edge, and interior shaded) within different stand ages (regenerating stands and mature stands) as determinants of changes in beetle diversity and community structure. At 18 replicate sites sampled during 2009-2010, no significant differences were found in species richness and the abundances of the most common beetle species captured in pitfall traps among the three gap-phase microhabitat types, but the abundances of total beetles, as well as fungivorous and phytophagous species groups, were significantly lower in gap microhabitats than in interior shaded microhabitats in mature stands. Beetle assemblage composition showed no significant differences among the three microhabitat types, and only the fauna of gap plots slightly diverged from those of edge and shaded plots in mature stands. Cover of shrubs and stand age significantly affected beetle assemblage structure. Our results suggest that beetle responses to gap-phase dynamics in early successional forests are generally weak, and that effects are more discernible in the mature stands, perhaps due to the abundance responses of forest-specialist species.

  13. Longer-term effects of selective thinning on carabid beetles and spiders in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.; Niwa, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Within late-successional forests of the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, abundances of carabid beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) from pitfall traps were compared between stands thinned 16-41 years prior and nearby unthinned stands. Species richness of both taxa were moderate for coniferous forests of this region, with 12 carabid beetle species and >120 spider species collected. No differences in total abundance or species richness were found between stand types for carabid beetles, although abundances of four of the six most common species differed significantly. Pterostichus setosus, the most abundant species collected, was significantly more abundant in unthinned stands, while Omus cazieri, P. lama, and Carabus taedatus were more numerous in thinned stands. In contrast, both total spider abundance and species richness were significantly higher in thinned stands. Hunting spiders within the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae, and the funnel web-building Dictynidae were captured more often in thinned stands while sheet web spiders within Linyphiidae and Hahniidae were more abundant in unthinned stands. The forest floor within unthinned stands was structurally more diverse than in thinned stands, but this did not lead to greater overall abundance or diversity of either carabid beetles or spiders.

  14. Biomass pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  15. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Theimer, T.C.; Sogge, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a wellstudied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  16. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  17. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  18. Temporal Segregation between Dung-Inhabiting Beetle and Fly Species

    PubMed Central

    Sladecek, Frantisek Xaver Jiri; Segar, Simon Tristram; Lee, Colin; Wall, Richard; Konvicka, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The coexistence of ecologically similar species (i.e. species utilizing the same resource) is a major topic in ecology. Communities are assembled either through the biotic interactions of ecologically similar species, e.g. competition, or by the abiotic separation of species along gradients of environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the temporal segregation, succession and seasonality of dung-inhabiting Coleoptera and Diptera that utilize an identical resource in exactly the same way. The data were collected from two temperate pastures, one in the United Kingdom and the second in the Czech Republic. There was no evident temporal separation between ecologically similar coleopterous or dipterous taxa during succession. In contrast, these two orders were almost perfectly separated seasonally in both combined and site-specific datasets. Flies were most abundant in the summer, and beetles were more abundant in the spring and autumn. Ecologically similar beetles and flies also displayed seasonal separation in both combined and site-specific data. Analyses within site-specific data sets revealed such a separation at both the order and species level. Season is therefore the main temporal axis separating ecologically similar species of dung-inhabiting insects in temperate habitats, while succession aggregates species that may have similar environmental tolerances (to e.g. dung moisture). This separation between ecologically similar taxa of beetles and flies may be attributable to either competition-based niche separation or to temperature tolerance-based habitat filtering, since flies have peak activity in warmer months while beetles have peak activity in cooler months. PMID:28107542

  19. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  20. Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.

    PubMed

    Stavert, J R; Gaskett, A C; Scott, D J; Beggs, J R

    2014-09-01

    Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had δ(15)N and δ(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species.

  1. Does selective logging change ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in a subtropical broad-leafed forest of China?

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Bearer, Scott L; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Selective logging with natural regeneration is advocated as a near-to-nature strategy and has been implemented in many forested systems during the last decades. However, the efficiency of such practices for the maintenance of forest species are poorly understood. We compared the species richness, abundance and composition of ground-dwelling beetles between selectively logged and unlogged forests to evaluate the possible effects of selective logging in a subtropical broad-leafed forest in southeastern China. Using pitfall traps, beetles were sampled in two naturally regenerating stands after clearcuts (ca. 50 years old, stem-exclusion stage: selectively logged 20 years ago) and two mature stands (> 80 years old, understory re-initiation stage: selectively logged 50 years ago) during 2009 and 2010. Overall, selective logging had no significant effects on total beetle richness and abundance, but saproxylic species group and some abundant forest species significantly decreased in abundance in selectively logged plots compared with unlogged plots in mature stands. Beetle assemblages showed significant differences between selectively logged and unlogged plots in mature stands. Some environmental characteristics associated with selective logging (e.g., logging strategy, stand age, and cover of shrub and moss layers) were the most important variables explaining beetle assemblage structure. Our results conclude that selective logging has no significant impacts on overall richness and abundance of ground-dwelling beetles. However, the negative effects of selective logging on saproxylic species group and some unlogged forest specialists highlight the need for large intact forested areas for sustaining the existence of forest specialist beetles.

  2. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  3. The Response of Subalpine Vegetation to Climate Change and Bark Beetle Infestations: A Multi-Scale Interaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, A.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Negrón, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mean annual temperatures in the western United States have increased in the last few decades, and are predicted to continue warming. In the subalpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, this warming is also predicted to increase the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks. Climate change itself may affect this vegetation, potentially leading to shifts in species compositions. These forests are a crucial part of the US's carbon budget, thus it is important to analyze how climate change and bark beetles in conjunction will affect the biomass and species composition of vegetation in subalpine zone. UVAFME is an individual-based gap model that simulates biomass and species composition of a forest. This model has been quantitatively tested at various Rocky Mountain sites in the Front Range, and has been shown to accurately simulate the vegetation dynamics in the region. UVAFME has been updated with a spruce beetle subroutine that calculates the probability for beetle infestation of each tree on a plot. This probability is based on site, climate, and individual tree characteristics, such as temperature; stand structure; and tree stress level, size, and age. These governing characteristics are based on data from the US Forest Service, and other studies on spruce susceptibility and spruce beetle phenology. UVAFME is then run with multiple climate change and beetle scenarios to determine the net effect of both variables on subalpine vegetation. These results are compared among the different scenarios and to current forest inventory data. We project that increasing temperatures due to climate change will cause an increase in the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks, leading to a decrease in the biomass and dominance of Engelmann spruce. These results are an important step in understanding the possible futures for the vegetation of subalpine zone in the Rocky Mountains.

  4. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  5. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  6. Are stag beetles fungivorous?

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2009-11-01

    Stag beetle larvae generally feed on decaying wood; however, it was unknown whether they can use wood-rotting fungi alone as food. Here, to clarify this, newly hatched larvae of Dorcus rectus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) were reared for 14 days on artificial diets containing a fixed amount of freeze-dried mycelia of the following fungi: Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Fomitopsis pinicola. The mean incremental gain in larval body mass was greatest on diets containing B. adusta, followed by T. versicolor, P. ostreatus, and F. pinicola. The growth rate of body mass correlated positively with mycelial nitrogen content of the different fungi. It also correlated positively with the mycelial content of B. adusta in the diet. Addition of antibiotics to diets with mycelia nearly halved larval growth, indicating that larvae were able to use fungal mycelia as food without the assistance of associated microbes although the microbes positively affected larval growth. Four newly hatched larvae reared on artificial diets containing B. adusta mycelia developed to the second instar in 21-34 days; and one developed to the third (=final) instar. This study provides evidence that fungi may constitute the bulk of the diet of D. rectus larvae.

  7. Feeding guild structure of beetles on Australian tropical rainforest trees reflects microhabitat resource availability.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W; Stork, Nigel E; Edwards, Will

    2012-09-01

    1. We tested the hypotheses that feeding guild structure of beetle assemblages changed with different arboreal microhabitats and that these differences were consistent across rainforest tree species. 2. Hand collection and beating techniques were used from the gondola of the Australian Canopy Crane to collect beetles from five microhabitats (mature leaves, flush leaves, flowers, fruit and suspended dead wood) within the rainforest canopy. A simple randomization procedure was implemented to test whether the abundances of each feeding guild on each microhabitat were different from that expected based on a null hypothesis of random distribution of individuals across microhabitats. 3. Beetles from different feeding guilds were not randomly distributed, but congregated on those microhabitats that are likely to provide the highest concentrations of their preferred food sources. Herbivorous beetles, in particular, were over-represented on flowers and flush foliage and under-represented on mature leaves and dead wood. Proportional numbers of species within each feeding guild were remarkably uniform across tree species for each microhabitat, but proportional abundances of feeding guilds were all significantly non-uniformly distributed between host tree species, regardless of microhabitat, confirming patterns previously found for arthropods in trees in temperate and tropical forests. 4. These results show that the canopy beetle community is partitioned into discrete assemblages between microhabitats and that this partitioning arises because of differences in feeding guild structure as a function of the diversity and the temporal and spatial availability of resources found on each microhabitat.

  8. Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A; Collatz, G James; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Rogan, John; Kulakowski, Dominik; Masek, Jeffrey G

    2015-08-01

    Warmer conditions over the past two decades have contributed to rapid expansion of bark beetle outbreaks killing millions of trees over a large fraction of western United States (US) forests. These outbreaks reduce plant productivity by killing trees and transfer carbon from live to dead pools where carbon is slowly emitted to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration which subsequently feeds back to climate change. Recent studies have begun to examine the local impacts of bark beetle outbreaks in individual stands, but the full regional carbon consequences remain undocumented for the western US. In this study, we quantify the regional carbon impacts of the bark beetle outbreaks taking place in western US forests. The work relies on a combination of postdisturbance forest regrowth trajectories derived from forest inventory data and a process-based carbon cycle model tracking decomposition, as well as aerial detection survey (ADS) data documenting the regional extent and severity of recent outbreaks. We find that biomass killed by bark beetle attacks across beetle-affected areas in western US forests from 2000 to 2009 ranges from 5 to 15 Tg C yr(-1) and caused a reduction of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 6.1-9.3 Tg C y(-1) by 2009. Uncertainties result largely from a lack of detailed surveys of the extent and severity of outbreaks, calling out a need for improved characterization across western US forests. The carbon flux legacy of 2000-2009 outbreaks will continue decades into the future (e.g., 2040-2060) as committed emissions from heterotrophic respiration of beetle-killed biomass are balanced by forest regrowth and accumulation.

  9. [Darkling beetle community structure and its relations with environmental factors in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-jun; He, Qi; Wang, Xin-pu

    2010-09-01

    From March to October 2009, a field survey was conducted on the darkling beetle community structure and related environmental factors in the desert grasslands with different vegetation cover and human disturbance intensity in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China. By using diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) , the relationships between the beetle community structure and related environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 5431 individuals were collected, belonging to 20 species and 10 genera. Blaps femoralis femoralis, Microdera kraatzi kraatzi, and Platyope mongolica were the dominant species, accounting for 47.30%, 39.90%, and 3.59% of the total, respectively. CCA explained 100% of the correlations between the beetle species and related environmental factors, suggesting that the occurrence of the beetle species had close relations to the changes of related environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, the Shannon diversity index of plant community (HP), plant biomass (BP), and soil water content (SW) affected the beetle species occurrence most. The occurrence frequency of Mantichorula semenowi, Anatolica amoenula, A. sternalis, and A. gravidula was negatively correlated with BP and plant coverage (CP), and that of B. gobiensis, Cyphogenia chinensis, Gonocephalum reticuluatum, and Crypticus rufipes was positively correlated with plant density (DP) and SW. The distribution of P. mongolica, M. kraatzi kraatzi, Scytosoma pygmaeum, and B. kiritshenkoi showed a positive correlation to HP, and that of Eumylada oberbergeri, B. femoralis femoralis, and B. davidea showed a positive correlation to BP and CP. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.943, P = 0.005) between the beetle activity density and SW. The CCA ordination showed that the darkling beetles had different demands for multidimensional ecological resources in desert and semi-desert ecosystems.

  10. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  11. Nitrogen Cycling Responses to Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance in a High Elevation Whitebark Pine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  13. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest.

  14. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  15. [Blister beetle dermatitis: Dermatitis linearis].

    PubMed

    Dieterle, R; Faulde, M; Erkens, K

    2015-05-01

    Several families of beetles cause toxic reactions on exposed human skin. Cantharidin provokes nearly asymptomatic vesicles and blisters, while pederin leads to itching and burning erythema with vesicles and small pustules, later crusts. Paederi are attracted by fluorescent light especially after rain showers and cause outbreaks in regions with moderate climate. Clinical findings and patient history lead to the diagnosis: dermatitis linearis.

  16. The Dung Beetle Dance: An Orientation Behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J.; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J.; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic “dance,” in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path. PMID:22279572

  17. The dung beetle dance: an orientation behaviour?

    PubMed

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic "dance," in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path.

  18. The beetle fauna (Insecta, Coleoptera) of the Rawdhat Khorim National Park, Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Fad, Hassan H.; El-Torkey, Ashraf M.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ansi, Amin N. Al; Aldhafer, Hathal M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time. The families Tenebrionidae (45 species), Scarabaeidae (34 species), and Carabidae (27 species) were the most species rich families. About 37% of the beetle abundance was represented by species of Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius ictericus ghardimaouensis Balthasar. Karumia inaequalis Pic (Dascillidae) was also an abundant species. Approximately 43.5% of beetle species collected during this study are considered very rare taxa in RKNP. The RKNP beetle fauna shows more affinity to Sahro-Arabian (36.4%), Afrotropical-Sahro-Arabian (17.4%) and Palaearctic-Sahro-Arabian (10.5%). Twenty-three species (9.3%) are considered cosmopolitan or subcosmopolitan. The data on month of collection, method of collection, and abundance status within RKNP, together with the distribution within KSA and the general distribution (zoogeography) of each species are presented. PMID:28331393

  19. Plant abundance: the measurement and relationship with seed size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2003-01-01

    There are many inconsistencies in early reports describing the relationships between plant abundance and other biotic (e.g., seed size) or abiotic variables (e.g., precipitation). It has been difficult to generalize such relationships when abundance is measured differently (e.g., density, biomass, cover). This article suggests using abundance in two broad categories: numerical abundance (e.g., number of individuals, density) and mass abundance (e.g., biomass, cover). Collective evidence indicates that when abundance is measured the same way, the observed patterns may actually be more consistent.

  20. Pastoral Practices to Reverse Shrub Encroachment of Sub-Alpine Grasslands: Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) Respond More Quickly Than Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  1. Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  2. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  3. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  4. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed.

  5. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles.

  6. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  7. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  8. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Koivula, Matti J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  9. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  10. Response of Flour Beetles to Multiple Stressors of Parasitic (Hymenolepis diminuta), Environmental (Diatomaceous Earth), and Host (Reproduction) Origin.

    PubMed

    Shostak, Allen W; Van Buuren, Kala G; Cook, Ranon

    2015-08-01

    Organisms face a multitude of potential stressors, and the way these stressors interact can provide insights into underlying biological processes. This study examined the flour beetle Tribolium confusum and its survival, net fecundity, and surface-seeking behavior in response to combinations of stressors from 3 categories. Infection by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta provided a stress of parasitic origin. Exposure to diatomaceous earth (DE) provided a stress of environmental origin. Use of virgin and mated beetles evaluated reproduction as a stress of host origin. Single and multiple exposure of beetles to parasite eggs achieved a maximum mean abundance of 21 parasites/beetle and a maximum intensity of 90 parasites in an individual beetle. DE reduced initial parasite establishment, but did not directly affect survival of parasites after their establishment in the host. A rehydration technique was used to recover parasites from dead beetles, enabling this to be the first study to correlate H. diminuta intensity at time of death directly to mortality of T. confusum. A dichotomous intensity-mortality relationship was observed in 8% DE, whereby lightly infected (<20 parasites) hosts were killed by DE in an intensity-independent manner, but more heavily infected hosts were killed in an intensity-dependent manner. Host mating status did not affect host survival, but there were interactions among mating status, parasitism, and DE on net fecundity and surface-seeking behavior. However, these effects were minor compared to the host mortality that occurred when parasite abundance and DE concentration were both high. The aggregated distribution of T. confusum in beetles, the difficulty of achieving high mean abundances, and an apparent need for the stressors to have strong effects individually if they are to have enhanced effects when in combination, suggests that exposure to multiple stressors would seriously impact only a small proportion of the host population.

  11. The ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Kenyir water catchment, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Fauziah; Sina, Ibnu; Fauzee, Fatmahjihan

    2008-11-01

    An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake.

  12. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.)

  13. Lunar orientation in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-02-22

    Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects.

  14. Biomass [updated

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  15. Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, D. J.; van der Berg, N. G.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Hodgkinson, I. J.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the reflection of circularly polarized light from the exocuticle of the scarabaeid beetle Gymnopleurus virens. Reflection spectra are deeply modulated, exhibiting a number of relatively narrow well-defined peaks, which differ from previously studied specimens. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy work with the recorded spectra, we can propose the presence of specific structural defects responsible for the unusual spectra.

  16. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  17. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-09-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  18. Plankton biomass and larval fish abundance prior to and during the El Niño period of 1997 1998 along the central Pacific coast of México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C. Franco-Gordo; Godínez-Domínguez, E.; Filonov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, I. E.; Freire, J.

    2004-11-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton biomass and larval fish recorded during 27 months (December 1995-December 1998) off the Pacific coast of central México are analyzed. A total of 316 samples were obtained by surface (from 40-68 to 0 m) oblique hauls at 12 sampling sites using a Bongo net. Two well-defined periods were observed: a pre-ENSO period (December 1995-march 1997) and an ENSO event (July 1997-September 1998) characterized by impoverishment of the pelagic habitat. The highest biomass concentrations occurred at coastal stations during the pre-ENSO period. During the El Niño period no spatial patterns were found in coastal waters. The months with highest biomass were those in which the lowest sea surface temperature (SST) occurred (January-May), and this pattern was also observed during the ENSO period. A typical, although attenuated, seasonal environmental pattern with enhanced phytoplankton (diatoms and dinoflagellates) was prevalent during the El Niño event in nearshore waters. During the El Niño period the phytoplankton was mainly small diatoms (microphytoplankton), while dinoflagellates were practically absent. The most parsimonious generalized linear models explaining spatial and temporal distribution of larval fish species included the ENSO index (MEI), upwelling index (UI) and distance to the coast. The environmental variability defined on an interannual time-scale by the ENSO event and the seasonal hydroclimatic pattern defined by the UI (intra-annual-scale) controlled the ecosystem productivity patterns. The small-scale distribution patterns (defined by a cross-shore gradient) of plankton were related to the hydroclimatic seasonality and modulated by interannual anomalies.

  19. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  20. Manufacture of Prebiotics from Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.

  1. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  2. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

  3. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...

  4. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  5. Standard methods for small hive beetle research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

  6. Targeting red-headed flea beetle larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is an emerging pest of cranberry that requires significant grower investment in monitoring and repeated applications of insecticides to reduce adult populations. The adult beetles are highly mobile and consume a broad range of host plants whereas t...

  7. Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsenmair, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

  8. Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  9. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  10. Biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and abuse of biomass energies in China, India, and Brazil. Topics include forests, trees for energy, crop residues, fuel crops, aquatic plants, and animal and human wastes. Recommended for environmental engineers and planners, and those involved in ecology, systematics, and forestry.

  11. The Comparative Effectiveness of Rodents and Dung Beetles as Local Seed Dispersers in Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Verdú, José R.; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  12. How do beetle assemblages respond to cyclonic disturbance of a fragmented tropical rainforest landscape?

    PubMed

    Grimbacher, Peter S; Stork, Nigel E

    2009-09-01

    There are surprisingly few studies documenting effects of tropical cyclones (including hurricanes and typhoons) on rainforest animals, and especially insects, considering that many tropical forests are frequently affected by cyclonic disturbance. Consequently, we sampled a beetle assemblage inhabiting 18 upland rainforest sites in a fragmented landscape in north-eastern Queensland, Australia, using a standardised sampling protocol in 2002 and again 12 months after the passage of Severe Tropical Cyclone Larry (March 2006). The spatial configuration of sites allowed us to test if the effects of a cyclone and those from fragmentation interact. From all insect samples we extracted 12,568 beetles of 382 species from ten families. Beetle species composition was significantly different pre-and post-cyclone although the magnitude of faunal change was not large with 205 species, representing 96% of all individuals, present in both sampling events. Sites with the greatest changes to structure had the greatest changes in species composition. At the site level, increases in woody debris and wood-feeding beetle (Scolytinae) counts were significantly correlated but changes in the percent of ground vegetation were not mirrored by changes in the abundance of foliage-feeding beetles (Chrysomelidae). The overall direction of beetle assemblage change was consistent with increasing aridity, presumably caused by the loss of canopy cover. Sites with the greatest canopy loss had the strongest changes in the proportion of species previously identified in the pre-cyclone study as preferring arid or moist rainforest environments. The magnitude of fragmentation effects was virtually unaltered by the passage of Cyclone Larry. We postulate that in the short-term the effects of cyclonic disturbance and forest fragmentation both reduce the extent of moist, interior habitat.

  13. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  14. The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  15. ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

  16. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field.

  17. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    PubMed

    Novais, Samuel M A; Evangelista, Lucas A; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species.

  18. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Wang, Feng-Yan; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zou, Si-Si; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae) along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation) gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011–2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles. PMID:27138752

  19. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Evangelista, Lucas A.; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. PMID:27620555

  20. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

    2008-02-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics.

  1. Relations Between the Structure of Benthic Macro-Invertebrates and the Composition of Adult Water Beetle Diets from the Dytiscidae Family.

    PubMed

    Frelik, Anna; Pakulnicka, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the relations between the diet structure of predaceous adult water beetles from the Dytiscidae family and the structure of macrofauna inhabiting the same environments. The field studies were carried out from April until September in 2012 and 2013 in 1-mo intervals. In total, >1,000 water beetles and 5,115 benthic macro-invertebrates were collected during the whole period of the study. Subsequently, 784 specimens of adult water beetles (70.6% out of the total sampled) with benthic macro-invertebrates found in their proventriculi, were subject to analysis. The predators were divided into three categories depending on their body size: small beetles (2.3-5.0 mm), medium-sized beetles (13-15 mm), and large beetles (27-37 mm). All adult Dytiscidae consumed primarily Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae larvae. Although Asellidae were numerically dominant inhabitants of the sites, the adult water beetles did not feed on them. The analysis of feeding relations between predators and their prey revealed that abundance of Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae, and larval Dytiscidae between the environment and the diet of adult Dytiscidae were strongly correlated.

  2. Experimental beetle metapopulations respond positively to dynamic landscapes and reduced connectivity.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Byju N; Swihart, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    Interactive effects of multiple environmental factors on metapopulation dynamics have received scant attention. We designed a laboratory study to test hypotheses regarding interactive effects of factors affecting the metapopulation dynamics of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Within a four-patch landscape we modified resource level (constant and diminishing), patch connectivity (high and low) and patch configuration (static and dynamic) to conduct a 2(3) factorial experiment, consisting of 8 metapopulations, each with 3 replicates. For comparison, two control populations consisting of isolated and static subpopulations were provided with resources at constant or diminishing levels. Longitudinal data from 22 tri-weekly counts of beetle abundance were analyzed using bayesian Poisson generalized linear mixed models to estimate additive and interactive effects of factors affecting abundance. Constant resource levels, low connectivity and dynamic patches yielded greater levels of adult beetle abundance. For a given resource level, frequency of colonization exceeded extinction in landscapes with dynamic patches when connectivity was low, thereby promoting greater patch occupancy. Negative density dependence of pupae on adults occurred and was stronger in landscapes with low connectivity and constant resources; these metapopulations also demonstrated greatest stability. Metapopulations in control landscapes went extinct quickly, denoting lower persistence than comparable landscapes with low connectivity. When landscape carrying capacity was constant, habitat destruction coupled with low connectivity created asynchronous local dynamics and refugia within which cannibalism of pupae was reduced. Increasing connectivity may be counter-productive and habitat destruction/recreation may be beneficial to species in some contexts.

  3. Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Lippok, B; Gardine, A A; Williamson, P S; Renner, S S

    2000-06-01

    Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination in American N. advena and N. polysepala. We studied pollination in N. ozarkana in Missouri and N. advena in Texas to assess whether (1) there is evidence of pollinator shifts associated with floral-morphological differences between Old World and New World species as hypothesized by Padgett, Les, and Crow (American Journal of Botany 86: 1316-1324. 1999) and (2) whether beetle pollination characterizes American species of Nuphar. Ninety-seven and 67% of flower visits in the two species were by sweat bees, especially Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nelumbonis. Syrphid fly species visiting both species were Paragus sp., Chalcosyrphus metallicus, and Toxomerus geminatus. The long-horned leaf beetle Donacia piscatrix was common on leaves and stems of N. ozarkana but rarely visited flowers. Fifteen percent of visits to N. advena flowers were by D. piscatrix and D. texana. The beetles' role as pollinators was investigated experimentally by placing floating mesh cages that excluded flies and bees over N. advena buds about to open and adding beetles. Beetles visited 40% of the flowers in cages, and flowers that received visits had 69% seed set, likely due to beetle-mediated geitonogamy of 1st-d flowers. Experimentally outcrossed 1st-d flowers had 62% seed set, and open-pollinated flowers 76%; 2nd-d selfed or outcrossed flowers had low seed sets (9 and 12%, respectively). Flowers are strongly protogynous and do not self spontaneously. Flowers shielded from pollinators set no seeds. A comparison of pollinator spectra in the two Old World and three New World Nuphar species studied so far suggests that the relative contribution of flies, bees, and beetles to pollen transfer

  4. The impact of overgrazing on dung beetle diversity in the Italian Maritime Alps.

    PubMed

    Negro, Matteo; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are undoubtedly the most typical and ecologically relevant insects of grazed alpine habitats because they provide valuable ecological services such as biological pest control and soil fertilization. Despite the great ecological contribution of these insects to pasture ecosystem functioning, little is known about their direct or indirect relationships with pastoral activities. The main aim of the study was to assess whether dung beetle diversity was influenced by different intensities of cattle grazing. Dung beetle communities of two adjacent alpine valleys within the Maritime Alps Natural Park (north-western Italian Alps), representing overgrazed and ungrazed pastures, were studied by pitfall trapping. A hierarchical design (three levels: valleys, transects, and replicates) was established for additive partitioning of γ-diversity and Indicator Species Analysis. Evenness and Shannon diversity were significantly higher at the ungrazed than at the overgrazed site because abundances were much more evenly distributed at the former than at the latter site (where one species was dominant over all the others). Dung beetle abundance and species richness of the overgrazed graminaceous pasture vegetation types were in most cases significantly lower than those of the ungrazed nongraminaceous vegetation type. In the additive partitioning of γ -diversity analysis relative to the whole study area, the randomization procedure indicated that the contribution of β to γ-diversity was significantly different from that expected by chance, suggesting that one or more environmental factors has intervened to change the partition of total diversity in the system considered. The analysis of the preferences and fidelity of species (Indicator Species Analysis) showed that only one species chose overgrazed pastures; all the others positively selected the ungrazed site, or the only ungrazed pasture vegetation type (Rumicetum alpini Beger) occurring at

  5. Biomass shock pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  6. Potential impact of mangrove clearance on biomass and biomass size spectra of nematode along the Sudanese Red Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Sabeel, Rasha Adam Osman; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The potential effect of mangrove clearance on nematode assemblage biomass, biomass size spectra (NBSS) and abundance/biomass curves (ABC) was investigated in three sites representing a varying degree of mangrove clearance as well as in three stations established at each sites representing high-, mid- and low-water levels. Results revealed significant differences in sediment and nematode characteristics between the three sites. Although both the cleared and the intact mangrove had comparable biomass values, clear differences in biomass size spectra and abundance biomass curves were observed. The results suggested that the variation in the silt fraction and the food quality positively affected the total biomass. Mangrove clearance has caused a shift from a unimodal to a bimodal biomass size spectrum at all water levels, owing to an increase in smaller-bodied opportunistic non-selective deposit feeding nematodes. The ABC further confirmed the effect of clearance by classifying the cleared mangrove as moderately to grossly disturbed.

  7. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  8. Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2011-08-01

    Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.

  9. Evolutionary assembly of the conifer fauna: distinguishing ancient from recent associations in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, A S; Normark, B B; Farrell, B D

    2000-12-07

    Several shifts from ancestral conifer feeding to angiosperm feeding have been implicated in the unparalleled diversification of beetle species. The single largest angiosperm-feeding beetle clade occurs in the weevils, and comprises the family Curculionidae and relatives. Most authorities confidently place the bark beetles (Scolytidae) within this radiation of angiosperm feeders. However, some clues indicate that the association between conifers and some scolytids, particularly in the tribe Tomicini, is a very ancient one. For instance, several fragments of Gondwanaland (South America, New Caledonia, Australia and New Guinea) harbour endemic Tomicini specialized on members of the formerly widespread and abundant conifer family Araucariaceae. As a first step towards resolving this seeming paradox, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the beetle family Scolytidae with particularly intensive sampling of conifer-feeding Tomicini and allies. We sequenced and analysed elongation factor 1alpha and nuclear rDNAs 18S and 28S for 45 taxa, using members of the weevil family Cossoninae as an out-group. Our results indicate that conifer feeding is the ancestral host association of scolytids, and that the most basal lineages of scolytids feed on Aramucaria. If scolytids are indeed nested within a great angiosperm-feeding clade, as many authorities have held, then a reversion to conifer feeding in ancestral scolytids appears to have occurred in the Mesozoic, when Araucaria still formed a major component of the woody flora.

  10. Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2010-07-27

    It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal.

  11. Intermediate disturbance in experimental landscapes improves persistence of beetle metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Byju N; Feng, Zhilan; DeWoody, Yssa D; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-03-01

    Human-dominated landscapes often feature patches that fluctuate in suitability through space and time, but there is little experimental evidence relating the consequences of dynamic patches for species persistence. We used a spatially and temporally dynamic metapopulation model to assess and compare metapopulation capacity and persistence for red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) in experimental landscapes differentiated by resource structure, patch dynamics (destruction and restoration), and connectivity. High connectivity increased the colonization rate of beetles, but this effect was less pronounced in heterogeneous relative to homogeneous landscapes. Higher connectivity and faster patch dynamics increased extinction rates in landscapes. Lower connectivity promoted density-dependent emigration. Heterogeneous landscapes containing patches of different carrying capacity enhanced landscape-level occupancy probability. The highest metapopulation capacity and persistence was observed in landscapes with heterogeneous patches, low connectivity, and slow patch dynamics. Control landscapes with no patch dynamics exhibited rapid declines in abundance and approached extinction due to increased adult mortality in the matrix, higher pupal cannibalism by adults, and extremely low rates of exchange between remaining habitable patches. Our results highlight the role of intermediate patch dynamics, intermediate connectivity, and the nature of density dependence of emigration for persistence of species in heterogeneous landscapes. Our results also demonstrate the importance of incorporating local dynamics into the estimation of metapopulation capacity for conservation planning.

  12. Specialized adaptations for springtail predation in Mesozoic beetles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Cai, Chen-Yang; Huang, Di-Ying; Li, Li-Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Insects exhibit a variety of morphological specializations specific to particular behaviors, and these permit the reconstruction of palaeobiological traits. Despite the critical importance of predator-prey strategies in insect evolution, the appearance of particular aspects of predation are often difficult to determine from the fossil record of hexapods. Here we report the discovery of highly specialized, mid-Cretaceous ant-like stone beetles (Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) displaying morphological modifications unknown among living scydmaenids and associated with predation on springtails (Collembola), a widespread and abundant group of significantly greater geological age. Cascomastigus monstrabilis gen. et sp. nov. exhibits an extremely large body size, elongate clubbed maxillary palpi, toothed mandibles, and more importantly, slender and highly modified antennae that functioned as an antennal setal trap. Such an antennal modification is analogous to that of the modern ground beetle genus Loricera (Carabidae: Loricerinae), a group possessing a specialized antennal setal trap exclusively for the capture of springtails. The presence of an identical antennal setal trap in C. monstrabilis demonstrates a unique and dramatic form of obligate predation among the late Mesozoic insects.

  13. Olfactory experience modifies semiochemical responses in a bark beetle predator.

    PubMed

    Costa, Arnaud; Reeve, John D

    2011-11-01

    A typical feature of forest insect pests is their tendency to undergo large fluctuations in abundance, which can jeopardize the persistence of their predaceous natural enemies. One strategy that these predators may adopt to cope with these fluctuations would be to respond to sensory cues for multiple prey species. Another possible adaptation to temporal variation in the prey community could involve the learning of prey cues and switching behavior. We conducted three experiments to investigate the ability of the generalist bark beetle predator Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) to respond to different prey signals and to investigate the effect of olfactory experience. We first conducted a field choice test and a wind tunnel experiment to examine the kairomonal response of individual predators toward prey pheromone components (frontalin, ipsenol, ipsdienol, sulcatol) along with the pine monoterpene α-pinene, which is a volatile compound from the host of the prey. We also presented semiochemically naive predators with two prey pheromone components, frontalin and ipsenol, alone or associated with a reward. Our results showed that T. dubius populations are composed of generalists that can respond to a broad range of kairomonal signals. Naive T. dubius also were more attracted to ipsenol following its association with a reward. This work constitutes the first evidence that the behavior of a predatory insect involved in bark beetle population dynamics is influenced by previous olfactory experience, and provides a potential explanation for the pattern of prey switching observed in field studies.

  14. Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles.

    PubMed

    Snyder, William E; Clevenger, Garrett M; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2004-08-01

    Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between the two native species in laboratory microcosms containing pea ( Pisum sativum) plants, neither native had a clear advantage over the other in IGP. When the natives were paired with either Harmonia axyridis or C. septempunctata, the natives were more frequently the victims than perpetrators of IGP. In contrast, in pairings between the exotic species, neither had an IGP advantage, although overall rates of IGP between these two species were very high. Adding alternative prey (aphids) to microcosms did not alter the frequency and patterns of relative IGP among the coccinellid species. In observations of encounters between larvae, the introduced H. axyridis frequently survived multiple encounters with the native C. transversoguttata, whereas the native rarely survived a single encounter with H. axyridis. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species face increased IGP following invasion by C. septempunctata and H. axyridis, which may be contributing to the speed with which these exotic ladybird beetles displace the natives following invasion.

  15. Changes in soil biogeochemistry following disturbance by girdling and mountain pine beetles in subalpine forests.

    PubMed

    Trahan, Nicole A; Dynes, Emily L; Pugh, Evan; Moore, David J P; Monson, Russell K

    2015-04-01

    A recent unprecedented epidemic of beetle-induced tree mortality has occurred in the lodgepole pine forests of Western North America. Here, we present the results of studies in two subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, one that experienced natural pine beetle disturbance and one that experienced simulated disturbance imposed through bole girdling. We assessed changes to soil microclimate and biogeochemical pools in plots representing different post-disturbance chronosequences. High plot tree mortality, whether due to girdling or beetle infestation, caused similar alterations in soil nutrient pools. During the first 4 years after disturbance, sharp declines were observed in the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (45-51 %), microbial biomass carbon concentration (33-39 %), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration (31-42%), and inorganic phosphorus (PO4(3-)) concentration (53-55%). Five to six years after disturbance, concentrations of DOC, DON, and PO4(3-) recovered to 71-140 % of those measured in undisturbed plots. Recovery was coincident with observed increases in litter depth and the sublitter, soil O-horizon. During the 4 years following disturbance, soil ammonium, but not nitrate, increased to 2-3 times the levels measured in undisturbed plots. Microbial biomass N increased in plots where increased ammonium was available. Our results show that previously observed declines in soil respiration following beetle-induced disturbance are accompanied by losses in key soil nutrients. Recovery of the soil nutrient pool occurs only after several years following disturbance, and is correlated with progressive mineralization of dead tree litter.

  16. Infestation of grain fields and degree-day phenology of the cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Utah: long-term patterns.

    PubMed

    Evans, Edward W; Carlile, Nolan R; Innes, Matthew B; Pitigala, Nadishan

    2014-02-01

    Scouting at key times in the seasonal development of insect pest populations, as guided by degree-day accumulation, is important for minimizing unwarranted insecticide application. Fields of small grains in northern Utah were censused weekly from 2001 to 2011, to assess infestation by the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and develop degree-day guidelines for measuring cereal leaf beetle abundance at peak egg and larval densities in any given year. Even in years of high overall numbers of cereal leaf beetle, relatively few fields were heavily infested (with 20 or more cereal leaf beetle eggs + larvae per 0.09 m2) at either egg or larval peak density during the growing season. In individual fields, the number of immature cereal leaf beetle (eggs + larvae) at peak larval density was positively related to the number of immature cereal leaf beetles present earlier at peak egg density. Although there was large variation among years in when cereal leaf beetle egg and larval numbers peaked during the season as measured by degree-day accumulation from 1 January, much of this variation was accounted for by the warmth of the early spring before significant egg laying occurred. Hence, degree-day estimates that account for early spring warmth can guide growers in scouting grain fields at peak egg densities to identify fields at high risk of subsequent economic damage from cereal leaf beetle larval feeding. The relatively low incidence of fields heavily infested by cereal leaf beetle in northern Utah emphasizes the benefit that growers can gain by scouting early before applying insecticide treatments.

  17. Mountain pine beetle disturbance effects on soil respiration and nutrient pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Brayden, B. H.; Dynes, E.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonos ponderosae has infested more than 86 million hectares of high elevation forest in the Western U.S.A. While bark beetles are endemic to western forests and important agents of regeneration, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak is larger than any other on record and the resulting tree mortality has significant consequences for nutrient cycling and regional carbon exchange. We established decade-long parallel disturbance chronosequences in two lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado: one composed of mountain pine beetle killed lodgepole stands and one consisting of trees where beetle mortality was simulated by stem girdling. Over the 2010 and 2011 growing season we measured plot level soil respiration fluxes, as well as soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and pools of ammonium, nitrate and inorganic phosphorus. We show that soil respiration sharply declines with gross primary productivity after tree mortality, but rebounds during the next 4 years, then declines again from 6-8 years post-disturbance. Soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and inorganic phosphorous pools follow the pattern observed in soil respiration fluxes across disturbance age classes for both sites, while patterns in total dissolved nitrogen exhibit site specific variation. Levels of detectable soil nitrate were low and did not significantly change across the chronosequence, while soil ammonium increased in a similar pattern with soil moisture in disturbed plots. These patterns in soil respiration and nutrient pools reflect the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition immediately after tree mortality, followed by a pulse in soil efflux linked to the decomposition of older, less labile carbon pools. This pulse is likely controlled by the fall rate of litter, coarse woody debris and the relative impact of post-disturbance water

  18. Mountain Pine Beetles Colonizing Historical and Naïve Host Trees Are Associated with a Bacterial Community Highly Enriched in Genes Contributing to Terpene Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Aaron S.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandye M.; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  19. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment.

  20. Creosote production from beetle infested timber

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.F.; Maxwell, T.T.

    1982-01-01

    Wood-tar creosote accumulation in stove pipes and chimneys following burning of beetle-killed southern pine, green pine, seasoned hardwood totalled 6.21, 3.21, 4.27 and 3.73 lb/ton DM respectively. Tests showed that accumulation depends more on air supply to the stove than type or moisture content of wood burned. It is suggested that beetle-killed pine should not be rejected as a fuelwood on the basis of creosote production.

  1. Mites and internal parasites associated with the common dung beetle Geotrupes (Anoplotrupes) stercorosus (Hartmann in Scriba, 1791) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sulgostowska, Teresa; Solarz, Krzysztof; Madej, Grażyna; Klimaszewski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Common dung beetles collected in the "Sobieski Forest" (eastern border of Warsaw suburbs) were examined for the occurrence and prevalence of infections or infestations with intestinal parasites and phoretic mites in relation to soil characteristics and quality of the forest habitat. Endoparasitic fauna was represented by gregarines Didymophyes paradoxa, microsporidians Plistophora geotrupina and cysticerkoids of 2 tapeworms - Ditestolepis diaphana and Staphylocystis furcate. Prevalence of these infections was higher for beetles collected from rich habitats. Acarofauna was represented by hypopodes of Sancassania geotruporum (Astigmatina, Acaridae) and the following taxa of mesostigmatic mites: Alliphis halleri, Macrocheles glaber, Parasitus coleoptratorum and unidentified juvenile Laelapidae representative. Mites were most abundant in June, July and September. They were only slightly more numerously found on dung beetles from the rich habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling, MDS (2D stress = 0.13) revealed significant similarities in the distribution of mite taxa between poor and rich sites and among the investigated months (June, July and September).

  2. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  3. Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, J. A. Colin; Spence, John R.; Volney, W. Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km2 of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management. PMID:22371676

  4. Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Bergeron, J A Colin; Spence, John R; Volney, W Jan A

    2011-01-01

    Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km(2) of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management.

  5. Living near the edge: Being close to mature forest increases the rate of succession in beetle communities.

    PubMed

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Jordan, Gregory J; Baker, Thomas P; Balmer, Jayne M; Wardlaw, Tim; Baker, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    In increasingly fragmented landscapes, it is important to understand how mature forest affects adjacent secondary forest (forest influence). Forest influence on ecological succession of beetle communities is largely unknown. We investigated succession and forest influence using 235 m long transects across boundaries between mature and secondary forest at 15 sites, sampling a chronosequence of three forest age classes (5-10, 23- 29, and 42-46 years since clear-cutting) in tall eucalypt forest in Tasmania, Australia. Our results showed that ground-dwelling beetle communities showed strong successional changes, and in the oldest secondary forests, species considered indicators of mature forest had recolonized to abundance levels similar to those observed within adjacent mature forest stands. However, species composition also showed forest influence gradients in all age classes. Forest influence was estimated to extend 13 m and 20 m in the youngest and intermediate-aged secondary forests, respectively. However, the estimated effect extended to at least 176 m in the oldest secondary forest. Our environmental modeling suggests that leaf litter, microclimate, and soil variables were all important in explaining the spatial variation in beetle assemblages, and the relative importance of factors varied between secondary forest age classes. Mature-forest beetle communities can recolonize successfully from the edge, and our results provide a basis for land managers to build mature habitat connectivity into forest mosaics typical of production forests. Our results also indicate the importance of forest influence in determining potential conservation value of older secondary forest for beetles.

  6. Community-Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Pfestorf, Hans; Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of insect root

  7. Community- Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of insect root

  8. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  9. Research note: the effects of darkling beetles on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Skewes, P A; Monroe, J L

    1991-04-01

    Six polyvinylchlorine pipe darkling beetle traps were placed in 20 commercial broiler production facilities, and the relative level of beetle infestation was determined from weekly sampling during 4 wk of the growout period. The average number of beetles found at each facility was compared with the following production parameters: mortality, feed conversion, condemnation rate, and production cost. In the 20 commercial broiler flocks evaluated, the level of darkling beetles within the facility was not related to any of the production parameters measured.

  10. Experimental evidence of bark beetle adaptation to a fungal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

    2015-11-01

    The importance of symbiotic microbes to insects cannot be overstated; however, we have a poor understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape most insect-microbe interactions. Many bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) species are involved in what have been described as obligate mutualisms with symbiotic fungi. Beetles benefit through supplementing their nutrient-poor diet with fungi and the fungi benefit through gaining transportation to resources. However, only a few beetle-fungal symbioses have been experimentally manipulated to test whether the relationship is obligate. Furthermore, none have tested for adaptation of beetles to their specific symbionts, one of the requirements for coevolution. We experimentally manipulated the western pine beetle-fungus symbiosis to determine whether the beetle is obligately dependent upon fungi and to test for fine-scale adaptation of the beetle to one of its symbiotic fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B. We reared beetles from a single population with either a natal isolate of E. sp. B (isolated from the same population from which the beetles originated), a non-natal isolate (a genetically divergent isolate from a geographically distant beetle population), or with no fungi. We found that fungi were crucial for the successful development of western pine beetles. We also found no significant difference in the effects of the natal and non-natal isolate on beetle fitness parameters. However, brood adult beetles failed to incorporate the non-natal fungus into their fungal transport structure (mycangium) indicating adaption by the beetle to particular genotypes of symbiotic fungi. Our results suggest that beetle-fungus mutualisms and symbiont fidelity may be maintained via an undescribed recognition mechanism of the beetles for particular symbionts that may promote particular associations through time.

  11. Elevational Distribution of Flightless Ground Beetles in the Tropical Rainforests of North-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Staunton, Kyran M.; Nakamura, Akihiro; Burwell, Chris J.; Robson, Simon K. A.; Williams, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the environment influences patterns of diversity is vital for effective conservation management, especially in a changing global climate. While assemblage structure and species richness patterns are often correlated with current environmental factors, historical influences may also be considerable, especially for taxa with poor dispersal abilities. Mountain-top regions throughout tropical rainforests can act as important refugia for taxa characterised by low dispersal capacities such as flightless ground beetles (Carabidae), an ecologically significant predatory group. We surveyed flightless ground beetles along elevational gradients in five different subregions within the Australian Wet Tropics World Heritage Area to investigate (1) whether the diversity and composition of flightless ground beetles are elevationally stratified, and, if so, (2) what environmental factors (other than elevation per se) are associated with these patterns. Generalised linear models and model averaging techniques were used to relate patterns of diversity to environmental factors. Unlike most taxonomic groups, flightless ground beetles increased in species richness and abundance with elevation. Additionally, each subregion consisted of relatively distinct assemblages containing a high level of regional endemic species. Species richness was most strongly and positively associated with historical and current climatic stabilities and negatively associated with severity of recent disturbance (treefalls). Assemblage composition was associated with latitude and historical and current climatic conditions. Although the results need to be interpreted carefully due to inter-correlation between historical and current climatic variables, our study is in agreement with the hypothesis that upland refugia provided stable climatic conditions since the last glacial maximum, and supported a diverse fauna of flightless beetle species. These findings are important for conservation

  12. Diversity of Beetle Genes Encoding Novel Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wilkinson, Paul; Chauhan, Ritika; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell walls are a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharides and proteins that require a range of different enzymes to degrade them. Plant cell walls are also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the planet. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the production of biofuels and food to waste processing. However, despite the fact that the last common ancestor of all deuterostomes was inferred to be able to digest, or even synthesize, cellulose using endogenous genes, all model insects whose complete genomes have been sequenced lack genes encoding such enzymes. To establish if the apparent “disappearance” of PCWDEs from insects is simply a sampling problem, we used 454 mediated pyrosequencing to scan the gut transcriptomes of beetles that feed on a variety of plant derived diets. By sequencing the transcriptome of five beetles, and surveying publicly available ESTs, we describe 167 new beetle PCWDEs belonging to eight different enzyme families. This survey proves that these enzymes are not only present in non-model insects but that the multigene families that encode them are apparently undergoing complex birth-death dynamics. This reinforces the observation that insects themselves, and not just their microbial symbionts, are a rich source of PCWDEs. Further it emphasises that the apparent absence of genes encoding PCWDEs from model organisms is indeed simply a sampling artefact. Given the huge diversity of beetles alive today, and the diversity of their lifestyles and diets, we predict that beetle guts will emerge as an important new source of enzymes for use in biotechnology. PMID:21179425

  13. Comparative analysis of two edaphic zoocoenoses (Oribatid mites and Carabid beetles) in five habitats of the 'Pietraporciana' and 'Lucciolabella' Nature Reserves (Orcia Valley, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Petrioli, Andrea; Bernini, Fabio

    2002-12-01

    Oribatid mite and Carabid beetle communities were investigated at five sites in the 'Pietraporciana' and 'Lucciolabella' Nature Reserves (central Italy). In this part of southern Tuscany many attempts have been made to encourage the regeneration of native habitats and to preserve existing ones. Human-induced changes in the original forest landscape have had a direct impact on mite and carabid populations. Significant differences in species diversity and abundance among different sites were revealed throughout the sampling period. Species richness, abundance and diversity of oribatid mites decrease from woodland sites to open habitats where evenness was high. There is an inverse trend between the number of species and richness of carabid beetles and those of oribatid mites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of oribatid and carabid beetle compositions discriminated the sites, demonstrating how even small areas with different vegetation, composition, structure, environment and microclimate were characterised by distinct edaphic populations.

  14. New data on flea beetle management in cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Report of two trials conducted this summer for flea beetle management. The first one, conducted in the greenhouse, compares efficacy of native WI nematodes to chemical insecticides for flea beetle control. In this trial, nematodes provided similar control for flea beetles as both insecticides (Belay...

  15. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  16. Wildfires in Bamboo-Dominated Amazonian Forest: Impacts on Above-Ground Biomass and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M.; Mestre, Luiz A. M.; Andrade, Rafael B.; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

  17. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  18. Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).

    PubMed

    Shostak, Allen W

    2012-06-01

    The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently.

  19. Dung beetle assemblage structure in Tswalu Kalahari Reserve: responses to a mosaic of landscape types, vegetation communities, and dung types.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian L V; Scholtz, Clarke H; Kryger, Ute; Deschodt, Christian M; Strümpher, Werner P

    2010-06-01

    Tswalu Kalahari Reserve is a private game reserve covering 1,020 km(2) in the Northern Cape, South Africa. It has been created from a number of reclaimed farms and restocked with large indigenous mammals. Two surveys were conducted to inventory the dung beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) and determine their spatial patterns and food type associations. The spatial survey used pig dung-baited pitfall traps to examine dung beetle distribution across three main landscape types (plains, dunes, hills) comprising six principal vegetation communities. The food study examined their relative associations with carrion and four different dung types within a single vegetation community. A total of 70 species was recorded. Because the food association study was spatially restricted and conducted under drought conditions, abundance and species richness (47 species) were much lower than in the spatial study (64 species), which was conducted after substantial rainfall. Principal spatial differences in species abundance structure of assemblages were between the sandy southwest plains and dunes; the sandy northern dune fields and plains; and the rocky hills. Forty species analyzed in the food association study showed clear distributional biases to carrion or the dung of elephant (monogastric herbivore), pig (omnivore), cattle and sheep (ruminant herbivores), or pig and cattle. The results (1) show how dung beetle assemblage structure is locally diversified across the heterogeneous landscape of the reserve and (2) indicate how the different dung types dropped by a diverse assemblage of indigenous mammals may variously favor different species of dung beetles.

  20. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  1. Composition and distribution of ground-dwelling beetles among oak fragments and surrounding pine plantations in a temperate forest of North China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we compared ground-dwelling beetle assemblages (Coleoptera) from a range of different oak fragments and surrounding conifer plantations to evaluate effects of forest size and surrounding matrix habitat in a temperate forest of north China. During 2000, beetles were sampled via pitfall traps within two large oak fragments (ca. 2.0-4.0 ha), two small oak fragments (ca. 0.2-0.4 ha) and two surrounding matrices dominated by pine plantations (>4 ha) in two sites of different aspects. Overall, no significantly negative effects from forest patch size and the surrounding matrix habitat were detected in total species number and abundance of ground-dwelling beetles. However, compared with small oak patches or pine plantations, more species were associated with an affinity for at least one large oak patch of the two aspects. Multivariate regression trees showed that the habitat type better determined the beetle assemblage structure than patch size and aspect, indicating a strong impact of the surrounding matrix. Linear mixed models indicated that species richness and abundance of all ground-dwelling beetles or beetle families showed different responses to the selected environmental variables. Our results suggest that more disturbed sites are significantly poorer in oak forest specialists, which are usually more abundant in large oak fragments and decrease in abundance or disappear in small fragments and surrounding matrix habitats. Thus, it is necessary to preserve a minimum size of forest patch to create conditions characteristic for forest interior, rather than the more difficult task of increasing habitat connectivity.

  2. Disruption by conophthorin of the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones.

    PubMed

    Morewood, W D; Simmonds, K E; Gries, R; Allison, J D; Borden, J H

    2003-09-01

    Antennally active nonhost angiosperm bark volatiles were tested for their ability to reduce the response of three common species of coniferophagous wood-boring Cerambycidae to attractant-baited multiple funnel traps in the southern interior of British Columbia. Of the nonhost volatiles tested, only conophthorin was behaviorally active, disrupting the attraction of sawyer beetles, Monochamus spp., to traps baited with the host volatiles alpha-pinene and ethanol and the bark beetle pheromones ipsenol and ipsdienol. Conophthorin did not affect the attraction of sawyer beetles to the host kairomones alpha-pinene and ethanol in the absence of bark beetle pheromones, nor did it have any behavioral effect on adults of Xylotrechus longitarsis, which were not attracted to bark beetle pheromones. These results indicate that conophthorin does not act as a general repellent for coniferophagous Cerambycidae, as it seems to do for many species of Scolytidae, but has the specific activity of disrupting the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones.

  3. Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

  4. Species composition and community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur and elephant in the moist forests of South Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K V; Sabu, Thomas K

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats.

  5. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J.

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these - such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments.

  6. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles.

    PubMed

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J L

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these--such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments.

  7. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  8. Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain

    PubMed Central

    Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60–100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February–November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct – yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

  9. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity.

  10. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  11. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  12. Biomass Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Traylor, T.D.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-03-01

    Biomass Energy Research announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development (R&D) information available on biomass power systems, alternate feedstocks from biomass, and biofuels supply options.

  13. How Habitat Change and Rainfall Affect Dung Beetle Diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian Semi-Arid Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Ângela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated “land use area” and “undisturbed area.” Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities. PMID:22224924

  14. How habitat change and rainfall affect dung beetle diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian semi-arid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Ângela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated "land use area" and "undisturbed area." Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities.

  15. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, Randolph; Mosey, Gail

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  16. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  17. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  18. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430

  19. Beetle (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) facilitation of larval mosquito growth in tree hole habitats is linked to multitrophic microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Kaufman, Michael G; Walker, Edward D

    2011-10-01

    Container-breeding mosquitoes, such as Aedes triseriatus, ingest biofilms and filter water column microorganisms directly to obtain the bulk of their nutrition. Scirtid beetles often co-occur with A. triseriatus and may facilitate the production of mosquito adults under low-resource conditions. Using molecular genetic techniques and quantitative assays, we observed changes in the dynamics and composition of bacterial and fungal communities present on leaf detritus and in the water column when scirtid beetles co-occur with A. triseriatus. Data from terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis indicated scirtid presence alters the structure of fungal communities in the water column but not leaf-associated fungal communities. Similar changes in leaf and water bacterial communities occurred in response to mosquito presence. In addition, we observed increased processing of leaf detritus, higher leaf-associated enzyme activity, higher bacterial productivity, and higher leaf-associated fungal biomass when scirtid beetles were present. Such shifts suggest beetle feeding facilitates mosquito production indirectly through the microbial community rather than directly through an increase in available fine particulate organic matter.

  20. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood-related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the "double geometric." Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly.

  1. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, John

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood–related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the “double geometric.” Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  2. Remote sensing of tamarisk biomass, insect herbivory, and defoliation: Novel methods in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Temuulen Ts.; Sankey, Joel B.; Horne, Rene; Bedford, Ashton

    2016-01-01

    Tamarisk is an invasive, riparian shrub species in the southwestern USA. The northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has been introduced to several states to control tamarisk. We classified tamarisk distribution in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona using a 0.2 m resolution, airborne multispectral data and estimated tamarisk beetle effects (overall accuracy of 86 percent) leading to leaf defoliation in a 49,408 m2 area. We also estimated individual tamarisk tree biomass and their uncertainties using airbonre liday data (100 points/m2). On average, total above ground tamarisk biomass was 8.67 kg/m2 (SD=17.6). The tamarisk beetle defoliation resulted in a mean leaf biomass loss of 0.52 kg/m2 and an equivalent of 25,692 kg across the entire study area. Our defoliated tamarisk map and biomass estimates can help inform restoration treatments to reduce tamarisk. Continued monitoring of tamarisk and tamarisk beetle effects are recommended to understand the currently-unknown eventual equilibrium between the two species and the cascading effects on ecosystem processes.

  3. Dung beetles and fecal helminth transmission: patterns, mechanisms and questions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Gómez, Andrés

    2014-04-01

    Dung beetles are detrivorous insects that feed on and reproduce in the fecal material of vertebrates. This dependency on vertebrate feces implies frequent contact between dung beetles and parasitic helminths with a fecal component to their life-cycle. Interactions between dung beetles and helminths carry both positive and negative consequences for successful parasite transmission, however to date there has been no systematic review of dung beetle-helminth interactions, their epidemiological importance, or their underlying mechanisms. Here we review the observational evidence of beetle biodiversity-helminth transmission relationships, propose five mechanisms by which dung beetles influence helminth survival and transmission, and highlight areas for future research. Efforts to understand how anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity may influence parasite transmission must include the development of detailed, mechanistic understanding of the multiple interactions between free-living and parasitic species within ecological communities. The dung beetle-helminth system may be a promising future model system with which to understand these complex relationships.

  4. My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

  5. Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Surendra, K C; Takara, Devin; Oechsner, Hans; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass provides an excellent opportunity to convert abundant bioresources into renewable energy. Rumen microorganisms, in contrast to conventional microorganisms, are an effective inoculum for digesting lignocellulosic biomass due to their intrinsic ability to degrade substrate rich in cellulosic fiber. However, there are still several challenges that must be overcome for the efficient digestion of lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobic biorefinery is an emerging concept that not only generates bioenergy, but also high-value biochemical/products from the same feedstock. This review paper highlights the current status of lignocellulosic biomass digestion and discusses its challenges. The paper also discusses the future research needs of lignocellulosic biomass digestion.

  6. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  7. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    PubMed

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations.

  8. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the

  9. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    PubMed

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the

  10. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  11. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  12. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  13. Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2014-11-26

    Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region.

  14. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  15. Detection of seed DNA in regurgitates of granivorous carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, C; Sint, D; Baier, F; Schmid, C; Mayer, R; Traugott, M

    2015-12-01

    Granivory can play a pivotal role in influencing regeneration, colonization as well as abundance and distribution of plants. Due to their high abundance, nutrient content and longevity, seeds are an important food source for many animals. Among insects, carabid beetles consume substantial numbers of seeds and are thought to be responsible for a significant amount of seed loss. However, the processes that govern which seeds are eaten and are therefore prevented from entering the seedbank are poorly understood. Here, we assess if DNA-based diet analysis allows tracking the consumption of seeds by carabids. Adult individuals of Harpalus rufipes were fed with seeds of Taraxacum officinale and Lolium perenne allowing them to digest for up to 3 days. Regurgitates were tested for the DNA of ingested seeds at eight different time points post-feeding using general and species-specific plant primers. The detection of seed DNA decreased with digestion time for both seed species, albeit in a species-specific manner. Significant differences in overall DNA detection rates were found with the general plant primers but not with the species-specific primers. This can have implications for the interpretation of trophic data derived from next-generation sequencing, which is based on the application of general primers. Our findings demonstrate that seed predation by carabids can be tracked, molecularly, on a species-specific level, providing a new way to unravel the mechanisms underlying in-field diet choice in granivores.

  16. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. , Portland, OR )

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  17. Biomass treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  18. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

  19. Cuticle formation and pigmentation in beetles.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Adult beetles (Coleoptera) are covered primarily by a hard exoskeleton or cuticle. For example, the beetle elytron is a cuticle-rich highly modified forewing structure that shields the underlying hindwing and dorsal body surface from a variety of harmful environmental factors by acting as an armor plate. The elytron comes in a variety of colors and shapes depending on the coleopteran species. As in many other insect species, the cuticular tanning pathway begins with tyrosine and is responsible for production of a variety of melanin-like and other types of pigments. Tanning metabolism involves quinones and quinone methides, which also act as protein cross-linking agents for cuticle sclerotization. Electron microscopic analyses of rigid cuticles of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, have revealed not only numerous horizontal chitin-protein laminae but also vertically oriented columnar structures called pore canal fibers. This structural architecture together with tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning is likely to contribute to the rigidity and coloration of the beetle exoskeleton.

  20. Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

  1. Rove beetle blistering--(Nairobi Eye).

    PubMed

    Williams, A N

    1993-02-01

    'Nairobi Eye' is a condition caused by a blister beetle, Paederus eximius, found in Northern Kenya. It has not previously been described as a hazard for troops exercising in this area. Four cases are described. Recommended management is to wash the contact area initially with soap and water, and to treat subsequent lesions with flamazine.

  2. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  3. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  4. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  5. Dielectric properties of biomass and biochar mixtures for bioenergy applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass is an abundant and renewable energy resource, which may be converted into energy-dense products through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. Since microwave heating depends on the dielectric properties of the biomass material, these properties were measured at freque...

  6. Mechanical shear and tensile properties of selected biomass stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as big bluestem, corn stalk, intermediate wheat grass and switchgrass stem are abundant and dominant species in the Midwest region of US. There is a need to understand the mechanical properties for these crops for better handling and processing of the biomass feedstocks...

  7. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  8. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  9. Dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) assemblages in the western Italian Alps: benchmark data for land use monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Villet, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    collection of specimens, the abundance data were not strictly comparable and they were therefore transformed to binary data (presence-or-absence records) with measures of sampling effort. The results illustrate both spatial variation and temporal variation at the scale of years.Because of the importance of dung beetles in agro-pastoral ecosystems and the high sensitivity of montane ecosystems to climate change, these spatially and temporally explicit data sets provide important baseline information about western Italian Alpine dung beetles for investigations of the effects of land use change under ongoing climate change scenarios. PMID:27932920

  10. Distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) across a forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang; Yang, Jian

    2007-04-01

    This paper studied the occurrence of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the forest edge, the adjacent forest interior, and the surrounding grassland in southwestern China. Beetles were collected with pitfall traps along five replicated transects. Forest species rarely penetrated into the grassland from the forest interior, and the grassland specialists were not found in the forest interior. The forest edge hosted additional species from the adjacent grassland that increased its overall species richness. Nearly all forest species (23 of 24 species) and grassland species (13 of 15 species) can be found in the forest edge. Carabids of the forest edge were more similar to those of the forest interior than to those of the grassland by ordination and cluster analysis. Based on the specificity and fidelity, carabids can be distinguished into five species groups: habitat generalists, grassland-associated species, forest generalists, forest specialists, and edge-associated species. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that canopy cover and/or shrub cover were the most important factors in determining the richness, abundance, and diversity of carabids. The forest edge may serve as a transition zone for dispersal and re-colonization of carabid beetles from adjacent habitats and therefore is important for natural conservation.

  11. Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Chapman, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km2 of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase area burned and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed areas burned on areas infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the area burned in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed area and expected area burned in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of area burned during the 2002–2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual area burned in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541

  12. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    PubMed

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  13. Ecology of root-feeding beetles and their associated fungi on longleaf pine in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Zanzot, James W; Matusick, George; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2010-04-01

    Root-feeding beetles, particularly of the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae and Molytinae, are known to be effective vectors of Ophiostomatoid fungi. Infestation by these insects and subsequent infection by the Ophiostomatoid fungi may play an important role in accelerating symptom progression in pine declines. To examine the relationship between beetles and fungi in longleaf pine stands, root-feeding curculionids were collected in pitfall traps baited with ethanol and turpentine for 62 wk, and Ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from their body surfaces. The most abundant root-feeding beetles captured were Hylastes tenuis, H. salebrosus, Pachylobius picivorus, Hylobius pales, and Dendroctonus terebrans. The number of insects captured peaked in spring and fall, although peaks for different insect taxa did not coincide. The most frequently isolated fungi were Grosmannia huntii, Leptographium procerum, L. terebrantis, and L. serpens. Other Ophiostomatoid fungi recovered included Ophiostoma spp. and Pesotum spp. Insect infestation data suggest that Hylastes spp. share an ecological niche, as do Hb. pales and P. picivorus, because the ratios of their fungal symbionts were similar. The fungi associated with D. terebrans suggest that it did not share habitat with the other principle vectors.

  14. Culturable aerobic and facultative bacteria from the gut of the polyphagic dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Noemi; Escudero, José A; San Millán, Álvaro; González-Zorn, Bruno; Lobo, Jorge M; Verdú, José R; Suárez, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    Unlike other dung beetles, the Iberian geotrupid, Thorectes lusitanicus, exhibits polyphagous behavior; for example, it is able to eat acorns, fungi, fruits, and carrion in addition to the dung of different mammals. This adaptation to digest a wider diet has physiological and developmental advantages and requires key changes in the composition and diversity of the beetle's gut microbiota. In this study, we isolated aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant microbiota amenable to grow in culture from the gut contents of T. lusitanicus and resolved isolate identity to the species level by sequencing 16S rRNA gene fragments. Using BLAST similarity searches and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses, we were able to reveal that the analyzed fraction (culturable, aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant) of beetle gut microbiota is dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Among Proteobacteria, members of the order Enterobacteriales (Gammaproteobacteria) were the most abundant. The main functions associated with the bacteria found in the gut of T. lusitanicus would likely include nitrogen fixation, denitrification, detoxification, and diverse defensive roles against pathogens.

  15. Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

  16. Structure of dung beetle communities in an altitudinal gradient of neotropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, D; Marín-Armijos, D; Ruiz, C

    2015-02-01

    To understand the effects of global warming in tropical insect communities, it is necessary to comprehend how such communities respond to different abiotic factors that covariate with altitude. In this study, we partially answer this question applied to dung beetle communities distributed along an altitudinal gradient. The sampling was conducted in seven stations 100 m apart each in altitude in a dry mountain scrub in southern Ecuador. A total of 7422 individuals belonging to six species were captured. Canthon balteatus Boheman was the most abundant with 6502 individuals, and Onoreidium ohausi (Arrow) was the least abundant with 20 individuals. We found significant changes in the structure of the dung beetle communities with altitude. Two abiotic factors showed a relationship with the abundance pattern for all species (altitude, Z = 0.011, p < 0.01, and temperature, Z = 0.859, p < 0.01). Canthon balteatus Boheman showed a positive relationship with altitude (Z = 1.422, p < 0.001) and temperature (Z = 1.121, p < 0.001), Dichotomius problematicus (Lüederwaldt) a positive relationship with precipitation (Z = 0.113, p < 0.001), and Malagoniella cupreicollis (Waterhouse) a positive relationship with temperature (Z = 0.668, p < 0.001) and negative with precipitation (Z = -0.189, p < 0.001). Phanaeus achilles Boheman, Onthophagus sp., and O. ohausi (Arrow) did not show any relationship with the studied variables, nor was the richness correlated with the studied variables. These results suggest that the effects of global warming over dung beetle communities will be difficult to predict because of species-specific responses to global warming.

  17. A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our

  18. A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Epstein, Marc E; Koehle, Jessica J; Purrington, Foster F

    2011-01-01

    We studied the long-term (23-24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2-3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4-1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our sampled areas are

  19. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  20. Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  1. Effects of chitin and contact insecticide complexes on rove beetles in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Balog, A; Ferencz, L; Hartel, T

    2011-01-01

    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility.

  2. Temporal coexistence of dung-dweller and soil-digger dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) in contrasting Mediterranean habitats.

    PubMed

    Jay-Robert, P; Errouissi, F; Lumaret, J P

    2008-06-01

    The western part of the Mediterranean basin is a transitional biogeographical region for the distribution of the representatives of the main guilds of dung beetles; towards the south, Aphodiinae (dung-dwellers) become scarce, whereas northwards Scarabaeinae (soil-diggers) progressively disappear. The number of species in local dung beetle assemblages is enhanced by this double faunistic contribution. Annual dung beetle assemblages were sampled in two sub-Mediterranean sites, which differed by 600 m in elevation, in order to determine the phenological dynamics related to the way of using dung (dung-dwellers/Aphodiinae vs. soil-diggers/Scarabaeinae and Geotrupinae). Aphodiids were active all year round, although they were affected by summer drought and, at high elevation, by the length of the cold season. This reduced activity was related to an impoverishment of Aphodiinae and to reduced temporal segregation between species. In contrast, soil-diggers were not active all year round and showed different species assemblages in the two sites. An extension of the activity period of these beetles was observed due to the occurrence of cold resistant species at high elevation. Our results suggested that the occurrence of soil-diggers seemingly did not affect the seasonality of dung-dwellers; their local abundance showed no negative correlation and, most importantly, phenological differences between dung-dwellers were always significantly higher than the seasonal differences between dwellers and diggers.

  3. Trophic structure stability and extinction dynamics of beetles (Coleoptera) in tropical forest fragments

    PubMed Central

    Didham, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    A first analysis of the stability of trophic structure following tropical forest fragmentation was performed in an experimentally fragmented tropical forest landscape in Central Amazonia. A taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblage of 993 species of beetles was sampled from 920 m2 of leaf litter at 46 sites varying in distance from forest edge and fragment area. Beetle density increased significantly towards the forest edge and showed non-linear changes with fragment area, due to the influx of numerous disturbed-area species into 10 ha and 1 ha fragments. There was a marked change in species composition with both decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing fragment area, but surprisingly this change in composition was not accompanied by a change in species richness. Rarefied species richness did not vary significantly across any of the sites, indicating that local extinctions of deep forest species were balanced by equivalent colonization rates of disturbed-area species. The change in species composition with fragmentation was non-random across trophic groups. Proportions of predator species and xylophage species changed significantly with distance from forest edge, but no area-dependent changes in proportions of species in trophic groups were observed. Trophic structure was also analysed with respect to proportions of abundance in six trophic groups. Proportions of abundance of all trophic groups except xylomycetophages changed markedly with respect to both distance from forest edge and fragment area. Local extinction probabilities calculated for individual beetle species supported theoretical predictions of the differential susceptibility of higher trophic levels to extinction, and of changes in trophic structure following forest fragmentation. To reduce random effects due to sampling error, only abundant species (n = 46) were analysed for extinction probabilities, as defined by absence from samples. Of these common species, 27% had significantly

  4. Assessment of beetle diversity, community composition and potential threats to forestry using kairomone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Olivier-Espejel, S; Hurley, B P; Garnas, J

    2017-02-01

    Traps designed to capture insects during normal movement/dispersal, or via attraction to non-specific (plant) volatile lures, yield by-catch that carries valuable information about patterns of community diversity and composition. In order to identify potential native/introduced pests and detect predictors of colonization of non-native pines, we examined beetle assemblages captured in intercept panel traps baited with kairomone lures used during a national monitoring of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in Southern Africa. We identified 50 families and 436 morphospecies of beetles from nine sites sampled in both 2008 and 2009 and six areas in 2007 (trap catch pooled by region) across a latitudinal and elevational gradient. The most diverse groups were mainly those strongly associated with trees, known to include damaging pests. While native species dominated the samples in terms of richness, the dominant species was the introduced bark beetle Orthotomicus erosus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (22 ± 34 individuals/site). Four Scolytinae species without previous records in South Africa, namely Coccotrypes niger, Hypocryphalus robustus (formerly Hypocryphalus mangiferae), Hypothenemus birmanus and Xyleborus perforans, were captured in low abundances. Communities showed temporal stability within sites and strong biogeographic patterns across the landscape. The strongest single predictors of community composition were potential evaporation, latitude and maximum relative humidity, while the strongest multifactor model contained elevation, potential evaporation and maximum relative humidity. Temperature, land use variables and distance to natural areas did not significantly correlate with community composition. Non-phytophagous beetles were also captured and were highly diverse (32 families) perhaps representing important beneficial insects.

  5. Riparian ground beetles (Coeloptera, Carabidae) preying on aquatic invertebrates: a feeding strategy in alpine floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hering, Daniel; Plachter, Harald

    1997-07-01

    The food and feeding habits of riparian ground beetles were studied in four alpine floodplains (Bavaria, Germany): a 5th-order stream (the Isar) and three 3rd-order streams. The riparian fauna along the streams mainly consists of predaceous species. Riparian ground beetle densities were much higher along the Isar than along the small streams. Aquatic invertebrates composed 89% of the potential prey for carnivorous terrestrial insects along the Isar. Besides aquatic organisms washed ashore, stoneflies emerging on land are of considerable importance as potential prey for terrestrial predators. In contrast, only 34% of the potential prey organisms collected along the small streams were of aquatic origin. Food abundance was 9 times higher in the shore region of the Isar compared to the small streams. Surface drift in the Isar, a potentially important food source for riparian organisms, was about 10(6) organisms and exuviae per meter stream width in 24 h. The drift density in the Isar was 59 times higher than that in a small stream. Terrestrial organisms provided only 3% of the drifting particles in the Isar, but 50% in the small stream. Gut content analysis reveals, that riparian ground beetles in the Isar floodplain mainly feed on aquatic organisms washed ashore or emerging on land. While small Bembidion species prefer chironomids (larvae and adults) the larger species Nebria picicornis feeds on emerging stoneflies, terrestrial riparian organisms and aquatic organisms accumulating along the shoreline. The prey of riparian ground beetles in the floodplain of the three small streams mainly consists of terrestrial species some of which may have been washed ashore.

  6. Artificial defoliation effect on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbacker, R.R.; Hart, E.R.; Schultz, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The impact of artificial defoliation on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was examined. Four Populus clones were field planted and artificially defoliated. Assigned defoliation levels (0, 25, 50, or 75%) were applied to leaves of leaf plastochron index 0 through 8 during a 6-d period in a 3-step incremental manner to simulate cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., larval feeding patterns. Artificial defoliations were timed to coincide with the outbreaks of natural beetle populations in adjacent areas. After 2 growing seasons, trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass accumulation. Root samples were collected from 0 and 75% defoliation treatments for each clone. Biomass was reduced an average of 33% as defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%. As defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%, a consistent allocation ratio of biomass to 2/3 above and 1/3 below ground components continued in all clones. An overcompensation response occurred in above ground biomass when a defoliation level of 25% was applied. Between 25 and 75% a strong linear trend of decreasing biomass as defoliation increased was indicated. Vitality of the tree, as indicated by total nonstructural carbohydrate content, was affected only slightly by increasing defoliation. 26 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production.

  8. Enzyme Systems of Anaerobes for Biomass Conversion.

    PubMed

    Munir, Riffat; Levin, David B

    Biofuels from abundantly available cellulosic biomass are an attractive alternative to current petroleum-based fuels (fossil fuels). Although several strategies exist for commercial production of biofuels, conversion of biomass to biofuels via consolidated bioprocessing offers the potential to reduce production costs and increase processing efficiencies. In consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), enzyme production, cellulose hydrolysis, and fermentation are all carried out in a single-step by microorganisms that efficiently employ a multitude of intricate enzymes which act synergistically to breakdown cellulose and its associated cell wall components. Various strategies employed by anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria for biomass hydrolysis are described in this chapter. In addition, the regulation of CAZymes, the role of "omics" technologies in assessing lignocellulolytic ability, and current strategies for improving biomass hydrolysis for optimum biofuel production are highlighted.

  9. Numerical Responses of Saproxylic Beetles to Rapid Increases in Dead Wood Availability following Geometrid Moth Outbreaks in Sub-Arctic Mountain Birch Forest

    PubMed Central

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2014-01-01

    Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak. PMID:24911056

  10. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    PubMed

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2014-01-01

    Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  11. Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds. PMID:21303784

  12. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Z; Skoková Habuštová, O; Boháč, J; Sehnal, F

    2016-08-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Our multiannual study is a unique European analysis of a staphylinid community within a 14 ha maize field. GM maize, its near-isogenic hybrid (with or without insecticide treatment), and two other reference hybrids were each grown in five 0.5 ha plots. The opportunity for exposure to Cry toxin from plant residues ploughed into the soil was shown by the presence of saprophagous dipteran larvae that are common prey of predatory staphylinid species and hosts of the parasitoid species. 2587 individuals belonging to 77 staphylinid species were sampled using pitfall traps. Lesteva longoelytrata (31%), Oxypoda acuminata (12%), Aloconota sulcifrons (8%) and Anotylus rugosus (7%) were the most abundant beetles in the field. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Statistical analysis of activity abundance, Rao indices and multivariate analysis of distribution of particular categories of functional traits in the field showed negligible effects of the experimental treatments, including the GM maize, upon the staphylinid community. Staphylinid beetles represent a considerably diverse part of epigeic field fauna with wide food specialization; these features render them suitable for the assessment of environmental safety of GM insect protected maize. However, the availability of prey and the presence of particular staphylinid species and their abundance are highly variable; this complicates the interpretation of the results.

  13. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    PubMed

    Avtzis, Dimitrios N; Bertheau, Coralie; Stauffer, Christian

    2012-05-07

    Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km² of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree's defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi) or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi). Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava). A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel techniques will provide a more detailed insight into the genome of scolytids facilitating at the same time the

  14. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    PubMed Central

    Avtzis, Dimitrios N.; Bertheau, Coralie; Stauffer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi) or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi). Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava). A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel techniques will provide a more detailed insight into the genome of scolytids facilitating at the same time the

  15. Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.

    PubMed

    Armer, Christine A

    2004-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants.

  16. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.

  17. Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krafsur, E S

    1999-08-01

    Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles.

  18. Beetle succession and diversity between clothed sun-exposed and shaded pig carrion in a tropical dry forest landscape in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ubaldo; León-Cortés, Jorge L

    2014-12-01

    Over a 31-day period, the decomposition process, beetle diversity and succession on clothed pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were studied in open (agricultural land) and shaded habitat (secondary forest) in Southern Mexico. The decomposition process was categorised into five stages: fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. Except for the bloated stage, the elapsed time for each decomposition stage was similar between open and shaded habitats, all carcasses reached an advanced decay stage in seven days, and the fifth stage (remains) was not recorded in any carcass during the time of this study. A total of 6344 beetles, belonging to 130 species and 21 families, were collected during the entire decomposition process, and abundances increased from fresh to advanced decay stages. Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Histeridae were taxonomically and numerically dominant, accounting for 61% of the species richness and 87% of the total abundance. Similar numbers of species (87 and 88 species for open and shaded habitats, respectively), levels of diversity and proportions (open 49%; shaded 48%) of exclusive species were recorded at each habitat. There were significantly distinct beetle communities between habitats and for each stage of decomposition. An indicator species analysis ("IndVal") identified six species associated to open habitats, 10 species to shaded habitats and eight species to advanced decay stages. In addition, 23 beetle species are cited for the first time in the forensic literature. These results showed that open and shaded habitats both provide suitable habitat conditions for the carrion beetle diversity with significant differences in community structure and identity of the species associated to each habitat. This research provides the first empirical evidence of beetle ecological succession and diversity on carrion in Mexican agro-pastoral landscapes.

  19. Morphological Traits of Two Seed-Feeding Beetle Species and the Relationship to Resource Traits.

    PubMed

    Maia, L F; Tuller, J; Faria, L D B

    2017-02-01

    Morphological traits are useful to investigate insect sex-related differences in body size and to reveal differences in resource use. It has been suggested that as the resource increases, so does the body size of organisms interacting with the resource, highlighting the crucial role of resource quality and quantity in determining the morphological traits of organisms interacting with the resource. Here, we describe morphological traits of two species of Bruchinae, Merobruchus terani (Kingsolver 1980) and Stator maculatopygus (Pic 1930), consuming seeds of Senegalia tenuifolia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). We evaluated the influence of monthly sample and sampling sites on tibia and femur length and biomass. In addition, we tested two predictions in which body size related to resource amount and body size related to longevity. Males of M. terani were heavier than females, whereas the two sexes of S. maculatopygus did not differ in biomass. Both species had larger body sizes in the late ripe-fruit stage. With respect to sampling sites, biomass of M. terani did not differ, whereas S. maculatopygus did differ in biomass. Merobruchus terani showed a positive relationship with seed traits, whereas S. maculatopygus showed no relationship. At the same time, fruit traits showed a negative effect on morphological traits for both beetle species. The longevity experiment, performed using only M. terani, showed an equal longevity and seed consumption rate for both sexes. Our study indicates that different species, interacting in the same system and performing similar functional behaviors, respond differently to the same resource.

  20. Abundances in Przybylski's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

    2000-09-01

    We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

  1. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems.

  2. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  3. Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P.

    2013-01-01

    Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. PMID:23799584

  4. Education Highlights: Forest Biomass

    ScienceCinema

    Barone, Rachel; Canter, Christina

    2016-07-12

    Argonne intern Rachel Barone from Ithaca College worked with Argonne mentor Christina Canter in studying forest biomass. This research will help scientists develop large scale use of biofuels from forest biomass.

  5. Biomass energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes strategies to develop biomass energy; capture and use waste when possible; select and improve plant species as energy crops adaptable to both terrestrial and aquatic environments; advance both biological and thermochemical conversion technologies to produce needed fuel forms (solids, liquids, or gases); and adapt these to compatible utilization options. More specifically, some topics include: characteristics of industrial wood energy users; research on short-rotation woody crops in the South; biomass production and nutrient removal by leucaena in colder subtropics; biomass programs of the Southern Agricultural Energy Center; biomass production from herbaceous plants; marine biomass production; harvesting systems for aquatic biomass; thermochemical processes for bioenergy production; utilization of biomass fuel for production of electric power; gas cleaning systems for small scale gasifiers; prediction of methane yields from biomass; methane production and utilization at fuel alcohol production facilities; ethanol fermentations; production of ethanol from wood by acid hydrolysis and fermentation; and material and energy balances for processing high fiber sugarcane.

  6. Education Highlights: Forest Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Rachel; Canter, Christina

    2016-01-27

    Argonne intern Rachel Barone from Ithaca College worked with Argonne mentor Christina Canter in studying forest biomass. This research will help scientists develop large scale use of biofuels from forest biomass.

  7. Energy from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  8. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  9. Water capture by a desert beetle.

    PubMed

    Parker, A R; Lawrence, C R

    2001-11-01

    Some beetles in the Namib Desert collect drinking water from fog-laden wind on their backs. We show here that these large droplets form by virtue of the insect's bumpy surface, which consists of alternating hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions. The design of this fog-collecting structure can be reproduced cheaply on a commercial scale and may find application in water-trapping tent and building coverings, for example, or in water condensers and engines.

  10. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  11. Aggregation pheromone of Australian SAP beetle,Carpophilus davidsoni (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Bartelt, R J; James, D G

    1994-12-01

    A male-produced aggregation pheromone was identified for the Australian sap beetle,Carpophilus davidsoni Dobson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), by bioassay-guided fractionation of volatiles collected from feeding beetles. The most abundant components were: (2E,4E,6E)-5-ethyl-3-methyl-2,4,6-nonatriene, (3E,5E,7E)-6-ethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7-decatriene, (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene. The relative abundance of these components in collections from individual males feeding on artificial diet was 100:7:9:31, respectively. Pheromone production began within several days after males were placed onto diet medium and continued for at least 20 weeks. Peak production was >3 µg total pheromone per male per day. Males in groups of 50-60 emitted less pheromone (the peak level was 0.09 µg per beetle per day), and the emissions from groups contained relatively little tetraene (proportions of the components listed above were 100:7:2:7, respectively). Three additional trienes and one additional tetraene were identified in minor amounts; the entire eight-component male-specific blend is qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar to that of the North American sibling species,C. freemani Dobson. A synthetic blend of the four major components on rubber septa, prepared to emit in the same proportions as from individual males, was highly attractive in the field when synergized with fermenting whole-wheat bread dough. Cross-attraction was observed in the field involving the pheromones ofC. davidsoni, C. hemipterus (L.), andC. mutilatus Erichson. Potential uses of the pheromones in pest management are discussed.

  12. Ground and rove beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) are affected by mulches and weeds in highbush blueberries.

    PubMed

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

    2012-10-01

    Biological control of insects by predators may be indirectly influenced by management practices that change the invertebrate community in agroecosystems. In this study we examined effects that mulching and weeding have on predatory beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) and their potential prey in a highbush blueberry field. We compared beetle communities in unweeded control plots to those that were weeded and/or received a single application of compost or pine needle mulch. Compost mulch and weeding significantly affected the carabid community while the staphylinid community responded to compost and pine needle mulches. Effects because of mulch tended to intensify in the year after mulch application for both families. Estimates of species richness and diversity for Carabidae and Staphylinidae were similar in all plot types, but rarefaction curves suggested higher Carabidae richness in unmulched plots despite fewer individuals captured. Carnivorous Carabidae, dominated by Pterostichus melanarius, were most frequently captured in compost plots both years, and omnivores were most frequently captured in unweeded compost. Density of millipedes, the most abundant potential prey, was generally greater in mulched plots, whereas seasonal abundance of small earthworms varied among mulch types. Our results have potential implications for biological control in mulched highbush blueberries depending on beetle consumption rates for key pests and how rates are affected by alternative prey.

  13. Influence of recent bark beetle outbreak on fire severity and postfire tree regeneration in montane Douglas-fir forests.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

    2013-11-01

    Understanding how disturbances interact to shape ecosystems is a key challenge in ecology. In forests of western North America, the degree to which recent bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires may be linked (e.g., outbreak severity affects fire severity) and/ or whether these two disturbances produce compound effects on postfire succession is of widespread interest. These interactions remain unresolved, largely because field data from actual wildfires following beetle outbreaks are lacking. We studied the 2008 Gunbarrel Fire, which burned 27 200 ha in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests that experienced a bark beetle outbreak 4-13 years prefire ("gray stage," after trees have died and needles have dropped), to determine whether outbreak severity influenced subsequent fire severity and postfire tree regeneration. In 85 sample plots we recorded prefire stand structure and outbreak severity; multiple measures of canopy and forest-floor fire severity; and postfire tree seedling density. Prefire outbreak severity was not related to any measure of fire severity except for mean bole scorch, which declined slightly with increasing outbreak severity. Instead, fire severity varied with topography and burning conditions (proxy for weather at time of fire). Postfire Douglas-fir regeneration was low, with tree seedlings absent in 65% of plots. Tree seedlings were abundant in plots of low fire severity that also had experienced low outbreak severity (mean = 1690 seedlings/ha), suggesting a dual filter on tree regeneration. Although bark beetles and fire collectively reduced live basal area to < 5% and increased snag density to > 2000% of pre-outbreak levels, the lack of relationship between beetle outbreak and fire severity suggests that these disturbances were not linked. Nonetheless, effects on postfire tree regeneration suggest compound disturbance interactions that contribute to the structural heterogeneity characteristic of mid/lower montane forests.

  14. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  15. Suitability of some southern and western pines as hosts for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Eager, T A; Berisford, C W; Dalusky, M J; Nielsen, D G; Brewer, J W; Hilty, S J; Haack, R A

    2004-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest that has become established in North America. Discovered in Ohio in 1992, it has since been found in at least 13 states and parts of Canada. The beetle can cause significant growth loss in pines, and it represents a potential threat to trees in areas where it has not yet become established. To evaluate this threat to native pines, field and laboratory tests were conducted on several common and important southern and western species to determine whether they are acceptable hosts for T. piniperda. Comparisons with Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine, a preferred natural host for the beetle, were made where possible. Measurements of beetle attack success on southern pine billets showed that Pinus taeda L., Pinus echinata Miller, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelmann, Pinus palustris Miller, and Pinus virginiana Miller (loblolly, shortleaf, slash, longleaf, and Virginia pine, respectively) and two western pines, Pinus ponderosa Lawson and Pinus contorta Douglas (ponderosa and lodgepole pine, respectively), were acceptable for breeding material, but brood production was highly variable. Among the southern pines, P. taeda and P. echinata were susceptible to shoot feeding by T. piniperda, whereas P. elliottii was highly resistant and P. palustris seemed to be virtually immune. Shoot feeding tests on the western pines were conducted only in the laboratory, but there was moderate-to-good survival of adults feeding on both species. It seems that if T. piniperda is introduced into the south and west it will likely establish and may cause some damage to native pines. P. taeda may be affected more than other southern pines because it is the most abundant species, it is readily attacked for brood production, which can result in moderately large broods, and the beetle survives well during maturation feeding on P. taeda shoots.

  16. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  17. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  18. Innate olfactory preferences in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Dormont, Laurent; Jay-Robert, Pierre; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Rapior, Sylvie; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2010-09-15

    The effects of insect larval diet on adult olfactory responses to host-plant or food volatiles are still debated. The induction of adult host preferences has been studied in insects with diverse ecologies, including parasitoids, flower-visitors and phytophagous species. We investigated this question for the first time in a coprophagous insect species. Larvae of the French scarab dung beetle Agrilinus constans were reared on four different artificial substrates containing dung from cattle, horse, sheep or wild boar, and responses of imagos to dung volatiles were then behaviourally tested in an olfactometer. We also reported the first analysis of the composition of different mammal dung volatiles. We showed that adult beetles were more attracted to cattle and sheep dung odours, and that larval feeding experience had no effect on the adult olfactory responses to dung volatiles. A second experiment showed that the presence of other insects inside the dung resource affects the process of dung selection by adults. We identified 64 chemical compounds from dung emissions, and showed that dung volatiles clearly differed among different mammal species, allowing olfactory discrimination by dung beetles. Our results suggest that resource selection in coprophagous insects may be based on innate olfactory preferences. Further experiments should examine whether Agrilinus adults can learn new dung odours, and whether larval diet may influence the behaviour of adults in other coprophagous species.

  19. Assessment of biotransfer and bioaccumulation of cadmium, lead and zinc from fly ash amended soil in mustard-aphid-beetle food chain.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mudasir Irfan; Green, Iain D; Naikoo, Mohd Irfan; Khan, Fareed Ahmad; Ansari, Abid Ali; Lone, Mohd Iqbal

    2017-04-15

    The present study investigates the extent of biotransfer and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from fly ash amended soil in mustard (Brassica juncea)-aphid (Lipaphis erysimi)-beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) food chain and its subsequent implications for the beetle. The soil was amended with fly ash at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40% (w/w). Our results showed that the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn from soil to mustard root increased with the increase in fly ash application rates, but their root to shoot translocation was relatively restricted. Increase in chlorophyll content and dry mass of mustard plant on treatments ≥20% even at elevated accumulation of Cd (1.67mgkg(-1)), Pb (18.25mgkg(-1)) and Zn (74.45mgkg(-1) dry weight) in its shoot showed relatively higher tolerance of selected mustard cultivar to heavy metal stress. The transfer coefficient (TC(1)) of Cd from mustard shoot to aphid was always >1, indicating that Cd biomagnified in aphids at second trophic level. But, there was no biomagnification of Cd in adult beetles at third trophic level. Zinc accumulation was 2.06 to 2.40 times more in aphids than their corresponding host shoots and 1.26-1.35 times more in adult beetles than their prey (aphids) on which they fed. Lead was only metal whose TC was <1 at both second and third trophic levels. The elimination of Cd via honeydew of aphids was most efficient as the ratio of metal in honeydew to aphid (ranging from 0.21 to 0.26) was higher than the Pb (0.16 to 0.20) and Zn (0.07 to 0.09). The statistically consistent (p>0.05) biomass and predation rate of predatory beetles indicated that all levels of soil amendments with fly ash did not have any lethal or sub-lethal effects on beetles.

  20. Biomass Program Biopower Factsheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    Generating electricity and thermal energy from biomass has the potential to help meet national goals for renewable energy. The forest products industry has used biomass for power and heat for many decades, yet widespread use of biomass to supply electricity to the U.S. power grid and other applications is relatively recent.

  1. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  2. Trophic associations of a dung beetle assemblage (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a woodland savanna of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Tshikae, B Power; Davis, Adrian L V; Scholtz, Clarke H

    2008-04-01

    Species richness and abundance of dung beetles were assessed across a range of bait types that acted as surrogates for the food resources available in Chobe National Park, Botswana. These bait types were comprised of the dung of pig (omnivore), cattle (ruminant herbivore dropping fine-fiberd pads), sheep (pellet-dropping ruminant herbivore), and elephant (monogastric, nonruminant herbivore producing coarse-fibered droppings), and chicken livers (carrion). Species richness was similar between traps baited with pig, cattle, and elephant dung but was relatively lower in those baited with sheep dung and carrion. In traps baited with pig dung, abundance was relatively greater than in all other bait types. A cluster analysis of species abundance distributions for the 30 most abundant species identified four different patterns of bait type association at a 60% level of similarity. All but 1 of the 15 species in cluster A were attracted primarily to the dung of omnivores and pad-dropping ruminant herbivores (pig and cattle). All seven species of cluster B were attracted primarily to coarse-fibered, nonruminant herbivore dung (elephant). All four species of cluster C were primarily carrion and pig dung associated, whereas all four species of cluster D were carrion specialists. In conclusion, the most abundant species were attracted to all bait types, but most species were largely specialized to different dung types or carrion, with dung attracting the majority of the fauna in terms of both species richness and abundance.

  3. Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Whitney, Kathleen L.; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Boch, Charlie A.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Fredensborg, Brian L.; Huspeni, Todd C.; Lorda, Julio; Mababa, Luzviminda; Mancini, Frank T.; Mora, Adrienne B.; Pickering, Maria; Talhouk, Nadia L.; Torchin, Mark E.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Parasites can have strong impacts but are thought to contribute little biomass to ecosystems. We quantified the biomass of free-living and parasitic species in three estuaries on the Pacific coast of California and Baja California. Here we show that parasites have substantial biomass in these ecosystems. We found that parasite biomass exceeded that of top predators. The biomass of trematodes was particularly high, being comparable to that of the abundant birds, fishes, burrowing shrimps and polychaetes. Trophically transmitted parasites and parasitic castrators subsumed more biomass than did other parasitic functional groups. The extended phenotype biomass controlled by parasitic castrators sometimes exceeded that of their uninfected hosts. The annual production of free-swimming trematode transmission stages was greater than the combined biomass of all quantified parasites and was also greater than bird biomass. This biomass and productivity of parasites implies a profound role for infectious processes in these estuaries.

  4. The carbon isotopic composition of soil respiration in the decade following disturbance by bark beetle or stem girdling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A.; Maurer, G. E.; Bowling, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle have caused large-scale tree mortality in western North America, which can lead to fundamental changes in carbon cycling. When a tree is infested, the flow of photosynthate is disrupted. This causes the roots and their symbionts to die, eliminating the autotrophic component of soil respiration. Mycorrhizal fungi are enriched in 13C compared to plant tissues. As the dead fungal biomass is consumed by soil heterotrophs, the δ13C of CO2 in heterotrophic soil respiration may become more enriched as the fungal biomass is consumed. We investigated this response by measuring soil respiration in chronosequences of stem-girdled plots at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, and beetle-killed plots at the Fraser Experimental Forest, both in Colorado. Stem girdling was used to simulate beetle attack because it kills trees by a similar mechanism. Plots at Niwot Ridge included live trees and 7 years of girdled plots extending back to 2002. Plots at Fraser included live trees and three age classes of beetle-killed trees, within a similar chronosequence. We used manual soil-gas sampling at three depths, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, to determine if there is an isotopic effect associated with disturbance. Consistent with our expectations, in 2011, we found an enrichment in δ13C of approximately 1‰ in the two years following girdling which was absent in subsequent years. Although this pattern was also evident in 2012, the enrichment in δ13C during the same time period was about half that in 2011. At both Niwot and Fraser, in 2011, seasonal mean δ13C decreased by about 1‰ at all depths 3-4 years after disturbance, but returned to values close to control plots in the following 4-6 years. While we found a similar pattern at Fraser in 2012, we measured an enrichment of 1-1.5‰ at the OA interface at Niwot 8-10 years after disturbance, which was not found in 2011. It is possible this is due to the decomposition of woody biomass. At both

  5. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation. PMID:26945089

  6. Distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) across ecotones between regenerating and mature forests in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Edge effects resulting from logging on the distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied across ecotones between regenerating and mature forests established after harvesting of old-growth forests 20 yr prior to this study in southwestern China. Using pitfall traps, beetles were collected along five ecotone transects using nine samples with a distance interval of 25 m each. Although no significant differences were found in species richness and abundance of carabids among all three habitats, i.e., mature forest, young regenerating stand, and edge habitat, rarefaction estimates of species richness indicated that traps in young regenerating stands accumulated species faster than those on mature forest interiors and forest edges. Carabid species composition of the forest edges was more similar to those of the mature forest interiors than to those of the young regenerating stands. Variability in species composition was significantly reduced in young stands, suggesting that the carabid community from young stands is more homogeneous than the one from mature forests. Although most species occurred in all habitats, some species were significantly more abundant in mature forests and/or edges than in young stands. Results indicated that edge effects on forest carabids may persist for at least 20 yr after disturbance.

  7. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks.

    PubMed

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation.

  8. Genetic manipulation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Dudareva, Natalia; Morgan, John A; Chapple, Clint

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents an abundant and sustainable raw material for biofuel production. The recalcitrance of biomass to degradation increases the estimated cost of biofuel production and limits its competitiveness in the market. Genetic engineering of lignin, a major recalcitrance factor, improves saccharification and thus the potential yield of biofuels. Recently, our understanding of lignification and its regulation has been advanced by new studies in various systems, all of which further enhances our ability to manipulate the biosynthesis and deposition of lignin in energy crops for producing cost-effective second generation biofuels.

  9. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.

    PubMed

    Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

    2014-04-01

    Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests.

  10. A culture method for darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (> 500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for ...

  11. Turing model for the patterns of lady beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, S. S.; Yang, C. C.; Liu, R. T.; Hong, J. T.

    2001-10-01

    We simulate the patterns on the hard wings of lady beetles using a reaction-diffusion equation based on the Turing model. A part of a spherical surface is used to approximate the geometry of the hard wings. Various patterns common to lady beetles in Taiwan can be produced on this curved surface by adjusting the parameters of the model.

  12. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  13. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Binali, Ali M.; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A.; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

  14. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  15. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  16. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  17. The management of fluid and wave resistances by whirligig beetles.

    PubMed

    Voise, Jonathan; Casas, Jérôme

    2010-02-06

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are semi-aquatic insects with a morphology and propulsion system highly adapted to their life at the air-water interface. When swimming on the water surface, beetles are subject to both fluid resistance and wave resistance. The purpose of this study was to analyse swimming speed, leg kinematics and the capillarity waves produced by whirligig beetles on the water surface in a simple environment. Whirligig beetles of the species Gyrinus substriatus were filmed in a large container, with a high-speed camera. Resistance forces were also estimated. These beetles used three types of leg kinematics, differing in the sequence of leg strokes: two for swimming at low speed and one for swimming at high speed. Four main speed patterns were produced by different combinations of these types of leg kinematics, and the minimum speed for the production of surface waves (23 cm s(-1)) corresponded to an upper limit when beetles used low-speed leg kinematics. Each type of leg kinematics produced characteristic capillarity waves, even if the beetles moved at a speed below 23 cm s(-1). Our results indicate that whirligig beetles use low- and high-speed leg kinematics to avoid maximum drag and swim at speed corresponding to low resistances.

  18. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  19. Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta flea beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flea beetles in several genera are known to possess male-specific sesquiterpenes, at least some of which serve as aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes. In continuing research on the chemical ecology of Phyllotreta flea beetles, six new male-specific sesquiterpenes were identified, one fro...

  20. Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

  1. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.

  2. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  3. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  4. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  5. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  6. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  7. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  8. Genetic identification of mammalian meal source in dung beetle gut contents.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Andrés; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2016-03-12

    Coprophagous dung beetles are a numerically and functionally important group. Their obligatory use of mammalian dung has broad ecological implications, including providing economically and epidemiologically relevant ecosystem services. Beetle-mammal ecological networks are critically important in determining the resilience of dung beetle communities and the supply of beetle-mediated ecosystem functions. However, our understanding of dung beetle trophic networks remains incomplete. Here we report on a pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of DNA-based analyses in identifying the source of dung beetle meals. Using beetles collected from dung piles of known provenance, we hypothesized that molecular analysis of gut content would correctly identify the mammal host, and that beetle body size would increase the odds of successful detection of mammalian DNA. We analyzed 90 specimens belonging to six beetle species. Most samples yielded mtDNA sequences from the expected mammalian species, suggesting that these methods can be an efficient tool for the investigation of dung beetle diet.

  9. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  10. Functional Roles Affect Diversity-Succession Relationships for Boreal Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of “functional” groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

  11. Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

  12. Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

  13. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  14. Effects of landscape design of forest reserves on Saproxylic beetle diversity.

    PubMed

    Bouget, C; Parmain, G

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the density of natural reserves in the forest landscape may provide conservation benefits for biodiversity within and beyond reserve borders. We used 2 French data sets on saproxylic beetles and landscape cover of forest reserves (LCFR) to test this hypothesis: national standardized data derived from 252 assessment plots in managed and reserve stands in 9 lowland and 5 highland forests and data from the lowland Rambouillet forest, a forested landscape where a pioneer conservation policy led to creation of a dense network of reserves. Abundance of rare and common saproxylic species and total saproxylic species richness were higher in forest reserves than in adjacent managed stands only in highland forests. In the lowland regional case study, as LCFR increased total species richness and common species abundance in reserves increased. In this case study, when there were two or more reserve patches, rare species abundance inside reserves was higher and common species richness in managed stands was higher than when there was a single large reserve. Spillover and habitat amount affected ecological processes underlying these landscape reserve effects. When LCFR positively affected species richness and abundance in reserves or managed stands, >12-20% reserve cover led to the highest species diversity and abundance. This result is consistent with the target of 17% forested land area in reserves set at the Nagoya biodiversity summit in 2010. Therefore, to preserve biodiversity we recommend at least doubling the current proportion of forest reserves in European forested landscapes.

  15. Instability of copronecrophagous beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in a mountainous tropical landscape of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Halffter, Gonzalo; Pineda, Eduardo; Arellano, Lucrecia; Escobar, Federico

    2007-12-01

    We analyzed changes over time in species composition and functional guild structure (temporal beta diversity) for natural assemblages and those modified by humans in a fragmented, tropical mountain landscape. The assemblages belong to cloud forests (the original vegetation type), secondary forests, traditional shaded coffee plantations, commercial shaded coffee plantations, and a cattle pasture. Copronecrophagous beetles, subfamily Scarabaeinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were used as the indicator group. This group has been used in previous studies and other tropical forests and has been found to be a good indicator of the effects of anthropogenic change. For each assemblage, we compared samples that were collected several years apart. Changes were found in species composition, order of abundance, and in the proportion that a given species is present in the different functional groups. The changes that occurred between samplings affected the less abundant species in the cloud forest and in the pasture. In the other vegetation types, both abundant and less abundant species were affected. Their order of abundance and proportion in the different guilds also changed. This study shows that, although landscape richness remains relatively constant, richness at the local level (alpha diversity) changes notably even over short lapses of time. This could be a characteristic of landscapes with intermediate degrees of disturbance (such as those that have been partially modified for human use), where assemblage composition is very fluid.

  16. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems.

  17. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  18. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

    2010-03-09

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70-80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery.

  19. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

  20. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  1. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  2. Thermophilic biogasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Klass, D.L.; Edwards, V.H.; Christopher, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Secondary sewage effluent- and fresh-water-grown water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes), Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and a hyacinth-grass-municipal solid waste-sludge (biomass-waste) blend were used as test feeds to develop a fast thermophilic biomass- digestion process. For the pure biomass feeds thermophilic digestion has no apparent advantage over mesophilic digestion, but the reverse is true for the biomass-waste blend. Alkaline pretreatment of the feed improved thermophilic digester performance substantially. For a given plant feed load, the reactor volume, culture-heating requirements, and CH4 production rate for thermophilic digestion of the pretreated biomass-waste feed were 18,46, and 135% of those for conventional mesophilic digestion. For a biomass-waste feed the respective volatile solids reduction and energy recovery efficiencies were 46 and 49% for thermophilic and 36 and 43% for mesophilic digestions.

  3. Whiplash rove beetle dermatitis in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Banney, L A; Wood, D J; Francis, G D

    2000-08-01

    Vesicular dermatitis due to contact with Coleoptera (beetles) is common worldwide, although the condition has been infrequently described in Australia. We document the largest outbreak recognized so far in Australia with a conservative estimate of 250 cases. This occurred in central coastal Queensland over several weeks in late 1998. A survey of the medical practitioners in this district is presented, along with clinical and histopathological illustrations. Our research found that knowledge of the condition was limited even in this region where cases occur each year. This condition is an important differential diagnosis in acute blistering disorders.

  4. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-01-23

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results.

  5. Dung beetles ignore landmarks for straight-line orientation.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Upon locating a suitable dung pile, ball-rolling dung beetles shape a piece of dung into a ball and roll it away in a straight line. This guarantees that they will not return to the dung pile, where they risk having their ball stolen by other beetles. Dung beetles are known to use celestial compass cues such as the sun, the moon and the pattern of polarised light formed around these light sources to roll their balls of dung along straight paths. Here, we investigate whether terrestrial landmarks have any influence on straight-line orientation in dung beetles. We find that the removal or re-arrangement of landmarks has no effect on the beetle's orientation precision. Celestial compass cues dominate straight-line orientation in dung beetles so strongly that, under heavily overcast conditions or when prevented from seeing the sky, the beetles can no longer orient along straight paths. To our knowledge, this is the only animal with a visual compass system that ignores the extra orientation precision that landmarks can offer.

  6. Process for treating biomass

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-11-04

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  7. Process for treating biomass

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  8. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  9. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  10. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Meurisse, Nicolas; Pawson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9%) of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04%) of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that has proven

  11. Common European birds are declining rapidly while less abundant species' numbers are rising.

    PubMed

    Inger, Richard; Gregory, Richard; Duffy, James P; Stott, Iain; Voříšek, Petr; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is undergoing unprecedented global decline. Efforts to slow this rate have focused foremost on rarer species, which are at most risk of extinction. Less interest has been paid to more common species, despite their greater importance in terms of ecosystem function and service provision. How rates of decline are partitioned between common and less abundant species remains unclear. Using a 30-year data set of 144 bird species, we examined Europe-wide trends in avian abundance and biomass. Overall, avian abundance and biomass are both declining with most of this decline being attributed to more common species, while less abundant species showed an overall increase in both abundance and biomass. If overall avian declines are mainly due to reductions in a small number of common species, conservation efforts targeted at rarer species must be better matched with efforts to increase overall bird numbers, if ecological impacts of birds are to be maintained.

  12. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  13. Deep phylogeographical structure and parallel host range evolution in the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Matsumoto, Kazuma; Katakura, Haruo

    2014-02-01

    To understand the mechanisms behind the diversification of herbivorous insects through insect-plant interactions, it is important to know how the insects change their diet breadth in response to environmental changes. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographical pattern of the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps to infer the evolutionary history of its host range. While this beetle commonly uses Actinidia arguta (Actinidiaceae) as a host plant, it has been recorded recently on Pterostyrax hispidus (Styracaceae), which is now increasing in abundance at some localities in Japan due to the indirect effects of high population size of a mammalian herbivore. Considerable variation among populations in the ability of Ag. nigriceps to use P. hispidus suggests that P. hispidus is a newly acquired host plant for this beetle. Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed a high degree of phylogeographical structure in Ag. nigriceps throughout Japan, which is consistent with the hypothesis that several glacial refugia existed in the Japanese archipelago. In contrast, no genetic structure associated with the host plants was detected. Both the mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses showed that populations that can use P. hispidus are polyphyletic. These results and geographical variation in host use suggest that the host range expansion to a novel host, P. hispidus, is a very recent and possibly ongoing phenomenon and has occurred independently in several regions. Our study illustrates that the host range of herbivorous insects can evolve repeatedly in response to similar environmental changes.

  14. Distribution and abundance of zooplankton populations in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Truitt, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake exhibited consistency in species richness and general taxonomic composition, but varied in density and biomass during the period between 1988 and 2000. Collectively, the assemblages included 2 cladoceran taxa and 10 rotifer taxa (excluding rare taxa). Vertical habitat partitioning of the water column to a depth of 200 m was observed for most species with similar food habits and/or feeding mechanisms. No congeneric replacement was observed. The dominant species in the assemblages were variable, switching primarily between periods of dominance of Polyarthra-Keratella cochlearis and Daphnia. The unexpected occurrence and dominance of Asplanchna in 1991 and 1992 resulted in a major change in this typical temporal shift between Polyarthra-K. cochlearis and Daphnia. Following a collapse of the zooplankton biomass in 1993 that was probably caused by predation from Asplanchna, Kellicottia dominated the zooplankton assemblage biomass between 1994 and 1997. The decline in biomass of Kellicottia by 1998 coincided with a dramatic increase in Daphnia biomass. When Daphnia biomass declined by 2000, Keratella biomass increased again. Thus, by 1998 the assemblage returned to the typical shift between Keratella-Polyarthra and Daphnia. Although these observations provided considerable insight about the interannual variability of the zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, little was discovered about mechanisms behind the variability. When abundant, kokanee salmon may have played an important role in the disappearance of Daphnia in 1990 and 2000 either through predation, inducing diapause, or both. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Toxicity of Monoterpene Structure, Diversity and Concentration to Mountain Pine Beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae: Beetle Traits Matter More.

    PubMed

    Reid, Mary L; Sekhon, Jagdeep K; LaFramboise, Lanielle M

    2017-03-03

    A high diversity of plant defenses may be a response to herbivore diversity or may be collectively more toxic than single compounds, either of which may be important for understanding insect-plant associations. Monoterpenes in conifers are particularly diverse. We tested the fumigant toxicity of four monoterpenes, alone and in combination, to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in the context of the beetles' individual body traits. Chemical structures of tested monoterpene hydrocarbons had modest effects on beetle survival, mass loss, water content and fat content, with (R)-(+)-limonene tending to be more toxic than (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, and (+)-3-carene. Monoterpene diversity (all qualitative combinations of one to four monoterpenes) did not affect toxicity. Concentration (0 to 1200 ppm) of individual monoterpenes was a strong determinant of toxicity. Beetle body size and body condition index strongly and positively affected survival during monoterpene treatments. Larger beetles in better condition lost proportionally less mass during exposure, where proportion mass loss negatively affected survivorship. Toxicity was much more associated with water loss than with fat loss, suggesting that a main cost of detoxification is excretion, a process that has received little attention. These results provide insight into the determinants of beetle success in historic and novel hosts that differ in monoterpene composition and concentration. We also suggest that water availability will affect beetle success directly through their ability to tolerate detoxification as well as indirectly through host responses to drought.

  16. Volatile compounds induced by herbivory act as aggregation kairomones for the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman).

    PubMed

    Loughrin, J H; Potter, D A; Hamilton-Kemp, T R

    1995-10-01

    The Japanese beetle is a polyphagous insect that typically aggregates on preferred host plants in the field. We studied the response of Japanese beetles to artificial damage, fresh feeding damage, and overnight feeding damage to test the hypothesis that beetles are attracted to feeding-induced volatiles. Crabapple leaves that had been damaged overnight by Japanese beetles or fall webworms attracted significantly more Japanese beetles than did undamaged leaves. Artificially damaged leaves or leaves freshly damaged by Japanese beetles, however, were not significantly more attractive than undamaged leaves. Leaves that had been damaged overnight by Japanese beetles or fall webworms produced a complex mixture of aliphatic compounds, phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, and terpenoids. In comparison, artificially damaged leaves or leaves with fresh Japanese beetle feeding damage generated a less complex blend of volatiles, mainly consisting of green-leaf odors. Feeding-induced odors may facilitate host location and/or mate finding by the Japanese beetle.

  17. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  18. "Excess Water" Following Deforestation by Beetle Kill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, K.; Miller, S. N.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation resulting from tree mortality by insects and disease may reduce transpiration demand and increase available water in mountain environments throughout. We tested this hypothesis using three large catchments (97-407 km2) located in the Snowy Mountains of Wyoming where hydrology is snowmelt dominated. An epidemic of spruce bark beetle and associated tree mortality emerged in 2006 and has since impacted 60 to 80% of basal area of the spruce-fir and mixed conifer forests. A 25-year continuous record (1998-2013) of daily snowfall, temperature, and stream discharge data between 1 April and 30 September of each year were available for each catchment. We used quantile regression and multivariate time series analysis first to control for the effects of temperature and snow water equivalent on the timing and magnitude of discharge and then to test for changes in discharge trends since 2006. We found no compelling evidence of changes in discharge trends associated with the onset of the beetle epidemic independent of snowmelt trends. Several factors could explain this apparent lack of "excess water" following tree mortality by insects and disease. Any increases in water may be scale dependent, a local phenomenon that does not transfer through large catchments. Other vegetation including young cohorts of affected tree species, shrubs, and herbaceous cover may respond robustly to the open canopy and utilize soil water previously consumed by the infected trees.

  19. The bark beetle holobiont: why microbes matter.

    PubMed

    Six, Diana L

    2013-07-01

    All higher organisms are involved in symbioses with microbes. The importance of these partnerships has led to the concept of the holobiont, defined as the animal or plant with all its associated microbes. Indeed, the interactions between insects and symbionts form much of the basis for the success and diversity of this group of arthropods. Insects rely on microbes to perform basic life functions and to exploit resources and habitats. By "partnering" with microbes, insects access new genomic variation instantaneously allowing the exploitation of new adaptive zones, influencing not only outcomes in ecological time, but the degree of innovation and change that occurs over evolutionary time. In this review, I present a brief overview of the importance of insect-microbe holobionts to illustrate how critical an understanding of the holobiont is to understanding the insect host and it interactions with its environment. I then review what is known about the most influential insect holobionts in many forest ecosystems-bark beetles and their microbes-and how new approaches and technologies are allowing us to illuminate how these symbioses function. Finally, I discuss why it will be critical to study bark beetles as a holobiont to understand the ramifications and extent of anthropogenic change in forest ecosystems.

  20. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    PubMed

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 μm) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth.

  1. Judas Beetles: Discovering Cryptic Breeding Sites by Radio-Tracking Coconut Rhinoceros Beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Moore, Aubrey; Barahona, Diego C; Lehman, Katherine A; Skabeikis, Dominick D; Iriarte, Ian R; Jang, Eric B; Siderhurst, Matthew S

    2016-12-19

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L., is a serious pest of coconut and other palms throughout Southeast Asia and on several Pacific Islands. Adults damage and sometimes kill palms when they bore into the crown to feed. In contrast, larvae feed only on dead plant material at breeding sites. Typically, coconut rhinoceros beetle populations are controlled with a combination of biocontrol, pheromone traps, and breeding site removal. A field trial was performed at two locations on Guam to test the feasibility of using the Judas technique, releasing radio-tagged adults to discover cryptic breeding sites, for potential coconut rhinoceros beetle control. Of 33 radio-tagged beetles that were released, 19 were successfully tracked to landing sites, 11 of which were considered to be active or potential breeding sites, in five different microhabitats. The remaining 14 beetles were lost when they flew beyond the range of receivers. Only one of the radio-tagged beetles was caught in the numerous pheromone traps present at the release sites. Percent emergence weight (%EW, ratio of current/emergence weight) varied significantly by the microhabitat to which coconut rhinoceros beetles were tracked. When microhabitats were further grouped, the difference in mean %EW between the arboreal (74 ± 2%) and the soil-associated (82 ± 3%) groups were found to be highly significant. The %EW for coconut rhinoceros beetles that were successfully located (78 ± 2%) and those that were lost (72 ± 2%) also differed significantly. Radio-tracking coconut rhinoceros beetles shows promise as a method to identify cryptic breeding sites, which could then be treated, removed, or destroyed.

  2. Impact of food source on survival of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F H

    2000-08-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of a flour food source on survival of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), exposed to the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2) of Protect-It, a marine formulation of diatomaceous earth. Beetles were exposed at 27 degrees C, and 40, 57, and 75% RH in 62-cm2 petri dishes. When beetles were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2, or 31 mg per dish) of diatomaceous earth or in dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg mixed with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth, survival of both species increased as the amount of flour increased, and quickly plateaued at levels approaching 100%. In a second set of experiments, beetles were transferred to dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg after they were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone. There were no significant differences in beetle survival among the levels of flour, however, survival in dishes with flour was usually greater than survival in dishes with diatomaceous earth alone. In a third test, beetles were exposed for 1, 2, and 3 d in dishes with either the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone (clean dishes), dishes with diatomaceous earth and empty straws, or dishes with diatomaceous earth and approximately 300 mg of flour packed in the straws. Survival was not significantly different between clean dishes or dishes with straws, but survival in dishes containing the straws with flour was usually 100%, regardless of exposure interval. In all experiments, confused flour beetles were less susceptible to diatomaceous earth than red flour beetles. In addition, survival was negatively related to exposure interval and positively related to relative humidity.

  3. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Predation by Carabid Beetles (Carabidae) on Nematode Infected and Uninfected Slugs in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P.; Symondson, William O. C.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita. PMID:24349202

  4. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests

    PubMed Central

    Loskotová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species’ responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production. PMID:26793425

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of predation by carabid beetles (Carabidae) on nematode infected and uninfected slugs in the field.

    PubMed

    Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P; Symondson, William O C

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita.

  6. Habitat differences in dung beetle assemblages in an African savanna-forest ecotone: implications for secondary seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta K; Krell, Frank-Thorsten

    2011-06-01

    The probability and pattern of secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) depend on their community structure and composition at the site of primary deposition, which, in turn, seem to be strongly determined by vegetation. Consequently, we expected pronounced differences in secondary seed dispersal between forest and savanna in the northern Ivory Coast, West Africa. We found 99 dung beetle species at experimentally exposed dung piles of the olive baboon (Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)), an important primary seed disperser in West Africa. Seventy-six species belonged to the roller and tunneler guilds, which are relevant for secondary seed dispersal. Most species showed a clear habitat preference. Contrary to the Neotropics, species number and abundance were much higher in the savanna than in the forest. Rollers and tunnelers each accounted for approximately 50% of the individuals in the savanna, but in the forest rollers made up only 4%. Seeds deposited into the savanna by an omnivorous primary disperser generally have a higher overall probability of being more rapidly dispersed secondarily by dung beetles than seeds in the forest. Also, rollers disperse seeds over larger distances. In contrast to other studies, small rollers were active in dispersal of large seeds, which were seemingly mistaken for dung balls. Our results suggest that rollers can remove seeds from any plant dispersed in primate dung in this ecosystem.

  7. Geographic distribution, large-scale spatial structure and diversity of parasitoids of the seed-feeding beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Wood, A; Haga, E B; Costa, V A; Rossi, M N

    2016-10-21

    Bruchine beetles are highly host-specific seed feeders during the larval stage. Although some specific parasitoid families have been recorded attacking bruchine beetles, most studies have been done at small spatial scales. Therefore, the current knowledge about the diversity and the geographic distribution of parasitoid species parasitizing bruchines is scarce, especially at a wide geographic area that extends over large distances through a latitudinal cline (i.e. large-scale spatial structure). The present study determined the species richness and evenness of parasitoids attacking the bruchine beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus feeding on Leucaena leucocephala seeds, examined their geographic distribution, and characterized the large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition. A total of 1420 parasitoids (all Hymenoptera) belonging to four families, five subfamilies and eight species were collected (genera: Horismenus, Paracrias, Urosigalphus, Stenocorse, Chryseida, Eupelmus). Most parasitoid species showed wide spatial distribution, high evenness in species abundance and the species richness estimators were close to stabilization (approximately eight species). Overall, greater similarity was observed in the species composition of plant populations near to each other than those farther apart, revealing a large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition.

  8. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Loskotová, Tereza; Horák, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species' responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production.

  9. Specialization for pollination by beetles and wasps: the role of lollipop hairs and fragrance in Satyrium microrrhynchum (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven D; Ellis, Allan; Dötterl, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Exposed nectar presentation is a key trait in flowers specialized for pollination by short-tongued insects. We investigated the pollination of Satyrium microrrhynchum, a rare South African orchid in which nectar is secreted as droplets on long floral hairs ("lollipop hairs") at the mouth of a shallow labellum. Our observations indicate that this orchid is pollinated specifically by two insect species: a cetoniid beetle (Atrichelaphinus tigrina) and a pompilid wasp (Hemipepsis hilaris). Both insects have short mouthparts and remove nectar from the hairs with sweeping motions of their mouthparts. Pollinaria become attached to the upper surface of their heads while they feed on the nectar. Beetles damage the hairs while feeding, which may explain the positive relationship between hair damage and pollination success in plants of S. microrrhynchum from populations where beetles were common. The orchid has cryptic green-yellow flowers with spectral reflectance similar to that of its leaves. The fragrance from plants in three populations, analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, was dominated by various terpenoids; linalool was the most abundant. Plants in different populations emitted similar compounds, but eugenol and derivatives of this compound were found in only one of the three populations. In an electrophysiological study (gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography), using antennae of A. tigrina, clear signals were elicited by some of the floral scent compounds.

  10. Biomass Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  12. Biomass Research Program

    ScienceCinema

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2016-07-12

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  14. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle?s joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhendong; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS. The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle’s joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3°). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  15. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX.

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  16. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  17. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  18. Big dung beetles dig deeper: trait-based consequences for faecal parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nichar; Gómez, Andrés; Oliveira, Trícia Maria F de S; Nichols, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Observational evidence suggests that burial of faeces by dung beetles negatively influences the transmission of directly transmitted gastrointestinal helminths. However, the mechanistic basis for these interactions is poorly characterised, limiting our ability to understand relationships between beetle community composition and helminth transmission. We demonstrate that beetle body size and sex significantly impact tunnel depth, a key variable affecting parasite survival. Additionally, high parasite loads reduce the depth of beetle faeces burial, suggesting that the local prevalence of parasites infecting beetles may impact beetle ecosystem function. Our study represents a first step towards a mechanistic understanding of a potentially epidemiologically relevant ecosystem function.

  19. Decomposition rate of carrion is dependent on composition not abundance of the assemblages of insect scavengers.

    PubMed

    Farwig, Nina; Brandl, Roland; Siemann, Stefen; Wiener, Franziska; Müller, Jörg

    2014-08-01

    Environmental factors and biodiversity affect ecosystem processes. As environmental change modifies also biodiversity it is unclear whether direct effects of environmental factors on ecosystem processes are more important than indirect effects mediated by changes in biodiversity. High-quality resources like carrion occur as heterogeneous pulses of energy and nutrients. Consequently, the distribution of scavenging insects is related to resource availability. Therefore, carrion decomposition represents a suitable process from which to unravel direct effects of environmental change from indirect biodiversity-related effects on ecosystem processes. During three field seasons in 2010 we exposed traps baited with small-mammal carrion at 21 sites along a temperature gradient to explore the insect carrion fauna and decomposition rate in the Bohemian Forest, Germany. The abundance component of beetle and fly assemblages decreased with decreasing temperature. Independently, the composition component of both taxa changed with temperature and season. The change in the composition component of beetles depicted a loss of larger species at higher temperatures. Decomposition rate did not change directly along the temperature gradient but was directly influenced by season. The composition component of beetles, and to a small extent of flies, but not their abundance component, directly affected carrion decomposition. Consequently, lower decomposition rates at lower temperatures can be explained by the absence of larger beetle species. Thus, we predict that future environmental change will modify carrion fauna composition and thereby indirectly decomposition rate. Moreover, reorganizations of the insect carrion composition will directly translate into modified decomposition rates, with potential consequences for nutrient availability and carbon storage.

  20. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  1. Two Additional Invasive Scarabaeoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of dynastine scarab beetles are reported for the first time on the island of Hawaii: the Pasadena masked chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae (Casey)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) and the Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). The Pasadena mask...

  2. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  3. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  4. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  5. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  6. A multilocus perspective on phylogenetic relationships in the Namib darkling beetle genus Onymacris (Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trip; Bond, Jason E

    2013-03-01

    Tenebrionid beetles, common constituent faunae of arid ecosystems worldwide, are particularly abundant in Africa's Namib and Kalahari deserts. Within this region, flightless, diurnal members of the tribe Adesmiini are among the more intensively studied of all desert beetles, especially with regard to ecology. Much of this research centers on Onymacris, a psammophilous genus largely endemic to the Namib. Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis conducted for Onymacris, emphasizing relationships among other adesmiines. Our multilocus phylogeny identifies a strongly supported clade containing Onymacris and two other genera, Eustolopus and Physadesmia-an assemblage recovered in earlier morphological analyses. However, Onymacris is not monophyletic; rather, we demonstrate its paraphyly with respect to the genus Physadesmia, identified as the sister taxon to the white-bodied species of Onymacris. In turn, the Physadesmia-'white'Onymacris clade is the sister group to the remaining (black-bodied) Onymacris. Non-monophyly of 'black' versus 'white'Onymacris is corroborated by distribution patterns and nodal age estimates, which suggest separate origins in different dune systems.

  7. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal.

  8. Species richness - Energy relationships and dung beetle diversity across an aridity and trophic resource gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshikae, B. Power; Davis, Adrian L. V.; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding factors that drive species richness and turnover across ecological gradients is important for insect conservation planning. To this end, we studied species richness - energy relationships and regional versus local factors that influence dung beetle diversity in game reserves along an aridity and trophic resource gradient in the Botswana Kalahari. Dung beetle species richness, alpha diversity, and abundance declined with increasing aridity from northeast to southwest and differed significantly between dung types (pig, elephant, cattle, sheep) and carrion (chicken livers). Patterns of between-study area species richness on ruminant dung (cattle, sheep) differed to other bait types. Patterns of species richness between bait types in two southwest study areas differed from those in four areas to the northeast. Regional species turnover between study areas was higher than local turnover between bait types. Patterns of southwest to northeast species loss showed greater consistency than northeast to southwest losses from larger assemblages. Towards the southwest, similarity to northeast assemblages declined steeply as beta diversity increased. High beta diversity and low similarity at gradsect extremes resulted from two groups of species assemblages showing either northeast or southwest biogeographical centres. The findings are consistent with the energy hypothesis that indicates insect species richness in lower latitudes is indirectly limited by declining water variables, which drive reduced food resources (lower energy availability) represented, here, by restriction of large mammals dropping large dung types to the northeast and dominance of pellet dropping mammals in the arid southwest Kalahari. The influence of theoretical causal mechanisms is discussed.

  9. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

  10. [Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects.

  11. A multi-approach study to delineate interactions between carabid beetles and soybean aphids.

    PubMed

    Firlej, Annabelle; Doyon, Josée; Harwood, James D; Brodeur, Jacques

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has become the most important exotic pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in North America. Given the significant yield losses that are reported, considerable effort has been expended to characterize the natural enemy community associated with this pest. Several indigenous and naturalized predators have been identified as potential biological control agents, and these include carabid beetles, an abundant and important family of aphid predators. The objectives of this study were to assess the incidence of field predation by Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), the most common carabid species in Québec soybeans, using molecular gut-content analysis, and to quantify its impact on A. glycines populations through laboratory and field cage experiments. Throughout the growing season between 16.8% (during low aphid density) and 33.7% (at times of high aphid density) of P. melanarius tested positive for aphid DNA. Furthermore, although laboratory feeding trials confirmed that P. melanarius prey on A. glycines, short-term field cage experiments failed to demonstrate a significant reduction of A. glycines populations by carabid beetles. These results suggest a relatively weak interaction between P. melanarius and A. glycines when pest densities are high, but the high predation rate when aphid densities are particularly low suggests these natural enemies may function as important early-season predators.

  12. Polyols and polyurethanes from the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Li, Yebo

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs), produced from the condensation polymerizations between polyols and isocyanates, are one of the most versatile polymer families. Currently, both polyols and isocyanates are largely petroleum derived. Recently, there have been extensive research interests in developing bio-based polyols and PUs from renewable resources. As the world's most abundant renewable biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is rich in hydroxyl groups and has potential as a feedstock to produce bio-based polyols and PUs. Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted to liquid polyols for PU applications through acid- or base-catalyzed atmospheric liquefaction processes using polyhydric alcohols as liquefaction solvents. Biomass liquefaction-derived polyols can be used to prepare various PU products, such as foams, films and adhesives. The properties of biomass liquefaction-derived polyols and PUs depend on various factors, such as feedstock characteristics, liquefaction conditions, and PU formulations.

  13. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Lah, Ljerka; Wingfield, Brenda D; Paetz, Christian; Wright, Louwrance P; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-06-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees.

  14. Differences in preference and performance of the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae populations on native and introduced aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianqing; Blossey, Bernd

    2009-12-01

    Plant invasions represent ecological opportunities for herbivorous insects able to exploit novel host plants. The availability of new hosts and rapid adaptations may lead to host race formation and ultimately speciation. We studied potential host race formation in the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae, in response to invasion by water chestnut, Trapa natans, in eastern North America. This leaf beetle is well suited for such studies because previous work showed that different herbivore populations follow different "evolutionary pathways" and specialize locally in response to differences in habitat preferences and host plant availability. We compared host preference and performance of G. nymphaeae offspring originating from T. natans and offspring of individuals originating from an ancestral host Nuphar lutea, yellow water lily, on T. natans and three native hosts (N. lutea, Nympheae odorata, and Brasenia schreberi). Regardless of origin (Trapa or Nuphar), adults strongly preferred their native host, N. lutea, over T. natans. Although laboratory survival rates (larva to pupa) were extremely high (80%) regardless of origin or host offered, survival rates in a common garden were greatly reduced, particularly for T. natans (24%) and to a lesser extent on N. lutea (54%), regardless of beetle origin. Larval drowning during more frequent leaf changes when developing on small Trapa leaves seems to be responsible for this difference. Preference of females for N. lutea is beneficial considering the much higher larval survival on the ancestral host. Abundant T. natans where the plant is invasive provides an alternative food source that beetles can use after egg/larval loads on their preferred host reach carrying capacity, but this utilization comes at a cost of high larval mortality.

  15. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

    2007-06-19

    Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities.

  16. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Segura, M O; Fonseca-Gessner, A A; Spies, M R; Siegloch, A E

    2012-05-01

    Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region) and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions) as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  17. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Mattia; Zunino, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate) and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs) on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0) and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant) than the main effects (each factor separately) for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and the rational

  18. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Mattia; Verdú, José R; Zunino, Mario E

    2017-01-01

    Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate) and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs) on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity-related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming-is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0) and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant) than the main effects (each factor separately) for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and the rational use

  19. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  20. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  1. Defensive spray of the bombardier beetle: a biological pulse jet.

    PubMed

    Dean, J; Aneshansley, D J; Edgerton, H E; Eisner, T

    1990-06-08

    The defensive spray of the bombardier beetle Stenaptinus insignis is ejected in quick pulses (at about 500 pulses per second) rather than as a continuous stream. The pulsation may be a consequence of intermittency in the explosive chemical process that generates the spray. The ejection system of the beetle shows basic similarity to the pulse jet propulsion mechanism of the German V-1 "buzz" bomb of World War II.

  2. Arthropods associated with fungal galls: do large galls support more abundant and diverse inhabitants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamoto, Daichi; Sugiura, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls. Dominant arthropod species were represented by the larvae of a salpingid beetle (a spore feeder), a nitidulid beetle (a spore feeder), a cosmopterigid moth (a spore feeder), an unidentified moth (a gall tissue feeder), and a drosophilid species (a gall tissue feeder). Arthropod abundance and species richness were positively correlated with gall diameter. The majority of the most abundant species were more frequently found in large galls than in small ones, indicating that large fungal galls, which have more food and/or space for arthropods, could support a more abundant and diverse arthropod community.

  3. Dedicated biomass crops can enhance biodiversity in the arable landscape.

    PubMed

    Haughton, Alison J; Bohan, David A; Clark, Suzanne J; Mallott, Mark D; Mallott, Victoria; Sage, Rufus; Karp, Angela

    2016-11-01

    Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping. The abundance and community compositions of biodiversity indicators in fields of break and cereal crops changed when planted with the dedicated biomass crops, miscanthus and short rotation coppiced (SRC) willow. Weed biomass was consistently greater in the two dedicated biomass crops than in cereals, and invertebrate abundance was similarly consistently higher than in break crops. Using canonical variates analysis, we identified distinct plant and invertebrate taxa and trait-based communities in miscanthus and SRC willows, whereas break and cereal crops tended to form a single, composite community. Seedbanks were shown to reflect the longer term effects of crop management. Our study suggests that miscanthus and SRC willows, and the management associated with perennial cropping, would support significant amounts of biodiversity when compared with annual arable crops. We recommend the strategic planting of these perennial, dedicated biomass crops in arable farmland to increase landscape heterogeneity and enhance ecosystem function, and simultaneously work towards striking a balance between energy and food security.

  4. Competitive Interactions among Symbiotic Fungi of the Southern Pine Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Klepzig, K. D.; Wilkens, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, a damaging pest of conifers, is intimately linked to three symbiotic fungi. Two fungi, Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus and Entomocorticium sp. A, are transported within specialized structures (mycangia) in the beetle exoskeleton and are mutualists of the beetle. A third fungus, Ophiostoma minus, is transported externally on the beetle exoskeleton (phoretically) and is an antagonist of the beetle. This study examined competitive interactions among these three fungi. The results of de Wit replacement series and primary and secondary resource capture assays with these fungi provide strong evidence for differential competition between the phoretic and mycangial fungi. O. minus was the most able to capture both uncolonized and colonized resources. Entomocorticium sp. A and C. ranaculosus, although equal to one another in competitive abilities, differed in their ability to compete with O. minus. Entomocorticium sp. A was able to maintain space free of O. minus to a much greater degree than was C. ranaculosus. The outcome of such competitive interactions may have significant impacts on the biology of this ecologically and economically important beetle. PMID:16535518

  5. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    PubMed Central

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  6. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation.

  7. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  8. How Ants Drop Out: Ant Abundance on Tropical Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Longino, John T.; Branstetter, Michael G.; Colwell, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance